~~

''''''!'''".-=::''-

s:

_..,.-...-- --

-

-="1. __

=-=_~~'

.... - _.I-~J·-:~~I.·r '-':
-

~~~

"'4'~

.-:--

-'~-=::-~{'~_1

VERB TENSES
'INDICATIVE
The Indicative

--

REGULAR VERBS
Note: All conjugations are presented as follows: yo lu
el/ellc/Ud. nosolros/nosotros vosotros/vosotros

MOOD

expresses tccts and actual situations.

SIMPLE
1.

TENSES

ellos/elias/Uds.

Present: Describes (1) action happening at the moment; (2) habitual action: • Hablo con Ana frecuentemente. (I talk I am talking I do talk to Ana frequently.) 2. Imperfect: Describes ongoing or habitual past action: • HalJlabas can Ana caoa dia. (You talked I used to talk to Ana every day.) I 3. Preterite: Describes past action that is finished or complete: • Juan haIJ16 con Ana aver. (Juan talked to Ana yesterday.) 4. Future: Describes action that will take place in the future: • LOS abcgados hablaran con Ana manana, (The lawyers will talk to Ana tomorrow.) 5. Conditional: Similar to English "would" or "could": 1 • Hablarlamos con Ana, perc no esta (We would talk to Ana, but she's not here.)

-AR VERBS
HABLAR
to speak, 10 lalk Sin ular PrOil!le"~.t

Regular -rrr verbs like habfQr are corquqotedcs

follows, Many -or verbs ore regular,

pre"nt portiolple, hllblondo pcl$I pdrtidpla: hoblodo Plural _
Sin

ular Conditional hablaria hablarias habloria Present subjunctive

Plurol habloriamos hablariais hablorian -

hablo hablamos hqblos habl6is habla hablan "'C'm-p-e-rf-:-e-c7t--------

---_~=--_=

PERFECT TENSES
The perfect tenses are formed by using the verb haher, conjugated in the appropriate tense, along with the past participle of the verb of action. Haber is conjugated in the table below. 1. Present perfect: uescrtbes (1) action that Degan in the past and continues in the present; (2) action that took place in the past out somehow bears on the present: • He hablado con Ana rnucnas veces. (I have talked to Ana many times.) 2. Past perfect (pluperfect): oescrlbes past action that was completed Defore another action took place: • Ella nabia nabtado con Aria antes (fel exarnen. (She had talked to Ana before the test.) 3. Preterite perfect: Rarely used except in literature; describes action completed just before another past action occurs, often with apenas (hardly, barely): • Apel1as hube nanlado con Ana cuenco sano. (I had barely talked to Ana when she left.) 4. Future perfect: Describes action that will have taken place before a future event or action: • Hatiras hablado con Ana manana. (You will have talked to Ana by tornorrow.) 5. Conditional perfect: Describes action that would have been completed in the past: Yo habna hablado coo AM, pew tenia mleoo. (I would have talked to Ana, but I was scared)

hablaba habl6bamos hablabas hoblobais hablaba habloban --;PO'r-et:-e-r"ife--------------hoble hablasle habl6 Future
hoblcre

hoble hablemos hables hoblels hable hablen Imperfect subjunctive

hablamos hablaro hoblorornos hablaslels habloras hablarais habloron hablora hoblaron ----------_-_-_-_-_·-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-+lc~lm~pe~r:aC7.ti~ve~--------- ,-------hablaremos
hobloreis

hablar6s hablar6

hoblor6n

habla I no hables hable

hablemos hablod I no hobleis hablen

Regular -€If verbs like comer are conjugaled as follows. Severol other common, fully regulor -er verbs ore listed aflerward. Alwoys be coreful conjugaling -er verbs, because many ore irregulor in one or more lenses or hove irregular parliciples

-ER VERBS
COMER
to eat

HABER
to hcve Ihelping verbl

---

~ Plural hemos
hobeis

JIQfflCfplel hobiendCl Plural __j
habriomos

P_
Plural

paat portlcfpl&: habJdo
5 n ular ____ -+C=o~n~d~n~io~n~a~l

pcntlclple: camie~do past participle: comldc Sin ular Conditional
comeria cornerlos comeria

51 ulll'r Present he has ha Imperfect

Or Present

Plural
comeriamos comeriais comerian

han

II

habria , hobrlos habria PresentSiiblunctive

hobrlois habrian

Present subjunctive hayomos hovels hoven.
hubierornos coma comas coma comamos cornets cornen

hablamos hoya habia hayas habias habiais haya habia habian ~~3L~----------~-----------~N1pe~.ublunc~ft~y-e--~--------~~ Preterite
hubimos hubiera hube hubieras hubisteis hubiste hubiera hubieron hubo ---------------------------t.I~m~p-er~a~fl~ve~--------------------~ Future hobre hobros habremos hobrels hebron

Imperfect subjunctive hubierais hubieran
comiera comieras comiero cornierornos comierais comieran

----'

~~~---------------------------r.I-m-per-a~tl~ve-------------------------~ hayomos habed I no hay6is hayan aprender 110 learn I Ibarrer Ito sweepl Ibeber Ito drlnkl comprender Ito undersland)
correr (to run) come / no comas

habra

he I no hoyos haya

leoma d'eber 110 ows) depender 110 depend I esconder 110 hide, to conceall meter Ito put inl
responder (to respond, to answer)

comamos corned / no corners coman

PRESENT
The present expression. the present • E:stoy

PROGRESSIVE

TENSE

progressive tense describes action that is taking place exactly at the time of It is formed by using the verb "star, conjugated in the present tense, along with participle (gerundio) of the verb of action. nebrancc con Ana ahorlta (I am talking to Ana right now.)

suceder Ito hoppenl temer Ito fearl roser 110 coughl vender 110 selll

sorprender

(10 surprise)

I ~!'!~~~cti~e~!~!~s
I SIMPLE
TENSES

a~o~s~~

are uncertctn. doubtful. possible, or clewed

Regular -Ir verbs like vivir are coniug.oled os follows. Several other common, fully regular -Jr verbs. ore lis led otterword. Always be coretut coniWloting -ir verbs, becouss many ore lrrequlor in one or more lenses or have irre~ular parliciples.

