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Millenial Palimpsest: Musical quechua poetry in Jose Maria Arguedas, REebecca Carte

Millenial Palimpsest: Musical quechua poetry in Jose Maria Arguedas, REebecca Carte

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MARfAARGUEDAS (1911-1969)



-Mi danzante. mi sacerdote! ;,ddnde estd Arguedasii.. j Estd llorando en ChanchayliI estd cantando en Aqo/a.l volverd con su Misitu! con el vientoJ con fa nieve. -Anonymous musical Quechua poem

Pre-Hispanic Andean indigenous cultures, steady as time, formulate the foundation of the bicultural writings of Peruvian author Jose Marfa Arguedas (1911-1969), Most notably, the poetic Quechua musical presence in Los rios profundos (1958), Todas las sangres (1964) and the posthumously published El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo (1971) are demonstrative of an alternative epistemology, one that links the lncan roots of the Peruvian peoples to its contemporary experience. Through an ancient musical tradition that spans a period of thousands of years, particularly in the form of the wayno (huayna) and harawi (anvi),Arguedas' prose sings to his readers the real and varied experiences of Modernity, exemplifying what Charles Taylor has called alternative modernities. [ As evinced in depictions of musical instruments and dancing figures found on ceramics dating from pre-Incan times, Peru boasts over four thousand years of musical history (Baumann, et al.). These mostly anonymous and

Latin America» Litcrury Review

A Millennia! Palimpsest: Musical Qucchua Poetry by Jose Marfa Arguedus (1911-1969)


usually improvised poem-songs arc variable and regional; sung in Quechua, Spanish, or a mix of the two; composed by the literate and illiterate alike, and performed by both the indigenous and the 1I/1s1i. Deceptively si mple seeming, perhaps due to the brief and repetitive composition intended to aid in remembering, these poem-songs arc actually charged with an intricate system of signs and symbols (Sec Os waldo Torres Rodrfguez). Rodrigo, Luis and Edwin Montoya Rojas have categorized contemporary canciones pocticas quechuas thematically into five principal groupings: 1) el ciclo vital, with its subthemes of singlehood, marriage, [construction of] the new house, and death; 2) political, including the subthemes of submission, oppression, poverty and rebellion; 3) religious, including both indigenous and Catholic songs composed in Qucchua; 4) humorous, and finally, 5) production, specifically agricultural and the rearing oflivestock and the implicit importance of nature in these pursuits. While these contemporary themes, as well as the instrumentation of their composition, differ from their pre-Hispanic models, the foundation laid by their pre-Incan and Incan forefathers and mothers remains intact to an impressive degree. Jose Marfa Arguedas' love of Quechua canciones poeticas is well documented, and indigenous music of the Andes permeates all aspects of his work as a folklorist. anthropologist, historian, poet, and author.' The type of song that arguably dominates the Arguedian literary oeuvre is the wayno, a universal pre-Hispanic musical genre and the most widespread throughout the Andes. Gloria and Gabriel Escobar define the wayno as "una composicion poetica para scr cantada al son de una tonada musical que tambien se interpreta con algun 0 algunos instrumentos musicales y que sc baila por parcjas a un compas que varia un poco de una region a otra'' (Escobar II). These songs are danced, and whi le many arc sad, they can also be humorous and jocular. Contemporary waynos "conserva]n] much os rasgos pre-hispanicos de ser expresion del amor, su brcvedad, los signos y slmbolos, la ejecucion del bai le sicmpre en pareja que constantemcnte plantea el asunto implfcito de la fecundidad" (Torres Rodriguez 165).ln addition to the wayno, the harawi plays an equally critical role in Arguedas' novels." In fact, the harawi, which occupied a privileged and diffuse place in the Incan Empire, was described by Arguedas himself as "la forma mas excclsa de Ia poesia y de la musica'' (in Huaman 166).4 Contemporary harawis arc usually sad farewell songs sung by women in a very high pitch. In the works of Argued as , both the wayno and harawi operate 011 several levels. Written in Quechua with a Spanish transla-

tion, they appear as part of the real action of the novels, always dealing with the situation from which they emerge and reflecting, at the most basic level, the plot and the development of the characters performing them. Over the decades, critics have convincingly demonstrated the crucial role that Andean music plays in Argucdas' literary corpus (Cornejo Polar, Lienhard, Rarna, Rowe, et al.). Angel Rama has notably argued the palpable musicality that they lend to the novels, and the centrality of their literary function, serving as the thematic axis around which the novels' characters and events turn. "Son mementos de alta concentracion ernocional y artfstica, a manera de verdaderas 'arias' que ell dimensioncs reducidas y sobrc una tesitura musical, cifran los signiiicados que toda narracion esta obligada a desarrollar extcnsivamcnte'' (Rama 250). Moreover, these songs transcend the limitations imposed by the privileged status of occidental modes of representation. As William Rowe astutely contends, beginning with Rios and culminating with Zorros, music serves as a "totalidad trasformadora'' in the novels of Arguedas in which both the songs performed by characters and the songs produced by nature serve as a mode of knowing reality. "Se puede decir que el racionalismo divide y jerarquiza los sentidos, valorizando la vista, y de esa mancra divide la realidad. La rmisica de Arguedas trasciende esa di vision .desmantelando Ia codificacion represiva de la cxistencia" (Rowe I07), The cultural implications of this cannot be overstated because in this way .Arguedas transcends the constraints of the occidental novel, living what he famously declared when he accepted the Prernio Inca Garcilaso de Ia Vega in 1968: "Yo no soy un aculturado't.In the words of Martin Lienhard, Arguedas "oraliza and "andiniza" the novel. "EI 'indigcnismo' arguediano dejaba de ser una evocacion desde fuera y al fin colonialista del mundo serrano, pOl'que devolvfa a la cultura, ala cosmovision, al pensamienro, de los hombres andinos= quechuas- un papel estrucrural en sus textos" (322). Given the transcendent role of these poem-songs in Arguedas' novels, I would like to suggest that they merit a detailed analysis that considers the variations and particularities among specific genres of Quechua musical poetry in order to discover levels of structural functionality and meaning that may otherwise be overlooked by the reader. In this study I examine how the specific genres of the waYl10 and harawi function as alternative mediums of expression whilst communicating metaphorically and poetically the themes of the novels in two of Arguedas' works, Los rios profundos and Todas las sangres, and postulate that the song genres themselves serve as paragons

Latiu Americal/ Literary Reviell


A Millennia! Palimpsest:

Musical Qucchua Poetry by Jose Maria Argucdas (1911 ~1969)


of the socio-cultural changes occurring in the Peru of the 1950'8 and 60's. In this sense, the wayno and harawi emerge as a sort of aural palimpsest, reflecting centuries of layering cultural exchange, adaptation, and human ex perience.' Los rios profundos ;,Quien puede ser capa: de seiialar los limites que median entre 10 heroico y el hielo de fa gran tristeia? Con una nuisica de estas puede el hombre llorar hasta consumirse, hasta desaparecer, pero podria igualmente luchar contra una legion de condores y de leones 0 contra los monstruos que se dice habitan en elfondo de los lagos de altura y en las [aldas llenas de sombras de las mon taiias.
(Ernesto in Los rios profundos, p.138)

