Electronic Devices and Circuits

Dr. K. Lal Kishore
Ph.D, MIEEE, FIETE, MISTE, MISHM.

Registrar and Professor of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500 072.

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CONTENTS

Contents ............... .......................... ..... .... .................................................. ....... ..... . Symbols ............................................... ........... ....................................................... . BriefHistory ofElectronics ................................................................................... .

Chapter 1 Electron Dynamics and CRO ............................................................. 1-39
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Electron Dynamics ................................................................................................ 2 Motion of Charged Particles in Electric and Magnetic Fields ............................... 2 Simple Problems Involving Electric and Magnetic Fields Only .......................... 24 Principles of CRT ................................................................................................ 26 Deflection Sensitivity ........................................................................................... 29 Applications ofCRO ............................................................................................ 36 Summary .............................................................................................................. 36 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................... 37 Essay Type Questions .......................................................................................... 38 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................... 38

Chapter2 Junction Diode Characteristics .................................................... 39-134
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Review of Semiconductor Physics ..................................................................... 40 Energy Band Structures ....................................................................................... 61 Conduction in Semiconductors ........................................................................... 62 Conductivity of an Intrinsic Semiconductor ....................................................... 66

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2. i 4 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31

Donor Type or n-Type Semiconductors ............................................................. 67 Acceptor Type or p-Type Semiconductors ......................................................... 68 Ionization Energy ................................................................................................. 68 Holes and Electrons ............................................................................................. 68 Mass Action Law ................................................................................................. 70 Law of Electrical Neutrality ................................................................................. 70 The Fermi Dirac Function ................................................................................... 75 Total Current in a Semiconductor ....................................................................... 84 Einstein Relationship ............................................................................................ 90 Continuity Equation .............................................................................................. 90 The Hall Effect ..................................................................................................... 92 Semiconductor Diode Characteristics ................................................................. 96 The p-n Junction Diode in Reverse Bias ............................................................. 98 The p-n Junction Diode in Forward Bias ............................................................ 98 Band Structure of an Open Circuit p-n Junction ................................................ 99 The Current Components in a p-n Junction Diode ........................................... 102 Law of the Junction ........................................................................................... 103 Diode Current equation ...................................................................................... 104 Volt-Ampere Characteristics of a p-n Junction diode ....................................... 105 Temperature Dependance ofp-n Junction Diode Characteristics .................... 107 Space Charge or Transition Capacitance CT Diffusion Capacitance, CD 108 111

Diode Switching Times ..................................................................................... 113 Break Down Mechanism ................................................................................... 118 Zener Diode ........................................................................................................ 119 The Tunnel Diode ........................................................................... :..
0' •••••••••••••••

120

Varactor Diode ....................................................................... .'........................... 123 Summary ............................................................... :............................................ 129 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 130 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 13 1 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 132

Chapter 3
Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators .............................................. 135-184
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Rectifiers ............................................................................................................ 136 Half-Wave Rectifier ............................................................................................ 136 Full Wave Rectifier ( FWR ) .............................................................................. 146 Bridge Rectifiers ................................................................................................ 150 Comparison of Rectifier Circuits ....................................................................... 151 Voltage Doubler Circuit ...................................................................................... 152 Inductor Filter Circuits ...................................................................................... 152 Capacitor Filter .................................................................................................. 157 LC Filter ............................................................................................................. 161 CLC or 1t Filter ................................................................................................... 165 Multiple LC Filters ............................................................................................. 169 Introduction to Regulators ................................................................................. 173 Terminology ....................................................................................................... 182 Summary ............................................................................................................ 183 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 183 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 184 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 184

Chapter 4
Transistor Characteristics ........................................................... 185-266
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Bipolar Junction Transistors ( BJT's ) .............................................................. 186 Transistor Construction ..................................................................................... 190 The Ebers-Moll Equation ................................................................................... 191 Types of Transistor Configurations .................................................................. 192 Convention for Transistors and Diodes ............................................................ 202 Field Effect Transistor (FET) ........................................................................... 213 FET Structure .................................................................................................... 215 FET Operation ................................................................................................... 219 JFET Volt-Ampere Characteristics .................................................................... 222

4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19

Transfer Characteristics of FET ....................................................................... 224 FET Small Signal Model .................................................................................... 228 FET Tree ............................................................................................................ 233 The Depletion MOSFET .................................................................................... 240 CMOS Structure (Complementary MOS) ......................................................... 243 Silicon Controlled Rectifier ................................................................................ 246 Unijunction Transistor (UJT) ............................................................................. 251 LED's ................................................................................................................. 255 Photo Diodes ...................................................................................................... 255 Photo Transistors .............................................................................................. 256 Summary ............................................................................................................ 257 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 258 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 259 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 260

Chapter 5
Transistor Biasing and Stabilization .......................................... 261-312
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 Transistor Biasing .............................................................................................. 268 Fixed Bias Circuit or (Base Bias Circuit) .......................................................... 270 Bias Stability ....................................................................................................... 271 Thermal Instability ............................................................................................. 271 Stability Factor'S' for Fixed Bias Circuit ......................................................... 272 Collector to Base Bias Circuit ............................................................................ 273 Self Bias or Emitter Bias Circuit ........................................................................ 276 Stability Factor'S' for Self Bias Circuit.. .......................................................... 277 Stability Factor S
I ....................................................

278

Stability Factor S" for Self Bias Circuit ........................................................... 280 Practical Considerations ..................................................................................... 280 Bias Compensation ............................................................................................. 281 Biasing Circuits For Linear Integrated Circuits ................................................. 284

5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18

Thermistor and Sensistor Compensation .......................................................... 285 Thermal Runaway .............................................................................................. 286 Stability Factor S" for Self Bias Circuit ........................................................... 292 FETBiasing ....................................................................... _ ............................. 298 Basic FET Circuits ............................................................................................. 302 Summary ............................................................................................................ 309 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 310 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 310 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 311

Chapter 6 Amplifiers ..................................................................................... 313-380
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 314 Black Box Theory .............................................................................................. 314 Transistor Hybrid Model .................................................................................... 318 Transistor in Common Emitter Configuration ................................................... 318 Determination of h-Parameters From the Characteristics of a Transistor ....... 319 Common Collector Configuration ( CC ) .......................................................... 321 Hybrid Parameter Variations ............................................................................... 322 Conversion of Parameters From C.B. to C.E ................................................... 323 Measurement of h-Parameters ........................................................................... 325 General Amplifier Characteristics ...................................................................... 327 Analysis of Transistor Amplifier Circuit Using h-Parameters ........................... 330 Comparison of the CE, CB, CC Configurations ................................................ 334 Small Signal Analysis of Junction Transistor .................................................... 337 High Input Resistance Transistor Circuits ........................................................ 354 Boot Strapped Darlington Circuit ...................................................................... 358 The Cascode Transistor Configuration ............................................................. 361 The JFET Low frequency Equivalent Circuits .................................................. 365 Comparison of FET and BJT Characteristics ................................................... 369

6.19 6.20

R. C. Coupled Amplifier ..................................................................................... 370

Concept of fa' fp and fT

..... 373

Summary ............................................................................................................ 375 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 376 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 377 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 378

Chapter 7
FeedbackAmplifiers .................................................................... 381-428
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 FeedbackAmplifiers .......................................................................................... 382 Classification ofAmplifiers ................................................................................ 382 Feedback Concept ............................................................................................. 385 Types of Feedback ............................................................................................ 387 Effect of Negative Feedback on Transfer Gain ................................................ 387 Transfer Gain with Feedback ............................................................................ 392 Classifaction of Feedback Amplifiers ................................................................ 396 Effect of Feedback on Input Resistance ........................................................... 397 Effect of Negative Feedback on Ro ... ..400

Analysis of Feedback Amplifiers ....................................................................... 406 Summary ............................................................................................................ 424 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 425 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 426 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 427

Chapter 8
Oscillators .................................................................................... 429-453
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Oscillators .......................................................................................................... 430 Sinusoidal Oscillators ......................................................................................... 433 Barkhausen Criterion .... :..................................................................................... 433 R - C Phase-Shift Oscillator (Using JFET) ...................................................... 434 Transistor RC Phase-Shift Oscillator ................................................................ 437

8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18

The General form of LC Oscillator Circuit ....................................................... 440 Loop Gain ........................................................................................................... 440 Wien Bridge Oscillator ....................................................................................... 443 Expression for f. ................................................................................................ 444 Thermistor ......................................................................................................... 445 Sensistor ............................................................................................................. 445 Amplitude Stabilization ................................................... :................................... 445 Applications ........................................................................................................ 446 Resonant Circuit Oscillators .............................................................................. 446 Crystal Oscillators .............................................................................................. 447 Frequency Stability ............................................................................................ 448 Frequency of Oscillations for Parallel Resonance Circuit.. ............................... 449 I-MHz FET Crystals Oscillator Circuit ............................................................. 449 Summary ............................................................................................................ 450 Objective Type Questions .................................................................................. 451 Essay Type Questions ........................................................................................ 452 Multiple Choice Questions ................................................................................. 452

Additional Objective Type Questions (Chapter 1-8) ...................................................... 454 Answers to Additional Objective Type Questions ........................................................... 455 Appendices .................................................................................................................... ... 457 Appendix-I Colour Codes for Electronic Components ....................................... 458 Appendix-II Resistor and Capacitor Values ........................................................ 461 Appendix-III Capacitors .... ................................................................................. 464 Appendix-IV Inductors .......................................................................................... 470 Appendix-V Miscellaneous .................................................................................. 474 Appendix- VI Circuit Symbols ............................................................... ................. 484 Appendix-VII Unit Conversion Factors ................................................................. 486 Appendix- VIII American Wire Gauge Sizes and Metric Equivalents ...................... 489 Answers to Objective Type and Multiple Choice Questions ............. ............................. 491 Index ... ............................................................................................................ ................. 501