-fR VERBS
VIVIR

1. Present subjunctive: Used after clauses that express wish, hope, doubt, necessity, possibility, intent, and so on, For more information, consult the Spanish Grammar SparkChart. sspero Que habtes con Ana May (I hope you talk to Ana today.) • NO creo que hablemos con Me bastante, (I don't think we talk to Ana enough.) ouco que Ana hable elocllentemente. (I doubt that Ana talks eloquently.) NOvoy a salir sin que nantes con Ana, (I'm not going to leave unless you talk to Ana.) 2. Imperfect SUbjunctive: Used like the present subunctive but when the main verb is in the preterite, imperfect, or conditional tense: JlIan lnstsuo que yo hahlara can Ana. (Juan insisted that I talk to Ana.) • Note: There are two forms of the imperfect subjunctive: one with -ra endings (hablara) and one with -se endings (habl€se), They mean the same thing. Aside from regional exceptions, the -ra form is used far more frequently, so the -se form is not included on this chart.
I I

10 live ISlngular Present
vivo vives vive

p_nt participle: viviendo ptl$t participle: vivido Plural
vivimos

__

Sin ular Conditional
viviria vivirias

Plural
viviriamos vlviriois vivirian

-.---..~.--

vivis
viven

vivirlo ___ Present subjunctive
viva vivos viva

Imperfect~
vlvlo vlvlos vivia viviamos viviais vivian

pre~t~e~rit~e~------------------------~· vivi
vivisle vivio vlvimos vivisteis vivieron

vivamos vlvols vivan

Imperfect subiunctive
viviera vivieras viviera vlvierornos vivierais vivieran

PERFECT

SUBJUNCTIYE

TENSES

1. Present perfect SUbjunctive: Used like the present subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause is viewed as completed: • NOcreo que hayas hablado con Ana. (I don't think you have talked to Ana.) 2. Past perfect SUbjunctive (pluperfect subjunctive): Used like the imperfect subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause was completed before another action took place: '. No creta que hubleras nabtaco con Ana (I didn't think you had talked to Ana.)

-Fu-tu-re----------------------r.---~--------------------~
vivire vlviros vlvlro viviremos vlvlreis viviron

I
(to occur)

Imeerative vivamos vivid / no vlvois vivan

~e I no vivos
viva

IMPERATIVE

MOOD

The Imperafive expresses dlreci orders or commands. ,Habla con Ana inmedlatamente! (Talk to Ana immediately!) .' j No hables 'con Mal Estil de mal humor. (Don't talk to Ana! She's in a bad mood.)

aburrlr Ito bore] afiadir Ito add. to increasel aplaudir Ito applaud I asistir 110 Offend) combatir Ito comball confundir 110 confusel
consumir

discutir 110 discuss) exhiblr 110 exhibit, 10 show] existir 110 exisl) insistir [to insist) interrumpir 110 interrupll
ocurrir

deddir Ito decide)

(10 consume)

partir Ito divide, to split) permitir Ito permit, 10 ollowl

persistir 110 persistI prohiblr Ito prohibit) recibir Ito receiveI sacudir 110 shake) subir Ito go up. 10 gel,on) sufrir 1,10 suHer.to endure] unlr Ito unite. to [oln)

_'u"'"c:ct:civ"e=-divirtamos divirtcis diviertan _ ~erfect~------------~---------1~present·s=u'bJi~u"=c~t"-lv~e~~------~~ construia construias construia construiamos construiais conslruion construyo construyas construyo conslruyomos construyon I construy6is Preterite dlvertl divertimos divertisteis divirfieron divirtierornos divirtierals divirlieran divertiste dlvlrtio Preterite construi construiste construyo conslruimos construisteis conslruyeron Imperfect sub luncfive construyera eonstruyeras construyera construverornos conslruyerais conslruyeron Future construire construiros construir6 construiremos construlreis construir6n Imperatlve"-construyamos _ ..g .mt participle: andondo pod par1Iclple: andado PI""" I". see Ihe box on the next page.~-----~----------==~~p~res~~e~n~t~su~b~l~u~n~ct~iv~e~==..!!-e-rf~e-c~t---andaba andabas andaba Preterite anduve anduvisfe anduvo . Plural Present construyo construyes construye construimos conslruis construven pl'8S8nt participle: construvando past participle: construldo 51 ular Plural Conditional construirio construirias construirio conslruiriomos construlrlols construirion . For more information aboul use of rellsxlve verbs.. Conditlbndl Plural andariamos andariais ondarian ondemos ondeis creia creias creio creiamos crelols creian creamos erects crean andamos andaria ondols andorias andan andaria ~-----I.. 1<> dlstrect Ito have a good urne} 51nllulQr Plural 51 ular Plural ~3ent -----------r. ..SIn ular .cP~r-es-ent~-su~~u-nctIve~~and6bamos andabais andaban anduvimos onduvisteis anduvieron crei creiste creimos creisteis creyeron creyerornos creyerais creyeran crey6 anden creere creeros onduvierornos onduvierais anduvieran creer6 ------_.l dio Future dore dorcs dor6 ~-------+... concIucldo ~nt Plural conducimos conducts conducen SIn ulor PluroJ -t-'Cc::0.