'Those who cannot see where they came from will never get to where they are going.'

Jose’s Background

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Born to a wealthy family Both parents were educated Studied at Santo Thomas University in Manila Studied Philosophy and Medicine in Spain, France and Germany Wrote Noli, his first novel 1886


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Written in Spanish Means “touch me not” Book is a passionate expose about the evils of the Spanish friars in the Phils. wrote a sequel in 1891, “El Filibusterismo” (The Subversive)

In Exile

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Came back to the Phils. at the age of 26 Exiled to Dapitan (South) in 1892 Early1896 - got involved with the katipuneros- freedom fighters December 1896 - executed

TO MY MOTHERLAND (Jose Rizal, 1886)

An introduction that Rizal wrote for Noli He equates colonialism to Cancer

– Who are the Indios? – Role of a friar.Noli Chapter 1  The Gathering – Who are the guests? – What kind of priest is Padre Damaso? – Compare Franciscans and Dominicans. – Describe the female guests. .

Noli Chapter 2  Crisostomo Ibarra – “The Cub of a Lion will always be a lion” – “I do not call upon inspiration to drag itself down and to tell lies.” (Agree or disagree?) .” – “The prosperity or misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors.

Dignity and Rulership .Chapter 3  The Dinner – Jele-jele bago quiere .A pidgin Spanish Tagalog saying. meaning that one pretends not to desire a thing which is in reality one wants. – Age.

In the actual state of things . .– The young blond man wrote: In the Philippines the most useless person in a supper or feast can be thrown out in the street: to begin with. it is almost for the good of the Filipinos not to be allowed to leave the country or to be taught to read. the master of the house can be thrown out into the street and everything will proceed as usual.

What is the significance of the argument between Padre Damaso and Teniente Guevara? .Questions and Answers 1.How did Rizal liken the Philippines to Capitan Tiago's house? 3.What undesirable traits of Filipinos were mentioned in this chapter? 2.

Fortunately. Crisostomo gets confused when Padre Damaso. said that Don Rafael was never a close friend of his.Chapter 2: Crisostomo Ibarra    We meet Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin. An attendant announced that dinner was served. Crisostomo declined. saying he was leaving for San Diego the following day. Capitan Tinong of Tondo. the soldier had kinder words to say about Don Rafael. the son of the late Don Rafael Ibarra (the man whose body was exhumed). Another good friend of Don Rafael. the friar whom Crisostomo thought was a close friend of his deceased father. invited Crisostomo for tomorrow's lunch. .

and Teniente Guevara were surprised to see Crisostomo Ibarra accompanied by Capitan Tiago. . Padre Damaso. Ibarra's name shows that his mother is a Filipina (Magsalin). Ibarra spent seven years in Europe. This means they did not know the purpose of the dinner.Some Notes    Padre Sibyla.

Why did Padre Damaso deny that Don Rafael was his friend? .Questions and Answers 1.Why did Ibarra think that his father was a close friend of Padre Damaso? 2.

Teniente Guevara followed him. Ibarra left after graciously excusing himself from the crowd.the prosperity or the misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns.. and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors. but Ibarra still left. Capitan Tiago tried to stop him. Table conversation covered where Ibarra went (Northern Europe. white squash and broth.Chapter 03: The Dinner      Capitan Tiago ordered tinola served. One of the guests (a red-haired writer named Laruja) present will later write an article about how tinola can ruin a feast and why indios should not be allowed to read or travel outside the Philippines.. saying that Maria Clara was coming soon. Germany and Russian Poland). as well as newsworthy items learned by Ibarra: "." Padre Damaso belittled Ibarra's trips abroad saying that these were useless because what Ibarra learned could be also known without having to travel extensively. . Instead of arguing with the friar. It was a dish which Ibarra had not eaten in a long time because of his extended stay in Europe. Tinola contains chicken.

he was still invited to the dinner because he was the confessor of the late wife of Capitan Tiago. Maria Clara is the sweetheart of Crisostomo Ibarra. . However.Some Notes Padre Damaso is no longer the parish priest of San Diego (town of Capitan Tiago in their province).