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D.C.38 x x 10-5 eV /OK 10-23 J / OK I L L m M n Length of deflecting plates of CRT (cms) Distance between the centre of the field and screen (cm or rn) Diffusion length Mass of electron (kgs) Mutual conductance free electron concentration (No. plates and screen. Diffusion constant./cm3) .62 x 10-34 J-sec. Distortion in output waveform E = Electric field intensity (V/m or V/cm) D D f F h frequency (Hzs/KHzs/MHzs) Force experienced by an electron in Newtons Plank's constant = 6./m3 or No.SYMBOLS a B C Acceleration of electrons (m/sec or cm/sec) Magnetic field Intensity (Wb/m2 or Tesla) Charge of electrons (Coulombs) Velocity of light = c d D 3 x 108 m/sec. current (rnA or IlA) A. Distance between the plates in a CRT Distance between the centre of the deflecting.C current (rnA or IlA) Current density (A/m 2 or mA/cm2) Boltzman's constant Boltzman's constant = = J K K 8.62 1.

f I E Small signal common emitter forward current gain DoC large signal current gain of BJT = f I B (3* o IpC TransportatIon factor of BJT = -IPE = -II nE I InC nE I Emitter efficiency of BJT = Ripple factor in filter circuits iE = E E Conductivity of p-type semiconductor in (U /cm or siemens) .lcm 3 or No.6 s S T V x 10-19 C Spacing between the deflecting plates of CRT (in cms) Stability factor Period of rotation (secs or 1. secs) Accelerating potential or voltage (volts) Velocity (m/sec or cm/sec) Work function or Energy (eV) Displacement of electron on the CRT screen (cms or mms) Admittance (in mhos U)./cm 3) Q = Charge of an electron in coulombs = 1.lcm 3 ) Donor Atom Concentration (No/m 3 or No/cm 3) Hole concentration (No.E (ohms Q) Kinetic Energy (eV) Potential Energy (e V) Inductor Capacitor Resistor DoC large signal current gain of BJT = PoE L C R a.lm 3 or No.Acceptor Atom Concentration (No.1. Impedanc~ v W Y Y Z K.

12 F/m Il Ilo Mobility of electrons or holes (m 2/V-sec) Permiability offree space (Him) = 1.25 Wavelength (A 0) Input resistance or input impedance (n) Reverse voltage gain Output admittance (U) Forward short circuit current gain x 10-6 Him a hI hr ho ~- = (xxi) .cm) Thermal resistance (in W/cm 2) Angle of deflection Volt equivalent of work function (volts) Incremental value Resistance (ohms) Conductance (mhos) Efficiency (%) Perrnitivity of free space (F/m) = 8.85 x e e ~ Ll n U 11 03 10.an p Conductivity of n-type semiconductor in (U Icm or siemens) Resistivity (n .

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J. Electronics is the science and technology of the passage of charged particles in a gas or vacuum or semiconductor. Fleming invented the Vacuum diode called 'valve'. In 1904. the frequencies of operation are 50 Hertzs/60 Hertzs.was made in 1895. in electrical engineering the voltages and currents are of very high-kilovolts. semiconductor technology met with premature death and vacuum tubes flourished. Two years later.A. The beginning for Electronics.Thomson proved the same experimentally in 1897. Electrical engineering mainly deals with motion of electrons in metals only. based on the motion of electrons. in making it work. it is KHzs. Braun built the first tube. . in electrical engineering. MHz.. Lorentz postulated the existence of discrete charges called electrons. In 1906. we study the applications of these laws to human needs. whereas Electronic engineering deals with motion of charged particles (electrons and holes) in metals. So. GHzs. J. a semiconductor diode was fabricated but they could not succeed.Brief History of Electronics In science we study about the laws of nature and its verification and in technology. Before electronic engineering came into existence. whereas in electronics. when H. Yet another difference is. and Amperes. electrical engineering flourished. Another difference is. semiconductors and also in vacuum. whereas in electronic engineering one deals with few volts and rnA. and called it Cathode ray tube (CRT). In the same year. (high frequency).

1959: Integrated circuit concept was announced by Kilby at an IRE convention. Solid State Physics group was formed to invent semiconductor devices in Bell Labs. chip with 1000 Transistors (4004m) 1971: 4 bit Microprocessor was made by INTEL group. Colour television broadcasting was started. De Forest put a third electrode into Fleming's diode and he called it Triode. LOGIC GATES. control systems Computers Vacuum Tubes ruled the electronic field till the invention of transistors. 1975: MSI (Multiplenum. USA. 1969: SSI 10 . 1969: LSI. C components Radio. A. ICs were made.wireless. FFs were developed. R. The filaments get burnt and tubes occupy large space. (BJT) 1950: Colour Television Transmission started in USA. Television.J. black and white television transmission started in USA.100 components/chip. Telephone .Large Scale Integration.Proved the same 1904: Fleming invented Vacuum Diode 1906: De Forest developed Triode 1920: Radio Broadcasting in USA 1930: Black and White Television Transmission in USA. so that electron emission takes place.1000 components/chip was developed.Postulated existance of Electrons 1897: J. landline communications Industrial electronics.invented the junction transistor. Before that. Address) 100 . In 1950.In 1906 itself. Thomson . 1975: VLSI: Very large scale integration> 10. . device was announced. small change in grid voltage produces large change in plate voltage in this device. it generated lot of heat. The electronics Industry can be divided into 4 categories: Components Communications Control Computation Transistors. In 1930. 1975: CHMOS . A In 1912 Institute of Radio Engineering (IRE) was set up in USA to take care of the technical interests of electronic engineers. IC .000 components per chip. ICs. The first radio broadcasting station was built in 1920 in USA. The filaments get heated to > 2000° k. Major milestones in development of Electronics: 1895: H. So in 1945.000 components per chip (integrated or joined together).Complimentary High Metal Oxide Semiconductor ICs were announced by INTEL group. Lorentz . The difficulty with vacuum tubes was. 1970: INTEL group announced. with more than 1000 but < 10. L. 1947: Shockley . in 1884 Institute of Electrical Engineers was formed and in 1963 both institutes merged into one association called IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers).

line width Commercial Super Compter lOT.000 Transistors. 0.000 components/chip Ex: 16 bit and 32 bit flPS Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits i860 Intel's 64 bit CPU developed ULSI > 500. (80286) was developed CHMOS 32 bit fl P 64 bit fl P MMICS > 2.. Neuro . There are 10' cells/cm3 in human brain Development ofVLSI Technology : 3 fl Technology J.000 components/chip Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS > 4.50.00.00.000 components/chip.000 components/chip Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS > 10.000 Transistors.Computer Using Logic Structure Based on Human Brain likely Still Nature is superior.00. Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS 100.000 Transistors.J. Ex : 16 bit and 32 bit flPS > 1. Flip Flops developed. ROM. .10.00. 0. Giant Scale Integration 3 million Transistors.5 fl Technology . RAM 1000 . Ultra Large Scale Integration GSI > 1.000. (Pentium series) 2 Million Gates/Die 5 Million Gates / Die 1 Gigabit Memory Chips 10 nanometer patterns.000 components/chip.1978 : 1980 : 1981 : 1982: 1984 : 1985 : 1986 : 1987 : 1989: 1990s: 1992 : 1998 : 2001 : 2002 : 2003 : 2004 : 2010 : LSI 8 bit microprocessors (flP).000 components/chip VLSI 16 bit fl P > 1.12 fl Technology ASICS (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) HYBRIDICs BICMOS MCMs (Multi Chip Modules) 3-D packages .

Table showing predictions made in 1995 on VLSI Technology 1995 Lithography (/-l) No.3 100 0. Gates/Die: No. Frequency MHz 64 M 16M 200 15 3.12 10 M 4G IG -400 40-120 1. Bits/Die Dram Sram Wafer Dia (mm) Power (/-lW/Die) Power Supply.1 20M 16G 4G -400 40-200 1. V.IS 5M IG 256 M -400 40 2.35 SOOK 1998 0.2 175 2001 O.5 500 (xxvi) .5 350 2007 0.25 2M 256 64 N 200-400 30 2.2 250 2004 0.

• The path or trajectories of electrons under the influence of Electric Fields.. • • .namlCS • In this Chapter. The Practical Application of this study in a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope is also given. Magnetic Fields and combined Electric and Magnetic Fields are given. The Mathematical Equations describing the Motion are derived.

classical theory results do not agree with experimental results. These are very small and hence all charges are considered as Points of Mass. 1. Wave-Mechanical Model satisfactorly explains those phenomena. The motion of an electron is similar to the trajectory of a shell. The radius of an electron is estimated as 10-15 metres and that of an atom as 10-10 metre. we study the motion of electrons in electric fields and magnetic fields.11 x 10-31 Kgs. Classical Model satisfactorily explains the behavior of electrons in electric and magnetic fields. is the Classical Model. . the trajectory of the electron in the electric field can be found out. For a positive charge 'q'.1 THE FORCE ON CHARGED PARTICLES IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD The force experienced by a unit positive charge at any point in an electric field is the electric field intensity 'E' at trat point. ( 1.1 There are two different types of Electron Models. while the assumption that electrons travel in the form of waves is called the Wave-Mechanical Model. electron behavior in a crystal or in an atom. q is in coulombs. the force. and E in V1m But by Newton's Second Law of Motion.2..6 x 10.. F = q x E Newtons where F is in Newton's.. We shall now consider the trajectories of electrons under different conditions.2 MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN ELETRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 1. 1. Its units are V1m For unit pusitive charge. 1. electron transaction in a vacuum tube Classical Model gives satisfactory results. such as.19 Coulombs.2 Electronic Devices and Circuits ELECTRON DYNAMICS The term Electron Dynamics refers to the analogy between an electron under electric and magnetic fields... F = m x a and F = q x E mx dt dv = qXE . it traverses a path and falls under gravity. :. and a body falling under gravity. The mass of an Electron is 9. F=-eXE In this case negative signindic.. The assumption that electron is a tiny particle possessing definite mass and charge.. considering electron charge as e. The charge of an electron is 1.. Wave-Mechanical Model. If a shell is fired from a cannon. in the subatomic systems.1 ) For accelerating potential. In this chapter. But. ... such as. Classical Model 2. First we consider only uniform electric fields and then uniform magnetic fields. force = 1 x E Newtons. For large scale phenomena.1tes that force is opposite to the direction of E. parallel electric and magnetic fields and then perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. a=dt dv By solving this equation.