~_~ __ l-"Imperative do I no des de ----- condujiste condujimos conduieron condujisteis condujeras condujerornos condujeran daremos doreis demos condujerais ------------ dar6n dad I no deis den =--.. mperative anda I no andes ande andemos anden ondoron andad I no ondeis Sin IGr Present doy das do Plural damos dais dan SIn Conditional doria darias doria Plural dariomos doriais dorton CONDUCIR todrlve ._ r. If you con't find the verb you're looking for.:_t .C~o~n~d~I60~n~Q~~--------~~~--------~ DIVERTIR(SE) divierto diviertes divierte divertimos divertis divierten divertirlo divertirias divertiria diverliriamos divertirlois diverlirTon Imperfect ---------~~---I-present divertlo divertiamos divertiois divert1an divierto diviertos divertias divertia subl..U""Ctu ..:sc::e.:cn. conduzco conduces conduce part.--~ conoclerornos conocierais conocleran digamos Future conoceros conocero conocere canace rem as conocere!s conocer6n Imperative conoce / no conozcos conozcornos conoced / no conozc6is dir6 dir6n di I no digas diga decid I no dig6is digan conozco conozcon CONSTRUIR 10 build. z ----' e-e u Imperfec[_:__ deda "_~ deciamos +pc.F_:u=iu.:_Pc.__ _.-"..re"s"eoonc-t-'s~j~u'-'nc"tI"'ve'-=----digamos '" "" o conocerios conoceria imperlec'--conocia conodas canocia dedas ----------+presilritsublUnctlYe----·-----~ conociomos conociais conodon conozco conozcos conozco conozcornos conozcois conozcan dedaisl digas dig6is ~d~e-c~ia~----------d-e-c-ia-n------~---jdiga ~~~---d~ig~a-n----------Preterite Tlniperfect subjunctive dije dijimos dijera dijiste dijisteis diierns dijo dijeron dijera Fu·~tu-r-e~--------------'~~~--------~I~m~e-ra-t~ive dire diros diremos direis I dijeramos dijerais dijeran -Pr-e-te-r-it-e-'--··--_-__·~ conoci conociste conocio conocimos conocisteis conocieron ~__ Ilm~rfect conociera conocieras conociero subjunctive -~-. to tell 51 ular Present p-n participle: dlclendo past pattldple: dlcho Plural decimos diria dirias diriomos diriois dirian conduzcon CONOCER 10 know.These to bl es sn ow the corq ug otlons 0 r so m e comrn 0 n i rregu lor Spo n ISh verbs.".F~ut~u=re~----------divertire divertircs divertir6 diverliremos divertireis divertiron --------t~~~~------------divierte / no diviertas divierto ~------- divierto divertid divierton / no divirtois construyenoconstruyas I construidnoconstruy6is I construya construyan .perfect subjunctive condujera condujera conduzcas conduzcornos conduzccls dieras djero conduzcon ~-----.::--'-'re::_·======-_-_~_-_-_-~_-_~_-_· +t:mpera!ive--conducire conduciros conduciro conduciremos conducirels condudron conduce / no conduzcos conduzco conduzcamos condudd / no condozcois DECIR to SOY. n aIIIIr II 0 regIIIar"'"lrverb ~1I@t pOI1IQ~ . 10 construct $Jngula..lm_.. to become acquo Inted will! Sin ular Plural Prelllnt conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocets eonocen present participle: conociendo past partiCiple: (onoddo SIn ular Corn:lilional conoceria Pfural conoceriamos conocertots conocerian digo di'ces dice deds dicen diria \ diga ...---~-------... which lists many verbs conjuqcted in Ihe same way CIS other verbs on Ihis chort..-.~~~~~____' conducia condudas conduclc Preterite conduje condujo condudamos condudais condudan conduzco conduzcc -t_. ondore encores ondoro andaremos ondcrels t'I. divennse..e. senlir5S I are in y purple.:cn"'ditiooon"'aool conducirlo conducirias conduciria conduciriamos conduciriais conducirian Trnp-e-rf·e~ct~_--------------~~~~--~P~r-e-se-n~t-s-u·b~ju-~~i~ve-----------------------' daba dabas daba di d6bamos dabais daban ~ dimas de des de demos deis den diercmos dierais dieran '~P~r-e~~t~e~r~ioot~e~~~~~~~~~~: diste disteis dieron ~I~m!perfectsubjcu~n~ct~iv~e~ __ diera ~~~_p~e~rl~e~ct~--~ __ --_-.:re:. Th rs is not 0 n ex he Ustlve lis I Verbs typ ico II use d rell ex ively Ie.Ide frOm lis ab1erlo creemos creels creen creeriamos creeriais creerian ANDAR to walk SIn uIor Present ando andas ondo ~!_-"..F_.._----- ande andes onde Imperfect subjunctive onduviera anduvieros anduviera creeremos creereis crearon cree / no creos crea creomos creed / no cre6is creon .cip"': condudendo pact participle.-nt participle: dlvlrtlando past participle: dlVer1ldo 10 umcse. check the additional verbs list on the lcsl page..... ABRIR loop ..

