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'Those who cannot see where they came from will never get to where they are going.'
Born to a wealthy family Both parents were educated Studied at Santo Thomas University in Manila Studied Philosophy and Medicine in Spain, France and Germany Wrote Noli, his first novel 1886
NOLI ME TANGERE
Written in Spanish Means “touch me not” Book is a passionate expose about the evils of the Spanish friars in the Phils. wrote a sequel in 1891, “El Filibusterismo” (The Subversive)
Came back to the Phils. at the age of 26 Exiled to Dapitan (South) in 1892 Early1896 - got involved with the katipuneros- freedom fighters December 1896 - executed
TO MY MOTHERLAND (Jose Rizal, 1886)
An introduction that Rizal wrote for Noli He equates colonialism to Cancer
. – Describe the female guests.Noli Chapter 1 The Gathering – Who are the guests? – What kind of priest is Padre Damaso? – Compare Franciscans and Dominicans. – Who are the Indios? – Role of a friar.
Noli Chapter 2 Crisostomo Ibarra – “The Cub of a Lion will always be a lion” – “I do not call upon inspiration to drag itself down and to tell lies.” (Agree or disagree?) .” – “The prosperity or misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors.
– Age. Dignity and Rulership .Chapter 3 The Dinner – Jele-jele bago quiere . meaning that one pretends not to desire a thing which is in reality one wants.A pidgin Spanish Tagalog saying.
In the actual state of things .– The young blond man wrote: In the Philippines the most useless person in a supper or feast can be thrown out in the street: to begin with. it is almost for the good of the Filipinos not to be allowed to leave the country or to be taught to read. . the master of the house can be thrown out into the street and everything will proceed as usual.
What undesirable traits of Filipinos were mentioned in this chapter? 2.Questions and Answers 1.What is the significance of the argument between Padre Damaso and Teniente Guevara? .How did Rizal liken the Philippines to Capitan Tiago's house? 3.
said that Don Rafael was never a close friend of his. Crisostomo declined. . the friar whom Crisostomo thought was a close friend of his deceased father. the soldier had kinder words to say about Don Rafael. Another good friend of Don Rafael. Fortunately. Capitan Tinong of Tondo. the son of the late Don Rafael Ibarra (the man whose body was exhumed). An attendant announced that dinner was served. invited Crisostomo for tomorrow's lunch. saying he was leaving for San Diego the following day. Crisostomo gets confused when Padre Damaso.Chapter 2: Crisostomo Ibarra We meet Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin.
. and Teniente Guevara were surprised to see Crisostomo Ibarra accompanied by Capitan Tiago. Ibarra spent seven years in Europe. Padre Damaso. This means they did not know the purpose of the dinner. Ibarra's name shows that his mother is a Filipina (Magsalin).Some Notes Padre Sibyla.
Questions and Answers 1.Why did Padre Damaso deny that Don Rafael was his friend? .Why did Ibarra think that his father was a close friend of Padre Damaso? 2.
but Ibarra still left. Teniente Guevara followed him." Padre Damaso belittled Ibarra's trips abroad saying that these were useless because what Ibarra learned could be also known without having to travel extensively.Chapter 03: The Dinner Capitan Tiago ordered tinola served. Capitan Tiago tried to stop him. It was a dish which Ibarra had not eaten in a long time because of his extended stay in Europe.. . Table conversation covered where Ibarra went (Northern Europe. saying that Maria Clara was coming soon. Tinola contains chicken. Instead of arguing with the friar. Germany and Russian Poland).the prosperity or the misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns. as well as newsworthy items learned by Ibarra: ".. Ibarra left after graciously excusing himself from the crowd. white squash and broth. One of the guests (a red-haired writer named Laruja) present will later write an article about how tinola can ruin a feast and why indios should not be allowed to read or travel outside the Philippines. and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors.
However.Some Notes Padre Damaso is no longer the parish priest of San Diego (town of Capitan Tiago in their province). he was still invited to the dinner because he was the confessor of the late wife of Capitan Tiago. Maria Clara is the sweetheart of Crisostomo Ibarra. .
Questions and Answers 1.Why were there many Filipinos who were not educated by their parents during the Spanish occupation? 5.What was Rizal's point in introducing the red-haired writer in this chapter? 4.Why did Ibarra say that his country has forgotten him? 2.How did Rizal show appreciation for the heritage of every country that he visited? 3.What were the different types of people in society? .