E = Electric field intensity a is constant. . Let V be the applied potential. separated by distance 'd' as shown in Fig 1.. dv dt Integrating. at' Vo t + 2 + Xo x I . The electric field will be uniform if'V' is the same. t = 0.3 ) = xo+vot+-... The direction of electric field is always from positive to negative.£1 e... At a= dv ...1 Direction of electric field. So in this case it is acting downwards and is E = V/d. x = Xo = constant.. m and by assumption E are constant. Suppose an electron is present in the electric field and it is desired to investigate its trajectory : A B _______ 3 . at 2 Vo t + + constant.Electron Dynamics and CRO Let A and B are two horizontal plates. Let the initial velocity = vox and displacement = Xo i. ( 1. Vx = vax' x = xo' According to Newton's law.2 ) m m x (... at t = 0.. 2 at 2 This is the expression for x or the trajectory of the electron at any instant of time 't'. F = m x ax and F = e x E e x E = m x ax<considering only magnitude negative sign is omitted) la =e. expression for constant v v m Vo + at x t + va Vo + at dx dt By Integrating again...e.( 1.. v = Vo Vo Therefore...1.: + ---l:'- !£ Fig 1. x At v = Vo + at.: dt' v is velocity in m/sec ) v t + constant. 2 t=o....

and it increases linearly from oto 10v in 0.4 x 105 m/sec = J v dt = t 2. x = 7.1. Problem 1. It is increasing linearly At any instant. whose plates are 5 cm apart.4 Electronic Devices and Circuits E This is under the assumption that acceleration is constant or electric field (uniform electric field).76 x lOll C/Kg eXt: a Velocity At v t x At = .1 m sec.76 x 1020 x t 2 m 2/sec = 50n.76x1020t3 o 3 = 5.58 Xo 106 m/sec.76 x 1020 t 2 = 1. Where will it be at the end of this time? 3. E = Fig 1. the time that it takes to reach the positive plate is. 1. With what speed will the electron strike the positive plate? Solution 1. The applied voltage is zero at the instant the electron is released. 1.7 5x 10-2 10- 109 t Vim - e m = 1.2 For problem 1. 05 19 )~ = 9.76 x lOll) (2 x 109) = 3. To find the speed with which the electron strikes the positive plate.x . v = velocity t = 5 x 10-8 sec.1 An electron starts at rest on one plate of a plane parallel capacitor.= (1. what is the speed that the electron obtains in 50 n sec? 2.87xl019 5. = V xT d t lOt ---=. 't' voltage applied = T Vxt (Fig. The voltage applied is a ramp voltage.. .32 x 10-3 m = 0. 3. 1.52x10 20t 2 o 2 = 1. v = 4.87x10 v = 1. If the opposite plate is positive.sec. which will explain the trajectory of the electrons in terms of mathematical equations.46 x 10-8 sec ( 0 =( 5.46 x 1O-8f = 1.87 x 10 19 t 3 m t x )~ = .732 cm.2 ) o 2 x T Electric field intensity at 50 nsec is. is constant Some solved numerical problems are given here.87 x 10 19 t 3m.76 x 1020 (9. x = 5..52 x 1020 x t m/sec 2 m = fa dt = t 3.

is defined as the work done in taking unit positive charge from A to B. V= - Xo JE dx eV = (~) x m x ( v 2 . d 2y m x dt 2 = ex E dy __ dt eXE m x t + constant. Force experienced by the electron F=exE mXa=exE The Equation of Motion is.2 POTENTIAL 5 A potential of V volts at point B with respect to point A.consl'd' negatIve. Xo JE dx represents the work done by the field in carrying unit positive charge x :. an e Iectron. E = Electric Field Strength in V1m . we get f. By definition. .e x E m dx e = -- m JE e dx = . (C I) .Electron Dynamics and CRO 1. against the electric field.2.v~ ) The energy eV is expressed in Joules. . sIgn lor a = -ex.- x J E m Xo dx __ v dv v J J dt x v dt = Vov dv Vo x The integral from Xo to x.E enng m -- dv dt -- eXE m dx = v x dt Multiplying the above expression with dx and then integrating on both sides. a = Acceleration. .

.. we get the same result.. Y = d. "[= "[= J¥v xm -- exV xd .4 ) This is the Equation of Motion.... Average Velocity = vinitial =0 v . ( 1. time = d'Istance / ve IOClty .E = = (~) mv 2 E E= v (e m t) ' x V d ...v. (Even if we use v = u + at expression. ( 1.E of the electron when it reaches plate A ? K...) v final + vinitial 2 "[ = Distance / Average Velocity.... Y = 0...5 ) · Average ve IOClty = V~ re.. final Average VelocIty = .2 - v final = 2 x V~ re..6 ) What is the K. What is the Transit Time't? It is the time taken by the electron to travel a distance 'd' between the plates. SInce .6 At t= Electronic Devices and Circuits 0........- ...Y{hl = ~--. ( 1. d = e XEX "[2 2m "[= ~2xmXd eXE 2xmxd 2 exV E = V/d where V is the voltage... At t = "[... v = 0 constant = 0 dy eXE -=v=--xt dt m y=--x-+C m ex E t2 2 2 C2 is also zero y= eXEX t 2 2m .

2.V V= 5.Electron Dynamics and CRO 7 K.93 x \05 Vy. To put this in mathematical form.E. its final speed is 5.19 Joules I 1. K. its energy is I eV = (1.6 x 10.E = e x d d V V x d = e x V Electron Volts when or V = 1 volts.19 C) x ( IV) II eV = 1. So another unit of energy.-t E But the expression for y. E = K. 19 _ (2xexV)Y' _ (2X1. = ( :12) x m x EX [ dxm V t ]2 = ( :12) m x [e x ]2 x -.6 x 10.E = ( Yz ) mv 2 vfinal K. 1 watt = I J/sec In electronics.E.19 x IV = 1. Joule and even Erg is a large unit.6 x 10. If an electron falls through a potential of one volt.93 x 105 m/sec.E when = ( Yz) m x =exEx ex E x t 2 2xm y=d.t m K.2. then the final velocity v is given by. the displacement in the y-direction..E = 1.xo) . dx =- E (x .6 X IO. m Ifthe electron starts at rest. = ~2Xmexv x 2xexV = e x V Electron Volts.lxI0-31 . 1.6 x 10-19 Joules K. 'eV' electron volt is defined. = ( Yz ) x m ex V = ( Yz ) mv 2 y.4 RELATION BETWEEN E AND V: (FIELD INTENSITY AND POTENTIAL) The definition of potential is the work done in moving unit positive charge from Xo to x.jY' V - m - 9. x V=- Xo f E. eXE 2 y= .3 ELECTRON VOLTS Joule is the unit of energy in MKS systems.. with initial velocity = 0. m/sec Thus if an electron falls through 1V.

8 Electronic Devices and Circuits Negative sign is to indicate that the work is done against the field.and y m = V d . 1. x = fvox. acceleration in that direction is zero. so the component of velocity in that direction remains constant..3 ) So what is the motion of the particle? v x = velocity in the x direction The initial conditions Vx = vox' Vy = 0.. Ex = -v (X-Xo) - -v x Negative sign is for work done on a positive charge.direction. So velocity along the x direction is constant vox = V x ...7) As the field is acting downwards. .. Let an electron enter the plates at point 0. The acceleration along x direction is also zero. there is no force in the z direction. The integral gives the work done. For electrons the electric field E = + V/d Butthis is true when V and 'd' are small and V is uniform. Since. .dt dt dx = vox x=voxxt .2. Let 'd' be the distance between the plates..A ~.5 Two DIMENSIONAL MOTION LetA and B be two parallel plates.. against the field. (1.A is at a positive potential + Va with respect to B. z x=O} y= 0 at t z=0 v--------zt-.. E= dv dx 1. 0 ____. + 8 . If V is not uniform.3 Two Dimensional motion.= v = ay t x dt y Y= But f a y tdt = ay x 2 E y t2 eEy a = . with initial velocity vox ( Fig.. incremental change is to be considered. V = 0. vy=ayxt dy .: There is no electric field along the x-direction..__ d =0 Fig 1. there is constant acceleration along y ..

-dt = 0 and Cos rot = 1 ~ m Vmax ~ =-k d ro Cos rot ro e Vmax dx ~ Vmax dt rn d By inspection.2 Two plane parallel plates are kept 8mm apart. d E= 1.5 Sin rot d Cos rot =+k ro dx e Vrnax .19 x 1. Find the maximum speed acquired by the electron and position of the appliedA.. An electron is emitted from one plate when the voltage of the other is becoming positive.dt rn d At dx t = 0 . .= -.5 Sin rot. . A sinusoidal voltage V = 1.31 x21tx60x10 6 x8xlO.75 x 105 m/sec.C... voltage point when this occurs? Solution d 2x -eE -e Vrnax Sin rot dt 2 = -.2 x 1.6 X 10. with a frequency of 60 MHz is applied between the plates.5 9.t dm But x t=Vox lI. this is maximum when The maximum value of velocity is dx dt = -2~ Vrnax m dro rn dro Cos rot = -lor rot + 1t.lxlO.Electron Dynamics and CRO eV ~= dm 9 eV 2 y=V:!x . x 2 eV x ---2 [ d m V ox 2] Problem 1.3 = 1.