:e'--~~ hociamos hociois I haga hag as ~.I.ce~rl-'e~ct'lugaba jugabas jugoba Preterite jugu. subjunctive muero mueros muero muramos rnurcis mueron Imp~e~rl·&c~I-------------------------+. 10 make SI ula. to sleep Sill tar Present duermo duermes duerme DDRMIR P/lmll dormimos dormiria dormirios -dorrnirlo dormiriamos dormiriais dorrnirlon logo IR dormis duermen voy vas va Imperlect iba ibas iba Preterite lui fuiste vamos vais van ibamos ibais irio irias iria Iriamos iriois irian Imperfect dormia dormias Present subjunctive dormiamos dormiols dormian dormimos dormisteis durmieron duerma duermas duerma durmamos durm6is duerman 'Present sub unctive vaya vayas vaya vayamos dormia dormi voyols vayon -----.lm---e-rl~ec--.nt . Definition: Reflexive verbs are verbs used in a way such that the subject and the direct object are the same.:~:rite hiee hiciste hizo . or se) fcllowed by the verb in conjugated form: Me afeito ceca dia._"'.----~--.ju_:goo...re s..-.~e------------------esfaba esfabas estobornos estabais este estes estemos esloba cp~r~et~e~. (I am getting dressed.__ " mostr6bomos mostrobais Present subJunctive muestre muestres muestre moslremos mostrels mueslren --- -.:"u::-nc~ti""·v::e--ha.cc:. jugasle juga Future jugar.. te.F~u7tu~re=-----------~----------_. to keep the stress on the correct syllable. 10 remainl enojorse (to gel angry) quitarse 110 toke off ldothesll equlvocarse (to be wrong) sentarse '110 sit down] irse 110 go away) sentirse 110 feellwell.Imperative . _________ moriamos morlois marion ~_1-.enlendimos enlendisleis entendieron entendamos entendois entiendan entendlercrnos entendierois entendieran juegue juguemos juegues jugu.:ga-n----------hloeromos hicierais hlclercn mostre mostroste mostr6 most rom os mostrosteis mostraron hagamos hoqois -su·b~l-u-nc-.~~e=estuve estuviste esluvo eslaban ~ estuvimos esluvisteis estuvieron este esters esten Preterit.. jugoramos jugarais __:_ju.. .ec:.:.. Plllror ~Pre~.. Present hogo haees haee pmsent parflclple: hacienda past partlcipl...t. __ ..~-t..... Conditional haria horios haria Plural hariamos haria is harian muestro muestras muestro Plural moslroriomos mostrariois moslrarian mostromos mostr6is muestran Imperfect . Preterlte.:rc:e=se=n:.~:!:rlect __ hieimos hicisteis hkieron hiciera hicieras hlderc mostrobo rnosjrobon preteri'O-te------------------------~+.dormiste durmi6 I~rlec~t-s-u~bl~u=n~ct~iv~e-----------=--~ durmierornos durmierais durmieron iban luimos fuisteis fueron Imperlect sub unctive luera fueras fuefOmos fuerais fue Future ire ires ira durmamos dormid / no durrnois duerman fuera Imperative ve / no voyos vaya fueran vamos / no vayamos iremos ireis iran id / no vayais vayon JUGAR 10 entendemos entendels entienden entenderiamos entenderiais entenderian play fa sport or go m "I Plllrol Present juego juegas juega _Im=.. Present estes esto estoy pNSIInt jK!I1IcIpIa: murlendo past partklpla: mI/MIO SIn ula. Iclolhesll despertarse 110 woke up) preocuparse 110 worryl divertirse (to havea good lime) quedarse 110 sloy. se. Condilional mosfrorio moslrarios mostroria Slil ula...-.) • i. attach the pronoun to the end of the verb and add an accent mark 4.l"-~ mori moriste muri6 morimos moristeis murieron Imperlect subjunctivAl muriera murieras m_urjera murlerornos murierois murieran -rI=mperlectsubjcu~n=ct~I..rl~e.) Imperatives: In affirmative commands. os.is juegue jueguen Imperfect subjunctive jugara jugaras +. unwelill lavarse Ito wosh) vestlrse 110 gel dressed) CONTINUED ON OTHER SIDE .!el (Sit downl) • iNO te slentes: {Don't sit down!) Present progressive: Either attach the pronoun to the end of the present participle (wiVh accent mark) or put it before the helping verb . 2.:subjunctiv.:g'-aran 0 ~ -r-.~I.~Pr-e-s-e-nt~s-u~b~j-un-ct~ .....1 SPANISH VERBS .::tc. Form: Use the appropriate reflexive pronoun (me.. (I shave every day.~e~n7t----------~~-----------fc~o~n~d~i~~o~n-a~I------~~~----------1 muero mueres muere morimos moris mueren morlria moririos moririo morirfamos moririois moririan estols eston Imperlect-·· moria rnorlos moria .-. nos. entendere entenderos entender6 entenderemos entendereis entender6n entiende I no entiendas entienda entendomos entended / no entendais entiendan ESCAIBIR to write ascrIbIr II a regular -ir verb adde from Its Irmgular part parffi:lpIa: escrilo preunt partldpla: esIondo part participle: eslado Plural estamos estcrto eslarias estcrlo estariamos estorlois estarian juega / no juegues juegue juguemos jugad / no jugueis jueguen MORIR 10 die ESTAR to be SI ula.--------.:m"p.t S:-:ub~l.-iv-e----------------mostr6romos mostrorais mostroron Fut~u~re~--------------------------~Im==p~e=ra~t~iv~e-----------------------hare heros hera haremos horels heron Future rnostrcrs mostroros mostror6 mostraremos mostrcreis rnostroron rnuestro / no muestres muestre mostremos mostrod / no rnostrels muestren ------REFLEXIVE VERBS haz / no hogos haga hagamos hoced / no hcqcis hogan 1.~e~ estuviera estuvieras estuviera estuvlerornos estuvierais estuvieran -.e.. (We had a really good time.Ta d'espierta5 a las seis? (Do you wake up at six?) • Nos divertlmos mucho.lple: mostrada 51 uta.. jugaros jugara jug6bamos jugobais jugaban jugamos jugasleis jugaron jugaremos [uqorels jugaran jugomos jugais juegan jugario jugariamos jugarias jugaria +present subjunctive jugariais jugarian entendiomos entendiois enlendian .. In negative commands.-.Est<JY vistiend<Jme.::mperative esters estoros estero estaremos estcrels estorcn Future marin? montes moriremos rnorireis morircn muramas morid I no rnurois mueran esto / no estes este estemos estad.) Some common' reflexive verbs: banarse (to balhe) levantarse 110 upl gel callarse (to be quiel) lIamarse 110 be called/namedl cansarse 110 gellired) olvldcrse 110 forgeli casarse (to gel married) ponerse (to pol om. (I am getting dressed.. PI"'lOJ Slrlill1a.. / no esteis esten monro HACER to do.. mostraba mostrobos _. put tile pronoun before the verb: • iSllmta.) • Me estov vistlendo .p-. ~:_ci_o_n~~~=~~~.: heche Plural hacemos hccels haeen losllow MOSTRAR Plural fNUIInt partkiple: mcstrunda pad partk.....I.t hocio hadas -r! P:... 3..

