'Those who cannot see where they came from will never get to where they are going.'

Jose’s Background

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Born to a wealthy family Both parents were educated Studied at Santo Thomas University in Manila Studied Philosophy and Medicine in Spain, France and Germany Wrote Noli, his first novel 1886


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Written in Spanish Means “touch me not” Book is a passionate expose about the evils of the Spanish friars in the Phils. wrote a sequel in 1891, “El Filibusterismo” (The Subversive)

In Exile

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Came back to the Phils. at the age of 26 Exiled to Dapitan (South) in 1892 Early1896 - got involved with the katipuneros- freedom fighters December 1896 - executed

TO MY MOTHERLAND (Jose Rizal, 1886)

An introduction that Rizal wrote for Noli He equates colonialism to Cancer

– Describe the female guests. – Who are the Indios? – Role of a friar.Noli Chapter 1  The Gathering – Who are the guests? – What kind of priest is Padre Damaso? – Compare Franciscans and Dominicans. .

” – “The prosperity or misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors.Noli Chapter 2  Crisostomo Ibarra – “The Cub of a Lion will always be a lion” – “I do not call upon inspiration to drag itself down and to tell lies.” (Agree or disagree?) .

– Age.A pidgin Spanish Tagalog saying.Chapter 3  The Dinner – Jele-jele bago quiere . meaning that one pretends not to desire a thing which is in reality one wants. Dignity and Rulership .

the master of the house can be thrown out into the street and everything will proceed as usual. it is almost for the good of the Filipinos not to be allowed to leave the country or to be taught to read. . In the actual state of things .– The young blond man wrote: In the Philippines the most useless person in a supper or feast can be thrown out in the street: to begin with.

What is the significance of the argument between Padre Damaso and Teniente Guevara? .How did Rizal liken the Philippines to Capitan Tiago's house? 3.Questions and Answers 1.What undesirable traits of Filipinos were mentioned in this chapter? 2.

Crisostomo gets confused when Padre Damaso. Another good friend of Don Rafael. invited Crisostomo for tomorrow's lunch. . Crisostomo declined. the soldier had kinder words to say about Don Rafael. the friar whom Crisostomo thought was a close friend of his deceased father. Capitan Tinong of Tondo.Chapter 2: Crisostomo Ibarra    We meet Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin. said that Don Rafael was never a close friend of his. the son of the late Don Rafael Ibarra (the man whose body was exhumed). saying he was leaving for San Diego the following day. An attendant announced that dinner was served. Fortunately.

Ibarra's name shows that his mother is a Filipina (Magsalin). Ibarra spent seven years in Europe. Padre Damaso. This means they did not know the purpose of the dinner.Some Notes    Padre Sibyla. . and Teniente Guevara were surprised to see Crisostomo Ibarra accompanied by Capitan Tiago.

Why did Padre Damaso deny that Don Rafael was his friend? .Why did Ibarra think that his father was a close friend of Padre Damaso? 2.Questions and Answers 1.

Germany and Russian Poland). ..Chapter 03: The Dinner      Capitan Tiago ordered tinola served. Tinola contains chicken. Instead of arguing with the friar. saying that Maria Clara was coming soon. but Ibarra still left. One of the guests (a red-haired writer named Laruja) present will later write an article about how tinola can ruin a feast and why indios should not be allowed to read or travel outside the Philippines. white squash and broth. Teniente Guevara followed him.. Capitan Tiago tried to stop him. and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors. Ibarra left after graciously excusing himself from the crowd." Padre Damaso belittled Ibarra's trips abroad saying that these were useless because what Ibarra learned could be also known without having to travel extensively. as well as newsworthy items learned by Ibarra: ".the prosperity or the misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns. Table conversation covered where Ibarra went (Northern Europe. It was a dish which Ibarra had not eaten in a long time because of his extended stay in Europe.

Maria Clara is the sweetheart of Crisostomo Ibarra.Some Notes Padre Damaso is no longer the parish priest of San Diego (town of Capitan Tiago in their province). However. he was still invited to the dinner because he was the confessor of the late wife of Capitan Tiago. .

How did Rizal show appreciation for the heritage of every country that he visited? 3.Why did Ibarra say that his country has forgotten him? 2.What were the different types of people in society? .What was Rizal's point in introducing the red-haired writer in this chapter? 4.Questions and Answers 1.Why were there many Filipinos who were not educated by their parents during the Spanish occupation? 5.

