~~

''''''!'''".-=::''-

s:

_..,.-...-- --

-

-="1. __

=-=_~~'

.... - _.I-~J·-:~~I.·r '-':
-

~~~

"'4'~

.-:--

-'~-=::-~{'~_1

VERB TENSES
'INDICATIVE
The Indicative

--

REGULAR VERBS
Note: All conjugations are presented as follows: yo lu
el/ellc/Ud. nosolros/nosotros vosotros/vosotros

MOOD

expresses tccts and actual situations.

SIMPLE
1.

TENSES

ellos/elias/Uds.

Present: Describes (1) action happening at the moment; (2) habitual action: • Hablo con Ana frecuentemente. (I talk I am talking I do talk to Ana frequently.) 2. Imperfect: Describes ongoing or habitual past action: • HalJlabas can Ana caoa dia. (You talked I used to talk to Ana every day.) I 3. Preterite: Describes past action that is finished or complete: • Juan haIJ16 con Ana aver. (Juan talked to Ana yesterday.) 4. Future: Describes action that will take place in the future: • LOS abcgados hablaran con Ana manana, (The lawyers will talk to Ana tomorrow.) 5. Conditional: Similar to English "would" or "could": 1 • Hablarlamos con Ana, perc no esta (We would talk to Ana, but she's not here.)

-AR VERBS
HABLAR
to speak, 10 lalk Sin ular PrOil!le"~.t

Regular -rrr verbs like habfQr are corquqotedcs

follows, Many -or verbs ore regular,

pre"nt portiolple, hllblondo pcl$I pdrtidpla: hoblodo Plural _
Sin

ular Conditional hablaria hablarias habloria Present subjunctive

Plurol habloriamos hablariais hablorian -

hablo hablamos hqblos habl6is habla hablan "'C'm-p-e-rf-:-e-c7t--------

---_~=--_=

PERFECT TENSES
The perfect tenses are formed by using the verb haher, conjugated in the appropriate tense, along with the past participle of the verb of action. Haber is conjugated in the table below. 1. Present perfect: uescrtbes (1) action that Degan in the past and continues in the present; (2) action that took place in the past out somehow bears on the present: • He hablado con Ana rnucnas veces. (I have talked to Ana many times.) 2. Past perfect (pluperfect): oescrlbes past action that was completed Defore another action took place: • Ella nabia nabtado con Aria antes (fel exarnen. (She had talked to Ana before the test.) 3. Preterite perfect: Rarely used except in literature; describes action completed just before another past action occurs, often with apenas (hardly, barely): • Apel1as hube nanlado con Ana cuenco sano. (I had barely talked to Ana when she left.) 4. Future perfect: Describes action that will have taken place before a future event or action: • Hatiras hablado con Ana manana. (You will have talked to Ana by tornorrow.) 5. Conditional perfect: Describes action that would have been completed in the past: Yo habna hablado coo AM, pew tenia mleoo. (I would have talked to Ana, but I was scared)

hablaba habl6bamos hablabas hoblobais hablaba habloban --;PO'r-et:-e-r"ife--------------hoble hablasle habl6 Future
hoblcre

hoble hablemos hables hoblels hable hablen Imperfect subjunctive

hablamos hablaro hoblorornos hablaslels habloras hablarais habloron hablora hoblaron ----------_-_-_-_-_·-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-+lc~lm~pe~r:aC7.ti~ve~--------- ,-------hablaremos
hobloreis

hablar6s hablar6

hoblor6n

habla I no hables hable

hablemos hablod I no hobleis hablen

Regular -€If verbs like comer are conjugaled as follows. Severol other common, fully regulor -er verbs ore listed aflerward. Alwoys be coreful conjugaling -er verbs, because many ore irregulor in one or more lenses or hove irregular parliciples

-ER VERBS
COMER
to eat

HABER
to hcve Ihelping verbl

---

~ Plural hemos
hobeis

JIQfflCfplel hobiendCl Plural __j
habriomos

P_
Plural

paat portlcfpl&: habJdo
5 n ular ____ -+C=o~n~d~n~io~n~a~l

pcntlclple: camie~do past participle: comldc Sin ular Conditional
comeria cornerlos comeria

51 ulll'r Present he has ha Imperfect

Or Present

Plural
comeriamos comeriais comerian

han

II

habria , hobrlos habria PresentSiiblunctive

hobrlois habrian

Present subjunctive hayomos hovels hoven.
hubierornos coma comas coma comamos cornets cornen

hablamos hoya habia hayas habias habiais haya habia habian ~~3L~----------~-----------~N1pe~.ublunc~ft~y-e--~--------~~ Preterite
hubimos hubiera hube hubieras hubisteis hubiste hubiera hubieron hubo ---------------------------t.I~m~p-er~a~fl~ve~--------------------~ Future hobre hobros habremos hobrels hebron

Imperfect subjunctive hubierais hubieran
comiera comieras comiero cornierornos comierais comieran

----'

~~~---------------------------r.I-m-per-a~tl~ve-------------------------~ hayomos habed I no hay6is hayan aprender 110 learn I Ibarrer Ito sweepl Ibeber Ito drlnkl comprender Ito undersland)
correr (to run) come / no comas

habra

he I no hoyos haya

leoma d'eber 110 ows) depender 110 depend I esconder 110 hide, to conceall meter Ito put inl
responder (to respond, to answer)

comamos corned / no corners coman

PRESENT
The present expression. the present • E:stoy

PROGRESSIVE

TENSE

progressive tense describes action that is taking place exactly at the time of It is formed by using the verb "star, conjugated in the present tense, along with participle (gerundio) of the verb of action. nebrancc con Ana ahorlta (I am talking to Ana right now.)

suceder Ito hoppenl temer Ito fearl roser 110 coughl vender 110 selll

sorprender

(10 surprise)

I ~!'!~~~cti~e~!~!~s
I SIMPLE
TENSES

a~o~s~~

are uncertctn. doubtful. possible, or clewed

Regular -Ir verbs like vivir are coniug.oled os follows. Several other common, fully regular -Jr verbs. ore lis led otterword. Always be coretut coniWloting -ir verbs, becouss many ore lrrequlor in one or more lenses or have irre~ular parliciples.