Conditional PluraJ ~itional ~~ ofrecerio ofrece'rfas ofrecerlo ofreceriamos ofreceriais ofrecerian _ ofrezcomos olrezccis .:I>_"'iu"'n:-:c7..c7t.:=~:=-_mOviero_"_ movere mover6s movere moveremos rnovereis mover6n rnovi moviste i mo:viera movieros rnovierornos movierais pensaros pensaro pensorcrnos pensarois pensmon -tI-"'-:.o:r=------'-Pl_:_:u::. _ OUERER Plural pediriomos pediriais _ ~ __ _j to want.nt pclrtldpl.--'-n-:_:c_::ti_:_iie=--_~_~_ _ ! ! prefiero limperlecfsub!unctlve olerio [olerlos olericrnos oleriois preferirio preferirios I~irl. quisierois quisieron quislerurnos TnlferleCt"'"-~--~------~·· pedio pedias pedia Preterl"'te-----pedl pediste pidio pedimos pedis plden - pediria pedirios pedirio presenfSubluncflye. Plural oimos ois Si ular Conditional oirlo oirios oirio Plural oiriamos olriois oyen oirion pondriomos pondriois pandrion _ ponia ponias pania poniomos ponidis ponion pusimos pusisteis pusieran pondremos pondreis ~pertec~t==========::::::==::::::~~lp~re~~s~e~n~t=:su~b2-j-::u~'o=:·~e~ aiga oio oiornos aigas olos clois oiga oia olon -Pr-ete-rite--------tc1m=pertect subjunctive 01 oyo jFiJture-eire oiros oiste n oigamos oigois oigan oyerornos pong amos ponqots pongon pusierornos oimas aisteis oyeron ---_:_-------j oiremos olreis oiron avera overos avera Im-pe.:ra=t----____! .-------=-==(i!"_pertect subiunctiv_::e:__ movimos movisteis ~~~J . Preterite ofreci ofrecisfe ofreci6 ofrecimos ofrecisfeis ofrecieron ofrezcon Imperfect subjun..-=u_::n=cI:_:lv"'e=--ofrezca ofrezcas ofrezca podrio podriomos podrias podriois podrio pod dan Present sublun"'c"'ti_::v"e'puedo puedos puedo podomos podois ..-CO...p_refiere_n_____ preferiomos preferiois preferion preferimos preferisteis prefirieron .ctive- _o_l_er_io_n ~:~~os _ Impeasci prelerlo preferios preferfo Prete..: ovando PQIf pwtIdplll: oldo SIngulo.._ct~jv~e:_~ ofreciera ofrecieras ofreciera ofreciercrnos puedon ' ~ture ofrecere otrscercs otrcccro Im---erativeofrece I no ofrezcos ofrezco ofrecierois ofrecieron +I"'m~erlect_s_uI>lunctive'____ pudiero pudierornos pudleros pudierais pudiero pudieran r:-I"m.!pertect querio querios queria -Preterite quise quisiste quiso Futur-e---querre querros _q_:_u_e_tr_6 ""'ro' queriomos queriois querion ~ partklplll: queriendo past pgrtfclpie: querldo _ Sin uta.:r~~::u~~as----.-hueles huelo Candriion~o·I------~~~--------~ Plural prefiero prefieres prefiere Plural preferimos preferis _~~~...=== .atiV"--oye I no oigos oigo oyerais oyeron pusierois pusieron ouo oigomos oid I no oigois oigon pond ron pon I no pongos pongo pongomos po ned I no ponqois pongon OLER tasmell ~~ent Pf8Hnt partldple: oIIendo PQIf pgrtldplll: Olldo __ ---:Pc:I::::ural=-----t:S~I~ula' olemos oleis ~ul~:~.enl quiero quieres quiere l. Conditional Pltll"tII querriomos querriois querrion queramos querois quieron subjunctive -----_. ~pensariO !re~e_n_t muevo mueves mueve movemos movers mueven moveria i mover!as : rnoveno moveriamos moveriais moverian pienso piensas piensa pensariamos pensariais pensotlon r:11-m-p-e-rf i: 'e. pensobornos pensabais pensaban pensario pensarias .eterite pense pensaste Impe!fe:-ct::..-t-~---------podia podios podia .._:":s"'_~:.. to wish Srn ular P~. 1-' piense pienses piense pensemos penseis piensen j.i: -olero oBste olio oll i oliera olierois olieron olierornos I prefiriera prefirieros prefiriera impercitlvec_·· prefiere I no prefieras prefiera prefirierais prefirieran preflrnrnos preferid I ~~ no prefircis -9-~.~.ti"'ve""'.!!!>_pertect of redo ofrecfos ofrecio of red amos ofreciais ofrecton P'esents....~~ntsuiiiu..._ ~~~~~~~~====~==~ PODER plenso / no pienses piense pensore pensar6s pensar6 pensemos pensad / no penseis piensen 10 be able to pI'fIQnt participle: pIKIlendo pastparliclple: podido ISjnI!Ula"'r Sin ulor Present puedo puedes puede Tmpeffe-c-..__ ~~i~~~ olisteis olieron ~:~.: olredendo past parHclplll: alreddo ---'-Pl::tI"-'ra::I +sl~a.-_-_ qulsirnos ----.lte----preferi preferiste prefiri6 _Fu_tu_r . quiere I no quieros Lq_:_u_ie_ffi queromos quered I no quer6is quleron _ .perative podamos poded I no pod6is puedan ofreceremos ofrecereis ofreccron ofrezcamos ofreced I no otrezcois ofrezcan OiR Present oigo ayes aye to hear prHIIrd pclrtlclpl..piens_a_n_--.iic:.~os I.s-----~---'--~-~~-:~~~'-~----I:~::e~~~:~:~s-=~~~~~~~o pedtro pedir6n pido ~q_ue_r_r6_n ..:_-_-~_-_-~_~_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_--+f.._ ===__pediri~_n ~ queremos querrio quereis querrios quieren querrio ------+p"'r·esentsubjunctive quiero quieros quiera _-~~=-+Iinpertect pediomos pida pidomos pediois pidas pid6is pedion pida pidon ------+lmpe-=rf"ec::c'C't-=-su"b"'j"'u=n"'ct"'iv"'eC' -------pedimos pedlsteis pidlerofl pidiero pidieras pidiero pidierornos pidierois pidier_a_n pid6is p_id_a_n _ -_-_~--_-=--:.6iSlhuelo huelan '= prelerire preteriros preferir6 prefieron to a.-bj.~..p_or-::es=:e"'n"t_:sc::u=ii"ju::n::c:::ti-'-ve=~ ~"___" movie movies movie moviamos movfois movian Tmp~e~ct pensaba pensabas pensaba _ Present subjunctive i muevo ____ ::::::::oJ i muevos i mueva movamos mov6is muevan preterite ... prete'-rl"-te'____~ pude pudiste pudo Plul'Ol podemos podels pueden podiomos podiais podion pudimos pudisteis pudieron ________ Sin uta. Presenti"f~.klar ..-e:::c:_:_t ~::~s hu_e_'e_n ~:~~.. _ quisisteis quisieron querremos querrels . Plural Conditional prefeririamos prefeririais preferirion preferiric . n. :~:terlte_ .__ .:~.to move Iphvslcally) MOVER tothTnk PENSAR ""'_-II-"Conditional pensomos pensois ..~~os oleron olirnos 1~~:rfect~~unc~'1e__::la:__ ~_ i olieras ! I ~~::~s aliera i prefieros prefiero prefiramas preflrols prefieran prefirierornos ~:.!'Jasenl_ pido pides pide PEDIR Sin ula.~--preferiremos preferireis preferirnn present pattielpIe: prefirkmdo post PQrtIdpIe: prelerJdo Sin uta. ------ ~ _ _.ve=-I- m_ov_ie_r_o_n movomos moved / no mov6is muevan ~:~~-:-e~---- mueve / no rnuevos rnuevo OFRECER to offer Present ofrezco ofreces ofrece ofrecemos ofreceis ofracen ..------=----C pensamos pensosfeis pensoron pensaremos pensoreis pensorcn pensaro -~~~~.

