Growing Health
A guide to Establishing Sustainable Food & Medicinal Herb Gardens in Southern Africa

Permaculture Trainers Reference Manual
Compiled for GardenAfrica by John Nzira


CONTENTS Page 5 – Introduction to the manual Page 6 – Contact details Page 7 – List of Acronyms Page 9 – Unit 1: Permaculture Principles and Design Page 9 – What is Permaculture? Page 11 – Value of Permaculture Gardens Page 13 – Permaculture Techniques Page 14 – Twenty ways of practicing sustainable gardening ethics in our lives Page 15 – Conclusion Page 16 – Unit 2: Planning Page 16 – Considerations when planning for a garden Page 20 – Important factors in selecting plants for your garden Page 22 – Garden Design Page 26 – Tools for tracking your progress Page 27 – Conclusion Page 28 – Unit 3: Dietary Needs and Nutrition Page 28 – What is nutrition? Page 29 – What is Diet? Page 31 – Water and your body Page 31 – A balanced diet Page 33 – Detoxifying your body Page 38 - Conclusion Page 39 – Unit 4: Soil in Your Garden and Steps for Improvement Page 39 – What is soil? Page 40 – Minerals found in soil Page 42 – Preparing the land and soil for planting Page 44 – Compost


Page 48 – Crop Rotation Page 48 – Conclusion Page 49 – Unit 5: Water Management, Conservation & Irrigation Page 49 – Water Management Page 51 – Water Harvesting and Conservation Page 54 – Conclusion Page 55 – Unit 6: Trees & Shrubs Page 55 – The role of trees and shrubs in the landscape Page 57 – Tree Planting Page 61 – Agro-Forestry Page 62 – Using plants as wind breaks Page 63 – Alley Cropping Page 64 – Useful trees for Agro-Forestry Page 75 - Conclusion Page 76 – Unit 7: Vegetables & Edible Crops Page 76 – Guidelines for growing selected crops Page 83 – Growing root crops in general Page 83 - Conclusion Page 84 – Unit 8: Herbs & Medicinal Plants Page 85 – Main uses for Herbs Page 85 – Types of Herbs Page 85 – Considerations for Herb Garden site Page 86 – Guidelines for design with Herbs Page 87 – Types of Herbs Page 89 – Preparing and using Herbs and Medicinal plants Page 91 – Traditional preparations using Medicinal plants Page 93 - Conclusion

Conclusion Page 99 – Unit 10: Mixing Plants in Your Garden Page 99 – Guilds Page 100 – Guidelines for choosing plants to grow together Page 105 – Conclusion Page 106 – Unit 11: Propagation of Plants Page 106 – Establishing a nursery Page 108 – Nursery management Page 109 – Ways of propagating plants Page 111 – How to obtain seeds Page 114 – Seed sowing guide for vegetables in Southern Africa Page 115 – A Sexual reproduction Page 116 – Growing plants from cuttings Page 120 – Grafting Page 123 – Conclusion Page 124 – Unit 12: Pests – Getting Rid of Unwelcome Guests in Your Garden Page 124 – What are pests? Page 126 – Pests and disease control Page 127 – Identifying problems and pests Page 129 – Plants to use for repelling pests .3 Page 94 – Unit 9: Integrating Livestock Page 94 – Apiculture Page 95 – Why keep Bees? Page 96 – Aquaculture Page 97 – Rabbitry Page 98 – Guinea Fowl Page 98 .Vermicomposting Page 98 .

Coughs & Influenza Page 148 – Solutions for people living with HIV/AIDS Page 149 – Personal Hygiene & food safety Page 151 – Conclusion Page 152 – Annex 1: Diagram of Leaf Shape Page 153 – Annex 2: Diagram of Leaf Margins Page 154 – Annex 3: Diagram of Leaf Venation .4 Page 132 – Unit 13: Harvesting Page 132 – Harvesting of specific crops Page 134 – Conclusion Page 135 – Unit 14: Collecting & Storing Seed Page 135 – Seed saving technique Page 137 – Conclusion Page 138 – Unit 15: Recipes & Food Hygiene Page 138 – Cooking with herbs Page 139 – Tips on how to prepare selected dishes Page 146 – Recommendations for a lack of appetite Page 147 – Recommended foods for someone with vomiting problems Page 147 – Strategies to deal with Colds.

UK Alastair Duncan .5 This manual was commissioned and funded by GardenAfrica. either for their own use or that of the communities with whom they work. avid organic gardener in the UK. productivity and quality of life. peri-urban and rural areas. London. Guy's and St. Using principals of agro-ecology. GardenAfrica commissioned this resource in order to combine principals of sustainable healthcare and resource management. ensuring that all are left with a sustainable horticultural and botanical legacy with which to improve health. We also wish to specifically thank all those who supported the production of this manual. Urban Farming is registered in South Africa. UK And to the manuals’ final editors in the UK: Valerie Ferguson – cookery book editor. and is grateful to John Nzira of Urban Farming. . and compiled by Urban Farming: GardenAfrica is a UK-based NGO which works with local and international partners to locate appropriate and sustainable solutions towards building community health and plant-based livelihoods. We welcome the reproduction and use of this manual in order to extend skills and knowledge to whomever may benefit. First Edition: Compiled by: Editors: Design: April 2008 John Nzira Mutizwa Mukute and Tafadzwa Marange (Zimbabwe) Smoothedge Designs Dover Design: African TypeArt by Manfred Klein Fonteria Second Edition: November 2012 GardenAfrica’s thanks are extended to our UK advisors who reviewed the related technical information: Prof Monique Simmonds – Head of Sustainable Use of Plants Group. We gratefully acknowledge their contributions. and focuses on transferring practical skills. Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.HIV Specialist Dietician. Its work is made possible by many institutions and individuals who support it through various ways. Oscar Knowles and Angelica Conway-Grim for reconstruction and layout. and all others who have contributed their expertise and time to the creation of this resource. GardenAfrica's mission is to enhance the relationship between communities and their environment. for nutritional development using Permaculture and low external input agricultural methods for the development of sustainable livelihoods in urban. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

GardenAfrica is also grateful to the Elton John Aids Foundation for contributing some of the funding for the development of this manual as part of the Soweto Clinics Garden Project – the forerunner of our Sustainable Health Management Programme. If the reader requires a bound hard copy. TN19 7HA. John Nzira is a specialist in Permaculture and urban farming and is the current manager and owner of Ukuvuna Urban Farming.uk .za Web: www.co. postage).com / jjnzira@urbanfarming.za GardenAfrica Garden Annex. teaching and practicing Permaculture. Lesotho and Swaziland. then they can contact Urban Farming at the below address for information and assistance. 1685. South Africa.org.gardenafrica. Contact details: Urban Farming 50 Pretorius Street. binding. the founder of Permaculture.urbanfarming. He received his Permaculture training in Zimbabwe at Fambidzanai Permaculture Institute and further training with Bill Mollinson.uk Web: www.co. since which time he has worked in Zimbabwe. South Africa. Halfway House. He has almost two decades of experience working for government and NGOs in community development. Jeannine Davidoff (Earthworm Productions. UK Telephone: +44 (0)1435 883 475 Email: gem@gardenafrica. Johannesburg. Please note that there may be a charge to cover costs (print. President Park. Urban Farming and GardenAfrica would welcome the use of this manual for the benefit of others. High Street.6 Additional Illustrations: Fambidzanai Permaculture Centre (Harare. SA) for creating the original (colour) illustrations used within.org. PO Box 6032. Burwash. Zimbabwe) for special permission to use their illustrations within Unit 11. in the late 1980s. East Sussex. Telephone and fax: +27 11 805 7768 Mobile: +27 83 665 3365 Email: johnzira@yahoo.

7 LIST OF ACRONYMS AI AIDS ARVs ART BMP CITES CSA CSOs GEOs GG GMOs HIV ISO IPM MDGs NGO NQF NPK OM OVC PAETA PLWHA QA TB TQM SABIO Artificial Insemination Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Anti Retro Virals Anti-Retroviral Treatment Best Management Practices Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (of Wild Fauna and Flora) Community Supported Agriculture Civil Society Organisations Genetically Engineered Organisms Grower Group Genetically Modified Organisms Human Immuno-deficiency Virus International Organisation for Standardization Integrated Pest Management Millennium Development Goals Non Governmental Organization National Qualifications Framework Nitrogen. and Potassium Organic Matter Orphans and Vulnerable Children Primary Agriculture Education and Training Authority Person Living With HIV and AIDS Quality Assurance Tuberculosis Total Quality Management South Africa Bee Industry Organization . Phosphorus.

8 UN UNAIDS UNGASS UNICEF USAID WHO WTO United Nations United Nations Global Programme on HIV and AIDS United Nations General Assembly Special Session United Nations Children’s Fund United States Agency for International Development World Health Organisation World Trade Organisation .

urban renewal. It integrates ecology. Originally derived from the words ‘Permanent agriculture’. It uses appropriate technology giving high yields from low energy inputs. The word was originally coined in the mid-seventies by two Australians. but one that is particularly useful is: “creating sustainable human habitats by following nature’s patterns. . to describe the design system pioneered as a response to what they. soil. David Holmgren and Bill Mollinson. energy and waste management which is more appropriate for the southern hemisphere than other comparative systems applied elsewhere. landscaping. saw as serious challenges to the survival of us all. The design principles are equally applicable to both urban and rural dwellers. organic gardening.” Permaculture offers an approach to food production. and many others globally. Permaculture has gone beyond its roots in looking at strategies to create sustainable food growing methods to become a worldwide movement encompassing all aspects of how we as human beings can live harmoniously in relation to Earth and its finite resources: a permanent culture. water.9 Unit 1: Permaculture principles and design LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader will have learned about: • • • • • Concepts and principles of Permaculture Permaculture food gardens and medicinal plants Permaculture techniques Ways of implementing sustainable gardening ethics in our lives Garden design What is Permaculture? ‘PERMACULTURE’ is a tool for sustainable living. Permaculture now probably has as many definitions as there are practitioners. architecture and agro-forestry in creating a rich and sustainable way of living. achieving a resource of great diversity and stability.

Instead. . or physical materials that can be used to make a new product. water resources. organic fertilizers and natural pesticides. buildings. Permaculture does all this without the use of too many external resources. climate. It regards the relationships among different resources in a given area as the relationships of one whole or integrated community and tries to encourage the most productive relationships. Permaculture focuses on designs that: • • • • • • • Spend as little energy as possible Look as far into the future as possible and think of the consequence of every action Use all available resources in the most productive relationships possible Use as many different plant and animal species as possible Grow food close to where the people are Recognise the environment as a complex set of living relationships. It also promotes food consumption close to the source to cut on energy costs associated with storage and long distance transport and the loss of nutritional quality. Permaculture is the thoughtful design of a system of farming and gardening that uses and combines all available resources. we try to recycle all waste products because most of them carry nutrients that can still be used in the garden. landscape. and habitat for livestock. technology. and Copy the processes of nature to allow an environment to sustain itself naturally. energy that can still be used by humans. soil resources. species are chosen for their compatibility with the local environment. animals. and learning to spend time imagining the consequences of our actions on the future of a particular environment or community. materials for shelter and home. human resources. including plants. In Permaculture. it tries to use affordable technology and seed. Permaculture encourages us to think more holistically by considering all the participants and resources in an environment and the way they relate to each other.10 Permaculture is a form of landscaping that strives to create a naturally balanced ecosystem that meets the gardener’s food needs as well as providing fuel. especially ones that produce more energy than they use. Indigenous species are utilized whenever possible and when they are not. waste materials and local knowledge.

Use as many diverse production processes as possible. These parts are converted into compost that plants will need for growth and production. Challenge the notion of health as something that always costs you money and facilitate people to take control of their own health so that they rely less on expensive pharmaceuticals which are inaccessible to the majority. • Diversity rules: Ecosystems or gardens that survive are usually the ones that contain a lot of diversity. Permaculture principles for sustainable garden design • Everything in relationship: The needs of one element are easily met by the products of another element. Creating a garden can be done in a way that is inexpensive and does not rely on outsiders to bring in extra resources. Provide nutritious food. like the fresh fruit and vegetables that build healthy immune systems. medicine. For example. beauty. Empower people to grow their own medicine 4.11 Value of Permaculture gardens Permaculture gardens help to: 1. prevent disease and improve the health of those already living with diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS 3. as well as their spiritual/cultural and economic value. choose and use plants for as many diverse uses such as nutrition. and 6. Also. • Work with nature: After you harvest plants put back all the parts you do not use into the soil. Affirm traditional eating habits and indigenous knowledge systems about plants. . Plant as many diverse species as possible. onions planted with cabbages will repel pests that eat cabbages. Empower people by promoting household food security and allowing people to take control of as much food production as possible 2. Beans planted with maize will help to restore nitrogen to the soil when maize takes it out. by learning to conserve the natural resources we have and by recycling and reusing waste materials. Facilitate community pride and give communities a sense of control and the capacity to take positive action 5. It can be done by using the everyday resources we already have around us.

• Work where it counts: Make a list of priorities and spend your time working where it is most important. • Place elements in the right place and at the right time: The needs of one element are easily met by the by-products of another element. for mistakes can be the building blocks of prosperity. You must establish whether the surroundings will have a good or bad influence on your homestead or site. Land must not be wasted and every corner of the site must be used. One of these is the opportunity for meaningful work. rather than imposing changes.12 • Cooperation not competition: Design must go beyond the boundaries of your beds and the fences that surround your garden. • Take the long view: Plan for long-term sustainability. tastes and feelings. • Mistakes are opportunities for learning what to do next: Never give up. • It is better to first spend a lot of time thinking than a lot of time working. Design must be all about what people need as well as their beliefs. and then reworking. . • Design for the people: People are the users of gardens. reuse and reduce: Use everything at your disposal and recycle all waste. (Elements are objects or things that are connected or linked to each other to form a garden or homestead). At the same time make use of the natural characteristics of plants and animals and the site. It is very important to plan your garden before you begin planting or keeping livestock to ensure the efficient use of waste. • • • • • • • • • • • Work with those who want to work: Gardens provide opportunities for many people. • Recycle. • Everything must have a purpose: Design focus must go beyond the limits of physical boundaries. This will influence your final design.

Permaculture techniques Permaculture techniques include. • • • • • • Principles of stability: It is not the number of diverse things in a design that lead to stability. wind direction. but are not limited to: • Learning to observe and take advantage of natural processes like water flow. know-how and resources with others to create a broader system of cultural & biological diversity. • Principles of stress and harmony: Gardens or homesteads should be designed to suppress or relieve stress. but the number of beneficial relationships in that system. You and your garden will be the ultimate beneficiaries. These beneficial relationships create many useful products for both the people and the environment. sunlight distribution • Learning to observe the impact of humans on the environment • Learning to identify and utilize useful resources (especially those that most people regard as waste) • Making an accurate list (audit) of all available resources • Carefully designing gardens to make the best use of the landscape • Finding clever ways to catch and “harvest” rain water and waste water • Planting vegetation that keeps away unwanted pests .13 • Use on-site resources: Recycle. Harmony is about the good relationship or connections between objects or things in the same design. • Sharing: Information. utilize existing land and hire unemployed people. Planting flowers around your homestead and in between vegetable beds helps to relieve stress to the gardener. Nature is also a “client” of all living and non.living organisms and should be cared for. skills.

. • Use low-energy environmental and biological systems to conserve and generate energy. • Plant forests and restore soil fertility. • Use different plants to suit different weather conditions. • Network with other in the same. • Control pests and diseases naturally. • Save seeds and grow your own seedlings as far as possible. such as plastic containers. • Cultivate even the smallest possible land area. where it has always traditionally been in sustainable societies.14 • Using mulch (layers of dead plant material) to keep moisture in the ground • Maintaining levels of useful nitrogen in the soil by planting nitrogen-fixing plants • Using leftovers of uncooked vegetables and fruit to create compost • Collecting seed for future planting (propagation) • Using waste products. • Bring food growing back into the cities and towns. to create useful gardening tools Twenty Ways of practicing sustainable gardening ethics in our lives: • Plan to generate income and enough food for your family and the community. • Grow plants for beauty as well. not problems. • See solutions. • Grow what your family and local people need. • Train others. • Plan for sustainability in the long-term. • Assist people to become self-reliant. or complementary businesses. • Diversify your production. especially your own children. • Work where it counts (assist people who want to learn). • Focus more on indigenous plants than exotic species. • Grow traditional food plants. • Use everything at your disposal and recycle all waste. and promote community responsibility.

and their application.15 Conclusion This unit has introduced you to the concept of Permaculture. Why is food security important at household level? List any Permaculture principles that you know. It is important to understanding what Permaculture is about before moving to the next units of the manual. Reflection points • • • • Define Permaculture and sustainable livelihoods. the principles behind it. What do you see as the advantages of Permaculture? . The following unit discusses how to plan a garden.

one should be clear about the goal. Goals unpack the . teachers. project members and other stakeholders. One way to ensure this is to involve them in your planning and designing. the key stakeholders would be the parents. Building a house is a process with several inter-related activities. the municipality officials and relevant ministries.16 Unit 2: Planning LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader will have learned about: • • • • • • • How to plan a sustainable Permaculture garden The key aspects of sustainable Permaculture gardening Determining the tools and materials they need Information gathering techniques Considerations when starting a garden Basic tools for recording progress Budgeting for gardens Introduction Good builders construct a house with guidance from a plan. fields and pastures before digging. until the house is completed. In many cases the purpose should be defined together with other people such as family members. In the case of schools. planting or stocking in order to make the most of the piece of land while retaining its ability to support life systems. one leading to the other. Considerations when planning for a garden Before starting a garden project. It is always important to consider the interests and needs of neighbours and other stakeholders. What would happen if the builder did not use a plan? What would happen if managers did not plan? What happens if garden designers do not plan? It is really worthwhile for farmers and gardeners to spend enough time on planning their gardens. pupils or students.

It is then better to plan your garden near a tap or close to where you can get water. such as lettuces. the animals. where there is lots of water. fruits. look for a well-drained area. the wind direction and the direction of the sun. . they tell us what we want to achieve in the medium and long term. In such areas. In addition. A steep slope is difficult to plant and care for. and will help you to integrate this information into your final design plan. • Consider that vegetables grow best in a sunny place. • In choosing a site. • Choose a site which is level or gently sloping. Therefore appropriate designs such as terracing and pit beds are encouraged where steep slopes cannot be avoided. Goals may be set for specific outcomes such as a goal for quality of life. roots will rot because of inadequate air pockets in the soil. more achievable steps. A goal can be broken down into smaller. one year. water running down the slope may carry away topsoil and seeds. a goal for means of production. five years or ten years. Few plants grow in poorly drained soil. Consider the vegetation. If these components are assessed well it will be easier to identify the opportunities and challenges they represent. • Walk across the garden and observe the patterns of the environment. and other related activities that support a sustainable Permaculture garden. goal for landscape design. etc. brassicas.17 future plans. Not all vegetables need sun. This may entail listing what needs to be achieved in six months. Assess the site of your garden • After you have developed your goals assess the site on which you wish to grow vegetables. the soil. etc. • Create your garden near a place that will be visible so that you can watch and care for your vegetables easily.

secateurs. Determine the size of the garden you need You will also need to know how much space each crop requires. you should make an effort to use both the vertical and horizontal space. picks. hoes.18 Determine the tools and materials you need Make a checklist of the tools you need for a sustainable food garden.for manure and meat Understanding your needs helps you to plan your homestead. Understanding your resources and needs A successful and fruitful garden can be made by understanding the resources you have around you. . mulch. wheel barrow. small tape measure (5m to 30m). hand shovels. • Other tools: Large tape measure (100m). • Tools for garden maintaining: Garden shears. hand forks. watering cans. thermometer. sticks and hammers.harvesting & irrigation RESOURCES SOIL . and a rain gauge. Protect your plants from the elements including: Wind (burning plants) Sun (burning tender plants) Water (rapid run-off from roofs) Animals (grazing) People (theft) Fire Needs: What do you want from your garden? Food Medicinal herbs Fruits Security A play area Or all of the above. Divide your homestead into 4 ZONES – Zone planning helps to give the best solutions for your home design. long handle secateurs and straight-bladed saw. a dibber and garden line. hosepipe. Check the table at the end of this unit. strides. buckets. How many varieties of plants do you want to grow on your land? It is important to know the distance apart of all the plants and crops you wish to grow. rakes. shovels. SUN . The following are some of the tools you may need: • Tools and materials for preparing the site: Forks. manure.nutrients & minerals for good growth ANIMALS .energy for growth SHADE . trowels.from strong sun and wind WATER . gloves. and what your needs are. In Permaculture. pegs.

19 Weight 1 gram = 1000 milligrams 1 kilogram = 1000 grams Length 1 centimetre = 10 millimetres 1 metre = 100 centimetres Area 1 hectare = 10000 square meters 100 square metres = 10 metres x 10 metres 1 tonne = 1000 kilograms 1 kilometre = 1000 metres Above is some basic information about measurements that might be useful.25 = 7sqm. use your own experience on how to do these. The area of a circle is pi x radius squared.14 x 2. • Volume . • 15cm is the same as half the length of the blade of a garden spade. and it is also about the length of your hand. • 30cm is the same as the length of the blade of a garden fork or a hand fork. meaning 3. a tank of water measuring 100 x 100 x 100 cm has a volume is 1.The area of the base multiplied by the height. Find the area of a single square.14. . however.000 cubic cms. Gauge how many whole squares you have and multiply them by the area of the single square. • 1 m is the same as the length of the spade or fork or the handle of a pick.000.2m is the same as the length of a steel rake. • 1. the area is 3. with pi being 3. In order to get the area of a rectangular shape: multiply the length by the breadth or width to give you the area. A garden that is 10m in length and 5m in breadth is 50 square metres. You may. Tips for using garden tools for measurement There are suggested measurements that can be used in preparing for your garden. for example. For irregular shapes draw a square grid over the shape.5 m squared. A 3m diameter (diameter is radius x 2) circle.14 x 1.

However. Each element has needs. animals and structures that work together in harmony form ‘a guild’. All are indicators of ecological disturbance or interaction. teachers and representatives from the surrounding community can participate. we call them 'companions'. For example. as can a road. Compatibility of plants Some plants grow well when they are planted alongside certain other plants. if certain plants are grown together one or both may suffer. the condition of the soil. Both a road or a dam can provide a firebreak for crop protection. selected students. It is important to know in detail what plants and elements can be put together in order to multiply functions. In the case of a school. For example mango trees grow well in low rainfall and hot climates. In a Permaculture system.20 Important factors in selecting plants for your garden Temperature and rainfall Certain plants grow well in certain climatic conditions. especially from highest to lowest points to observe and record or map all the landscape features around you such as the presence of wildlife. and outputs of one element feed into another element. Such plants are incompatible. It is a poor design if you plant a mango tree in a frost prone area. an 'element' is a design component. brassicas (such as cabbage or broccoli) planted next to tomatoes do not do well. When plants are compatible. a pond or a compost pile. For example. each element performs many functions in relation to other elements in the same unit. types of plants around. This can be a tank. Plants. In Permaculture. a dam wall can be used as a boundary. Plant selection should therefore consider temperature and rainfall or availability of water. crops such as sugar cane require good amounts of water and high temperatures. . preferably with minimum energy use – saving you time and energy. At the same time. How to gather information about the garden site The following methods can be used in collecting data (a series of information relating to your site): Transect walk (checking state of the land) This is a participatory method of walking across the land as a group or a family. a fowl run. These create beneficial relationships. Some plants host insects that eat bugs on other plants.

Interviews Carry out interviews and assessments of all the groups and individuals involved in the area to be designed and record the information. weeks and months on the site. the surrounding community. Assess the nature of their relationship to the proposed Permaculture site. especially the key roleplayers. Tips on building your knowledge of Permaculture Sometimes it is difficult to start a garden on your own. This information will allow you to integrate the stakeholders into your Permaculture system harmoniously. The following points are areas that you may consider experimenting with: . and the presence of productive plant species and infrastructure. Your best starting point is to draw inspiration from the things that you admire. Assessment of natural resources. learners.21 Observation You can also spend time wandering around. looking at it from as many angles as possible. This helps you work out where due North is. Stakeholders include people who contribute to the project positively as well as those who are negative. sources of composting materials. history of land-use and relationships to markets. Watch the way the sun moves through your homestead. wood. listening to the sounds flowing through and from it. which helps to plan your garden and homestead. councillors. Moss and lichen only grows on the south side of tree bark – facing away from the sun. plant and animal species Assess all the natural resources present on the site and in the surrounding environment. smelling its scents and feeling the various temperature changes over the days. such as rivers. light range and rainfall patterns. landowners. You will also have to research local weather patterns. This information gives you an idea of what building blocks you have at your disposal to begin with. educators. Use a thermometer and a rain gauge to tell you accurately what to expect in terms of temperature. such as chiefs. to give you an indication of the site’s history and previous land-use patterns. getting a feel for the land. neighbours and business clients. Assess the nature and condition of the plant and animal species present in the garden and surrounding area. The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

colour. These include: Vegetables. Good design is about placing the right element at the right place at the right time. projects. and nurseries. • Visit friends. magazines and watch TV programmes that have related topics to your goals. water and wind breaks. we will assume we have a piece of land big enough to accommodate four zones. Applying the concept of zones Zones and sectors are part of designing. • Think about what is happening in your community: What issues and nutritional needs are on the agenda in your community or in the country. while areas with plants or objects that are visited less often are placed further away. garden centres. The number of zones is usually determined by the size of land and the goals of the land user. Fruits. In order to illustrate the concept of zones. Gardens can be organized into zones. and can your project assist in addressing these issues? • List all plants and other elements you need to see in your garden. Flowers. The plants or animals that need to be visited most frequently are placed near the home. Plants and animals that need frequent visiting for harvesting and maintenance include annual vegetable gardens. • Collect and read books. Animals. which are determined by their distance from the centre that is often the home. • List plants you like and assess their sustainability for your scheme . and textures that support each other and look “happy” together. A garden should be designed to provide you with all you need by placing plants and animals in the right places. Medicinal Plants. .22 • Carry a camera and notebook to record ideas that occur to you. Garden Design A well-designed garden or homestead addresses the needs of the people and the environment. Elements are placed according to how many times you need to use and visit them. the nursery and chickens. The elements should work in harmony with one another and this means that the garden has excellent forms.

woodlots and animal systems. . bees Orchards. school or other building Nursery. can be placed in zone 3. because they require less attention and are harvested less often. rainwater storage. It is important to consider that some of the plants such as the Aloe forex can be planted in zone 1 or zone 2. shrubs. herbs Vegetable crops.23 Zone 0 1 2 3 4 What to place in the zone Energy efficient home. for medicinal purposes and also in zone 3 to function as a natural 'live' fenceline and firebreak. seedlings. small livestock Staple alley crops (maize. pumpkins) Trees (fire & wind breaks).

Good for water storage. ideal for moisture loving plants. vegetables. (Covered in more detail later. the north facing slope or wall is very hot in summer and good for plants and animals that can withstand heat. This is a very important part of your planning process. bearing in mind slope angles and elevation so that you develop swales. You can make a small nursery area out of poles and grass. Watch & record where the hot/dry winds come from in summer.24 Slopes and aspects Slope planning is where you look at your site in side profile. Nursery A nursery will do well placed along a warm north-facing boundary wall. and your property. trees and shrubs planted in ZONE 3 can provide both shade from the sun and protection from wind. compost and soil. • East Slope: Gets morning sun and warms up quickly in the morning. and where the chilled winds come from in winter. Depending on the size of your plot. A good nursery is a well organized work-space. • West Slope: Gets sun late in the morning so can be cold in the mornings. water storage tanks and pathways. Herbs and indigenous plants tend to do well here. Have a space for storing containers and bags. with clean tools. A hardening-off area is needed to help plants get ready for outside conditions. . terraces. All seed trays should be marked with the date and variety planted. or next to the house. and a cooling updraft in summer. Erect a wind-sock or piece of material on a pole to form a simple flag. herbs and medicinal plants. Grow ground covers to keep from slipping around inside the nursery. West slopes get very hot in the afternoons especially in summer. very good for the placement of nurseries. • South Slope: Cool and moist. You can grow many kinds of fruiting trees that will give long-term nutrition. dams. Remember to water seedlings often so they grow well. Trees and shrubs can provide protection from harsh winter winds. Wind Wind can damage your plants.) • North Slope: in the Southern hemisphere.

Their flowers attract birds & bees for garden fertility. Next to your hard fence. wind.25 Securing you plot Fencing can be made from recycled wood or metal found lying around. so add vital ingredients to your oil. and have long thorns that act as a fence. . sun and unwelcome visitors. Low-lying thick and impassable trees and shrubs will keep out foraging animals. To create a hard boundary fence the materials must be securely tied together. Acacia Karoo or Nigrescens have medicinal properties and are nitrogen fixers. plant ‘live fencing’ that will add to your garden and meet your needs. Plants are the best form of natural fence against fire.

• Budgeting is the process of relating money. you may need two packets of tomato seed once at the beginning of the project but you might need onion seed once every three months because you cannot harvest its seed. seasonal. These may be the land itself. quantity required or frequency of use. producing flowers (to encourage birds and bees) & has long thorns. • The next step is to quantify the items needed as well as how often they will be needed. For example. where you record your observations. is impassable. garden equipment. . • Plant placement: To assist with seasonal rotation of crops to prevent pests and nutrient loss to the soil. roads. if kept pruned. and provides wonderful flowering spikes to add variety to your garden Doviyalis Caffra Kei apple (Umkolo) is a drought resistant tree. for maximum benefit and productivity. unit cost and the total cost. with fencing etc. • Using the completed zone. where you write your plans over a given period of time • Daily record sheet. inputs (what you do) and outputs (what you get) • Monthly record sheet. check the prices of each item and multiply by the quantities in order to come up with a budget. • When you have calculated the quantities. where you summarise your monthly garden records for monitoring • Production record sheet. placed appropriately. slope and the sector information as a guideline. Factors to consider when costing materials include: description of item. materials and human resources required to start a project as well as those needed throughout the duration of the project. monthly or even weekly. Its fruit is used for jam. where necessary. Your budget can be annual. irrigation and water supply systems.26 Aloe ferox – This medicinal plant soothes digestion & skin. where you record what you have produced from the garden • Tools record sheet. where you keep a record of the tools you have for monitoring and possible replacement • Details of plant spacing for crops. water and labour. Tools for tracking your progress The following documents should be developed: • Planning sheet. seed. and enclosed. vegetables fruits and herbs for your observation and personal learning. Fill in the zoned map with the interconnecting components and systems like pathways. Basic tips on design and budgeting • Design your homestead garden for nutrition and waste reduction. • The first step in budgeting is to identify the items that have a cost. total quantity needed per month.

Reflection points • What do you want to produce in the short term and in the long term? • What key factors should you consider when planning a garden? • Develop a realistic budget for a garden measuring 10 m by 10 m in an urban set up.27 Top Tips: • Find natural. • Talk to other gardeners in your area about the local conditions. Now that you know what to do when you want to establish a garden it is important to go further and learn about nutrition and dietary needs. multi-use solutions: those which serve two or more purposes. Most importantly: • Plan & experiment. • What are the average monthly temperatures in your area? • What is the average annual rainfall in your area? . • List the kind of indigenous edible plants that grow well in your area. Or a budget for a rural setting measuring 40 m by 40 m. • Plan. and how they manage. observe & share. It takes time. Don’t be disheartened. & save you money. Conclusion In this module you have learned about planning the establishment of a garden.