He is approached by Teniente Guevarra and learns for the first time about what happened to his father.Chapter 4: Heretic and Subversive Ibarra walks the streets of Manila and notes how nothing has changed in the past seven years. Don Rafael was jailed. Don Rafael. Don Rafael intervened. Don Rafael died in jail. Before he could inflict additional pain on the boy. In the process. people who used to openly respect him came out and denounced him. the tax collector was pushed and he died after his head hit a rock. while Padre Damaso branded him a heretic for not going to confession. An illiterate Spanish tax collector hurt a young boy who was making fun of him. Teniente Guevarra tried to get Don Rafael out of jail. was chastised by others. However. but eventually succeeded in securing Don Rafael's release from prison. .

Don Rafael was no longer going to confession. . Don Saturnino is the father of Don Rafael Ibarra who married a Filipina surnamed Magsalin. Their child is Crisostomo Ibarra (who can be said to be more Filipino than Spanish). The rift appeared only after the young Ibarra left for Europe. They were the parents of Don Saturnino Ibarra who married a woman from Manila. Don Pedro Eibarramendia was a spaniard who married a Filipina or Mestisa. Padre Damaso would often dine at the Ibarra residence.Some Notes Teniente Guevarra does not know why Padre Damaso was angry at Don Rafael because long before the incident with the tax collector.

Why was Ibarra surprised to find out that his father died in jail? 2.What did Teniente Guevarra mean by "one cannot be honest in the Philippines and not go to jail?" 3.What was held against Don Rafael? . Who were they? 4.Accdg to Teniente Guevarra.Questions 1. although Don Rafael was admired and respected by many people. he still had enemies.

suffering in jail and eventually dying there. He is bothered by thoughts or visions of his father. people admire the beautiful Maria Clara. Padre Salvi. In this chapter.Chapter 5: A Star in the Dark Night Ibarra asks to be brought to the Fonde de Lala hotel. parish priest of the town of San Diego. where he fails to notice the noise and music coming from the house of Capitan Tiago (which can be seen from Ibarra's hotel). Rizal introduces a young Franciscan friar. . it is Padre Damaso who is seen smiling like someone most fortunate. In the house of Capitan Tiago. instead of Capitan Tiago beaming with pride. Don Rafael. However.

which explains why he was not able to participate in the grabbing of seats of honor at the dinner table. It would help the reader to pay close attention to the way Rizal describes this friar. .Some Notes It is possible that Padre Salvi arrived late.

What kept Ibarra's thought that night? 2.Questions: 1. . Read the lines that describe how the night went for Ibarra and Father Salvi. What were some of the beautiful sights he missed that night? 3. Who are the people that occupied his thoughts? Who are these characters? 4.

Maria Clara. Soon after. but ever since became depressed. who was raised by her aunt. Dona Pia conceived. Padre Damaso advised them to hear mass at Ubando (or Obando. while Crisostomo Ibarra became a childhood friend of Maria Clara.Chapter 6: Capitan Tiago   Capitan Tiago and Dona Pia have long been without child. Tia Isabel. Bulacan). Bulacan? . Where is Ubando. Padre Damaso became the godfather of the child. She died after giving birth to a baby girl.

The truth is.Some Notes    Rizal describes the many superstitious beliefs of the religious folk. in order to heighten the reader's anticipation. . the child of Padre Damaso. Rizal deliberately made unclear the circumstances surrounding Dona Pia's death. The full name of Capitan Tiago is Santiago de los Santos ("all of the saints") which is Rizal's way of hinting that he will use this character when tackling issues of faith or religion. Dona Pia died because she was extremely upset with giving birth to an illegitimatechild. as well as the corruption in the government which is made widespread by people like Capitan Tiago.

   Note the superstitions related to "paglilihi" (the cravings of a pregnant woman which affect the physical appearance of her child): Dona Pia kept looking at icons of saints and of the Blessed Virgin Mary God children look like their godfather or godmother .

.Here are the characteristics of Capitan Tiago: Gets along with those in power Intelligent Obedient Skilled in business Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael agreed that their children (Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra) will one day marry each other. and that both fathers will join businesses for the benefit of their two children.