Ernestos recollections of his travels from pueblo to pueblo with his father reveal the importance of waYl10s to indigenous cultures and the regional diversity of their composition. A mi padre lc gustaba ofr huaynos; no sabla cantar, bailaba mal, pero recordaba a que pueblo, a que comunidad, a que valle pertenecia tal 0 cual canto. A los pecos dias de habcr Ilcgado a un pueblo averiguaba quien era el mejor arpista, el mejor tocador de charango, de violfn y de guitarra. Los IIarnaba, y pasaban en Ia casa toda una noche. En esos pueblos s610 los indios tocan arpa y violfn [ ... ] Los arpistas indios tocan con los ojos cerrados. La voz del arpa parecfa brotar de la oscuridad que hay dentro de la caja; y el charango formaba un torbellino que grababa en la memoria la letra y la miisica de los cantos. (20) First, the regional variety of the waYl10s is evident in this passage, and the songs serve as a sort of ethno-geographical record for the father, reminding the reader that "1.0 andino es parte de la diversidad cultural del pals, pero 10 andino no es=-eu absolute- una unidad hornogenea; pOl' el contrario, es rambien el espacio de una gran diversidad" (Montoya Rojas 36).lt may also be noted that among these differing regional compositions the musical instruments and ensembles themselves often have particular regional and individual names, resulting in an exponentially rich variety (Baumann 16). Second, within his recollection of the parochial nature of the wayno, it is noteworthy that Ernesto remembers that only the indigenous people play the harp and violin. In their comparison of eight regions where Qucchua music is played and what instruments are used, the compliers Montoya Rojas conclude that while los mistis exclusi vely use the guitar, the indigenous people exclusively play the harp and violin. "POI' razones que no conocernos bien los indigenas no tocan Ia guitarra, En contraste , el arpa y el violfn= a pesar de su origen curopeo- se convirtieron en instrumcntos exclusives de los indigenas y de algunas capas de cholos urbanos, pero nunca mistis. Convicne advertir que los mistis cantan acornpaiiados por el arpa tocada pOl' los indigenas, pero evidcntemcnte no es 10 mismo" (27). Third, that Ernesto's memory evokes the image of the ind igenous harpists playing with their eyes closed communicates the spiritual feel of the music.

Los riosprofundos (1958) is narrated through the eyes of Ernesto , a boy who has spent the larger portion of his life traveling from pueblo to pueblo with his father, a lawyer of the provinces, and who.during the latter's frequent absences, has been cared for by indigenous peoples in various provinces ,r, The boy is reintroduced to the occidental-mestizo world when his father leaves him in a religious school in Abancay, a town where all of the land is owned by hacendados.Ys: addition to Ernesto's problems in the often hostile world of the school, where bullies and wealthier boys dominate, the Padre Director (whose sermons sanction the latifundista system and who blatantly favors the children of the elite hacendadosi does not hide his disdain for Ernestc's strong ties to indigenous customs. At the same time, the indigenous people of the town do not associate with the students at the school, thus Ernesto finds himself between two worlds, not quite "fitting" in either one. Under the vigilant and judging eye of the Padre Director, Ernesto has to hide his way of seeing the world as well as his solidarity with the indigenous community, His private moments are firmly anchored in a personal spirituality rooted in an indigenous way of thinking, a trinity of sorts made up of the River Pachabarnba, the zumbatlyu, and a deep adoration for the local hero, Dona Felipa. 7 Ernesto also clings to the music of his childhood for solace, recalling, singing, and seeking out the wayno.I' sung by the indigenous communities he lived in as a boy.


Latin American Litcrarv Review

A Millcnnial Palimpsest:

Musical Qucchuu Poetry by .lose Marfa Al'gucdas (1911- 19(9)


The personification of the harp charges the passage with the transformativc, even transcendental power of the music played. Two key components of the wayno , oral tradition and improvisation, arc felt as the charango forms a whirlwind that "records in the memory" the lyrics and the music." Finally, Erncstos retelling bespeaks the perforrnative nature of the wayno.ln fact, in the Central Andean Highlands, music, dance, song and ritual arc closely intertwined and the Quechua term taki (song) docs not just contai n the idea oflanguage that is sling, but also rhythmic melody and dance (Baumann 19). Thus, this brief passage, which appears before any poem-song in the novel, establishes the rich plurality rooted in a particularly indigenous tradition, the spiritual experience of the playing, and the perforrnarive nature of the wayno which travels and changes over time. Erncsto evokes waynos throughout the novel, and finds them a source of solace from the harsh reality of the school. However, during his initial days of confusion and fear at the new school, it is a canto de despedida, an harawi, that the boy recalls, one sung to him upon his departure by the women tmarnakunass of a community that had cared for and protected him during one of his father's more extensive absences.

kutiykarnunki has de volver! (33-34)

has de volver



yuyaykunlim, yuyaykunkiml

Jhatun yurak' ork 'o kutiykachimunki abrapi puquio, pampapi puquio yank'atak' yakuyananman. Alkunchallay, kutiykarnunchu raprachaykipi apaykamunki, Riti ork'o,jhatun riti ork'o yank'tak' fiannimpi ritiwak'; yank' atak wayra fiannimpi k'ochpaykunkiman. Amas para amas para aypankicnu; amas k'ak'a, amas k'ak'a fiannimpi tuiiinkichu. lAy warrnallay warrna kutiykamunki

[No te olvidesl, mi pequeiio, no tc olvidesl Cerro blanco, hazlo volvcr; agua de montana, manantial de la pampa que nunca muera de sed, Halcon, cargalo en tus alas y hazlo volver. Inmensa nievc, padre de la nieve , no 10 hicras en el camino. Mal viento, No 10 toques. Lluvia de tormenta, no 10 alcances [... 1

Typical of the harawi, there is an evocation "no solo de la amada sino tambien de las cosas del paisajc que haccn del ser amado un ser consustanciado con la naturaleza circundantc" (Caceres Romero 20). The harawi begins and ends with two separate supplications to the child, uttered twice each: first being urged not to forget, and second told to return. Within this frame, first there arc four clements of nature invoked to aid the child in his travels: the white hill; the water of the mountain; the [freshwater] spring of the pampa, and finally the falcon. These arc followed by pleas to four potentially harmful elements, snow, wind, rain of the storm, and the precipice, instructing them what not to do to the child. Thus. the 4/4 opposition of the natural elements, four affirmations of good, against four negations of bad, is balanced, and posited within the 2!2 supplications directed at the child, who lives a relationship with nature in a particular Andean sense: "Es una relacion de sores vivos con morfologfas diferenciadas; pOI' eso, el hombre andino, sobre todo el campesino, establece el dialogo con los elementos de la naturaleza 0 estes son simbolizados para enmarcar 10 que no puede exprcsarse explicitamcnte" (Torres Rodriguez 173). The hills (which in Andean cosmology observe and talk about the I ives of men) along with the falcon will make the boy return and these two personages of the natural world square off the two sources of water that will ensure his survival: white hill/ water of the mountain! water of the pampas! falcon. Water in the form of snow or rain, however, are potentially dangerous, and the wind, which communicates the forces of destruction, and the precipice, which may "surprise" as do the events of life, arc all begged not to harm the boy so that he may return. This harawi, then, expresses the theme of el dolor de partir for the boy and for the community. "La voz multitudinaria, traducida en una unidad inseparable, model a y reline el sentimiento colectivo, es en este senrido que Arguedas preseuta al harawi en mementos de alta carga ernotiva" (Huaman 168). The pain of the departure is felt by those who remain and for those who leave, a common theme in Andean culture, in which being uprooted from the ayllu, the community, is a tragic circumstance. La familia y cl suelo propio dan a los habitantes de los Andes la seguridad y el afecto neccsarios para vivir, Fuera

[No, prccipicio , atroz precipicio , no 10 sorprendasl
iHijo mfo,


Latin American Liteiur» Review

A Millcnnial


Musical Quechua Poetry by Jose Marfa Argucdas (1911-1969)


del pueblo y la familia, esta 10 desconocido, la aventura, el sufrimieuto. Esta es una hisroria que vicne dcsde I1lUY lejos , seguramente desdc los primeros mitmaqkuna (mitimaes), arrancados de su suelo por los Incas para poblar otras tierras como precio de su derrota, El ideal andino es quedarse , pero obligan a partir la busqueda de trabajo, los estudios, cl ejerciro, una pasion arnorosa, un delito que supone castigo, un desentendimiento familiar I...J La despedida cs siempre conmovedora porque reune un doble dolor, de quienes se van y de quienes se quedan, (Montoya Rojas 68-69)

K' awaykarnuway siwar k'cnti, k'ori raphra, llakisk' ayta, purun wayta kirisk'aykita, mayuputa wayta sak'eskaykita.