6 x 1O-19C m = 9. 2000 Electric Field Intensity = -3. .42195 cms 2000) Potential drop = ( -3.42195cm 3. The electron has travelled a distance ofy cm = 0.6xlO-19 x 2000 2.31 x3xlO.6 x 10-19 x 2000 x 1 x (8:5 x 10-10 )2 y=(d)= 9. What potential has the electron fallen through when it acquire this speed? Solution 1. when the initial velocity is making an angle e with the field Plate A is at negative potential with respect to plate B as shown in Fig. with the field.= ---------:--:::-----.V/cm dy .= 8. 2 ex E t y= .V /cm. dt .= v = 107 m/sec.5 x 10-10 sec.x 0... So it is retarding potential. How far has the electron.3 An electron starts at the negative plate of a plane parallel plate capacitor across which a voltage of 2000 V is applied.1xlO. 1.x m 2 At t = 8. Motion of an electron in uniform retarding electric field.10 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 1.E 1. travelled before it acquires this speed? 3. t =? e = 1. 1. An Electron with initial velocity Vo is making an angle e.2 t = .42195 cm = 281.. The distance between the plates is 3 cm.5 x 10-10 sec e.1 X 10-31 x3xlO-2 x 2 =0.4.1 x 1O-31 kg vxm 107 x9. How long has the electron been travelling when it acquires a speed of 10 7 mlsec? 2.3 Volts. dy __ eXE dt 3 m xt 2000 E= . 1.

x + v 0 t..EI.+ v Cos e t + C2 m 2 0 But. . E y=o.x .. is -ve ) x=O.2 =0 dt Force along the x direction is zero.= . ( 1.x t + v Cos 8 dt m 0 ex € t2 Y = . Initial Conditions: At t = 0.. eXcxt The expression for Vy is Vy = Let at t = t" Y = Ym· tI = m + Vo Cos e But.Electron Dynamics and CRO 11 B ~v.. since the electron is not moving in 'x' direction. Vy = Vo Cos e .8 ) y= + Vo t Cos 8 d 2x mx ... x=votSin8 To find Ym the maximum displacement in the 'y' direction. J ~ ~ A~--------------------~r-------~i-ve d xm __________. However.. ex € t2 Y = -. dt dx =vx=C1=v o Sine At y = Ym' Vy = O. Cos e 2 . C 2 = 0 .4 Retarding electric field.. it goes up because ofthe initial velocity...... + ve Fig 1. = -d ( because V V dy = eXt dt m xt + C1 dy eXE ..

d.12 Electronic Devices and Circuits Substitute this value oft1 Ym-- _ ~ 2 Vo Cos e eXE ... To find xm At x = Vo t Sin e t1 = -vo cose (e~E ) ~ 2 Vo = _ Vo [-vocose].....Sm e.V.m .m .5 Parabolic path.. 2e ....ve ····t ... 2 m Let the initial velocity v 0 be due to some accelerating potential Vo v = o ~2evo m ... Sine e...... Y ill ==4t=t Fig 1...E m rf the velocity v 0 is due to an accelerating potential of Vo' ~2~o and E = - ~ x m = 2e Vo ..

.4..Electron Dynamics and CRO 13 ~= 2Vo ...4 The electron shown in Fig.5. energy is IOev.l..Q B A 1 T e = 45 0 Fig 1. V. It is defined as the current per unit area of the conducting medium.6 CURRENT DENSITY It is denoted by J.9 ) I The trajectory ofthe electron is as shown in Fig. If an electron takes a time T sec to travel a distance of L m in the conductor.6 has an initial velocity due to an energy of 10 eV.S. Find the potential V to be placed on electrodes P and Q.p -4-5-0-r--:l"'---2-c-m__ ~ so IO~v --rI--r. P and Q are conducting plates. the total number of electrons passing through any cross section of wire in unit time is : Total Number of electrons in a conductor = N .6 For problem 1. directed as shown. d Sm20 . 1. Ym is the maximum displacement in the 'y' direction and ~ is the maximum displacement in 'x' direction.A (m 2).. V= ? V ~ = 2 cm d=? 2= 2xlO xdxxSin900 V = 10d Volts 1..2.. V0 = 10 volts. Assuming a uniform current distribution. ( 1. Problem 1. Solution ~= 2V0 V x d x Sin 28 Since.. Ne where N is the total number of electrons contained in a conductor of length L. J C. ----------'-. which will cause the electron to reach point B. But 1= = A ' where J is amp/m 2 and A is the I T.

e.. But L x Nev J= AL A is the volume of the conductor. ::~ N .. '-:1 I J= A I=T Ne Ne A = Cross sectional Area of the conductor J= AxT L T= v /J= / A x L = volume ofthe conductor A x L = Electron Concentration per unit volume 'n' . n= LA IJ=nevl But n x e = charge density in Coulombs/m3 = p p the charge density is the electric charge in coulombs per unit volume ( m3 ) v is velocity in m/sec J:--=-p-v----. L: gives the electron concentration = n Nim3 Total Number of electrons in a conductor = N i.... containing N electrons. (1...10) Ne I J= But ~~ I Distance L . electrons/m3. N Thus..14 Electronic Devices and Circuits Ne The charge per second passing through any point = But rate of change of charge is current. I = T T' .. =VelocIty v v J is the Current Density in Amp / m2 Time = L T can be replaced by -... SO.

assume that I and B are perpendicular to each other... F=BIL= But BxNe xL T Ne L T = v velocity in m/sec. Let N = No. Electron moving perpendicular to the field: Motion is a circle. of electron passing through conductor in unit time = NIT Rate of flow of charge = Ne T This by definition is current I...8 MOTION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD Case (i) Electron at rest: No effect ..· . carrying current I is situated in a magnetic field of intensity B wb/m 2 or tesla. of free electrons in a conductor L = length of the conductor in meters T = The time taken by the electron to travel a distance ofL meters Total no.2... I=T· Force due to magnetic field is. ( Where B is in wb/m2....11) 1.12 ) I .. Fm = Bev Newtons 1. the force F acting on the conductor is IF m = B x I x L Newtons 1.. B and v should be perpendicular to each other.Electron Dynamics and CRO J=nxexv=pxv n x e = Charge Density p in Coulombs I v = Velocity in m/sec. L in meters and F is in Newtons.. J = Current Density in Amp/m2. F = Bev v = 0 m ' Fm=O ~ will be there. only when B and v are perpendicular to each other. Electron velocity making an angle '9' with the field: Motion is helix.. I in amps.. (1.2..7 FORCE IN A MAGNETIC FIELD If a conductor of length L..8. Case (ii) Case (iii) Case (iv) Electron-moving parallel to the field: No effect. Force experienced by each electron due to magnetic field. m3 15 .. B is the magnetic field strength in Webers per unit area ( m2 ) In the above equation 1..

7 Motion. v and B are constant in magnitude since fm is constant in magnitude and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particle. B v f flux density wb/m2 . Distance --Velocity T = period of rotation. has an acceleration toward the center of the circle of magnitude v 2/R where R is the radius ofthe path in meters.J2m Vo B e _ 3. mv 2 . Then. This type offorce resolution is motion in a circuluar path with constant speed. The path described is a circle since it is analogous to a mass tied to a rope.37 X lO-6 RB If v Vo rv . velocity of the electron along x .. a particle moving in a circular path with a constant speed v.=eBv R R= mv Be v = J2e v o m R= =F ~J2evo B. force acting on the particle or electron in the y-axis. Let.axis) perpendicular to paper. twisted and related the motion of the mass.. m.e m = .in magnetic field. y ~ I I B' Fig 1. R T=21tv Circumference Velocity . direction being along the neutral axis (z .!. To find the radius ofthe circle.16 Electronic Devices and Circuits A particle whose initial velocity has no component perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field will continue to move with constant speed along the lines of the flux.axis.

.\ x z Fig 1.. Be. f due to Sin8 impact is v Cos 8 force = B... This means that fast moving particles describe large circles and slow moving particles describe small circles.e (v Sin 8) .. B ..._ .:0.7 . I The time period is independent of speed or radius.. v the initial velocity is making an angle '8' with B.. v cos 8 is along the axis ofB.8 Initial Velocity making an angle 8. y v I<) co'" . Initial velocity is making an angle '8' with the field: P = pitch of the helix.v Be' IT = ¥ x 10-12 sec.= ... force due to v Cos 8 = 0. v sin 8 is perpendicular to B.--m- ~ . But the time taken by them to describe those circle is same. Ifwe resolve v along horizontal and perpendicular axis. v = V--.. m and e....Electron Dynamics and CRO mv 17 out R= Ik 2nmv 2nm T = ..R R = m v Sin 8 / B e If the initial velocity v is due to potential V.. f= Be v Sin8 = m v Sin 2 2 v=v Sin 8 mv 2 f=R R e mvSin e Be= . v = Velocity. 'B' is in z plane. Substituting vaues of n.

the motion is helix because of v Cos e electron moves in that direction in a straight line. it will describe a circle.) IfP is the pitch of the helix.sec.5 An electron initially at rest is accelerated through a 2 KV and then enters into a region in which a magnetic field of flux density 0. The field region is confirmed betwen two parallel planes. p = v Cos e.03 wb / m2 is maintained.. T The distance covered along the B direction in one revolution is called the pitch of the helix.37 x 10B 16 l-v vain e rrv]s· T = Period of rotation 21tR T=-vSine mvSine R=--Be 21tm vSin e 21tm T=----=-Bev Sine Be T = B 35. . _ - rv Problem 1.. T= R= 21tR vSin e m v Sin e eB 21tm T=eB P= ~2e Vo = .In e -_ 3. Determine the distance between this initial path axis and the point at which the electron leaves the field region assuming that all the trajectory is within a vacuum.2 x 10-6 v va· C os e B Therefore. v Cos e 21tm -m eB 21.18 Electronic Devices and Circuits R~ : . 3 cm apart perpendicularly to the initial path. ~[~2~VO 1 SinS R = -1 B ~m e " -V'Va S.5 picoseconds (p. and because ofv Sin e.

