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Describe the use of different types of fabrics and the importance of the fabric direction Describe the different types of matrix phases upon which composites are based. Describe the function of the primary and secondary phase in a composite material. Describe the difference between simple and advanced composites Identify the manufacturing techniques of composites List the advantages and disadvantages of plastics and composites
Composites A judicious combination of two or more materials that produces a synergistic effect. IT 208 Chapter 19 3 . A material system composed of two or more physically distinct phases whose combination produces aggregate properties that are different from those of its constituents.
) Can be one of the three basic materials or an element such as carbon or boron Secondary • • • IT 208 Chapter 19 4 . or ceramics Referred to as the imbedded phase or called the reinforcing agent Serves to strengthen the composite.Composites A composite material consists of two phases: Primary • • Forms the matrix within which the secondary phase is imbedded Any of three basic material types: polymers. metals. particles. etc. (fibers.
such as cemented carbides and other cermets.Classification of composite material Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) • Include mixtures of ceramics and metals. especially in high temperature applications Thermosetting resins are the most widely used polymers in PMCs. high stiffness fibers Least common composite matrix. Epoxy and polyester are commonly mixed with fiber reinforcement Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) • • Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) IT 208 Chapter 19 5 . as well as aluminum or magnesium reinforced by strong. Aluminum oxid and silicon carbide are materials that can be imbedded with fibers for improved properties.
Classification of composite material Matrix material serves several functions in the composite • • • provides the bulk form of the part or product holds the imbedded phase in place shares the load with the secondary phase IT 208 Chapter 19 6 .
The Reinforcing Phase The imbedded phase is most commonly one of the following shapes: • Fibers • Particles • Flakes IT 208 Chapter 19 7 .
Fibers used can be either continuous or discontinuous • • Continuous fibers – are very long. hexagonal. but can also be in the form of tubular. in theory.005 in depending on the material.0001 in to about .The Reinforcing Phase Fibers Diameters range from . Generally circular in cross-section. they offer a continuous path by which a load Can be carried by the composite material Discontinuous fibers – are short lengths IT 208 Chapter 19 8 . rectangle.
The Reinforcing Phase Orientation of fibers is an important consideration. One-dimensional • maximum strength and stiffness are obtained in the direction of the fiber Planar • in the form of two-dimensional woven fabric Random or three-dimensional • the composite material tends to posses isotropic properties IT 208 Chapter 19 9 .
graphite (carbon). the most common fibers used in composites are glass. the term fiberglass is applied to denote glass fiberreinforced plastic (GFRP) • • E-glass – strong and low cost.000 psi). but modulus is less than other (500.000 psi) S-glass – stiffer and its tensile strength in one of the highest of all fiber materials (650. Glass – most widely used fiber in polymer composites.The Reinforcing Phase Types of fabrics Currently. Has about five times the tensile strength of steel and has a density of about one third that of steel IT 208 Chapter 19 10 . boron and Kevlar 49.
The Reinforcing Phase Carbon – are generally a combination of graphite. Boron – very high elastic modulus. used as reinforcing fiber in plastics IT 208 Chapter 19 11 . but its high cost limits its application to aerospace components Ceramics – Silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are the main fiber materials among ceramics. Graphite has a tensile strength three to five times stronger than steel and has a density that is one-fourth that of steel. lowmodulus metals such as aluminum and magnesium Metal – Steel filaments. Both have high elastic moduli and can be used to strengthen low-density.
This form of composite strengthening occurs in cemented carbides. in which tungsten carbide (80%) is held in a cobalt binder.The Reinforcing Phase Particles and Flakes Particles Is an important material form for metals and ceramics range in size from microscopic (less than 1 micron) to macroscopic (greater than 1 micron) • • • In the microscopic size range and proportion of imbedded material of 15% or less. IT 208 Chapter 19 12 . the particles result in strengthening the matrix In the macroscopic size range and proportion of imbedded material of 25% or more. the particles serve to share the load with the matrix material.
The Reinforcing Phase Flakes Basically.01 to 1. two-dimensional particles ranging 0. with a thickness of 0.0 mm in across the flake.005 mm IT 208 Chapter 19 13 .001 to 0.
carbon. ceramics. and boron FRMMC – combine the high tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of a fiber with metals of low density.METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Common reinforcing phase includes • Particles of ceramic (commonly called cermets) • Fibers of various materials. including other metals. IT 208 Chapter 19 14 . thus achieving good strength-to-weight and modulus-to-weight ratios in the resulting composite material.
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Cemented carbides are composed of one or more Carbide compounds bonded in a metallic matrix Common cemented carbides are based on: Tungsten carbide (WC) Titanium carbide (TiC) Chromium carbide (Cr3C2) Tantalum carbide (TaC) IT 208 Chapter 19 15 .
used TiC and Cr3C2 IT 208 Chapter 19 16 . typically ranging in content from 80% to 95% of total weight.METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Carbide ceramics constitute the principal ingredient in cemented carbides. Principle metallic binders are: • Cobalt – used for WC • Nickel .
its oxidation resistance at high temperature is superior to that of cobalt. • • Nickel is the preferred binder. Used as a cutting tool material for machining steels.METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Cutting tools are the most common application of cemented carbides based on tungsten carbide Titanium carbide cermets are used principally for high temperature applications. IT 208 Chapter 19 17 .
IT 208 Chapter 19 18 .CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES Advantage High stiffness Hardness Hot hardness Compressive strength Relatively low density Disadvantage Low toughness and bulk tensile strength Susceptibility to thermal cracking Ceramic matrix composites represent an attempt to retain the desirable properties of ceramics while compensating for their weakness.
CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES Ceramic materials used as matrices includes: • Alumina • Boron carbide • Boron nitride • Silicon carbide • Silicon nitride • Titanium carbide IT 208 Chapter 19 19 .
and Kevlar 49 with glass (E-glass) the most common fiber material IT 208 Chapter 19 20 . Widely used in rubber products such as tires and conveyor belts. FRP are most closely identified with the term composite. Principle fiber materials are: glass. carbon.POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES The most important of the three classes of synthetic composites. FRP A composite material consisting of a polymer matrix imbedded with high-strength fibers.
IT 208 Chapter 19 21 .POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Advanced composites – use boron. carbon. Kevlar as the reinforcing fibers with epoxy as the common matrix polymer.
made by stacking and bonding thin layers of fiber and polymer until the desired thickness is obtained. The most widely used form if a laminar structure. Interply hybrid (across) – Different plies of different fibers (Figure 19-7). • • Intraply hybrids (within) . IT 208 Chapter 19 22 .POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Hybrids When two or more fibers materials are combined in the composite.Alternate strands of different fibers in a single layer or ply (Fig. 19-6).
POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Attractive features of FRP: • • • • • • • high strength-to-weight ratio high modulus-to-weight ratio low specific gravity good fatigue strength good corrosion resistance. leading to good dimensional stability significant anisotropy in properties IT 208 Chapter 19 23 . although polymers are soluble in various chemicals low thermal expansion.
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