But how much of these different foods should you include in your diet every day? And under which circumstances should you increase your intake of certain foods? These are some of the questions that this unit will try to answer. This is partly caused by families not knowing which crops to grow in order to provide a balanced diet or sustainable. efficient ways to produce vegetables. meat. and fats and oils. Some families lack water. There is a general lack of balanced eating in South African households because families do not produce enough variety of foods. knowledge of the nutritional value of plants and animals is important because it allows for better planning of future food production. good soil and the necessary agricultural inputs and cannot buy enough food because their incomes are too low. The food we eat can be classified into a number of broad categories. In Permaculture. grains and cereals.28 Unit 3: Dietary needs & nutrition LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this Unit the reader should be knowledgeable about: • • • • • • The principles of nutrition The importance of nutrition in our systems Sources of nutrition Getting a balanced diet Managing HIV and AIDS with good nutrition The problems that arise from under-nutrition What is nutrition? Nutrition is about eating the right food at the right time. namely: fruit and vegetables. . milk and dairy. fish and eggs. Good nutrition requires a balanced diet which comes from eating the right quantities of the food types.

29 What is Diet? To establish a sustainable and health-supporting garden one need to understand what Diet and Nutrition are all about. especially whole-grains. Second. First. A low-protein diet may reduce the stress on the kidney. maintenance and repair Resist and fight infections Perform daily activities Maintain and replenish the body’s cells Reinforce the immune system Prevent chronic diseases Maintain good mental health Ensure healthy teeth and bones When the body does not get enough food. Poor diet increases your risk of heart disease. stroke. includes a variety of grains daily. Diet is about eating the food with the right nutrients for your body to function and resist diseases. keep fit and enjoy ourselves. food or drink is consumed. with foods from all food groups. Healthy and balanced nutrition means eating the right quantities of each food group to keep healthy. the nutrients travel through the bloodstream to different parts of the body where they are used as “fuel” and for many other purposes. the body breaks down the food or drink into nutrients. gallbladder disease. What is the difference between Nutrition and Diet? Nutrition is a three-part process. The basic steps to good nutrition come from a diet that: • Helps you to maintain your body weight and is balanced overall. breathing problems. including lots of delicious fruits. a good source of fibre • Has foods prepared with less sodium or salt • Has less alcohol or acidic drinks. Along with physical activity. Avoiding salt can help maintain normal blood pressure and drinking lots of water can help reduce the risk of kidney stones. . arthritis.” Food provides us with energy and nutrients that our bodies need to: • • • • • • • • • Stay alive. move and work Build new cells and tissues for growth. especially vegetables). whole-grains. trans-fat. vegetables. a person has to eat and drink enough of the foods that contain key nutrients through a healthy diet (variety of food per day. your diet is the key factor that affects your weight and well-being. diabetes. high blood pressure. Third. sleep apnea (breathing problems while sleeping) and cancers. and fat-free or low-fat milk • Is low in saturated fat. To give the body proper nutrition. it becomes weak and cannot develop or function properly. Having a healthy diet is one of the most important things you can do to help your overall health. and cholesterol.

g. nuts. or high-fibre cereal. vitamins A and C (powerful antioxidants). brown rice. chomolia. pumpkin and winter squash. • Protein: Protein provides the building blocks of lean body mass. and rice. copper. Good protein sources include meat. whether fresh. amaranths and traditional vegetables are excellent as a supplement to provide calcium and protein. These people do not tend to be obese. There is a lot of evidence that people who eat mainly unprocessed starches and carbohydrates such as cereals and grains. It is important to grow a variety of vegetables and fruits in your own garden. which are converted to glucose in the body. e. honey. fish. it is broken down into amino acids. rape. sweet potatoes. and beans and peas including pinto beans. Meat might be difficult to get therefore vegetables such as Moringa Olifera. Complex carbohydrates are found in grain products such as bread. Millet (Mabele) or oats porridge. dietary fibre (wonderful for regularity. stroke and cancer. promoting growth of naturally occurring helpful gut bacteria). Eat two or more portions of the cereal and grain group at each meal and you will be healthier. eggs. dietary fibre and polyphenols. and starchy foods such as corn. pasta. plus whole-wheat toast for breakfast. broccoli. live longer and gain less weight. Try to eat more dark green vegetables such as covo. kale and other dark leaf greens. potatoes. orange vegetables such as carrots. Or have whole-wheat sandwiches for lunch if you are at work and base your evening meal on jacket potatoes. rather than fruit juice for most of your fruit choices. lentils). sorghum. When a protein-rich food is consumed. potassium). hormones.g. essential minerals and trace elements (zinc. garbanzo beans.. dairy products. and flavonoids (protective against many diseases). The following groups are required by your body: • Fruit and vegetables: These are rich in health-promoting nutrients such as beta-carotene. dried beans. Noting that fruits and vegetables contain so many protective nutrients. and body tissues. These unprocessed grains help to reduce risks of heart diseases. pasta. spinach. kidney beans. eat a bowl of unsifted maize meal. • Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates. many different kinds of cancer. they should be eaten in large quantities and everyone should try and eat five or more portions a day. canned or dried. These nutrients protect us against heart disease. are a primary source of energy. and improve the immune system. • Cereals and grains group is our best source of B vitamins. black beans. selenium. Traditionally people in South Africa had diets based on unprocessed grain (millet. fruit juice and lactose (milk sugar). that are reassembled to create enzymes. eat a variety of fruits. The ideal is to make the bulk of each meal a carbohydrate-rich food. poultry. . frozen. magnesium. vitamin E. samp or boiled crushed wheat. tofu. fruit. which our bodies use to produce energy for growth and repair. maize). diabetes and obesity. winter squash and root vegetables. Simple carbohydrates are found in processed sugar. and legumes (e.30 What are nutrients? Nutrients are substances in the food we eat. are very healthy and do not suffer from the diseases associated with our western lifestyle. In a day. minerals. split peas and lentils.

foods should be selected from the following food groups: • Mabele. helping food move smoothly through the colon (large intestine). Examples of foods under each category are given below. butter. whole grains. tea and coffee. Water and your body Clean water is the body's first requirement after oxygen. chromium. molybdenum. oils and sweets. producing energy and boosting immunity. Water purges toxins and wastes from your body and keeps the mind clear. Excess energy from any source not just fatty food is converted to fat in the body and stored for later use. body renewal and building the immune systems. fibre is indigestible plant matter such as cellulose. and soybean oils) and monounsaturated fats (found in olive and canola oils. but getting too little is rarely a problem. • Provides a full feeling. They make the skin healthy and support the nervous system. Every day.g. • Vitamins and minerals: Most vitamins must be obtained from food. bread. copper. palm). except for vitamin D. Insoluble fibre plays an important role in digestion. • Antioxidants include vitamins C and E.. fats. The body needs several trace elements in tiny amounts. corn.) A balanced diet A balanced diet includes different types of food and adequate water intake. Always check that water is safe for drinking. This type of fibre is found in the skin and pulp of many fruits and vegetables. You need to take more carbohydrates. which the body manufactures when skin is exposed to sunlight. iodine. bones and teeth. iron. Everyone needs some dietary fat. fruits and vegetables than proteins. including boron. rice and pasta: 6-11 servings per day • Vegetables: 3-5 servings per day • Fruit: 2-4 servings per day • Milk. manganese. tropical oils (e. and avocados. Minerals are importantfor making blood cells. pollution and heart disease. Cooking and processing can destroy some vitamins and minerals. remove water from the body and therefore should be avoided or taken in moderation. and others that are produced by bacteria in the gut. cola and all canned and bottled soft drinks. Polyunsaturated fats (found in sunflower. selenium and zinc. coconut. Alcohol can also interfere with the action of medicines. Saturated fat is found in meat. • Fibre: Also known as roughage. cereal. popcorn and seeds. nuts. (And remember that alcohol is the number one reason why women and children are abused. yoghurt and cheese: 2-3 servings per day .31 • Fats: Fat in food is a source of energy and has a high concentration of calories. otherwise boil. and beta-carotene. They slow down a person’s ageing process and fight against cancer. Vitamins are useful for balancing hormones. assists in the regulation of bowels and aids in relieving such disorders as constipation • Helps transport waste to the kidneys and lungs for excretion • Helps carry hormones and disease fighting cells through the bloodstream • Is a necessary element for the many chemical reactions involved in the process of digestion and metabolism • Assists in regulating body temperature • Helps protect and cushion tissues and lubricate the joints Alcoholic drinks. seeds. cobalt.

oils and sweets: use sparingly What the body gets from different types of food Nutrient Nutrient Sugars and starches Fibre Fat Protein Water Main function Main function Fuel for energy. blood and sweat . talk. brain function they give us to walk. run etc Keeps the heart healthy. fish. removes cholesterol from the body Fuel for energy. nervous system and immune system Building the body and immune system Part of all cells and body fluids. e.g. dry beans. poultry. eggs and nuts: 2-3 servings per day • Fats. movement. Essential acids are used for body building especially the brain.32 • Meat. urine.

Supporting your immune system Under-nutrition or malnutrition happens when the diet of a child or adult does not provide enough energy.Cook vegetables by putting them into just enough boiling water to cover or into a stew or soup.Wash fresh foods thoroughly to clean them. Mood and attitude have a tremendous bearing on the immune system. Use the cooking water from vegetables for stews. Preventing nutrient loss Most plant and animal food has the most nutritional value when it is fresh. excess alcohol. etc healthy and to preserve the immune system Makes red blood cells Helps the body to use calcium to build and repair bones and other tissues. the immune system can be improved by an appropriate lifestyle. free radicals. Apart from eating the right food. stay active and sleep for at least eight hours every day. and other irritating molecules act as toxins in the . natural or organic foods. Stress. Fats (especially oxidized fats and cholesterol). Preparing foods . stress management. Take eight cups of potable water per day. The following strategies are useful for preserving the nutritional value of food: Ways to retain food nutrients Storing and buying . protein and other nutrients to meet nutrient needs. and dry in the shade. glandular therapy. smiling. Increases absorption of non-haem iron from food. This preserves the vitamins that are destroyed by over-boiling. wound healing and fighting infections Helps to keep the surfaces of the eyes. Dry vitamin A-rich foods by putting them in boiling water for two or three minutes. diet. It is important to maintain a healthy and properly functioning immune system. and at other times because you have produced plenty of it. Optimal immune function requires a healthy diet that is rich in whole. Drying foods . Detoxifying your body Detoxification is the process of clearing unwanted elements (toxins) from the body or neutralizing or transforming them. Also take care not to damage foods when harvesting or storing them as this exposes them to disease. and the use of plant-based medicines. smoking and poor eating habits increase vulnerability of the body to diseases.Dry fruits and vegetables by exposing them only briefly to heat to preserve vitamin C. nutritional supplements. refined sugar. and meditation have been shown to enhance the immune system. Positive emotional states such as laughter. Do not soak sliced vegetables for the same reason. Cooking foods . so you do not waste vitamin C in cooking water. The immune system of the body is responsible for keeping diseases away or for resisting those that attack it. gut. It is also important to note that HIV infection causes specific deficiencies of minerals and vitamins in your body through malabsorption.Do not keep foods for a long time after harvesting or buying them because some vitamins may be lost. Cover and cook until the vegetables are just ready. exercise. Do not soak as this will result in loss of vitamin C. sometimes you have to keep food to last over periods of time for various reasons: sometimes because the food is seasonal. However. to destroy enzymes which make foods go bad.33 Iron Iodine Zinc Vitamin A Folate Vitamin C Building red blood cells and muscle Ingredient of thyroid hormones Helps normal growth and development.

sorghum. colon sluggishness and dysfunction. that's even better. broccoli. Regular exercise every day helps in the reduction of acids in your body. animal fats. The immune system consists of T-helper cells that contain a protein called CD4. The normal range for CD4+T cells in a healthy person is 800 to 1 200 cells per cubic millilitre of blood. ice-cream. They may result in excess acid in the body. and a lack of enough fish. Acid Acids are reduced by taking enough calcium into your body. such as grapes. HIV attacks the immune system. regardless of whether one is living with HIV/AIDS. and poor elimination through kidneys. fruits and vegetables every day. peas and lentils in stews and soups for long-lasting protein. carrots. optimal nutrition can help boost immune function. This means that the virus uses the body’s own cells to reproduce itself or to multiply. For those who are HIV positive. Obesity We get fat when we eat poor nutrition. The brightly coloured foods that are made to taste so wonderful don't feed us properly and make us fat and unhealthy. When this happens. peach. sorghum and brown rice instead to naturally bring down sugar. An HIV-infected person’s CD4 count falls over time. sorghum. maximize the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and reduce the risk of chronic illnesses. If you can grow and cook the food yourself. mabumbe. because it takes your body a while to break up all the different nutrients. and also in nuts. thereby weakening it and making it vulnerable to infections. beer and wine contain ingredients that are closer to plastic than to food. such as celery. beetroot. These toxins may result from poor digestion. reduce sugar. cakes. . Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Good nutrition is the key to a healthy lifestyle. Have beans. The fats used in prepared meals you buy in supermarkets and fast food outlets are particularly bad for you. Chips. kale. Eat sweet potatoes. lentils. HIV stands for “human immunodeficiency virus”. respiratory tract or the skin. the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis. It can take up to 10 years for the CD4 count to fall below 200 per cubic millimetre of blood. High Cholesterol Cholesterol is caused by over-consumption of animal fats. Meat products that come out of factories are full of trans-fats and chemicals that interfere with the body's digestive processes. vegetables and fibre-rich food. sweets. What is HIV and how does it affect the body? It is important to discuss HIV in Africa because there are many people infected with the virus. To control high levels of blood sugar. The virus enters the blood and gains access to the T-helper cells by attaching itself to the CD4. margarine and processed foods. jam and margarine are full of empty calories. It is a retrovirus. and root vegetables to fill you up. fruits. banana and pears. Refined maize and flour products eaten with sugar. Eat sweet potato. high levels of blood sugars and cholesterol. Remember that you are a natural being and you need to feed on natural foods. citrus.34 body. millet. oats and seeds. jam. The only cure is to take charge of your nutrition. chocolates. High levels of blood sugar These are caused by over-consumption of refined food and soft drinks. sweets and honey in the diet. Control of cholesterol can be achieved by reducing consumption of heated oils. parsley. reduced liver function. wholegrain bread and pasta. and eating more beans. Calcium is commonly found in vegetables.

proteins. e. get tested. These are the ones that are used for telling the HIV status of a person. When a person is infected with the virus. The above measures should be used in combination. After infection. The primary method of treating HIV and AIDS is the use of drugs called Antiretrovirals (ARVs) which are sometimes referred to as antiretroviral treatment (ART). It often takes many years for the immune system to decline to the point where an HIV positive person is said to have AIDS. circumcision also protects against other sexually transmitted infections. As a result. How are HIV and AIDS treated? There is no cure for HIV and AIDS. Circumcised males are two to eight times less likely to become infected with HIV.can make people less susceptible to HIV infection. the person becomes malnourished. Know your status. he or she is said to be HIV-positive. delivery or through breastfeeding. What is AIDS? AIDS stands for “acquired immune deficiency syndrome”. Infection with HIV damages the immune system. vitamins and minerals and using anti-HIV drugs. This period is called the “window period”. A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and illnesses. the following actions should be taken to reduce the burden of HIV infection: • Public awareness campaigns on a safe and healthy lifestyle • Effective management of sexually transmitted diseases . However. which leads to other infections of opportunistic disease such as fever and diarrhoea. So. eating the right food at the right time. by sharing needles with an infected person. loses weight and is weakened. Research on male circumcision has been found to lower HIV infection rates. Prevention of HIV and AIDS Preventative measures can be taken to ensure that one is not infected with HIV.assisted by good nutrition . Voluntary Testing & Counselling The HIV antibody test is available free of charge at certain clinics.35 The virus is transmitted through having unprotected sex with an infected person. These infections result in lower food intake because they reduce appetite and interfere with the body’s ability to absorb food. it may take up to three months for the HIV antibodies to be produced. This means that the person is carrying the HI virus and the process of immune-system deterioration has begun. circumcision provide added protection. be sensible and act responsibly. Furthermore. Infected pregnant women can also pass the virus to their babies during pregnancy.g. An HIV-positive person may live with the disease for a long time even more than 20 years. and through blood transfusions (where the blood has not been screened for the virus). carbohydrates. fruits and vegetables. such as safe sex: • Using a condom during sexual intercourse • Abstinence • Being faithful to one partner It is thought that a strong immune system . and since people who have a sexually transmitted infection are two to five times more likely to become infected with HIV. through infected blood. Managing HIV and AIDS Good nutrition is also vital to help maintain the health and quality of life of the person living with AIDS. it is possible to get a negative result when someone has been recently infected. such as syphilis and gonorrhoea. However. the disease can be managed by living a healthy lifestyle. Above all. These should be sought from clinics and hospitals.

Vegetables and fruits you can eat in a particular season January – March Apricot Artichoke Beans Berries April – June Artichoke Avocadoes Beans July – September Apricot Artichoke Beans Berries Oct . the family will have the burden of caring. care and support • Work to lower the cost of ARVs and make them accessible • Improving the programme of home-based care • Research and monitoring of the disease and the treatments • Conducting regular surveillance of the epidemic When the nutritional needs are not met. three or four times a day • Exercise to make sure your body has enough muscle tissue • Eat a variety of foods • Protein foods. this can have a particularly positive impact on the health of adults and children.36 • Reducing mother-to-child transmission • Providing adequate access to voluntary testing and counselling • Providing post-exposure services • Treatment. Good nutrition can help to extend the period when the person with HIV/AIDS remains well and productive. If the person is sick. fruits and vegetables everyday • Plenty of foods providing energy • Maintain good standards of food hygiene • Drink clean water • Cook food properly • Store food properly • Keep yourself and your kitchen clean Growing food for a balanced diet Growing fruit and vegetables for eating at home can improve a family’s diet. The main principles of a healthy diet for a person living with HIV are: • Maintain a healthy weight • Eat regularly. adding vital nutrients at low cost. paying health bills and absorbing the loss of earnings as the person is unable to work. recovery from an illness will take longer. It is not necessary to have a large piece of land to grow nutritious vegetables even small pieces of land (door size) can be used productively. If crops are carefully chosen for their nutritional value.December Apricot Artichoke Beans Berries .

37 Brinjals Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Cherries Chillies Cow Peas Cow Pea leaves Cucumber Grapes Ground nuts Indigenous veg Mango Mealies Melon Nectarines Okra Onions Onions Oranges Peach Pears Pigeon Pea Pigweed Pineapples Pomegranates Potatoes Pumpkins Potatoes Pears Pigeon Pea Pigweed Pineapples Melon Nectarines Green Pepper Indigenous veg Mango Cabbages Carrots Cauliflower Brinjals Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Cherries Chillies Cow Peas Cow Pea leaves Cucumber Grapes Ground nuts Indigenous veg Mango Mealies Melon Nectarines Okra Onions Oranges Peach Pears Pigeon Pea Pigweed Pineapples Pomegranates Potatoes Pumpkin Brinjals Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Cherries Chillies Cow Peas Cow Pea leaves Cucumber Grapes Ground nuts Indigenous veg Mango Mealies Melon Nectarines Okra Onions Oranges Peach Pears Pigeon Pea Pigweed Pineapples Pomegranates Potatoes Pumpkin .

Reflection points • What plants grow in your garden and what are their nutritional values? • How can you preserve the nutritional value of food when you have no refrigerator? • How can your family ensure that you eat a balanced diet? • Why is water important to your body? • Why is a good diet important for people living with HIV/AIDS? .38 Spinach Strawberries Sweet Potato Tomatoes Wild Fruits Wild Mushrooms Spinach Spinach Strawberries Spinach Strawberries Sweet potato Tomatoes Wild Fruits Wild Mushrooms Sweet potatoes Tomatoes Sweet potato Tomatoes Wild Fruits Wild Mushroom Wild Mushrooms Conclusion This chapter covered several aspects of nutrition. under-nutrition and ways of addressing problems associated with malnutrition. HIV and AIDS. Deliberate effort was also made to demonstrate the clear relationship between nutrition. which include the sources of a balanced diet.

and sea weed meal. sand or loamy. all contributing towards the health and vitality of the soil. What type of soil do you have? It is very important to know the type of soil you have before you start growing vegetables and other crops. Permaculture does not concentrate on feeding the plant as is the case with conventional agriculture but rather focuses on building a healthy soil. fungi. After identifying the soil type. Inorganic fertilizers are those that have been made artificially.39 Unit 4: Soil in your garden and steps for improvement LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this Unit the reader should be knowledgeable about: • • • • • • • • Soil management Soil types How to prepare soil for cropping Mulching How to make compost Using and managing earthworms in the garden Crop rotation The different types of manure What is soil? Soils are alive in that they are inhabited by billions of micro-organisms. rabbits. mice. The soil is the source of everything the plant needs to grow. ultimately. small insects and worms. These includes fish. like rats. healthy people. are concentrated. Sand Sandy Loam Loam Clay Enhancing soil fertility Organic fertilizers are made up of naturally occurring organic materials. it is then easier to know what methods to use for improving it. Always remember to test the soil before use to find out whether the soil is clay. . blood. hoof and horn. bone meal. They have no modifications and they are natural products they are safe to use as organic fertilizers. Then there and thousands of larger organisms. snakes and moles. and are usually soluble in water and hence they are easily washed from soil. bacteria. except sunlight. A healthy soil gives rise to healthy plants and animals and. There are different types of soil.

Most functions are indirect and complex • Zinc . water.Has a major role in phosphorus transport • Molybdenum . Soil testing Garden soils need to be tested before you cultivate them so you know what type of soil you have and thus know which soil conditioning and pioneer approach to take.Reduce Nitrogen and increase Phosphorus. Potassium and Calcium based teas Soil analysis On any site identified for gardening a basic soil survey is necessary to find out the pH throughout the entire property and examine drainage capacity and the types of vegetation already growing. animals. sun. one can decide which species to plant where and which improvements should be made.Important in calcium uptake and quality of fruit and vegetables • Copper .Assists in chlorophyll production and metabolism depends on it • Boron .Essential for the growth of leaf and stems • Potassium . Plant Growth • Growth phase. The best pH for garden soils is about 6.Essential for nitrogen fixation • Manganese .40 Minerals found in the soil Major Elements • Nitrogen . Acidic soils are generally found in areas of high rainfall because the water leaches the soil of minerals.Remove Nitrogen and use only Phosphorus. Bare soil is soil damaged by people.Increases disease resistance and quality of fruits and grain • Phosphorus . The good news is that this soil can be rehabilitated. . or pH.5.Essential for cell division • Sulphur . Potassium and Calcium • Reproductive phase. parent rock and plant vegetation.Promotes early maturity • Calcium . From this survey.A constituent of amino acids.Nitrogen • Changeover phase. or wind.Helps in uptake and use of water in plants • Chlorine .Helps in chlorophyll formation • Magnesium . proteins.Contributes to water holding capacity of plants Soil pH Plants have problems absorbing nutrients from the soil unless the soil has the right Acid and Alkaline balance. vitamins and enzymes Minor Elements • Iron . Soil pH is determined by rainfall. Low rainfall areas can have very alkaline soils because the minerals concentrate in the soils.

friability (c) Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) • Indication of potential soil fertility • Measures the soil’s ability to store cations (calcium. earthworms • Tilth. magnesium. microorganisms.41 Components of a soil test A soil test may include analysis of the following components: (a) Ph • Acidity/alkalinity of soil • Influences of the availability of all essential plant nutrients • Affects activity of soil microorganisms (b) Organic Matter (OM) • Moisture holding capacity of the soil • Serves as supply of nutrients to plants. Zinc. stalk strength (f) Calcium • Low test indicates very acid soil • Promotes overall plant health (g) Magnesium. and potassium) (d) Nitrogen • Essential for above ground vegetative growth • Development of chlorophyll (e) Phosphorus • Influences energy transfer reactions in plant cells • Stimulates root development • Stimulates flowering (f) Potassium • Activates plant enzyme systems • Promotes carbohydrate and protein formation and movement • Improves winter hardiness. Iron. Manganese • Components of chlorophyll • Important for protein and enzyme functions • Excess of magnesium may make other nutrients less available (h) Sulphur • Component in three plant amino acids • Plant vigour • Boron • Plant vigour .

sweet peppers. parsnip. cucumber and melons. New Zealand spinach. calabash. hot peppers. okra and strawberries. sorrel. brinjal. Groups of crops that can be used in rotation • CUCURBITS: Pumpkins. Permaculture aims to work with nature to prevent problems. Dig the soil to a depth of 30cm. shallot. summer savoury. The ridges should be spaced at the normal row spacing for the crop and should be as high as you can easily build. Measure out a bed which is approximately 1. Maize. spinach. cress. marrow. Preparing the soil means breaking it up. root parsley. This is particularly useful if the soil is likely to become waterlogged or if drainage is poor. A healthy soil has the nutrients and natural systems which provide a good environment for growing nutritious crops. The secret of a rich and healthy vegetable garden is to feed soil regularly. garlic. chard. rocket. Digging is the best way to break up any hard layers in the soil and to allow air to enter the soil. gooseberries. adding organic matter or other materials to improve it and make it more friable. water cress. honey pear. radish. endive. Spread manure or compost over the surface. The added material will then be thoroughly blended with the soil by planting time. • SALADS (leaf vegetables): Lettuce. • ROOTS: Carrots. indigenous garlic. tomatillo. winter savoury. coriander. If possible. onions. beet. salad burnet. squash. turnip. celeriac. the crumb structure will be loosened whilst sandy soil will form a structure that holds water.42 Preparing the land and the soil for planting Clear the land first by removing weeds. and grow more crops in a small space. Raised beds Raised beds are areas in the garden which are prepared for planting the crops. the soil should be prepared several months before planting is to begin. The use of a bed system with areas of deep soil with pathways between them is a good way to get good and high yields. leeks. Ridging the soil Another method of preparing the soil for planting is ridging. sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes are better grown on ridges.2m wide and as long as you need. rather than to treat them when they have arisen. sweet potatoes and Jerusalem artichoke. • FRUIT CROPS: Tomato. As you dig you will notice that the soil changes colour and texture at a certain depth. potatoes. parsley and celery. . large stones and other items from the soil. If the soil is clay. If they are built higher the soil is likely to be washed away from the roots of the crop during heavy rain.

After two weeks. dead and living: • Dead. They are easy to maintain as everything is close at hand and have a very balanced appearance. • BRASSICAS: Cabbage. How to build soil fertility for sustainable production There are different ways of adding nutrients to the soil so that it can support a better and more balanced production system and sustain good levels of production. Plant heavy feeders on the bed so that they will benefit from the nutrients left on the bed by a heavy giver. This is dried out. cover crops and green manure crops prevent soil erosion. Because it is perennial. rye. decayed. Pit Beds A pit bed is a circular raised bed around a central hollow. millet and rice. . which are grown to benefit the soil in a number of ways. grass cuttings or straw. Living mulch grows underneath trees and shrubs. Lucerne is a perennial nitrogen fixing plant. bush bean. Chinese cabbage. It is normally 75cm deep and 50 to 75cm in diameter. dried leaves. which is ideal in dry areas for disposing of daily kitchen waste and grey water as the hollow is used for dumping any available scraps and wastes. • Living. swede and collard. buffer the soil from extremes of heat and cold. vegetable peels. it is called mulch. cauliflower. You can use inorganic mulch such as stones and newspaper. Mulch When the soil is covered with a layer of dried leaves. chick peas. It is used as fodder and for green manure. Green Manure Green manure comes from green plants. It should be collected from various locations and placed on top of the soil and around plants.43 • LEGUMES: Runner bean. lentils. Trench Bed You can also dig a trench bed and fill it with grass cuttings. but this has fewer advantages. wheat. These plants may be returned into the soil as mulch or by digging them into the beds to provide organic matter in the soil. Mulch. cow peas. Plant the nitrogen fixing plants (heavy givers) in a plot or bed and. crushed egg shells and other leftover foods that will rot. when established. Chinese broccoli. or cut them back just before they flower and mulch the bed. pigeon peas and ground nuts. broccoli. Most of the plants used for green manure are legumes such as beans. You can use green manure in rotation farming. or dying straw. The different strategies that enhance soil fertility. recently cut vegetable matter. Planting lucerne on the edge of the bed helps in soil improvement because it fixes nitrogen in the soil. peas. There are two categories of mulch. and protect soil water from evaporation. The soil that is removed is heaped around the pit to make a growing bed. cow peas. lucerne. rape. it is wasteful to plough back. plant crops like cabbages and spinach. covo. harvest them. etc. Horseshoe beds These are very good for water catchment and companion planting. they add organic matter and nutrients to the soil. brussels sprouts. barley. broad beans. but you cut the leaves and dig them into the soil. kale. soya beans. Do not use left over meat since it attracts dogs and disease. sorghum. • GRAINS: Maize. chick peas. They can be effectively used on slopes as well as on flat ground. These plants fix nitrogen into the soil and other plants use the nitrogen as their food. mustard.