Don Rafael intervened.Chapter 4: Heretic and Subversive Ibarra walks the streets of Manila and notes how nothing has changed in the past seven years. However. . Don Rafael was jailed. people who used to openly respect him came out and denounced him. An illiterate Spanish tax collector hurt a young boy who was making fun of him. but eventually succeeded in securing Don Rafael's release from prison. the tax collector was pushed and he died after his head hit a rock. while Padre Damaso branded him a heretic for not going to confession. He is approached by Teniente Guevarra and learns for the first time about what happened to his father. was chastised by others. Don Rafael died in jail. Don Rafael. In the process. Before he could inflict additional pain on the boy. Teniente Guevarra tried to get Don Rafael out of jail.
They were the parents of Don Saturnino Ibarra who married a woman from Manila. Don Rafael was no longer going to confession. The rift appeared only after the young Ibarra left for Europe. Padre Damaso would often dine at the Ibarra residence. Their child is Crisostomo Ibarra (who can be said to be more Filipino than Spanish). Don Pedro Eibarramendia was a spaniard who married a Filipina or Mestisa. Don Saturnino is the father of Don Rafael Ibarra who married a Filipina surnamed Magsalin. .Some Notes Teniente Guevarra does not know why Padre Damaso was angry at Don Rafael because long before the incident with the tax collector.
What did Teniente Guevarra mean by "one cannot be honest in the Philippines and not go to jail?" 3.Questions 1.Accdg to Teniente Guevarra. although Don Rafael was admired and respected by many people. Who were they? 4. he still had enemies.Why was Ibarra surprised to find out that his father died in jail? 2.What was held against Don Rafael? .
where he fails to notice the noise and music coming from the house of Capitan Tiago (which can be seen from Ibarra's hotel). He is bothered by thoughts or visions of his father. instead of Capitan Tiago beaming with pride. people admire the beautiful Maria Clara. In this chapter. Padre Salvi. parish priest of the town of San Diego. Rizal introduces a young Franciscan friar. . Don Rafael.Chapter 5: A Star in the Dark Night Ibarra asks to be brought to the Fonde de Lala hotel. However. suffering in jail and eventually dying there. it is Padre Damaso who is seen smiling like someone most fortunate. In the house of Capitan Tiago.
which explains why he was not able to participate in the grabbing of seats of honor at the dinner table.Some Notes It is possible that Padre Salvi arrived late. . It would help the reader to pay close attention to the way Rizal describes this friar.
What were some of the beautiful sights he missed that night? 3. . Read the lines that describe how the night went for Ibarra and Father Salvi.Questions: 1. Who are the people that occupied his thoughts? Who are these characters? 4. What kept Ibarra's thought that night? 2.
Tia Isabel. Padre Damaso became the godfather of the child. while Crisostomo Ibarra became a childhood friend of Maria Clara. but ever since became depressed. who was raised by her aunt. Bulacan). Bulacan? . She died after giving birth to a baby girl. Maria Clara. Soon after. Padre Damaso advised them to hear mass at Ubando (or Obando. Dona Pia conceived.Chapter 6: Capitan Tiago Capitan Tiago and Dona Pia have long been without child. Where is Ubando.
Rizal deliberately made unclear the circumstances surrounding Dona Pia's death. the child of Padre Damaso. as well as the corruption in the government which is made widespread by people like Capitan Tiago. . in order to heighten the reader's anticipation. The truth is. The full name of Capitan Tiago is Santiago de los Santos ("all of the saints") which is Rizal's way of hinting that he will use this character when tackling issues of faith or religion.Some Notes Rizal describes the many superstitious beliefs of the religious folk. Dona Pia died because she was extremely upset with giving birth to an illegitimatechild.
Note the superstitions related to "paglilihi" (the cravings of a pregnant woman which affect the physical appearance of her child): Dona Pia kept looking at icons of saints and of the Blessed Virgin Mary God children look like their godfather or godmother .
Here are the characteristics of Capitan Tiago: Gets along with those in power Intelligent Obedient Skilled in business Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael agreed that their children (Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra) will one day marry each other. and that both fathers will join businesses for the benefit of their two children. .
Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar.Questions 1. there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 3. according to the Catholic encyclopedia? 4. one either cuts or is cut? Who is one-eared Malchus.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? .What is the meaning of the statement that Capitan Tiago realizes that in order to become a saint.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? 2.
5.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? 7. Who are the Kapitan Tiago in modern Philippines persons who has everything and is able to buy even the very soul of the common people? Is there a solution this kind of illness in the society? . afterfinding a great treasure. refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 6.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who.
When is All Souls Day? . They exchanged proof that each remembered the other one after all this time. When Maria Clara read the only letter Ibarra wrote to her. he suddenly remembered his dead father. This is their first meeting after seven years.Chapter 7: Idyll in an Azotea Ibarra and Maria Clara get to speak privately in the azotea of Capitan Tiago's house. It was nearing All Souls Day so Ibarra excused himself and told Maria Clara that he will go to San Diego to take care of his father's grave.
.Some Notes A major portion of this chapter concerns the old letter of Ibarra to Maria Clara. Capitan Tiago cannot really be considered as someone from San Diego because Maria Clara visits that town only during vacations. prim and proper. which belies the common perception that she is refined. The reader will note a different (if almost playful) side of Maria Clara.
And what did Maria Clara do to prove her own love for Ibarra? 3.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God? .And what did Maria Clara show in return? 5.What other proofs did Ibarra display? 4. ever forgot about Maria Clara? 2.And what reasons did Ibarra give for leaving the Philippines? 7.What did Ibarra place in his letter to Maria Clara? 6.How did Ibarra prove that he never.Questions 1. not even for an instant.
Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government? 11.8. there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven? 10. refuses to sing? Who is Macbeth? 12. after finding a great treasure.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers? .Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who.
one thing is quite evident: After being away for seven years. Along the way. Ibarra saw no changes whatsoever. Ibarra proceeds to San Diego. .Chapter 08: Memories After visiting Maria Clara.
.it is dilapidated but continues to serve others. rises and falls at the whim of the Pasig river's tide.Some Notes This chapter shows a country's lack of progress during those times. and sometimes gets destroyed by the river. Rizal likens the "good Filipino" to the Barkas Bridge -. Filipinos continued to serve the oppressive government. At that time.
the riches I have endeavored to augment as much as I could.What lesson is Rizal trying to impart with the priest's: "I have tried to transmit to you what I have received from my teachers. that all that glitters is not gold. for you are going to very rich countries"? 3. and I am passing it on to the following generation. go to their country to look for that other gold which we lack. Remember. however. it is inheried only by those who have the heart"? 2." .Questions and Answers 1.Explain: "They come in search of gold. and you can triple it.What did the old priest mean when he advised Ibarra: "Do not forget that if knowledge is the patrimony of humanity. You will do the same with those who come after you.
Explain: "No..you can triple it. look for that other gold which welack. 5. for youare going to very rich countries.Who is this old priest? From his statement ..4. that which is fated does not tarnish the Motherland. the country first.... No!" . we can guess that the priest is a Filipino who got educated in thePhilippines. Spain's daughter. One can speculate that this priest refers to someone like PadreBurgos who was executed in Bagumbayan (Take note of the line: Thatman had died in Bagumbayan [in reference to the old priest]).. despite everything. first the Spanish nation! No. first the Philippines.
Chapter 09: Some Country Matters Ibarra sees Padre Damaso riding in his victoria. seating for two passengers and a perched seat in front for the driver. This chapter focuses on three major conversations between or among: Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago (in Tiago's house/office) Padre Hernando Sibyla and an old. on the other hand. a low. light. extremely sick Dominican (in Intramuros) Capitan Heneral and his men Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago . fourwheeled carriage (with a foldable calash top. sees Tia Isabel and Maria Clara (they were going to the convent to get Maria Clara's things).) Padre Damaso.
sometimes in front of the Blessed Virgin Mary.Padre Damaso does not want Maria Clara to marry Ibarra and is displeased with Capitan Tiago for not informing him of a marriage agreement made with Don Rafael (Ibarra's father). Some prayers are said for someone's safe journey. It is unclear why Capitan Tiago chose not to consult with Padre Damaso about such an agreement in the past. But. As long as the candle remained lit. (For those unfamiliar with this practice. Capitan Tiago obeys the priest and extinguishes the candle he previously ordered lit for Ibarra's safe journey to San Diego (Ibarra's hometown). a candle is usually lit and placed on an altar.) . true to his form. it was believed that the traveler was protected. since there were bandits about and who knows what other dangers lurk at each bend.
