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DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

ABHISHEK KUMAR (MBA/4511/2011)

 States the relationship between the independent and dependent variable! .HYPOTHESIS… ``HYPOTHESIS IS A TENTATIVE PROPOSITION RELATING TO CERTAIN PHENOMENON WHICH THE RESEARCHER WANTS TO VERIFY WHEN REQUIRED.`` SO IT …  Is the prediction for the outcome of the experiment.

CRITERIA FOR HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT  SHOULD NOT BE FORMULATED IN THE FORM OF QUESTION  SHOULD BE SPECIFIC AND PRECISE  SHOULD BE EMPIRICALLY TESTABLE  STATEMENTS IN THE HYPOTHESIS SHOULD NOT BE CONTRADICTORY  SHOULD DESCRIBE ONE ISSUE ONLY  SHOULD SPECIFY THE VARIABLES BETWEEN WHICH THE RELATIONSHIP IS TO BE ESTABLISHED .

NATURE OF HYPOTHESIS A SCIENTIFICALLY JUSTIFIED HYPOTHESIS MUST MEET THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA:  IT MUST CONSIDER THE EXPERIENCES OF OTHER RESEARCHERS  IT MUST NOT BE IN CONTRADICTION WITH APPROVED RELEVANT STATEMENTS OF OTHER SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES  IT MUST ACCURATELY REFLECT THE RELEVANT FACT .

NEED FOR DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS  HYPOTHESIS GIVES A DEFINITE POINT TO THE INVESTIGATION AND IT GUIDES THE DIRECTION OF THE STUDY  IT SPECIFIES THE SOURCES OF DATA WHICH SHALL BE STUDIED AND HOW THEY WILL BE STUDIED  IT DETERMINE THE DATA NEEDS  DETERMINES THE MOST APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS  IT CONTRIBUTES TO DEVELOPMENT OF THEORY .

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD HYPOTHESIS  CONCEPTUAL CLARITY  SPECIFICITY  TESTABILITY  AVAILABILITY OF TECHNIQUES  CONSISTENCY  THEORETICAL RELEVANCE  OBJECTIVITY  SIMPLICITY .

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS BASICALLY THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS:  DESCRIPTIVE HYPOTHESIS  RELATIONAL HYPOTHESIS .

DESCRIPTIVE HYPOTHESIS EXAMPLES: STUDENTS FROM AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTIONS ARE PLACED FASTER THAN OTHER INSTITUTIONS  RESEARCH AND PRACTICE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN OUR COUNTRY IS NOT INTEGRATED  WHY YOUNGSTERS PREFER ‘X’ SOFTDRINKS?  DECENTRALIZATION OF DECISION MAKING IS MORE EFFECTIVE .

RELATIONAL HYPOTHESIS EXAMPLES:  WHY HIGH INCOME GROUP PEOPLE SHOP AT LIFE STYLE? “THEY HAVE HIGH INCOME AND THEY WANT HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING AND ATTIRES”  RATE OF ATTRITION IS HIGH IN THOSE JOBS WHERE THERE IS NIGHT SHIFT WORKING  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS PASSING FROM ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS AND THOSE OF OTHERS .

NULL HYPOTHESIS(H0) vs ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHEIS(H1)  ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS IS USUALLY THE ONE THAT WISHES TO PROVE SOME STATEMENT WHERE AS NULL HYPOTHESIS WISHES TO DISPROVE. EXAMPLE: IF WE HAVE TO COMPARE PEPSODENT AND COLGATE’S SUPERIORITY AND WE SAY THAT BOTH ARE EQUALLY GOOD THEN IT IS NULL HYPOTHESIS(H0). BUT IF WE SAYCOLGATE IS SUPERIOR THAN PEPSODENT THEN IT IS ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS(H1). .  NULL HYPOTHESIS IS THE ONE WE TRY TO REJECT WHERE AS ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS IS THE OTHER BEST POSSIBILTY.

• THEORY • OBSERVATION • PAST EXPERIENCE • CASE STUDIES .SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS CAN BE DERIVED FROM MANY SOURCES.

PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION OF GOVT. GOVT.CONTD. IT SHOWS THAT: 1. . ENTERPRISE IS SOCIAL CONCERN. 2. ENTERPRISE. ENTERPRISES HELP IN IMPROVING THE LIFE OF LESS PRIVILEGED PEOPLE. 3. PUBLIC ENTERPRISE HAS GREATER SOCIAL CONCERN THAN OTHER ENTERPRISES. WITH EXAMPLES THEORY PROVIDING EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITY IS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILTY OF A GOVT.

WHETHER THE CUSTOMER HAVE THE DIFFICULTY IN LOCATING THE PRODUCT? 3. HOW LONG HE/SHE SPENDS IN FRONT OF DISPLAY? COLLECT ALL THESE DATA AND FORMULATE THE HYPOTHESISREGARDING THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE CUSTOMER TOWARDSTHE PRODUCT. . FOLLOWING MAY BE OBSERVED: 1.CONTD… OBSERVATION A SHOPPER IN A SUPERMARKET MAY BE DISGUISED TO WATCH CUSTOMER IN STORES. HOW THE CUSTOMER APPROACHES THE PRODUCT CATEGORY? 2.

CONTD… PAST EXPERIENCES A DEALER MAY STATE THAT FASTEST MOVING KID’S APPARELL IS SKIRT. CASE STUDIES DRESS. THIS CAN BE FURTHER VERIFIED. FOOD HABITS OR ANY OTHER ACTIVITIES FOUND IN HUMANS LIVING IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE GLOBE. .

ON THE BASIS OF CAPABILITIES THE COMPANY HAS GROUPED THEM INTO TWO CATEGORIES. 1.ERRORS IN HYPOTHESIS TYPE 1 ERROR AND TYPE 2 ERROR EXAMPLE: SUPPOSE A MARKETING COMPANY HAS TWO DISTRIBUTORS WITH VARYING CAPABILITIES. COMPETENT RETAILER(R1) 2. . INCOMPETENT RETAILER(R2) THE FIRM WISHES TO AWARD A PERFORMANCE BONUS(AS A PART OF TRADE PROMOTION) TO ENCOURAGE GOOD RETAILERSHIP. ASSUMED THAT TWO ACTIONS A1 AND A2 REPRESENT WHETHER THE BONUS OR TRADE INCENTIVE IS GIVEN OR NOT GIVEN.

CONTD… ACTION A1-PERFORMANCE BONUS AWARDED A2-PERFORMANCE BONUS NOT AWRDED (R1) COMPETENT RETAILER CORRECT DECISION INCORRECT DECISION ERROR(TYPE 2) (R2) INCOMPETENT RETAILER INCORRECT DECISION ERROR(TYPE 1) CORRECT DECISION WHEN THE FIRM HAS FAILED TO REWARD A COMPETENT RETAILER IT HASCOMMITTED TYPE 2 ERROR. . ON THE OTHER HAND WHEN IT WAS REWARDED TO AN INCOMPETENT RETAILER IT HAS COMMITTED TYPE 1 ERROR.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE .

THANK YOU .