Baja y mframe, picaflor dorado, toda mi tristeza, flor de campo herida, flor de los rios que abandonaste. (37)

Finally, as Erncsto remembers the song he recalls his father's words to him that day. "No importa que llores. Llora, hijo, porque si no, se te puede partir el corazon" (34). Just as the women and Ernesto mourn his departure, the Andean peoples have mourned forced migration for centuries, a migration that results in a sense of desarraigo or "uprootedness," isolation and loss, all themes that are commonly expressed in Quechua musical poetry. As his father did before him, in his isolation Emesto seeks out the waynos in the town near the school and he finds them in the chicherias? Full of migrants from allover Peru, the chicherias become a place where the musicians play wayno,\' from all over the Andes, some of which are unfamiliar even to the well traveled Ernesto. The first wayno that Ernesto hears the mestizas sing in Dona Felipa's clucheria is a love song. The predominant theme of the wayno is love, usually love lost. "El cantor () cantora canta siempre el hecho de que ha sido tocado pOI'el a1110ry ha sentido su gloria, pero despues 10 ha perdido" (Escobar v).
jAy siwar k'enti! amafia wayta tok'okachaychu, siwar k'enti. Ama jhina kaychu mayupataman urayamuspa, k 'ori raphra, kay puka mayupi wak 'ask'ayta k'awaykamuway. jAy picaflorl, yanohorades~nwlafto~ alas de esmeralda. No seas cruel baja a la orilla del 1'(0, alas de esmeralda, y mirame llorando junto al agua roja, mframe llorando.

For the Andean peoples, love is lived through nature and the beloved is named in terms of nature (Montoya Rojas 55-56). Here the Hower of the Held and the river has been injured, abandoned by the hummingbird who is asked not to be cruel, to come down and see the singer crying next to the red, we may infer perhaps bloodied, water. This is a wayno that begs for the acknowledgement of the performer's pain and sadness, of his love lost, and the elements of nature (the flower, the hummingbird, and the river) are the means by which this is communicated. Los nos, como las flores, aparecen constantemenre en las canciones, Excepcionalmente como objeto-sujcto I... rio, ]El cargado, turbio , es peligrosfsirno se le llama yawar mayu 0 rfo de sangre, porque se lleva a personas y ani males I... J 13,1 1'(0 es tambien un asesino I...13,s ] posible que arrojarse a un rio sea una forma de suicidio dentro del mundo andino. Las cancioncs hablan de ese deseo de ser llevado por el 1'(00 scr apl astado por Jas rocas. Es poco que pueden hacer Ias mujeres y los hombres por detcner eJ agua de los rios e impedir que este se lleve a la persona amada. (Montoya Rojas 64) Nature, then, is not mere metaphor, rather an active agent; not an exterior entity, rather an interior knowing. The singer has known love and lost it, and in the case of the performance in the chicheria, the wayno serves a double function, both conveying the message of a personal loss of love and the nostalgia shared by all of the workers for the homes that they have left behind. The love lost is now an expression of a more, and the regionality of the poem becomes a key to remembering one's place. Una vez fuera, el desarraigo fuerte, la nostalgia de la tierra y la familia hacen sufrir r... 1 En el desarraigo crece el


Latin AJllerical/ Literary Review

A Millennia! Palimpsest: Musical Qucchua Poetry by Jose Maria Argucdas (191 !~19(9)


recuerdo del suclo nuestro y se cxalta la tierra. Lucgo del proccso migratorio masivo se inicio dcntro de la cancion undilla un proceso aun vigente de exaltacion de la tierra, que se canta principal mente en castellano. EI deseo de regrcsar y reencontrar a los suyos es muy importante, (Montoya Rojas 69-70) In this way, the migrant worker listens and sings as a form of social memory, yet now this memory is of a broader loss that is shared with peoples from other regions who all share in a nostalgia for their respective lands. EI arpista comenzo a tocar lin huayno . No era de ritmo abanquino puro: Yo 10 reconoci, Era de Ayacucho 0 de Huancavclica. Pcro algo del estilo del Apurimac habfa en la cadencia del huayna. Cant6. El semblante de los pueblos de altura, del aire transparente , aparecieron en mi memoria: Utari pampapi muru pillpintucha amarak wak'aychu k 'ausak'rak'mi kani kutipamusk' aykin vucltamusk' aykin Nok'a waiiuptiyfia nok' a ripuptiyiia lutuyta apaspa wak'ayra yachanki Kausarak'mi kani alconchas nisunki luceros nisunki kutimusk' rak 'mi vueltamusak'rak'rni. Amarak'wak'aychu mum pillpintucha, saywacha churusk'ay manaras tuninchu tapurikamullay, En la pampa de Utari, mariposa manchada, no llores todavia, aun estoy vivo, he de vol vel' a ti, he de vol ver. Cuando me muera, cuando yo desaparezca te vestiras de luto, aprenderas a llorar ... Aiiu estoy vivo, el halcon te hablara de mi, la estrella de los cielos te hablara de mi, he de regresar todavfa, todavia he de volver, No es tiernpo de llorar, mariposa rnanchada, la saywa que elevc en la cumbre no se ha derrumbado,

This heartbreaking waYllo is at once dcrnonstrati ve of the cultural Il1L1SIC exchange and elucidatory of the theme of desatraigo y regrcso ; i.e. the profound sense of loss due to leaving coupled with the hope of returning, both resultant of mass migration. The falcon, the star, and the saywa (a mound of rocks that various travelers construct in the mountain pass to mark their passing) can all testify to the performer's living and form a connection between the performer and the one left behind, the colorful butterfly, symbol of life and its delicacy. Hence the wayne often communicates through the language of nature the longing for a home. In another instance, when the soldiers have come to Huanupata in search of Dona Felipa to arrest or kill her, Erncsto overhears a forced recruit lamenting his homesickness, which he seems only able to communicate with the wayno. [Yo, patroncitol-dccfa lIoriqueando un soldado. Mezclaba su castellano barbaro con el quechua rukana-. Yo, .. jefe, Aguila, wamanchallay, patu rialchallay. [Cuatro ya, judidu; sigoro preiiada, ya de ml.en pueblo extrafio! j Yo ... ! j Runapa llak'tampi iiok'achallay ... ! Lloraba. El sargento le dio un puntapic. EI rostro del soldado se helo, se puso rtgido. Prctcndio marchar, pero volvio a cantar, despacio: "Aguila, wamanchallay, patu rialchallay". Y dijo: Prefiada de mf, en pueblo extraiio,
[judidu!". (123)

mi. (136,137)

Arguedas translates the wayno above thusly: "Oh, aguila, 011, gavilan, oh, pato real. Solito, solito, en pueblo extrafio." The soldier, in a strange place, is a bird without a nest. Upon returning to the school, Ernesto sings the unfinished canto on behalf of the reluctant soldier: "Cuando te vi desde la altura, estabas llorando sola.aguila real ..." (124), The human consequences of the social practice of forced military recruitment are communicated through the wayno, which in this passage truly seems to be the only means through which the soldier can expresses himself. This wayno exemplifies a common theme in Quechua music: fa tragedia de ser huerfano. In Andean cultures, "no tener paricntes es sinonimo de pobreza; el sentimiento de orfandad es proyectado hacia los animales y es dramatics la biisqueda de alguien que los reemplace" (Montoya Rojas 67). In fact, the Qucchua word waqcha means