e / no seas seamos sed / no se6is sean I Future sabre sabras sabra sabremos sobreis sobron seros l:percitlVe sabe / no sepas sepa sepamos sabed / no sepcis sepan sea p_ TENER 10 hove lengo lienes liene tenemos tenets tienen pent parf(ciple: p<lrtldpla:Ienlendo lenidD TIPS FOR LEARNING VERB CONJUGATIONS 1. supe supiste supo supimos suplsteis supieron supiera supieras supiera supiercrnos supierais supieran fuera fueras fuera ------""" fuerornos fuerai. -gar.---~' soli saliste solio solimos salisteis salieron saliera salieras saliera soliercrnos salierais salieran . Compound verbs areconjugatedlikethe root verb: cornooner (see oonen snvolver (seevolver) • cbtensr (see tener) etc..SUbjUOciiye sabfamos sabfais sabian sepa sepas sepa sepamos e'_o-.-ec-:-t-su... .j-un-ct~iy-"--------~ sintiera _- ref relste rio sentiste sintio smtieros smtiero Future rein? reiros reiro reiremos reireis relron Imperative fie / no rias rfa riamos reid / no rto!s ... Present and present subjunctive: The present subjunctive is based on the yo form of the present indicative.. sentimos sentisteis sintieron Impe-crf~e-ct~s-u""'b-.IUrKt~ive----'-------. j salga i salga salgas salgamos solqois sclqon ~r~e reolice realizaste realiz6 reolizamos reolizostels reolizaron ' Impe_rf~~u-lljlJnetive __ reallzara realizaras realizara ~ ~_ . unwcllll Sin ular PluMI Present sienlo sienles sienle senlimos sen tis sienlen I j p_ participle: slnfiendo past partiejple:senfidQ SIn uklr Condlt"io::_n"'a::_I senti ria sentirias senliria Plural = _ ___' senfiriamos sentirfais senlirian ries reis rie rien ~!'erf:.----..... c. to "'9ret 110 teellwell..."n"'ct::iv::e:_ reco]o recojcs recojamos recoj6is __: Imperfect seguia seguias seguia segufamos seguiais seguian Presentsubjunctive . palt portlclpla.....:. ~eteri·t~e---------Ilmperf.felda Plural reimos SENTIR(SE) Sin ular .~resent salgo sales sale JICIIt pc. _S . and -zar havethe followingspellingchangesin the yo form of the preteriteand in all forms of the presentsubjunctive: • -c~r changesc -0> qu (see tccan • -gar changesg -0> gu...e::-c"t.Conditional reirlo Plural reiriamos reiriais reirian 10 feel.! non "FU"lccu-=-rec---------------·+imperati-:y sentire senfir6s santiro senliremos .rfect siguiera siguieras siguiera subju::_n"'c"'tl"'ye=siquierornos siguierais siguieran -_" Future recogere recogero recoger6s recogeremos recoqereis rscoqeron Imperatiy=e------...-'e-c-0-'cio ===_'_e_co_:_io_n Imperfectsubiunctiye recogimos recogisteis recogieron recogiera recoqrercs recogiera recoqferornos recogierais recogieran ----.. realiz6ramos recllzorots realizaran J'. 5/11 ulor Plural Sin Ii/or Plural ~P~r~es~e~n=t~--------~~=-----------~C~o~n~dn~io~n-a~l~------~~~----------"' tendria tendrias tendria lendrfamos lendriais lendrian Im-p-e-rf·e-ct~_~-----------------------+I-~pr"e~s=e::nt~·s~·U~b~~~n~c~t~iy~e~ tenlo tenias tenia teniamos leniais ji .....mperatlYe tenore lendr6s tenere lendremos tendreis lend ran .ctiye--~-~-----.bju-nct...----------. ... siga i sigas siga sigamos siqcis sigan recogia=c-Preterile recogi recogiste recogi6 r_ec_o..-licipie. ------------- 1· sintierornos sintierais sintieran sennreis sentiron siente / no sientas sienta sintomos sentid / no sint6is sientan sien"" ~-------=~: -~-= -~--='-== ROMPER to break ftlmpar Is a regLllqr .. l!rese!lt to presi8lllp<lrtlc.. - ""'Im=p"'e-=rf"e"'c""t ---------------tPresentSuiijUnctive------------. Notice the similarities between the following tenses: a.(seeJugal) • -zar changes7..Singular !..rteCt subjunclive-::tuviera luvieras luviera tengamos tengais tengan -' tuvierornos tuvierais tuvieran Futur-e---------~~-----f-.Preterite fue fui fuiste e_ro_n fuimos fuisteis fueron soblos sabia sepots sepan -'m erleCt"sUbTu"Ciive Preterile:-"'-~~---------~r. "p_:_r"'et"e~rt~·te"--seguf seguiste siguio seguimos seguisfeis siguieron +'::~...SALIR ~_ 10 leo"".. -0> c (see reaszar) 3. 'Preterite luve luvisfe luvo Ie~n-io-n_----~~ luvimos luvisleis luvieron i tenga tengas tenga Tm--'.. Iendo .. F~u~tu-:r-:e-_-_-_-_-~-_-_-_-_-_-_~-_~_-_-_-~~_~_~~-~~_-_-_-_-_-_-~~Im~e~r"a::-ti~y=e sequire sequiros sequiro seguiremos sequireis sigue / no sigas siga sigamos sequld / no sigois sigan sequiron REIR laugh 51 1.... ~----~ recogeria recogerias recogeria recogerfamos recogeriais recogerfon ~~:_:__ sigo sigues sigue follow Sin ufor to SEGUIR seguimos seguis siguen pretent partldphl._rfect'--sana solios solio soliornos saliais saHan ~_i~es"nt~bJ-u. Future and conditional: Both are formed by adding verb endingsto the infinitive form..iy-e'_"'. 2. Only a few verbs are irregular.. . sentla ssntlos senHa sentfamos senliais sentian !I sienta sientcs sienta sintomos sint6is sienton Pre-ct-e""'ri~te------- Imperfectsubjunctlye reimos refsteis rieron nero rieras riera rierornos rierais neron Preterite senti ~-----------.s fueran Future sere sera Imperaiiv.ture reclizore realizar6s realizar6 realizaremos reolizoreis realizar6n ImperatO-iye~~~-~-~~..--=------recoge I no rscojos recojo recojornos recoged / no recoj6is recojan . b.. verb oslde from lis Irrqula. sabldo p Plural sabemos p<l1t <lrflclpla:sido p lob .. post participle: rOio SABER 10 know Sin ular Present Pf8t8nt pcrrtlclpla... slgvlen<lo p<lrfp<lrtldpla:aeguido Plural Sin ular Plural "------------~c~o~n~d~I~~io~n-a·.-seremos sereis seron s.:re<:ogldo Plurul recogemos recoqeis recogen P/utOl Singular _fC~ondm~o~n~O~I~-----------. realize / no realices realice pN58nI realicemos realizad / no reolfcets realicen FutUre soldre sotdrus soldro saldremos scldreis saldr6n -im-p-e-ra""'t'iy-:e--------------: sal/no salgas salgamos solid / no solqois solgo saigon 10 gathe••to pick up 5111 ulor presen~t~ reco]o recoges recoqa RECOGER partldpla: recoglendo po$I partlclpl.. Verbs that end in -car.~s seria seriois serton I se sabes so be Presentsubjunctive erornos erais sobers saben sea seas : sea -~----'-----" seamos seois sean -Imperfect sabia Preserl..._ tengamos Ie ned / no tenqols lengan len / no tengas lenga . solldQ Plural salimos salis solen saldrfa saldrias saldria p_ fI"Irtlciple:soJle)1do Plural saldriamos saldriais saldrian Plural reolfzortomos reolizoriois realizarian Imperfed reallzaba realizabas realizaba realiz6bamos realizabais realizaban Presentsubju=-n"-c::_:t_::iv"e'--realice realices realice realicemos reoliceis realicen --' ..:g:"io~n~----+..----------------lpresent reia reias reia reiamos reiais reion rio reirics reirio ria rios ! sub·unctic::ye~-----riamos ria is rian .REALIZAR '0 re<llize goal er taskl.mperfect-suj.11"..!!!'-1l.sabiendo p<l1t artlclpl". Preterite and imperfect SUbjunctive: The imperfect subjunctive is basedon the third person plural (elias) form of the preterite.--------~"--"~----------f seguria seguirfas seguiria seguiriomos seguiriais seguirian Imperfect recogia recogias recogiomos recogiais Presentsublu.'nglliar Plllral Sin ular P"'rC:'e"'se"n"tc------'-""'--"----------I-Condiflonal soy eres -im-perlect-------------i' era eras es somos so is J SER present participle: Plural sericrnos SIn ular Conditional sabrfa sabrias sabria Pluta! sabriamos sabriais sabrian son ~:~.lpl". 10fulfill (a Singular Plural l!'resenl realizo realizes reolizo realizamos realiz6is realizan pruent participle: MOlllOI1do po$I parflcipla: reonzQdo Sin ular -tConditional reolizorlo realizarias realizaria .