-fR VERBS
VIVIR

1. Present subjunctive: Used after clauses that express wish, hope, doubt, necessity, possibility, intent, and so on, For more information, consult the Spanish Grammar SparkChart. sspero Que habtes con Ana May (I hope you talk to Ana today.) • NO creo que hablemos con Me bastante, (I don't think we talk to Ana enough.) ouco que Ana hable elocllentemente. (I doubt that Ana talks eloquently.) NOvoy a salir sin que nantes con Ana, (I'm not going to leave unless you talk to Ana.) 2. Imperfect SUbjunctive: Used like the present subunctive but when the main verb is in the preterite, imperfect, or conditional tense: JlIan lnstsuo que yo hahlara can Ana. (Juan insisted that I talk to Ana.) • Note: There are two forms of the imperfect subjunctive: one with -ra endings (hablara) and one with -se endings (habl€se), They mean the same thing. Aside from regional exceptions, the -ra form is used far more frequently, so the -se form is not included on this chart.
I I

10 live ISlngular Present
vivo vives vive

p_nt participle: viviendo ptl$t participle: vivido Plural
vivimos

__

Sin ular Conditional
viviria vivirias

Plural
viviriamos vlviriois vivirian

-.---..~.--

vivis
viven

vivirlo ___ Present subjunctive
viva vivos viva

Imperfect~
vlvlo vlvlos vivia viviamos viviais vivian

pre~t~e~rit~e~------------------------~· vivi
vivisle vivio vlvimos vivisteis vivieron

vivamos vlvols vivan

Imperfect subiunctive
viviera vivieras viviera vlvierornos vivierais vivieran

PERFECT

SUBJUNCTIYE

TENSES

1. Present perfect SUbjunctive: Used like the present subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause is viewed as completed: • NOcreo que hayas hablado con Ana. (I don't think you have talked to Ana.) 2. Past perfect SUbjunctive (pluperfect subjunctive): Used like the imperfect subjunctive but when the action of the verb in the subjunctive clause was completed before another action took place: '. No creta que hubleras nabtaco con Ana (I didn't think you had talked to Ana.)

-Fu-tu-re----------------------r.---~--------------------~
vivire vlviros vlvlro viviremos vlvlreis viviron

I
(to occur)

Imeerative vivamos vivid / no vlvois vivan

~e I no vivos
viva

IMPERATIVE

MOOD

The Imperafive expresses dlreci orders or commands. ,Habla con Ana inmedlatamente! (Talk to Ana immediately!) .' j No hables 'con Mal Estil de mal humor. (Don't talk to Ana! She's in a bad mood.)

aburrlr Ito bore] afiadir Ito add. to increasel aplaudir Ito applaud I asistir 110 Offend) combatir Ito comball confundir 110 confusel
consumir

discutir 110 discuss) exhiblr 110 exhibit, 10 show] existir 110 exisl) insistir [to insist) interrumpir 110 interrupll
ocurrir

deddir Ito decide)

(10 consume)

partir Ito divide, to split) permitir Ito permit, 10 ollowl

persistir 110 persistI prohiblr Ito prohibit) recibir Ito receiveI sacudir 110 shake) subir Ito go up. 10 gel,on) sufrir 1,10 suHer.to endure] unlr Ito unite. to [oln)