There are two types of compost heap: aerobic and anaerobic. • Construction of a compost heap : The process for making compost is much the same regardless of the materials used. It is important to get appropriate training in compost making. it must be replaced on a regular basis. donkey or cattle) kraal. Earthworms will speed up decomposition and their eggs will mix into the soil when the compost is spread. horse. • Where to make compost? Compost should be made near to where it is going to be used and within easy access to the composting material.44 How to get the most out of mulch: • Mulch the bed immediately after planting. Compost Compost is organic matter that is put in a heap or a pit to break down into humus. Because we are feeding the soil with compost we must ensure that we have all the major and minor elements found in soil (see Minerals in Soil chart) present in the compost so that it is effective. This is if you want to produce organic food. If possible the compost heap should always be made on the ground so that micro-organisms and worms can move up and into it • Lay down a 5cm layer of animal manure for green grass or leaves • Lay down 5cm of composting plants and kitchen scraps if possible or old compost • Lay down a 5cm layer of activating material (grass cuttings. weeds) • Lay down 20cm of straw/mulch (carboniferous material) • Repeat steps 2-5 until the heap is at the desired height spraying water over each layer as you go until it is damp. • Once the compost heap is completed it must be covered with a layer of straw to act as a mulch and them covered with black plastic to keep existing moisture and gasses in and further moisture out so as not to over saturate the heap • The heap will heat rapidly over the first 3 days. Repeat this process until the heap is ready . Kraal compost can be made near the animal (goats. like earthworms. Below are some guidelines for making compost. • As mulch decomposes or is washed away. Anaerobic compost on the other hand does not use oxygen. It is essential in the long run to grow all your composting materials on the farm and produce your own animal manure. because imported animal and plant materials are likely to contain agricultural chemicals. • Composting is a process of making food for plants and small animals. Guidelines for making aerobic compost: • Lay down a 20cm layer of coarse materials (straw or twigs) at the base of the heap to allow for aeration and drainage. Try to make the heap or the pit in a shady place to prevent high evaporation. Aerobic compost is where the compost is created by micro-organisms that use oxygen in the process of decomposition. • Spread the mulch around the plants.. sheep. • The mulch should be 8cm thick. insert a metal pole into the heap and when you pull it out the pole should be hot indicating that the heap is doing its thing • The heap will continue to get really hot for the first 6 days (you can bake food in a pot if you insert the pot into the outer third of the heap). Aerobic compost is quick to decompose and destroys most of the weed seeds and plant diseases in the process if it is made correctly. A well-developed compost will contain several minerals that plants need. Do not saturate the compost heap as this will prevent it from heating and cause depletion of oxygen • Plugs of red wrigglers and earthworms can be added to the heap when it starts cooling down. but does not have as much nitrogen as animal manure. After the 6th day it will start cooling and by the 10th day it should be ready for turning • When turning the heap use a fork and mix all the layers together (except the bottom materials placed for drainage purposes) and add more water if it is needed.

that if added to the soil before decomposition. it is likely that the majority of diseases will be eradicated. which. Castings are rich in soluble Nitrogen. which make nutrients and growth stimulants available to plants. crumbly. Hard cuttings take longer to decompose and some of them could develop roots. Enzymes and Auxins (growth hormones). which rejuvenates and nourishes the soil. Add soft hedge cuttings to compost. and cover the ground with mulch. Castings have a unique shape that builds soil structure and improves aeration. boost and strengthen our own bodies and immune systems. Compost should be used immediately when it is ready. It is advisable to burn all diseased materials and use the ash for controlling termites and other insects. Plants with such diseases should not be added to the compost heap. These become readily available to the plant. The main way of attracting earthworms into our gardens is to use a no-till system of cultivation and to apply liberal amounts of mulch. Tips on materials for compost making Many disease-causing microorganisms are killed by high heat. Potassium. The nutrients will move from the surface of the soil into the soil through watering. Leave for 3 to 5 days before planting. The worm’s digestive processes grind and uniformly mix the nutrients and trace elements into simple forms. This results in a fertile and living soil. in turn. Earthworms Earthworms are nature’s ploughs that move. Magnesium. Phosphates. Use a wheel barrow for 1 square metre. spread the compost on the soil surface about 10cm deep and use a garden fork to mix it with the soil. Experiments have also shown that the presence of earthworms in the soil reduces the numbers of harmful eelworms or nematodes. These are accessible to the plant in a slow-release formula. grey mould. mildews. wilts and tobacco mosaic virus that can survive such temperatures. the fertility of the heap often gets lost through leaching and drying and dying of micro organisms.45 Application of compost As the compost heap decomposes it will get smaller and eventually loses about 25% of its volume. When fruit and vegetables are grown organically. sweet smelling and teeming with micro-organisms. It should be impossible to identify any of the raw materials used. they are richer in vitamins and minerals. However. Also. never . If it is left standing for too long. Plants show vigorous growth and are more able to resist pests and diseases naturally. Animal manures and how to apply them Make sure you compost all animal manure before use. For example. Less commonly known is that their excreta and secretions are high in organic matter and soil bacteria. The use of dog and cat droppings is not recommended because some of the diseases that attack these animals can be passed to humans. Castings have a high concentration of beneficial bacteria and micro organisms that suppress pathogens and toxins. Wood shavings and saw dust take many years to decompose so it is unwise to use them. When earthworms are present in the soil we have all the above benefits PLUS the fact that the worms are continually taking down organic matter into the soil and mixing it up. They also contain high levels of Carbon and low levels of Nitrogen. Animal manure carries seeds and they easily germinate if the manure isn’t composted first. be aware of diseases such as white rot. if the whole compost heap heats up to 80 Degrees Celsius. If the compost is not yet well-decomposed it should be treated as mulch. pH is neutralised and microbial action is increased. Calcium. spread animal manure and plough into the soil. aerate and drain the soil. Before planting. Earthworm castings are produced when organic matter passes through the gut of the worm. The finished product should be dark. the bacteria rob the plants of Nitrogen in order to work on the wood.

To take advantage of their natural abilities earthworms can be sprinkled in the garden at the rate of 10 earthworms per square meter. metal drums. You can keep them indoors or outdoors. . And these are just some of the ways in which people keep these most useful of 'pets'. which earthworms need to function. They are happy in wooden boxes. kitchen waste and vegetables How to look after earthworms There are many different ways to keep earthworms. Cover the bed of the container with black plastic or shade cloth. Put a layer of grass on top. The layer of grass protects the bed from extreme heat and cold. • Keep earthworms in boxes and feed with animal manure. Increasing earthworms in the garden • Maintain soil moisture • Always cover the ground • Make pit beds in the garden to attract earthworm breeding. on a concrete floor or on compacted ground. trenches or windrows (long rows on the ground). If the bed is outdoors it must be in the shade or the layer of grass on top needs to be 20-30cm thick. Caring for your earthworms carefully will reward you greatly in the garden.46 use insecticides or any poisons in the garden. This keeps the bed moist and dark.

Below are guidelines on how to make liquid manure: • Use a 210 litre drum with the lid removed is ideal • First fill the drum with rainwater to 75% • Add a 50kg grain bag full of animal manure or mixed composting plants depending on the type of liquid manure you are wanting to make. Moist conditions also deter ants. Earthworm pests and associated control measure • Rodents . except citrus and onion family. mixed and aerated until the smell of ammonia can no longer be detected. it is possible to harvest earthworm castings. straw. Make sure there is adequate drainage if the worms are contained in drums or trenches. beetle. which are about the size of a match head and bright yellow or orange. they will come up to the surface. It should also be coarsely chopped and thoroughly wet. the fresher the better. the balance has been upset and needs to be restored.Remove by hand Making liquid manures Liquid manures are another way of feeding the soil.Live traps and cats or spring-loaded traps • Red ants . it needs to be watered. check the drainage and turn the bed lightly with a fork. Although the worms can survive waterlogged conditions. The presence of the odd spider. Place feed on just one side of the bed. After several feedings. After a few months. The worms will move to the fresh food. like leaves. black ant or bug is nothing to worry about. if these become plentiful. Never use poison.Remove by hand and feed to chickens • Frogs . in which case you should uncover the container. It takes about 21 days for a cocoon to hatch and another 2-3 weeks for the babies to migrate to the feeding side.Remove by hand • Centipedes . If the manure is mixed with urine.47 Worm beds must be kept moist but not waterlogged. and kept outdoors. to the water and stir it in well . castings can be harvested from the left free of food. Earthworms eat all kitchen scraps. However. aerated and odourless. cows and horses. but not rotten or smelly. A bad odour indicates too much water. The pests listed below eat large quantities of worms and must be dealt with. where rain can fall into their habitat. This should be repeated when the feed has been consumed and a layer of castings is now visible where the feed was. grass clippings and crop residues and manure from rabbits. They eat decomposing organic matter. Feed the worms by placing a 10cm layer of feed on top of the bed. Be careful not to remove the fresh cocoons. millipede. A worm bed is a living and diverse ecosystem. who prefer dry conditions. They have their role to play in keeping the bed clean. The feed should be decomposing.

• What are the advantages of using organic manure? • Describe the ways in which earthworms contribute to the ecology of the garden as well as to its productivity. This module has helped you to be knowledgeable about soil management. which use few soil nutrients should follow a season of crops that use large quantities of soil nutrients. the yields will decrease and the plants will become unhealthy.48 • Cover the barrel with a lid or stretch plastic over the top to prevent fumes escaping . Beans and other legume plants. Each type of crop uses particular nutrients and minerals. These minerals will be used up until the soil has very little of them left. which is essential when practising gardening. controls weeds. mulching. There should be no solid materials left in the brew but just a sludge on the bottom that can be poured around tree stems or spread onto the garden or compost heap • The raw liquid manure can then be diluted 1/3 for field crops and 1/5 for the nursery One should not apply the liquid manure more than once a week in small quantities or once every 2 weeks in larger amounts. Reflection points • Explain how feeding the soil can result in a nation with healthy people. which are present in the soil. nutrients for the soil and plants. how to prepared the soil. They provide very nutritious food crops and also improve the fertility of the soil by “fixing” Nitrogen from the air into a form that plants can use. It helps to maintain soil fertility. Sometimes large amounts of one particular mineral are used. Conclusion Having understood soil classification.any smell from the drum is a loss of Nitrogen in the form of Ammonia • Stir the contents every 2 days for 8 days • After 8 days the liquid manure will be ready for application. are particularly valuable for including in a rotation. Crops. if the same type of crop is planted in the same plot year after year. Plants that are grown in soil without enough of a particular essential nutrient will grow poorly and may show signs of weak leaves. Normally. Crop rotation Crop rotation means growing different types of crops on the same piece of land one after the other. pests and diseases and helps a good variety of natural predators to survive on the farm. • Why should a farmer rotate crops? • What principles should be used in crop rotation? . Deeprooted crops should follow a season of shallow-rooted ones. we trust you are now able to manage soil fertility and plant nutrients. development of compost and about manure (green manure and liquid manure). for example groundnuts.

. Harvesting and storage is the basis for starting permaculture food production. This module will take you through various topics regarding water use and management. Conservation & Irrigation LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this Unit the reader should be knowledgeable about: • • • • • Water harvesting techniques Water management techniques Water conservation Grey water management Irrigation techniques and technologies Introduction Now that you know how to manage your soil it is important to know about water. Water Management The starting point is to observe the water cycle in your area. What happens to the rain that falls on your doorstep? Does it get into the soil? Do you collect it in a tank? Does it run into a storm drain? It is important to use as much rain water as possible for household use and watering plants. Rain water is the best for farming because it is less polluted than borehole or river water and has less chemicals than municipality water.49 Unit 5: Water Management. Water is one of the most important elements needed by plants.

• Sink: Put the water into the ground to build the ground water table using pits and swales and mulch. Watering in the afternoon in winter is unwise as it leaves the plants and ground too wet when the sun sets and the evening chill sets in. Water use in the garden It cannot be stressed enough that watering. rather than frequent short watering. the simplest systems are the most elegant and effective. • Store: Catch and store all the run-off water you can in barrels. Frequent shallow watering cause the plant roots to grow upwards looking for water. Allow the top 2 cm of top soil to dry out before watering again. it will start wilting and its growth will slow down. such as drip irrigation. making them resistant to dry spells. Long-term irrigation in this manner leads to salting of soils. but you will have to work it out for yourself by irrigating each area and checking on it until you find the soil around the plants is well soaked. the soil should be moist. is almost as bad as having too little water. tanks and reservoirs. Irrigation Systems For efficient delivery of water to different elements in the Permaculture structure. This gives the water time to sink in before the sun rises. Some guidelines on watering plants Most garden plants (hardy species are an exception) must be watered regularly. which makes them weak and susceptible to drought and pest attack. if done incorrectly. • Only irrigate at night in summer to avoid excessive evaporation that happens on hot days. and for bathing. Another way to test when garden plants need water is to stick a finger in the ground. Plants must be given enough water to see them adequately through their growth to maturity. • Spread: Direct the water to vegetated land put in swales connected to small earth dams and make use of appropriate irrigation technology. • Do not waterlog the soil because this kills micro-life and plants die from lack of oxygen. Irrigation systems must be specific and well focused to deliver water exactly where you want it so none is wasted on watering areas that do not need watering. • Only irrigate in the morning on a mild day in winter to avoid freezing the plants on cold nights in winter. There are some principles to bear in mind when watering gardens.50 Principles for day to day water management (PSSS): • Protect: Protect your sources and storage points from pollution. rather than flushing away clean water. A good watering for garden plants in loamy soils is about 25mm. This will ensure the water goes deep into the soil encouraging the plant roots to grow deep and access sub soil water. The water must seep through the mulch and seep right into the soil. Lack of water will stunt them and make them flower and set seed too soon. Watering directly on bare ground during hot days results in quick evaporation leaving crystallised salts behind. the water used for washing dishes and clothes. For example. Also water on the surface of plants and on mulch. This is especially important for all seedlings. then it is time to water. Water until the area is soaked once in a while. if you can push it about 3cm into the ground without finding water. can be directed into the toilet system. • Save: It is important to put strategies in place for saving water as a household. The watering needs of Permaculture systems are not as high as conventional agricultural systems and vary according to Zone placement of species and age of species. . You will notice when a plant is not getting enough water or is in dry ground.

As much as 90% of the irrigation seeps into the soil. yet not heavy spray outwards. water will have to be piped in. The drip nozzles are placed 30cm apart and the pipe spacing is 50cm. They generally spray in a 3-metre arc around them and the fineness of the spray is usually determined by the resolution of the spray nozzle and the water pressure. Net and pan will only work on a slope. nurseries and co-ops. This type of sprinklers are cheap and found at most garden shops. Secondly it works as an irrigation system whereby water is directed into the net and pan system from a swale or pipeline situated above the trees on a slope. however. you will run 2 lines of piping 50cm apart. They saturate an area very swiftly and can be moved anywhere. with a connection to an appropriate length of 15 mm irrigation piping. In a bed 1. If the string is not on the mark. . Fine nozzles and spray are only suitable for nurseries. When the string meets the midpoint. Drip irrigation works by inserting drip nozzles into 20mm piping that is laid down along the beds under the mulch in parallel lines. Water harvesting and conservation Swales When marking the swales. In this way you cover all of your bed through the drippers.51 Micro-jet spray irrigation Micro-jet spray irrigation systems are ideal for watering Zone 1 and 2 gardens. from the central hole. the legs are not on the same level. These consist of micro sprinkler nozzles set on a one metre aluminium rod. put the peg at the starting point. as infiltration rates between the nets will be high other than in big storms. it indicates that the two points where the legs touch the ground are on the same level. dense.5m wide. mark on the cross bar. they work well by collecting run-off and directing it into the pans. Move one leg up or down until the string is at the midpoint of the cross-bar. provided you have enough hose to supply the sprinkler with pressurised water. which is inserted into the ground. On steep or bare slopes. With gentle vegetated slopes. Small sprinklers Independent small sprinklers that spray uniformly in a 6-meter arc are ideal for spot watering. Net and pan Net and pan irrigation systems for trees are useful in two situations: as a water catchment and in directing infrastructure that relies on rainfall to fill the cross channels and pans with sheet run-off. The best ones are those that spray a consistent. Drip irrigation Drip irrigation is the most efficient irrigation system because it has the highest amount of water seeping into the soil to feed the plants.

Diversion drains These are similar to swales but they run at a slight angle across the contours with the specific intention of transferring water from one area to the next. where all excess water is sent. These use points can include earth-bermed fields. use the A-frame to find two level points on the left side of the area where you are trying to establish the contour. where overland water flow is infiltrated into the ground. tree pans and pit beds. Continue until you reach the end of the row. Mark the two points with stakes. and the excess is channelled to use points where it is allowed to seep. They are particularly useful in transferring water overflow from road surfaces and rooftops to suitable storage points. Water spreading This method can be used in conjunction with swales and diversion drains.52 To establish a level contour line from left to right across the face of a slope. Swing the left leg around to the other side. The pegs or stones you marked at each point will indicate the level of the contour. This is the easiest way of marking contours and is much cheaper than scientific technologies. . Pivot the Aframe on the right leg. Anybody can afford to make an A-Frame. nothing is wasted and allowed to flow away.

Grey water systems are systems that collect this dirty water. When using wastewater from the kitchen. it is wise to establish just what chemicals. Plastic tanks can be purchased in sizes ranging from 1000 l to 20 000 l. Homemade concrete tanks are the cheapest form of domestic rain water catchment available. provided it can be stored. Asbestos roofing should not be source of drinking water. roads. or most easily treated for drinking and cooking in the house. it will contaminate the water with mercury and lead. Edible plants other than woody herbs and trees should not be consumed if the plants use grey water. and used for both drinking water and shower. they clean the initial discharge through a grease trap. Soil organisms can deal with most contaminants in grey water. However. Roof water is the least polluted. An appropriate mixture of sand. bathroom. if properly made. This system can contain plant species that grow well in water purification wetland. and make excellent mulch and liquid manure. The illustration at the end of this unit demonstrates how to purify rainwater coming off the roof. they can be rehabilitated by sinking their base into a foundation of concrete and covered with chicken wire. and then the water flows through a sand/rock filter.53 Rainwater storage in tanks Water can be caught off roof areas. and at what concentration. This kind of water is called grey water. This type of tank will last a while and is cheaper than buying a new tank. If the roof area is corrugated iron. and other paved areas. are being released into grey water systems. medicines and heavy metals) should not be poured down the drain. Recycling water In Permaculture. Woody perennials can cope better with pollutants than other garden plants Cleaning grey water Grey water systems can be productive. purify most of the waste from it and then lead it to an appropriate place for use in the gardens. where it percolates to a surface wetland. Galvanised rain tanks can rust away very quickly. From that point onwards any overflow drifts gently through a meandering channel lined with water cleaning plants into either a purification wetland or off to trees. Try and use environmentally friendly soaps and shampoos. cement and salt is plastered over the wire and left to dry. we do all we can to recycle water from the bathroom and kitchen. make sure the paint is not peeling off. but the really heavy stuff (pharmaceutical chemicals. . that have high Nitrogen content. washing or garden water. and laundry. because if it is.

This module has helped you to be knowledgeable about water management and the different types of irrigation that can be practised when gardening. madumbe. Acacia robusta and Waterberry. as long as they are not planted in the wetlands but rather on the edges of the channels. irrigation and other water management systems. Rhus montana. • Trees: Tree tomato. Conclusion Having understood water harvesting. madumbe. • Wetland plants: Papyrus. comfrey. red-hot poker. where they will not block the progress of the water with their roots. Haleria lucida. we hope you are now able to manage water and practise irrigation. Rhus viminalis. watercress. common reed (Phragmites australis). watercress and mints. Reflection points • Why is harvesting important? • Suggest a process that you would engage in so that you can recharge a spring that has run dry in a given rural community. Examples include: • Channel plants: Comfrey.54 Plant species for grey water systems There are many other trees that can grow in grey water systems. conservation. • What are the sources of grey water in your school and how is it being used? • How would you calculate the amount of water that would be collected from a roof? . bulrush. jungle rice and Chinese water chestnuts.


Unit 6: Trees & Shrubs
By the end of this Unit the reader should have leaned about:
• • • • • • • •

The role of plants in agriculture How to plant trees and shrubs Development of windbreaks Development of live fence Alley cropping How to grow and manage specific tree species Development of Agro-forestry Establishment and management of orchards

You should now understand more about Permaculture principles and have learnt how to implement Permaculture, in the way you plan your garden and required nutritional needs. It is now time to get to know about the plants that can help you to achieve the goals you set. This module will enable you to learn about the role of trees and shrubs, how to plant them, how to develop wind breaks and live fences, how to practice alley cropping, how to develop agro-forestry and orchards. The knowledge you will acquire will enable you to practice in real life, putting the right tree in the right place at the right time.

The role of trees and shrubs in the landscape
Trees are vital in a Permaculture design. They provide shelter for other organisms and a wide range of useful yields (fuel, food, fodder, nitrogen fixing, medicine and they can be used for construction). In order to choose the right species of trees to perform the right function, we must understand the local climate and which species can flourish in a particular area. We should know about indigenous trees in our area to be able to select appropriate species. Consider which species are wind, drought and animal resistant. Some tree species can create problems in the local environment. For example, the alien eucalyptus species remove vast amounts of ground water. Besides the vital service of providing the planet with oxygen, trees also perform a number of other important functions:
• Provide detritus and humus, such as dead plants and animals that decompose and become soil nutrients • Provide shelter for living organisms, such as birds, spiders, and lizards • If its' seeds are legumes, it fixes Nitrogen in the soil, which becomes available for the plants growing in the same

• Cool the air in the surrounding area through evapo-transpiration, which enables other plants to grow there • “Mines” bedrock minerals, which then become available over time to surrounding plants as the leaves die, fall off and decompose in the soil • Can intercept heavy downpours and protect the plants growing under them • Slow down or deflect (change the direction of) wind • Prevents soil erosion and land slides


The difference between a tree and shrub
• A shrub grows less than 5 metres • A tree can grow at least 5 metres

Classification of trees
Plants can be classified in a number of ways depending on the subject or specific interest of an individual. One way of classifying plants is to look at their origin, thus we have indigenous and exotic (alien) plants.

Indigenous plants
Indigenous plants are those that originate or are native in a particular country. They grow well naturally in the different climatic conditions found in the different parts of a particular country. Some of them are of high economic value if they have medicinal properties or deliver high value timber. Some trees provide good shade while others have colourful and attractive flowers that encourage birds, bees and butterflies.

Exotic plants
Exotic plants, on the other hand, are those that are known as ‘aliens’. In other words, they do not originate in that particular country. They have their own characteristics, which may include fast growth rate. Some of them are invasive and dominate indigenous plants.

Endangered and Extinct Plants
Endangered plants are those in danger of extinction. Extinct plants are those that do not exist any more, usually because they were over-exploited or their habitat was destroyed. Examples of Endangered and Extinct plants in South Africa:

Serruria aemula Leucadendron levisanus Kniphofia leucocephala Erica jasminiflora Frithia humilis Leucadendron macowanii Encephalartos lebomboensis Lachenalia viridiflora Serruria trilopha Gerbera aurantiaca Serruria furcellata Lachenalia liliflora Mraea gigandra Widdringtonia cedarbergensis

Orchids in southern Africa: Encephalartos woodii (cycad) Erica verticillata Erica turgida Euphorbia obesa Freylinia visseri Jordaaniella dubia and Jordaanie la anemoniflora

Invasive plants
Invasive alien plants are plants from other countries which thrive in our conditions, and take over the habitat of native species. In South Africa, these include Lantana Camara and water hyacinth. Invasive alien plants may:


• Reduce our ability to farm • Intensify flooding and fires • Destroy of rivers through excessive use of the ground water • Pollution of dams and estuaries in the case of plants such as the water hyacinth • Displace indigenous vegetation • Upset natural ecosystems

Tree Planting
The history of Arbour Day
Arbour Day originated in 1872 in the United States territory of Nebraska. Mr. J. Sterling Morton, a newcomer to the treeless plains of Nebraska, was a keen proponent of the beauty and benefit of trees. He persuaded the local agricultural board to set aside a day for planting trees and through his position as editor of Nebraska’s first newspaper, encouraged participation in the event by publishing articles on the value of trees for soil protection, fruit, shade and building. Mr. Morton’s home, known as Arbour Lodge, was a testament to his love for trees and so inspired the name of the holiday: Arbour Day. Within two decades Arbour Day was celebrated in every US State and territory, and eventually spread around the world. The tradition continues annually in the second week of August, in global acknowledgment of Mr. Morton’s slogan, “other holidays repose upon the past; Arbour Day proposes for the future.” In South Africa, Arbour Day was first celebrated in 1983. The event captured the imagination of people who recognized the need for raising awareness of the value of trees in our society. As sources of building material, food, medicine, and simple scenic beauty, trees play a vital role in the health and well-being of our communities. Collective enthusiasm for the importance of this issue in South Africa inspired the national government, in 1999, to extend the celebration of Arbour Day to National Arbour Week. From 1 to 7 September every year, schools, businesses and organizations are encouraged to participate in community “greening” events to improve the health and beauty of the local environment and propose a green future for South Africa.

South Africa’s Trees of the Year (2007- 2015)
These are indigenous species selected by the South African Government for every Arbour Week celebration and this highlights two specific trees; one common and one rare species.

How to plant trees
Here is a step-by-step process of planting trees:
• Select a suitable site • Water the trees to be planted one hour before they are due to go into the ground • Mark points 6m apart for planting trees • Dig a hole of about 50cm deep x 50cm wide and 50cm length on each marked point • Pile together topsoil and subsoil • Mix the soil with 10 full shovels of compost or well-rotted manure and fill the pit • Open a hole in the filled pit, the size of the container of the tree you're planting • Remove the plastic covering or container carrying the plant • Insert a 50cm x 50mm old pipe at the base of the roots of the trees

whilst the basin will hold water that will slowly percolate into the soil • Mulch the basin • Make a “C” bed around the tree for planting vegetables and herbs • When you water the tree other plants also get water • Water three times a week for the first four months .58 • Plant the tree and make a basin around it • Water the tree by pouring water in the basin • Make sure the pipe is free of soil. to that water goes directly to the roots.

59 .

basil and lettuce grown together as salad plants. we can take into consideration the actions of animals and other living organisms. In addition to this. you should try to maximize the beneficial relationships plants have with each other. When planting orchards. for example. e. Beneficial relationships or interactions among plants include: • Preventing pest problems by providing anti-feed ants.60 Planting trees together (Guild) In the natural environment plants grow and develop in communities. within an eco-system in which species interact with each other in beneficial ways. Developing Orchards Fruit and nut trees can provide both nutrition and an income (fresh or processed). can perform a pest control function if allowed to forage in a controlled way within the orchard. In planning gardens and choosing trees to plant. You can do this by forming guilds which are beneficial assemblies of species around a central element. such as Lucerne or clover • Providing physical shelter: this could be a windbreak or frost protection • Saving human energy by planting clusters that are likely to be harvested together. For example. tomatoes. nasturtium roots provide chemicals to some Solanum species like tomatoes and gooseberries that deter whitefly • Killing root parasites: marigolds deter nematodes • Hosting predator species: umbelliferous plants host predator wasps • Reducing root competition such as keeping grasses away from fruit trees • Providing food or mulch: legumes are an excellent plant to feed the soil • Providing specific nutrients: Nitrogen fixing plants around a fruit tree. Chickens and geese. There are fewer antagonistic and more beneficial interactions among plant species.g. Specific species of plants can be planted to attract insectivorous birds to an orchard. consider the following: .

healthy and sustainable land-use systems. • Tree height at maturity: This is useful to know when deciding a tree’s location and space requirements so it does not out-compete the other trees for sunlight. or open. Where does Agro-forestry apply? Agro-forestry can be applied to private. Targeted areas include highly disturbed.61 • Are these the fruit trees appropriate for this climate? • Will the family and community eat or buy these fruits? • Is there enough water available for these fruit trees? • Where is the best place on the site to plant them? Will they have enough light. protected and harvested for the benefit of people and livestock. preventing many crops growing below them. agro-forestry practices help to attain community goals for more diverse. diverse. leaves or seed • Food for livestock in the form of leaves of pods • Firewood for fuel • Poles for fencing and in some instances. Incorporated into watersheds and landscapes. • Some trees such as most citrus can grow beneath tall trees and may not require full sun to produce fruits. guilds and organic remedies)? • Can different varieties of the same tree be planted to increase the yield over time? • Are there different fruit trees that produce fruit all year round so that the family has a supply of fruit throughout the year? • How do these trees produce fruit? Pollination. At the farm level. The goal is to restore essential processes needed for ecosystem health and sustainability. what can be done to reduce this threat (companion planting. Generally. public and communal agricultural and forest lands. Agro-forestry Value of agro-forestry Agro-forestry is the integration of trees and shrubs into the farming system so that they are managed. live fences • Stabilization of soil on steep slopes. flood-prone. productive. economically marginal and environmentally sensitive lands. Agro-forestry practices focus on meeting the economic. or are both male and female plants are needed? • The structure of the mature tree: Is it umbrella shaped. Agro-forestry brings benefits which include: • Food for people in the form of fruit. Open trees allow light through to allow ground crops to grow. environmental and social needs of people on their private lands. agro-forestry is a set of practices that provide strong economic and conservation incentives for landowner adoption. human-dominated land-use systems as well as highly-erodible. Mixing trees and crops can help in creating more integrated. healthy and sustainable land-use systems. profitable. rather than to restore natural ecosystems. • Moisture needs: Place drought resistant trees (carob) and moisture needy plants (stone fruits) in separate groupings to aid watering. which may increase water infiltration and build the water table • Recycle nutrients that cannot be reached by short-rooted plants such as vegetables • Trees can also be used as windbreaks. Agro-forestry provides strong incentives for adoption of . wind and protection? • Do any specific pests threaten these trees? If so. umbrella shaped trees cast a dense shade.

• The second layer is made up of shrubs and small dense trees that are hardy such as Buddleja. firewood and building timber. like aloes. an herbaceous layer made up of tall hardy herbs that can handle wind abrasion. damaging everything in its path. and are the most effective in micro-climate control. allowing it to rustle . bee fodder. provide refuge for wildlife. and it can be deflected sideways or upwards. and other shrub legumes into this layer. • A windbreak or live fence should have at least three layers to its structure. and are the first wind buffer as it enters the property. Rhus and Elderberry. The benefits of windbreaks include: • Reducing wind pressure and soil erosion caused by wind • Reducing crop losses caused by the shaking out of seed or grains • Modifying air and soil temperatures • Prevents animals and people from entering the property Well-designed windbreaks modify climate. and can support a collaborative watershed analysis approach to management of landscapes containing mixed ownerships. This layer deadens the blast of the wind. Windbreak and live fence design guidelines The windbreak should always face across the prevailing wind direction. wild dagga and vertiver grass. in front of the break. reduce erosion. The other type of break is smaller and is planted within the gardens to keep wind velocity down after it has been dampened by the first big break. animals and crops from wind. vegetation types and land uses. animal browse. Mix Pigeon peas. hold the water on the land. Leave no gaps in the windbreak as this will funnel the wind and increase its velocity.62 conservation practices and alternative land uses. There are two types of windbreak: large windbreaks that are planted in areas where winds are strong and prevailing. Wind is fluid like water. This layer later serves to stop wind funnelling under the main windbreak trees between the ground and the first branches. Every windbreak should be designed to work many ways. and produce many resources. Using plants as wind breaks Value of windbreaks or a live fence Windbreaks or live fences have been used for years to shelter houses. It naturally forms into layers with hot air rising and cooler air flowing underneath. and to yield a variety of products such as mulch.

allowing a gentle wind through to swirl harmlessly through the gardens below. which include stinkwood. and place beehives and geese hocks behind the shrubs. This layer also allows you to plant a few productive species in the main windbreak. particularly nitrogen. so they push the blast up and over the garden. and yellow wood. figs. . chestnut. • The third and final layer is made up of large trees that are wind resistant in the sense that their leaves are hairy or leathery. managed as hedgerows. are grown simultaneously with crops. These trees. every fifth tree should be a legume for Nitrogen fixing. are grown in wide rows and crop is planted in the interspaces or ‘alley’ between the tree rows. They have dense canopies and are relatively tall. Alley cropping retains the basic restorative attributes of the bush fallow system. such as Pigeon Peas. are valuable timber trees. During the cropping phase the trees are pruned and the prunings used as green manure or mulch on the crop to improve the organic matter status of the soil and to provide nutrients. to the crop. Moringa Olifera. allowing the farmer to crop the land for an extended period. Ideally. preferably leguminous trees or shrubs.63 through the next layer and into the garden at a greatly reduced velocity. Fruit species can be placed in the breaks as well. The trees. Alley cropping Definition of alley cropping Alley cropping is an agro-forestry practice in which perennial.

