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• • 1. INTRODUCTION OF DR.NTTPS (VTPS) Food, clothing and shelter were the basic needs of mankind till lately but now we can say electricity has become a part of basic needs. Life without electricity has become unimaginable. There are three ways for the generation of electricity thermal, hydel under nuclear. In India, majority of the power is produced utilizing thermal energy • Dr. N T T P S came into existence in 1977 in between Ibrahimpatnam & Kondapalli villages. It is unique in its layout and numerous authors expects such as easy operation and maintenance. There are three stages in Dr.NTTPS the total capacity of the three stages her is 1260MW. • This report gives a detailed report about the various equipment and their working in the switch yard

.  Though the generation at VTPS is 1260 MW. only 1200 MW will tag on to the switch-yard. Bheemadole (100 MW).SWITCH YARD: INTRODUCTION  The system in the 220KV switch yard at VTPS receives electrical power from 6*210 MW and other inflows like. via incoming transmission lines and delivers electrical power via the outgoing transmission lines to varies substations namely  Podili(2)  Tallapalli(2)  Nunna (2)  Tadikonda (2)  Kondapalli (2)  Gunadala (1)  Bheemadole (1)  Vijjeswaram (1)  Narketpalli (1).Kothakota and LANCO (200 MW).The rest is utilized for auxiliary consumption. and  Chilakallu (1).


EQUIPEMENTS IN SWITCH YARD An electrical substation is an assemblage of electrical components including  bus bars  Isolators  circuit breakers  transformers  lighting arresters  instrument transformers….etc. .

• Centralized air conditioning system with connecting switchgear. .5 STs. one bus coupler and 15 feeders. 2 bypass.The switch-yard comprises of the following equipment: • 28 bays which include 6GTs. • Station battery system.

’ o It should be non porous and free from impurities and cracks. Materials used for insulators o Ceramic (Porcelain. . o High Mechanical strength to with stand conductor load. o High ratio of puncture strength to flashover. Steatite) o Glass-fiber reinforced epoxy resin rod covered by sheds made of silicon-rubber) o PROPRETIES OF INSULATORS: o High Electrical resistance of insulator material in order to avoid leakage currents to earth. wind load etc. The rigid tubular bus bars in SS are supported on Solid insulators/post insulators.INSULATORS o The flexible ACSR conductors of transmission line and substation bus burs are supported on string insulators.

Are used in the following applications and named accordingly. SF6 GIS bushing. CTs. PTs. a) Solid post insulators. For DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS & SS: Pin type insulator (for LT & HT) Shackle insulators Safety insulators The important requirement of air-insulation and porcelain insulators in EHV substations and transmission lines are .• • • • • • • • • • • • • Three distinct types of Insulators are used in transmission systems and substations: String Insulators (Suspension or tension) for supporting ACSR or AAAC conductors. Post Insulators for support Shaft insulators Operating rod insulators Hollow porcelain insulator for transformers bushing. The string insulator consists of several identical Ball and socket type disc insulators in series with end fitting on across arm side and conductor side. CVTS. CBs chambers.

The degree of reliability is evaluated by determining the continuity of service and possible faults.BUS BARS • The choice of the bus bars scheme for a substation depends upon the degree of reliability and economic justification. TYPES OF BUS BARS ARRANGEMENTS: .

SINGLE BUSBAR ARRANGEMENT SSSSSSSSI This system is used for 132 KV substations. . It is cheapest among all the others bus bars. It is totally shut down in case of a fault.

. It is used for 220 KV sub stations. which is used during maintenance or fault. One bus can serve as reserve.DOUBLE BUS BARS: • This system is costlier then a single bus bars system.

. We can take shut down on a breaker without interrupting the transmission line. It is used for critical 220KV substation.DOUBLE BUS BAR WITH TRANSFER BUS • This system has additional flexibility for operation.

• Classification of Circuit breaker: • Based on VOLTAGE • Low-less than 1kv • Medium-1kv to 52kv • High/Extra High-66kv to 765kv • Ultra High-above 765kv .CIRCUIT BREAKERS • Circuit breaker is automatic switching device which can carrying normal current and switching in & out normal loads • Interrupt short circuiting currents • Able to performer auto reclose duty.

