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'Those who cannot see where they came from will never get to where they are going.'
Born to a wealthy family Both parents were educated Studied at Santo Thomas University in Manila Studied Philosophy and Medicine in Spain, France and Germany Wrote Noli, his first novel 1886
NOLI ME TANGERE
Written in Spanish Means “touch me not” Book is a passionate expose about the evils of the Spanish friars in the Phils. wrote a sequel in 1891, “El Filibusterismo” (The Subversive)
Came back to the Phils. at the age of 26 Exiled to Dapitan (South) in 1892 Early1896 - got involved with the katipuneros- freedom fighters December 1896 - executed
TO MY MOTHERLAND (Jose Rizal, 1886)
An introduction that Rizal wrote for Noli He equates colonialism to Cancer
– Who are the Indios? – Role of a friar. . – Describe the female guests.Noli Chapter 1 The Gathering – Who are the guests? – What kind of priest is Padre Damaso? – Compare Franciscans and Dominicans.
” – “The prosperity or misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors.Noli Chapter 2 Crisostomo Ibarra – “The Cub of a Lion will always be a lion” – “I do not call upon inspiration to drag itself down and to tell lies.” (Agree or disagree?) .
– Age. meaning that one pretends not to desire a thing which is in reality one wants.Chapter 3 The Dinner – Jele-jele bago quiere . Dignity and Rulership .A pidgin Spanish Tagalog saying.
it is almost for the good of the Filipinos not to be allowed to leave the country or to be taught to read. the master of the house can be thrown out into the street and everything will proceed as usual. In the actual state of things . .– The young blond man wrote: In the Philippines the most useless person in a supper or feast can be thrown out in the street: to begin with.
How did Rizal liken the Philippines to Capitan Tiago's house? 3.What is the significance of the argument between Padre Damaso and Teniente Guevara? .Questions and Answers 1.What undesirable traits of Filipinos were mentioned in this chapter? 2.
Another good friend of Don Rafael. saying he was leaving for San Diego the following day. the son of the late Don Rafael Ibarra (the man whose body was exhumed). Crisostomo declined. Crisostomo gets confused when Padre Damaso.Chapter 2: Crisostomo Ibarra We meet Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin. Fortunately. An attendant announced that dinner was served. . said that Don Rafael was never a close friend of his. the soldier had kinder words to say about Don Rafael. Capitan Tinong of Tondo. the friar whom Crisostomo thought was a close friend of his deceased father. invited Crisostomo for tomorrow's lunch.
Ibarra's name shows that his mother is a Filipina (Magsalin). Padre Damaso. . and Teniente Guevara were surprised to see Crisostomo Ibarra accompanied by Capitan Tiago. This means they did not know the purpose of the dinner. Ibarra spent seven years in Europe.Some Notes Padre Sibyla.
Why did Padre Damaso deny that Don Rafael was his friend? .Why did Ibarra think that his father was a close friend of Padre Damaso? 2.Questions and Answers 1.
It was a dish which Ibarra had not eaten in a long time because of his extended stay in Europe. as well as newsworthy items learned by Ibarra: ".Chapter 03: The Dinner Capitan Tiago ordered tinola served.. Capitan Tiago tried to stop him. Teniente Guevara followed him. Table conversation covered where Ibarra went (Northern Europe. but Ibarra still left. Ibarra left after graciously excusing himself from the crowd. saying that Maria Clara was coming soon. Instead of arguing with the friar. .. Germany and Russian Poland). white squash and broth." Padre Damaso belittled Ibarra's trips abroad saying that these were useless because what Ibarra learned could be also known without having to travel extensively. and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors. One of the guests (a red-haired writer named Laruja) present will later write an article about how tinola can ruin a feast and why indios should not be allowed to read or travel outside the Philippines. Tinola contains chicken.the prosperity or the misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns.
. However.Some Notes Padre Damaso is no longer the parish priest of San Diego (town of Capitan Tiago in their province). he was still invited to the dinner because he was the confessor of the late wife of Capitan Tiago. Maria Clara is the sweetheart of Crisostomo Ibarra.
Why were there many Filipinos who were not educated by their parents during the Spanish occupation? 5.How did Rizal show appreciation for the heritage of every country that he visited? 3.What were the different types of people in society? .What was Rizal's point in introducing the red-haired writer in this chapter? 4.Why did Ibarra say that his country has forgotten him? 2.Questions and Answers 1.