Where to plant: Live fence. For each tree or shrub selected. Where to plant: Plant it in zone 1 for shade. golden yellow flower balls. Tswana (T). Acacia Karoo Sweet thorn. Mookana (N. or create a buffer zone with other species in Zone 3. Flowers nodding in dense. straight sharp spines up to 7cm long. Planting it with Carrissa and Dovyalis helps to build a strong live fence. Zone 3. Uses: Shade. conjunctivitis and haemorrhage. It can be used as a soothing agent as well as for treatment of colds. Uses: It has medicinal uses. scalp and scalds. Plant it on the edges of your fields. Habitat: Black clay soils in open grassland and along river courses. itchy insect bites and ulcers. you will learn about several trees and shrubs that you can find in South Africa and that are useful in agro-forestry. iNhlaba (Z) Kgopa (So). wind break and medicinal. about 30mm long. The names are given in English (E). firewood or stakes when a multipurpose tree legume is used as the hedgerow • An improvement in weed control Some useful trees for agro-forestry In this part of the unit. Muswu (V). Sotho (So) and Xhosa (X) to assist different people to know that plant under discussion. Evergreen. UmNga? (X) Description: A deciduous tree which grows up to 8m tall. umuNga (Z). Venda (V). How to multiply: Seed Aloe Ferox Bitter Aloe (E). where is naturally occurs. its value in agro-forestry as well as how you can propagate it. on flat and steep slopes.Habitat: Widely distributed on stony soils. feathery leaves made up of 8-20 pairs of glossy green leaflets. sores. you will learn about its appearance. Sokgopha (So). Leaves tapering with sharp brown teeth on the margins and sometimes the leaf surfaces. karoo thorn (E).64 Benefits of Alley Cropping • Improved crop performance due to the addition of nutrients and organic matter to the soil/plant system • A reduction of the use of chemical fertilisers • Improved soil structure resulting in better infiltration • Reduced runoff • Soil erosion control • The provision of additional products such as forage. The leaf gel is used for hair and skin products to treat sunburn. Kalagadi (Tsw). iKhala (X) Thikhopha (V) Description: Robust single stemmed succulent to 2 m high. rarely to 5 m. Muunga. UmHlaba. Zulu (Z). branched candelabras. usually orange to red. In zone 2 or 3 plant it in rows with orange or banana or avocado plants as a nematodes repellent. Mooka. UmHlaba. where you can grow it successfully. So). with rough grey-black bark. open wounds. peeling to show red rust below. with the old leaves remaining on the trunk. live fence. How to multiply: Seed. .

It grows in all types of soils. Plant it in cluster to form a focal point or as a screen in the garden or at homesteads. varying from sand to heavy clay loams and well-drained medium-heavy loams. Medicinal . Artemisia Afra African Worm Wood (English) Umhlonyane (Z. anti-worm. constipation. tolerating dry areas and it can also grow in high altitudes if protected from frost. with a taproot. pinnately trifoliolate 15 cm long and 6 cm wide. anti-oxidant and narcotic. freely branching. Leaves: single shaped. malaria. to cool sunburn. Used as a wash for haemorrhoids. Description: Multi-stemmed perennial shrub 2 metres high. stimulating the appetite. Habitat: Rocky areas in cold environments. Inhlaba empofu (Z) Kgopa (So) Tshikhopha (V) Description: The fast growing free-flowering aloe forms a dense rounded shrub with succulent green leaves. Artemisia afra can also be mixed with African potatoes and Leonotis leonorus for energy (Do not use it if on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as it can interfere with the medication. Uses: Relieves mild pain and acts as an anti-microbial. and treat cancer. . It has feathery leaves with a strong smell. Leaves may also be boiled in water as a steam bath and the fumes inhaled for treating blocked noses and cold and flu states. Leaves alternate. red. open wounds. to 4 m tall. TB. Use for rehabilitating eroded areas. It has been used for treating respiratory infections and problems (influenza. pneumonia. narrow and soft with tiny spikes on the leaf margin. stings and eyes. Habitat: Dry and wet areas. orange. Uses: Roots and leaves are used for pest control.) How to multiply: Cuttings and seed (grow them in river sand beds). high blood pressure. indigestion. sores. and is a good firebreak. colds and chest complaints). up to 1m. sores. S) Nyandoro (S) Description: Perennial woody shrub. purple. bites. as a stimulant and to boost the immune system. but slightly smaller. Flowers: red and yellow flowers appearing in spring and autumn. Use in zone 3 as live fence. coughs. to about 2 m. root system deep and extensive. Flowers multi-coloured with yellow. scalds. Stem: Many branched aloe with no main stem. in well-drained soil.65 Aloe Tenuior Basuto Kraal Aloe (E). T). bites and ulcers. Where to plant: An excellent plant in zone 1 for developing boundaries and screening or focal point. X). intestinal worms. measles rash. and gastritis. woody. rashes. Plant it in rockeries for beauty and attracting birds.hair and skin care.leaves are used as protective charms. wounds. Fruit is a pod which produces seeds like peas. Cold and warm areas. Habitat: Pigeon pea is drought resistant. Cultural . long. lengana (S. How to multiply: Seed or cuttings. stems strong. The plant is sensitive to water logging and frost. Cajanus Cajan Pigeon pea (E) Ndonji (T. Where to plant: Plant it in rows as a windbreak for small plants or vegetables. It is also used for treating fever. mostly grown as an annual for the legume.

The leaf decoction is prized for healing genital and other skin irritations. thatching and basket making. Papawe (TS. Plant it as a live fence. Habitat: Coastal bush. The base is square to round. protein-rich food popular in central Africa. Amathungulu (Z. somewhat fleshy trunk and very large palmate-lobed leaves clustered at the top. Leaves occur as opposite pairs. or as a firebreak and also as a live fence because of its thorns.66 Where to plant: Plant pigeon pea in zone 1-2 as a windbreak for small plants or a screen. It grows up to 3 m high. coughs. Leaves are also used for toothache. Powdered leaves help expel bladder (kidney) stones. It can also be used as fodder. Where to plant: Zone 3. initially green but bright orange upon ripening. while immature fruits are believed to be of use in liver and kidney ailments. bee forage. at 1 metre apart. tapering to bristle tip. and pneumonia. Ripe seeds may be germinated and eaten as sprouts. Uses: Paw paw can be used as a digestive aid and for the treatment of malaria. paler beneath. The margins are entire. skin disorders and menstrual irregularities. It is multistemmed and branched and has a rough. Medicinally the leaves are applied to sores. Where to plant: Plant paw paw in zone 1-2. light brown bark. Dried stalks can be used for fuel. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Plant paw paw in rows with pigeon pea or lucerne or cow peas. Scorched seed. Ripe seeds are a source of flour and can be used in soups or eaten with rice. The fruits are large and fleshy. and well drained soils. scalds. The flowers are large. X) Murungulu (V) Description: Evergreen large shrub or small tree (2-5m). How to multiply: Seed and cuttings Carica Papaya Paw paw (E). plant at about a metre apart to form a hedge. intestinal disorder. Uses: Seeds and leaves provide firewood and food. in coastal bush. mouthwash. open wounds. coastal forest and sand dunes. Floral decoctions are used for bronchitis. sores. bites and ulcers. Nitrogen fixing and soil conservation. grow it against walls facing North to take advantage of the heat and sunlight. with tinges of pink and occur in clusters at the base of the thorns. added to coffee can alleviate headache. How to multiply: Seed . white. Carrissa Macrocarpa Big Num-num (E). found on margins of coastal forest. In can also be used for hair and skin care and to treat sunburn. Eat fresh seeds for stomach cramps and diarrhoea How to multiply: Seed. Plant it as fodder or bee forage in zone 3. or as a focal point. roundworms. Habitat: Hot areas. It is fast growing and wind resistant. especially in women. sore gums and dysentery. The plant produces forage quickly and can be used as a perennial forage crop or used for green manure. shiny dark green above. V) Popo (S) Description: A single-stemmed small tree with a thick. leathery. Fresh seeds are said to help incontinence of urine in men. windbreak. Pigeon peas are a nutritious. Uses: Big num-num can be used as an ornament. Tlaba dilebanye (So).

Thereafter. hot flushes and uterine fibroids and as a douche for vaginal discharges. The trees should be white-washed to prevent sunburn damage. The juice is used undiluted as an antiseptic for wounds. cracks open and the nut drops out. Pruning is important to pecan nuts. How to multiply: The plant is cultivated from root stock. They are small evergreen trees. kloofs in low rainfall areas. seeds and grafts. Uses: Used in the treatment of asthma. indigestion. hardwood flooring and fire wood. liver complaints. buttery flavour. The fruit is an oval to oblong. particularly in sweet desserts. grapefruit and naartjies. dry coughs and sore throats. Excessive sexual drive is said to be reduced by taking lemon juice. Pecan nuts ripen from April to July. Pecan trees may live and bear nuts for more than three hundred years. As soon as the nut is ripe.67 Carya Illinoinensis Pecan nut (E) Description: Pecan nut trees are deciduous. Where to plant: Plant along the fence and in orchards. vitamins. While the orange and naartjies are sweet. the trees must be topped to encourage branching when it reaches the height of one metre. The flowers are wind pollinated. Where to plant: Plant pecan nut trees in zone 3 in orchard. with an erect grey-green stem and branches armed with strong straight thorns. Uses: The nuts of the pecan are edible and have a rich. naartjies Description: Citrus includes lemon. It also grows well in areas with short. The leaves are oval. may cause the roots to rot. and temperatures are high in summer. Citrus Lemon. cold winters and long. The nuts are mainly collected manually from under the trees. It is advisable to put a straw mulch around the base of the young tree for better moisture conservation and to protect the roots against high temperatures. with a thick wrinkled yellow skin. Planting it with Acacias will help to reduce termite attacks. The nut is rich in protein. gout. They can be eaten fresh or used in cooking. carbohydrates and oil. After planting. orange. Summer pruning dwarfs a tree and will increase production considerably during the first 10 years. The nuts can be stored at room temperature for as long as 6 months before they are marketed. TB. Habitat: The pecan nut tree is well-adapted to subtropical areas. Trees are successfully established in valleys and along rivers where the winter temperature is low and frosts occur. nausea. which helps slow down insulin reactions making it beneficial for diabetics and HIV positive people. How to multiply: Seeds and grafting. The wood of the pecan tree is used in making furniture. Lemon juice has a high Vitamin C content. The leaves are alternate and pinnate. Low temperatures and even frost during June to August are required for successful budding and flower formation. . acne and fungal infections. the lemon is sour and grapefruits slightly bitter. The lemon is generally smaller. Lemon juice is used to treat excessive menstruation. dryer and rougher. During the summer months (October to April) the tree requires high temperatures for fruit growth. nut dark brown with a rough husk which splits off at maturity to release the thin-shelled nut. oranges. influenza. irrigation should be applied carefully. Habitat: Forest margins. because too much water given before the tree starts growing. 3-6m high. The fruit resembles a tennis ball. rheumatism. fast growing and grow up to 40 m high. the green husk becomes dry. hot summers. Newly planted trees must be irrigated immediately.

itching and various other skin diseases. Grow in zone 1-3 Uses: Leonotis is drought-resistant and attracts bees. boils. 40-55mm long. eczema. Uses: It can be used to attract bees. occurring in open areas associated with forest. headaches. The leaf and stem make a strong tea to fight the diseases mentioned. and treat stomach problems and ulcers. Do not use during pregnancy since it can cause birth defects. Where to plant: Zone 3 in the buffer zones. stings. Where to plant: Plant it in zone 1 or zone 3. How to multiply: Seeds and young cuttings Dovyalis Caffra Kei apple (E) Motlhono (So) Umqokolo(X). wooded grassland. rocky kopjes and the edges of dune forests. They are velvety.5 m high. . It is an excellent plant in the buffer zones. open bush and wooded grassland. The fruit can turn yellow when ripe and can be eaten raw or made into jam and juice. Uses: Sand olive is used as a live fence and also medicinally for sore throats . bush. Warning: Do not use it while on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as it can interfere with the medication. spiny shrub. Habit: hot dry country.68 Dodonaea Angustifolia Sand Olive (E) Fence (N/S) Description: Shrub or small tree usually multi-stemmed. asthma. The calyx is unevenly toothed. Habitat: Dodonaea grows throughout South Africa especially in dry areas. dysentery. paler green below. Habitat: Rocky slopes and forest margins. with the upper tooth larger. Leaf teas can also be used to treat viral hepatitis. Its leaves are ovate and toothed. It has oval waxy light-green leaves and small creamgreen flowers that are followed by a large rounded apricot-coloured fruit. Where to plant: Good as a windbreak for small plants or vegetables. The sand olive’s small greenishyellow flowers occur in auxiliary or terminal groups. rich in Vitamin C. flu. bronchitis. Use a strong tea made from the leaf and stem and apply to skin to treat insect bites. It has medicinal properties that help in the treatment of colds. How to multiply: Seed. high blood pressure and snake bites. coughs. and for removing tapeworm. which grows up to 2. Leonotis Leonurus Wild dagga (E). Mutunu (V) Description: The kei apple is a drought-resistant. relieve nausea in pregnancy. orange. It is a good plant for security fencing. Leaves are narrow and shiny and are a green above. UmCwili? (Z) imVovo (X) Lebake (S) Description: Wild dagga is an evergreen fast-growing shrub. Its flowers occur in well-spaced spherical clusters.

More upright types are known and being selected because of their suitability for closer planting. Lippia Javanica Fever tea (E) Umsuzwane (Z) Musukudu (Ts) Musuzugwane (V) Description: A much-branched shrub with an erect stem. Do not use during pregnancy since it can cause birth defects. kidney and liver conditions. Where to plant: Grow it in zone 1-3 as a windbreak for small plants. rashes. bright red. malaria. Infused or brewed leaves make an excellent aromatic herbal tea. Plant it around chicken runs to repel pests like fleas. How to multiply: Sow seed in spring in well-drained soil. asthma. stress and anxiety. The leaves are divided into many small oblong leaflets that are rounded at the tips. strongly aromatic when crushed. It is considered as an adaptogen (tonic plant) that has shown to be very good in improving the weight. diabetes. brown and dark red when cut. excellent for stabilizing soil on contour ridges and swales. spreading evergreen trees reaching 15m high and almost as wide. heart failure. rheumatism. Description: Macadamias are large. chronic bronchitis. with hairy leaves. They are greyish green and usually thinly hairy above. appetite and well-being of HIV and AIDS patients. The macadamia has proteoid roots and dense clusters of short lateral rootlets. Where to plant: Needs very little attention and grows in zone 1 or 2. Queensland Nut (E). fever. disturbed and virgin lands. Branches and leaves are crushed and sprinkled in chicken runs to repel fleas. headache. as well as for treating colds. Can be grown from hardwood cuttings. Warning: Do not use if on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as it can interfere with the medication. flu. digestive disorders and diarrhoea. It is frost tolerant. internal cancers (prevention and treatment). Uses: Young stems are used for stomach problems. indigestion. Flowers occur in short racemes. The plant leaves are traditionally used to control livestock and crop pests such as fleas and aphids. poor appetite. cold and hot areas. urinary tract infections. The whole plant is roughly hairy.69 How to multiply: Seed and cuttings Lessertia Microphylla. chest complaints. Uses: It can be used as live fence. cough. musapelo (S). . unwele (Z) Description: It is a perennial shrub that is either erect or sprawling and grows up to 1 m. Plant on swales or in a rockery. fever. colds. 1-2m high. How to multiply: Seeds and cuttings. The bark is rough but unfurrowed. and 20-40mm long. Macadamia Integrifolia Macadamia. Habitat: Dry and wet areas. previously Sutherlandia Frutescens Cancer bush (E). Habitat: Widespread on a variety of soils but usually along roads and disturbed soils and in warm parts of the country. The plant leaves are excellent to make a tea for spraying pests such as aphids and caterpillars in the garden. The pods are large and balloon-like with smooth papery walls. including the bracts from which short stalked spikes of small cream or white flowers emerge. bronchitis.

Oval greenish-red fruits. Ripe and unripe fruit can be used. The brittle branches can be damaged by wind. rich soil. Cross-pollination by hand has been shown to increase nut set and quality. especially when laden with a heavy crop of nuts. growing up to 6m. It is a good windbreaker for crops if planted in zone 3. Keaau and Vista. yellow-orange in colour. Protect macadamia from frost especially the young trees. In young trees four flushes may occur. blood. There are several Macadamia cultivars which include Beaumont. Windy locations should also be avoided. In large gardens it can be planted with Acacia trees which repel nematodes. as long as the soil is well drained. Mangoes have many varieties which include but are not limited to the following: Haden. eye and women's' disorders. good for achar and chutney. fibreless. oval in shape. ripens in January and February Peach. Elimah. Pruning is recommended in autumn. Moringa Oleifera Drum stick. Mature macadamia nuts will fall to the ground from late autumn to spring. ripens in February and March. Macadamia nuts have a very hard seed coat enclosed in a green husk that splits open as the nut matures. How to multiply: Seed and cuttings. but more often on the two or three season’s growth preceding the most recently matured flushes. Excellent tree in large gardens. Habitat: Macadamias will perform on a wide range of soil types from open sand soil to heavy clay soil. but bees are the major agent in pollination. seedlings may take 8 to 12 years to bear a crop and the quality of the nuts is unpredictable. Large trees bear fibrous fruits. New leaves are pale green. ripens in December and January. . Kent. They may be borne on the new growth if it is mature. It is important to water macadamias regularly during dry periods. to promote weight-loss. in deep. Kidney. since shaking the trees to dislodge the nuts may also bring down immature nuts. fibreless. Medium-sized fruits that ripen in November and December Zill. How to multiply: Seed and grafting. however. They do best. Wind pollination may play some role. A long pole can be used to carefully knock down mature nuts that are out of reach. Large yellow crimson fruit. However. ripens in January and February Habitat: They grow in light soils and in dry warm areas Where to plant: The fruits are sweet and enjoyed fresh. Grafting is the most common method of producing nursery trees and is best done in spring or autumn. The seed is used for treating heat stroke. It should be planted in zone 1 for beauty as well as for their fruit and shade. Large dark crimson fruit. Cate. Horseradish tree (E) Description: A succulent small to middle-sized shrubby tree. Mangifera Indica Mango (E) Manngo (V) Description: It is an evergreen sub-tropical tree. gastro-intestinal complaints. Its leaves are alternate and compound. with fruits that vary in size and shape. although in hot climates partial shade can be beneficial. Other crops and vegetables cannot grow well underneath a fully grown mango tree.70 The adult leaves are long and thick with a single central spine. calm diarrhoea and treat diabetes and scorpion bites. Where to plant: Macadamias do best in full sun. Uses: Excellent shade tree when planted away from other trees. Flowers are borne on long narrow racemes arising from the axils of leaves or the scars of fallen leaves. with a spreading habit of growth. It is best to harvest fallen nuts.

Grow it in marginal soil in full sun. Established trees will die back in winter to grow up to 4 m in a year. dysentery. moisture and humidity. and as a remedy for diarrhoea. The leaf powder is used to stabilize blood pressure and blood sugar. It is also used for treating chest and throat problems as well as for deworming. The seeds are winged. It requires little water and is sensitive to frost.71 The flowers are white. Roots and bark are good for detoxification. Gum infusions are used in treating fevers. In South Africa it is commonly found in Mpumalanga Province. increase urine flow. Fruit is pod-like with three sides. asthma. Plant it in fodder strips. Uses: Excellent nutritious and medicinal plant. keBanana (So) Description: It is a tropical herbaceous perennial plant which grows up to 2. plant as a windbreaker in zone 3. dysentery. Plant bananas in rows as a windbreak to protect smaller plants. colitis and gonorrhoea. temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius. When it has borne a bunch of fruit and you have harvested the fruit. it improves soil structure. It also increases milk production in women who are breast-feeding. In zone 1. Nutrition: • Moringa leaf contains 7 times the vitamin C of oranges • 4 times the calcium of milk • 4 times vitamin A of carrots • 3 times the potassium of bananas and 2 times the protein of yoghurt Moringa is a legume. as it’s good as animal feed. The bulbous root can be grated and fried or pickled in vinegar. Musa Species Banana (E) uBanana (Z). rheumatism and for dental care. It is ideal to make a pit-bed to catch run-off water from the buildings and plant bananas around it. Crushed seeds are used for de-worming. splitting into three valves. Needs water throughout the year and grows well in loam soil. Habitat: Grows in dry areas in sandy soils. Seed oil is taken for gout and rheumatism.5m. syphilis. Flower powder is used to promote urination and bile flow and as a tonic. Where to plant: Plant bananas in zone 1-3 at a distance of 4m apart. Pods and seeds are excellent for liver and spleen and treating pain in the joints. yellowish green. Where to plant: Good alley plant. Propagation: Seeds or cuttings. Plant bananas with legumes . Pregnant women should only eat the fresh or dried leaf in small quantities. especially the leaves. plant them closer to your house where they are fed by run-off water from the roof. cut it down to just above ground level to allow the next sucker to grow and take its place Habitat: Needs heat. The trunk of a banana is called a pseudo stem. provides animal fodder and bee forage Warning: An overdose of moringa can cause abortion.


such as pigeon pea, Acacia trees and Tephrosia to control nematodes. You can also plant them with coffee trees, should you experience inadequate rainfall. Bananas need protection from strong winds and frost. Uses: The banana fruit is high in Calcium, vitamin C and Phosphorus. It promotes healthy digestion and can be used to fight anaemia, arthritis, gout, allergies, kidney disorder, tuberculosis, overweight, burns, menstrual disorder and wounds. Juice from the banana stem and roots is used for urinary disorders. Banana leaves are excellent for compost and mulch as well as making fodder for rabbits and larger livestock. How to multiply: Seed or suckers.

Olea Europea Subs Africana
Wild olive (E) Mohlware (So) umNqumo (Z) Motlhware (Tsw) Mutwari (V) umNquma (X) Description: Wild olive is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree with a dense rounded crown and greyish-green foliage. It grows up to 9m and has leaves that are narrow, opposite, oblong, green with whitish scales above, greyish below. The flowers are sweetly scented white or cream and the fruit purplish black. It is easily recognized by its irregular trunk. Habitat: It occurs in a wide range of habitats usually in rocky hillsides or stream banks. Where to plant: The tree can be planted as shade 4m away from the building in zone 1. Plant it as a windbreak or screen in zone 2-3. You can also plant it with Acacias, Carrissas and Dovyalis. In schools and other public places, you can plant it in parking lots to provide shade for cars. Plant with mangoes in an orchard at 4-6 m apart. Uses: Historically the plant has been mentioned in the Bible for its miraculous uses. In the African culture, the plant is used for communicating with ancestors. In most cases, it is used as a shade, fence or windbreak. The durable wood can be used for making fence poles and spoons. Medicinally the leaf is used as eye lotion, lowers the blood pressure, improves kidney functioning and treats sore throats. Infusions of leaves produces a natural antibiotic, effective in lowering blood pressure, kidney performance and improving blood circulation to the hands and feet. The bark is used as a tonic, the infusion of the fresh bark is taken to relieve colic. How to multiply: Seed or wood cuttings.

Persea Americana
Avocado (E), Afulchada (V) Description: Avocado is a large evergreen tree up 10m tall. It is shallow-rooted and has spirally arranged leaves variable in shape and size. Flowers are yellowish. The fruits vary in shape from large and round to long and pearshaped and in colour from light to dark green, reddish brown and almost black. Some of the avocado varieties are: Carton, which ripens in February and March Edrano, which ripens in August and September Fuerte, which ripens from April to August Hass, which ripens from September to November Itzamma, which ripens from October to December Nabal, which ripens from September to November Ryan, which ripens from November to January Shapless, which ripens in September and October


Habitat: They grow well in frost free areas. Where to plant: Plant avocados in zone 1 for both shade and fruit. Plant it at least 6m away from the buildings. They can also be planted in the orchard and mixed with Acacia which is effective against nematodes. Uses: High in fat, phosphorus, vitamin A and Calcium. Helps the digestive system, bad breath and for skin care. How to multiply: Seed or grafting.

Portulacaria Afra
Elephant’s foot (E), isiDandwane, isAmbilane, iNdibili, isiCococo (Z) iGqwanitsha (X) Tshitopitopi (V) Description: Succulent shrub or small tree to 3m high. Leaves are opposite, fleshy, obviate. They are alternate, succulent and smooth with the midrib prominent beneath. Flowers in clusters at the branch tips, pink, 250mm diameter. The flowers are greenish and occur in dense, hanging sprays. The fruit ripens from August to September. Habitat: It grows in bushveld, on rocky hillsides and hot dry valleys. Where to plant: Plant it n zone 2 as a border plant and in dry areas of your garden. Uses: Dry powdered leaves used traditionally as a snuff. A valuable fodder plant in dry areas,. How to multiply: Seed, cuttings and truncheons.

Punica Granatum
Pomegranate (E) Description: Pomegranate is a spiny, deciduous shrub or small tree of about 5m in height. It has small leaves clustered at the branch tips, attractive red flowers, fleshy fruit crowned with a persistent calyx and numerous seeds, each with a bright red, fleshy, edible layer. Habitat: It grows in dry areas and in moderate cold areas. Where to plant: Plant as a live fence in zone 3. If the plant is trimmed well, it creates a very aesthetic garden. Uses: Root bark is traditionally used as a vermifuge to treat intestinal parasites, mainly tape worm. The dried fruit rind or the fruit pulp is a common remedy for upset stomachs and diarrhoea. Fruits are used to produce grenadine, a cordial, and the rind to tan leather. In traditional medicine, infusions or tinctures of the fresh or dried fruit rind are taken, usually with honey added to counter the bitter taste. Decoctions of the root bark with stem bark, (leaves or young fruit added) were widely used as a tapeworm remedy up to the first half of the twentieth century. How to multiply: Cuttings.

Syzygium Cordatum
Water Berry (E) Montlho (N,S) Mutu (V) umDoni (Z) umJoni, umSwi (X) mmako (Tsw) Mukute (S) umDoni (Nd) Muthwa (Tso) Mutu (V) Description: Medium-size evergreen tree that grows up to 15m to 20m. The stem is often crooked with dense, spreading rounded crown. Bark rough, pale to dark grey in mature trees, smooth and grey in young trees. Leaves occur opposite and in pairs at right angle. They are thick, leathery, smooth bluish green above and pale beneath. Masses of


showy creamy white to pink flowers appear before the rains. They are bisexual, cup-shaped with numerous stamens, giving a powder puff effect and they are very sweetly scented with plentiful nectar. The fruit is pear-shaped or oval growing in bunches and changing in colour from shining green to red, to deep purple when ripe. The fruit ripens in November to March. Habitat: Near rivers, swamp areas or watercourses at medium to higher altitudes. It grows fast in sandy soils. Where to plant: Do not plant the water berry tree close to a building and drive ways, as its aggressive root system may cause damage. In larger gardens plant in zone 1 for shade and shelter. Plant on contour ridges in zone 3. Also plant water berry in zone 3 to control erosion on stream banks. Uses: The fruits are sweet and are enjoyed fresh. The fruit can be made into a fruit drink. The drink becomes alcoholic if the fruit is allowed to ferment for 3 to 4 days. With modern methods, a very good jam or jelly is made, adding equal quantities of brown sugar to the cooked fruit pulp or strained juice. An extract of the leaves is used to treat diarrhoea and general stomach complaints. An infusion of the burning branches is pleasantly aromatic and is sometimes used to season gourds. The flowers attract bees and other insects. The wood is durable for poles and furniture. How to multiply: Seed.

Tephrosia Grandiflora
Puk bush pea (E), Hlozane (Z), Chitupa-tupa (Sh) THIS STANDS FOR SHONA Description: Tephrosia is shrubby and hairy. Leaves up to 4cm long, stalks short, stipules very small, leaflets (3 to 5 pairs), distinctly stalked, up to 1,5cm long by 6mm wide, tip blunt, square or slightly notched, with small backwardturned point. Inflorescence lateral, short, with one or few rather large flowers. The pod is flat, usually carries five seeds and grows up to 3cm long by 8mm wide. Habitat: Likes growing in well-drained soil with a fairly neutral pH between, 6 and 8 normally. Most soils and garden plants species fit this condition. Where to plant: Beautiful plant for the focal point in zone1. Plant it as a hedge row or as windbreak for small plants. Rockery spaces have become very popular, especially around water gardening areas. Gardens with rocks aplenty will benefit from being planted with this shrub. Uses: The flowers are beautiful. Plant it to prevent pests in the garden. Used as a spray to control a wide variety of pests in the garden. Windbreak for small plants or vegetables. How to multiply. Seeds and cuttings

Warburgia Salutaris
Manaka, Mulanga (V) Shibaha (Tso) isiBaha (Z) Pepper bark (E) Description: It is an evergreen tree which grows up to 20m in height. It has small greenish-yellow flowers that are produced between the shiny leaves which have a strong peppery smell. Habitat: It grows in dry areas as well as in cold environments. It does not withstand frost and drought very well. Where to plant: It can be grown as live fence for the shade or for beauty. This means it can be found in zones 1, 2 or 3. It likes plenty of water and could be planted in a swale or next to a mulch pit. It prefers well-drained soils. Uses: The plant has numerous medicinal uses: The bark or roots treat coughs, flu, malaria, venereal diseases, headache

• In your opinion what are the advantages of growing indigenous trees and shrubs in your garden? . It has also been used for the treatment of cancer. their value in agriculture. diarrhoea. How to multiply: Seed. Conclusion This unit has helped you to learn about different types of trees. dysentery. The flowers are green and the fruit is reddish. live fence. A weak tea is also useful in controlling oral candidiasis (thrush). where you can grow them in your garden and the benefits you can derive from each tree or shrub. has sharp thorns mostly found on twigs. The powder from the roots or bark is taken in cold water. Plant in zone 3. • Find out why some of them are no longer common or available. Reflection points • List five reasons for growing trees. You should by now be in a position to develop wind breaks. How to multiply: Seed or cuttings. This tree is rare and needs to be conserved. though causes some short-lived irritation. The leaves can be used to make a spray for pests. Parts of the plant are used for treating chest problems. alley cropping. swellings and pain. Habitat: Grows well and fast in dry areas. • What indigenous tree species grow on your land or in your environment? • Find out from elderly people in your area what kind of trees they grew and what they were used for. Umphafa (X) umlahlankosi (Z) Mokgalo (S) Mukhalu (V) Description: The tree grows up to 6m high. Ziziphus Jujuba Buffalo-thorn (E).75 and toothache. It can be grown from seeds at the end of summer but good seed is hard to find as it is usually damaged by wasps. rheumatism and low libido. Where to plant: Good for live fence and wind-break. Uses: Edible fruits. boils. both indigenous and exotic. Warning: Warburgia should never be taken during pregnancy because it can result in an abortion. agro-forestry and orchards. It has toxic properties and should be used carefully in small doses.

Prince’s feather. which has tiny flowers and is common in deserted cattle pans in the rainy season and A Spinosa (E) spiny amaranth. Most of the vegetables that people rely on are annuals and must be grown on an on-going basis. Teke. It also describes how to grow vegetables and benefit from their many health-giving qualities. It will focus on those that have a high nutritional value and can be easily grown in South Africa. poor man’s Spinach. They provide much-needed vitamins and minerals as well as roughage. It is normally grown below an altitude of 800m. Vegetables form an important part of people’s diets. Guxe (Ts). Guidelines for growing selected crops Amaranth Cockscomb (E). whose seed are an important source of protein. This unit will discuss both indigenous and exotic vegetables. Legumes. Some species of amaranth are tolerant of a wide range of soil conditions although light soil with organic matter is best. Thepe (Z). . which grows up to 1m high. A thun bergizil (S) bonongwe. Vowa (V).76 Unit 7: Vegetables & edible crops LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader should have learned about: • • • • Types of vegetables and crops How to grow vegetables and crops How to save the seed for multiplication The nutritional value of different types of vegetables Introduction This section gives general information on the types of vegetables and crops. Rainfall requirements vary according to species and varieties. Theepe (So). Root crops such as beetroot and carrot are also discussed. Mowa (Sh) Description: Amaranth is a very nutritious leaf vegetable and is an annual plant. Other edible species of amaranth are: A graecizans with narrow leaves. are covered in this unit too.