10 For Problem 1.. __ ..--.6. eB v= R= ~2:V ~~2ev =~2mv ..Electron Dynamics and CRO 19 Solution E is the point where the electron enters the magnetic field.. calculate the transit time of the electron ..6 An electron finds itself at rest at electrode B as shown in Fig.lxI0-31 x2x103 v eB Radius of the circle.5. R=5 cm . A voltage pulse as shown in Fig.:.---.Therefore the centre cannot lie any where else except along OE. A 100 V 'so B oCIi<.= B ev R mv 2 or mv R=- . OAC is right angled triangle OC = 3 cm. .03 Fig 1.. and the plates could be assumed to have a geometry starting from the fundamentals. .. OA = 5 em. OAC is a right angled triangle.. .~ t = 0 0.1 O. AD ? v E .. .l see Fig 1.01 f.9 For Problem 1. EA is the arc of the circle of radius OA.4 cm = I cm The centre should lie along the OE only since E is a part on the circle and A is also a point of the circle.11 For Problem 1. Fig 1.5 em ----.. 1.6xlO19 I x-0.11 of amplitude 100 volts and direction of 0. .01 x 10-6 sec is applied so that electrode A becomes positive with reference to B. Problem 1. If the distance between A and B is 5 cm..~ m e 2x9.----s"'witeh-----il /11---.. EA is the path of electorn because of the effect of magnetic field.6. OA= B o 1..I. _ _~~ . OC = 3 cm AC =4 em CD = OE = Radius of the circle OA But CD = 5 cm AD = 5 cm .

9 x 10 - 19 n.52xl0 6 m t =2 V 100 1 x 10-8 5 x 10- d2 3.758 x lOll x e V t2 V d 100 5xl0-2 X l 100 5 x 10. After the pulse is removed. when the pulse is applied.0 1 ~ Sec.9 x 10-8 sec 8 Total transit time 't = = t1 + t2 1..0 I x 10-6 Sec. t = ~2m~. l dl = d = m·d x "2.d .01 ~l sec.e.- V 1000 =v/m . i. 1.20 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution The electron will move to a distance d.1. 758 x 10 II x =3. e V v = -x-xt1 111 d = 1.E.758) 10-2 2 = 3.758 x 1O-2m d = (5 . 0.1 x 10-2 b=? y = d = 1 cm.24 x 10-2 m Velocity ofthe electron atthe end of the time tl = 0.7 The distance between the plates of a plane parallel capacitor is 1 cm. d be the distance travelled in 0.24 X 10-2 ----63.2 (102 8 L = 1.t 2 y=~ E-. If a direct voltage of 1000 v is applied how long will it take the electron to reach the positive plate? Solution e. Sec Problem 1. eE .52x 10 = = 0. I d + d = 5 cm I 2 Let. It will move a distance of d2 . An electron starts at rest at the negative plate. the electron will continue to move with the velocity it has acquired at the end of time t .

11 x I x 1O-~ x I x 1O-~ 1.75 x 106 m/Sec.65 x 10-<) Sec.12 Combined electric and magnetic fields.fields.19 3.9 MOTION OF AN ELECTRCN IN COMBINED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Assumption: Both fields are perpendicular to each other. 1. 2x 1.6x 10.6 X 10. Problem 1. eE /-------.lxlO.2.8 An electron is emitted from a thermionic cathode with zero initial velocity and at a potential onoo v.10 EQUATION OF MOTION m (~~] = dt 2 F I F~~ F I = Force due to Electric Field.19 x 1000 JII. Initial velocity is ::ero.- ~V V 1000 V.-"'8 Fig 1. .. An electron at point P is placed in combined Electric and Magnetic Fields as shown in Fig 1.37 J1(iI9 lO. F2 = Force due to Magnetic Field. Solution v tinal = = V---..12.31 = 18. Vx and v" are the velocities acquired by the electron due to electric and magnetic .19 x 1000 --9-.x z :.Electron Dynamics and CRO 2x9.2. Calculate the final velocity. = ~351.375 = X 21 10.6 x 10 1~ 1.-Ix-I-0---.

.. y = a .13) • x -2 = B x e x d x dt ..:. (1. 21t f = Period of rotation T = T 21t 1 f= T Be ' Be m 21tm 21t x Be ro= ... Substitute this value ofx in eq.. ( 1. eV m.E dt 2 = .--.ro 2 y y= aa -2 ffi solvipg this Second Order Differential Equation y= (I ..- Bev x .......ro 2y ro( ro y ) = a .....15 ) where a is constant... - x = roy + C] C] =0. +exV Be y=----v mxd m x - d y 2 dt 2 = y =-- ... v d .......14 ) d y 2 e. (1..... ( 1.... ""=• c......( 1..-.17 ) x = roy :.. d is constant .. (1.18) .... 14) can be written as x=roy .. (3) y=a-rox .... ( 1. +exV Be.16 ) Be Be = ro and v = y = - m y m Integrating...Cos rot) ..22 d 2y 2 Electronic Devices and Circuits mx dt 2 m =-exE-Bev x Vy .ro x ro = Angular Frequency... . y = a . --x mxd m .21tm Eq.

..19) Ix=.13 ). when Cos rot = -1 2a Ymax = 002 at ~ax= ~ . Then the equation of motion of the electron is. when rot = 21t ~ax = a 00 2 (21t . 13 Parallel electric and magnetic fields. dy dt = Voy .. So resultant motion is due to e only. voy is parallel to 8).. the magnetic field exherts no force on the electron. x is max... then also the effect of magnetic fieldis nil (Since.. x= ~(t-~) ..Cos rot) 00 Integrating to get x. m ( Negative sign is due to the direction of acceleration which is opposite to that of electric field ).e & y f o ~B x Fig 1..(1 . If the electron is possessing initial velocity v0 and is along the magnetic field.0) = 21ta 00 2 1.11 PARALLEL ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS If e and B are parallel to each other and initial velocity ofthe electron is zero. The resulting motion solely depends upon 'e' ( Fig. x is max when Sin rot = 0 x is max where Sin rot is 0 and ro is max. vy=voy-at Where 'a' is the acceleration of the electron and 'a' = E. y is max..at .. (1.Electron Dynamics and eRO 23 But x = roy x = ro [:2 ] (1 . (cot-Sin cot) I Hence the motion is cycloidal.2. 1..Cos rot) a x = .

e.· 24 Electronic Devices and Circuits Integrating.d m eV e.3 SIMPLE PROBLEMS INVOLVING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ONLY Problem 1.. x = -. The 'Radius' of the circle is independent of E. the distance travelled by the electron is ( See Section 1.. the distance travelled along y-axis increases with each revolution. i.l: . e. its motion is cycloid. And.:.9 A point source of electrons is situated in mutually perpendicular uniform magnetic and electric fields.10 )._ . the electron will describe r'rcular motion. A •c Fig 1. Determine the minimum distance from the source at which an electron with zero velocity will again have zero velocity.0 I wb/m 2 and the electric field strength is 104 V1m. AB is the minimum distance from the source of electrons (A) where the electrons will have again zero velocity.14).l: m a=If initially a component of velocity vox is perpendicular to B. So the resulting motion is helical with a pitch that changes with time. will have again zero velocity at B (FigI. The magnetic flux density is 0. 1. Therefore.=t ro a=-=m. . because of the effect of electric field E. the velocity along the field changes with time. The expression for x.-[oot . y = v oy t .Y2 at2 .2.Sin wt] 00 AB = Be = Xmax ro a The expression for Xmax = 2 x 27t 27t . ( 1. Solution When the electron is under the influence of perpendicular magnetic and electric fields. From Eg.14 For Problem 1.19). An electron emitted with zero velocity at A.9.

5xlO. Velocity.15 For Problem 1..B2 e -----.11 X x 2n: .v2 = Vo (0.12 2x 103 ~ Fa = 5. Energy = 50 eV Accelerating potentia! V0= 50 volts.93 x 105 x Eo = 4.9848) v2 = v 02 Cos 20° = Vo (0.:----. Vo = V~ = 5.~ax = . the path of the electrons will be helical.338 cm ..15.93 x 105 35..0 m wb/m 2 as shown in Fig 1.0451(4.76 x lOll C/Kg III Problem 1.: (j) = Angular frequency = T.76 )' mxB 2 e2 .2 x 106 m/s Period of rotation 't' = = 1.10 Two 50-e V electrons enter a magnetic field of 2.0-- .01-x1..: : .v2 ) T = velocity x time = 0..93987) = Vo (0.785 x 10-8 sec Components of velocities along Bare vI =v OI Cos 10°= Vo (0. one at 10° and the other at 20°. Solution Since the electron velocities are making angle 8 1. I e = 1. and 8 2 with the field.( 0..2 x 106 )(1.10.785 x 10-8 ) = 0. T= Be ) e.0451) Distance = (VI ..9397) v I .exm 2 x2n: em 2n:x10 4 x10.9848 .Electron Dynamics and CRO Be (j)= m 2n: 2n:m 25 (.0. How far apart are these electrons when they have travelled one revolution in their hel ical paths? V 02 ~~--~~-----------------+B Fig 1.

2.16. Double Beam/ Dual Beam 3. 1. In the usual eRO application.y plotters. Horizontal Output II ~--------~11l Fig 1. Dual trace 4. The voltage under examination is applied to the y-axis or as vertical input of the eRO. the x . the display appears as a stationary pattern on the eRG. . Block schematic of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO). These are basically very fast x . Storage oscilloscope. 1. eRO is an extremely useful and versatile laboratory instrument used for the measurement and analysis of waveforms and other phenomena in electronic circuits.26 1.4. 3.4 PRINCIPLES OF CRT Electronic Devices and Circuits 1. Cathode Ray Tube The block schematic is shown in Fig. 4. Ext.2 TYPES CRO's OF 1. When the input voltage is repetitive at fast rate.1 BASIC CRO CIRCUITRY: A eRO consists of 1.axis or horizontal input is an internally generated linear ramp voltage or time base signal. Single Beam 2.4. Vertical amplifier Horizontal amplifier Time base Circuit Power supplies 5.16.

a grid controlling their rate of emission.. permitting a narrow beam to emerge from the anode. to enable electrons to reach screen. The Intensity of the beam on the screen can be easily controlled by varying the grid voltage. The two electrodes are focus and astigmatism electrodes. Grid Focusing Anode Final Apperture 1 """". 1. Beam Deflection Region The beam is positioned to the desired 4. electrons are liberated with considerable energy. Graticules J--:-- Cathode Nickel Cylinder with a l.3 BEAM GENERATION Tube (CRT). in both the grid and anode.4 BEAM Focus It contains the beam focusing electrodes which change the beam pattern as a small round dot. The cathode potential is several thousand volts negative. solid state light emitting arrays ofGaAs diode and plasma cells. CRT is the heart ofCRO. and an anode collecting them. Beam Focus Section The beam is focused Space potential controls the beam Beam Post Acceleration Region 3. with respect to anode so that.4. The operation of CRT may be described by the five regions mentioned below ( Fig. there is a small hole or aperture.17 Cathode 1. This is analogous to a Vacuum Device Triode: a cathode supplying electrons. Focus control electrode adjusts the beam to be concentrated as a dot.ayer of Barium and Strantium coated on it Anode Accelerating Anodes (2000 v -10 Kv ) Vertical Plate Ilorizontal Plate ~ay Fig 1.17 ) : 1. Beam Generating Area The electron beam is generated by Thermionic Emission 2. 5. . x-y co-ordinates position Beam Target Region Display Screen. where as astigmatism control is used to make the dot as round as possible. velocity.Electron Dynamics and CRO 27 CRO nowadays is being replaced by electro luminescent panels. 1. In a CRT. c--------------------------------------/ T .4..