--~ conoclerornos conocierais conocleran digamos Future conoceros conocero conocere canace rem as conocere!s conocer6n Imperative conoce / no conozcos conozcornos conoced / no conozc6is dir6 dir6n di I no digas diga decid I no dig6is digan conozco conozcon CONSTRUIR 10 build. If you con't find the verb you're looking for.~_~ __ l-"Imperative do I no des de ----- condujiste condujimos conduieron condujisteis condujeras condujerornos condujeran daremos doreis demos condujerais ------------ dar6n dad I no deis den =--. divennse.-..---~-------. which lists many verbs conjuqcted in Ihe same way CIS other verbs on Ihis chort.mt participle: andondo pod par1Iclple: andado PI""" I"..::--'-'re::_·======-_-_~_-_-_-~_-_~_-_· +t:mpera!ive--conducire conduciros conduciro conduciremos conducirels condudron conduce / no conduzcos conduzco conduzcamos condudd / no condozcois DECIR to SOY.. 1<> dlstrect Ito have a good urne} 51nllulQr Plural 51 ular Plural ~3ent -----------r.cP~r-es-ent~-su~~u-nctIve~~and6bamos andabais andaban anduvimos onduvisteis anduvieron crei creiste creimos creisteis creyeron creyerornos creyerais creyeran crey6 anden creere creeros onduvierornos onduvierais anduvieran creer6 ------_. Plural Present construyo construyes construye construimos conslruis construven pl'8S8nt participle: construvando past participle: construldo 51 ular Plural Conditional construirio construirias construirio conslruiriomos construlrlols construirion ..!!-e-rf~e-c~t---andaba andabas andaba Preterite anduve anduvisfe anduvo .cip"': condudendo pact participle.-". ABRIR loop . For more information aboul use of rellsxlve verbs...F_. conduzco conduces conduce part.:_t . to tell 51 ular Present p-n participle: dlclendo past pattldple: dlcho Plural decimos diria dirias diriomos diriois dirian conduzcon CONOCER 10 know...l dio Future dore dorcs dor6 ~-------+..:_Pc.lm_.e..Ide frOm lis ab1erlo creemos creels creen creeriamos creeriais creerian ANDAR to walk SIn uIor Present ando andas ondo ~!_-". Th rs is not 0 n ex he Ustlve lis I Verbs typ ico II use d rell ex ively Ie.re"s"eoonc-t-'s~j~u'-'nc"tI"'ve'-=----digamos '" "" o conocerios conoceria imperlec'--conocia conodas canocia dedas ----------+presilritsublUnctlYe----·-----~ conociomos conociais conodon conozco conozcos conozco conozcornos conozcois conozcan dedaisl digas dig6is ~d~e-c~ia~----------d-e-c-ia-n------~---jdiga ~~~---d~ig~a-n----------Preterite Tlniperfect subjunctive dije dijimos dijera dijiste dijisteis diierns dijo dijeron dijera Fu·~tu-r-e~--------------'~~~--------~I~m~e-ra-t~ive dire diros diremos direis I dijeramos dijerais dijeran -Pr-e-te-r-it-e-'--··--_-__·~ conoci conociste conocio conocimos conocisteis conocieron ~__ Ilm~rfect conociera conocieras conociero subjunctive -~-.. concIucldo ~nt Plural conducimos conducts conducen SIn ulor PluroJ -t-'Cc::0. to become acquo Inted will! Sin ular Plural Prelllnt conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocets eonocen present participle: conociendo past partiCiple: (onoddo SIn ular Corn:lilional conoceria Pfural conoceriamos conocertots conocerian digo di'ces dice deds dicen diria \ diga .perfect subjunctive condujera condujera conduzcas conduzcornos conduzccls dieras djero conduzcon ~-----..._'u"'"c:ct:civ"e=-divirtamos divirtcis diviertan _ ~erfect~------------~---------1~present·s=u'bJi~u"=c~t"-lv~e~~------~~ construia construias construia construiamos construiais conslruion construyo construyas construyo conslruyomos construyon I construy6is Preterite dlvertl divertimos divertisteis divirfieron divirtierornos divirtierals divirlieran divertiste dlvlrtio Preterite construi construiste construyo conslruimos construisteis conslruyeron Imperfect sub luncfive construyera eonstruyeras construyera construverornos conslruyerais conslruyeron Future construire construiros construir6 construiremos construlreis construir6n Imperatlve"-construyamos _ .:sc::e.... ondore encores ondoro andaremos ondcrels t'I.. check the additional verbs list on the lcsl page.-nt participle: dlvlrtlando past participle: dlVer1ldo 10 umcse.._----- ande andes onde Imperfect subjunctive onduviera anduvieros anduviera creeremos creereis crearon cree / no creos crea creomos creed / no cre6is creon ._ r.SIn ular .:re:.~~~~~____' conducia condudas conduclc Preterite conduje condujo condudamos condudais condudan conduzco conduzcc -t_.~-----~----------==~~p~res~~e~n~t~su~b~l~u~n~ct~iv~e~==..C~o~n~d~I60~n~Q~~--------~~~--------~ DIVERTIR(SE) divierto diviertes divierte divertimos divertis divierten divertirlo divertirias divertiria diverliriamos divertirlois diverlirTon Imperfect ---------~~---I-present divertlo divertiamos divertiois divert1an divierto diviertos divertias divertia subl.__ _. n aIIIIr II 0 regIIIar"'"lrverb ~1I@t pOI1IQ~ . Conditlbndl Plural andariamos andariais ondarian ondemos ondeis creia creias creio creiamos crelols creian creamos erects crean andamos andaria ondols andorias andan andaria ~-----I.". 10 construct $Jngula.g .F_:u=iu. z ----' e-e u Imperfec[_:__ deda "_~ deciamos +pc...:cn... mperative anda I no andes ande andemos anden ondoron andad I no ondeis Sin IGr Present doy das do Plural damos dais dan SIn Conditional doria darias doria Plural dariomos doriais dorton CONDUCIR todrlve .:cn"'ditiooon"'aool conducirlo conducirias conduciria conduciriamos conduciriais conducirian Trnp-e-rf·e~ct~_--------------~~~~--~P~r-e-se-n~t-s-u·b~ju-~~i~ve-----------------------' daba dabas daba di d6bamos dabais daban ~ dimas de des de demos deis den diercmos dierais dieran '~P~r-e~~t~e~r~ioot~e~~~~~~~~~~: diste disteis dieron ~I~m!perfectsubjcu~n~ct~iv~e~ __ diera ~~~_p~e~rl~e~ct~--~ __ --_-. see Ihe box on the next page. senlir5S I are in y purple..U""Ctu .F~ut~u=re~----------divertire divertircs divertir6 diverliremos divertireis divertiron --------t~~~~------------divierte / no diviertas divierto ~------- divierto divertid divierton / no divirtois construyenoconstruyas I construidnoconstruy6is I construya construyan ...These to bl es sn ow the corq ug otlons 0 r so m e comrn 0 n i rregu lor Spo n ISh verbs. .

