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Proceeding

Proceeding

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Published by: Muhammad Rafi on Mar 21, 2012
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Study of Relay Protection on PT.

PLN (PERSERO) P3B Jawa-Bali RJTB UPT Kediri
Muh. Siddiq B., 2 Muh. Rafi Department of Electrical Engineering, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya 1 siddiq@elect-eng.its.ac.id, 2 m_rafi@elect-eng.its.ac.id Abstract- In this paper there are presented the report of our job training on PT. PLN (PERSERO) UPT Kediri about study of relay protection. In UPT Kediri, we studied methodology and calculation analysis to set the relay protection. There are some relay protection on UPT Kediri, but we focus of Overcurrent Relay. Index Terms- relay protection, over current relay. I. INTRODUCTION Power systems should be designed so that protective relays operate to sense and isolate faults quickly to limit the extent and duration of service interruptions. Protective relays are important in industrial power systems because they can prevent large losses of production due to unnecessary equipment outages or unnecessary equipment damage occurring as a result of a fault or overload. Other considerations are safety, property losses, and replacements. Protective relays have been called the watchdogs or silent sentinels of a power system. Protective relays are classified by the variable they monitor or by the function they perform. Planning for the protection system should be considered in the power system design stage to ensure that a good system can be implemented. II. OVERCURRENT RELAY By far, the most commonly used protective relays is the overcurrent relay. Overcurrent relay is used as both primary and backup protective devices and are applied in every protective zone in the system. Overcurrent relays are typically used to monitor current levels of specified time delay to initiate switching or tripping operations. III. DATA COLLECTING Data collecting for job training report was executed in switchyard of UPT Kediri. Data Gathering single line diagram data, relay trial of over current relay ( nominal current, Current Transformer (CT) ratio, current and time setting), power transformer data, and other protection device data which related with protection system in Banaran switchyard of UPT Kediri.  Analyse Orde of Impedance base from single line diagram of electricity in Banaran switchyard. Impedance orde which analyse is positif sequence impedance, negative sequence impedance, and zero sequence impedance. The impedances have been analysed and refer to interruption source which appropriate with relay placement that was coordinated. Calculate interruption current of short circuit. Short circuit current (Isc) 3 phase was calculated with the equation : Isc = (A) Short circuit current inter phase was calculated with the equation : Isc = (A)  Calculate Short Circuit Voltage. Vf = Isc 3 phase sec x Zt , Vf = Short Circuit Voltage in secondary side CT (V) Zt = Total Impedance (Ω) Analyse of CT which have been used in Banaran switchyard UPT Kediri. In order to Protection can work properly one of the condition is have to watch ratio among the knee point with voltage short circuit must bigger than 1. Vk = knee point Vf = Short Circuit Voltage in secondary side CT (V) Analyse Setting of Over Current Relay (OCR) Setting that have to be analysed is current setting IV. CALCULATION PROCEDURE Several step for Calculation and Analysis to get the last result from Job Training Report is:  Analyse every impedance and make them to per unit (pu) Base Impedance (Ω) : Per Unit Impedance Value :
1