4.e. Projected Graticule External Graticule is screened outside the CRT screen. When the beam hits the phosphor. Internal Graticule 3.4.. The accelerating field bends the beam towards the axis and thus changes the waveform display or decreases deflection sensitivity.5 BEAM DEFLECTIO"l Electronic Devices and Circuits Many CRTs differ only in this method. Intensity knob controls the negative voltage of the grid. The grid is biased negative with respect to cathode. than does electrostatic deflection. . 1. Thus TV sets and medical monitor use Electromagnetic Deflection. Voltages applied to the acceleration anode vary from 250V to 10. Cathode in CRTs is a nickel cylinder with a layer of barium and strontium oxide deposited over it. Iffull screen beam deflection bandwidth desired is less than 20 KHz. It controls the density of electrons being emitted from the cathode. a fluoresence or light emission is observed.7 CRT DISPLAY SCREEN Phosphor is the usual read out material on the target. When the excitation beam is removed phosphorescence remains for sometime and indicates where the phosphor had been stimulated into light emission.28 1. The phosphor is classified as (1) Short persistence (decay in less than 1m sec) (2) Medium persistence (2 sec) (3) Long persistence (minutes).OOOY. yellow to green region.4. 1. For this a resistance spiral is used inside the tube envelope on which is impressed an accelerating voltage of 10 KY.8 GR\TICliLES These are the scale markings on the CRT Screen.Calcium Tungstate gives blue colour. Electromagnetic Deflection System has a substantial cost advantage. This is done by changing current levels in an inductor. Fluorescent screen material is Zinc Orthosilicate ( P-1 phosphor) P . Magnetic Deflection is accomplished by changing magnetic field.6 BEAM POST ACCEL~. i. the voltage between cathode and plate is approximately 4 KY. In electrostatic CRTs. Projected Graticule is provided with some covers and allow greater flexibility in graticule pattern. They are of three kinds 1. The Internal Graticule is screened inside the CRT screen. It has the capability of converting electrical energy into light energy. External Graticule 2. Two phenomena occur when a phosphor is bombarded with a high energy electron beam. human eye tends to peak in ~ 55000 AO. to obtain high electron emission at moderate temperatures. At high frequencies inductors with few turns are necessary to obtain fast current changes. The original accelerating field is the potential between cathode and deflection plates. Magnetic deflection allows a wider beam deflection angle.RATION This is important for writing speed. Inductive reactance increases with frequency.5 screen . 1.4.

In CRO focussing is done by varying the focusing electric voltage since the electrons arrive at the screen v. ith high velocity and there will be secondary emission. Time bases generate an output voltage which is used to move the beam across CRT screen in a straight horizontallme.C Network. An electron passing through these anodes has two forces acting on it.and so appears as a line. producing a saw tooth wave form. with an electronic switch. It consists of a single beam ('RT. When S is closed. JFET or any other electronic switching device. and accelerating anode is at 2000V. Switching can be done at a faster rate when electronic devices are used as switches. So it is an essential feature. The left to right or forward movement of the beam is called trace interval or forward trace. and the electrostatic lield between the t\\'o electrodes tends to deflect the electron. These electrons are attracted 0) the acqudag coating and returned to the cathode. 1.1 DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY Fig. C discharges. Many AC signals are functions of time. to represent time varying functions.lI1ode is at 1200V. Acqudag coating is a Graphite coating. and return the beam quickly back to its starting point.D of 800V will produce strong cb:trostatic field. 1.18 ( b) Time base wave form. The sweep action is achieved by a saw tooth wave form. Thus a P.4. The end result is that all electrons entering the lens area tend to come together at a point called the focal point. It returns rapidly from right to left and so cannot be perceived. . CI hi~ switch alternati\ el)' connects each vertical channel of CRT. Time Base Circuit A typical circuit to deflect electron beam along x-direction on the screen is as shown in Fig. ELECTROSTATIC DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY Electrostatic deflection sensitivity of a pair of deflection plates of a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is defined as the amount of deflection of electron spot produced when a voltage of I V DC is applied between the corresponding plates. From left to right.5 1. v ~t Fig 1. It is at a po. a ~ing.5. The switch can be a BJT. Dual trace CRO enable the portrayal of two vertical beams. the beam moves slov.>itive potential and returns secondary electrons to the cathode.9 TI!\IE BASE This permits an operator to display voltage or current variations in time.18 (a) R .18. A typical case is. 1.l). after each sweep.Electrol1 DYIl(lmic. The high accelerating voltage attracts the electrons and speeds it up in a forward direction. 1. focusing .\' (lilt! eRO 29 The rocu~ing anode and accelerating anode form electrostatic lens.le time base generator and t\\O identical vertical amplifiers. When the switch S is open C gets charged.

. As the beam passes through the field of the deflection plates.--+I . t t d.x .-:'. d.x a = . v . 12 x mv 2 = e x V v= Where Vd e m I~ ~2~d voltage of fixed anode in volts charge of an electron in coulomb = mass of an electron in kgs. F=ma F a= m Vd xe a=-sm The forward motion however continues at velocity v. Letthe voltage applied between the plates be V d volts and v the velocity of an electron on entering the field of the deflection plates (Fig. I = length of deflecting Plates s = Spacing between Deflecting Plates D = Distance between screen and Centre of Deflecting Plates Then. the electrons are attracted Vd xe towards the positive plate by a force equal to .s Vd xe F=exE=-s The force produces an acceleration of 'a' m/sec 2 and is equal to force divided by mass me of an electron. f S _ _-r-:.m/sec y v v sm The ratiQ of upward velocity to the forward velocity at the instant electron leaves the field is Vy _ Vd xexl ~ . 1.19).sxme xv 2 Then.-1 D Fig 1. The time taken by the electron to the traverse in the field ofthe plates is is vy ' I iv sec.30 Electronic Devices and Circuits Let two plates of length 'I' and spacing's' are kept at a distance D from the screen.: : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• •• •• tA --------1+-I~ C G D. I The upward velocity attained by the electron in Vd x e iv sec = .19 Electrostatic deflection sensitivity.-:-:-:.

. during this period be d I . We can increase D. but the size of CRT becomes large. /. Then d I = ut + YSat2 d I = Y2 = X ax ( ~ r d2 O2 ut = 0 1 t= Y .= ~ d 10 cmN .s x me x y2 y2 = 2xex Va m V 10 d=-fl x Va 2s for a given CRT. the same problem will be there.Electron Dynamics and CRO 31 The electron follows a parabolic path from A the point of entrance. ..: upward velocity at t = 0 Vd x e x 12 YS x --"----. So the only alternative left is by reducing Va' So a compromise has to be made in the design of CRT.. but then the electron may hit the plates.:sx m X y2 If e is the angle with the axis that the electron beam makes after emerging out from the field of the deflection plates.. Let Then But D = D2 + 2" 1 Vd xexl xD d = ---"------. Let the vertical displacement. Va SE = Deflection Sensitivity = v.. Then Tan e= - yy y = - or d = D x 2 2 y yy d = Vd x ex 1x O2 2 s x m xv 2 Total deflection... to point B. ( 1. to get optimum value of deflection sensitivity. Therefore deflection 'd' of the spot can be changed by changing the ratio Vd . Even after decreasing s.. the point of leaving the field... D....20 ) IxD Deflection Sensitivity SE ( with Electrostatic Field) can be increased by increasing /. and s are fixed.