. (We had a really good time. te.:ga-n----------hloeromos hicierais hlclercn mostre mostroste mostr6 most rom os mostrosteis mostraron hagamos hoqois -su·b~l-u-nc-. to sleep Sill tar Present duermo duermes duerme DDRMIR P/lmll dormimos dormiria dormirios -dorrnirlo dormiriamos dormiriais dorrnirlon logo IR dormis duermen voy vas va Imperlect iba ibas iba Preterite lui fuiste vamos vais van ibamos ibais irio irias iria Iriamos iriois irian Imperfect dormia dormias Present subjunctive dormiamos dormiols dormian dormimos dormisteis durmieron duerma duermas duerma durmamos durm6is duerman 'Present sub unctive vaya vayas vaya vayamos dormia dormi voyols vayon -----. Iclolhesll despertarse 110 woke up) preocuparse 110 worryl divertirse (to havea good lime) quedarse 110 sloy.~~e=estuve estuviste esluvo eslaban ~ estuvimos esluvisteis estuvieron este esters esten Preterit..~:!:rlect __ hieimos hicisteis hkieron hiciera hicieras hlderc mostrobo rnosjrobon preteri'O-te------------------------~+.!el (Sit downl) • iNO te slentes: {Don't sit down!) Present progressive: Either attach the pronoun to the end of the present participle (wiVh accent mark) or put it before the helping verb ....~e------------------esfaba esfabas estobornos estabais este estes estemos esloba cp~r~et~e~.cc:.~Pr-e-s-e-nt~s-u~b~j-un-ct~ .:subjunctiv.. Present hogo haees haee pmsent parflclple: hacienda past partlcipl. Definition: Reflexive verbs are verbs used in a way such that the subject and the direct object are the same.__ " mostr6bomos mostrobais Present subJunctive muestre muestres muestre moslremos mostrels mueslren --- -.. (I am getting dressed.~I.~-t.:g'-aran 0 ~ -r-.t hocio hadas -r! P:. Plllror ~Pre~..:rc:e=se=n:. unwelill lavarse Ito wosh) vestlrse 110 gel dressed) CONTINUED ON OTHER SIDE .1 SPANISH VERBS .~e~n7t----------~~-----------fc~o~n~d~i~~o~n-a~I------~~~----------1 muero mueres muere morimos moris mueren morlria moririos moririo morirfamos moririois moririan estols eston Imperlect-·· moria rnorlos moria . (I shave every day.:~:rite hiee hiciste hizo . ~:_ci_o_n~~~=~~~. jugoramos jugarais __:_ju.) Some common' reflexive verbs: banarse (to balhe) levantarse 110 upl gel callarse (to be quiel) lIamarse 110 be called/namedl cansarse 110 gellired) olvldcrse 110 forgeli casarse (to gel married) ponerse (to pol om.e.:..ec:. / no esteis esten monro HACER to do.lm---e-rl~ec--.nt . nos.. jugasle juga Future jugar. In negative commands. _________ moriamos morlois marion ~_1-... subjunctive muero mueros muero muramos rnurcis mueron Imp~e~rl·&c~I-------------------------+. 2. put tile pronoun before the verb: • iSllmta.F~u7tu~re=-----------~----------_....~e~ estuviera estuvieras estuviera estuvlerornos estuvierais estuvieran -.ce~rl-'e~ct'lugaba jugabas jugoba Preterite jugu..l"-~ mori moriste muri6 morimos moristeis murieron Imperlect subjunctivAl muriera murieras m_urjera murlerornos murierois murieran -rI=mperlectsubjcu~n=ct~I.:m"p..:e'--~~ hociamos hociois I haga hag as ~.ju_:goo.I....:"u::-nc~ti""·v::e--ha.: heche Plural hacemos hccels haeen losllow MOSTRAR Plural fNUIInt partkiple: mcstrunda pad partk.. 3.t S:-:ub~l.Ta d'espierta5 a las seis? (Do you wake up at six?) • Nos divertlmos mucho. se. 10 remainl enojorse (to gel angry) quitarse 110 toke off ldothesll equlvocarse (to be wrong) sentarse '110 sit down] irse 110 go away) sentirse 110 feellwell... Conditional haria horios haria Plural hariamos haria is harian muestro muestras muestro Plural moslroriomos mostrariois moslrarian mostromos mostr6is muestran Imperfect . Form: Use the appropriate reflexive pronoun (me.) • Me estov vistlendo . PI"'lOJ Slrlill1a. mostraba mostrobos _..-iv-e----------------mostr6romos mostrorais mostroron Fut~u~re~--------------------------~Im==p~e=ra~t~iv~e-----------------------hare heros hera haremos horels heron Future rnostrcrs mostroros mostror6 mostraremos mostrcreis rnostroron rnuestro / no muestres muestre mostremos mostrod / no rnostrels muestren ------REFLEXIVE VERBS haz / no hogos haga hagamos hoced / no hcqcis hogan 1. Present estes esto estoy pNSIInt jK!I1IcIpIa: murlendo past partklpla: mI/MIO SIn ula.. Preterlte. (I am getting dressed. jugaros jugara jug6bamos jugobais jugaban jugamos jugasleis jugaron jugaremos [uqorels jugaran jugomos jugais juegan jugario jugariamos jugarias jugaria +present subjunctive jugariais jugarian entendiomos entendiois enlendian .-... __ .-..p-.rl~e... or se) fcllowed by the verb in conjugated form: Me afeito ceca dia.) • i.dormiste durmi6 I~rlec~t-s-u~bl~u=n~ct~iv~e-----------=--~ durmierornos durmierais durmieron iban luimos fuisteis fueron Imperlect sub unctive luera fueras fuefOmos fuerais fue Future ire ires ira durmamos dormid / no durrnois duerman fuera Imperative ve / no voyos vaya fueran vamos / no vayamos iremos ireis iran id / no vayais vayon JUGAR 10 entendemos entendels entienden entenderiamos entenderiais entenderian play fa sport or go m "I Plllrol Present juego juegas juega _Im=.t..is juegue jueguen Imperfect subjunctive jugara jugaras +.-.--------. 10 make SI ula...::mperative esters estoros estero estaremos estcrels estorcn Future marin? montes moriremos rnorireis morircn muramas morid I no rnurois mueran esto / no estes este estemos estad. attach the pronoun to the end of the verb and add an accent mark 4._"'..----~--.) Imperatives: In affirmative commands.Est<JY vistiend<Jme. Condilional mosfrorio moslrarios mostroria Slil ula. entendere entenderos entender6 entenderemos entendereis entender6n entiende I no entiendas entienda entendomos entended / no entendais entiendan ESCAIBIR to write ascrIbIr II a regular -ir verb adde from Its Irmgular part parffi:lpIa: escrilo preunt partldpla: esIondo part participle: eslado Plural estamos estcrto eslarias estcrlo estariamos estorlois estarian juega / no juegues juegue juguemos jugad / no jugueis jueguen MORIR 10 die ESTAR to be SI ula.re s.enlendimos enlendisleis entendieron entendamos entendois entiendan entendlercrnos entendierois entendieran juegue juguemos juegues jugu..lple: mostrada 51 uta. . os.-.I.Imperative ..::tc. to keep the stress on the correct syllable..