Imperfect subjunctive.ar adherir 110adhere.n. to plav Ion inS. 10 namel see toear establecer 110eslablishl see olree. Plu. garantizar (10 guarantee) see reaH:zc:nr 110disappearl s~e ofrecer I herlr 110wound.eall.' P. 10 sleall see .M rrcsr doler 110pain.condudr invertir (to invert to invest) See divertir ' leer Ito readl Se~ creee lIover 110rom) see mOVer locallzar 110localize.g.. maldecir 110curse I see dad.r apllcar 110applyl see toear contor (to count. to rernindl see mestrcr reduclr 110reduce] see con dud..S:. o I aterrizar (to land) see rG'oHzar atraer 110allracl. 10 arrangel Sell poner comunlcar (to cornrnunlcotel see toea! conclulr (to conclude] see ccnsmnr conferlr 110confer. 10 abhorl see .e" reeoger actualizar (to bring up 10 dalel see re(lliz. 10 weighl see pedlr mentlr {lo lle) see senrtr merecar (to deserve. to pertain) see ofraeer pervertir {lo pervert) . 10 relotel see preferlr repellr (10 repeall see pedlr reponer 110replace. to wrap) see'volver entretener (to entertain) see tener equlvocarse 110be wrangl see ro""r escoger (fo choose.-. to possess) see creer practicer (to practice) see toccr predecir 110predictl see daclr prevenir 110prevent.e ventr convertir 110convert) see dIvert" costar (to cost) see mestmr crecer (to grow) see ofrecer criticar (to criticize) see teccr desaparecer desconocer I estremecerse (to shudder) see explicar 110explainl see tocar exponer (to expose.10 rnedictel see verur introducir (to introduce) see. -·+"resent loco rio mas locarlais toccrion sub·~j-u-nc-ctCCiv-e--------~ toquemos tcqueis toquen subj::un::c:::t..ar . 10 lake aparll lee hace.eguir see con duel. _.TOCAR to touch. 10 compare I see preferlr conmover 110move lemolionallyJl see mover consegulr {lo gel. tocorio toccrios tocaria ."umentl Sin ular Present I Plural lacomos present participle: 1ocondo pad partlcJl>la: IOtodo Sin 1)10.Hzar anochecer {lo gel dark outl see ofrecer aparecer (to appear) see otrec. 10 appearl see ofrecer perder 110lose) see enlender perecer {lo perishl see afrecer perludlcar (10 damageJ seato""r permanecer (to remain. 10 intlict) see prelerlr ~nffUir (to Influ_enceJ see ccnstr~lr ..ent vengo vienes viene Impertect venia venias venfamos Plu. lroyendo past participle: fT"id" _. 10 locote) s~e . 10 repeall see tecor revolver (to stir.onslroi.'i~ar florecer 110flower. Plural _ trcernos troeis VESTJR[SE) 10 dress '10 gel dressed' Plurdl ."" <.truir Indlcar 110indicale to hintl see teca. to endure) see ofrecer perseguir 110pursue.tl esve tr 0 un . aborrecer 110hale.COO"""' I hulr 110fleel see censtrulr desereer 110disbelievel see CI~e~_ ' Impedlr (10 impede 10 hinderl see pedlr Imponer 110impose) see pener Incluir 110includel see con. vestiriamos vestirlais veslirian subjunctive vistamos vlstois vistan ~C~~~o-n-a-I-- ~-I. 10 merit) S£l-9: ofre.:. ."ae. 10 assumel see poner suscrlblr 110subscribel see e.. 10 slick 101seepreferlr advertir {lo advisel see dl. 10 hold] see tener contraer (to contract.a"-r=-------:p'-"=ur'-'a"-I-------'I --j Conditional Iraigo troes traeria traerias trae traen trolornos trolcis !raeria trciqo !raigas Iraeriamos lraeriais lraerion vestis visten vesliria vestirlas vesfirfa Present _'mperfect trcio troles Present _s~b·II~u~n~ct~iv~e:. to limit) see traer contribuir (to contribute) see ccnstrulr convenir (to agree) -S€'. 10 whilen) S~e cfrecer buscar 110seek.ir simpatizar (to sympathize) sea r'&c'Jlizar sobreponer (to superimpose) see porter sobresalir (ro excel. mantener (to maintain) see te. ' IIlstlendo part~. 10 tell I see mostrcr contener {lo conlain. 10 collide] see taco. reconocer 110 recognize. 10acknowledgel seeconocer reconstruir Ito rebuild.. traducir utllizar 110Iranslale) parecer 110seem.tro]e trojiste 'raja Irajimos lrojisteis trojeron +.v_e__ ____________ vesliremos troero Iraeremos trcereis traer6n tree / no !raigas Iraiga vestiros vestiro vesnreis vestiron viste / no vistas vista vistamos vestid / no vlstcis vistan VENIR to come ISingu!.' .s locad / no toqueis toquen veremos verels veron ve / no yeas vea veamos ved / no veols Yean TRAER to b.al Conditional taco tocos toca tocois locon ---------. to pick out) see re'l._ troigamos traig6is """=__'_ __ _I".. .. to oblainl see segulr conseritir (10 consent) see sent)r constitulr 110conslilule) see con.IMcer absolver 110absolve.' Infe~lr (10 Infer. intervenlr 110intervene. see <ealiz<rr 110ulilize. _ .cer obedecer Ito obeyl see obtener 110obtoinl see oponer Ito oppose) see organizar (to arganizel ofrecer tenet pone...::ivc:e'---. 