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Verbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr-o propozitie. Ex.: I am a student. The students passed all their courses.
6.1. Cele 4 forme verbale
Terminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista 4 forme verbale de baza. Limba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, spre deosebire de limba romana, unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu ajutorul desinentelor. De remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala speciala pentru viitor. Cele 4 forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza: Numele verbului to work to write Forma de baza I can work. I work. I can write. I write. Forma de trecut I worked. I wrote. Participiul prezent I am working. I am writing. Participiul trecut I have worked. I have written.
Cele mai frecvent folosite verbe neregulate
Urmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme verbale reprezentative:
• • • •
Forma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly Persoana III singular a timpului prezent: he flies Persoana III singular a trecutului: he flew Participiul trecut: he has flown Present Third Person arises is bears begins bites blows breaks brings buys catches chooses comes creeps dives does drags draws dreams drinks drives drowns eats falls
Base Form arise be bear begin bite blow break bring buy catch choose come creep dive do drag draw dream drink drive drown eat fall
Past arose was/were bore began bit blew broke brought bought caught chose came crept dived/dove did dragged drew dreamed/dreamt drank drove drowned ate fell
Past Participle arisen been borne begun bitten/bit blown broken brought bought caught chosen come crept dived done dragged drawn dreamt drunk driven drowned eaten fallen
fight fly forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang hide know lay lead lie light lose prove ride ring rise run see seek set shake sing sink sit speak spring steal sting strike swear swim swing take tear throw uses wake wear write
fights flies forgets forgives freezes gets gives goes grows hangs hides knows lays leads lies lights loses proves rides rings rises runs sees seeks sets shakes sings sinks sits speaks springs steals stings strikes swears swims swings takes tears throws used wakes wears writes
fought flew forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung hid knew laid led lay lit lost proved rode rang rose ran saw sought set shook sang sank sat spoke sprang stole stung struck swore swam swung took tore threw used woke/waked wore wrote
fought flown forgotten forgiven frozen got/gotten given gone grown hung hidden known laid led lain lit lost proved/proven ridden rung risen run seen sought set shaken sung sunk sat spoken sprung stolen stung struck sworn swum swung taken torn thrown used woken/waked/woke worn written
6.2. Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do
Verbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a formelor negative si interogative. Ex.: He is planning to get married soon. I haven't seen Peter since last night. Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie cu participiul prezent. Ex.: He is living in Germany. Be, împreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva Ex.: These cars are made in Japan. Have in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte. Ex.: I have changed my mind. I wish you had met Guy. Prezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare be si have: Ex.: He has been working very hard recently. She did not know how long she had been lying there. Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte. Ex.: He isn't going. Hasn't she seen it yet?
Auxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau trecutului simplu. Ex.: He doesn't think he can come to the party. Do you like her new haircut? Auxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have. Ex.: He didn't do his homework. He doesn't have any money. In propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast. Ex.: I do feel sorry for Roger. Nu se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be. Singura exceptie este imperativul: Don't be stupid! Do be a god boy and sit still!
Modul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un vorbitor fata de continutul mesajului exprimat. Modul indicativ, prezent in majoritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se foloseste pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare. Modul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive, sugestii cu caracter pronuntat. Ex.: Get your homework done before you watch television tonight. Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town! Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. Pronumele you (singular sau plural) este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana II. Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana I Ex.: Let's (or Let us) work on these things together. Modul subjonctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri: 1. expresia unei dorinte; fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari.
2. 3. 4.
Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here. If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player. We would have passed if we had studied harder. He acted as if he were guilty. I requested that he be present at the hearing. Subjonctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi, de exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. In multe situatii care in alte limbi cer subjonctivul, in limba engleza sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.
6.4. Verbele frazale
O alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. Verbele frazale sunt formate dintr-un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in vorbirea de zi cu zi. Verbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe astfel de intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. Te exemplu, to come out are 18 intelesuri diferite! Verbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati. Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand down, stand against, stand for. Mai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul respectiv Ex.: Fill this out! Fill out this form. (a completa un formular) Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. (a jefui) You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. (a omite) The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (a examina) O lista sumara a celor mai folosite verbe frazale, insotite de o scurta explicatie si un exemplu, poate fi gasita la: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrasals.htm.
1. Completeaza cu be sau have la formele verbale potrivite: Swans ___ large birds - almost 4 feet tall. They ___ log necks. Some swans ___ very tame. They often come near people for food. Females usually ____ about six babies which are called cygnets. Cygnets ___ grey in colour and ___ very small wings but when they are fully grown they ___ large and strong wings and ___ white in colour. Swans can live to be 40. 2. Completeaza verbele frazale in propozitiile de mai jos: hung up, came to, catch on, eat out, put on, talk over, get by, turned down, find out, show up He tried to ____ his jacket before his tie was tied. My family was able to ____on very little money when I was young. The detective vowed to ____ who the murderer was before the case went to trial. Whenever we get tired of cooking, we ___ at our favorite Italian restaurant. Carlos ____ on his sister because he was so tired of listening to her whining on the phone. Tashonda was astonished that she was ___ for the counselor's position. The committee promised that the celebrity would ______ at the big event. When he ___, his wallet and bike were nowhere to be found. Professor Farbman promised to ___ the exam after she returned the results. Terri was able to ___ to the most complex problems in calculus before anyone else.
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