However. . Teniente Guevarra tried to get Don Rafael out of jail. while Padre Damaso branded him a heretic for not going to confession. He is approached by Teniente Guevarra and learns for the first time about what happened to his father. An illiterate Spanish tax collector hurt a young boy who was making fun of him. Don Rafael. In the process. Don Rafael was jailed. was chastised by others. but eventually succeeded in securing Don Rafael's release from prison. people who used to openly respect him came out and denounced him. the tax collector was pushed and he died after his head hit a rock. Before he could inflict additional pain on the boy. Don Rafael intervened.Chapter 4: Heretic and Subversive Ibarra walks the streets of Manila and notes how nothing has changed in the past seven years. Don Rafael died in jail.
The rift appeared only after the young Ibarra left for Europe. Don Pedro Eibarramendia was a spaniard who married a Filipina or Mestisa. Padre Damaso would often dine at the Ibarra residence. Don Rafael was no longer going to confession. Don Saturnino is the father of Don Rafael Ibarra who married a Filipina surnamed Magsalin.Some Notes Teniente Guevarra does not know why Padre Damaso was angry at Don Rafael because long before the incident with the tax collector. . Their child is Crisostomo Ibarra (who can be said to be more Filipino than Spanish). They were the parents of Don Saturnino Ibarra who married a woman from Manila.
Questions 1. Who were they? 4.What did Teniente Guevarra mean by "one cannot be honest in the Philippines and not go to jail?" 3. he still had enemies.Accdg to Teniente Guevarra.What was held against Don Rafael? .Why was Ibarra surprised to find out that his father died in jail? 2. although Don Rafael was admired and respected by many people.
it is Padre Damaso who is seen smiling like someone most fortunate. suffering in jail and eventually dying there. He is bothered by thoughts or visions of his father.Chapter 5: A Star in the Dark Night Ibarra asks to be brought to the Fonde de Lala hotel. where he fails to notice the noise and music coming from the house of Capitan Tiago (which can be seen from Ibarra's hotel). Don Rafael. In this chapter. Padre Salvi. However. instead of Capitan Tiago beaming with pride. people admire the beautiful Maria Clara. In the house of Capitan Tiago. Rizal introduces a young Franciscan friar. . parish priest of the town of San Diego.
Some Notes It is possible that Padre Salvi arrived late. It would help the reader to pay close attention to the way Rizal describes this friar. . which explains why he was not able to participate in the grabbing of seats of honor at the dinner table.
What kept Ibarra's thought that night? 2. What were some of the beautiful sights he missed that night? 3. . Who are the people that occupied his thoughts? Who are these characters? 4.Questions: 1. Read the lines that describe how the night went for Ibarra and Father Salvi.
Chapter 6: Capitan Tiago Capitan Tiago and Dona Pia have long been without child. Maria Clara. Dona Pia conceived. She died after giving birth to a baby girl. who was raised by her aunt. Padre Damaso became the godfather of the child. Soon after. Bulacan). but ever since became depressed. Where is Ubando. Padre Damaso advised them to hear mass at Ubando (or Obando. Tia Isabel. while Crisostomo Ibarra became a childhood friend of Maria Clara. Bulacan? .
the child of Padre Damaso. as well as the corruption in the government which is made widespread by people like Capitan Tiago. The truth is. Dona Pia died because she was extremely upset with giving birth to an illegitimatechild. The full name of Capitan Tiago is Santiago de los Santos ("all of the saints") which is Rizal's way of hinting that he will use this character when tackling issues of faith or religion. . Rizal deliberately made unclear the circumstances surrounding Dona Pia's death.Some Notes Rizal describes the many superstitious beliefs of the religious folk. in order to heighten the reader's anticipation.
Note the superstitions related to "paglilihi" (the cravings of a pregnant woman which affect the physical appearance of her child): Dona Pia kept looking at icons of saints and of the Blessed Virgin Mary God children look like their godfather or godmother .
.Here are the characteristics of Capitan Tiago: Gets along with those in power Intelligent Obedient Skilled in business Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael agreed that their children (Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra) will one day marry each other. and that both fathers will join businesses for the benefit of their two children.
Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? 2.What is the meaning of the statement that Capitan Tiago realizes that in order to become a saint.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar. according to the Catholic encyclopedia? 4.Questions 1.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? . one either cuts or is cut? Who is one-eared Malchus. there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 3.
5.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? 7. refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 6. afterfinding a great treasure. Who are the Kapitan Tiago in modern Philippines persons who has everything and is able to buy even the very soul of the common people? Is there a solution this kind of illness in the society? .
This is their first meeting after seven years. When is All Souls Day? . They exchanged proof that each remembered the other one after all this time.Chapter 7: Idyll in an Azotea Ibarra and Maria Clara get to speak privately in the azotea of Capitan Tiago's house. When Maria Clara read the only letter Ibarra wrote to her. he suddenly remembered his dead father. It was nearing All Souls Day so Ibarra excused himself and told Maria Clara that he will go to San Diego to take care of his father's grave.
which belies the common perception that she is refined. The reader will note a different (if almost playful) side of Maria Clara. Capitan Tiago cannot really be considered as someone from San Diego because Maria Clara visits that town only during vacations.Some Notes A major portion of this chapter concerns the old letter of Ibarra to Maria Clara. prim and proper. .
not even for an instant.How did Ibarra prove that he never.And what did Maria Clara do to prove her own love for Ibarra? 3.What other proofs did Ibarra display? 4.What did Ibarra place in his letter to Maria Clara? 6.And what did Maria Clara show in return? 5.Questions 1.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? . ever forgot about Maria Clara? 2.And what reasons did Ibarra give for leaving the Philippines? 7.
8. there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 10.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? 11. refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 12.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar. after finding a great treasure.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? .
Ibarra proceeds to San Diego. Ibarra saw no changes whatsoever. one thing is quite evident: After being away for seven years. Along the way.Chapter 08: Memories After visiting Maria Clara. .
Rizal likens the "good Filipino" to the Barkas Bridge -. At that time.Some Notes This chapter shows a country's lack of progress during those times.it is dilapidated but continues to serve others. and sometimes gets destroyed by the river. rises and falls at the whim of the Pasig river's tide. . Filipinos continued to serve the oppressive government.
What did the old priest mean when he advised Ibarra: "Do not forget that if knowledge is the patrimony of humanity. You will do the same with those who come after you. go to their country to look for that other gold which we lack.What lesson is Rizal trying to impart with the priest's: "I have tried to transmit to you what I have received from my teachers. that all that glitters is not gold. Remember. for you are going to very rich countries"? 3. and you can triple it.Questions and Answers 1." . however.Explain: "They come in search of gold. the riches I have endeavored to augment as much as I could. and I am passing it on to the following generation. it is inheried only by those who have the heart"? 2.
. the country first... No!" . first the Philippines. Spain's daughter.you can triple it. One can speculate that this priest refers to someone like PadreBurgos who was executed in Bagumbayan (Take note of the line: Thatman had died in Bagumbayan [in reference to the old priest]). for youare going to very rich countries. first the Spanish nation! No.. despite everything. 5.Explain: "No. that which is fated does not tarnish the Motherland.. we can guess that the priest is a Filipino who got educated in thePhilippines.4.. look for that other gold which welack.Who is this old priest? From his statement .
Chapter 09: Some Country Matters Ibarra sees Padre Damaso riding in his victoria. This chapter focuses on three major conversations between or among: Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago (in Tiago's house/office) Padre Hernando Sibyla and an old. seating for two passengers and a perched seat in front for the driver. sees Tia Isabel and Maria Clara (they were going to the convent to get Maria Clara's things). extremely sick Dominican (in Intramuros) Capitan Heneral and his men Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago . light. on the other hand.) Padre Damaso. fourwheeled carriage (with a foldable calash top. a low.
since there were bandits about and who knows what other dangers lurk at each bend.) .Padre Damaso does not want Maria Clara to marry Ibarra and is displeased with Capitan Tiago for not informing him of a marriage agreement made with Don Rafael (Ibarra's father). As long as the candle remained lit. a candle is usually lit and placed on an altar. true to his form. But. sometimes in front of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some prayers are said for someone's safe journey. Capitan Tiago obeys the priest and extinguishes the candle he previously ordered lit for Ibarra's safe journey to San Diego (Ibarra's hometown). it was believed that the traveler was protected. It is unclear why Capitan Tiago chose not to consult with Padre Damaso about such an agreement in the past. (For those unfamiliar with this practice.