.iic:..!!!>_pertect of redo ofrecfos ofrecio of red amos ofreciais ofrecton P'esents....ctive- _o_l_er_io_n ~:~~os _ Impeasci prelerlo preferios preferfo Prete.~~ntsuiiiu.: olredendo past parHclplll: alreddo ---'-Pl::tI"-'ra::I +sl~a.o:r=------'-Pl_:_:u::.------=----C pensamos pensosfeis pensoron pensaremos pensoreis pensorcn pensaro -~~~~.=== ..~. Presenti"f~...:r~~::u~~as----.. ~pensariO !re~e_n_t muevo mueves mueve movemos movers mueven moveria i mover!as : rnoveno moveriamos moveriais moverian pienso piensas piensa pensariamos pensariais pensotlon r:11-m-p-e-rf i: 'e.-_-_ qulsirnos ----.._ct~jv~e:_~ ofreciera ofrecieras ofreciera ofreciercrnos puedon ' ~ture ofrecere otrscercs otrcccro Im---erativeofrece I no ofrezcos ofrezco ofrecierois ofrecieron +I"'m~erlect_s_uI>lunctive'____ pudiero pudierornos pudleros pudierais pudiero pudieran r:-I"m._ ===__pediri~_n ~ queremos querrio quereis querrios quieren querrio ------+p"'r·esentsubjunctive quiero quieros quiera _-~~=-+Iinpertect pediomos pida pidomos pediois pidas pid6is pedion pida pidon ------+lmpe-=rf"ec::c'C't-=-su"b"'j"'u=n"'ct"'iv"'eC' -------pedimos pedlsteis pidlerofl pidiero pidieras pidiero pidierornos pidierois pidier_a_n pid6is p_id_a_n _ -_-_~--_-=--:.. Preterite ofreci ofrecisfe ofreci6 ofrecimos ofrecisfeis ofrecieron ofrezcon Imperfect subjun. 1-' piense pienses piense pensemos penseis piensen j. _ quisisteis quisieron querremos querrels .. :~:terlte_ .piens_a_n_--. Plural oimos ois Si ular Conditional oirlo oirios oirio Plural oiriamos olriois oyen oirion pondriomos pondriois pandrion _ ponia ponias pania poniomos ponidis ponion pusimos pusisteis pusieran pondremos pondreis ~pertec~t==========::::::==::::::~~lp~re~~s~e~n~t=:su~b2-j-::u~'o=:·~e~ aiga oio oiornos aigas olos clois oiga oia olon -Pr-ete-rite--------tc1m=pertect subjunctive 01 oyo jFiJture-eire oiros oiste n oigamos oigois oigan oyerornos pong amos ponqots pongon pusierornos oimas aisteis oyeron ---_:_-------j oiremos olreis oiron avera overos avera Im-pe.i: -olero oBste olio oll i oliera olierois olieron olierornos I prefiriera prefirieros prefiriera impercitlvec_·· prefiere I no prefieras prefiera prefirierais prefirieran preflrnrnos preferid I ~~ no prefircis -9-~..:I>_"'iu"'n:-:c7..-t-~---------podia podios podia . _ OUERER Plural pediriomos pediriais _ ~ __ _j to want.atiV"--oye I no oigos oigo oyerais oyeron pusierois pusieron ouo oigomos oid I no oigois oigon pond ron pon I no pongos pongo pongomos po ned I no ponqois pongon OLER tasmell ~~ent Pf8Hnt partldple: oIIendo PQIf pgrtldplll: Olldo __ ---:Pc:I::::ural=-----t:S~I~ula' olemos oleis ~ul~:~.s-----~---'--~-~~-:~~~'-~----I:~::e~~~:~:~s-=~~~~~~~o pedtro pedir6n pido ~q_ue_r_r6_n .~~os oleron olirnos 1~~:rfect~~unc~'1e__::la:__ ~_ i olieras ! I ~~::~s aliera i prefieros prefiero prefiramas preflrols prefieran prefirierornos ~:..-hueles huelo Candriion~o·I------~~~--------~ Plural prefiero prefieres prefiere Plural preferimos preferis _~~~.eterite pense pensaste Impe!fe:-ct::.__ .. Plural Conditional prefeririamos prefeririais preferirion preferiric .klar . n.to move Iphvslcally) MOVER tothTnk PENSAR ""'_-II-"Conditional pensomos pensois . Conditional Pltll"tII querriomos querriois querrion queramos querois quieron subjunctive -----_.enl quiero quieres quiere l.~os I. quiere I no quieros Lq_:_u_ie_ffi queromos quered I no quer6is quleron _ ._ ~~~~~~~~====~==~ PODER plenso / no pienses piense pensore pensar6s pensar6 pensemos pensad / no penseis piensen 10 be able to pI'fIQnt participle: pIKIlendo pastparliclple: podido ISjnI!Ula"'r Sin ulor Present puedo puedes puede Tmpeffe-c-.:ra=t----____! . Conditional PluraJ ~itional ~~ ofrecerio ofrece'rfas ofrecerlo ofreceriamos ofreceriais ofrecerian _ ofrezcomos olrezccis .p_or-::es=:e"'n"t_:sc::u=ii"ju::n::c:::ti-'-ve=~ ~"___" movie movies movie moviamos movfois movian Tmp~e~ct pensaba pensabas pensaba _ Present subjunctive i muevo ____ ::::::::oJ i muevos i mueva movamos mov6is muevan preterite .: ovando PQIf pwtIdplll: oldo SIngulo.--'-n-:_:c_::ti_:_iie=--_~_~_ _ ! ! prefiero limperlecfsub!unctlve olerio [olerlos olericrnos oleriois preferirio preferirios I~irl._:":s"'_~:.c7t..lte----preferi preferiste prefiri6 _Fu_tu_r .-=u_::n=cI:_:lv"'e=--ofrezca ofrezcas ofrezca podrio podriomos podrias podriois podrio pod dan Present sublun"'c"'ti_::v"e'puedo puedos puedo podomos podois .~--preferiremos preferireis preferirnn present pattielpIe: prefirkmdo post PQrtIdpIe: prelerJdo Sin uta.-bj...perative podamos poded I no pod6is puedan ofreceremos ofrecereis ofreccron ofrezcamos ofreced I no otrezcois ofrezcan OiR Present oigo ayes aye to hear prHIIrd pclrtlclpl.ti"'ve""'..__ ~~i~~~ olisteis olieron ~:~.:_-_-~_-_-~_~_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_--+f.!pertect querio querios queria -Preterite quise quisiste quiso Futur-e---querre querros _q_:_u_e_tr_6 ""'ro' queriomos queriois querion ~ partklplll: queriendo past pgrtfclpie: querldo _ Sin uta. pensobornos pensabais pensaban pensario pensarias .-CO..!'Jasenl_ pido pides pide PEDIR Sin ula. ------ ~ _ _.ve=-I- m_ov_ie_r_o_n movomos moved / no mov6is muevan ~:~~-:-e~---- mueve / no rnuevos rnuevo OFRECER to offer Present ofrezco ofreces ofrece ofrecemos ofreceis ofracen ...p_refiere_n_____ preferiomos preferiois preferion preferimos preferisteis prefirieron . to wish Srn ular P~..-e:::c:_:_t ~::~s hu_e_'e_n ~:~~.6iSlhuelo huelan '= prelerire preteriros preferir6 prefieron to a....-------=-==(i!"_pertect subiunctiv_::e:__ movimos movisteis ~~~J .:=~:=-_mOviero_"_ movere mover6s movere moveremos rnovereis mover6n rnovi moviste i mo:viera movieros rnovierornos movierais pensaros pensaro pensorcrnos pensarois pensmon -tI-"'-:.:~. quisierois quisieron quislerurnos TnlferleCt"'"-~--~------~·· pedio pedias pedia Preterl"'te-----pedl pediste pidio pedimos pedis plden - pediria pedirios pedirio presenfSubluncflye.~.. prete'-rl"-te'____~ pude pudiste pudo Plul'Ol podemos podels pueden podiomos podiais podion pudimos pudisteis pudieron ________ Sin uta.nt pclrtldpl.