Here we see the Ibarra is completely unaware that the priests are plotting against him. . Those Dominicans are deathly afraid of Ibarra because they know he--with his education--is not ignorant of his situation. Old Dominican We don't know what the old priest is sick of. Also. eh?) Padre Sibyla and the Very Sick. Ibarra might later rise as a leader for the indios. The chapter ends with Tiago blowing out the candle and muttering that there is still time and the journey is long. but that's not the point of this chapter. (What a future father-in-law.
. Afterall. knowing about the misfortune of Don Rafael and knowing character of Ibarra.. You'll never know. Sibyla also considers Ibarra as an "obedient child" who will not fight outright with the friars. (So watch out when things seem to go too well for you. Or so thought the old priest.The Dominicans. the Dominicans were confident about controlling Ibarra. Nevertheless.. The old Dominican mentioned that he prefers an open fight rather than the useless praise of his friends. Ibarra was quite subtle in his verbal fight with Padre Damaso earlier. Padre Sibyla sees Ibarra as someone with finesse (good breeding). through Maria Clara and Capian Tiago. already foresaw the brewing conflict between the young man and Padre Damaso. which tends to make the priests soft and unaware that they are starting to lose their hold on the people.
since the Spanish government is concerned with maintaining power over the Philippines. Padre Sibyla worries.After all. whom the gods wish to destroy. Remember that the Church and State are not really the best of friends: . however. If there is no conflict. they will help the priests if ever the indios rise in revolt. the government might not see the need for the Spanish priests. they first make mad. that the government might side with the indios.) Also. and will just rely on the Filipino priests to keep the rest of the population timid. however.
Capitan Heneral and his men . No identified Leader. Realize that the Filipinos lacked two important things in their bid for political justice and economic freedom: Lack of country-wide unity.The friars murdered Capitan Heneral Bustamante in Malacanan before. note Rizal's dig at the frailocracy when the priest uttered that God should have mercy on them (the priests). The people were geographically scattered by the Spaniards. Capitan Heneral Ma. Anyway. de la Torre was well-loved by the indios because he was just (and didn't always support the friars).
) The Capitan Heneral revealed to his men that he was unhappy with the situation in the Philippines and that the country should be thrown into chaos so that the priests can be kicked out. reasoned the Capitan Heneral. just as was done by the Europeans to the priests there.The Capitan Heneral was aware of the insulting remarks made by Padre Damaso against him. The story did not come from Teniente Guevara because it was beneath him to "snitch" on Padre Damaso. (In the vernacular. However. he did not want to make "sipsip" to the Capitan Heneral. just as his predecessors did. he decided to just close his eyes to the matter. since this was the fate of the Philippines. . because Laruja (the writer) told the Capitan Heneral's adjutant about it.
there was no such town called San Diego in the Philippines. We learn that at that time. . each generation bore only one child). however. because this is where the guardia civiles chased Ibarra and Elias when the former escaped from prison. We can assume. that the town is located near the shore of Laguna Lake.Chapter 10: The Town This chapter describes the town of San Diego and the lineage of Crisostomo Ibarra (surprisingly.
they should've helped her instead. Did he succeed? . We tend to laugh at disabled people (this was during Rizal's time and perhaps even up to today) -. wooden bridge. Pinoys enjoy scenes of tragedy or misfortune.the kids swimming in the lake laughed at an old woman who was having a hard time crossing the bridge. Once the town prospers. Rizal pointed it out in hopes that people would correct this kind of behavior. Rizal likens Philippine culture to a swaying.Note also that each town is initially taken care of by a Pilipino priest. the Spanish friars take over.
however. The first Ibarra in San Diego gave cash. feared the forest. had lived long in the Philippines. and don't forget those malaria-bearing mosquitoes.. dark. How the Ibarras acquired the forest in San Diego. . People. jewelry and clothes to those who claimed to own the forest. He was very fluent with the Tagalog language.Ibarra's ancestor. eerie. strange sounds.. You know how forests are: cold. who first came to San Diego.