They are a good source of vitamin A and C. Those with solid heads can be cut and stored in a cool place. they exude a deep red juice. Cut or pull the plants and pile stalks ( pyramid-shaped heaps) in the field to dry. it is ready. In order to test if the seed is ready for harvesting. In cold areas they can be lifted. The leaves are used as a relish and in stews. Some varieties of red cabbages may not be as . cover the beds with a grass mulch until the seeds germinate. the bulk of the vegetable’s swollen root sits on top of the ground so that you can watch its progress and easily determine when it is ready to harvest. The soil should be fertile but not freshly manured. Make sure the bed is mulched with organic matter to keep the root temperatures as constant as possible. The seed matures 4 to 5 months after planting. You should isolate plants wherever possible. Rotation with other crop types is necessary to avoid the build-up of diseases in the soil. Storage: Beetroot (beets) can be left in the ground until they are required. cleaned and placed in trays of just-moist sand or peat moss. Cabbage Description: Cabbage comes in various forms harvested at different times of the year. Sow directly onto the open soil into shallow holes 1cm deep and set 20cm apart. It will grow in heavy soils. soups and salads. Transplant the seedlings when they reach 8cm to 10cm high. Most cabbages have white leaves forming the bud of the head. stem and root. fibre and foliate. Nutritional value: Amaranth leaves are used as a relish and in stews. which means that when they germinate they produce several seedlings close together. protein. well fertilized with organic matter. They are a good source of Vitamin A and C. Beat the heap with sticks and remove the chaff by winnowing in the wind. Cultivation: Beetroot (beets) needs an open and sunny position. Beetroots (Beets) Description: Beetroot has distinctive bright red coloured leaves. Some varieties are grown for their grain which is very high in digestible protein with a good balance of amino acids. Storage: Most cabbages are winter hardy and can be left in the beds until required. zinc and other minerals. If you sow during a time of heavy rain. Saving seed: Amaranth will cross-pollinate with other related species. Cultivation: Cabbages need an open and sunny position. Plant the seedlings in rows 40cm apart with plants 60cm apart within the rows. iron. Leave the soil surface smooth and fine. fibre and foliate. Sow the seeds thinly and try to sow them approximately 15cm apart. Store these trays in a cool. They will grow in heavy soils. soups and salads. There are also red cabbages. You will need to water if amaranth is grown during the dry season. particularly when eaten with other cereals. When they are cut or bruised. frost-free shed or garage. protein. The grain is also a useful source of amino acids. protein. Store the seed in a dry place. Raised beds are useful for amaranth as they can be grown close together and are easier to reach for weeding.77 Cultivation: Dig the soil and add animal manure or compost. Most of the seeds are made up of cluster seeds. iron. where they will keep for a couple of months. Thin the seedlings to 20cm to 30cm apart. Use a plot that was manured for the previous crop or one into which manure was dug during the previous autumn. The seedlings can also be grown on nursery beds and transplanted when they are large enough to handle without damaging them. press the seed between your fingers and if it resists being crushed. iron. Nutritional value: Beetroot promotes the production of white blood cells and helps to replace the foliates which are removed by some HIV medicines. Unlike parsnip and carrots. but do best in light ones.

make individual holes with a crowbar. The leaves supply some vitamin C and A. 4cm to 10cm apart. They need to be watered during the dry periods.78 hardy and can be harvested in early winter and stored. The leaves of some species are also eaten in this way or boiled on their own. There is no comparison. The fruits vary in colour and size and can be up to 15cm long and are often eggshaped. Eggplant (aubergines) Description: The eggplant is also known as garden egg. they can be lifted. When the seedlings appear. Carrots will grow in heavier soils. Aubergines do not store for long periods and are best eaten within 1 or 2 weeks from harvest. Nutritional value: Use carrots as vegetables in stews. Select only the heavy seeds. They prefer well-drained soils with reasonable organic matter content. sandy soil. They are a good source of vitamin A. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin A and C. Mulch the bed with organic matter and make sure you do not cover the seedlings in the process. Cut the fruit and crush the flesh to a pulp. Saving seed: Choose plants which crop well and appear resistant to disease. thin the earliest to 8cm apart and the main crop to 5-8cm apart. Plant the seedlings in rows 80cm apart with plants 60cm apart within the rows. Soak the seeds in water for 24 hours and sow the seeds just below the soil surface (in containers or nursery beds). . but they do best in light. The plant height ranges between 30cm to 1. You may wonder if it is worth growing carrots when they are so cheap to buy. because both will cause the carrots to fork. The fruits are rich in vitamin A. whether old or young. below ground. The answer must be an emphatic yes. Nutritional value: Aubergine fruits are tasty and are widely used for stews and relishes. Storage: Carrots are usually left in the ground until they are required. Make sure the bed is mulched with organic matter to keep the root temperatures as constant as possible. Carrots Description: The edible part of the carrot is the root.5m. Wash these seeds and spread in a thin layer on paper to dry thoroughly in the breeze. Fresh carrots. They grow best with high temperature. The soil should be free from stones and fresh manure. They can be left in the ground over winter unless there are a lot of slugs or the winter is very harsh. depending on the size of the carrot required. soups as well as eating them raw. Put the pulp into water and mix. Cultivation: Choose an open and sunny position. Transplant the seedlings when they reach 8cm to 10cm high. Nutritional value: Cabbage is used in stews and soups as a salad. Sow very thinly in drills 1cm deep and set 15 to 20cm apart. Cultivation: Dig the soil to at least 25cm and add organic matter in the form of animal manure or compost before planting. Raised beds are ideal for the final planting position. Allow the fruit to mature beyond the edible stage. Plant carrots and onions in same bed to repel the carrot-fly. which are the ones which sink to the bottom. Too much rainfall will negatively affect flower formation. Alternatively. Aubergines can be grown in wet or dry climates and should be watered during dry periods. cleaned and placed in a tray of justmoist sand or peat. Prepare a good fine seed bed. Aubergines are grown as annuals. Store the seed in an airtight container and cool place. that are taken straight from the ground and eaten raw taste better than shop-bought ones. If the soil is stony. fill them with compost and sow into these.

The soil should be fertile. Cultivation: Peas like an open and sunny site. 20cm long and 5cm deep. They grow relatively quickly and will be ready from 3 to 12 weeks after sowing. Intercrop peas with maize. Onion Description: A bulbous perennial with hollow green leaves arising from a bulb formed by dense layers of fleshy leaf base. They are a good source of vitamin A and C. extracted with sugar. Traditionally it is used for the treatment of dysentery. and sugar snaps. including foliate. They can also be preserved by drying. This means that they can be grown among slower growing crops or used to replace another crop that has already been harvested. protein. iron and fibre. Dried peas provide an excellent source of protein. . can be eaten whole when the peas are still immature. Storage: Peas are best picked straight from the plant. The soil needs to be fertile and retain water well. so that they are available throughout the year. Cultivation: Onions grow well in winter in sandy or loamy soils. asthma. The best way to sow peas is to pull out a flat-bottomed trench with a hoe. Plant the onion seeds in beds and thin them as they grow. wounds. Reduce watering when bulbs are produced. is a very soothing cough remedy. Nutritional value: Leaves are used as salads. Some varieties need no support at all. Mix onions with brassicas and salad crops. since they help to repel pests. Modern varieties are generally quite short and can be easily supported with low wire netting or even a couple of strings stretching horizontally. partial shade during the heat of the day can be an advantage in hot areas or during hot summers. It is widely cultivated as an important culinary herb and vegetable. with roughly the following measurements: 15cm wide. Cultivation: Lettuces need an open and sunny position although light. scars.79 Lettuce Description: Lettuce is used for decorative purpose as well as for taste and nutrition. You can mix lettuce with other crops because it is a light feeder. The hollow flowering stem bears a rounded cluster of white or purple flowers. and provides a natural support for taller varieties. Snap peas also have edible pods but can be eaten when they are more mature. The peas are then sown in pairs. Peas Description: Peas grow to 60cm or more and have to be supported with pea-sticks. Transplanted lettuces should be planted at the same distances. although they can be frozen. amongst many other traditional uses. and diabetes. assists in blood formation and boosts the immune system. The juice of onion. which can be achieved by incorporating plenty of compost during land preparation. with manure or compost incorporated during the previous autumn. Storage: Whole lettuces can be kept in a refrigerator for a short time but they are best used straight from the garden. Peas are a good source of protein and calories and B-vitamins. Sow in shallow holes 1cm deep in rows which are 30cm apart. Plant onions 7 to 10cm apart in a raised bed. which benefits from the nitrogen. Nutritional value and uses: Onion helps improve appetite loss. Thin the lettuces to 15 to 30cm apart depending on the variety. Lettuces can be sown directly in to the ground or grown in trays and transplanted. Nutritional value: Mangetout (snow) peas.

but this vitamin can be lost during storage or overcooking. female flowers appear first and will fail to set fruit if a source of pollen is absent. Most of these are currently grown as ornamentals or novelties. full of potatoes. but do not compact the soil. 60cm apart. High temperatures may slow the growth of tubers. Potatoes need a well-drained. then the pumpkin will still be pollinated but it may produce a fruit with different characteristics. Cultivation: Prepare soil by adding manure or compost. Remove the weaker seedling. By adding a tyre and soil when a shoot appears. Pumpkin Description: Also known as squash-gourd. Frost will kill the sprouting shoots. up to 25cm and add animal manure or compost. Pollination is carried out by bees. Harvest the fruits once they are mature.5. so you should be sure to wait until frosts are over before planting your potatoes. 2 weeks before planting. Fruits are harvested immature and have a short storage life. unlike pumpkins and squashes. The seeds can be sown directly or raised in containers and transplanted. It is best to sow in the dry season. Water regularly if it is hot and dry. Generally. They are a good source of calories and starch. They are grown as annual crops. Cultivation: Dig the soil deep. you will soon have a tower of tyres. Seeds sown in containers should be transplanted when they reach 8cm to 10cm. Gourds are grown for their outer shell or fibre rather than for food. You can earth up the plants by pushing soil upwards to the stems with a hoe. They are a useful source of vitamin C if large amounts are eaten. deep soil that is slightly acidic. If there are other gourd or squash plants close by. They tolerate a wide range of well-drained soils with high organic matter content and pH of 5. Nutritional value: Potatoes are a staple which are usually used fresh and boiled. The shoots will begin to grow from the eyes. The fruit stalk will begin to shrivel and the skin of the fruit will . fill the trenches. Saving seed: Pumpkins produce flowers which are very attractive to bees and other insects. Prepare ridges or raised beds and sow the seeds directly in rows 20cm apart with 60cm to 100cm between the plants. Plant the sprouted tubers. Tyre potato production is the easiest method. Dig trenches 15cm. with the shoots pointing upwards. leaving one strong seedling per planting hole.80 Potatoes or Irish Potatoes Description: They are grown as an annual crop. When the shoots are 15cm to 20cm high. If you want the pumpkin to produce seeds of the same variety as the one you are growing.5 to 7. raise the pumpkin off the ground on a bed of grass or straw to protect it from soil insects. fertile. but need daytime temperatures over 25 degrees Celsius. Germination usually takes 5 to 6 days. 25cm apart in the trenches and lightly cover with soil. they are easily distinguished from each other. You will need to water the plants if there is no rain while the tubers are swelling. It is best to plant the sprouted tubers at the beginning of the rains. Although there are a number of different species referred to as gourds. Place seed tubers in a box. They are sometimes added to soup and stew. They have underground tubers which are eaten as a staple food in many areas. Storage: It will store for a short time if kept cool and well aerated. contain some protein (which is of better quality than the protein of cassava and yams) and B-vitamins. the pumpkin produces a large fruit on a vine which grows along the ground. Sow 2 seeds per planting hole. are used as the planting material. Use the whole tuber or part of a tuber which has at least two or more buds or eyes. They grow better in low rainfall areas or during the dry season when crops are watered by hand. Mulch the soil so that it can hold water. Squash plants are bushes. Tubers. known as seed potatoes. then it is important that there are no other gourd or squash plants of another variety close by. male flowers appear first. While the fruit is developing. This will keep the tubers covered and also support the plant's water during dry periods. but in a few hybrids. roasted or fried. with most eyes pointing upwards. Water if there is no rain. baked. 2cm deep. before the beginning of the rain season.

and are extremely high in magnesium for the joints and nerve endings. Cultivation: Dig the soil thoroughly only if it was not well-prepared for the previous crop. Dry the seed in shade before sowing. The soil should be fertile and contain as much organic material as possible for moisture retention. The seeds are eaten as snacks or made into flour and added to relishes. The soil should be deep. The more dark yellow the flesh. A dressing of manure or compost will help the early crop growth. They are plants for a cool climate. to which they bear a superficial resemblance. The oil from soya bean is rich in calories and help guard against muscle wasting. Eating pumpkin seeds helps to get rid of intestinal worms. with succession sowing at two-week intervals through to late spring. sunny position but where it does not get very hot. The seeds are rich in protein and oil and are high in zinc. Storage: Spinach should be picked and used as fresh as possible because it does not store easily. The seeds should be sown between 3cm and 4cm deep.81 be hard. Cultivation: Grow spinach in an open. Soya bean Description: They are a widely grown crop and the beans are often processed into more digestible foods such as bean curd. After you have opened the fruit. Immature bean pods and germinated beans are used as a vegetable for salads and cooked dishes. The plants look rather like a loose lettuce. which boosts the immune system. The leaves can. well-drained and fertile and have a high water retention capacity. Sow the seeds at a rate of 40g to 60g per 10 square metre. Leaves and immature fruits are used as a vegetable in stews. The leaves are rich in vitamin A and usually contain more protein than the fruit. It is best to select plants where no risk of crossing will occur in order to obtain good seed. Spinach and Swiss Chard Description: Spinach and chard are related to the beetroot and not to the cabbages and lettuces. with stalked leaves rising from a central stem. Water-logged soils should be avoided. which has recently grown soya bean at a rate of one handful of soil per square metre in order to encourage the early establishment of beneficial relationships. The bean shoots provide vitamin C. thin them out to 15cm apart. remove the seeds and clean them in a bowl of water. like other bean crops. . the more vitamin A it contains. There are many different varieties of soya bean. Dry the seeds on a flat surface. just when the rains have become well established. Remove the seeds from the pods and dry and clean them thoroughly. The fruit is a useful source of Vitamin A. Identify good plants which are resistant to disease and produce a heavy crop at the right time. It can be cooked or roasted and ground to flour and used for porridge and in relishes and stews. about 1cm deep and 30cm apart. Whole soya beans are a good source of protein and foliate. Store the seed in a cool. As soon as the seedlings are big enough to handle. Saving seed: Soya beans. You can also apply soil from a field. Nutritional value: Mature pumpkin fruit is boiled or baked and used in relishes. dry place. Sow in shallow holes. If well-fed and watered you can harvest spinach leaves through out the year. Soya beans should be sown in rows that are 60cm to 90cm apart with seeds about 5cm apart within rows. Sow the seed thinly in early spring. It is therefore best to find a variety that is most suited to local cultural and ecological conditions. soups and stews. Keep them well-watered and remove weeds. Soya bean products can also be fermented to make a variety of products such as sauces and pastes. Nutritional Value: Soya beans must be thoroughly cooked or processed to remove the bitter taste and anti-nutrients which reduce digestibility. will readily cross with other related plants if they are grown in closely together. Select pods and save them separately from the rest of the crop.

cut the larger fleshy peppers down one side and remove the seeds. If you want to collect seed of the same variety as the one you are growing. Storage: Sweet peppers can be eaten fresh or sun-dried. Storage: Tomatoes are best eaten straight from the plants. Plant the seedlings to a spacing of 50cm apart when they reach 8cm to 10cm high. soups and salads. Allow the fruit to ripen fully and remove the seeds. but outside crops often taste better. but then used only in cooked dishes as they lose their firmness. leafy vegetables act as a natural anti-depressant. plant out in early summer. One reason for this is that tomatoes are relatively easy to grow. protein. Bush forms are treated in the same way. Tomatoes can either be grown on cordons (upright plant) or as bushes. They can be dried or frozen. although they will keep for a few days. except that there is no need to remove the side shoots. Rotation with other crop types is necessary to avoid the build-up of diseases such as bacterial wilt and viruses in the soil. all with similar planting and growing needs. Capsicums need well-drained. Create ridges and plant tomatoes on the ridges and mulch with half composted organic matter. in containers or nursery beds. Control weeds at all times. They are a good source of vitamins A and C. Even people without a garden often manage to grow a plant or two on a balcony. Tomatoes are half-hardy and can be grown under glass or outside. Nutritional value: Sweet pepper fruit is used in relish.82 however. You can also grow tomatoes throughout the year if you have a greenhouse. Support the plant with sticks and strings so that the ripening tomatoes don't rest on the soil. sauces and jams. In frost free areas grow tomatoes throughout the year. Cultivation: Dig the soil and add organic matter in the form of animal manure or compost to the soil before planting. sunny spot. particularly if the summer has been hot and the fruit has ripened well. All tomatoes will need staking. Nutritional value: Leaves are used as a relish and in stews. They are a good source of vitamin A and C. Lay them out or string them up in a clean. Sweet and hot pepper (capsicums) Description: Also known as bell pepper. Sow in mid-spring. be frozen. you will need to plant the seed plants some distance away from capsicums of another variety. Chilli pepper is used for flavouring. Seed saving: Capsicums are pollinated easily with pollen from other capsicum varieties. They are related to chillies and the many other types of peppers. Do not use mulch from old tom a toe stalks for they may bring diseases and pests into the field. are obtained under glass. fertile soil with a little organic matter. iron. dry. Earlier and later crops. Tomatoes are used widely both in raw and cooked dishes. Hot pepper will tolerate higher temperatures than sweet pepper. Remove the side shoots of the tomato plant (those which form in the ‘V’ between two branches). soup and stews and for salads. sunny position and a fertile soil. It is well worth not only growing your own particular favourite varieties each year. preferably at the end of the dry season or the beginning of the wet season. Sow the seeds just below the soil surface. with good compost. Tomatoes Description: Tomatoes are probably the most widely grown vegetable.5m tall. Plant about 45cm apart. 4cm to 10cm apart. as well as heavier ones. . High levels of calcium in spinach and other dark green. in 75cm rows. To dry. Cultivation: Grow tomatoes in an open. Tomatoes can be made into relishes. They can be grown as a rain-fed crop as long as there is no water logging. fibre and foliate. Water during dry periods. capsicums grow as an annual plant to between 30cm and 1. but also experimenting with at least one new one. Water tomatoes at the roots and avoid putting water on the leaves. They can even be used in their unripened state. Cherry tomatoes are easy to grow along the boundaries of your garden or within hedge rows.

you should be able to describe the conditions that are ideal for growing the vegetables discussed. which results in weak. Reflection points • Why would you grow vegetables in your garden? • What indigenous vegetable varieties grow on your land or in your environment? • How have other producers in your area managed and saved seed from leafy vegetables and root crops? . By now. Tomatoes are used in relishes. We discussed how to grow and manage these vegetables. If the plants are too close together. soups. so that the plants have enough space to grow. make small furrows or grooves in the soil using a stick • Construct the furrows about 15cm apart and 2cm deep • Plant the seeds about 1cm apart in each furrow and then cover them with about 1cm of soil • Water the seeds gently once or twice a day • After about four weeks you will need to thin the seedlings out to 2cm apart. stews. Conclusion In this chapter we have learned about the different types of vegetables. tomato sauce provides lycopene. They can even be used in their unripe state.83 Nutritional value: Tomatoes are used widely both in raw and cooked dishes. The process: • When your beds are ready. Suffice to say that vegetables are an integral part of Permaculture. Carrots are generally not transplanted. salads. on sandwiches and is high in vitamin C and A. Tomatoes are more nutritious if they are eaten fresh (uncooked). they compete for nutrients. Growing root crops in general Root vegetables can be planted directly into your garden beds. unhealthy plants • You can replant the beetroot and turnip seedlings from the thinnings that you take out. although when reduced by cooking slowly for a long time. which is a powerful anti-cancer agent.

others in semi-shade. You will need to know every herb's special preferences if you want to harvest their priceless health and beauty ingredients. different herbs grow in an array of different soils: rich compost. while others will prefer complete shade. . Herbs are essential plants with a specific use and have been cultivated since we ceased to be nomadic people. Some prefer to be in full sun. acid and alkaline. well drained. moist and organic. Similarly.84 Unit 8: Herbs & medicinal plants LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader should have learned about: • • • • • Types of herbs Gardening with herbs Using herbs for nutrition and for medicinal purposes Different ways of preparing and storing herbs for various uses Growing healthy herbs Introduction The word herb means green plant. Herbs require different types of places to grow.

85 Main Uses for Herbs • Culinary or kitchen herbs • Nutritional • Medicinal herbs • Scented herbs • Herbal teas • Insect repelling Types of herbs Annual herbs Those plants that will complete their growth cycle within one season or year. you will be rewarded later if you first consider climatic factors carefully when choosing a site and design for your new herb garden. cleveland sage. roses. peppermint. dianthus. wild rose. citronella. They can be grown by seeds or cuttings. They are often ground covers and small bushes. mint. Perennial Herbs These are usually herbs that will grow for a few seasons. Shrub and tree herbs These are longer lasting plants that can grow for many years. It is very important to know what each herb plant and its expected life span is if you are to consider planting it in the landscape. fennel and evening primrose. scented geraniums and bay tree. Basil is an example. rosemary. They are grown from either cuttings or seed. Climatic and Microclimatic Factors • Rainfall patterns • Temperature ranges • Humidity levels • Wind speed and direction • The impact the sun will have on the site • Is the site subject to severe frost? • Are there any large trees or buildings that will create a shadow? • Is the site subjected to strong winds? . Examples include: lemon verbena. camphor. Examples include: lavender. rose. Considerations for Herb Garden site Like with all gardens. These are usually seed sown plants.

for example. • What views to design with or against? Existing Vegetation • Are there any trees. Perennial basil. . primary in the same section of each part of the design will create visual balance and rhythm. In a formal herb garden. informal design that includes the elements of good landscape design. they are also decorative. woolly sage. rue. Some guidelines for design with herbs The herb garden should be in harmony with the site and could be either a formal layout or a more natural. and to nurture that which is within our control. is it culinary or medicinal? The use factor will determine what kind of design to follow. In addition to the many health benefits. Wormwood and Mugwort. Cotton Lavender. golden feverfew and golden celery. taking care to balance form.86 Topographical Factors • Is the site level or on a slope? • Will you need to “cut and fill” or terrace the slope? • Will run-off water create problems? • Aspect: the direction in which the slope is facing in relation to the sun. repeating strong. Growing and Landscaping with Herbs: Gardeners the world over have taken pride in their gardens for many centuries. In a more natural garden the bright primary colours can be used to create a focal point. roses and bergamot. Cleveland Sage. the psychological impact of gardening has been found to be beneficial for those recovering from trauma or illness – providing a calm space in which to commune with nature. bressingham thyme. as it should be comfortable to harvest the herbs. shrubs or other plants that can be used as part of the design? • What types of plants are on the site? Use of the Herb Garden • Is the herb for decorative value only? • Is it to have a specific function. colour and fragrance. wild rose geraniums. With a bit of imagination one can also improve the overall look of the garden by ensuring good colour distribution. golden creeping oreganum. Secondary colours and softer herbs can be used to link up the brighter colours and provide unity. Jerusalem artichoke. While herbs may be grown for specific uses in terms of herbal application. Designing gardens with herbs for colour harmony Colour Grey Pink Yellow Herb Lavender. Lambs Ear. Tansy.

pinkish. Lightly boiled leaves can be used as a soothing poultice that helps with sunburn and insect bites. Chamomile. Pot basil. with green or purple leaves and small white to purplish flowers in rings. delicately onion-flavoured. borage has. then turn true blue. Sweet basil has many branches. These are effective anti-bacterials. chest colds and stomach upsets. been used as an anti-depressant and to treat fevers. There is a medicinally invaluable species of basil from the East called ‘sacred’ or ’holy’ basil which is also not yet common in South Africa. Labiatae. White Thyme. Pyrethrum. Borage. Starry flowers are. and when boiled with water can be used to wash surfaces to improve food and home hygiene The most widely grown in South Africa is sweet basil. Forget-Me-Not and Violas. Wild Garlic. put flowers in hot water. The shrub is upright and grows up to 4m high with handsome lobed leaves and spiny capsules holding large spotted poisonous seeds. Garlic Chives. Cultivation is done from the seed. The flowers are used in salads and fruit cups. a smaller plant. It is now common in South Africa and has become a weed. Made into a tea. In India. the leaf juice is used for treating ringworm. The leaves can be added to a steam bath for inhalation. Poppies and Nasturtiums. diarrhoea and dysentery. Rosemary. It is an annual (occasionally perennial). They are mostly very aromatic. The leaves and flowers are edible with excellent health benefits. Castor oil plant The castor oil plant originated in India and other tropical countries. It has big. Types of herbs Basil This is a small group of famous herbs of the mint family. Mints and Thymes. Chives. It is reputed to be an aphrodisiac. It is also used as a sedative tea for headaches or tension. earache and deafness. Bergamot. with shiny black anthers at their hearts. Borage Borage is a robust annual plant which grows up to 1m high with thick prickly stems. and can be used effectively as antiseptics. and are often used as mosquito repellents. is shiny and has a pungent smell. but to a great extent in Africa and Asia. For hay fever. used for flavouring and scent. for many years. to draw boils and relieve headaches and rheumatism. Yarrow. at first. Angelica and Elderberry. It is used as a culinary herb and combines well with tomato dishes. Comfrey. and lemon basil are less common. All plants from the Labiatae family have anti-bacterial properties. Chervil. Roses. The flowers are purplish and occur in closely packed heads. Canary Lavender flowers and Ajuga. broad and rough hairy leaves. Catnip. An infusion treats gonorrhoea. inhaling the favours. They are used externally. The leaves are used as dressings for wounds and sores. then hold to the face. Pineapple Sage. Chives are used for . tubular leaves. Chives Chives originated in Europe.87 Purple Blue White Green Red Lavender flowers. They are perennial and make dense tufts of grassy. that not only originate in Mediterranean Europe. usually up to 25cm high.

If in doubt as to the identity of one of these plants. grey or green leaves and round clusters or knots of white or purple flowers. B and C. Coriander Coriander originated in Southern Europe. Lavender Most lavender plants are native to Southern Europe. The plant dies down in winter. Parsley Parsley may have originally been found in Southern Europe. colds and coughs. is excellent to relieve headache. It is grown from the seed. native to the hills of Mediterranean countries. or cook with majoram leaves. It is said to reduce appetite and aid slimming. and the seeds are oval and ribbed. It is cultivated from seed. It is cultivated from seed. It is used in salads and can be taken as a tea to treat asthma. The small flowers grow in flat golden umbels. It is somewhat succulent and usually a trailing plant with long-stalked. All parts are rich in vitamins A. it relieves toothache. Several varieties are common in herb gardens. It is a tall perennial with a hearty taproot and much divided. and can look similar yet are smaller. All parts are spicy-tasting. Sweet marjoram is a small shrubby plant. look at the bulb to see if it is single or makes a clump. orange or red spurred flowers. add to salads. The herb is used for flavouring as well as for treating stomach troubles. making it one of the most popular of all kitchen herbs. and is very high in vitamin C. It bears small flowers in white or pinkish umbels. It grows from seed. it is an onion. Note: Leaves should be cut as needed at about 5cm from the ground. made in moderate strength. It is eaten for its antiseptic effect. Outwardly applied. as they are part of the same family. iron and other minerals. neuralgia. The lower leaves have broad jagged segments. They are propagated from cuttings. raw or cooked.88 flavouring dishes and for salads. If it is a single bulb. fragrant flowers growing in rings about the stalks. stomach-ache and flatulence (once much used at the Cape). The seeds are used for flavouring and for treating diarrhoea. The leaves as used to flavour cooked and raw foods. Cultivation is achieved through both seed and bulb. sprains. The roots are eaten as vegetables. And has a calming affect is rubbed on the temples. They have narrow smooth-edged leaves with small. It is chewed to destroy a strong garlic breath. The fruits are roundish and unpleasantly scented when fresh. roundish. Fennel Fennel originated in Southern Europe. Both the fresh leaves and the seeds of coriander are widely used flavouring. the upper are threadlike. Lavender oil is used for minor burns and skin complaints. cuttings or root divisions. Florence fennel has swollen and edible stalk bases and edible foliage. perennial in warm climates. Nasturtium Nasturtium is native to South America. Make tea. It is a smallish delicate annual which grows up to 60cm high. buds and flowers are used in salads and to flavour vinegar. very fragrant. The leaves and stalks are strongly and pleasantly flavoured. It is cultivated from seed. Marjoram Marjoram is considered to be the romantic plant of the Labiatae family. make spice. and rheumatism. The leaves. Chives are often confused with onions. As well as being an anti-bacterial. they have a delicious scent which is calming and soothing. blue-green leaves with threadlike segments. flat leaves and fairly big yellow. . It has a sweet penetrating aniseed scent and flavour. with smallish. A tea brewed from lavender tops. fatigue and exhaustion. It is usually a biennial with many divided curly leaves.

by layering or by root division. Preparing and using herbs and medicinal plants Medicinal plants and herbs are prepared using different methods. Rue Rue is indigenous to Southern Europe. although they have been cultivated here for a long time. Sage or salvia The sage group of plants also belong to the Labiatae family and occurs in many different parts of the world.8 m tall. salads. but this can be dangerous and is therefore not recommended. eat the flowers. There are also a number of hybrids and forms which are sometimes flavoured like lemon and sometimes variegated. for respiratory. Rosemary tea is a general tonic and pick-me-up and stimulates body and skin. Crushed up. It is a small.89 Rosemary Rosemary occurs naturally in Mediterranean countries. with small simple. blue-green shrub with deeply divided leaves and yellow flowers. a rash. The leaf is used for the treatment of scarlet and typhoid fever and the juice for convulsions and fits. Harvesting and storing herbs • Select the variety of herbs you like for use • Harvest with scissors or secateurs • Dry leaves and flowers thoroughly in brown paper bags • When sufficiently dried. . airtight bottles Herbal Bath The fragrance of herbs in warm water is relaxing and soothing. and when boiled with water can be used to wash surfaces to improve food and home hygiene. Cultivation is from seed and cuttings. Add a few springs of lavender or chamomile flowers to a bath to soothe a variety of skin irritations. Sages are used for flavouring. It is used in cooked foods. If eyes are dim from overwork or strain. in salads and as a tea. None are indigenous to South Africa. for ailments of the liver. It is cultivated from cuttings. narrow opposite leaves that are leathery and very aromatic. It has blue flowers in the axils of the leaves. They are grown from seed and cuttings. They are smooth and dark green above. In South Africa. It is now so common in South Africa that it is treated as a weed. stomach and digestive ailments and also and also helps prevent parasitic worms. there are 22 native species. make the infusion a stronger. The common or garden thyme originated from Western Mediterranean countries and is now widely cultivated. or sunburn. coughs. hairy white below. It is an extremely effective anti-bacterial. It is an evergreen perennial shrub up to 1. woody plant with tiny grey-green leaves and small white to lilac flowers. It is a small upright. grind and mix together and store in dark. strong-smelling. in cosmetics and medicines. It is a powerful immune stimulant and a study in Germany showed that drinking sage infusion on an empty stomach reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. It is used for flavouring. It is sometimes used as an infusion for the heart. It has a high thymol content and is used as an antiseptic. Thyme There are a number of species in Europe and Asia. fever and also as an antiseptic. toothache and earache. It is taken as a health-giving tea. of which the common and wild thymes are best known. Cultivation is from seed or cuttings. When treating hives. and “comforts the brain”. the fragrance is said to wake you up and aid concentration and memory. perfume and medicine.