Why were there many Filipinos who were not educated by their parents during the Spanish occupation? 5.Questions and Answers 1.What were the different types of people in society? .Why did Ibarra say that his country has forgotten him? 2.What was Rizal's point in introducing the red-haired writer in this chapter? 4.How did Rizal show appreciation for the heritage of every country that he visited? 3.

the tax collector was pushed and he died after his head hit a rock. Don Rafael. people who used to openly respect him came out and denounced him. was chastised by others. Before he could inflict additional pain on the boy. while Padre Damaso branded him a heretic for not going to confession. Don Rafael was jailed. An illiterate Spanish tax collector hurt a young boy who was making fun of him. Don Rafael died in jail. Teniente Guevarra tried to get Don Rafael out of jail. He is approached by Teniente Guevarra and learns for the first time about what happened to his father.Chapter 4: Heretic and Subversive Ibarra walks the streets of Manila and notes how nothing has changed in the past seven years. . However. Don Rafael intervened. but eventually succeeded in securing Don Rafael's release from prison. In the process.

Don Pedro Eibarramendia was a spaniard who married a Filipina or Mestisa. Their child is Crisostomo Ibarra (who can be said to be more Filipino than Spanish). .Some Notes Teniente Guevarra does not know why Padre Damaso was angry at Don Rafael because long before the incident with the tax collector. Padre Damaso would often dine at the Ibarra residence. Don Rafael was no longer going to confession. Don Saturnino is the father of Don Rafael Ibarra who married a Filipina surnamed Magsalin. They were the parents of Don Saturnino Ibarra who married a woman from Manila. The rift appeared only after the young Ibarra left for Europe.

Who were they? 4.Questions 1.What was held against Don Rafael? .Accdg to Teniente Guevarra.What did Teniente Guevarra mean by "one cannot be honest in the Philippines and not go to jail?" 3.Why was Ibarra surprised to find out that his father died in jail? 2. he still had enemies. although Don Rafael was admired and respected by many people.

Don Rafael. In this chapter. instead of Capitan Tiago beaming with pride. . parish priest of the town of San Diego. However. Rizal introduces a young Franciscan friar. In the house of Capitan Tiago. Padre Salvi. suffering in jail and eventually dying there. where he fails to notice the noise and music coming from the house of Capitan Tiago (which can be seen from Ibarra's hotel). people admire the beautiful Maria Clara. it is Padre Damaso who is seen smiling like someone most fortunate. He is bothered by thoughts or visions of his father.Chapter 5: A Star in the Dark Night Ibarra asks to be brought to the Fonde de Lala hotel.

It would help the reader to pay close attention to the way Rizal describes this friar. which explains why he was not able to participate in the grabbing of seats of honor at the dinner table.Some Notes It is possible that Padre Salvi arrived late. .

Read the lines that describe how the night went for Ibarra and Father Salvi. Who are the people that occupied his thoughts? Who are these characters? 4. What were some of the beautiful sights he missed that night? 3.Questions: 1. . What kept Ibarra's thought that night? 2.

Padre Damaso became the godfather of the child. Padre Damaso advised them to hear mass at Ubando (or Obando. Where is Ubando. while Crisostomo Ibarra became a childhood friend of Maria Clara. Dona Pia conceived. Maria Clara. Tia Isabel. but ever since became depressed. She died after giving birth to a baby girl. Bulacan? . Soon after.Chapter 6: Capitan Tiago   Capitan Tiago and Dona Pia have long been without child. who was raised by her aunt. Bulacan).

Some Notes    Rizal describes the many superstitious beliefs of the religious folk. as well as the corruption in the government which is made widespread by people like Capitan Tiago. The full name of Capitan Tiago is Santiago de los Santos ("all of the saints") which is Rizal's way of hinting that he will use this character when tackling issues of faith or religion. . The truth is. the child of Padre Damaso. Dona Pia died because she was extremely upset with giving birth to an illegitimatechild. Rizal deliberately made unclear the circumstances surrounding Dona Pia's death. in order to heighten the reader's anticipation.

   Note the superstitions related to "paglilihi" (the cravings of a pregnant woman which affect the physical appearance of her child): Dona Pia kept looking at icons of saints and of the Blessed Virgin Mary God children look like their godfather or godmother .

Here are the characteristics of Capitan Tiago: Gets along with those in power Intelligent Obedient Skilled in business Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael agreed that their children (Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra) will one day marry each other. . and that both fathers will join businesses for the benefit of their two children.

Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? 2.What is the meaning of the statement that Capitan Tiago realizes that in order to become a saint. there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 3. according to the Catholic encyclopedia? 4.Questions 1.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar. one either cuts or is cut? Who is one-eared Malchus.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? .

refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 6. Who are the Kapitan Tiago in modern Philippines persons who has everything and is able to buy even the very soul of the common people? Is there a solution this kind of illness in the society? .Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? 7.5. afterfinding a great treasure.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who.

This is their first meeting after seven years. When Maria Clara read the only letter Ibarra wrote to her. It was nearing All Souls Day so Ibarra excused himself and told Maria Clara that he will go to San Diego to take care of his father's grave. They exchanged proof that each remembered the other one after all this time.Chapter 7: Idyll in an Azotea   Ibarra and Maria Clara get to speak privately in the azotea of Capitan Tiago's house. When is All Souls Day? . he suddenly remembered his dead father.

The reader will note a different (if almost playful) side of Maria Clara. which belies the common perception that she is refined. prim and proper. Capitan Tiago cannot really be considered as someone from San Diego because Maria Clara visits that town only during vacations.Some Notes  A major portion of this chapter concerns the old letter of Ibarra to Maria Clara. .

And what did Maria Clara show in return? 5.How did Ibarra prove that he never.And what did Maria Clara do to prove her own love for Ibarra? 3. ever forgot about Maria Clara? 2.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? .What did Ibarra place in his letter to Maria Clara? 6. not even for an instant.And what reasons did Ibarra give for leaving the Philippines? 7.Questions 1.What other proofs did Ibarra display? 4.

after finding a great treasure.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who. refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 12.8.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? 11.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar. there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 10.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? .

Along the way. . Ibarra saw no changes whatsoever. one thing is quite evident: After being away for seven years.Chapter 08: Memories  After visiting Maria Clara. Ibarra proceeds to San Diego.

. rises and falls at the whim of the Pasig river's tide. Rizal likens the "good Filipino" to the Barkas Bridge -. and sometimes gets destroyed by the river.Some Notes This chapter shows a country's lack of progress during those times. At that time. Filipinos continued to serve the oppressive is dilapidated but continues to serve others.

You will do the same with those who come after you." .What lesson is Rizal trying to impart with the priest's: "I have tried to transmit to you what I have received from my teachers. for you are going to very rich countries"? 3. go to their country to look for that other gold which we lack. and I am passing it on to the following generation. and you can triple it.What did the old priest mean when he advised Ibarra: "Do not forget that if knowledge is the patrimony of humanity. Remember.Questions and Answers 1. however. that all that glitters is not gold. it is inheried only by those who have the heart"? 2.Explain: "They come in search of gold. the riches I have endeavored to augment as much as I could.

first the Philippines.. look for that other gold which can triple it.Who is this old priest? From his statement . 5.. One can speculate that this priest refers to someone like PadreBurgos who was executed in Bagumbayan (Take note of the line: Thatman had died in Bagumbayan [in reference to the old priest]). the country first... No!" .Explain: "No. Spain's daughter. we can guess that the priest is a Filipino who got educated in thePhilippines. first the Spanish nation! No.. for youare going to very rich countries. despite everything.4.. that which is fated does not tarnish the Motherland.

sees Tia Isabel and Maria Clara (they were going to the convent to get Maria Clara's things). a low.) Padre Damaso. seating for two passengers and a perched seat in front for the driver. extremely sick Dominican (in Intramuros) Capitan Heneral and his men Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago . light.Chapter 09: Some Country Matters Ibarra sees Padre Damaso riding in his victoria. on the other hand. fourwheeled carriage (with a foldable calash top. This chapter focuses on three major conversations between or among: Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago (in Tiago's house/office) Padre Hernando Sibyla and an old.

sometimes in front of the Blessed Virgin Mary. But. true to his form.Padre Damaso does not want Maria Clara to marry Ibarra and is displeased with Capitan Tiago for not informing him of a marriage agreement made with Don Rafael (Ibarra's father). Some prayers are said for someone's safe journey. As long as the candle remained lit. (For those unfamiliar with this practice.) . a candle is usually lit and placed on an altar. it was believed that the traveler was protected. It is unclear why Capitan Tiago chose not to consult with Padre Damaso about such an agreement in the past. Capitan Tiago obeys the priest and extinguishes the candle he previously ordered lit for Ibarra's safe journey to San Diego (Ibarra's hometown). since there were bandits about and who knows what other dangers lurk at each bend.