Latin American Litcrar» Review

A Millennial


Musical Qucchua Poetry by .lose Marfa Argucdas (1911··1969)


at once both "orphan" and "poor" and the absence of parents is considered a grave tragedy. This orphan status has extended itself over time to the forced migrant: "Hay otra soledad tan dura como la orfandad; cs del forastero que no tiene su pueblo ... " (Montaya Rojas 68). The chicheria filled with outsiders, Ernesto, anc! the forced military recruit all share in common their uprooted, "orphan" status, The waynos serve them as a means to express their pain and nostalgia, but also provide them with strength, connecting them and creating a sort of collective memory from disparate regions. In addition to social memory, the wayl10 may also serve as a means of social commentary. Emcsto follows the women, headed by the folkloric hero Doria Felipa in a protest to demand salt, which has been withheld from them in favor of the haciendas' cows. The indigenous women 1111 the Plaza de Annas and, in defiance of the Padre Director's admonishment of them as "indias rebeldcs," enter the deposit of hoarded salt and distribute it among themselves, Later, in the chicheria, a humorous wayno is performed, a song that Ernesto recognizes but which has been modified to the present circumstance. The song is improvised to make fun of the soldiers and the salter. Luego bailaron todos con esa melodfa. Zapateaban acompas. Los descalzos, los de ojotas y los de zapatos golpcaban el suelo brutal mente. Los talones de ellos descalzos sonaban hondo: el cuero de las ojotas palmeaba el suelo duro y los tacos martilleaban. Parecia que molian las palabras del huayna. Soldaduchapa

arrnaska kask 'a, polvorafiantak ' mula salinerok' asnay asnay supm

con excremcnto de llama, yen vez de polvora yen vez de polvora pedo de mula salinera. (82)

Barefooted, the raucous crowd "grinds" the song and the reader can feel the rhythm of the banging and the joy of the dance, and even the laughter that this amusing song produces, ridicul ing the impotence of the soldiers and salineros when confronted by the audacious defiance of Dona Felipa. The gun's shot, which should be thunderous, is useless, and even more importantly the very soul of the soldier (who is named diminutively) is made of useless firewood. For his part, the salinero who hoards salt from the indigenous community uses a gun loaded with llama excrement and instead of gunpowder, the fart of a salt mule. Interestingly, the,waYl1o is sung directly to you, "hermann," H show of solidarity against oppression, and humor is used to express criticism. "EI humor es un medic para expresar la critica social, el ajuste de cuentas con los que mandan, en una sociedad como la peruana donde la dominacion politica es tan grande.,." (Montoya Rojas 75). Similarly. a jocular heroicjaylli "Huayruros", "huayruros" mana atinchu mana atinchu
maytak' atinchu

is played in honor of Dona Felipa."

kask 'a

chaysi chaysi yank'a yank'a tok'yan, chaysi chaysi
yanka' yank'a tok'yan

Manas manas wayk'ey, riflinchu tok'ro alma rurullansi
tok'ro tok'ro kask'a

Salineropa revolverchank' llama akawansi


EI rifle del soldadito habfa sido de huesos de cactus, pOl' eso, por eso, truena imitilmente por eso, por eso, truena imitilmente No, no, herrnano, no es el rifle, cs el alma del soldadito de lefia inservible. EI revolver del salinero
estaba cargado

lmanallautas atinman [way! Atinman
manchak' wayruro

Diccn que el huayruro, huayruro, no puede no puede, [como ha de poderl Por que ha de poder .huay! que ha de poder
el espantado huayruro

Dona Felipa makinwan Doria Felipa kallpanwan, "Huayruroy" "huayruro" maytas atiwak '

con la mano de doria Felipa, con [a fuerza de dona Felipa.

Huayruro, huayruro,
que has de poder, adonde has de huir. De dona Fclipa la mula las tripas de la mula de perder, te perdieron huayruro, huayruro ...

maytas chinkanki Dona Fel ipa I11U lallan
chunchul mulallan chinkachiyta chinkachin

huayruroy, huayruro


Latin American Lucrary Review

A Millcnnial


Musical Quccbua Poetry by .lose Maria Argucdas (1911-1969)


I-!uayruruy huayruruy imallamantas kaswanki
[Wayl, Kaskanki,

iWay!, karkallamantas kask 'anki.

Huayruro, huayruro , y de que, de que habfas side hccho; titillamantas j Huay! de plomo, solo de plomo habfas sido hecho; [Huayl, de cxcremenro de vaca habfas sido heche. (141-142)

This song is directed at the guardia civil. The huayruro is a red and black bean native to the Andes, and in Qucchua a nickname for the guardias civiles for the color of their uniforms (Huaman 324). This song is a jaylli de Navidad, modified to the present circumstances to ridicule the soldiers, once again impotent when faced with the force of DOl1a Felipa. They are made of lead and cow dung, helpless against her cunning ability to outmaneuver and outsmart them. An act of collective memory and solidarity, they sing to commemorate the rebellious DOl1a Felipa, giving the song a sense of protest; however, not in an ideological sense, rather rooted in the present circumstances. No existe una cancion politica entcndida como un discurso panfletario 0 como un volante con nnisica de los estudiantes de la universidad, La Hamada "cancion protesta" 0 "popular", hecha "para el pueblo" desde afuera y desde arriba no ticne sentido alguno entre mujeres y hombres de los Andes seiioriales e indfgenas del Peru. La reflcxion polftica aparece dentro de la vida.junto con el amor.el humor, la produccion, [a religiosidad. No es nada que pucda aislarse y separarse del resto. Felizmente, la polftica es vivida aiin dentro de la vida y no como un coto particular de caza para los que creen que representan el pueblo. Cuando las personas y los hechos son recordados en canciones que el pueblo canta es pOl'que fueron importantes, simplernente, mas alia de todo acuerdo o desacuerdo con 10 que esas personas hicicron 0 con 10 que esos hechos significan. (Montoya Rojas 77-78) By the 1950's in Peru the lost love of the wayno and the sad goodbye of the harawi transcend their locality to serve as social memory and commentary, and as a mode of expression of nostalgia, sorrow, joy, and strength of the expe-

rienccs of Modernity. Furthermore, in Los rios profundos, just as the Catholic faith and occidental culture do not satisfy Ernesto's needs in dealing with these changes, the traditional form of the novel does not satisfy the needs of the narration. As a result, Ernesto depends upon his indigenous way of knowing, and the novel depends upon the indigenous medium of poetic Quechua song. More than showing Ernesto's resistance and determination, the songs allow for the indigenous voice to emerge from the pages in an indigenous mode of expression. The importance of this must not be understated, as these songs were not widely considered a form of literate, erudite expression at the time, rather the "folksy" oral tradition of the masses, of the illiterate and the "ignorant". In fact, within the novel itself, the schoolmate Romero wrestles with embarrassment at his indulgence of Quechua and its musical poetry. I I As Arguedas well understood, poetic Qucchua music, far from an inferior mode of expression, provides an alternative to what Gustavo Verdeiso has called "el colonialismo acadcmico" under which Spanish, and to an even greater degree Quechua, Aymara, Quique and Nahuatl, lack academic prestige, despite that the objects write in these languages. Arguedas decolonizes the field years ahead of his time by including Quechua and doing so via an Andean mode of expression. Yet, as 1 have intimated, this is a mode of expression that itself is undergoing great changes in a period of intensely accelerated modernization, as we see in Todas las sangres.