. Bulk oil Circuit breaker……….Minimum oil Circuit breaker…………..SF6 Circuit breaker Vacuum…………… Vacuum Circuit breaker………………(VCB) Selection of a CB depends on: Type of application Rated voltage.. current Its breaking capacity(fault level of the installation) Auto-reclose duty cycle .(ABCB) Bulk oil………….• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Based on LOCATION Indoor Outdoor Based on INTERRUPTING MEDIUM Air break………Air break Circuit breaker…………(ACB) Air blast………Air blast Circuit breaker………….(BOCB) Minimum oil……….(MOCB) SF6 gas insulated…………….


Closing Operation: • In closing operation. insulating rod (201) is pulled up and the parts move in the reverse direction of opening operation. there by generating arc. During down ward movement the gas in puffer chamber builds up and high pressure gas flows through nozzle and quenches the arc. moving arc contact (107) and the nozzle (105).Opening operation: • Opening is affected by pulling the insulating rod (201). And also SF6 gas taken in to puffer chamber. puffer cylinder (110) moving contact. (107) separate.After contacts wipe the stationary and moving and contact (104). piston rod (111). .

S Value for A.NAME PLATE DETAILS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • RATINGS Type Rated Voltage Rated Insulation Level Rated Frequency Rated Normal Current Rated Short Circuit Breaking Current R.C Component Rated Short Circuit Making Current Rated Break Time Rated Short time Current Operating Sequence Rated TRV Operating Mechanism 200-SFM-40A 245kV 1050kVp 50Hz 3150A 40kA 50% 100kA 60ms (3 cycles) 40kA for 3 Sec.5kg/cm2 SF6 Gas Pressure 6.M.3ms The center to center distance between phases is generally 4500mm. 0-0.but cab\n be changed to suit users specific requirement .3S-CO-3 min co 364kVp Spring closing Pneumatic tripping Operating Pressure (air) 16.C Component Percentage D.0 kg/cm2 at 20c Applicable Standard IEC-62271-100 Opening Time 30ms Closing Time 100ms Pole Discrepancy (Between Poles) 3.

ADVANTAGES OF SF6 CB • • • • • Mostly widely used in EHV application Low operating noise Simple construction & compact size Easy installation. . inspection & maintenance. SF6 is identified as a green house gas.

. watt meters etc) recording meters (energy meters etc) and protective relays.INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS: • Current transformer • Potential transformer • Current transformer: Current transformer are used for supplying the current circuits of indicating instruments (ammeters.

and the magnetizing current is negligible. • Ip*Np =Is*Ns • Ratio error • Phase angle error • Composite error .• CT is ideally a short circuited transformer where the secondary terminal voltage is zero.


• All voltage transformer are designed for a standard secondary voltage of 110v. meters.VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER: • These instrument are used for supplying the voltage circuit of indicating instruments. • The errors at which the VTs operate depend on its burden and primary voltage . 110/1.5) • For voltage transformers at the following is valid: • Ep/Es=Np/Ns • Actual voltage ratio =Primary volts/secondary volts Voltage transformer errors: • A) voltage ratio error • B) Phase angle error.732 (63. and protective relay.


The Equipment in a PLCC system are : 1.POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION (PLCC) PLCC is economical and reliable method of communication system. Drainage coil 5. Coupling capacitor 3. Earth switch 4. • • • • • • • • . Trap (Wave trap) 2. Line matching unit Carrier wave in PLCC is radio frequency waves of frequencies between 20KHZ to500KHZ. Lighting arrester 6.


V string insulators. attenuation of signal is less. as the same power line is used for communication. .  Disruption is less. without additional cable.ADVATAGES OF PLCC  Because of thick lines.  Leakage of signal is negligible as lines are insulated with H.  It is economical.  Corona ring provided to maintain the RIV voltage levels low and within specified limits.

E). Controlling the exchange of power (i. Fault analysis and subsequent improvement .TASKS OF THE SWITCH YARD: A). Protection of transmission system (To isolate faulty network from the healthy one).e. Determination of power transfer through transmission lines. B). Maintain the system frequency within targeted limits (this can be done by rising /lowering of generation or load scheduling) D). C).to control the power transmission to load points as per requirements).

Further automatic devices can be provider to insulators like automatic OFF if insulator and giving the signal etc. .CONCLUSION This project ‘’OVER ALL EQUIPMENT OF 220KV SWITCH YARD IN DR.NTTPS” is constructed in such a way that every one can understand about the working and principle of 220kv switchyard equipments. This also explains about battery system used as secondary purpose.



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