Questions 1. according to the Catholic encyclopedia? 4.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? . there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 3.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar.What is the meaning of the statement that Capitan Tiago realizes that in order to become a saint.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? 2. one either cuts or is cut? Who is one-eared Malchus.

Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? 7.5.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who. Who are the Kapitan Tiago in modern Philippines persons who has everything and is able to buy even the very soul of the common people? Is there a solution this kind of illness in the society? . refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 6. afterfinding a great treasure.

When is All Souls Day? . he suddenly remembered his dead father.Chapter 7: Idyll in an Azotea   Ibarra and Maria Clara get to speak privately in the azotea of Capitan Tiago's house. They exchanged proof that each remembered the other one after all this time. When Maria Clara read the only letter Ibarra wrote to her. It was nearing All Souls Day so Ibarra excused himself and told Maria Clara that he will go to San Diego to take care of his father's grave. This is their first meeting after seven years.

Capitan Tiago cannot really be considered as someone from San Diego because Maria Clara visits that town only during vacations. prim and proper. which belies the common perception that she is refined.Some Notes  A major portion of this chapter concerns the old letter of Ibarra to Maria Clara. The reader will note a different (if almost playful) side of Maria Clara. .

How did Ibarra prove that he never.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? .What did Ibarra place in his letter to Maria Clara? 6.And what did Maria Clara do to prove her own love for Ibarra? 3.And what reasons did Ibarra give for leaving the Philippines? 7.And what did Maria Clara show in return? 5. ever forgot about Maria Clara? 2. not even for an instant.What other proofs did Ibarra display? 4.Questions 1.

8.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? . there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 10.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? 11.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who. after finding a great treasure. refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 12.

Ibarra proceeds to San Diego. one thing is quite evident: After being away for seven years.Chapter 08: Memories  After visiting Maria Clara. Along the way. . Ibarra saw no changes whatsoever.

rises and falls at the whim of the Pasig river's tide. .it is dilapidated but continues to serve others. and sometimes gets destroyed by the river. Filipinos continued to serve the oppressive government. Rizal likens the "good Filipino" to the Barkas Bridge -.Some Notes This chapter shows a country's lack of progress during those times. At that time.

Explain: "They come in search of gold." . go to their country to look for that other gold which we lack.Questions and Answers 1. the riches I have endeavored to augment as much as I could.What lesson is Rizal trying to impart with the priest's: "I have tried to transmit to you what I have received from my teachers. that all that glitters is not gold. for you are going to very rich countries"? 3. however. and you can triple it. Remember.What did the old priest mean when he advised Ibarra: "Do not forget that if knowledge is the patrimony of humanity. it is inheried only by those who have the heart"? 2. and I am passing it on to the following generation. You will do the same with those who come after you.

No!" .4. we can guess that the priest is a Filipino who got educated in thePhilippines. that which is fated does not tarnish the Motherland.. despite everything. 5. first the Spanish nation! No.... for youare going to very rich can triple it.Explain: "No. One can speculate that this priest refers to someone like PadreBurgos who was executed in Bagumbayan (Take note of the line: Thatman had died in Bagumbayan [in reference to the old priest]). look for that other gold which welack.Who is this old priest? From his statement .. first the Philippines.. Spain's daughter. the country first.

extremely sick Dominican (in Intramuros) Capitan Heneral and his men Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago .Chapter 09: Some Country Matters Ibarra sees Padre Damaso riding in his victoria. light. This chapter focuses on three major conversations between or among: Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago (in Tiago's house/office) Padre Hernando Sibyla and an old. sees Tia Isabel and Maria Clara (they were going to the convent to get Maria Clara's things). fourwheeled carriage (with a foldable calash top. on the other hand. seating for two passengers and a perched seat in front for the driver.) Padre Damaso. a low.

since there were bandits about and who knows what other dangers lurk at each bend.) . But. (For those unfamiliar with this practice. Some prayers are said for someone's safe journey. true to his form. Capitan Tiago obeys the priest and extinguishes the candle he previously ordered lit for Ibarra's safe journey to San Diego (Ibarra's hometown). It is unclear why Capitan Tiago chose not to consult with Padre Damaso about such an agreement in the past. As long as the candle remained lit.Padre Damaso does not want Maria Clara to marry Ibarra and is displeased with Capitan Tiago for not informing him of a marriage agreement made with Don Rafael (Ibarra's father). it was believed that the traveler was protected. a candle is usually lit and placed on an altar. sometimes in front of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Those Dominicans are deathly afraid of Ibarra because they know he--with his education--is not ignorant of his situation. Also. The chapter ends with Tiago blowing out the candle and muttering that there is still time and the journey is long. . Here we see the Ibarra is completely unaware that the priests are plotting against him. Ibarra might later rise as a leader for the indios. but that's not the point of this chapter. Old Dominican We don't know what the old priest is sick of. eh?) Padre Sibyla and the Very Sick. (What a future father-in-law.