but that's not the point of this chapter. eh?) Padre Sibyla and the Very Sick. Here we see the Ibarra is completely unaware that the priests are plotting against him. . Also. Old Dominican We don't know what the old priest is sick of. Ibarra might later rise as a leader for the indios. The chapter ends with Tiago blowing out the candle and muttering that there is still time and the journey is long. Those Dominicans are deathly afraid of Ibarra because they know he--with his education--is not ignorant of his situation. (What a future father-in-law.
which tends to make the priests soft and unaware that they are starting to lose their hold on the people.. already foresaw the brewing conflict between the young man and Padre Damaso. Nevertheless. . Padre Sibyla sees Ibarra as someone with finesse (good breeding). Afterall.The Dominicans. Sibyla also considers Ibarra as an "obedient child" who will not fight outright with the friars.. knowing about the misfortune of Don Rafael and knowing character of Ibarra. The old Dominican mentioned that he prefers an open fight rather than the useless praise of his friends. You'll never know. through Maria Clara and Capian Tiago. Ibarra was quite subtle in his verbal fight with Padre Damaso earlier. the Dominicans were confident about controlling Ibarra. (So watch out when things seem to go too well for you. Or so thought the old priest.
) Also. however. whom the gods wish to destroy. the government might not see the need for the Spanish priests. Padre Sibyla worries. they will help the priests if ever the indios rise in revolt. however. they first make mad. since the Spanish government is concerned with maintaining power over the Philippines. and will just rely on the Filipino priests to keep the rest of the population timid. Remember that the Church and State are not really the best of friends: . that the government might side with the indios.After all. If there is no conflict.
Anyway. No identified Leader. de la Torre was well-loved by the indios because he was just (and didn't always support the friars). note Rizal's dig at the frailocracy when the priest uttered that God should have mercy on them (the priests). Capitan Heneral Ma. Realize that the Filipinos lacked two important things in their bid for political justice and economic freedom: Lack of country-wide unity.The friars murdered Capitan Heneral Bustamante in Malacanan before. Capitan Heneral and his men . The people were geographically scattered by the Spaniards.
The story did not come from Teniente Guevara because it was beneath him to "snitch" on Padre Damaso. because Laruja (the writer) told the Capitan Heneral's adjutant about it. he decided to just close his eyes to the matter. (In the vernacular. since this was the fate of the Philippines. just as his predecessors did.) The Capitan Heneral revealed to his men that he was unhappy with the situation in the Philippines and that the country should be thrown into chaos so that the priests can be kicked out. he did not want to make "sipsip" to the Capitan Heneral. just as was done by the Europeans to the priests there. . However.The Capitan Heneral was aware of the insulting remarks made by Padre Damaso against him. reasoned the Capitan Heneral.
because this is where the guardia civiles chased Ibarra and Elias when the former escaped from prison.Chapter 10: The Town This chapter describes the town of San Diego and the lineage of Crisostomo Ibarra (surprisingly. We learn that at that time. . there was no such town called San Diego in the Philippines. We can assume. each generation bore only one child). however. that the town is located near the shore of Laguna Lake.
Rizal likens Philippine culture to a swaying.Note also that each town is initially taken care of by a Pilipino priest. wooden bridge. We tend to laugh at disabled people (this was during Rizal's time and perhaps even up to today) -. Pinoys enjoy scenes of tragedy or misfortune.the kids swimming in the lake laughed at an old woman who was having a hard time crossing the bridge. Once the town prospers. they should've helped her instead. Did he succeed? . Rizal pointed it out in hopes that people would correct this kind of behavior. the Spanish friars take over.
The first Ibarra in San Diego gave cash. dark. . eerie. however. People. You know how forests are: cold.Ibarra's ancestor... feared the forest. who first came to San Diego. How the Ibarras acquired the forest in San Diego. strange sounds. had lived long in the Philippines. He was very fluent with the Tagalog language. jewelry and clothes to those who claimed to own the forest. and don't forget those malaria-bearing mosquitoes.