91 289.73 317.29 171.15 G 2.45 160.73 P 1.45 N 1.16 308.37 155.91 434. Type of CT that installed in secondary side of power transformer no. 10 = Accuracy limit factor CT until 10 times current rating.45 303.77 160.13 F 2.89 .45 230. Vs = 5.97 157.694.0 80.426.0 From Analysis will be known that relay setting of Banaran switchyard appropriate or not yet. Current setting is gotten with calculate the current value when interruption of short circuit happened and for the setting time is suited with the constant α and β where the constant depend from type of current curve : Time/Current Curve α β Normal inverse 0.87 D 2.25 329.048 Ω Rd CT = 0.60 771.40 B 3. so the accuracy limit factor CT is 20000 A. CALCULATION ANALYSIS AND PROTECTION SETTING Coordination among protection in a certain power system is important thing because with the coordination inter protection so continuity of electricity distribution not be interrupted.905.60 299.5 Iset sec = Iset prim x (1/ratio CT) Iset prim = 2000 A Iset sec = 2000 x 5A For disturbance 3 phase in A (maximum) =11.569.48 2.42 154.04 Ω Total load in secondary side CT = 1.current max 3 phase is 11.99 455.73 309. For disturbance 3 phase in J (minimum) =1.04 288.61 J 1.25 A Current disturbance that enter OCR = = x 11081.25 = 27. Current Calculation For Calculation we use the current disturbance in Ngadiluwih Feeder 20 kV Disturbance Current (A) 3 phase 2 phase max min max min A 11. A. so the setting of relay must appropriate so the protection device can coordinate optimally so we have to calculate the value of Isc that might be happen.113.157.60 291.558 201.538. and then the solution is change/increase ratio CT in feeder with 15 VA 5P 30. Exp : 15 VA = Load rating of CT is 15 VA 5P = Protection Class “P”.7 A > (Iset sec = 5 A) so relay active.58 577.476. But the problem is CT ratio that installed in Ngadiluwih Feeder.081.661.31 162.3774 329. Ratio CT is secondary side of Power Transformer no 5 is 2000/5.88 E 2. C. It refer the equation .27 646.440.43 313.14 Very inverse 1. and then from analysis of transformer will be known that the protection system can work properly or no. Analysis Current Transformer (CT) From the measuring in Banaran switchyard : properly enough.426.21 287.10 287.0 Long time inverse 1.60 156.52 x 1.56 179.532.19 516.429.73 293.0 13.01 785.88 295.85 303.91 308. 400/5 so the accuracy limit only 4000 A. With the disturbance current in A it cause relay in feeder work unappropriately.00 469.65 497.494.43 289.123.23 472.630.426.45 450. so accuracy limit factor CT is 12000 A.23 L 1. with 5% error in limit accuracy rating. Analysis Overcurrent Relay Setting OCR Setting in Secondary Side Power Transformer no.28 176.25 A Vf = Isc 3 phase sec x total load in sec side CT Vf = 138.91 947.71 V Vk = 135 V In order to Protection can work properly one of the condition is have to = = 0.5 Extremely inverse 2. 5 in Banaran switchyard is : 15 VA 5P 10.0 120.94 170.26 C 3.24 V Is = 5 A Load that connected to CT = 1.02 0. (it still under accuracy limit factor.40 177.79 699.95 155.10 . One of the most important device to detect the disturbance and coordinate the protection device is relay.69 K 1.79 439. it still save and CT can measuring accurately so relay in secondary side transformer still can work properly.43 3.75 O 1.021 Q 1.518.48 Tabel : Calculation of Impedance Disturbance from Ngadiluwih Feeder. < 1 so the protection work not V.10 A Current disturbance that enter OCR = = x 1.088 Ω Vk = 135 V (result from measuring CT in Banaran switchyard) From the calculation : Isc 3 phase sec = Isc 3 phase sec = = 138. B. and time setting.95 I 1. from the table of disturbance in A dist.45 767.088 = 150. CT can measuring accurately so relay in secondary side transformer still can work properly.686 166.25. if the relay setting need to recoordinate so it has to be done.081.60 H 2.53 M 1.081.