Padre Sibyla sees Ibarra as someone with finesse (good breeding). Or so thought the old priest. the Dominicans were confident about controlling Ibarra. Ibarra was quite subtle in his verbal fight with Padre Damaso earlier.The Dominicans. through Maria Clara and Capian Tiago. knowing about the misfortune of Don Rafael and knowing character of Ibarra.. already foresaw the brewing conflict between the young man and Padre Damaso. . Afterall. The old Dominican mentioned that he prefers an open fight rather than the useless praise of his friends. which tends to make the priests soft and unaware that they are starting to lose their hold on the people. You'll never know.. (So watch out when things seem to go too well for you. Nevertheless. Sibyla also considers Ibarra as an "obedient child" who will not fight outright with the friars.

since the Spanish government is concerned with maintaining power over the Philippines. however. Remember that the Church and State are not really the best of friends: . If there is no conflict. Padre Sibyla worries. they will help the priests if ever the indios rise in revolt. whom the gods wish to destroy. and will just rely on the Filipino priests to keep the rest of the population timid. the government might not see the need for the Spanish priests. they first make mad. that the government might side with the indios. however.After all.) Also.

Realize that the Filipinos lacked two important things in their bid for political justice and economic freedom: Lack of country-wide unity. Anyway. The people were geographically scattered by the Spaniards. No identified Leader. de la Torre was well-loved by the indios because he was just (and didn't always support the friars).The friars murdered Capitan Heneral Bustamante in Malacanan before. Capitan Heneral Ma. Capitan Heneral and his men . note Rizal's dig at the frailocracy when the priest uttered that God should have mercy on them (the priests).

The story did not come from Teniente Guevara because it was beneath him to "snitch" on Padre Damaso. just as his predecessors did. just as was done by the Europeans to the priests there. he decided to just close his eyes to the matter. since this was the fate of the Philippines. he did not want to make "sipsip" to the Capitan Heneral. reasoned the Capitan Heneral. (In the vernacular.The Capitan Heneral was aware of the insulting remarks made by Padre Damaso against him.) The Capitan Heneral revealed to his men that he was unhappy with the situation in the Philippines and that the country should be thrown into chaos so that the priests can be kicked out. because Laruja (the writer) told the Capitan Heneral's adjutant about it. . However.

each generation bore only one child). there was no such town called San Diego in the Philippines. We can assume. that the town is located near the shore of Laguna Lake.Chapter 10: The Town  This chapter describes the town of San Diego and the lineage of Crisostomo Ibarra (surprisingly. because this is where the guardia civiles chased Ibarra and Elias when the former escaped from prison. We learn that at that time. however. .

Once the town prospers.the kids swimming in the lake laughed at an old woman who was having a hard time crossing the bridge.Note also that each town is initially taken care of by a Pilipino priest. wooden bridge. Rizal likens Philippine culture to a swaying. Rizal pointed it out in hopes that people would correct this kind of behavior. We tend to laugh at disabled people (this was during Rizal's time and perhaps even up to today) -. Pinoys enjoy scenes of tragedy or misfortune. they should've helped her instead. the Spanish friars take over. Did he succeed? .

eerie. jewelry and clothes to those who claimed to own the forest. and don't forget those malaria-bearing mosquitoes.. dark. feared the forest. strange sounds. He was very fluent with the Tagalog language. You know how forests are: cold.. The first Ibarra in San Diego gave cash. How the Ibarras acquired the forest in San Diego. People. had lived long in the Philippines. however.Ibarra's ancestor. . who first came to San Diego.

but their blood soon mixed with native understanding. probably the Fernando Jose type (hello there. Spanish mestizo. or a Spaniard born and raised in Manila. do people really care about Ibarra's lineage? Apparently so. . It's also possible she was a native. a Spanish mestiza. Don Saturnina's wife.  A description of Don Saturnino. but was also hardworking. Ibarra's ancestors had a mean streak. He helped contribute to San Diego's progress. Geez. Rosalinda fans!) He was very strict. compassion and self-control. We can't tell for sure if she was a Filipina from Manila.