Make a vinegar infusion for a bath that will sooth itchiness. Steam for 5 to 8 minutes. then infuse overnight. as some herbs are very potent. Store the mixture in an airtight glass bottle. It can be applied for a wide range of skin conditions such as eczema. buttermilk and honey is a lovely way to cleanse the face naturally. clean cloth. thick towel over your head and the pot. bring water to a boil. Fennel face cleaner This fresh mixture made from fennel seed. rashes and wounds. Add 2 tablespoons of buttermilk and 1 teaspoon of honey to the fennel seed water and mix it all together. Preparing medicinal plants for a bath: (Get to know your herbs and their effects on the human body before following these methods. Let it stand for about half an hour and then strain into a small bowl. . Strain the bath tea into your bath water through a piece of thin. Turn the heat down to the lowest setting. Herbs for the skin • Borage: It is good for dry skin and for sensitive skin. raise or lower your head or lift a corner of the towel to let in some cool air. The cleanser can be taken from the fridge as needed. Add the herbs (fresh or dried) and let it steep for 30 to 45 minutes. Toss in a handful of herbs. It will get very hot under the towel. Pour the resulting mixture into a clean container and refrigerate. adjusting the amounts to suit your skin type. Remove the pot from the heat and place it on a heat-proof surface at a level that will enable you to comfortably sit and place your face over the pot. To make a medicinal bath tea. relax aching muscles and soften skin: Bring 570ml apple cider vinegar and a handful of fresh bath herbs slowly to the boil. Strain and store in a bottle for future use. or hold it on a troubled area as a poultice. capturing the steaming herb water. Crush or chop 1 tablespoon of fennel seed and then pour 1 cup of boiling water over it. Bundle up the cloth so that you can use it as a herbal scrub while you bath. drape a large. soft. Fresh fennel leaves and other herbs can be added to make the infused water.90 Get to know your herbs and their effects on the human body before following these methods. cover and let simmer for a couple of minutes. Leaning over the pot. • Aloe Vera: The jelly-like juice from the leaf is excellent for sunburn relief and minor burns. Facial steams To perform a facial steam. To regulate the heat. Steam for dry to normal skin: • 3 parts comfrey leaf • 2 parts calendula • 2 parts chamomile • 1 part lavender • 1 part aloe ferox Combine the herbs. bring water to a boil in a large pot. Always take care during pregnancy. Add a cupful (225ml) of the mixture to the bath.

They are then measured into correct dosages for further processing. Calendula helps grow new healthy cells at the site of a wound and increases the number of microscopic blood vessels. A hot infusion is made when wet or dry plant material is placed in boiling water that is removed from the heat source and allowed to stand for 10 minutes. • Chamomile: Anti-inflammatory compounds make this herb useful for sensitive or thin.91 • Calendula: An infusion of calendula flower added to a salve heals chapped. leaves. bulbs. especially mature or sallow skins. fruits and seeds are all used as medicine. cold water would be used and the plants left in the water. or sallow skin. like a cup of tea. Thyme is a good immune booster. • Thyme: Anti-microbial action makes it a good wound cleaner with its astringent effect. bark. • Fennel: It is used for cleansing and soothing. to create a cold water infusion. It is good for all skin types. Plants are potent and should always be treated with the greatest respect and willingness to learn. These medicines should be used the same day as they soon start to ferment. • Rosemary: This beloved culinary herb also stimulates and regenerates sluggish. rather than to relax. spider bites or scrapes. Use it for rashes. A mistake could bring harm instead of healing. carries different chemicals. It is a good ingredient in bath products designed to stimulate and energize. root. or active ingredients. • Sage: It is a cleansing. dry skin. rhizomes (roots). leaf. Traditional preparations using Medicinal plants In South Africa. sensitive and trouble skins. These are the most common ways in which medicines are prepared from plants. Once medicinal plants have been dried they should not be exposed to light or heat as this will degrade them. The flowers also makes a wonderful infused oil. which clears the complexion. Plants are either used fresh or they are dried for storage. • Lavender: It is used for treating acne. • Parsley: It is a conditioner for dry. Lavender in the bath has actually been clinically proven to enhance relaxation. It helps to balance the skin’s oil production. • Lemon: A frequent complement to herbs. lemon juice is a tonic that restores the skin’s natural acid balance. Usually. • Elderflower: A good tonic for all skin types. • Peppermint: A stimulating astringent. the . bark. hot and cold. It is essential to use the right part of the plant and ensure that you have identified the plant correctly. Each part of a plant. correcting problems of over-production or underproduction of oils. if the plant part is very hard. devitalised. as with bark. fruit or flower. For plants containing these ingredients. • Rose: A soothing and gentle cleanser. The leaf has been used to treat eczema and wounds. irritated or wounded skin. usually overnight. stimulating astringent. It is effective in a footbath against fungal infection like athlete’s foot. Infusions (teas) Two types of infusion teas exist. Decoctions (boiled) A decoction is made when plant material is boiled to extract the active ingredients. The water soluble elements are dissolved into the water and a hot infusion results. Some active ingredients are easily destroyed by heat. burned. tubers. which also tightens pores. including baby skin. mature and sallow skin. • Dandelion: Contains a rich emollient useful in cleansing lotions for dry. which has a refining and softening effect on the skin. The boiling time differs according to the plant and may be anywhere from 10 minutes to 8 hours. Reputed to soften skin and smooth wrinkles and soothe sunburn. skin problems or insect bites as well as for the treatment of burns and sunburns. They should be stored in a cool dark place.

They are also applied directly to open wounds. like fats and oils. Once the active ingredients have been extracted and soaked into the fat. This saves a lot of time as they do not need to be prepared on a daily basis. Tinctures have an advantage as they extract the active ingredients. They also improve the flavour of otherwise bitter or bad tasting medicines. This method is of great benefit in rural areas where people do not have access to refrigeration. sometimes to control bleeding and to kill germs that might cause infection. Ointments and Salves These are prepared by placing usually dry plant material into heated oil or fat. Some only grow in a specific area and cannot be found anywhere else. Bees wax is also a common addition to ointments. Tinctures can be stored for a long time and kept till they are needed. so the gentle morning sun will help the tree to recover. that are difficult to extract with water. Juice The juice of certain plants is sometimes squeezed and applied directly to wounds or is taken orally. normally licked from the hand or sometimes sniffed into the sinuses as is the case with snuffs. most medicines are ground down into a powder. Sometimes milk is used instead of water as it absorbs some of the oils and fats which do not dissolve easily in water. Conservation of Medicinal Plants Many medicinal plants in general are extinct or endangered. Medicines should not be cooked in aluminium pots. Tinctures A tincture is made when plant material is placed in alcohol like cane spirits (42% alcohol) or grain alcohol (up to 80% alcohol) and left to stand for up to three weeks in a dark warm place. Tinctures also extract the active ingredients that can be dissolved by water. Sugar and honey have a preserving action and increase the shelf life of the medicine. These days many healers prepare their ointments in Vaseline. Syrups Syrups are tinctures to which sugar or honey has been added. In traditional medicine these are often complex mixtures of many plants that have properties or contain chemicals that work well together. Mixtures These are liquid or powder preparations where more than one plant is used. squeezed into the ears to control earache and infection. as aluminium can change the chemistry of a medicine. In addition. rare or vulnerable. This adds real value as the medicines may be stored safely until they are used or sold. and other animals are used. Cotyledon orbiculata.92 cooking time is longer. A commonly used juice in South Africa is the juice of the pig’s ear. Aluminium is also toxic to the body in high amounts and is believed to be a cause in a number of diseases affecting the nervous system. . alcohol is a preservative. Sour fig juice is taken for sore throats and Bulbanella and Aloe vera or Aloe Ferox juice sooth skin ailments. sheep. Powders After drying. The bark is often harvested only in strips from the east side of a tree. Thorough study is required. Traditionally fats from snakes. These are then used in other preparations or can be taken directly. the plant material is separated by pouring the liquid through a sieve or a cloth. just like the cough syrups one buys in the pharmacy.

Our forests and wild areas still hold medicinal secrets that remain undiscovered and are worth conserving for that reason alone. It is always important to research any possible plant-drug interactions when considering the use of any medicinal plants. use and conserve these important plants. this Unit provided information on how to grow. Our forests. conserve and use. There are a number of important traditional herbs in South Africa. This model could be used for job creation. For example. If considering harvesting for commercial purposes. A good candidate for this approach is the indigenous ginger. It is not always necessary to harvest the bark. Siphonochilus aethiopica. replant with their parent plants. Apart from outlining the different types of herbs. Reflection points • Give at least five good reasons for growing herbs in your garden. containing many of our medicinal plant resources. like forests. could help reduce reliance on fire wood. grow in a nursery. With a great number of species. and could even become community-based businesses. • Identify the companies and NGOs that grow herbs in your area and select from them the kind of herbs that would be useful for your family and for the school. • Which herbs are good for immune boosting? .93 Strategies for the conservation of medicinal plants • Harvest seed from a population of plants in a specific area. Often twigs. Conclusion Herbs are useful species. which contain the same chemical compounds. which can kill the tree. economic development and as a conservation tool. can be harvested and used. It could be seen as a way of saving lives by saving plants. that reflect and direct sunlight off their polished metal surfaces. • List four different types of herbs that you know which have not been discussed in the manual and for each explain the appearance of the plant. • Encourage plant part substitution. are literally being chopped down and burnt for firewood or developed into agricultural land for crops or livestock. its origins. which supply the healers and community members with plants to grow on their own land. such as African potato (Hypoxis) and wild garlic should be used with caution if being taken alongside anti-retrovirals. sustainable technologies like solar cookers. We must think of creative ways of dealing with this crisis. This is a key insight for conservation. why it is grown and where one can buy it. • Specialist medicinal plant nurseries could contribute to the awareness of threatened species. Some of these. It is essential to know what they are and what they are used for in order to select which ones to cultivated. you will need to apply for a permit from SANBI (contact details are provided at the rear of this manual) • Diverse ecosystems. It is therefore important to conserve them. often hold more economic value in the form of sustainable harvests of diverse products than agricultural land. Isiphepheto (Z). seed could be harvested by the community from designated areas without destroying the plants to supply such nurseries. which is extinct in Natal. as when the leaves would be a more sustainable option than the using the roots.

shredded newspaper. If you are in an urban areas. The chickens will scratch it up. skin. put it straight in the compost bin. and mix it thoroughly for you — when it’s ready. cardboard and wood chips. Bees are one of the most productive elements for a farm. you will need a permit to keep bees. spoiled hay. manure it. Apiculture Apiculture is concerned with keeping bees. driving off the nitrogen and drying out the manure. organic fertilizer rich in potassium and phosphorus.94 Unit 9: Integrating livestock LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader should have learned about: • Types of livestock • How small livestock can be integrated into crop farming Introduction Small livestock can play a vital role in sustainable development if they are integrated carefully into the farming systems. feathers. straw. A few examples can show how animals balance the ecosystem. producing an easily handled. They can generate income and can influence the creation of a more complete ecosystem. They do not require much space and maintenance is low. Spreading wood ash on the floor of the chicken run under the roosts is a good way of dealing with the droppings by neutralising the acidity. sawdust. Bees play a very important function in a Permaculture system. Throw edible scraps from the vegetable garden and the kitchen on top. Spread the type of “browns” you use for composting in the chicken run — dead leaves. Chicken manure and the wood ash react. Some even control pests. They produce a wide range of products that can generate a good small business and increase the pollination of crops and thus production of food. eggs. medicine and manure. . easy-to-store. Livestock provide meat. honey.

A good hive of bees. Plant species that contribute to the bees' needs should be protected and more planted to provide bee food.95 Why Keep Bees? Conservation: Bees need forage. If you go into large-scale honey production. If you have 10 hives you can generate R48 000. wax is an excellent anti-bacterial medium to which other components can be safelyadded. Honey can generate income for the family. Wax: The wax is the yellow whitish matter that builds the combs. which is food and other resources from plants that bees need to make honey. Stings: Bee stings are used medicinally by doctors to relieve rheumatism. soap and polish. Note the following: Security: Place your bee hives on the boundary of the farm as people are often afraid of bees. Propolis has medicinal properties. The interesting part is that the more we take honey from bees the stronger a hive is. The wax is used for making candles. Register your bee project with the local association. most fruit trees. . follow all safety precautions recommended by local government and your local association. Warning: Bees can kill. You may also want to take out liability insurance in case a trespasser is attacked on your property. It can be sold to generate income. A bee sting can be painful and should be treated immediately by putting on some honey or vinegar. It is dark grey in colour. it is possible to generate R4 800 net profit. Avocados. with good forage. Commercial fruit farmers hire in bee hives for large scale pollination. crops and vegetables can not produce fruits without the bees’ involvement. Honey is good business in Africa and in other continents. Pollination: Most plants cannot produce fruit and seeds if the flowers are not visited by pollinating insects and the honey bee is one of the best pollinators. The best place for these plants are on contour ridges or at the boundary of your farm. a jar (500g) cost R40. A hive can produce over 30 jars per crop. headaches and other viral and bacterial infections. Honey: Honey is a most delicious and nutritious food. With good management of forage and bees. It is also the bees’ food. Too many stings are dangerous. Inform everybody in the immediate vicinity of safety precautions to be followed around your hives. Propolis helps to treat TB. In South Africa. Propolis: Propolis is the glue that bees use to close open spaces in the hive. but never take all honey from the hive. Also find out what the by-laws of your local government say about keeping bees. It is anti-viral and anti-bacterial. Before you keep bees find out if you or anybody else who will be working with the bees are allergic to bee venom. flue. colds. The selection of the plants should be based on whether the plants can also be used as windbreaks or as live fence. propolis and wax. Bees work hard to store this food and people “rob” the honey for their own use. can produce over 120 jars per year. The farmers pay bee keepers for the work done by bees on a daily basis. As a base for creams.

ducks and geese. If you want to farm fish. scouting. house-keeping. Fat from the skin can be rendered and used in cooking. The Queen mates with at least 10 drones in one session. filling their stomach with honey. She lays more than 3000 eggs per day. Workers communicate with the rest of the hive through pheromones (chemical scent signals produced by the queen and workers) as they dance and vibrate. Fish farming depends greatly on the climate. the environment and local law. foraging. covering and warming the brood. The brood are protected by the workers and are held at a constant temperature of about 35 degrees Celsius. What equipment do you need to work with bees? A Smoker is a tool for smoking the bees so that they do not start a mass attack. wetlands and lakes can be disastrous. The Workers: The female bee is the smallest in the hive. The colony keeps only one queen per hive. The Drone: The drone is the male bee that is developed from unfertilised eggs. She is responsible for security. so that they can generate more heat. His role is to mate with the queen and once this task is complete . he dies. When it is cold. the bees eat more honey and cluster together. the colony disperses and a lot of water is collected for both drinking and cooling purposes. The Queen's sting is used only on rival queens. Bees are smoked so that they sense that a bush fire is coming and then rush to the honey cells. The drone cannot sting and has a maximum life span of 2 months. Once a worker stings. and from other hives. The flesh itself has very little fat and has a unique . which includes fish. but their sperm is kept alive in a sperm sac and used to fertilize female eggs when more worker bees are required. The Queen can lay eggs after 3 days of the mating day. When food becomes scarce in the hive. they will not be accepted. most of the drones are expelled and will eventually die. be guided by the best local advisors you can find. making decisions. She will never fly again and all the drones will die. building cells. changing nectar into honey. Poultry Ducks and Geese: Duck and geese are good sources of protein. If it is too warm. so that all live in harmony. She flies high up and the stronger drones mate with her. The Queen can live for at least 3 years. Aquaculture Aquaculture is concerned with the keeping of water animals. larvae and the pupae. If her family members get lost and end up at another hive. producing wax. Brood: This is made up of the eggs. mother bee is the largest. and the leader of the colony: She controls all the relationships of the bees. cleaning the hive. because their scent is different. She controls the colony by producing a distinctive scent that is different from that of other queens. The accidental introduction of foreign species of fish into rivers. guarding the entrance and nursing the queen.96 Bees Family The Queen: Female. The workers sting and defend the colony. These bees will not be keen to fly and attack. ready for an emergency escape. she dies.

feed them with greens and earth worms. You do not need a rooster to have eggs. • Rabbits burrow and like to eat juicy green leaves! If rabbits are free ranged. They require a pond to swim in and can therefore be integrated with fish farming. a certain kind of duck. They burrow under fences. Put them into a warm cage and feed them with starter meal for 3 weeks and then with growers’ meal for 4 weeks. They scratch and eat little bugs and tiny weed seeds. Muscovies come in black and white and various shades of grey and brown. They grow fast and seldom get sick. especially in cattle kraals. Chickens cluck away busily and shriek if they are frightened and can therefore serve to warn you of any intruders. to control pests. weeds and mixed grains. Muscovies have never been industrialised or “developed” on a large scale. Feed chickens with vegetables. Feed the cocks with mixed grains. They are very productive if they are housed at night. and plough and fertilise the soil. Tips for increasing the survival rate of chickens • Keep chicks away from the mother a day after hatching. In orchards apply rotational systems and methods. Feed ducks and geese with a variety of vegetables. Ducks and geese do not scratch mulches in the garden. Remember to give the chickens enough space for free ranging and use rotational systems to improve their food variety. Ducks and geese are great for cleaning housefly larvae. comfrey and aloe. They fertilise the water and clean water ways. • Separate the hens and the cocks in the 10th week. Muscovy hens can set three or four times a year. with clutches of eight to 21 eggs. . Rabbits are grass cutters and they can keep the lawn short. The eggs hatch after 35 days. earth worms and mixed grains. with a bright red crest around their eyes and above the beak. are cheap to keep. Keep the little ones in a closed house until the age of 2 months. no matter how big or small your homestead is. Ducks and geese are highly productive if they are free ranged. A traditional hen can produce more than 60 eggs or 40 chicks per year. In the 5th week feed them with mixed grains and greens. They usually start laying eggs in August. and for controlling snails and slugs in the garden. make sure the fence is in a concrete foundation or lay down a 30cm wall of rubble stone. Chickens are great for homesteads and it is almost a must to have them. but you do need one if you want to breed them. and feed the hens with a mixture of mixed grains and layers meal at the ration of 1:1. • Chickens can be linked with fruit trees of the garden. Generally it is advisable to start with a drake and three hens. They provide compost and control pests. Key considerations • Keep bucks (male rabbits) apart because they fight.97 and delicious flavour. They are self-reliant and better foragers than other ducks. African chickens: African chickens are the best for free ranging. Each ducks and goose lays about 25 eggs in a season. like a cockscomb. probably because they do not come in standard sizes. weeds. In the garden. Chickens provide meat and eggs. along with the ducks and geese. They clean up after your other livestock and eat spillage and leftovers from the other animals. Muscovies. it is better to keep them in a chicken tractor. Rabbitry Rabbits breed very fast because they can bear young ones throughout the year and have a gestation period of about one month. The birds are ready to eat 70 days later. Ensure that there are chickens to work over your whole place every season. If you have children they will do the work for you as they tend to love rabbits. Protect them from diseases and fleas by feeding them wild garlic. They can swim soon after birth but it is better to let them swim only after 2 weeks. During this period. This will prevent rabbits from burrowing through the fence.

it means mating was successful on the first occasion. Vermicomposting Vermicomposting means making compost with the assistance of worms. When she finally produces young. Red worms are better if you have poultry. Guinea fowl are the best control for ticks and house flies from cattle and goat pens. and lay about the best eggs. They are smallish but rich and delicious as they should be nurtured on a rich and varied diet of insects and weed seeds. which can co-exist with plants in the garden. Conclusion In this unit we have discussed how to integrate animals in the garden in a way that enhances synergy and productivity. Worms are high in protein (better than beef) and make excellent live (or dried) poultry feed. • Why would a farmer keep worms? . If she refuses to mate. leave her with them for six weeks. Leave them together for two days. You have also learnt how to tap into the ability of bees to produce honey. look after themselves. take the doe (female) to the buck to avoid fighting. Guinea fowl need very little care — just leave them alone. feed themselves. then take her back again 12 days later. They effectively keep the pests down. she will breed four times a year and has potential to wean over 50 offspring a year. They do what they like. In other words. • Rabbit manure is of high-quality and easy to handle.98 • For breeding. We have concentrated on the small livestock. Reflection points • What factors would you consider when choosing a bird to keep in your garden? • Describe the ways in which geese and ducks contribute to the ecology of the garden as well as to its productivity. Worm populations double in at least six weeks and they eat their weight of compost material a day. then mate her again two weeks later. Guinea fowl Guinea fowl are an all-round asset at any homestead. to pollinate and increase production.


Unit 10: Mixing plants in your garden
By the end of this Unit the reader should have learned about:
• Essence of planting crops together • How you can plant certain crops together • Identifying plants that can grow well together and those that may not do well planted together

Planting many crops together (Polyculture) reflects the essence of the Permaculture approach. This is a major step towards diversity in production, which enhances the availability of nutritional requirements. Growing plants together with useful connections is called a guild.

A guild is a harmonious assembly of species clustered around a central element (plant or animal). This assembly acts in relation to the element to assist its health, aid our work in management, or buffer adverse environmental effects. Here are some reasons to place species in association:
• Reduces root competition • Assists pest control in various ways • Provides mulch • Provides free nutrients • Provides physical shelter from frost, sunburn, or wind • Assists us in gathering by creating culinary guilds • Reduces competition for light


In the interactions between plant species the following realities prevail: • Most species get along fine; perhaps 80% of all plant species co-mingle without ill effect. • Some species greatly assist one or other many ways. • A minority of species show antagonistic behaviour towards one or more other species.

Some guidelines for choosing plants to grow together
Some species are planted together because they help each other. If plants compete for the same resources, separate them and replant their own beneficial guilds. It has also been observed that plant families often exhibit the same tendencies regarding their interactions with the environment, so that when guilds are created, family members can be placed in similar circumstance. Also, depending on the nature of the climate, you will find that summer plants generally grow well together and winter plants grow well together, but summer and winter plants conflict if placed in the same area. Thus by planting plants during the appropriate season; conflicts over resources among elements can be avoided. A simple way of looking at companion planting is that some plants are light feeders (onion), others are heavy feeders (maize, pumpkin), while others are heavy givers (legumes i.e. beans). Always put heavy givers with heavy feeders such as planting beans with maize.

Crop Melon Plum Raspberry Strawberry Asparagus Beans

Companions Corn, peanut and sunflower Horseradish Tansy Beans, spinach, borage and lettuce Tomato, parsley, basil, nasturtium and marigold Carrot, cauliflower, savory, cabbage, beet, borage, maize, marigold, squash, strawberry, tomato, nasturtium, potato, cucumber, collards and sunflowers Onion and kohlrabi Beans, nasturtium, oregano, potato, celery, dill, chamomile, sage, mints, rosemary and onion Beans, nasturtium, potato, celery, dill, sage, mints, rosemary and hyssop Beans, nasturtium, oregano, celery, dill, chamomile, sage, mints, rosemary, lavender, beet, onion, tansy, tomato, chickweed and morog.

Beet Broccoli





Peas, onion, leek, rosemary, sage, tomato, lettuce, chive, beans, radish and wormwood. Cauliflower - Beans, nasturtium, oregano, celery, dill, chamomile, mints, lavender, beet, onion, hyssop and radish Beans, leek, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower and onion Beans, leek, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower and onion Beans, peas, radish, corn, sunflower, broccoli, celery, lettuce, tomato, marigold Beans, peas, clover, tarragon and thyme Beet, strawberry, tomato, lettuce, clover, cabbage, carrot, potato, savory, beans and sow thistle Carrot and potato Celery, carrot and onion Beans Carrot, maize, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, radish, spinach, tomato and turnip Basil, carrot, lovage, marjoram, onion and oregano Beans, corn, cabbage, marigold, lettuce, onion, petunia, radish, flax, lima, horseradish and dead nettle Maize, cowpeas and clover Peas, nasturtium, lettuce and cucumber Grows with anything and helps everything Strawberry, cabbage, celery, eggplant, onion and peas Nasturtium, corn, beans, mints and radish Onion, parsley, asparagus, carrot, basil, cabbage, peas, sage, chive, marigold, nasturtium, lima and sow thistle Peas

Cauliflower Celery Cucumber

Eggplant Onion

Flax Leek Lovage Peas

Peppers Potato

Pumpkin Radish Soybean Spinach Squash Tomato


raspberry. strawberry and squash Peas Onion. beans. peppers and potato Enhance essential oil production in herbs Savory Southernwood Sunflower Tansy Yarrow and Garlic . cabbage. cabbage and sage Rose and raspberry Carrot. peas. radish. beans and cabbage Tomato Tomato. carrot. rose. cabbage. parlsey. cabbage.102 Herbs and Flowers Anise Basil Bee Balm Borage Caraway Camomile Chive Coriander Dill Garlic Mints Nasturtium Oragano Parsley Petunia Rosemary Rue Sage Companions Beans and corriander Tomato. asparagus. tomato and raspberry Cabbage family and tomato Tomato. tomato and fruit trees Peas Cabbage. mints and cucumber Carrot. marjoram. cucumber and fruit trees Cucumber Tomato. beans. onion Beans Carrot. carrot. rosemary. grape. carrot. lettuce and onion Rose. strawberry and tomato Beans and onions Cabbage Cucumber Fruit trees.

tomato. tomato and rue Grape. strawberry. cabbages and kohlrabi . leek and marigold Beans Lettuce. garlic. dill. tomato and rue Dill and anise Strawberry and tomato Rue. potato. raspberry and rosemary Potato Grape and hyssop Potato Fennel. strawberry. peppers and tomato Beans and broccoli Beans and peas Fennel and kohirabi Apple. fennel.103 Vegetables Asparagus Beans Beet Broccoli Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Cucumber Kohirabi Leek Onion Peppers Potato Pumpkin Radish Squash Tomato Competitors Onions Chive. pumpkin. sage and potatoes Beans.

cabbage and sage Cucumber and rue . peas and strawberry Radish Parsley Mint Potato. basil. clover and radish Potato. plum Potato. lucerne. clover and cowpeas. caraway. lucerne. clover Cabbage. coriander. apricot. peach. wild garlic. lucerne. clover Cabbage. lucerne. comfrey Fig Grape Raspberry Strawberry Rue. cauliflower. lucerne. clover and Brussels sprout Herbs Anise Basil Caraway Chive Coriander Dill Fennel Garlic Hyssop Mint Parsley Rosemary Sage Carrot Rue Fennel Beans and peas Fennel Carrot and tomato Competitors Beans. broccoli. dill and tomato Beans.104 Fruits Competitors Apple. and pear stinging nettle. nasturtium.

Suggest reasons why they grow well together. Reflection points • What are the advantages of growing plants in guilds? • What kind of plants should not be grown in the same guild and why? • Find out the kind of plants that tend to grow together in nature and share this information with others.105 Conclusion In this unit you will have learned about the reasons for. • Design three guilds and name at least four plants for each . This should enable you to plan and manage your garden effectively. and the best ways of. combining different types of plants in order to get the most out of them and to minimize negative effects that they might have on each other.

106 Unit 11: Propagation of plants LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader will have learned about: • • • • How to raise plants using sexual and asexual methods Growing fruit crops Strategies to improve seed germination Nursery establishment and management Introduction This is a very important module. a safe space and careful and gentle attention. You will be introduced to processes which will enrich your understanding about Permaculture practices. There are many steps in between. Plant propagation begins with seed or vegetative reproduction (cuttings) and it ends with harvesting. . The module will empower you with tools of how to raise plants from sexual and asexual methods for own use and for sale. A nursery is a place that can fulfil some of these needs. The gardener needs to fulfil the rest. Propagation is the planting and caring of plants. food and water. so that the plants grown are relevant and useful to the gardener and the other farmers around. This also means that factors such as soil type. The most suitable place for plants to be propagated is in the nursery where there is a safe sheltered space for young plants to grow. Seedlings need shelter and protection. water availability and peoples' needs should be taken into account. time. It will take you through various processes in plant propagation. Establishing a nursery A nursery should be established by considering the potential market.

• The strongest plants can be selected and the weakest can be removed and composted. This system has good drainage and avoids many pests from ground level. For large quantities of soil. • In the nursery. which is difficult to do in the field. A mulch of small thorny branches will ward off some pests such as snails. Some plants prefer heavier shade than others and some plants need different degrees of shade during different stages of their development. • The soil in a seedling bed should be free of anything that may hinder growth. • Watering is controlled in the nursery. Place soil in a drum with holes. For a bed on a raised wooden table. The tyres are best placed on plastic to prevent the seedling roots from growing into the ground. over a fire. it is very important to make sure that the tyre is either covered. • Trees and cuttings prefer to be in their own individual containers. hard clods of clay. Thorny branches can be used to keep small animals such as rodents away from the seedlings. aerated. The mulch will protect the soil surface from rain splash and from crusting over. Several types of containers can be used. The value of a nursery • When seedlings are raised in rich soil and carefully tended. in wooden boxes or car tyres as special beds. especially where it is exposed. • Hygiene in the nursery is important to prevent disease and weeds. etc. Long veld grass or palm fronds can be laid in varying thickness. with easy access. A tree can provide suitable shade. A tree can provide a suitable area for a nursery. it is very important to make sure that there is adequate drainage. • A nursery needs different degrees of shade. Strong smelling herbs can be planted around the nursery to ward off pests.107 Guidelines on establishing a nursery A nursery does not necessarily need to be a large expensive structure. • Young plants need close and careful attention. sieve the soil and mix it with straw. such as stones. The plant's roots can now be protected in their own ball of soil. If there is a disease problem in the soil. or you can easily build an inexpensive shade house from a framework of poles and a grass roof. When using car tyres. as if exposed to direct sunlight. they will be stronger throughout their life cycle. the first sign of pests or disease attack can be dealt with more easily. you can steam the soil. • It is important to protect the nursery from animals and children. it may be necessary to sterilize the soil. sticks. When preparing a container. even if they are transplanted into less fertile soil. Make a layer of soil mix about 15 to 20cm thick on top of the soil and straw mix. Nursery soil should have a good mix equal proportions of river sand. • The nursery must be established near a water source. It is wise to transplant the young plants into individual containers. Seedlings do not take up much space therefore the plot needed is relatively small. select the hardier plants. • Prepared soil can be put between small stone walls. . painted with a light colour or in the shade. and it will keep the weeds at bay. so the seedlings are never stressed with too much or too little water. The ground should be level to prevent runoff. the tyre will get very hot and cook the soil. Cover the ground with mulch. A germination bed should have loosely tilled. Water twice a day. fertile soil for at least 10 to 15cm. It is important that the soil has good drainage. The easiest way to sterilize the soil is to pour boiling water over the soil to a depth of no more than 50cm. from plastic bags to tins and clay pots. as long as the seedlings are provided with all their basic needs. Once the seedlings in the seedling bed are well developed. clay and decayed organic matter.

reliable and effective . seed-beds • Seed treatment • Sowing the seeds customers. and giving • Plant cuttings. tools. • Preparing the growing medium. keep and file records Be able to communicate well with customers Be responsible. mulch. • • Using compost when necessary equipment. How to plan and establish a nursery • Plan where to put everything you need to start a nursery • Choose a suitable site • Terrace and protect the site • Protect it from strong winds • Establish it near your water source • Collect containers for planting seedlings • Collect your soil and materials from a growing medium • Make compost • Collect or buy your seeds • Plant and look after the seeds and seedlings Nursery Management Day to day running of a nursery involves the following: • Obtaining necessary materials (soil. serving Keeping records. and research. New seedlings can be sown in the nursery before the harvest of plants in the field. water. • • • • Qualities of a good nursery manager • • • • • • • • • • Understand people and their needs Build up confidence Know how to plan and make decisions Be able to follow up and act on a decision made without delay Be a good learner and listener Be a good teacher and be open to suggestions Be a good salesperson Be able to organize. advertising. and Caring for tools and equipment.108 • Nursery production can save time during the growing season. • Transplanting. experimenting. watering away plants • Caring for seedlings and removing weeds. selling. and seeds Keeping a nursery clean Controlling pests and diseases and nursery beds and potting bags Making compost Marketing. Dispatching plants. compost.