4 s from active time relay in feeder 20kV (from the downstream side).2 So to calculate time active of Relay is define by this equation: t(s) = Ihs Iset primer 0 29 0 4 To determine setting value OCR in secondary side of transformaer. 0.685 MVA Line to line Voltage = 20 kV In = Iset primer = k x In .75 A) so relay active.82 s From the result of calculation get the active time of relay in feeder is less than active time of relay for secondary side transformer.3% CT Ratio : 2000/5 Nominal current transformater in 20 kV calculate with this equation: Iload = In = = = 1.36 s Secondary Side of Transformer t(s) = Ihs Iset primer t(s) = 0 2 0 14 11 081 25 2 078 4 = 0.4 A Iset sekunder = 5.732A L L √ 20 √ Iset primer = k x Inominal = 1.we have to calculate the nominal current. Capacity : 60 MVA Voltage : 150/20 kV Impedance : 12.2 (PLN. so the value of k that used in OCR type SPAJ 140 is k= k= = 0.25 A Current disturbance that enter OCR = = x 11081.078.196 A Time setting : t(s) = Ihs Iset primer Load Power = 7.4 x 2000 = 5. Selectivity Work of Overcurrent Relay Setting OCR for Ngadiluwih feeder: Iset primer = 266.078.22 A Time Setting : Time Setting Relay standard inverse is calculated with this equation: t(s) = To determine value of k or TMS (time multiple setting) which will set in OCR is taken value of maximum disturbance current (Isc) that happen in Ngadiluwih feeder and time of OCR assume 0.2 x 221.426. If happen the disturbance relay that will active first is protection relay from feeder.081.17 so we take value of k = 0.4A To get setting secondary value. so it si calculated with CT ratio that installed: Iset sekunder = Iset primer x (1/CT ratio) = 2.078.2 based on inverse time characteristic.2 x 1. protection dept:14) Iset primer = 1.05 – 1.75 A For disturbance 3 phase in A (maximum) =11. .4A t(s) = 0 2 0 14 11 081 25 266 22 = 0. so the coordination of relay between feeder and secondary side trafo is correct so protection device can work properly.3 s.OCR Setting in Feeder 20 kV Iset sec = Iset prim x (1/ratio CT) Iset prim = 300 A Iset sec = 300 x 3. D.22 A Iset sekunder = 3. For disturbance 3 phase in J (minimum) =1.17 √ Because the value of k OCR in feeder taken value of maximum disturbance current (Isc) that happen in Ngadiluwih must based on value of current disturbance 3 phase value that happen in the same location.85 A = 266.5 Banaran Switchyard 2 078 4 k= = 0.25 = 138. Time Setting OCR in Feeder 20 kV (Ngadiluwih) Nominal Current Feeder : Iload = In = √ = 2. Time Setting OCR in Power Transformer no.196 A TMS (k) = 0. E. where k = safety factor 1.10 A Current disturbance that enter OCR = = x 1.33 A TMS (k) = 0.732 A = 2.5 : Iset primer = 2.51 A > (Iset sec = 3. if the protection from feeder failed so the relay protection in transformer secondary side will active. and then the time relay in secondary side transformer 20kV have to be made slower.078.75 A) so relay active.2 based on inverse time characteristic. F. So the value k that will set in OCR secondary side of transformer 20kV is t s k= Ihs Iset primer so we take value of k = 0.426.2 Setting OCR for secondary side of Power transformer no.10 A > (Iset sec = 3.

the switchyard must be protected by protection device and one of the device is Relay. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. 1999.relay that will active first is protection relay from feeder. And after analyse. McGrow-Hill Book Company. 2010. VI.id . [2] J. From the result of calculation get the active time of relay in feeder is less than active time of relay for secondary side transformer (PT no. and analysis protection coordination.5). Buku Pegangan Jurusan Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknologi Industri. Continuity/reliability of electricity distribution have to be kept. VII. Instalasi Listrik Dasar Edisi Ketiga. SSMB Publishing Division. for example : impedance and current calculation. In the setting of protection device there are some procedure and analysis that have to be done. 1987.B. Handout Kuliah. if the protection from feeder failed so the relay protection in transformer secondary side will active. in reality CT that installed in Banaran switchyard there are some mistake or not appropriate setting so the ratio between the knee point with voltage short circuit is less than 1.co. Electrical Power Distribution System Engineering.pln. . June 1996. [3] Trevor Linsley. If sometime happen the disturbance. Gupta. [5] Wahyudi. In order to Protection can work properly one of the condition have to watch is ratio between the knee point with voltage short circuit. Pengaman Sistem Tenaga Listrik. if the protection from feeder failed so the relay protection in transformer secondary side will active. Penerbit Airlangga. 2011. Switchgear and Protection. Jakarta.relay that will active first is protection relay from feeder. Advance Power System In SI Units. . Peralatan Tegangan Tinggi. so the coordination of relay between feeder and secondary side trafo is correct. Surabaya. [4] Teguh Yuwono dan Sjamsul Anam. 2004. REFERENCE [1] Turan Gonen. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. CONCLUSION Electrical Substation is complex device that function to connect electricity from high voltage transmission network to distribute in the primary distribution network. [6] www.

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