Here we see the Ibarra is completely unaware that the priests are plotting against him. Those Dominicans are deathly afraid of Ibarra because they know he--with his education--is not ignorant of his situation. but that's not the point of this chapter. Also. The chapter ends with Tiago blowing out the candle and muttering that there is still time and the journey is long. . eh?) Padre Sibyla and the Very Sick. Old Dominican We don't know what the old priest is sick of. (What a future father-in-law. Ibarra might later rise as a leader for the indios.

The Dominicans. through Maria Clara and Capian Tiago. already foresaw the brewing conflict between the young man and Padre Damaso. Ibarra was quite subtle in his verbal fight with Padre Damaso earlier. Afterall.. You'll never know. Nevertheless. which tends to make the priests soft and unaware that they are starting to lose their hold on the people. knowing about the misfortune of Don Rafael and knowing character of Ibarra. Padre Sibyla sees Ibarra as someone with finesse (good breeding). .. the Dominicans were confident about controlling Ibarra. Sibyla also considers Ibarra as an "obedient child" who will not fight outright with the friars. Or so thought the old priest. (So watch out when things seem to go too well for you. The old Dominican mentioned that he prefers an open fight rather than the useless praise of his friends.

that the government might side with the indios. and will just rely on the Filipino priests to keep the rest of the population timid. the government might not see the need for the Spanish priests. Remember that the Church and State are not really the best of friends: . however. however. since the Spanish government is concerned with maintaining power over the Philippines.) Also. Padre Sibyla worries. whom the gods wish to destroy. If there is no conflict. they first make mad. they will help the priests if ever the indios rise in revolt.After all.

de la Torre was well-loved by the indios because he was just (and didn't always support the friars). note Rizal's dig at the frailocracy when the priest uttered that God should have mercy on them (the priests). Capitan Heneral Ma. Realize that the Filipinos lacked two important things in their bid for political justice and economic freedom: Lack of country-wide unity.The friars murdered Capitan Heneral Bustamante in Malacanan before. No identified Leader. Anyway. The people were geographically scattered by the Spaniards. Capitan Heneral and his men .

because Laruja (the writer) told the Capitan Heneral's adjutant about it. since this was the fate of the Philippines. he did not want to make "sipsip" to the Capitan Heneral.) The Capitan Heneral revealed to his men that he was unhappy with the situation in the Philippines and that the country should be thrown into chaos so that the priests can be kicked out. just as his predecessors did. The story did not come from Teniente Guevara because it was beneath him to "snitch" on Padre Damaso. (In the vernacular.The Capitan Heneral was aware of the insulting remarks made by Padre Damaso against him. just as was done by the Europeans to the priests there. However. he decided to just close his eyes to the matter. . reasoned the Capitan Heneral.

. because this is where the guardia civiles chased Ibarra and Elias when the former escaped from prison. We learn that at that time. there was no such town called San Diego in the Philippines. We can assume. each generation bore only one child). however. that the town is located near the shore of Laguna Lake.Chapter 10: The Town  This chapter describes the town of San Diego and the lineage of Crisostomo Ibarra (surprisingly.

Note also that each town is initially taken care of by a Pilipino priest. wooden bridge. We tend to laugh at disabled people (this was during Rizal's time and perhaps even up to today) -. Rizal pointed it out in hopes that people would correct this kind of behavior. Pinoys enjoy scenes of tragedy or misfortune. the Spanish friars take over. Did he succeed? . Rizal likens Philippine culture to a swaying. Once the town prospers.the kids swimming in the lake laughed at an old woman who was having a hard time crossing the bridge. they should've helped her instead.

however. ... jewelry and clothes to those who claimed to own the forest. eerie. strange sounds. He was very fluent with the Tagalog language. had lived long in the Philippines. feared the forest. You know how forests are: cold. How the Ibarras acquired the forest in San Diego.Ibarra's ancestor. People. who first came to San Diego. dark. and don't forget those malaria-bearing mosquitoes. The first Ibarra in San Diego gave cash.