Todas las sangres (1964)
Y usted no va a matar a fa patria, seiior. AM estd, Parece muerta. [No!
E! pisonay llora: derramard susflores poria eternidad de fa eternidad, creciendo . Ahara de pena, manana de alegrta.

-Dernetrio Rendon Willka in Todas las sangres, p. 470 Todas las sangres, published six years after Rios, was written at a time when, as Cornejo Polar points out, the "obra cornpleta'' was the style de jour. In fact, that attempt at totality did lead to the text being harshly criticized as comparatively less beautiful than Rios," Yet, in an interview with Luis Miguel Glavc, Arguedas insisted that he believed Sangres to be "mas bella y trascendcnte'' than Rios (80). "Desde cualquier punto de vista, Todas las sangres es pues para mf una novela mas cornpleja y superior que Los rios


Latin American



A Millennial


Musical Quechua Poetry by .lose Marfa Arguedas (1911 ~1(69)


pmjimdos"(Arguedas in (Have gO), This begs the question: Docs Sangres sing in a beautifully Quechua way as Rios docs? Todas las sangres tells the story of two latifundistas, brothers who control the local population of San Pedro after the death of their father, Andres Arag6n de Peralta, who curses his two sons before taking his own life, The brothers have very different ideas about how to continue with the family enterprise under circumstances of great change in Peru during the 1960's, While one brother, Bruno, wants to avoid modernization and keep the indigenous peoples of his hacienda "innocent" and protected from Modernity, his brother, Fermin, wants to force them to "progress" and "civilize" under capitalism, Many literary critics have cited these two principle characters as the manifestation of the confl ict between the agents of modernization and those that desire to maintain the traditional system of the latifundio (Cornejo Polar, et al.). Between the two is the character of the enigmatic "ex-indio" Demetrio Rendon Wi llka, a young indigenous man who has returned to San Pedro from the capital city of Li rna speaking broken castellano and wearing cashmere, much to the consternation of some of the seiiores vecinos, many of whom have slowly lost their wealth as Don Fermin has bought up the land around them for his mining enterprise, Yet even with all of his wealth and power, the ardently capitalistic Don Fermin is unable to prevent the incursion of the politically well-connected, foreignbacked Consorcio Wisthcr-Bozart from usurping his claim to the mines, Throughout, the presumptuous nature of the debate between capitalism and progress versus the entrenched traditions of the landowning elite in "dealing" with the indigenous peoples is voiced through these characters, along with a host of others, primarily around dialogue and interior monologue, Just as in Rios, however, it is the poetic Qucchua music once again that serves as the particularly Andean mode through which the tension between Modernity and feudalistic tradition are manifest, reflecting the adaptation of the indigenous peoples over centuries of great change, Angel Rama has succinctly called these poem-songs a "literary space of coexistence": "EI puesto privilegiado que cabe a la cancion en las operaciones transcultadores quedaasf evidenciado: Salvael pasado traditional (indio) y permite la Iibertad creativa (chela) del prescnte" (252). In Sangres, they at once communicate and reflect the processes of the particularly accelerated modernization that was taking place in Peru in the 1960's, or put another way, how the people were experiencing their modernities,

As] have argued, RIO.\' demonstrates how the wayno has been undergoing a layering process for centuries, especially in terms of theme, Vino Ia colonizaci6n de America y la dorninacion brutal de la poblacion autoctona y el wayne pierde mucho de su alegrfa y se convierte en un canto de dolor, pierdc parte de su ritmo y cadencia original al ser separado del trabajo. Adquiere su caracter testimonial y de protests contra la pobreza y la opresion. (Torres Rodriguez 165-166) Sangres reveals, in addition to the thematic changes found in Rios, significant performative adaptations. Rodrigo Montoya outlines the major instrumental changes in the wayno in "Miisica chicha: Cambios de la cancion andina quechua en el Peru" (1996), Before the Spanish invasion, waynos were played on wind and percussion instruments, The first great moment of cui tural exchange occurred when the indigenous peoples incorporated the harp and violin, and then later, in the twentieth century the saxophone in the thirty's and the accordion in the fifty's, Throughout this exchange, the Quechuas also adopted the mandolin and the guitar, from which the charango derived, itself an object oftransculturation (Sec Baumann, 20(4). Later, other instruments such as the trumpet, clarinet, and piano started to be used and bands and orchestras formed made up of mestizos who sang bilingual wayI/o-\', and eventually singing in Spanish (Montoya 484), Montoya argues that during the massive migration from the countryside to the city in the Peru of the 1960's, the wayl10 and other forms of poetic Quechua music underwent another huge wave of changes and adaptations. As such .just as the characters in Sangres embody the tension between the indigenous way of life and the pressUJ'es of modernization and socio-economic changes, the music embodies the same tension. Don Fermin and Don Bruno are at odds throughout the novel at how to adapt to the forces of change that are seeping into their town, San Pedro is no longer isolated and the outside world cannot be ignored. Even Demetrio Rendon Willka, who has returned from the big city of Lima to his home, finds that he has not left this urban reality entirely, After a meeting with Don Bruno and Don Fermin, Demetrio walks along the street, alone with his thoughts, La callejuela ya no estaba muy concurrida a esa horn, pero dos radiolas tragamonedas funcionaban a su mayor volumen


Latin American Literary ReFiell'

A Millennia] Palimpsest:

Musical Quechua Poetry by .Jose Maria Arguedas (1911-1969)


Y cl caseno se estrernecfa con la voz de una chachacha y de una mul iza; se estrcrnecfa y daba la impresion de esrar
congesrionada. Lejos, a doscientos metros, aiin llegaba la

musica mezclada. Demetrio no lograba separar bien la dulce melodia de la cancion juajina del ritmo endiablado de la danza extranjera. (122) The small town does not feel so small and the wretched foreign music blasts at him from all sides. He affirms himself: "i Defender el corazon 1" as if combating the jukeboxes while he and his friends begin to improvise a waVllO, changing the lyrics of an old song with new ones, empowering Dem;trio. Demetrio sings: La sangre de gavilan he tornado, y con 61 al viento fuerte que no se acaba, Justo Pariona. EI kollana Ie contestri

out the foreign music. The strong wind, symbolizing the forces of destruction and in this case, of change, will not let up, but neither will the fl ight of the sparrowhawk, whose blood now flows inside Demetrio. Emboldened, this emerging leader sees where night falls and day breaks and will not lose the path. The dualism of day/light and night/dark, weaves itself through the song. While the metaphor of night turning to day is often used to describe a long period of work to benefit the patron, here the long period of work for Don Fermin and Don Bruno is expected to also benefit Demetrio's people (Montoya Rojas 57). As such, even though the community walks in the darkness, Demetrio Rendon Willka will know how to lead and protect San Pedro from the threat of foreign encroachment. This episode contrasts with one in which the young people in Lima seem more open to the new music, trying to assimilate quickly to city life by learning "los bailes de moda". The migrants exaggerate the form of the dances to show off and to "dcmostrar que los dorninahan" (334). However, the result is clearly awkward and unnatural. Era evidcnte que muchas de las parejas no sc divertfan, sino que simulaban; padeclan tratando de retorcerse, de seguir el com pas endiablado 0 muy len to de los bailes "afro-cubanos" o afro-yanquis. En sus museu los segufa atin rigiendo "la pesadez" del habitante andino, duro de euerpo, por la practica de subir y bajar inmensas cucstas y respirar cl aire de las grandes alturas. [Por fin! Como despedida de la fiesta se tocaban huayno 0 pasacalles. Entonces se lanzaban a bailar, como presos recien liberados, muchas parejas, y gozaban; otras, especial mente pOI' parte de las muchachas, bailaban como desanimados, porque procuraban dernostrar que ya estaban total mente "deserranizados" y que habfan olvidado el huayno, y no faltaban hombre y rnujeres que no salian a bailar las danzas de sus pueblos, declarando en voz alta que se hablan olvidado de ellas. Y de verdad, muchos de estes jovcnes no las pod fan danzar; la vergilcnza los estorbaba; eran los mismos que se negaban a hablar el quechua y que padecian micntras intentaban bailar eon la mayor "destreza" los bailes cxtranjeros. (334-335)