Kapitan Tiago is also not considered the powerful person in town. he is not the most influencial person in this town. Though he is considered well-loved.The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule    Even though Don rafael Ibarra is the wealthiest in San Diego to whom everyone owes a debt of gratitude from.Chapter 11 . The friars and the spaniards are the powerful and most influential persons in town. they act civil with each other in gatherings and in public. . even though he receives gifts from everyone and to whom a few has certain debt of gratitude from. they are competitors in position and power. some people were also laughing at him behind his back and were spreading ill rumors about him. He is humble and a man of character. Although.

Re-tell the encounter between Father Salvi and the Alferez. Discuss. . 5. 2. Describe the differences of Father Salvi and Father Damaso. Comment on their actions and words. 4. Why do you think this chapter is entitled "The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule"? Describe the sovereigns. 3.Questions: 1. What is the relationship between the chocolate and the character of the priests. What are the similarities of San Diego and old Rome? Describe.

to his left. Also present are Capitan Tiago. and the town captain. the scribe. Children are with their parents. mayor and town captain also received telegrams from the Capitan Heneral. but they did not say anything. the alferes. who will arrive on the fourth. On opposite ends of a long table sit Ibarra and the mayor. The alferes. People notice that Padre Damaso is not present. Talk turns to the sermon delivered by Padre Damaso. while Padre Salvi remains quiet and does not contribute to the discussion. and talk centers around careers: should one be a priest or a doctor? . To the right of the young man sits Maria Clara. The friars were hurt.Chapter 35: The Luncheon   Ibarra returns to the school. Capitan Tiago receives a telegram and learns that the Capitan Heneral will proceed to the house of Capitan Tiago. Capitan Tiago leaves the luncheon and goes home immediately.

and laughs at the way Don Rafael died in jail.. As the luncheon comes to an end. Padre Damaso stands up and Ibarra grabs him while asking if there was anyone in the crowd who did not love their father. He sits in front of the dining table and criticizes the architecture which Ibarra is proud of. Again.. Padre Damaso then belittles the mestizos and indios in order to get at Ibarra. Padre Damaso then talks about Ibarra's father. Don Rafael. then grabs a knife and warns people to stay away. Padre Damaso arrives. He is unable to finish his sentence because Ibarra leaps at Padre Damaso. hits him on the head (Padre Damaso falls). Ibarra turns to the friar and asks him if he does not hear the deafening silence. or who hated even the memory of their dad. Ibarra keeps quiet. Ibarra remains quiet. .

He asks the crowd if Padre Damaso is justified in tarnishing the memory of his father. Maria Clara stops him.  Ibarra tells everyone present about the good things his father. Ibarra drops the knife and runs away. The crowd remains silent. Don Rafael. has done. Ibarra raises the knife. Who is Padre Damaso? .

Questions 1. what can be said about the effectivity of schools? 9.Who was the mayor referring to (dinner guest called Platon)? 4.Why did the friars feel bad? 3.Why did Padre Damaso come to the luncheon even if he was not invited? . what can we infer from the latter (mayor)? 6.Did Ibarra deliberately not invite Padre Damaso to the luncheon? 5.Why did Padre Salvi remain silent? 7.From the conversation between Padre Salvi and the mayor.Why is the Capitan Heneral going to the house of Capitan Tiago? 2.What did Rizal say about the way Filipinos discipline their children especially when they are in front of others? 8.From the career discussion (should a child be a priest or a doctor).

What did Ibarra mean when he said that he was avoiding Padre Damaso.What made Ibarra break his silence. God brought the friar to Ibarra. hit the was only Maria Clara who stopped Ibarra from killing PadreDamaso? .10. and threaten to stab Padre Damaso? 13.And what did Ibarra do while he was being humiliated? 12.What criticisms did Padre Damaso level at Ibarra? 11.What can we say about the fact that from the many people present. and therefore God made a judgment? 14.

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