Pollen is carried from the stigma to the anther by wind or insects. Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction takes place through pollination. business and people • Be able to network with different organizations Ways of propagating plants There are two main ways by which plants can be propagated. like animals. have reproductive organs. Sexual reproduction occurs when germination is from a seed and asexual reproduction takes place when a plant grows from a vegetative part such as the stem or the root. The pistil. Examples of sexually reproduced plants include tomatoes. and the female organ is called the pistil. millet and soya beans. sugarcane and figs reproduce asexually. potatoes. which are found in the flower. This is where the ovules (or eggs) are lodged. One is called sexual reproduction while the other is called asexual reproduction. maize. Plants such as garlic. it grows down to style to the ovary. The male organ is called the stamen. the style and the ovary. which is why we call them pollinators. on the other hand. .109 • Have a positive attitude towards the environment. When pollen is deposited on the stigma. such as grains and grasses. similar to sperm in animals. which is then fertilised. Whereas wind pollinated plants. Plants. These anthers produce tiny pollen grains. Plants that rely on insects for pollination tend to produce brightly coloured and/or scented flowers to attract their insect of choice. consists of the stigma. These are the male reproduction cells. with feathery stigma to collect the pollen carried by the wind. tend to produce anthers which hang from the flower. The stamen consists of the filaments and anthers.

The female can be identified by a bulb at the base of the flower which males do not have. like pumpkin and maize. As the above illustration shows. which is the young plant inside the seed. ensuring that the pollen is transferred to the female. most plants have the male and female organs in the same flower. Pollination of maize is more easily achieved by planting in blocks to ensure that the pollen is transferred by the wind from one part of the plant to the other. oyster nut and kiwi fruit have the male and female parts on completely seperate plants.110 After fertilisation. A few plants. How to obtain . but on the same plant. while the male trees are need to provide the pollen. only the female plants produce fruit. All seeds have an embryo. In other words. sometimes you will need to pollinate by hand. such as paw-paw. Some plants however. and the ovules develop in to seeds. contain both male and female flowers separately. If there are not enough pollinators in your garden. the ovary changes in shape to form the fruit.

as they may be stressed as a result of genetic weaknesses. However. and the resulting harvest. Harvesting & Processing Seed Seeds are ripe when they no longer increase in size. Do not select from these plants. When a plant is stressed. and it begins to produce flowers. and date of harvest. The quality of the seed will have a great impact on the quality of the plant it produces. Once you have selected your plant. as these only have a limited shelf-life. Good seeds are therefore: • • • • • Clean Free of pests and diseases Well developed Viable (will germinate) From healthy. Always label your seed bags with the name of the species. . so may not be a good choice. then as soon as pollination has occurred and seed begins to form. If buying seed to propagate for the future. Great care must be taken when growing plants for their seed. productive parent plants Selecting the right seed In order to select excellent quality seed. few of them will be viable and most will not germinate. It is important to harvest seed when plants are dry.111 seeds There are 4 ways to get seed. or collect them from the wild or from bought fruit. if you wait too long. it sets seed by 'bolting'. the fruit may split and drop onto the ground where it will be eaten by insects and birds. If it has been raining. identify a strong. If you buy hybrid seed then these will not produce well during the following season. If seeds are harvested before they are fully formed. or use them for yourself. Store your dried seeds in a paper bag (not plastic as this will make them sweat and grow mould). cover the seed head with a paper. so will need to be purchased each year. preferably in a cool. Seed needs to be kept dry and cool at all times. healthy plant and leave it to go to seed. This is a mechanism which triggers reproduction when the plant thinks that it is dying. then look for open pollinated seed varieties (OPVs). then wait. You can buy them. grow plants for their seed. whether you plan to sell them. if you want to produce a pure cultivar from that plant. Check the date on the packets. dark place. So check your seed plants often.

You can then shake the bag to release the seeds. you may need a permit. To separate the pulp from the seed. Cut open the fruit. Never collect seed from plants which are invasive. mango. peach. pumpkin. brassicas. and will therefore compete with your other plants for water. Other. Those that float are not viable (will not germinate) and can be discarded. Once your seeds are collected. Place them on paper in a shady place to dry. or husks. Testing for viable seed This can be achieved simply. Storing seed Different seeds will only stored for different lengths of time. To achieve this. Tie a paper bag over the head of the fruit. millet. you will need to clean them to remove any dirt. The next morning. In the same way. See the tables below for guidance. and you are therefore responsible for their conservation. Drain them. These can be harvested directly from your chosen. Check before you plan to collect. paw-paw. The wind should carry the lighter materials away. damp sand in a sealed container (jam jar) and stored in a cool place.pouring your seed from one container to another. Collect seed from healthy plants. healthy plants. But you will be competing with the birds. Harvesting from fruits: These include tomatoes. Remove seed by hand. Select plants which have adapted to the conditions in which you want to cultivate. and affect others. so may need to place a paper bag over the seed head. okra and many flower varieties you will need to avoid the loss of seed. and rinse them again in fresh water. or remove them altogether once the seed is set. place in a container of water and leave them to soak overnight.112 Plants that drop their seeds: For collection of seed such as legumes (peas and beans) onion. select from plants growing in similar soil to your own. peppers. gently rub the seed between your fingers to remove any remaining pulp. Some plants need lots of water. apple. Collection from the wild: If collecting from the wild. Short-lived seed can be stored in clean. cucumber. This way you know that the plant will flourish in your garden. rice and wheat. Harvest from your chosen plant when the fruits are plump and fully ripened. harvest just before their fruits have completely dried. and scoop out the seed. but will soon take over your garden. as some species are endangered. soil. and thresh to remove any waste (as above). sorghum. by adding hard coated seed to water. Hand upside down to up to 3 weeks to allow to dry completely. and cut off at the stem. You can do this by using a screen or threshing basket . Plants that do not drop their seeds: This generally relates to grains such as maize. . longer-lived seed should be stored in clearly marked and sealed paper bags. leaving you with clean seed. They may look pretty.

Soak: Many seeds will germinate quickly after they have been soaked. Plants raised on a seedbed or in nurseries must not be kept there too long. Create a suitable micro-climate: Seeds basically need moisture. Transplanting Here we are going to discuss the removal of plants from the seedbed or nursery to a permanent place. for example beans. their roots are exposed. Wrap a wet cloth or newspaper around the roots if planting is delayed. warmth and darkness to germinate.113 Techniques for improving seed germination Scarify: Some seeds have a very hard outer coating that protects the seed and prevents it from germinating unless the conditions are suitable. The plant is at a very vulnerable stage in its life when it first begins to grow. The stem should be strong. as it may be too cold. When seedlings are transplanted from a bed.The time to transplant seedlings is when they have 2 to 6 true leaves and several well-developed roots. Transplanting is always done at the end of the day when it is cool and moist. Some seed will swell quicker than others. Leave them to soak for about 24 hours. We can scarify (scar or damage) the hard outer coating to weaken it and allow water to penetrate and trigger germination. as most of the soil is removed. Pour hot water (not boiling but hotter than lukewarm) over the seeds so that they are well covered. First soak the seed in hot water for 24 hours. or until they have swelled. Take care to damage only the outer layer of the seed. Using a hand shovel will help to crumble the soil and lift the plant out without damaging the roots. Once the seed is planted it is essential that the soil is kept moist constantly. it may be necessary to water them twice a day. and then scarify the outer layer by simply chipping the surface with a blade or rubbing it with sandpaper. On a hot day. It is thus very important that the tiny little root feeling its way into the soil has the right conditions. . Now they are ready to be planted. sturdy and erect. It is very important that you do not damage the inside part which germinates. Once the seedling has been removed from the bed. The depth of the hole should be larger than the length of the roots. and must be positioned carefully. Seedlings transplanted from a bed . They should not be sown too early in spring in open ground. The plant has time to recover during the cool night hours. it must be replanted immediately and not left exposed so that the roots dry out. The seedlings should be transplanted in well-loosened soil so that they can easily spread their roots.

Plants that have grown in small containers have a root ball protecting their roots with soil.Trees should be planted early in the rainy season. The collar is easily positioned level with the ground. bush and climbing beans. onion. leek. lettuce. The bag or pot must be carefully removed from around the roots so that they can easily grow. sunlight and rain) December: Amaranth. leek. lettuce. carrot. The plant is placed in loose. parsley. moist and fertile soil. it is very important that you do not remove the plant out of the soil by pulling it by its stem. cauliflower. Seed sowing guide for vegetables in Southern Africa Summer (Protect seedlings from pests. carrot.114 • Seedlings planted from bags or pots . kale. bush bean. Swiss chard and turnip. • Transplanting trees . radish. beetroot. carrot. . marog. kohlrabi. Depending on the type of tree. kohlrabi. they may need to be watered during dry periods. radish. February: Beetroot. Therefore transplanting is not as risky. broccoli. When transplanting. These transplants need less shade but should be pressed firmly into the ground and mulched and watered straight after planting. Swiss chard and turnip. broccoli. beetroot. kale. cabbage. January: Amaranth. cucumber and radish. cabbage. cauliflower. this could damage the roots and the stem. broccoli. cauliflower. cabbage.

kohlrabi. Chinese cabbage and sugar snap peas. which are grown from seeds. may take many years to produce fruit. cabbage. Winter (Protect baby plants from frost) June: Cabbage. parsley. parts of stems or roots and grafting. in the same way as a child is not exactly the same as either of its parents. We will now look at three important vegetative methods: stem cutting. Western Cape and Gauteng. carrot. cabbage. be aware of frost in September) September: Amaranth. Eastern Cape. . October: Amaranth. kohlrabi. chillies. ensuring that its qualities and properties are exactly the same. November: Amaranth .115 Autumn (Protect seedlings from pests and early frost) March: Broad beans. carrot. parsley. • Plants grown by vegetative methods usually grow faster than plants that are grown from seeds. Chinese cabbage. cabbage. Advantages of vegetative propagation There are four main advantages of using vegetative methods to grow plants: • Plants that grow from seeds are not exactly the same as the plant that produced the seeds. eggplant. cabbage. This is sometimes known as the vegetative propagation. • Fruit trees and vines. garlic. July: Cabbage. radish and New Zealand spinach. CM kale. lettuce. sugar snap peas. green pepper and sugar snap peas. radish and New Zealand spinach. radish. beetroot. or to to take part one plant and join it with another. sugar snap peas and turnip. chillies. Spring (Best time for planting a variety of plants in Free State. cucumber. lettuce. chillies. green pepper. pepper. • Some plants such as pineapples and bananas do not produce seeds at all. May: Broad beans. August: Bush beans. radish and New Zealand spinach. Swiss chard and turnip. Chinese cabbage. cabbage. carrot. leek. leek. pepper. April: Broad beans. chillies. urinal. parsley. lettuce. beetroot. Swiss chard and tomato. The only way to grow these plants is by vegetative methods. Chinese cabbage and sugar snap peas. onion. But fruit trees grown by vegetative methods bear fruit in the first year that they are planted. Asexual reproduction So far we have looked at the ways to grow plants from seeds. Another way to grow plants is either to a take cutting from a plants new growth. carrot. This method allows you to duplicate your chosen plant. bush beans.

onion.Stem cuttings are pieces of stems from which new plants grow. In this unit you will learn about these different types of stems and roots and you will see how you can use them to grow new plants.116 Plant parts used for asexual reproduction • Stem cutting . they plant onion bulbs. lily. choose a healthy and productive plant. How to take cuttings . garlic. stem cuttings develop roots and new shoots of leaves. • Bulbs . • Parts of stems or roots . To grow new plants from bulbs. A healthy plant should be selected. When they are planted into the soil. Separate or split the bulb.Some plants have special types of stems or roots from which new plants grow. iris. A cutting taken from an unhealthy plant will result in an unhealthy offspring. dark and dry place and replant them before the beginning of the next growing season. as the plant propagated from a cutting. To produce onion seeds. Examples of bulbs are plants such as African potatoes. dig up the plants when they have died down at the end of the growing season. The leaves die at the end of the growing season and the bulb remains in the soil until the next growing season. results in an identical offspring and preserves the same qualities. Depending with the plant species.Bulbs grow leaves and then produce flowers during the growing season. Farmers grow onion from seeds. cuttings will generally take 3 to 9 months to develop sufficient roots before they can be transplanted. Growing plants from cuttings Taking cuttings are a fast and effective method for propagating perennial plants. Do not take cuttings from plants that have pests or diseases. or store them in a cool. When you take cuttings. Bulbs also produce new bulbs around or inside the older bulb. chives and shallots.

Step 2: Cut the top pieces of the stems off. onion and many flowering plants. They can be stored in a pit and buried in dry sand to protect them from rats and other pests. Buds form at nodes. Roots will grow from the part of the cuttings that are in the soil. Step 5: Prepare a place to plant the cuttings. Step 3: Cut the top ends of the stem at an angle to make them look different from the bottom ends. Step 6: Place the cuttings into the soil so that two nodes are above the soil and two nodes are in the soil. dig up and separate for replanting. once the plants have died back. Cut off all flowers from the cutting. When growing potato ‘seed’ stock. so that you are left with pieces that have at least four nodes. This will help later to know which end of the stem goes into the soil. razor blade or secateurs to cut off stem as thick as a pencil. Keep the soil wet until the shoots are growing well. The buds above the soil will grow into new stems. then they will not grow. It is best to plant the cuttings in containers in the shade until the plants are growing strongly. A node is a join in the stem. such as garlic. Rooting plants and bulbs Some plants can be propagated from pieces of root. Then cut off some of the top leaves to stop the cutting from losing too much water. . Choose stems that have buds. choose the best potatoes. Potatoes are grown from small baby tubers. This is important. Step 4: Cut off the bottom two leaves.117 Step 1: Use a sharp knife. Onions can be grown from seed (in April) but can also be bought in 'sets' which are small onions grown from seed in free draining soil. For garlic. for example comfrey. because if you plant the cuttings upside down. which are then planted directly in the ground. The new shoots will grow from these buds. Bulbs are small underground stem covered in fleshy leaves.

and plant it separately. Ground layering for perennial plants (below): Make small incisions in the growth nodes about 20cm from the growth tips. Once these shoots are established you can separate them from each other and the mother plant with a sharp knife and gently remove each plant from the ground taking care not to let the soil drop away from the roots. You can then cut the stem away from the plant. Peg it down with a wire or wooden peg. Layering for vegetables and other soft stemmed plants (right): The simplest method of layering used for vegetables like tomato and cucumber is to bend the stem of a plant to encourage roots to form on the stem (right) while it is still attached to the plant. and bend the plant slowly over until it is lying on the ground. and transplant them. .118 Layering This can be done in 3 different ways. Water the ground well before removing the new plants from the ground. Over time roots will form where the nodes touch the ground and new shoots will grow up into the light.

119 Air layering for fruit trees: This is a method used to encourage root growth on woody stems by tying rooting material or growth hormone around the stem. Place in a cool dry position until it is more established. it is best to air layer in damp weather. then squirt some water under the plastic. and then tying it with plastic to retain the moisture in order to encourage root growth. If it looks as though it's drying out. and transplant into a container. Keep it well watered. Use clear plastic so that you can check on its progress. Once roots have formed. For this reason. . you can remove the stem from the parent plant in winter when growth slows. checking regularly.

Plums and nectarines grow well on peach. Do not place the scion upside down. or another rootstock. but is safest during winter.120 Grafting Grafting is about joining two pieces of living parts of the plants (branch. Some trees suffer from problems because their root stock is weak. when the trees energy in concentrated below ground. This will reduce the risk of 'bleeding'. and you can graft naartjies onto an orange tree's rootstock. This gives you variety in a small garden. it is sometimes desirable to join one tree with a stronger root stock. stem. There are many grafting techniques. The best time to graft depends on the method. etc) from the same family to form a good variety of plant. It is best to graft on a cool cloudy day. You must care for the graft until the rootstock and the scion are properly joined. For this reason. The cambium layers of both must touch. where growing many different species of trees is not possible. . so we will cover two of the simplest here. For example you can take a scion or top branch of a peach tree and join it with the same. This is the layer of actively dividing cells between the woody part of the stem and the bark. Rootstock and scion must come from plants that can be grafted together.

121 Whip or tongue grafting This is used for thin stems . . and the root stock and the stem must be the same thickness. Make clean cuts as these will stand a better chance of taking.no wider than your thumb. The scion should have three buds. and the with the grafting point cut below the third bud.

Cut a clean graft point below the third bud. the scion must be the same thickness as the root stock.122 Cleft grafting This is the method used for grafting mango and avocado trees. . Caring for grafted plants • The first five days after grafting is critical. or as thick as your finger. and have three buds. Again. • Check all grafts and re-wax them if there are sign of cracking. compost of fertiliser during the first year as the graft needs to take before the tree grows rapidly. • Cut off any shoots that appear from the root stock (below the graft point) as these will compete with your scions. • Water regularly but do not feed with manure. Root stock needs to be six to eight months old.

You also learned about how to take care of the seedlings and how to transplant them effectively. Reflection points • What are the advantages of sexual reproduction? • Why is grafting important? • What can you do to ensure that your seed stock keeps improving? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of buying seed from seed companies? • What should you do to ensure that you have a productive nursery? . and how to graft fruit trees.123 Conclusion In this module we have discussed methods of plant propagation using seed as well as from the vegetative parts of plants. You learned about when to propagate certain plants in South Africa. given the climate.


Unit 12: Pests – Getting rid of unwelcome guests in your garden
At the end of this Unit the reader should:
• • • • • • •

Understand pests, disease and weed management Understand and design natural habitat for pest predators Understand and apply inter-planting Understand natural sprays for specific pests, make and use them Understand supportive strategies Know plants and their helpful insects Be able to control pests, diseases and weeds in the garden

Pest, disease and weed management is an important part of Permaculture. There is nothing worse than seeing a crop destroyed, so it is important to plan ahead; to know what is likely to consume which part of your crop and have protective strategies. We examine the whole array of garden enemies in the broader environment, so that the actions we take to eliminate them don't have harmful consequences, like polluted water and dead bees. We look at ways in which to protect our harvest as well as the environment. Pest and disease control in Permaculture is an integrated holistic approach that creates health and vigour in a garden of diversity. If all the correct steps have been taken to source seeds, clear land, prepare soil and plant them; and in selecting plant and animal species carefully and in a system; combined with cultivation and management strategies that are in tune with the biological rhythms of the gardens, then effective pest control and disease resistance can be achieved.

What are pests?
These are insects and animals that affect the crop production systems. They are those animals and insects that are at the wrong place at the right time. Insect pests develop from eggs to larva to pupa and then to adult. For a gardener, the larval stage is the most dangerous of the pest's life-cycle. The following chain will help you to set strategies for managing pests and diseases: Seed – land preparation – inputs – production – harvesting – handling – consumption Where do you need to focus attention on pest and disease management along this chain? What factors can increase pests and diseases in the garden and how can you manage them?


The following points need special attention when managing pest and diseases:
• Source of water: Untreated grey and black water can cause diseases in plants • Quality management: Poor management of the garden can cause pest and diseases to multiply in the garden • Buffer zones: Fields without buffer zones can allow the inflow of unwanted pollution and pest in the garden • Hygiene: Lack of good hygiene in the garden allows pest to multiply and some elements can pollute vegetables. Home made pesticides, pest control methods (Too much of something is dangerous; proper measurements are encouraged, record and research on methods you are practicing) • Soil management: Poor soil results in poor plants, and unhealthy plants are easily attacked by pests and diseases • Type of compost: Poorly made compost is not good for the plants, and can spread diseases.

Prevention is better than cure. The better you prepare, the more you harvest.

Relationship between pests, plants and animals
Healthy soils lead to healthy plants and animals which lead to healthy people. If plants are attacked by pests and succumb to disease, it is a symptom of disharmony somewhere in the ecological processes of the garden. Pests and diseases are nature’s dustmen and street sweepers; they come to remove weak and uncompetitive plants. What you see as destruction is natural selection at work, because in nature, space and energy want to go towards the healthy plants. We need to realise that a pest is an organism in the animal kingdom that is doing what it is was born to do: Eat what looks as if it's dying. These organisms are actually on a mission to restore an out-of-balance system. We really need to fix the problem, not the symptom, and encourage a biological system of control that maintains a balance in the garden. We can sit back and watch pests build up in the garden to encourage the immigration of predator species, or create spaces to attract them, so that further cultivating occurs in a more balanced environment. This can be likened to strengthening the immune system of the garden. But occasional epidemics occur and it is wise to treat them manually or through spraying herbal preparations. As the gardens evolve, these pests should become more scarce, especially if you are using good quality organic seed and genetic stock, that is appropriate to the environment.

Basics of pest control in Permaculture
Permaculture pest control systems: Chickens, ducks, companion planting and trap plants; creating habitats like wetlands and logs for pest predators; practicing non tillage and encouraging birds - these are the main strategies to prevent pest infestations. Avoid serious disease epidemics through companion planting, maintaining healthy soils, following the calendar and practicing good garden hygiene. Learning from observing, collecting and identifying fauna in your garden It is a good idea to collect the different species of insects you see in your garden, to stick them in a book and write down where and when you found them and on what plant. This will familiarise you with the insects that live in your garden and once you have identified them you will know whether they are predators, pollinators or pests. You have to devise a strategy to deal with pests and encourage the pollinators. Diseases also have to be identified and for this you


need one of the many organic gardening books listed in the appendix. Record the time and place of the infection. This process can alert you to gaps in your pest control system, tell you about your soil conditions and the quality of your genetic stock.

Pest and disease control
Control of caterpillar and larval infestations
Cut 1kg of fresh nettles. They can be in flower, but should not yet have formed seeds. Place the nettles in a wooden, clay or enamel vessel and pour 10 litres cold or lukewarm water on them. Leave this standing for 24 hours and then pour through a sieve. This extract helps against larval and caterpillar infestation and should be applied three times within several hours. It is sprayed finely over plants.

Control of fungal attacks
Reasons for fungal attacks relate to the use of improperly decomposed manure on the beds and the planting of seeds from poor quality parent plants, which grow the following year and are then susceptible to fungal attack. Add 10g of dried Casuarina leaves to 2 litres cold water. Heat and boil for 20 minutes. Let the tea cool. Now add a further 8 litres of water and stir well for 10 minutes. Strain the tea and spray in the evening (10 litres to 100 square meters), either under affected plants or as a preventive treatment. If trees show fungal growth, the trunks and thicker branches must also be sprayed. In cases of severe and prolonged attack, this treatment can be repeated on three consecutive evenings.

Control of slugs
Slugs breed in gardens that have a lot of water and when manure, that hasn't yet decomposed, is thrown on the gardens. Logs can be strewn around the garden to attract slugs and snails, so in the morning you can lift up the logs and collect them to feed the chickens. Encourage chickens and small ducks to live in the garden. Tobacco dust also kills snails.

Control of weeds
Liquid manure made from weeds, can be used to rid the garden of the same weeds. Often it is good to make the liquid manure from weeds that cannot go onto the compost heap. These are the runners, grasses and weeds with fleshy bulbs, that, if they invade your compost heap, will spread all over your garden. Collect all the weeds, take the roots and shoots - the entire plant if it is chickweed - and place them in a 210-litre barrel of water. Stir the contents around a little every day. Once the plants have completely decomposed in 2 to 3 weeks, the liquid is sieved and sprayed on the garden. Wherever these weeds grow, spray on three consecutive evenings, and this can cause them to disappear entirely.

Various sprays can be made from simple substances like garlic, onions, khakibos, tansy and soap. Intercropping with herbs like rosemary, lavender, and mint will also help to keep non-beneficial insects at bay. It is good to create a conducive environment in the garden to allow predator insects like ladybirds and wasps to control insect pests. Lizards and frogs are also useful for insect control. Birds and bats eat many insects and other pests.

although some crops within the companion system will benefit from being moved the following season. to prevent the build-up of pathogens (fungus) in the soil. How certain pests feed on crops: Sign of damage Chewed leaves Stem eaten away near ground Leaves distorted many small green.127 Inter-cropping as a strategy to control weeds and disease Inter-cropping means planting two or more different kinds of plants together in the same area. Leave areas of wild plants like fever plant. This will invite the many natural enemies of pests to move in from wild areas and protect your crop. such a root vegetables. slages and snails Aphids Red spider mites. that is. locust and grasshoppers Cutworm. Build healthy soils and retain wild plants Healthy plants grow in healthy soil. Disease is less likely to spread in healthy soil. If there is a big area of one kind of plant. sucking organisms Powdery mildew Rust fungus Bacterial wilt Bacterial wilt Nematodes . the pests are likely to thrive because diseases and pests can then spread so easily from one plant to another. intercropping. Identifying Problems & Pests The pests that have been selected for discussion are those which tend to be common in South Africa as well as those that have a big negative effect on production. black insects on sample Leaves with discolouration or damaged by small organisms Leaves coated a light powder Rusty red spots on leaves Blackened veins or vascular bundles Small wilted collapsed plant. Through growing different plants in the same field. you make it difficult for diseases and pests to spread. which is well fed and well watered. khaki bush. wet soil Roots nodes Pest Caterpillar. The alternative is to rotate crops. pig weed and wormwood between the different crops as this also helps to control pests and diseases.

aphids Aphids Caterpillars White flies Slugs and snails Cut worms Aphids and white flies.128 Predator (Useful Insect) Spider Lady birds Lizards Chameleon Mole snakes Frogs Wasps Praying Mantis Food they like Red spider mites. Praying Mantis Aphids and white flies Attracting helpful insects into the garden Plants Amaranth Anise Asters Chamomile Cher Chrysanthemum Coreopsis Clover Helpful Insects Ground beetle Wasp Spider Hoverfly and Wasp Hoverfly. Wasp and others Predatory thrips Syrphid fly Ground beetle and woolly apple aphid parasite Wasp Attracts wasps and bees Hoverfly and wasp Hoverfly. praying mantis and other predators Dandelion Daisy Fennel Goldenrod .

129 Hawthorne Hyssop Ivy Marigold Milkweed Mints Mustard Ragweed Diamondback moth parasite Hiverfly. however permaculture does not …… encourage planting of gum trees – so use whats available Eboza Elderberry Eucalyptus / gum tree . cucumber beetle. wasp and others Hoverfly and wasp Hoverfly Several parasites Hoverfly. including whitefly Good as a small hedge plant or live fence. carrot fly. Aphids. It repels most flies. peach tree. borer and root maggot Great for seed storage. wasp and others Various parasites Parasites of Oriental fruit moth and strawberry leaf roller Wasp Soybean Plants Stinging nettle Strawberry Sunflower Tansy Yarrow Helpful Insects Many Parasites of oriental fruit moth Lacewing and wasp Ladybug Ladybug and wasp Plants to use for repelling specific pests Plants for Spray African wormwood Animals Repelled Plant as screen in garden as windbreak for vegetables. Repels bagrada bug which eats vegetables.

white flies and cabbage moth. ………. Plant with cabbages and maize to repel cabbage moth. so it is good to plant at the edge …. onions. sage. aphids.thin the weeds for green manuring or mulching. Plant mint with cabbages. Plant in all corners of the garden …to keep bean beetles. and a wide variety of other pests away. good for preventing soil erosion. Good for returning nutrients to the soil. Plant with tomatoes as it improves their flavour and repels white flies and red spider mites. Plant on the borders of the beds. Fever plant Garlic Horseradish Horsetail Marigolds Plants for Spray Marjoram Mint Animals Repelled Improves flavour of the crops. Plant it with potatoes. Repels asparagus beetle. Plant at corners of potato beds for repelling potato bugs. of the garden. beans. carrots. plant it with onions or create border for a variety of vegetable beds. corn. nematodes. cabbages to improve growth of the plants. The smell of the plant repels a wide variety of pests in the garden General. and sweet potatoes. repels potato beetle. vegetables and other herbs. ants. …………carrots to repel cabbage flies. raspberries. Repels black spot.130 Fennel Most plants dislike fennel.. bean beetles and carrot flies. … Good for fruit tree. spray the fruit trees just after flowering before fruiting Slugs Excellent pest repellent. It attracts predatory wasps in the garden. Nasturtium Parsley Pepper (hot) Pig weed (theepe) Rhubarb Rosemary . plant near roses. pig weed. tomatoes. Grow rosemary with cabbages. Plant as a live fence or windbreak. tomatoes. Plant on the borders of vegetable beds to repel most flying pests. mosquitoes.

and coriander.131 Rue Planted as a screen it repels flies. Sage Southern worm Thyme Tomato Wormwood Yarrow Conclusion In this module you have learnt that there are many inexpensive and environmentally friendly ways of preventing diseases and pests in gardens. • What is a weed and why should weeds be removed? What do you see as the disadvantages of using inorganic chemicals to control pests and weeds? . bean beetles and carrot flies. rosemary. mosquitoes and other insects Grow sage with cabbages. …………carrots to repel cabbage flies. Cabbage worm Repels cabbage worm. paths and near aromatic herbs. Repels flea beetle and plant it as a border plant. crop rotation and balanced garden systems. You have also learnt how to treat them should they arrive uninvited. tomatoes. plant with nastursium. beans. Reflection points • What are the main pests in your garden • What kind of solutions have you learnt about to deal with the pests in your garden? • Examine the different plants growing in your garden for diseases. • Look for 10 plants that repel or kill pests. Plant along borders. Plant it on the borders of the cabbage beds. Attracts predatory wasps. by using your own concoctions and sprays and practising inter-cropping. Asparagus beetle.

Pick twice a week.132 Unit 13: Harvesting LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader should have learned about: • Proper times for harvesting • Effective methods of harvesting Introduction It is important for you to know how to harvest in a timely and appropriate manner in order to avoid loss of garden produce. This module also explains how to harvest selected and commonly grown garden crops. • Beans: Pick beans seven to ten weeks after planting before they become hard and leathery. The more you pick the more beans your plants will produce. Harvest the whole plant or cut the leaves down to 15cm to allow the plant to regrow. For a good harvest. proper techniques have to be implemented and this module will help you understand how to harvest different crops. . Harvesting of specific crops The following information is a step-by-step process for harvesting individual crops. • Amaranth: Leaves can be harvested from 30 to 50 days after sowing.