Let us derive the expression for the deflection sensitivity Sm in a magnetic field. Cathode IA I °· • ·1· . the electron experience a force ofmagnitude e B Vo where Vo is velocity... since 8 is small.. .-_ _ _ _ _---'_... OM = R8.. Let.5....... . So a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) can employ magnetic field as well to get deflective on the screen.....20 Magnetic deflection sensitivity.-0 . v = o ~2evo m I = length of the magnetic field L = Distance between circle of the field and the screen y = Total y deflection B = flux density in wb/m 2 Vo = initial velocity V 0 = accelerating voltage SM = Deflection sensitivity due to magnetic field = m/wblm2 = m 3 /wb The path OM will be the arc of a circle whose centre is at Q. The path OM will be the arc of a circle whose centre is at Q. The electron moves in a straight line from the cathode to the boundaries '0' of the magnetic field.32 1.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC DEFLECTION SENSITIVITY Electronic Devices and Circuits Magnetic Deflection in a Cathode Ray Tube Electron will get deflected in magnetic field also.. In the region of the uniform magnetic field. The velocity of the particle.. where R is the radius of the circle.. .. the beam is deflected upward.. f-Z--p 8 :0' 1 1 1 • 1 X . If we assume a small angle of deflection OM::::: I 8= - I R ..( 1 L :~/~I Fig 1. If the magnetic field points out of the paper. p' Q • p' Jr'------c .

to produce B. Disadvantages For high frequency this is not used because of the high reactance produced by the coils. the length of the deflecting plates in the direction of the beam is 2 cm. y=L tan 8 when 8 is small.= . o "Vo Because of high deflection sensitivity.Y.B I..eB l.036 cmN. s = 0.B But 8= . the spacing ofthe plates is 0... Problem 1..= .e. . tubes. it will pass through the centre 0' of the region of the magnetic field.11 In a CRT.5 cm and the distance of the fluorescent screen from the centre of the plate is 18 cm.072 cmN Va = 1000 V. and since SE a -V whereas SM a ~.Electron Dynamics and CRO 33 But radius of the circle is mv R=eB In all practical cases. y = L8 I l.. Ion spot formation creates a black spot at the centre of the screen. SE = 0. SMB Advantages I I Compared to electrostatic deflection SM is high. ~2Vo ~2. it is used in radars and T. therefore if MP' is projected backwards. Va = 1500 V. Ie Deflection sensitivity -1. L » I.~~8500 = 0. SE = 0.= = R mv m~2emVo 8= .B V.Vo I. Radial deflection can be accomplished easily by rotating coils placed outside.5 cm (a) For Va = 500 V Deflection Sensitivity SE= (b) (c) For For 2x~. Calculate the deflection sensitivity in m/volt if the final anode voltage is (a) 500 V (b) 1000 V (c) 1500 V Solution ID Deflection sensitivity = 2sVa 1=2 cm D= 18 cm.024 cmN. Ie y=L V.

1= 1.= 18. .JlOOO ve = -co-s-e = .... L..l.65 mm/v.21 ) v v =-R cose v = Fig 1.l D 2sVa = vy 30x2x24 2xO.4 x 10-2 SE = . a pair of deflecting plates are 2. 2Vo 1.'--------+ V .78x106 0. (b) The angle which the beam makes with the axis of the tube on emerging from the field (c) Velocity of the beam on emerging from the field.34 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 1.9982 Problem 1. Solution (a) Deflection produced d= Vd.0 cm long and are spaced 0. 1.06 -t'-L.67 cm .87 x 106 mlsec 18.75 x 106 m/sec V ~2eVa -- X . . Calculate (a) The displacement produced by deflecting voltage of 30V.B=? Vo=400V B = 6. d = -.475cm.13 The electrons emitted from the thermionic cathode of a Cathode Ray Tube gun are accelerated by a potential of 400 V.44cm Vd l 2sVa 30x2 2x1000xO..27 x 19.B Y = 2.475 x 400 30 V will produce deflection 000 x 0.67 cm = r.5 (b) Tan e = -D 0 .-1.27cm.rn-.D 1..4cm. ~ m L=19. Determine SE.I=1.21 For Problem 1.98 = 2. (c) e = 3 26' v Tan e =. What must be the magnitude of a transverse magnetic field acting over the whole length of the tube in order to produce the same deflection as that produced by a deflecting potential of30 V? Solution 2.12 In a CRT.94 x 105 x VVa = 5..4 cm..:.= = 0. v Resultant Velocity V R' (Fig.5 cm apart.5xlOOO = 1.= = 0..27 cm and d = 0. The final anode voltage is 1000 V. The essential dimensions are L = 19. The distance from the center of the plates to the screen is 24 cm.sVa 2 x 0.22 x 10-5 wb/m2 .1~ hr" = 5.94 x 105 me = 18.

37 X 10- ry " Yo B = 3.6 G == 0. whose strength is 0.5 6 = I.19 x 107 m/sec.Electro!.screen distance is 20cm. 1. The anode potential is 400 V. it will describe a circle of arc OA.8 cm .6 6 c~ f2eV:: x 10-4 wb/m2 Radius of the circle described by the electron due to earth magnetic field R = 3. Now initial velocity.14 Calculate the deflection of a cathode ray beam caused by the earth's magnetic field.224 Y + 400 == 0 or y = 1. whose radius == AC.x . o o~----------~ ~======:::::::::--:::--------------- ---lry B D DA=20~A R Fig 1.22 Deflection in CRT due to Earth's magnetic field. Earth's magnetic field = 0./400 6xlO.y)2 + 202 = 1122 y2 . Assume the tube axis is so oriented that it is normal to the field. The Anode .J 2 m = 112 cm AC = 112 cm CO = Radius of the circle =AC == 112 cm CD = (112 .22) and is accelerated by anode potential of 400 V..6 G. Because of the effect of earth's magnetic field. AB is the deflection of the electron on the screen (y). v' o = V~ = 1. Solution The electron starts at 0 ( Fig.y) (112 . Dynamics and CRO 3S Problem 1.37 x 10.

2Vo X = x d x Sin 28· m V ' Force experienced by electron in magnetic field f = B x I x L Newtons • • y SE = -. the number of divisions are measured.6 x 10.6. on the timescale. The current'!' through the resistor can be determined using the formula I = V / R.sec (or ). Time 'T' is determined by mUltiplying No. etc. .C. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1. SE = 2s Va SM= Electromagnetic Deflection Sensitivity.. signal waveform on CRO. Frequency f = T 1 SUMMARY • E = _. when the initial velocity is making an angle 8 with the field is parabola.19 Joules The trajectory of an electron in uniform retarding electric field.1 CURRENT MEASUREMENT USING CRO The voltage drop (V) across a resistor 'P' is measured using CRO.t sec) / Div.2 FREQlJENCY MEASllREMENT By observing the A. 1. y= ex E x t 2 2m Transit Time "t = ~ exV x d 2m • • • 1 eV = 1. v= ~2X:V .36 1.VDisplay Indicators Diagrams Computer Monitors. IxD = Electrostatic Deflection Sensitivity. of divisions with m.6 APPLICATION OF CRO (1) Electronic Devices and Circuits Voltage Measurements Frequency Measurements Phase Measurements T.6. V d ' F = e x E·.

When a current carrying conductor oflength L is placed in a magnetic field of strength B............ Electric Field Intensity E = ........................................ .... 20....... 23.......... ......... deflection is independent of specific charge (elm)....... 17... .......... Force experienced by an electron in a magnetic field of Intensity B..................................... Expression for electromagnetic deflection sensitivity SM = ................................................... the force experienced by the conductor is F m = .... 13...... Relativistic correction should be applied if an electron falls through a potential of above . 5.... The nature of signal ( wave shape) of Time Base in a CRO is .... 16............... 21... Its units are .... Expression for electrostatic deflection sensitivity SE = .. ........... volts.. .............. The .............. The total number of electrons passing through any cross section in unit times is .. 22................................ 15........ ........... the famous ....... 12..................... figures are obtained on the screen.......... When an electron enters the magnetic field with a velocity v in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field...................... ... 19..... ............. ........... ........ Coating which provides the return path for electrons after striking the CRO Screen Cathode Material used in Cathode Ray Tube ....... The trajectory of an electron in two dimensional motion subjected to an electric field between two plates of a capacitor is ............................ 2.. 7. .... 24... The trajectory of an electron moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is The time taken T for one revolution of an electron in a magnetic field....Electron Dynamics and CRO 37 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1........... Newtons... 18.. 25... Graduated scales on the CRO Screen are called as ........ 3................... is T = . The ........ 9......... Expression for the velocity of electron v in terms of acclerating potential V = .............. ........... 6................... The acceleration of an electron placed in an electric field of intensity & is a = ............... 4..... ......... the magnetic force results in .... Electrostatic deflection sensitivity is defined as ........... Electromagnetic deflection sensitivity is defined as .. . 11. An electron takes T seconds to travel the distance L.. ........ and moving with velocity v is r = .................. ..... deflection sensitivity is inversely proportional to the square of accelerating potential............ The energy acquired by an electron in rising through a potential of one volt is A Conductor of length L consists of N electrons... When suitable alternating voltages are impressed against two pairs of deflecting p!ates in a CRO... fm = .... motion of the electron... Expression for the radius of an electron placed in a magnetic field of intensity B..... 14......... 8. ........ 10..... The mass of a particle moving with a velocity v in terms of its rest mass mo is given by m = ..............

1 x 10. 8..19 1. of charge e.19 (d) 1. when placed in an accelerating field &. is 1= Ne (a) -t- (b) (c) Ne tA (d) NA et 4. Give the constructional details of Cathode Ray Tube. 4.93)( 105 9. With the help of a neat sketch. 7. with electron density N per mJ . Zero '&' vim and magnetic B£ em (b) Be m e. in time t secs.9 105 5 3.. describe principle and working of Cathode Ray Tube.JV mlsec 5 10 .. 5.JV Km/sec Ne tL (b) (d) .59 x 10 .JV cmlsec 3. with initial velocity zero m/sec. £ (c) B rrt (d) 5. The expression for current I passing through a conductor of cross sectional area 'A'm1. is . 3. (a) 5. volts the final velocity is. If the electron starts at rest with initial velocity potential +V. The force experienced by an electron in parallel electric field field 'B' wb/m1.JV mlsec 5. Derive the expression for the velocity acquired by an electron.7 x 10-9 (c) 6. the path of the electron is (a) (c) Common parabola Prolate parabola (b) (d) Curtate parabola Trochoid 6. Derive the expression for radius 'R' and time period 'T' in the case of an electron placed in a magnetic field of intensity B tesla. Compare Electrostatic and Electromagnetic deflection mechanisms What are the applications of CRO? Give the block schematic of CRO and explain. Derive the expression for electrostatic deflection sensitivity Derive the expression for electromagnetic deflection sensitivity. 2.53 x =0 x m/Sec and is accelerated by (c) ..6 x 10.. If aL electron is placed in combined '&' and 'B' fields and if '&' and 'B' are perpe ldicular to each other. and if the initial velocity is perpendicular to magnetic field IS.6 x 10 19 Joules 2. CRT screens with medium persistance will have visible glow on the screen for a period of (a) 1 minute (b) 2 secs (c) 1 m sec (d) few minutes . MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. 6..38 Electronic Devices and Circuits ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Joules (b) 1. 1 ev (a) = .

transport mechanism. We shall also study the physical phenomena such as corniuction. zener diode. Extrinsic. tunnel diode and so on. and Semiconductors are introduced. • The basic aspects connected with Semiconductor Physics and the terms like Effective Mass. This forms the basis to study Semiconductor Devices in the following chapters. Configurations. and applications of semiconductor diodes. After p-type and n-type semiconductors.In this Chapter. Conductivity inp-type and n-type semiconductors are given . Atomic Structure. Intrinsic. • • • . we shall study semiconductor devices formed using these two types of semiconductors. Concept of Hole. electrical characteristics.