EI gavilan vuela sin descanso, Rendon Willka; si has bebido su sangre puedes ver adonde cae la neche, de donde brota el dfa. -iA vel', ni, mozo!- Ie pidi6 Rendon al otro joven que los acompaf aba, Rendon Willka, de neche estamos andando, si has tornado sangre de gavilan no podras extraviar el camino. (122) The new song is written over the old, adapting to present circumstances yet maintaining the duality and cadence of the traditional wayno, and drowning


Latin American



A Millcnninl Palimpsest:

Musical Quechua Poetry by Jose Maria Argucdas (1911 ~19(9)


The way/10 embodies the "old" ways, the country life, the life of the indio comunero and the pongo ; while the newer songs from far off places embody the "new", the modern, the urban way of life. Nonetheless the old and the new are coexisting and overlapping, evoking myriad contrasting experiences and tensions. When the migrants of San Pedro organize a club in Lima, at their first dancea musician plays a wayno, During the festivities, the guitarist announces the expropriation of Las Esmeraldas, Don Fermin's hacienda, and all of the young people lament the future of their town. A mestizo hom San Pedro, Don Anatolio, a bit older than the rest, thinks about, and in fact thinks in, the wayl'los sampedrinos. Oy6 el lIanto de las mujercs y siguieron acrecentandosc en su memoria los huaynos tristes, no los alegres y aun satiricos que cantaron los muchachos, Las larnentacionesfijaban cad a vez mas la melodfa y la lctra de uno de los cantos: 'De un solo grano de trigo ambos nacimosj j,ad6nde estas, triste adorada?' (336 my emphasis) The happy, satirical waynos of the young people referred to in this passage are more than likely an allusion to the changes to the genre occurring in the sixties when first and second generation migrants living in the city were enjoying new kinds of music. They wanted danceable music, like the songs they were hearing in the city, but with familiar lyrics: "La soluci6n hkil fue tomar del enorme repertorio de waynos de todas partes, las canciones mas conocidas y cantarlas con el nuevo ritmo bailable que su deseo de ser modcrnos Ies exigfa" (Montoya 487).11 This music coexists with Don Anatolio's nostalgic, "unaltered" wayno that bespeaks the basic principle in Andean thinking of pair formations in nature and the abandonment and loneliness of not knowing where the "other half," the adored feminine is. "The principle of complementary masculine and feminine symbolizes in its basic features Andean thinking, as in the saying, 'tukuy ima qhariwarrni' - 'Everything is man and woman' (Platt 1976:21)" (Baumann 22). The nostalgic expression of love and loss are found here as in Rios, but in this case the sense of unity found in Dona Felipa's chicheria seems to be lost on Don Anatolio, and the resultant loneliness is more akin to a sort of urban isolation. Don Anatolio, after twenty years in Lima has experienced the

modern urban life more than the young people, and he tells them that Limn "no cs de nadies" (337). So while the wayno has communicated loss and isolation since Incan times, under the circumstances of rapid modernization this theme takes on a new significance because now the nest to which the bird would one day return in the traditional wayno - the small towns and the ayllus in the country - are simply disappearing. En varias oportunidades, el narrador, poeta quechua y antrop6logo J. M. Arguedas aludio a la "soledad cosmica" que manifiesta el pueblo quechua en sus cantos. I'~lla atribuia al resentimiento de un pueblo "vcncido" [Arguedas 1961]. Sin duda, la poesia prchispanica no ignore) cierto tipo de "soledad cosmica"] ... ] Pero aqui, como en otros cantos recogidos a 10 largo del. siglo XX, la soledad aparece como mas definitivay radical.No hay siquiera a quien comunicarla, a quicn solicitar protection. (Lienhard 98) While in Rios, it is evident that Ernesto is able to attain some semblance of connection and sense of protection through the medium of the River Pachabarnba, in Sangres we discover that the mining consortium installs a hydroelectric plant, cutting off the river from the people of San Pedro. The radical soledad cosmica extends from the coast to the interior. This is not to say that this represents an acceptance of this fate, rather it is a communication of the experience. As Rowe has argued: "Se debate en el texto mismo, el rechazo consciente, politico, de la opcion tragica de la soledad cosmica. 'Que no haya indio pari do en nido frio , sin padre, sin madre' (lV, p. 172), insiste Rendon Willka, refiriendose a la orfandad, lugar COl11ltl1 de 1a poesfa quechua: en Jugal' de la celebracion tragica de los limites existendales, que permite que los lirnites sociales se reproduzcan , la rebelion por la autonomia" (Rowe 1(4). Demetrio Rendon Willka negotiates the various modernities and charts a course on his own terms. However, the forces of change do not relent. This sense of soledad cosmica resultant of myriad changes taking place in the countryside is expressed throughout Sangre» us harawis marking important moments of this devolutionary process. Early in the novel we hear the harawi sung to Demetrio Rendon Willka when he leaves San Pedro as a young man to continuo his education in Lima, a moment that retrospectively


l.atin /smericun Literary Review

A Millennial Palimpsest:

Musical Ouechun Poetry by Jose Marfa Argllcdas(

1911 ..1(9)


marks the end of his life as an indio comunero and the beginning of his role as a varayok", a leader of the community.
Arna k'ouk 'ankichu amapuni k'onkanichu: yawarpa'mi ripukunki yawarpakmi kutimunki all pachask 'a; anka hina manchay k 'auak' mana pipa aypanan rapra.

No has de olvidar, hijo mfo jamas has de olvidarte vas en busca de la sangre has de volver para la sangre,

Con esc harawi 10despidieron del pueblo cuando rue atrapado para rccluta. Marcho como todos los atrapados, amarrado su brazo, con un trow de alambrc, al brazo de un indio maduro que le servia de custodio y que debia responder con su vida pOI' el, el joven Bellido, aprendiz de platero, bucn tocador de charango. Lo desgarraron de su pueblo, pero volvio pronto y sin cambial'. Ahora, no le enrcndia a
su hijo, el

contador, (49)

como el gavilan que todo 10 mira y cuyo vuelo nadie alcanza. (64)

As it was for Ernesto in Rios, the harawi urges the son of the pueblo to not forget, and to return. Elena Aibar Ray argues that this song serves as a guide to understand the mission of the character. In the song, Demetrio is asked to remember the humiliation received in school and his ties to the community of Lahuaymarca. He must not forget his obligation to change society. "Quiere decir que el joven iba en busca de conocimiento y experiencia. Debfa retornar a la localidad, para pagar a los vecinos por su injusticia, Y debe reintegrarse a su comunidad, para cambial' la situacion" (Ray 154-155), Demetrio of course does return and works with both Aragon de Peralta brothers at different points with the goal of helping his community. However, it is tell ing that this is the first and last harawi in the novel that marks a departure that results in an actual return. Demetrio Rendon WifIka accompanies the brother Don Fermin to visit the old silversmith, Bellido, to offer the latter's son a job as an accountant in the mines. But the presence of the "indio traidor," bothers both father and son. The episode reveals the forces of economic change occurring in the town and how it affects the people when Ferrnfn tells Bellido "Mira a tu hijo. No hay para el sino dos caminos: el crimen 0 un escritorio. Yo, por ri, Ie ofrezco un escritorio, Tu ems el ultimo plarero de San Pedro. No habra mas" (46). Yet it is the harawi that communicates the experience of the change when the last platero of San Pedro returns to his shop: "Acuerdate de 1111, icaflor/ p en mi corazon, tu encanto/ y tus alas, conviertelas en sangre" (49). The fear of abandonment implicit in the supplication of the singer that he be remembered, coupled with the interior relationship with nature, communicate the loss of a place in the world.