Continue to pull as required. The peas of many modern varieties. The loose-leaved varieties are usually picked leaf by leaf. For a similar reason do not cut off the leaves. Leaves are 15cm and 20cm high. Keep picking the peas as they mature. smashed up and used for compost making. Mangetout (snow) peas and similar types should be picked before the pods get tough. and this can be a problem for the garden. causing the beetroot to lose a lot of its colour. • Kale: Harvest from the top of the plant at the growing point between 60 to 80 days from transplanting. Do not let them get soft. • Carrots: Harvesting begins at a very early stage as part of the thinning-out process. The plants continue to produce fruit over a long period. This will be about 7 weeks after sowing. Hold the plant by one hand while twisting or breaking off a cob. • Cabbage: Pick 10 to 12 weeks after planting when the heads are firm (20 to 30cm across) and before they start to split open. leaving about 5cm on the beet. The roots should be dug up. • Cauliflower: Pick 10 to 12 weeks after planting when the heads are firm and measure 10 to 15cm. and leaves can be picked as soon as they are large enough. • Broccoli: Pick eight to 10 weeks after planting when the heads are firm and before the little yellow flowers appear. which have been created for agricultural needs. Pick peas 10 to 12 weeks after planting when the pea pods are hard and dark green. approximately 7 weeks after sowing. when the skin is shiny and the flesh slightly soft when pressed. It is therefore best to pick the fruit while they are still slightly immature. because they may bolt. Beetroot leaves can be eaten like spinach. Loose leaved varieties mature earlier. or those in heavy soils. but longer ones and those that have been growing in heavier soils will need digging out with a fork. • Lettuce: Lettuces can be harvested whole or leaves can be taken from the plants as required. Break the outer cauliflower head to protect it from the sun. Shorter varieties can be pulled. • Peas: Pick the pods as soon as the peas have swollen and are large enough to eat. twist them off. instead. because this will “bleed”.133 • Beetroot: Pull the young beetroot (beets) from the ground while they are still quite small. Pick 12 weeks after planting when they are firm and shiny. do not break the thin root attached to the bottom of the globe. which is usually from about 7 weeks after sowing. The pepper should be 8cm to 12cm long. • Maize: Pick 10 to 12 weeks after planting when the cobs are full and the hairs on the end are brown and dry. from the ground. Pull them out and dry them in the shade. Remove these side shoots for eating when they are 10cm to 15cm long. If possible. You may need to use a fork to help ease later crops. Early carrots can be dug up from late spring onwards. • Green peppers: Pick 10 to 12 weeks after planting when they are firm. Pull the whole lettuce from the ground or cut below the bottom leaves if you want the plant to resprout. although they are so small they take time to clean. . Main crop carrots take a bit longer and are ready from 10 weeks onwards. Cabbage-type varieties can be picked in the same way. Do not leave them in the ground for too long after maturing. mature at the same time. • Onions: These vegetables take up to 5 months to be ready. This will stop the heads from turning brown. Wait until the leaves are dry and brown. Cabbages are harvested by cutting with a sharp knife just below the lowest leaves. • Eggplant: The skin of eggplant (also called brinjal and aubergine) becomes tough as they mature and the flesh becomes fibrous. Do not wait until they are hard and leathery pick twice a week. You should leave behind any old or yellowing leaves. Those that form a head should be picked as soon as they feel plump and firm.

Break or cut the stems. The plants should be pulled out or cut and heaped in rows to dry. Harvest when the skin is beginning to harden and before the seeds are ripe. The plants are then threshed. Be careful not to break the branches. remove any damaged or diseased ones. Dig them out with a fork. • Turnips: Pick seven to nine weeks after planting when the roots are 5cm across or bigger. • Pumpkin: Mature fruit can be harvested from 3 to 4 months after sowing. but avoid pulling because this may loosen the plant and precipitate bolting. When harvesting winter spinach. • Shallots: When the foliage shrivels in midsummer. The fully ripe fruit are usually red but some varieties produce yellow fruit. Place them on staging in a greenhouse or on racks of wire netting to dry. • Tomatoes: Pick carefully eight to ten weeks after planting when they are almost red. but just take a few leaves to start with and until the plants are mature. do not over pick. • Soya beans: You can harvest the crop about 120 days after sowing. they can be eased out with a hand fork. If the soil is compacted. Some also wait until the stalk withers. Tap them and listen for a hollow sound. when no more goodness will be transferred to the fruit. that is when the central stem starts to elongate. which is usually 8 to12 weeks after sowing. Continue harvesting until the plants start to run to seed. Simply pull them the ground. • Spinach: Start harvesting as soon as the leaves are big enough. Turnip leaves can be eaten like spinach. Leave a short green stem on the tomatoes. • Potatoes: Pick three months after planting when the leaves and the stems are dry.134 • Peppers: The first fruits can be harvested 60 to 80 days after transplanting. ease the shallots from the soil with a fork. Cut fruit from the plant when they are as ripe as you want them. You can also use the fruit when they are still green. so that they stay fresh longer. Reflection points • What are the key considerations in deciding when to harvest? • What kind of problems could you face if you harvested a crop too early? • What sort of problems are you likely to face if you harvest after the appropriate time? . • Spring Onion: Spring onions (scallions) are ready for use at about eight weeks from sowing. Do not strip the plant. taking care not to damage the crop. Once the leaves have completely dried. Conclusion In this module you have learnt about the proper timings for harvesting and how to harvest at least 15 different types of plants that are commonly found in gardens and fields in South Africa. The plants continue to produce fruit over a long cropping period.

disease-resistant plants. This can result in farmers having to depend excessively on seed. The combination of decreasing soil structure and ever-reducing yields can get many farmers deeper and deeper into debt. healthiest plants for seed.135 Unit 14: Collecting & storing seed LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader should have learnt about: • How to select appropriate seed • Basic ways of saving seed • Reasons for seed saving by farmers and gardeners Introduction Seed is the reproductive part of a plant which is produced when the male and female parts of the flower meet during pollination. the fertilisers that they depend upon is. improve and multiply seed is negative. often adapted especially for the environment in which it is grown. Firstly. grows into a plant. damaging the body's immune system (increasing suceptibility to HIV infection. which produces plants that can be highly productive if accompanied by the necessary environmental conditions (rainfall/soil) alongside fertilizer and chemical support. it is the natural cycle of a plant: a seed germinates. if exposed to less than ideal conditions. GMOs and chemical inputs are discouraged in Permaculture. Another disadvantage is that they produce less in the second generation and are therefore not good to save and multiply. produces food. and the general condition and performance of the plant throughout its growing season. flowers and goes to seed. For these reasons. The result is that over-reliance on soluble fertilisers without adding organic matter can seriously deplete soil nutrients. The resulting impact on the ecology and on the independence of the farmer to choose. chemical and fertilizer companies. These have been found to reduce T-cell proliforation. without a guarantee that these inputs will increase yields. flavour. Saving our own seed gives us independence to cultivate plants without having to buy seed and rely on seed companies. and opportunistic infections for those already living with HIV/AIDS). Saving seed is important because it allows us to select strong. While the effect of GMOs on health is not well understood yet. the reality has been found to be somewhat different. . There is another kind of seed that can be produced by inserting genes from an unrelated family of plants or even animals. Seed saving techniques We want to choose our strongest. The disadvantages of hybrid seed is that they are unstable. which will then germinate and begin the cycle again. Hybrid seeds are a product of crossing two plant varieties. Do not save seed from unhealthy or poor producing plants. Look at size. The resultant seed and plant is called a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO). Although GMOs are meant to reduce the cost of pesticides and other chemicals. as the characteristics of the plant you choose for seed will be passed on to the next generation. resistance to pests and disease. Seed saving is a very important step towards creating and sustaining livelihoods. reaches maturity.

They should be stored in a warm dark and dry environment. . Be sure there is no moisture inside the containers and store in a cool dry place.136 Collection Collect seed on warm dry days. envelopes and paper bags. It will destroy the seed • Put the bag with seed back into the cool water and stir continuously • Put the seed onto a newspaper and place it in the shade to dry • Treat the dry seed with a low-toxicity fungicide like sulphur dust. So can dried khakibos and layers of eucalyptus leaves. before planting or storing Storage Seeds should be dried well before storing. Soft fruit seeds such as tomato can be rinsed before drying or spread out onto paper and then dried. Seed cleaning • Boil water in 2 tins or pots • Leave one tin of water to cool so that the water does not burn your hand or until it is at a temperature of between 52 and 54 degrees Celsius • Put the seed in a bag made of cloth • Put the bag with the seed in the tin with water that has cooled down • If the water becomes too cold remove the bag and add boiling water from the other tin • Do not pour the boiling water directly onto the seed. film canisters. insect damage and disease. Collect seed from soft fruits and vegetables when they are ripe. Seeds can be stored in glass jars. Release seed from pods Clean away as much organic material as possible. Check for insects. Dusting the seeds with wood ash protects seed against insects. Collect seed from pods and flowers when they are dry.

Some communities are known to have seed banks which farmers use to share seed and to multiply. the ones that float have air pockets. Some individuals go further and keep seed for multiplication and sell to others. Lippia repels most unwanted insects that can attach and destroy seeds. Seed labelling Label seeds with the variety. tephrosia leaves. The sale of certain types of seed may be prohibited in some countries where only certified seed should be sold. The seeds that sink to the bottom are alive. neem powder or garlic to protect seeds. chillies. Conclusion In this Unit you have learnt various ways of harvesting and saving seed. This enables you to make informed decisions on how best to preserve seed. The date is important so that you know when the seed has lived for too long to germinate and grow properly. date and any other essential information. indicating that they are dead. In addition you learnt about how to store seed properly and protect it from pests and diseases. Seed banks One way of ensuring that seed continues to be available is to multiply it and store it in a place where others have access to it. khakibush . Testing seed Test your seeds by putting them into a jar of water. marigold.137 Protection of seed from pests and disease Protect seeds from pests and diseases by mixing the seeds with strong smelling plants like Lippia javanica. The seed type and variety helps you to be precise when choosing what you would like to grow. Reflection points • Why is it important for farmers and gardeners to save seed? • What should you do to ensure that the quality of seed remains good before it is planted? • What kind of seeds in your community tend to be kept for multiplication by farmers and why? • Suggest reasons why some traditionally grown varieties are no longer saved by farmer . You can also use wood ash. This increases their ability to secure seed for the future. smoke.

tarragon and thyme. ginger. lemon balm. chives. you can eat good food and be healthy. ginger. garlic and ginger. • Game: Bay leaves. tarragon and thyme. horseradish. parsley. marjoram. fresh lemon grass. garlic. • Indian dishes: Coriander seeds. dill leaves and seeds. chives. bay leaves. • Salad dressing: basil. parsley. marjoram. coriander. Cooking with Herbs Below are tips on what kind of herbs go together with different dishes. • Lamb: Basil. fresh parsley and rosemary. mint. fresh young borage leaves and flowers. • French dishes: Bay leaves. garlic. as well as cure some of the common diseases that might affect you. Always keep the kitchen hygienically clean and wash hands before preparing food. oregano and parsley. dill. . garlic. parsley. seeds and bulb. parsley. rosemary and thyme. ginger. garlic. • Pork: Anise leaves and seeds. chervil. oregano.138 Unit 15: Recipes & food hygiene LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Unit the reader should have learnt about: • Different ways of preparing food • How to cater for those affected by HIV/AIDS • Key considerations when preparing and storing specific foods Introduction As a way of concluding the manual. chives. ginger. sage and thyme. tarragon and thyme. fennel leaves. parsley. horseradish. dill. coriander leaves and seeds. • Potatoes: Chives. and before serving and eating. fresh lemon balm. coriander leaves and seeds. • Fish: Basil. chervil. rosemary and thyme. rosemary. garlic. curry plant. dill. we will discuss a few recipes and remedies that you could use to benefit from the Permaculture garden and fields. fresh rocket. oregano. Apart from the ecological importance of Permaculture. fresh lemon balm leaves and fresh lemon verbena leaves. sage. fennel seeds. There are some herbs that combine well with fish and others that are suitable for salads. dill leaves. garlic. • Fruit: Fresh Bergamot leaves and flowers. marjoram. lemon grass. • Mexican: Coriander leaves and seeds. coriander leaves and seeds. rosemary.

Drink the broth or use it with other soups • Serve to family who do not have diarrhoea (You can also boil rice. chervil. Method • Lightly fry beef and chopped onion for 5 minutes in a large saucepan • Add margarine • When meat is brown add lentils. basil leaves and grated cheese. rocket and thyme. and flowers. chives. chives. until they are well cooked and then add salt. mint. nasturtium leaves and flowers. oregano. Method 7. 1 cup (250g) chopped tomatoes. • Tomatoes: Basil. young dandelion leaves. water. Add tomatoes 9. salt. rocket. bay leaves. salad burnet and watercress. Boil beans until soft (don’t add salt) 8. Method • Boil the beans. coriander. ginger. Bring to the boil and simmer slowly for ten minutes 10.139 • Salads: Basil. finely sliced fennel bulb. dill. using more water than usual. chopped carrots. If adding or chopped leafy greens then add these to and simmer at the end to prevent the loss of nutrients) Bean Broth You will need beans. spinach or other green leaves and lemon juice.Add freshly chopped herbs 11. margarine. pepper. young borage leaves and flowers. water and salt. lentils (soaked overnight). garlic. parsley. garlic. parsley. Bergamot leaves. carrots. marjoram. • Sauces: Basil. salt and pepper • Add water.Sprinkle grated cheese over before serving (You can also add minced meat. parsley. sage and tarragon. cover and cook until lentils are tender (about 30 minutes) . parsley. Tips on how to prepare selected dishes Beans and tomatoes (easy and fast to prepare) You will need: 1 cup (250g) soaked beans. maize meal or millet with the broth to add carbohydrates for more energy) Beef and lentils You will need minced beef onion.

and then mash • Add salt and serve with freshly chopped fennel and parsley Chicken stew (to serve 4) Ingredients • 4x pieces of chicken • 2 x onion • 1 x clove garlic • oil • 4 x potatoes • 3 x carrots • ¼ pumpkin • 1 x pint water • generous handful of green vegetables steamed on top with the lid on. carrots and pumpkin • Add water just to cover. . and bring to a boil • Mash vegetables and chicken together • Place finely chopped greens to the top of the mixtureand return the lid. strain off the water.140 • Add chopped green leaves and boil another 5-10 minutes • Add a squeeze of lemon juice to serve Carrot and turnip soup Ingredients • 1 x Onion • 4 x carrots and • 2 x turnips • 2 pints of water • salt • Fennel and parsley Method • Lightly brown the onion with a small amount of oil or margarine • Chop carrots and turnips and bring to the boil in water • Cook slowly until soft. potatoes. Method • Prepare onion and garlic in a little oil • Add the chicken.

Cut the chicken into small pieces. raw). cook separately and then add to the vegetables) Maize samp and cow peas (Umngqusho) Ingredients: • Water • Maize samp • Cow peas (dried or raw) • Sugar • Sunflower • Salt • Parsley Method: • Wash cow peas and samp • Add both to boiling water in a saucepan • Simmer for 1 hour and 30 minutes. but not watery consistency • Add salt. cook the stew without the chicken and mash the vegetables until smooth. raw) • Sorghum (whole grain.141 • Simmer gently to steam the greens Bring to the boil and then *simmer until vegetables are soft • Mash vegetables and chicken together • Add finely chopped greens before serving (If you have a sore mouth. replenishing water when necessary to obtain a soft. sugar • Sunflower oil • Salt • Thyme or rosemary . raw) • Beans (dried. parsley and sunflower oil • Let it simmer for another 30 minutes Sorghum and Dried Beans (ikhobe) Ingredients: • Water • Wheat (whole grain.

herbs and sunflower oil. Add salt. Cook for 20 minutes. Let it simmer for 30 minutes. with skin x 4 medium size • Sunflower oil x table spoon • Salt x 1 pinch • Tablespoon herbs Method: Lightly brown the beef in a little oil until tender. raw • Salt • Tablespoon thyme • Table spoon fennel Method: Dress the feet and heads.142 Method: Wash sorghum and dry beans. simmer for 10 to15 minutes. Add vegetables and garden herbs (thyme or rosemary) and salt to the meat. fennel and thyme leaves. . Chicken heads and feet with Mabele pap Ingredients: • Water • Chicken feet. raw. raw • Chicken heads. fresh. Add salt. Serve with mabele pap. Add 100g of water in a saucepan with grains. fresh only. Simmer for 1 hour 30 minutes. Beef Meat stew with vegetables Ingredients: • Water (pint) • Beef (fatty. raw) • Onion x 1 • Carrot. Poor over the water and simmer for 20 minutes without the lid to allow the mixture to thicken. raw x 2 • Tomato.

Add chopped vegetables. Jolof Rice Ingredients: • Serves 5 people • 4 tbsp peanut or other vegetable oil • 1 x 2.5kg chicken. to serve • 1 aubergine (about 400g). Simmer for 30 minutes. cubed • 2 medium-size onions.143 Mutton stew with vegetables Ingredients: • Water • Mutton. oil and salt. chopped • 2 tsp tomato puree • 1 hot green chilli (fresh or canned). fresh. washed and cut into 8 pieces. raw • Onion • Carrot. cut in medium-sized cubes • 200g long-grain white rice • 1 chicken stock cube • 1 beef stock cube • 1 head of cabbage (about 500g). to serve • 1 small pumpkin (about 600g). finely chopped • 2 large ripe tomatoes. cut into serving pieces or about 2kg chicken pieces • 450g lean stewing beef. chopped • 1 garlic clove. Serve with mabele pap or brown rice. peeled. peeled and cut into chunks. raw • Potato (keep skins on for more nutrients) • Sunflower oil • Salt • Rosemary Method: Cook mutton for 1 hour. finely chopped • ¼ tsp cayenne pepper • 450g smoked ham. rosemary. seeded and cut into chunks. to serve .

tomato puree. but add a little more water. • Reduce the heat and add the remaining oil. Add the onions and garlic and cook for 3-4 minutes. try a mixture of carrots. • If you can’t buy smoked ham. use an un-smoked ham.or leave ham or pork out altogether! Peanut Stew with chicken Ingredients: • Serves 5 people • 2 tbsp olive. Serving Suggestions: • Use brown rice for added nutrients. • This dish contains a moderate amount of vitamin C.144 Method: • Heat half the oil in a heavy saucepan over medium heat and brown the pieces of chicken and beef. covered • eanwhile. Each serving provides: • Kcal: 1739 • Protein: 197.4g) • Carbohydrate: 53. Stir and cook for 5 minutes. sunflower or other vegetable oil • 1 medium-sized onion • 170g peanut butter (about ½ of a medium-sized jar) . • This dish contains a low amount of calcium. Remove them from the pan and set aside. leeks or broccoli. salt and cayenne to the onions and garlic. you can make your version with raw pork instead of ham (just be sure to brown your pieces of pork along with the chicken and beef) . Cook about 20 minutes or until the rice is cooked and the chicken is tender. cover and reduce the heat to low. • Remove the rice mixture from the heat and let it sit. For instance.4g • Fat: 82.3g) • Fibre: 8g Nutrition Points: • This dish is high in vitamin B6 and in zinc and folic acid. so be creative. Stir in the cubed ham and rice and crumble over the stock cubes. • Jolof Rice is made in many ways over much of central and southern Africa. • Transfer the mixture to a deep saucepan. chilli.1g (of which saturated fat: 22. boil or steam the cabbage separately from the aubergine and pumpkin chunks until all are just tender. • Serve the vegetables with the Jolof Rice. • Add the tomatoes. bring to the boil. • For a different vegetable side dish.8g (of which sugars: 17. Pour in enough water to cover the mixture by about 15mm (½ in).

145 • 450ml vegetable or chicken stock (made up with 450ml boiling water and about ¾ crumbled stock cube) • 1½ x 200g tins (300g) of chopped tomatoes • salt and pepper • ¼ tsp cayenne pepper • 75g cabbage.9g (of which saturated fat: 10.8g) • Fibre: 9g Nutrition Points: • This dish is high in vitamin C. or serve it with brown rice. • Add the cabbage. reduce the heat.3g (of which sugars: 19. • Meanwhile. . chopped • 6 okra pods. • This dish is low in saturated fat. prepare the polenta (or cornmeal) by whisking it into boiling water according to packet instructions with ¼ to½ tsp salt. for extra nutrients. until the mixture is thick enough (according to your preference). Serving suggestion: • Instead of polenta try serving this stew with Cornmeal Dumplings (see side dishes) or. Simmer the mixture. to serve Method: • In a large saucepan over medium-low heat.5g • Fat: 45. • Add the chicken or vegetable stock. • This dish has a medium amount of zinc. cooked • 500g polenta (or cornmeal). and let them simmer until just tender. Each serving provides: • Kcal: 780 • Protein: 42. gently fry the onion in the oil until it is soft. stems trimmed • 5 large chicken portions. chopped into large bite-sized portions • 2 medium-sized carrots. • Serve each person a chicken portion and a portion of the polenta. Stir in the sweet potatoes. • Add the cooked chicken portions and stir to coat them with the tomato mixture. topping them both with some of the peanut stew. Let the mixture cook a little until the ingredients are well blended. carrots and okra. peanut butter. stirring occasionally. canned tomatoes and cayenne pepper and season with salt and pepper.4g) • Carbohydrate: 51. cover and cook until the vegetables are ready. finely chopped • 1½ -2 medium-sized sweet potatoes.

Serve hot. • Add herbs like thyme to food and make it look and taste interesting. • Eat smaller meals more often. vegetable soups.7g • Fat: 11. • This dish contains low amounts of vitamin C and vitamin B6.2g (of which sugars 12.146 Coconut Pudding Ingredients: • Serves 5 people • butter for greasing • 2 eggs • 2 tbsp sugar • 240ml coconut milk • 1 banana. Pour the mixture into the buttered baking dish. Don’t be too rigid about fixed times for meals. Add coconut milk slowly. sprinkle with cinnamon and bake for 45 minutes. • Eat whenever your appetite is good. cooled or chilled. Recommendations for lack of appetite • Try different foods until you find those that you like and try to have a mixed diet.4g (of which saturated fat 8.5g) • Carbohydrate: 13. and in between meals . • Try to eat and drink a lot of water. yoghurt. For 5 portions. • Beat in the mashed banana. milk. Add the grated coconut and stir well. butter a 500ml capacity baking dish. herbal teas or juices throughout the day. Each serving provides: • Kcal: 167 • Protein: 3. • Drink mainly after. • In a large mixing bowl beat or whisk the eggs until pale and creamy. peeled and mashed • 125g freshly grated coconut • ¼ tsp ground cinnamon Method: • Heat the oven to 180C/350F/gas 4.do not drink too much before or during meals. • This dish contains a medium amount of vitamin E. .7g) • Fibre: 2g Nutrition Points: • This dish is high in potassium. while beating the mixture.

twice a day. parsley and turnips. or other symptoms are present such as a high fever or a cough with lots of mucous. especially celery. Therefore. beer and foods such as cabbage. • Prepare special teas for colds and drink them for as long as symptoms last. • The smell of preparing or cooking food may worsen the feeling of nausea. • Try not to lie down until one or two hours after eating. Hot water can work on its own. • Coughing is how the body cleans the lungs and throat by getting rid of mucus and germs. ginger and thyme tea. Strategies to deal with colds. • Drink fennel. and breathing plenty of fresh air to stimulate an appetite. • Take vegetable soup. • Ask somebody to prepare food or eat foods that require little preparation. If you have to stay in bed. • Take light exercise such as walking outdoor. • Avoid alcohol. • Breathe in hot vapours. mint or thyme leaves can be added. coughs and influenza • Drink plenty of water or other fluids and have plenty of rest. . Artimisea afra. soups and spice teas. do not take any medicines to stop coughing but try to loosen the mucus. • Drink plenty of fluids after meals. • Eat in a well-ventilated room away from cooking or unpleasant smells. • Try not to prepare food yourself. • Drink lots of water or other fluids. • Keep drinking small amounts of water. see a health worker because there may be an underlying infection. It reduces appetite. blood or odorous discharge. • A cold normally lasts about a week. broccoli and beans that create gas in the stomach and can make you feel bloated. they can join you at your bedside. Breathe in the vapours deeply for ten minutes. Take a bowl or pot filled with very hot water and covers the head with a towel. • Try garlic tea or cough syrup to ease the symptoms. Recommended foods for someone with vomiting problems • Eat soft foods and go back to solids foods when vomiting stops. • Drink lemon juice in hot water or in herbal or ginger tea. for example.147 • Avoid fizzy drinks. • Eat with your family or friends. • Try rinsing your mouth out before eating as this can make food taste fresher. If it lasts longer. weakens the body and interferes with medicines.

Try making it with evaporated milk. or too little energy to cook. Pips. you can make you own with: • 1 level teaspoon of salt • 8 level teaspoons of sugar • 1 litre of clean drinking or boiled water and then cooled • 5 cupfuls (each cup about 200 ml. Note: this rehydration solution will not cure diarrhoea. All parts of the meal should be puréed to a smooth consistency. use water only) Rehydration fluid In the case of dehydration. it will boost the fat content. Juices & smoothies Ideal for people with appetite problems. They taste much better than the expensive supplements. And if you’re growing your own fruits in your garden. or soya milk or yogurt.) Children suffering from mild/moderate dehydration should continue on formula milk. then you don’t even have to go to the market. . turmeric. then their solution should be lower – containing less than half the salt and sugar than for adults. skins and fish bones should be excluded. when commercial products are not available. to ensure that they can consume more calories and nutrients. Method: • Boil together all the ingredients • Simmer for ten minutes • Cool slightly • Add a teaspoon of honey or sugar if you like the drink sweet (If you have diarrhoea or difficulty in digesting the milk. water and milk. and be delicious! These are ideal for people with no appetite. Topped off with a dollop of ice cream. These involve blending fruit with milk. all of which contain higher levels of protein. yogurt and/or ice cream. including soups and desserts. building muscle tissue & preventing wasting. Soon you’ll have enough energy to get back in to the garden. finely chopped fresh or ground ginger. Puréed Foods Puréed foods may be required for people with very painful mouths or swallowing difficulties.148 Solutions for people living with HIV/AIDS Energy drink The ingredients are a large clove of garlic. but if rehydration is still needed.

yeasted cakes. and sauerkraut. Fluids should be the consistency of pouring custard. bread. honey. It is even more important to fortify these foods with both protein and energy. vinegar. . Bacteria lives on the surface of your skin. Grated cheese and butter can be added to vegetable purée. extra energy should be added by using milk. syrup. Soups should be based on protein foods (meat. such as touching your mouth or hair. Many of the herbs grown in the garden are anti-bacterial. Anti-Candidiasis Candida albicans is a type of yeast that can cause thrush. scratching your skin or smoking. live yogurt may be beneficial in controlling Candida and so this should be included wherever possible. soy sauce. Finally. Fluids or Liquid Foods Only As with puréed foods. The basic principles of an anti-Candida diet are to exclude foods which contain yeast. alcohol. Some people feel that diet has a role to play in controlling this uncomfortable condition. Personal hygiene & food safety What is personal hygiene? Personal hygiene means keeping your body clean. Make it colourful to increase their interest. especially your hands when preparing food. gravy or juice in place of water for blending. Traditionally people all over the world have used herbs like rosemary and thyme. so avoid any habitual behaviour that may contaminate food. The purposes of food and cooking hygiene are to prevent food contamination the transmission of disease. nutritional content of liquid foods is diluted. oxo. cream. and to prevent food poisoning. fish and/or beans). Instead. soft cheeses. and also to eliminate foods which are high in sugar as these are claimed to act as a food source for the organisms. which are steeped in boiled water and used for wiping surfaces and cleaning floors to protect us from the bacteria which is harmful to our families. Avoid the following (including products containing any of these): sugar. Avoid grapes and melons. Some fruits are also susceptible to fungal growth.149 Avoid adding water to foods in order to purée them as this dilutes nutritional content. Washing your hands: Your hands are the main point of contact between you and your food. mushrooms. They are therefore the main route for transferring harmful bacteria which results in food poisoning. stock cubes. Water should not be used as an ingredient where a liquid with nutritional value can be used instead. and so all fruit should be peeled. and can be easily transferred. Children Children’s food should be prepared with less fibre and more protein. Keeping you hands clean is the simplest and most effective way of ensuring that you and your family remain safe from harm. marmite.

150 Hands must be scrubbed thoroughly using soap and water: • Before starting to prepare food • After using the toilet • After handling any kitchen or other waste • After blowing your nose. and if you must use meat purchased the before the day of preparation. • Do not use offal or shellfish (except prawns. as bacteria hides in the crevices Food Safety: These rules are vital when preparing food. coughing. they should be dried on a clean towel. Soft-ripened cheeses can only be used if well cooked. or when any contact is made with other parts of your body • After tea or lunch break • After coming in from the garden • Between handling raw and cooked food • After touching or using tobacco in any form Remember: • Keep your nails short & clean – as they harbour bacteria • Do not use nail varnish • Having washed your hands. then keep it refrigerated • Take extreme care in preparing raw foods • Keep the amount of time chilled and frozen foods are out of the fridge or freezer to a minimum. • Cheese and other dairy products must be pasteurised. Hair: • Hair should be kept clean • A clean hair covering should be worn to prevent hair falling into food • Facial hair should be kept clean and tidy cont • Never touch or comb your hair in a food preparation area Clothing: • Keep your clothes clean and free from bacteria at all times • No jewellery should be worn. • Peel all root vegetables – feed your compost heap with the peelings. If one is not available then shake them dry. avoiding contact with other materials or surfaces. which are safe when cooked). especially for people who may be immune-compromised: • Always use fresh ingredients. • Cuts or lesions should be covered with a waterproof dressing • Do not lick your fingers or hands while or after eating. . sneezing. purchased and/or harvested that day • Avoid contaminated meats.

fruit or salad) should be washed in water that has been boiled or 10 minutes and left to cool. Reflection points • What are the most common dishes you cook in your family. cooked foods should be put on shelves above raw foods. and stimulate the appetite for quick nutrient absorption for PLWHIV/AIDS. • Cold foods must be chilled down to temperature of 8 degrees or below. Label with an expiry or use-by date. Don’t open new packets until existing stocks have been used up. There may have been some technical language used in this Unit. If products such as maize & flour have been put in separate containers don’t add new supplies until the container has been emptied and washed. • Do not use the same utensils to prepare raw and cooked foods. Conclusion In this unit you have learnt about how to prepare nutrient rich dishes and drinks as well as some remedies that you could use to relieve common diseases illnesses such as colds and diarrhoea. Cooking Utensils: • Wash pots. They should not be kept on the same shelf in the fridge. poultry and eggs. Always check use-by dates. Make sure raw and cooked foods are securely covered and stored separately. using produce from your garden. • Do not reuse serving utensils until they have been washed. • Use separate utensils for meat and veg preparation • Do not share cutlery when eating. • Any foods which will not be cooked (e. fresh herbs. • Cooked food must reach a temperature of 75 degrees in the cooking process and must be served at a temperature of 65 degrees or above.g. warm water. Bottled waters and water that has been treated with domestic filters are NOT suitable alternatives. cook for longer. to reduce risk of contamination with Cryptosporidium. especially meat. pans and plates thoroughly with soap and clean. Food Storage: Secure food storage for dried materials (flour/maize) to prevent contamination by vermin. (If you do find out-of-date foods in the store cupboard please throw them away). • All food should be cooked thoroughly. You have also learned to prepare and store food safely.151 • Do not use pâtés or other foods bought over the counter as these cannot be guaranteed free from bacterial amination. fish. and what nutrients do they contain? • What can be done to ensure that you benefit from the wide variety of plants in your garden? • What could you make. If in doubt. Please refer to Unit 3 for further explanation. for a friend or relative who is HIV+ and struggling with their appetite? • What can you do to improve hygiene in the kitchen and around the home? .

152 ANNEX 1: Leaf terminology .

153 Annex 2: Diagram of Leaf Margins .

154 Annex 3: Diagram of Leaf Venation .

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