Rosalinda fans!) He was very strict. Ibarra's ancestors had a mean streak. a Spanish mestiza. A description of Don Saturnino. probably the Fernando Jose type (hello there. He helped contribute to San Diego's progress. Geez. Spanish mestizo. but was also hardworking. We can't tell for sure if she was a Filipina from Manila. do people really care about Ibarra's lineage? Apparently so. Don Saturnina's wife. or a Spaniard born and raised in Manila. but their blood soon mixed with native understanding. compassion and self-control. It's also possible she was a native. .
He is humble and a man of character.The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule Even though Don rafael Ibarra is the wealthiest in San Diego to whom everyone owes a debt of gratitude from. The friars and the spaniards are the powerful and most influential persons in town. some people were also laughing at him behind his back and were spreading ill rumors about him. Though he is considered well-loved. they act civil with each other in gatherings and in public. Kapitan Tiago is also not considered the powerful person in town. . even though he receives gifts from everyone and to whom a few has certain debt of gratitude from. they are competitors in position and power. Although.Chapter 11 . he is not the most influencial person in this town.
5. 3. Re-tell the encounter between Father Salvi and the Alferez. Describe the differences of Father Salvi and Father Damaso. 2. What is the relationship between the chocolate and the character of the priests. Discuss. Comment on their actions and words. What are the similarities of San Diego and old Rome? Describe. 4. .Questions: 1. Why do you think this chapter is entitled "The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule"? Describe the sovereigns.
who will arrive on the fourth. Children are with their parents. the scribe. and talk centers around careers: should one be a priest or a doctor? . the alferes. to his left. Capitan Tiago leaves the luncheon and goes home immediately. Also present are Capitan Tiago. Capitan Tiago receives a telegram and learns that the Capitan Heneral will proceed to the house of Capitan Tiago. The friars were hurt. while Padre Salvi remains quiet and does not contribute to the discussion.Chapter 35: The Luncheon Ibarra returns to the school. People notice that Padre Damaso is not present. Talk turns to the sermon delivered by Padre Damaso. mayor and town captain also received telegrams from the Capitan Heneral. but they did not say anything. The alferes. On opposite ends of a long table sit Ibarra and the mayor. and the town captain. To the right of the young man sits Maria Clara.
or who hated even the memory of their dad. Ibarra keeps quiet.. As the luncheon comes to an end. . Again. Padre Damaso then belittles the mestizos and indios in order to get at Ibarra. Don Rafael. Ibarra turns to the friar and asks him if he does not hear the deafening silence. Padre Damaso arrives. hits him on the head (Padre Damaso falls). He is unable to finish his sentence because Ibarra leaps at Padre Damaso. then grabs a knife and warns people to stay away. Ibarra remains quiet. Padre Damaso stands up and Ibarra grabs him while asking if there was anyone in the crowd who did not love their father.. He sits in front of the dining table and criticizes the architecture which Ibarra is proud of. and laughs at the way Don Rafael died in jail. Padre Damaso then talks about Ibarra's father.
He asks the crowd if Padre Damaso is justified in tarnishing the memory of his father. Ibarra tells everyone present about the good things his father. Don Rafael. has done. Ibarra raises the knife. The crowd remains silent. Who is Padre Damaso? . Ibarra drops the knife and runs away. Maria Clara stops him.
Did Ibarra deliberately not invite Padre Damaso to the luncheon? 5.Questions 1. what can we infer from the latter (mayor)? 6.Why did the friars feel bad? 3.What did Rizal say about the way Filipinos discipline their children especially when they are in front of others? 8.Why is the Capitan Heneral going to the house of Capitan Tiago? 2.Who was the mayor referring to (dinner guest called Platon)? 4.Why did Padre Salvi remain silent? 7.From the conversation between Padre Salvi and the mayor.From the career discussion (should a child be a priest or a doctor). what can be said about the effectivity of schools? 9.Why did Padre Damaso come to the luncheon even if he was not invited? .
And what did Ibarra do while he was being humiliated? 12.10. hit the friar.What criticisms did Padre Damaso level at Ibarra? 11.What made Ibarra break his silence.it was only Maria Clara who stopped Ibarra from killing PadreDamaso? .What did Ibarra mean when he said that he was avoiding Padre Damaso. and therefore God made a judgment? 14.What can we say about the fact that from the many people present. God brought the friar to Ibarra. and threaten to stab Padre Damaso? 13.
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