The memory of the song sung to him upon his forced military recruitment also bespeaks his return "unchanged ," contrasting with the "ex-indio," Rcdon Willka. The elder Bellido simply cannot comprehend the changes that are occurring around him and the harawi is a connection to his past; to a town, and indeed a Peru, that no longer exists. Bcllido watches his son leaving. Se puso a la americana: se arreglo cuidadosamente la corbata y salio a la calle 1... 1 Llego a la plaza silbando una cancion de moda, u n merecu m be. El v iejo platen) v io como Ia so 111bra de su hijo desaparccta del piso del taller. Siguio cautivado pOI' cl harawi antiguo. Lo entonaba con hondura, porque la tranquila mole del cuerpo del indio Rendon Willka, vestido de casimir, no se desprendfa de su memoria. Pero el harawi exaltaba mas esa figura. (49)
The son's mcrecumbe

contrasts with his father's harawi, creating a tension between the two worlds that are coexisting in the town, and in the larger context of Peru. Bellido at that age was a silversmith apprentice and a good charango player, but just as the music is changing, the world around them is changing. Increasingly, the citizenry of San Pedro is forcefully driven from their homes. When Don Fermin has sold the lands of Las Esmcraldas seven guards arrive at Paraybamba, commanded by a mestizo sergeant that orders the guards to kill any resisters. While the soldiers shoot just over their heads, the Co/IlUneros do not react, do not abandon their work, and continue singing. que busco durante toda la bajada al comuncro que huyo, para matarlo, y el propio sargento, se quedaron dctcnidos un buen rato. Esa faena y el canto les
EI guardiaayacuchano


Latin American Lltcrarv Review

A Millcnnial Palimpsest:

Musical Quechua Poetry by .lose Marfa Argucdas (1911-1%9)


rccordaba su infancia. Una estrella profunda empezo a latir dentro de la sangre de ambos, como nace el sol de las aguas (ranquilas 0 movidas por cl aire de los lagos de altura: Wayanaysi rapran manaya k'an hinachu, mak'ta, runa. K'ollk 'e challwas ahujan agull mayu k'ochapi, manaya k'an hinachu mak'ta runa. La golondrina agita sus alas pero no tanto como ui, mozo, hombre. El pez, aguja de plata, cruza el en cl lago y ell cl rio, pero no tanto como ni, mozo, hombre. (306)

La nieve en abrigo convertida, Saywa de piedra. Mi pccho y mi sangre baiiaron. "Es mi padre que esta de pie, vigilando" ,
saywa de piedra.

"Es mi tierno padre, su aire , SLl mismo cucrpo", saywa de piedra. "Diciendo, me acerque a ti, revcrente." Y no eras sino piedra, piedra y piedra. Que arranco torrcntes de lagrimas, Saywa de la cumbre , De mis ojos sin consuclo; Enganosa saywa de la cumbre. Mas que la muerte es el engaiio La falsa imagen de Ia vida que tanto hiere, Triste apacheta. canto, en quechua, a un mestizo, en la cuesta de K'uklawitu, sembrada de huesos humanos, restos de los indios 'enganchados' que marchaban a trabajar a la costa".
Of este

Just like the swallow in the air, the fish in the water, the young man moves freely, urgently. The mozo is tied to nature, to the source of an entire way of life: "Asf la cancion de trabajo que cantan al enfrentar la policia los cornuneros de Paraybamba, significa un retorno a 'las fuentes de la alegrfa" (Rowe 104). But suddenly, the nostalgia of a more innocent time, one that makes even the sergeant feel "el latido de una estrella profunda," ends abruptl y with the violent sound of gunshots, the intrusion of the "civilizing" forces of change. After Don Cisnero (an odious and corrupt ex-indio turned patron who abuses his indigenous workers in unspeakably cruel ways) refuses Don Fermin a loan to keep the mine out of the hands of the foreign company, Fermin heads back to Las Esmeraldas, defeated. En route he tells his travelling companions (his caretaker, Filiberto, and Adelina, a servant woman whom he has rescued from the clutches of DOll Cisnero) to rest a while and look at the mountains: "EI hombre siente en la superficie del corazon la hondura y el 1"1'[0, las curnbres grises 0 bri II antes que no terrninan; las saywas que parccen centinelas humanos, la imagen de los viajeros de otros siglos vive. Hay un canto: Tenias la figura de rni padre muerto, Saywa de piedra. Reverente, feliz, me acerque a ti, Saywa de piedra.

(255-256) The song that Fermin sings invokes the key elements of repetition and nature to communicate the theme of abandonment and disillusion upon discovering that the saywa is not the tender father that protects, rather nothing more than inanimate rocks. Fermin has been undone and this wayno, a testimony of the oppression and death caused by forced migration and labor is sung not by an indigenous "orphan," rather by a latifundista who has realized that his enterprise has been usurped. He will lose the mine to the foreigners. Everything has changed. The old system has dissolved and even Don Fermin, landowning entrepreneur and ardent supporter of capitalism, will be accused of being a communist and run off of his land. The last music we hear in the novel is through the ears of Jorge Hidalgo, an engineer for Wisther who renounces his post upon realizing the destruction his employer is causing to the peoples of San Pedro and the surrounding ayllus. Shortly after his resignation, Hidalgo is accused of being a communist sympathizer and jailed. Where words may fail, it is music that




Litcrar» Review

A Millennia! Pulimpscst:

Musical Qucchua Poetry by Jose Maria Argucdas (1911-1969)


expresses the death of the way of life in the countryside, the novel has ended. En

but the singing in

habitacion larga, sin vcntanas, durmieron sobrc pellejos, cincuenta presos. Los piojos buscaron el cuerpo de Hidalgo pasaron a su cuerpo lirnpio y sabroso, y a su cabeza. EI joven sc paso tarde y neche rascandose. A Ia madrugada durmio un poco. Lo desperto una atroz pcstilenoia a las narices y una musica extraiia. Benigno punteaba , despacio , su charango, Las estrellas con su transparencia, los nos con sus orillas floridas, las montaiias con su alba cruz en la cumbre; eI aire de los pequefios pueblos, con sus heridas, su gran sol y su silencio, cantaban. Hidalgo fue sinticndo a poco el contenido de esa melodfa, raiiida en un instrumento pequefio. (46J) Conclusions: Los waynos mds dulces, los cantos de amor mds apasionados y los mas tristes ...[ueron hechos para fa tuya. -Arguedas, referring to the tuya bird in a 1942 article (Rowe p.1 (2) An alternative epistemology that is sung and heard, the poetic Quechua songs in these two novels communicate the love, loss, nostalgia, tragedy, and the cosmic loneliness brought about by dizzyingly rapid social change in mid-twentieth century Peru. More importantly, just as the Quechua peoples have chosen and adapted the guitar and other elements from Occidental musical tradition, modifying them to fit their needs, Arguedas chose the novel and adapted it, modifying it so that it might sing to us the indigenous way of knowing. As cited earlier in this study, Martin Lienhard has contended that Arguedas "oraliza" and "andiniza" the novel. In the case of poetic Quechua music, one result of the usage of an Andean mode of expression as a literary vehicle, I have argued, is the expression of the experience of these modernities under the same conditions that have transformed the mode itself, citing the particular cases of the wayI/o and harawi, likening it to a sort of aural palimpsest. Yet, an unsettling question emerges from this view: Is there a

