# Chapter 8.

Flexural Analysis of T-Beams
8.1. Reading Assignments Text Chapter 3.7; ACI 318, Section 8.10. 8.2. Occurrence and Configuration of T-Beams • • Common construction type.- used in conjunction with either on-way or two-way slabs. Sections consists of the flange and web or stem; the slab forms the beam flange, while the part of the beam projecting below the slab forms is what is called web or stem.

Beam Beam Beam Beam Beam Beam

(a) one-way slab

(b) two-way slab

8.3. Concepts of the effective width, Code allowable values In reality the maximum compression stress in T-section varies with distance from section Web.

Real max, Longitudinal compression sress

Simplified equivalent width, stress

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Code allows the following maximum effective widths: 8.3.1. Symmetrical Beam ACI318, Section 8.10.2. b hf 1) b ≤ 2) 3) bw 8.3.2. Flange on one side only (Spandrel Beam) ACI318, Section 8.10.3. b hf 1) b − b w ≤ span
12

span 4

b − bw ≤ 8h f 2 b − bw 1 ≤ clear distance between beams 2 2

2) b − b w ≤ 6h f 3) b − b w ≤ 1 clear distance to next web 2 bw 8.3.3. Isolated T-Beam ACI318, Section 8.10.4. b hf 1) b ≤ 4b w 2) bw bw ≤ hf 2

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8.4. Analysis of T-Beams - ( a > hf) Consider the total section in two parts: 1) 2) Flange overhangs and corresponding steel; Stem and corresponding steel;

b hf a

0.85f c′

Cc

Ts =As fy bw

=
Asf Case I

+
As - Asf Case II

For equilibrium we have: 8.4.1. Case I: A sf f y = 0.85f c′h f (b − b w) or A sf = 8.4.2. Case II: (A s − A sf) f y = 0.85f c′ b wa Solve for “a”: a = (A s − A sf) f y 0.85f c′ b w hf ) + (A s − A sf) f y (d − a) 2 2 (8.4) (8.3) 0.85f c′ h f (b − b w) fy (8.2) (8.1)

and nominal moment capacity will be: M n = A sf f y(d − (8.5)

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8.5. Balanced Condition for T-Beams See Commentary page 48 of ACI 318-83 (old code). b hf cb h d d-c Ab s bw
From geometry:

Á u = 0.003 ab

0.85f c′

Cc

Ts=Asbfy

Á

y

cb =

Áu

Áu 87, 000 d = d + Áy 87, 000 + f y

(8.6)

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8.6. Example.- Analysis of T-Beams in Bending: 40” hf =4” c 20.5” As = 6.88 in2 10” Find the nominal moment capacity of the beam given above: f c′ = 2, 400 psi f y = 50, 000 psi Solution: Check to see if a T-beam analysis is required: Assume a < hf a = As fy 6.88 × 50 = = 4.22 in 0.85 × 2.4 × 40 0.85f c′ b d-c Á
y

Á u = 0.003

0.85f c′ Cc

Ts=Asfy

Since 4.22 in > 4.00 in, a T-beam analysis is required. First find the reinforcement area to balance flanges (Asf = ?) A sf = 0.85 f c′ (b − b w)h f = 0.85 × 2.4 × (40 − 10) × 4 = 4.90 in 2 fy 50

A s − A sf = 6.88 − 4.90 = 1.98 in 2 Solve for “a” 0.85f c′b wa = (A s − A sf)f y a = (A s − A sf)f y 1.98 × 50 = = 4.86 in > 4in o.k. 0.85 × 2.4 × 10 0.85f c′b w Assumption is o.k.

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c = a = 4.86 = 5.72 0.85 β1 c = 5.72 = .279 < 0.375 d 20.5 Tension-controlled

Find the nominal moment capacity of the beam: hf M n = A sf f y (d − ) + f y(A s − A sf) (d − a ) 2 2 M n = 4.9(in 2) × 50(ksi) × (20.5 − 4) + 50(ksi) × 1.98(in 2) × (20.5 − 4.86) 2 2 M n = 4530 + 1790 = 6, 320 in − k

Note:

This could have been done by statics with T s = A sf y C c = (b − b w)(h f) × 0.85f c′ + ab w(0.85)f c′

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8.7. Example.- Design of T-Beams in Bending- Determination of Steel Area for a given Moment: A floor system consists of a 3 in. concrete slab supported by continuous T beams of 24 ft span, 47 in. on centers. Web dimensions, as determined by negative-moment requirements at the supports, are bw = 11 in. and d = 20 in. What tensile steel area is required at midspan to resist a moment of 6,400 in-kips if fy = 60,000 psi and f’c = 3,000 psi.

b hf

+
bw Asf Case I Solution First determining the effective flange width from Section (8.3.1.) or ACI 8.10.2 span 24 × 12 = = 72 in 4 4 2) b ≤ 16h f + b w = (16 × 3) + 11 = 59 in 1) b ≤ 3) b ≤ clear spacing between beams + b w = center to center spacing between beams = 47 in The centerline T beam spacing controls in this case, and b = 47 inches. As - Asf Case II

Assumption: Assuming that stress-block depth equals to the flange thickness of 3 inches (beam behaves like a rectangular shape). As = Mu 6400 = = 6.40 in 2 φf y(d − a∕2) 0.9 × 60 × (20 − 3∕2) (8.7)

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Solve for “a”: a = A sf y = 6.40 × 60 = 3.2 in > h f = 3.0 Assumption incorrect 0.85f c′b 0.85 × 3 × 47

Therefore, the beam will act as a T-beam and must be designed as a T-beam. From Case I given above and Section (8.4.1.) we have A sf = 0.85f c′ h f (b − b w) 0.85 × (3ksi) × (3in) × (47 − 11) = = 4.58 in 2 60(ksi) fy (8.8) (8.9) (8.10)

hf φM n1 = φA sff y d − ) = 0.9 × 4.58 × (60ksi) × (20 − 3∕2) = 4570 in-kips 2 φM n2 = M u − φM n1 = 6400 − 4570 = 1830 in-kips

Find “a” value by iteration. Assume initial a = 3.5 inches A s − A sf = φM n2 1830 = = 1.86 in 2 φf y(d − a∕2) 0.9 × 60 × (20 − 3.5∕2) (8.11)

Find an improve “a” value a = (A s − A sf) f y = 1.86 × 60 = 3.97 in 0.85 × 3 × 11 0.85f c′ b w (8.12)

Iterate with the new a = 3.97 in. A s − A sf = φM n2 1830 = = 1.88 in 2 φf y(d − a∕2) 0.9 × 60 × (20 − 3.97∕2) (8.13)

Find an improve “a” value a = (A s − A sf) f y = 1.88 × 60 = 4.02 in 0.85 × 3 × 11 0.85f c′ b w φM n2 1830 = = 1.88 in 2 φf y(d − a∕2) 0.9 × 60 × (20 − 4.02∕2) (8.14) (8.15)

A s − A sf =

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Since there is no change between equations (8.13) and (8.15) we have arrived at the answer. Therefore, A s = A sf + (A s − A sf) = 4.58 + 1.88 = 6.46 in 2 Check with ACI requirements for maximum amount of steel (Tension-Controlled) c = a = 4.02 = 4.73 0.85 β1 c = 4.73 = .237 < 0.375 20 d Tension-controlled (8.17) (8.16)

Therefore, the T-beam satisfies the ACI provisions for tension failure. Next steps will be to select the reinforcement and check all the spacing requirements and detail the beam.

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