King Saud University College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering First semester of 1431/1432H

CHE 441
Flash and Fire Point


Dafer M. Al-Shahrani

Univ. No.: 462103969

Supervised by: Dr. Tariq El-Faris Eng. Mohammad Gelly

♠ Contents : Subject Pag e Summary Introduction and Theory Experimental Procedure Schematic Diagram Results & Computations Discussions & Conclusions References Appendix 3 3.4 4 5 5 6 6 6 2 .

The flash point is not to be confused with the auto ignition temperature. which does not require an ignition source. Neither the flash point nor the fire point is related to the temperature of the ignition source or of the burning liquid. temperature determines the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air. the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. “Flash point” refers to both flammable liquids and combustible liquids. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which there will be enough flammable vapor to ignite when an ignition source is applied. As the vapor pressure increases. which is a function of that liquid's temperature.[1] Mechanism Every liquid has a vapor pressure. There are various standards for defining each term. Result in table 1. Most people agree that liquids with a flash point less than 60. Each flammable liquid requires a different concentration of its vapor in air to sustain combustion. As the temperature increases. Hence. and liquids with a flash point above those temperatures are combustible. 3 . Measuring a liquid's flash point requires an ignition source. The flash point is often used as a descriptive characteristic of liquid fuel.♠ Summary : The objective of experiment is to determine the flash and fire point for different types of oils. At the flash point. and it is also used to help characterize the fire hazards of liquids. the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air increases. which are much higher.8°C (100°F) are flammable. ♠ Introduction & Theory : The flash point of a volatile liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. is defined as the temperature at which the vapor continues to burn after being ignited. the vapor pressure increases.[1] Measuring flash points There are two basic types of flash point measurement: open cup and closed cup. a higher temperature.5°C (141°F) or 37. The fire point.

and at sufficient height the measured flash point temperature will coincide with the fire point.[1] ♠ Experimental Procedure :      Filled the cup with the oil. and equilibrium. 4 . S C increased this was when there was a lot of vapors formed over the cup. such as Pensky-Martens where the vapours above the liquid are not in temperature equilibrium with the liquid. Closed cup testers normally give lower values for the flash point than open cup (typically 5-10 °C) and are a better approximation to the temperature at which the vapor pressure reaches the lower flammable limit (LFL) . Cleaned the cup and repeated steps 1-5 for other samples. The measured flash point will actually vary with the height of the flame above the liquid surface. such as Small Scale (commonly known as Setaflash) where the vapors are deemed to be in temperature equilibrium with the liquid. The best known example is the Cleveland open cup (COC). and at intervals a flame is brought over the surface. In both these types the cups are sealed with a lid through which the ignition source can be introduced.In open cup devices the sample is contained in an open cup which is heated. Recorded the lowest temperature at which application of a flame caused the vapors above the surface of liquid to ignite as the flash point. There are two types of closed cup testers: non-equilibrium. Continued the heating and recorded the lowest temperature at which application of flame caused the liquid (petroleum product and other fluids) to burn for at least 5 sec fire point.

Test Type Flash Point (C) Fire Point (C) Gulf 100 258 270 Gulf 700 184 210 5 .[3] ♠ Results & Computations : Table 1: Readings and result of experiment.♠ Schematic Diagram : Fig1: Flash and Fire Point with Open Cup.

♠Appendix : 6 .com/index_256e77448c5d143f37250..  The temperature Fire point for gulf 100 greater than for gulf 700.  The reason is because the density of gulf 100 higher than the density of gulf 700. ♠References : [1] [2] Note of Petroleum Engineering Laboratory.♠Discussion and Conclusions :  The temperature Flash point for gulf 100 greater than for gulf 700.petrotest.wikipedia.. [3] www.

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