point when the palimpsest has been worked and re-worked so many times (hat jt becomes indistinguishable from the blank sheet of paper? In "Miisica chicha: Cambios de la cancion andina quechua en el PerL1" Rodrigo Montoya reflects upon the changes in Andean Quechua music in Peru that occurred between 1963-1992, bemoaning the emergence of (he genre popularly known as "cholas" or musica chicha (also "waynos modcrnos," "cumbia andina," "cumbia peruana," etc.). These songs are primarily comprised of insults and arc generally more jocular and machista than the poetic, emotive waynos found in Argucdas' works. La pobreza urbana, la fa Ita de trabajo, Ia condicion de vendedor ambulante, de trabajadora domestica o de habitante de una barriada ("Pueblo joven"), el alcohol, el machismo, la paternidad irresponsable y el elogio de la picardla y la "criollada" para alcanzar objetivos sin cumplir las reglas establecidas, son los elementos nuevos que trae la cancion chicha. (489) In short, these wayl10s modernos illustrate that the assault of change has not slowed since Arguedas penned Todas las sangres. What remains, then, of the Andean heritage so carefully maintained in his works in this offshoot genre, the wayno moderno'! It would seem that far more has been lost than remains. Specifically, Montoya cites the following hallmarks as absent: the subtleties and lyricism of the Quechua language; themes linked to agricultural production, el ciclo vital, religion, and solidarity in community; Nature (abandoned for the urbanity); historical memory, and finally, and perhaps most lamented, the beauty and poetry of the wayno. It is no surprise that Montoya, then, views the changes in the waynos of the 60's and thereafter as an "cmpobrecimiento" of Quechua culture. The palimpsest does still reveal at its base however, the melody of the progenitor as well as the particularly Andean themes of fa emigracion, el desarraigo and la orfandad. Perhaps these themes have only been intensified by globalization, the processes of which we begin to see in Sangres and come to the forefront in Zorro» de arriba y zorros de abajo, creating the "realidad inconclusa [ ... J abierta, [... J en ebullicion" that Arguedas experienced late in his life (Manrique 64). Perhaps Arguedas was simply far ahead of his time in recognizing that, although the world and its music would keep changing,


Latin American



A Millennia! Palimpsest:

Musical Quechua Poetry by Jose Marfa Arguedas (1911··1969)


at their core the wayno and the harawi, like the river and the tuya bird, will always communicate the ineffable to those who arc open enough to listen, "81 grillo no es mortal mientras canta" David K'oto pointedly explains to Don Bruno (283), As long as we share Arguedas' works, and the importance of musical Quechua poetry as an alternati ve mode of expression in them, this music will continue to coexist and overlap, infinitum, and it may continue to open OUl' eyes to myriad modernities, ones that Ernesto and Demetrio were not destined to know,

"The zumbayllu is a spinning top that "sings" to Ernesto, and takes on spiritual properties, ~Thcclwrang() has become an indispensable instrument in Andean music, itself reflecting the processes of transculrurarion. "La prohibicion= aun insuficientemente conocida- de que los indios toqucn la guitarra y, tal ver: la complejidad de este instrumento- afavoreada en condiciones de clandestinidad-Ios habrfan llcvado a crear el charango como variedad local de solo cinco cuerdas" (Montoya 485).
'J Chicha is a fermented corn drink that dates back to the Incan Empire. The drink is made solely by women and served in tavern-like places called chicherias, where music is often played. III While the predecessors of the Incas, the {/uqarUIl{/S sang the jay!!i for the gods, in contemporary culture there arc three groupings: el sagrado, el agricola and el heroico (Caceres Romero 15), II What I refer to here is the pejorative view of the upper and middle classes which had been punctuated with inconsistent spates of folkloric and regional appreciation, particularly during the.time period when Arguedas was writing. In the novel, Ernesto asks Romero, "Casi te avcrguenzas del huayna i,no?" to which Romero responds: "Ese Gerardo le habla a uno, 10 haec hacer a uno otras cosas, No es que se harte uno del huayno, Pero el no cntiende qucchua; no se si me desprccia cuando me oye hablar quechua con los otros. Pero no cntiende, y se qucda mirando, creo que como si uno fuera llama, iAy diablo! Vamos a tocar un huayna de chuto-dijo

The waYl10 is referred to with different names: wayno, chuscad», cholada, papeiia, wayiil', I will usc the spelling wayno, although it should be noted that "huayno" is found many quotes. Also, the genre is made up of various styles, such as the sensorial, cholo, and indio, a point upon which I will expound (Montoya 484). I will use the spelling harawi tjarahui, arawi, arawiku) but it should be noted that it is often spelled "arawi" in quotes,
I 2 In 1938, Arguedas published a collection of twenty-one Quechua songs, and he was the first scholar to record a waYilo for distribution, opening the door for the dissemination of recordings of Andean music (Montoya Rojas 18; Manrique (0),

entusiasmandose" (162),
12 In 20 alios despues, Nelson Manrique describes this criticism which first came about at a gathering in June of 1965 at Ellnstituto de Estudios Peruanos, where the leading intellectuals of the day met to discuss the recent publications, "Quienes participaban en estc evento, repito, formaban parte de la intclectualidad mas avanzada del pais; intclectuales con una declarada vocacion socialism I,. ,I Despues de la discusion de csta nochc, una discusion terrible, Argucdas escribio 'convencido hoy mismo de III inutilidad 0 impractibilidad de formal' otro hogar con una jovcn a quien pi do perdon; casi demostrado por dos sabios sooiologos y un economists, de que mi libro Todas las sangres es negative para el pals, no tengo que hacer en estc mundo, Mis fucrzas han dcclinado creo que irremediablementc'" (57 -58), Manrique explains that the book was bashed not only from a literary perspective, but also for the vision that it presented of Peru, one that was harmful (0 the country.

Many genres of Quechua musical poetry are found in Arguedas' works, but the wayno and harawi predominate and are arguably the most thematically imperative, I have selected a few of the many from each novel, making hard decisions about which to include, at the unfortunate exclusion of so many that merit further attention.

"Etymologically, 'arawi' is a derivate of the verb 'arawiy', which means "versificar" or "compo ncr cantos" and that the predominant theme of the harawi is love (Caceres Romero 20), Caceras Romero contends that while before the Spanish invasion these expressions of love could be joyful or sad, in contemporary Andean cultures the latter feeling predominates. "IEII arawi, en su concepcion esrctica, cs la mas creativa y variada, y arranca sus tcmas del sentimiento mas Intimo del poeta indigena" (Caceres Romero 20). 'Gloria and Gabriel Escobar, employing the term coined by Levi-Strauss, liken the wayno to a "bricolage" (Huaynos del Cusco 1981, viii), This bespeaks the improvisational and diverse nature of these songs, I have chosen the metaphor "palimpsest" because it conveys the notion of the songs being "scraped off" and used again, and as such always retaining some semblance of a vestige of the ancient progcnetor, () ios reflects many autobiographical aspects of Argued as' childhood, See Dfaz R Ruiz for the autobiographical aspects found in Arguedas' narrative work throughout his life as a writer.

13 Montoya continues, "Esc fue un primer pcriodo, de punt y simple copia y apropiacion ilfcitas .. .Esa falta de respeto de la originalidad de la belleza musical y poetics ha sido uno de los argumcntos cscnciales para que muchos se opusieran total mente a la chicha [el wayno moderno] y la consideren un gcnero mcnor e insignificante" (487-88).


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