10 pul back) see poner reproduclr (10 reproducel see conducir resolver 110resolve I see volver retraer (10 bring bock) see traer revoear 110revoke. 10 look fori S~ toccr caracterizar (to characterize) see reaHzar carecer 110lock] see otrecer chocar 110crash. 10 hurl) see preferl' (not to know. 10 decipher) see volver deshacer (10 undo. 10 support) s~~ tener suplicar 110begl see tocor suponer 110suppose.ot medlr 110measure.~ visto vistes viste veslimos Pl8Mnt partkl . 10 use) volar {lo flyl see most..-'r::a::ig':ca======-'r-a_:igo-n----:-"""=-. 10 coptivotel see truer autorizar (to authorize I :see rl. venldo SIn ular <. componer 110compose. 10 stone outl sea salir soler Ito be in Ihe habil all see mover sonreir 110smilel see relr sostener 110sustcin.".trulr deseriblr (10 describe) see aocnblr . 10 find) s-ee mO!itrnr enfatizar (10 emphasizel seereellzer enloquecer (to drive crazy) see offecer enriquecer 110grow richl see ofrecer entremorir 110flicker.J. 10 acquill see velver abstraer 110obstroctl see traer acoger Ito greell s. 10 achel <~e 'mover edificar (10 conslrucll see toca. 10 tempt) see ClllldllJ(.._e_rfect vestia trcio troian Treierl!&--~'. 10 perseculel see . 10 disovowl see . to exhibit) extraer 110extroct) see rroer .. veis ven veriomos veriois verion imperfect locaba locaba Preterite '---toque tocaste toc6 Future tocore tocoros tocor6 loeabas toc6bamos tocabais tocaban ==="-'''''"''-=_--+'''m'''!'''rfect focomos tocasteis toea ron loque loques loque velamos veicls veamos veion veois yean ~="" vimos vistels vieron vieras viera vieramos vierais vieran tacara facara toearas Imperative tocorornos tocarais loco ron tocaremos toccreis tocor6n loca / no toques toque poeAInt loquemo. 10 suggesll see poner provocar 110provoke) see loea.andltional vendrfa vendrias vendria . 10 anlicipalel see venl. desenvolver 110unfold. encoger 110shrinkl see recoger encontrar (to meet. Present-·sub 'unctiv$ volvemos volveis vuelven volveriornos valve ria is volverian vente veniols venian venga vengas venga Imperfect subjunctive vengamas veng6is vengan volviamos volviais volvian volvamos volvois vuelvan Preterite vine viniste vino Future vinimos vinisteis vinieron viniera vinieras viniera Imperative vinierornos vinierais vinieran volvimos volvisteis volvieron volvierornos volvierais volvieran vendre vsndros vendro vendremos vendreis vend ran yen / no vengas venga vengamos venid / no venqois vengan volveros volvero volvcre volvereis volvercn volveremos vuelve / no vuelvas vuelva volvamos volved / no volvo is vuelvan ADDITIONAL IRREGULAR Each I VERBS of Ihe following verbs is coniugated III 0 manner similor 10 one of Ihe verbs <:anjugoled in Ihe tables above. trojero trojerornos trcjeros Irajerais trcjero Irajeran :--lni·l'_e!-"tive--~===_::-··-----Iraigamos troed / no trolqcls troiqon vlnlendo Plural vendrfamos vend riots vendrian vestios vestlo _ Preterite vesti vestiste vistio Future vestire vestlcmos vestiois vestion vista vistas vista I_ml'_erfect subjunctive -~ vistierornos vistierais vistieran . see .rea'iI-.lnllg.:._.lor bendecir 110bless) see deelr blanquecer 110bleach. pertenecer {to belong.:ogar especializar (to specialize! see reali:ar especlficar (10 specify. sustraer Ito lake away. 10 say goodbye) see pedl. to turn) see volvar secor (to take out) see rocer seduclr {to seduce.eo divertlr poseer (to own.______ 'FUture-------'----------ttrcere troeros vestimos vestisteis vistieron vistiera vistieros vistiera 1 !T!!~er(J!i.. 10 die awayl see merlr envejecer 110age.. destruir (to desfroy) see c:onstrulf d sf II d I .e.ress seta-ves r detener (to detoinl see en~r devolver 110return [sornerhinqll see valver disolver 110dissolve] see volver disponer (10 disposel sea perter distraer 110dislracll .ing ISingular Present --"_-'-_~ purtlcJple. publlcar (10 publish I lee Ioea.al venimos ven1s vienen present participle: past partlcJple. 10 grow aldl see ofreeer envolver (to cover.taTi:.o1recer see pener finallzar (to fincltzel sea re.ul..criblr sustltulr 110substitutel s. referlr Ito refer. desobedecer 110disobeyl sa~ ofrecer despedirse /10 leave.. 10 Ihrivel see ofrecer freir 110fry I see rei.vertir agradecer {lo Ihankl see efrecer almorzar 110eallunchl see mostrar amanecer {lo gellighl out) see ofreeer analizar 110analyzel see "".a. 10 reconstrucll see construlr recordar (to remember. colocar 110placel see teccr competir 110compelel see padl..e. producir 110producel see cornducir proponer 110propose.~ldo 51 ular Plural ------------------.

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