. Spanish mestizo. do people really care about Ibarra's lineage? Apparently so. Don Saturnina's wife. Rosalinda fans!) He was very strict. It's also possible she was a native. but their blood soon mixed with native understanding. Geez. or a Spaniard born and raised in Manila. Ibarra's ancestors had a mean streak. We can't tell for sure if she was a Filipina from Manila. probably the Fernando Jose type (hello there. compassion and self-control. a Spanish mestiza. but was also hardworking. He helped contribute to San Diego's progress.  A description of Don Saturnino.

he is not the most influencial person in this town. Although. He is humble and a man of character. they act civil with each other in gatherings and in public. The friars and the spaniards are the powerful and most influential persons in town. even though he receives gifts from everyone and to whom a few has certain debt of gratitude from. Though he is considered well-loved.The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule    Even though Don rafael Ibarra is the wealthiest in San Diego to whom everyone owes a debt of gratitude from. Kapitan Tiago is also not considered the powerful person in town.Chapter 11 . they are competitors in position and power. some people were also laughing at him behind his back and were spreading ill rumors about him. .

Comment on their actions and words. What is the relationship between the chocolate and the character of the priests. 3. Why do you think this chapter is entitled "The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule"? Describe the sovereigns. Re-tell the encounter between Father Salvi and the Alferez. 4. 2. . 5. What are the similarities of San Diego and old Rome? Describe. Discuss.Questions: 1. Describe the differences of Father Salvi and Father Damaso.

The alferes. The friars were hurt. Talk turns to the sermon delivered by Padre Damaso. Capitan Tiago leaves the luncheon and goes home immediately. the alferes. People notice that Padre Damaso is not present. Also present are Capitan Tiago. On opposite ends of a long table sit Ibarra and the mayor. Children are with their parents. To the right of the young man sits Maria Clara. but they did not say anything. to his left.Chapter 35: The Luncheon   Ibarra returns to the school. mayor and town captain also received telegrams from the Capitan Heneral. and the town captain. the scribe. while Padre Salvi remains quiet and does not contribute to the discussion. who will arrive on the fourth. and talk centers around careers: should one be a priest or a doctor? . Capitan Tiago receives a telegram and learns that the Capitan Heneral will proceed to the house of Capitan Tiago.

Again. Padre Damaso then talks about Ibarra's father. Ibarra keeps quiet. Padre Damaso stands up and Ibarra grabs him while asking if there was anyone in the crowd who did not love their father. and laughs at the way Don Rafael died in jail.. then grabs a knife and warns people to stay away. He sits in front of the dining table and criticizes the architecture which Ibarra is proud of. hits him on the head (Padre Damaso falls). or who hated even the memory of their dad. He is unable to finish his sentence because Ibarra leaps at Padre Damaso. Padre Damaso then belittles the mestizos and indios in order to get at Ibarra. .. Don Rafael. Padre Damaso arrives. As the luncheon comes to an end. Ibarra remains quiet. Ibarra turns to the friar and asks him if he does not hear the deafening silence.

Ibarra drops the knife and runs away. has done. Don Rafael. Ibarra raises the knife. The crowd remains silent.  Ibarra tells everyone present about the good things his father. Who is Padre Damaso? . Maria Clara stops him. He asks the crowd if Padre Damaso is justified in tarnishing the memory of his father.

Who was the mayor referring to (dinner guest called Platon)? 4.Why did Padre Damaso come to the luncheon even if he was not invited? .What did Rizal say about the way Filipinos discipline their children especially when they are in front of others? 8.From the career discussion (should a child be a priest or a doctor).Why is the Capitan Heneral going to the house of Capitan Tiago? 2.Did Ibarra deliberately not invite Padre Damaso to the luncheon? 5. what can we infer from the latter (mayor)? 6.Why did Padre Salvi remain silent? 7.From the conversation between Padre Salvi and the mayor. what can be said about the effectivity of schools? 9.Why did the friars feel bad? 3.Questions 1.

What can we say about the fact that from the many people present. and therefore God made a judgment? 14. God brought the friar to Ibarra. hit the friar.And what did Ibarra do while he was being humiliated? 12.What criticisms did Padre Damaso level at Ibarra? 11. and threaten to stab Padre Damaso? was only Maria Clara who stopped Ibarra from killing PadreDamaso? .What made Ibarra break his silence.10.What did Ibarra mean when he said that he was avoiding Padre Damaso.

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