..!!!'-1l... sentimos sentisteis sintieron Impe-crf~e-ct~s-u""'b-..:re<:ogldo Plurul recogemos recoqeis recogen P/utOl Singular _fC~ondm~o~n~O~I~-----------.mperatlYe tenore lendr6s tenere lendremos tendreis lend ran .sabiendo p<l1t artlclpl". sabldo p Plural sabemos p<l1t <lrflclpla:sido p lob ...... to "'9ret 110 teellwell. . sentla ssntlos senHa sentfamos senliais sentian !I sienta sientcs sienta sintomos sint6is sienton Pre-ct-e""'ri~te------- Imperfectsubjunctlye reimos refsteis rieron nero rieras riera rierornos rierais neron Preterite senti ~-----------.... 5/11 ulor Plural Sin Ii/or Plural ~P~r~es~e~n=t~--------~~=-----------~C~o~n~dn~io~n-a~l~------~~~----------"' tendria tendrias tendria lendrfamos lendriais lendrian Im-p-e-rf·e-ct~_~-----------------------+I-~pr"e~s=e::nt~·s~·U~b~~~n~c~t~iy~e~ tenlo tenias tenia teniamos leniais ji .----------.-licipie.... l!rese!lt to presi8lllp<lrtlc._rfect'--sana solios solio soliornos saliais saHan ~_i~es"nt~bJ-u.... Iendo .. _S . Notice the similarities between the following tenses: a.. -0> c (see reaszar) 3..:.."n"'ct::iv::e:_ reco]o recojcs recojamos recoj6is __: Imperfect seguia seguias seguia segufamos seguiais seguian Presentsubjunctive .REALIZAR '0 re<llize goal er taskl.mperfect-suj.rteCt subjunclive-::tuviera luvieras luviera tengamos tengais tengan -' tuvierornos tuvierais tuvieran Futur-e---------~~-----f-. Present and present subjunctive: The present subjunctive is based on the yo form of the present indicative._ tengamos Ie ned / no tenqols lengan len / no tengas lenga .~resent salgo sales sale JICIIt pc..11". 10fulfill (a Singular Plural l!'resenl realizo realizes reolizo realizamos realiz6is realizan pruent participle: MOlllOI1do po$I parflcipla: reonzQdo Sin ular -tConditional reolizorlo realizarias realizaria . solldQ Plural salimos salis solen saldrfa saldrias saldria p_ fI"Irtlciple:soJle)1do Plural saldriamos saldriais saldrian Plural reolfzortomos reolizoriois realizarian Imperfed reallzaba realizabas realizaba realiz6bamos realizabais realizaban Presentsubju=-n"-c::_:t_::iv"e'--realice realices realice realicemos reoliceis realicen --' .rfect siguiera siguieras siguiera subju::_n"'c"'tl"'ye=siquierornos siguierais siguieran -_" Future recogere recogero recoger6s recogeremos recoqereis rscoqeron Imperatiy=e------.iy-e'_"'..ture reclizore realizar6s realizar6 realizaremos reolizoreis realizar6n ImperatO-iye~~~-~-~~.. verb oslde from lis Irrqula.-ec-:-t-su. siga i sigas siga sigamos siqcis sigan recogia=c-Preterile recogi recogiste recogi6 r_ec_o.-seremos sereis seron s.e / no seas seamos sed / no se6is sean I Future sabre sabras sabra sabremos sobreis sobron seros l:percitlVe sabe / no sepas sepa sepamos sabed / no sepcis sepan sea p_ TENER 10 hove lengo lienes liene tenemos tenets tienen pent parf(ciple: p<lrtldpla:Ienlendo lenidD TIPS FOR LEARNING VERB CONJUGATIONS 1. and -zar havethe followingspellingchangesin the yo form of the preteriteand in all forms of the presentsubjunctive: • -c~r changesc -0> qu (see tccan • -gar changesg -0> gu. . ~----~ recogeria recogerias recogeria recogerfamos recogeriais recogerfon ~~:_:__ sigo sigues sigue follow Sin ufor to SEGUIR seguimos seguis siguen pretent partldphl... - ""'Im=p"'e-=rf"e"'c""t ---------------tPresentSuiijUnctive------------.. .. ------------- 1· sintierornos sintierais sintieran sennreis sentiron siente / no sientas sienta sintomos sentid / no sint6is sientan sien"" ~-------=~: -~-= -~--='-== ROMPER to break ftlmpar Is a regLllqr .:g:"io~n~----+. j salga i salga salgas salgamos solqois sclqon ~r~e reolice realizaste realiz6 reolizamos reolizostels reolizaron ' Impe_rf~~u-lljlJnetive __ reallzara realizaras realizara ~ ~_ .--=------recoge I no rscojos recojo recojornos recoged / no recoj6is recojan ..j-un-ct~iy-"--------~ sintiera _- ref relste rio sentiste sintio smtieros smtiero Future rein? reiros reiro reiremos reireis relron Imperative fie / no rias rfa riamos reid / no rto!s . realiz6ramos recllzorots realizaran J'.bju-nct.... c...felda Plural reimos SENTIR(SE) Sin ular ..Preterite fue fui fuiste e_ro_n fuimos fuisteis fueron soblos sabia sepots sepan -'m erleCt"sUbTu"Ciive Preterile:-"'-~~---------~r..SUbjUOciiye sabfamos sabfais sabian sepa sepas sepa sepamos e'_o-.--------~"--"~----------f seguria seguirfas seguiria seguiriomos seguiriais seguirian Imperfect recogia recogias recogiomos recogiais Presentsublu... "p_:_r"'et"e~rt~·te"--seguf seguiste siguio seguimos seguisfeis siguieron +'::~. 'Preterite luve luvisfe luvo Ie~n-io-n_----~~ luvimos luvisleis luvieron i tenga tengas tenga Tm--'. Compound verbs areconjugatedlikethe root verb: cornooner (see oonen snvolver (seevolver) • cbtensr (see tener) etc.. 2.-'e-c-0-'cio ===_'_e_co_:_io_n Imperfectsubiunctiye recogimos recogisteis recogieron recogiera recoqrercs recogiera recoqferornos recogierais recogieran ----.. unwcllll Sin ular PluMI Present sienlo sienles sienle senlimos sen tis sienlen I j p_ participle: slnfiendo past partiejple:senfidQ SIn uklr Condlt"io::_n"'a::_I senti ria sentirias senliria Plural = _ ___' senfiriamos sentirfais senlirian ries reis rie rien ~!'erf:.e::-c"t. b. palt portlclpla. Verbs that end in -car.----------------lpresent reia reias reia reiamos reiais reion rio reirics reirio ria rios ! sub·unctic::ye~-----riamos ria is rian .---~' soli saliste solio solimos salisteis salieron saliera salieras saliera soliercrnos salierais salieran ..Conditional reirlo Plural reiriamos reiriais reirian 10 feel.. slgvlen<lo p<lrfp<lrtldpla:aeguido Plural Sin ular Plural "------------~c~o~n~d~I~~io~n-a·..----.Singular !. post participle: rOio SABER 10 know Sin ular Present Pf8t8nt pcrrtlclpla. F~u~tu-:r-:e-_-_-_-_-~-_-_-_-_-_-_~-_~_-_-_-~~_~_~~-~~_-_-_-_-_-_-~~Im~e~r"a::-ti~y=e sequire sequiros sequiro seguiremos sequireis sigue / no sigas siga sigamos sequld / no sigois sigan sequiron REIR laugh 51 1...! non "FU"lccu-=-rec---------------·+imperati-:y sentire senfir6s santiro senliremos . Preterite and imperfect SUbjunctive: The imperfect subjunctive is basedon the third person plural (elias) form of the preterite... realize / no realices realice pN58nI realicemos realizad / no reolfcets realicen FutUre soldre sotdrus soldro saldremos scldreis saldr6n -im-p-e-ra""'t'iy-:e--------------: sal/no salgas salgamos solid / no solqois solgo saigon 10 gathe••to pick up 5111 ulor presen~t~ reco]o recoges recoqa RECOGER partldpla: recoglendo po$I partlclpl..IUrKt~ive----'-------... -gar. ~eteri·t~e---------Ilmperf.~s seria seriois serton I se sabes so be Presentsubjunctive erornos erais sobers saben sea seas : sea -~----'-----" seamos seois sean -Imperfect sabia Preserl. Only a few verbs are irregular...SALIR ~_ 10 leo"".lpl".. supe supiste supo supimos suplsteis supieron supiera supieras supiera supiercrnos supierais supieran fuera fueras fuera ------""" fuerornos fuerai.s fueran Future sere sera Imperaiiv.'nglliar Plllral Sin ular P"'rC:'e"'se"n"tc------'-""'--"----------I-Condiflonal soy eres -im-perlect-------------i' era eras es somos so is J SER present participle: Plural sericrnos SIn ular Conditional sabrfa sabrias sabria Pluta! sabriamos sabriais sabrian son ~:~.(seeJugal) • -zar changes7.ctiye--~-~-----. Future and conditional: Both are formed by adding verb endingsto the infinitive form.