Ibarra's ancestors had a mean streak. compassion and self-control. He helped contribute to San Diego's progress. We can't tell for sure if she was a Filipina from Manila. but was also hardworking. or a Spaniard born and raised in Manila. Geez. . Rosalinda fans!) He was very strict. A description of Don Saturnino. probably the Fernando Jose type (hello there. a Spanish mestiza. do people really care about Ibarra's lineage? Apparently so. It's also possible she was a native. Spanish mestizo. but their blood soon mixed with native understanding. Don Saturnina's wife.
. they act civil with each other in gatherings and in public. The friars and the spaniards are the powerful and most influential persons in town. Though he is considered well-loved. he is not the most influencial person in this town.The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule Even though Don rafael Ibarra is the wealthiest in San Diego to whom everyone owes a debt of gratitude from.Chapter 11 . Kapitan Tiago is also not considered the powerful person in town. even though he receives gifts from everyone and to whom a few has certain debt of gratitude from. He is humble and a man of character. some people were also laughing at him behind his back and were spreading ill rumors about him. they are competitors in position and power. Although.
What is the relationship between the chocolate and the character of the priests. Why do you think this chapter is entitled "The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule"? Describe the sovereigns. Describe the differences of Father Salvi and Father Damaso. Re-tell the encounter between Father Salvi and the Alferez. 5. 2. 4.Questions: 1. Discuss. Comment on their actions and words. 3. What are the similarities of San Diego and old Rome? Describe. .
Capitan Tiago receives a telegram and learns that the Capitan Heneral will proceed to the house of Capitan Tiago. The friars were hurt. the scribe. to his left. The alferes. and talk centers around careers: should one be a priest or a doctor? . who will arrive on the fourth. To the right of the young man sits Maria Clara. Also present are Capitan Tiago. Children are with their parents. and the town captain. On opposite ends of a long table sit Ibarra and the mayor. Capitan Tiago leaves the luncheon and goes home immediately.Chapter 35: The Luncheon Ibarra returns to the school. the alferes. Talk turns to the sermon delivered by Padre Damaso. while Padre Salvi remains quiet and does not contribute to the discussion. mayor and town captain also received telegrams from the Capitan Heneral. People notice that Padre Damaso is not present. but they did not say anything.
Padre Damaso stands up and Ibarra grabs him while asking if there was anyone in the crowd who did not love their father. hits him on the head (Padre Damaso falls). Padre Damaso then belittles the mestizos and indios in order to get at Ibarra. then grabs a knife and warns people to stay away. Ibarra turns to the friar and asks him if he does not hear the deafening silence. He sits in front of the dining table and criticizes the architecture which Ibarra is proud of. He is unable to finish his sentence because Ibarra leaps at Padre Damaso. Don Rafael.. As the luncheon comes to an end. Padre Damaso arrives. Ibarra keeps quiet. Padre Damaso then talks about Ibarra's father. and laughs at the way Don Rafael died in jail. Again. . Ibarra remains quiet.. or who hated even the memory of their dad.
He asks the crowd if Padre Damaso is justified in tarnishing the memory of his father. Maria Clara stops him. The crowd remains silent. Ibarra drops the knife and runs away. Who is Padre Damaso? . Ibarra raises the knife. Ibarra tells everyone present about the good things his father. Don Rafael. has done.
From the conversation between Padre Salvi and the mayor.Questions 1.Why did Padre Damaso come to the luncheon even if he was not invited? .Why did the friars feel bad? 3.What did Rizal say about the way Filipinos discipline their children especially when they are in front of others? 8. what can we infer from the latter (mayor)? 6.Did Ibarra deliberately not invite Padre Damaso to the luncheon? 5.Who was the mayor referring to (dinner guest called Platon)? 4.Why did Padre Salvi remain silent? 7.From the career discussion (should a child be a priest or a doctor).Why is the Capitan Heneral going to the house of Capitan Tiago? 2. what can be said about the effectivity of schools? 9.
What did Ibarra mean when he said that he was avoiding Padre Damaso. God brought the friar to Ibarra. hit the friar. and therefore God made a judgment? 14.What can we say about the fact that from the many people present.it was only Maria Clara who stopped Ibarra from killing PadreDamaso? .What made Ibarra break his silence.10. and threaten to stab Padre Damaso? 13.What criticisms did Padre Damaso level at Ibarra? 11.And what did Ibarra do while he was being humiliated? 12.
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