lnllg. 10 tempt) see ClllldllJ(. 10 locote) s~e . 10 perseculel see . to plav Ion inS.tro]e trojiste 'raja Irajimos lrojisteis trojeron +.. publlcar (10 publish I lee Ioea. desenvolver 110unfold. referlr Ito refer. maldecir 110curse I see dad. 10 pul back) see poner reproduclr (10 reproducel see conducir resolver 110resolve I see volver retraer (10 bring bock) see traer revoear 110revoke.ar . to turn) see volvar secor (to take out) see rocer seduclr {to seduce.-'r::a::ig':ca======-'r-a_:igo-n----:-"""=-.". lroyendo past participle: fT"id" _. 10 sleall see . 10 look fori S~ toccr caracterizar (to characterize) see reaHzar carecer 110lock] see otrecer chocar 110crash. tocorio toccrios tocaria . 10 hurl) see preferl' (not to know.v_e__ ____________ vesliremos troero Iraeremos trcereis traer6n tree / no !raigas Iraiga vestiros vestiro vesnreis vestiron viste / no vistas vista vistamos vestid / no vlstcis vistan VENIR to come ISingu!..taTi:. _. 10 weighl see pedlr mentlr {lo lle) see senrtr merecar (to deserve.tl esve tr 0 un . . colocar 110placel see teccr competir 110compelel see padl. Plu. to pertain) see ofraeer pervertir {lo pervert) ..eguir see con duel.Hzar anochecer {lo gel dark outl see ofrecer aparecer (to appear) see otrec.ul. garantizar (10 guarantee) see reaH:zc:nr 110disappearl s~e ofrecer I herlr 110wound.ress seta-ves r detener (to detoinl see en~r devolver 110return [sornerhinqll see valver disolver 110dissolve] see volver disponer (10 disposel sea perter distraer 110dislracll . 10 achel <~e 'mover edificar (10 conslrucll see toca.ir simpatizar (to sympathize) sea r'&c'Jlizar sobreponer (to superimpose) see porter sobresalir (ro excel.10 rnedictel see verur introducir (to introduce) see.onslroi. to exhibit) extraer 110extroct) see rroer .COO"""' I hulr 110fleel see censtrulr desereer 110disbelievel see CI~e~_ ' Impedlr (10 impede 10 hinderl see pedlr Imponer 110impose) see pener Incluir 110includel see con.'i~ar florecer 110flower.al venimos ven1s vienen present participle: past partlcJple. to oblainl see segulr conseritir (10 consent) see sent)r constitulr 110conslilule) see con. 10 suggesll see poner provocar 110provoke) see loea. 10 anlicipalel see venl. Plural _ trcernos troeis VESTJR[SE) 10 dress '10 gel dressed' Plurdl . sustraer Ito lake away. 10 reconstrucll see construlr recordar (to remember. 10 repeall see tecor revolver (to stir.cer obedecer Ito obeyl see obtener 110obtoinl see oponer Ito oppose) see organizar (to arganizel ofrecer tenet pone. to limit) see traer contribuir (to contribute) see ccnstrulr convenir (to agree) -S€'.J.vertir agradecer {lo Ihankl see efrecer almorzar 110eallunchl see mostrar amanecer {lo gellighl out) see ofreeer analizar 110analyzel see "". 10 compare I see preferlr conmover 110move lemolionallyJl see mover consegulr {lo gel.n.g._e_rfect vestia trcio troian Treierl!&--~'. 10 relotel see preferlr repellr (10 repeall see pedlr reponer 110replace.:. 10 Ihrivel see ofrecer freir 110fry I see rei. venldo SIn ular <.:. aborrecer 110hale. ' IIlstlendo part~.a.IMcer absolver 110absolve..M rrcsr doler 110pain..' .~ visto vistes viste veslimos Pl8Mnt partkl . Present-·sub 'unctiv$ volvemos volveis vuelven volveriornos valve ria is volverian vente veniols venian venga vengas venga Imperfect subjunctive vengamas veng6is vengan volviamos volviais volvian volvamos volvois vuelvan Preterite vine viniste vino Future vinimos vinisteis vinieron viniera vinieras viniera Imperative vinierornos vinierais vinieran volvimos volvisteis volvieron volvierornos volvierais volvieran vendre vsndros vendro vendremos vendreis vend ran yen / no vengas venga vengamos venid / no venqois vengan volveros volvero volvcre volvereis volvercn volveremos vuelve / no vuelvas vuelva volvamos volved / no volvo is vuelvan ADDITIONAL IRREGULAR Each I VERBS of Ihe following verbs is coniugated III 0 manner similor 10 one of Ihe verbs <:anjugoled in Ihe tables above."umentl Sin ular Present I Plural lacomos present participle: 1ocondo pad partlcJl>la: IOtodo Sin 1)10.ent vengo vienes viene Impertect venia venias venfamos Plu.e" reeoger actualizar (to bring up 10 dalel see re(lliz. 10 slick 101seepreferlr advertir {lo advisel see dl.condudr invertir (to invert to invest) See divertir ' leer Ito readl Se~ creee lIover 110rom) see mOVer locallzar 110localize. see .o1recer see pener finallzar (to fincltzel sea re.al Conditional taco tocos toca tocois locon ---------. 10 whilen) S~e cfrecer buscar 110seek. 10 collide] see taco. vestiriamos vestirlais veslirian subjunctive vistamos vlstois vistan ~C~~~o-n-a-I-- ~-I. _ ..lor bendecir 110bless) see deelr blanquecer 110bleach. 10 abhorl see . 10acknowledgel seeconocer reconstruir Ito rebuild. 10 acquill see velver abstraer 110obstroctl see traer acoger Ito greell s.:ogar especializar (to specialize! see reali:ar especlficar (10 specify.______ 'FUture-------'----------ttrcere troeros vestimos vestisteis vistieron vistiera vistieros vistiera 1 !T!!~er(J!i. traducir utllizar 110Iranslale) parecer 110seem. desobedecer 110disobeyl sa~ ofrecer despedirse /10 leave. 10 stone outl sea salir soler Ito be in Ihe habil all see mover sonreir 110smilel see relr sostener 110sustcin. trojero trojerornos trcjeros Irajerais trcjero Irajeran :--lni·l'_e!-"tive--~===_::-··-----Iraigamos troed / no trolqcls troiqon vlnlendo Plural vendrfamos vend riots vendrian vestios vestlo _ Preterite vesti vestiste vistio Future vestire vestlcmos vestiois vestion vista vistas vista I_ml'_erfect subjunctive -~ vistierornos vistierais vistieran .' Infe~lr (10 Infer. veis ven veriomos veriois verion imperfect locaba locaba Preterite '---toque tocaste toc6 Future tocore tocoros tocor6 loeabas toc6bamos tocabais tocaban ==="-'''''"''-=_--+'''m'''!'''rfect focomos tocasteis toea ron loque loques loque velamos veicls veamos veion veois yean ~="" vimos vistels vieron vieras viera vieramos vierais vieran tacara facara toearas Imperative tocorornos tocarais loco ron tocaremos toccreis tocor6n loca / no toques toque poeAInt loquemo.._. 10 lake aparll lee hace. Imperfect subjunctive.TOCAR to touch. 10 find) s-ee mO!itrnr enfatizar (10 emphasizel seereellzer enloquecer (to drive crazy) see offecer enriquecer 110grow richl see ofrecer entremorir 110flicker..S:.. to endure) see ofrecer perseguir 110pursue.a"-r=-------:p'-"=ur'-'a"-I-------'I --j Conditional Iraigo troes traeria traerias trae traen trolornos trolcis !raeria trciqo !raigas Iraeriamos lraeriais lraerion vestis visten vesliria vestirlas vesfirfa Present _'mperfect trcio troles Present _s~b·II~u~n~ct~iv~e:. componer 110compose. 10 hold] see tener contraer (to contract. intervenlr 110intervene.r apllcar 110applyl see toear contor (to count. see <ealiz<rr 110ulilize.eo divertlr poseer (to own.trulr deseriblr (10 describe) see aocnblr .s locad / no toqueis toquen veremos verels veron ve / no yeas vea veamos ved / no veols Yean TRAER to b. encoger 110shrinkl see recoger encontrar (to meet..ing ISingular Present --"_-'-_~ purtlcJple."" <.e. -·+"resent loco rio mas locarlais toccrion sub·~j-u-nc-ctCCiv-e--------~ toquemos tcqueis toquen subj::un::c:::t. 10 die awayl see merlr envejecer 110age..e ventr convertir 110convert) see dIvert" costar (to cost) see mestmr crecer (to grow) see ofrecer criticar (to criticize) see teccr desaparecer desconocer I estremecerse (to shudder) see explicar 110explainl see tocar exponer (to expose. 10 decipher) see volver deshacer (10 undo.. .rea'iI-.~ldo 51 ular Plural ------------------. o I aterrizar (to land) see rG'oHzar atraer 110allracl. destruir (to desfroy) see c:onstrulf d sf II d I .. 10 appearl see ofrecer perder 110lose) see enlender perecer {lo perishl see afrecer perludlcar (10 damageJ seato""r permanecer (to remain. to wrap) see'volver entretener (to entertain) see tener equlvocarse 110be wrangl see ro""r escoger (fo choose. to pick out) see re'l.eall. 10 namel see toear establecer 110eslablishl see olree._ troigamos traig6is """=__'_ __ _I".. reconocer 110 recognize."ae.ot medlr 110measure. 10 tell I see mostrcr contener {lo conlain. to possess) see creer practicer (to practice) see toccr predecir 110predictl see daclr prevenir 110prevent...::ivc:e'---. 10 disovowl see .criblr sustltulr 110substitutel s. 10 say goodbye) see pedl. producir 110producel see cornducir proponer 110propose.e.. 10 use) volar {lo flyl see most. 10 intlict) see prelerlr ~nffUir (to Influ_enceJ see ccnstr~lr .truir Indlcar 110indicale to hintl see teca.-. pertenecer {to belong. 10 coptivotel see truer autorizar (to authorize I :see rl. 10 grow aldl see ofreeer envolver (to cover. 10 support) s~~ tener suplicar 110begl see tocor suponer 110suppose. mantener (to maintain) see te..ar adherir 110adhere.andltional vendrfa vendrias vendria . 10 merit) S£l-9: ofre. 10 arrangel Sell poner comunlcar (to cornrnunlcotel see toea! conclulr (to conclude] see ccnsmnr conferlr 110confer. 10 assumel see poner suscrlblr 110subscribel see e.' P. to rernindl see mestrcr reduclr 110reduce] see con dud.

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