The proton in the nucleus carries the charge of the atom.1 2. (Therefore. It consist of protons which are positively charged. there is one positively charged nucleus ( a proton) and a single electron. m is the mass of electron and acceleration. We want to calculate the radius of this circle. and then conduction in Semiconductors. The force of attraction between electron and proton follows Coulombs Law.40 Electronic Devices and Circuits In this chapter. Assume that the orbit of the electron around nucleus is a circle. then the force of attraction given by the above expression F should be equal to the 2 centripetal force mv r (according to Newton's Second Law of Motion) ( F = m. The force of attraction between the electron and the nucleus is : F a e2 .. the nucleus has the proton with electron charge equal to 'e') F a 1 ~ ( r is the radius of the orbit) where Eo 10-9 is the permitivity of free space.1 REVIEW OF SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS ENERGY LEVELS AND ENERGY BANDS To explain the phenomenon associated with conduction in metals and semiconductors and the emission of electrons from the surface of a metal. 361t As the electron is moving around the nucleus in a circular orbit with radius r. Electronic structure of Silicon and Germanium elements. The mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus. Semiconductor Device Physics. {directly proportional to product of charges and inversely proportional to (distance )2}.1. so it is immobile. we have to assume that atoms have loosely bound electrons which can be removed from it. in terms of total energy oW' of the electron.) r v2 . Rutherford found that atom consists of a nucleus with electrons rotating around it. we shall first study the basic aspects of Atomic Theory. The charge on particle is positive and is equal to that of electron.F/m. a = . Energy Band Theory. Its value is . In hydrogen atom. 2.a. and with velocity v. The electron will be moving around it in a closed orbit. So hydrogen atom is neutral in charge.

Therefore this r 2 electron should also radiate energy. Therefore. So.Junction Diode Characteristics e2 e2 --4-1tEor 41 The Potential Energy of the electron = ---2 41tEor X r = ( -ve sign is because Potential Energy is by definition work done against the field) Kinetic Energy = ~ mv 2 Total Energy W possessed by the electron But e2 mv 2 = . Electron is having charge = e.. If r is < 00.. When r is infinity. If the charge is performing oscillations with a frequency 'f'. .= . So OW' should go on decreasing to satisfy the equation.should decrease..-8-1tEor e2 W is the energy ofthe electron. Potential Energy is zero. e2 If W decreases.81tEor 41tEor 81tE or Energy possessed by the electron W = . . then its total energy OW' must decrease by the amount equal to the radiation energy.41tEor = -2 mv --4-1tEor I 2 e2 reduces to e2 e2 e2 W= . an accelerated charge must radiate energy. The negative sign arises because the Potential Energy of the electron is 81tEor As radius r increases. Hence the frequency of the radiated energy from the electron should be equal to the frequency with the electron orbiting round the nucleus.. r should decrease. But if the electron is radiating energy... But according to classical laws of electromagnetism. the electron should describe smaller and smaller orbit and should finally fall into nucleous. r should also decrease. Only for Hydrogen atom W will also be the energy of atom since it has only one electron. then the frequency of the radiated energy should also be the same. e2 W=--81tE o r .. (Any quantity less than 0 is negative). Therefore the energy of the electron is negative. this quantity 81tEor should become more negative. Smce If . So classical model of atom is not fairly satisfactory. Potential Energy decreases. the energy should be less. The above equation is derived from the classical model of the electron. It is moving with velocity v or acceleration ~ around the nucleus.

E = Kinetic Energy of the Free Electron p=Momentum v=Velocity m = Mass p=mv m* = Effective mass of electron p2 E=2m Electrons in a solid are not free.3 EFFECTIVE MAss An electron mass 'm' when placed in a crystal lattice. So mvr =- h 3. He postulated three fundamental laws. nh 2tr where n is an integer. When its energy changes from W2 to WI then the atom is said to have moved from one stationary state to the other.. 2. Only during transition. when the atom is in stationary state. will some energy be radiated. When the energy of the electron is changingfrom W2 to WI then radiation will be emitted The frequency of radiation is given by f= W2 -W\ where 'h' is Plank s Constant. They move under the combined influence of an external field plus that of a periodic potential of atom cores in the lattice.1.42 2. A stationary state is determined by the condition that the angular momentum of the electron in this state must be an integral multiple of h127r. other than zero. responds to applied field as if it were of mass m*.2 THE BOHR ATOM Electronic Devices and Circuits The above difficulty was resolved by Bohr in 1913.e..sec.e. The atom remains in the new state corresponding to WI. 1. h = 6.1. it does not emit any radiation. While in states corresponding to these discrete energy levels. Vg = O. The reason for this is the interaction of the electron even within lattice.626 x 10-34 J . An electron moving through the I~ttice can be represented by a wave packet of plane waves grouped around the same value of K which is a wave vector. Electron velocity falls to zero at each band edge. 2. electron does not emit radiation in stationary state. This is because the electron wave further )ecomes standing wave at the top and bottom ofa band i. i. . The atom can possess only discrete energies.

in time dt. Ifthe electron has an instantaneous velocity Vg and moves a distance dx in the direction of an accelerating force F. where m* = 1i 2 x d2 E . where 5E = F x 5x = F x Vg x 5t F oE 5E= . Forces associated with the periodic lattice are also present. d2 E dp2 This is of the form. we can write.. it acquires energy dE.-] [ dp2 -1 anda= dv -g dt dv g F=m* x dV where m* is the effective mass... Acceleration of an electron in a solid = 2 df = dt dP dv d (d E ) . . ( 2. d E = (d P)(d t) Vg = dE dp F h dk dt r But = h dk xdt F Ii dk dt from Eq.. ( 2.. from Newton's Laws of Motion...F = rna. dK F . Acceleration of an electronic wave packet in a solid is equal to the rate of change of its velocity.Junction Diode Characteristics 43 Now consider an electronic wave packet moving in a crystal lattice under the influence of an externally applied uniform electric field.x x 5t h ok Vg = oE hok Within the limit of small increments in K.1 ) dt But this is not the case for the electron in a solid because the externally applied force is not the only force acting on the electrons...1') d 2E F dp2 = ~ dt or ) = (d P dt t1 .

In an atom. On the other hand. the electron will accelerate and its velocity and energy will increase. ( 2. ( 2.( 2. So the electron is said to have negative mass. its energy will increase and its velocity decreases.. ( 2.5 ) Substituting the value ofr in Eq.... e2 2 =-- mv 2 r v = velocity. Electronic Devices and Circuits If an electric field E is impressed. when the field is applied.4 ) . if an electron is at the upper end of a band.------:::--::-2 2 81tE o n h E0 ...5).. then W = .. n = Principle Quantum Number........ Hence the electron is said to have positive mass. nh mvr= 21t nh v = 21tmr . Energy possessed by the atom in the stable state is W= e2 81t Eo r e 2 x 1tme2 ...... r = radius of Orbit e mv 2 --=--x 41t Eo r e2 r = 41tEo mv 2 But ....44 .. Coulombs force of attraction = mv 2 Centripetal Force = .. r n h E = __---'<-0 2 2 1tme 2 This is the expression for radii of stable states.2 ).. ..3 ) Substituting the value ofv in Equation ( 2..... (2.r e2 2 41t Eo r Equating these two forces in an atom.2 ) h = Plank's Constant.......

This is the characteristic of the given elem'ent. the energy of different states is expressed in eV rather than in Joules. radiating. Other stationary states are called excited. h (E2 .< 1. Eo = r= 1O-9/361t Substituting the values and simplifYing.6 x 10. The lowest energy state is called the normal level or ground level.58 A O 2. Generally.19 6.sec.WI J h f= A C = Velocity of Light = 3 x 10 10 cm / sec. F= W2 C .6xIO-19 A.E I )>. Solution n=I n h EO 2 2 1tme 2 Plank's Constant.6 x 10-19 Joules I C = (E2-EdxI. the value of the free electron concentration will be different.1. This is only for convenience since Joule is a larger unit and the energy is small and is in electron volts.4 ATOMIC ENERGY LEVELS For different elements. Problem 2.1 Determine the radius of the lowest state of Ground State. and the emitted radiation is expressed by its wavelength A rather than by its frequency. h = Plank's Constant = 6. II eV = 1.} 0-34 J-sec Permitivity. By spectroscopic analysis we can determine the energy level of an element at different wavelengths. f= Frequency of Radiation A = Wavelength of emitted radiation W I and W 2 are the energy levels in Joules.626 x 10-34 .626 x .626 x 10-34 J . critical or resonance levels. h = 6.Junction Diode Characteristics 45 Thus energy W corresponds to only the coulombs force due to attraction between ground electron (negative charge) and proton (positive charge). r = 0.

A = 2. E\ and E2 are the energy levels in eY. This loss of energy of the atom results in radiation of light. Calculate the number of photons per second. When such a transition occurs. . (E2 . This is explained with a numercial example given below. But this is not true. Radiation of energy in the form of photons takes place only when the transition of electrons will take place from higher energy state to lower energy state.88 eV/photon 0.E\) A = Wavelength of the emitted radiation. Solution A= 12.E\) h .1 % of the electric energy supplied to the lamp. of this wavelength emitted by the lamp. 0. and E2 and EI in eV..E\) = 2.EI)x 1. (E2 ...19 (E2 .. 0.537 AO.626x10. the number of photons liberated is very large. the electrons will loose energy equal to the difference of energy levels (E2 ..E\) = ? ' 12. or 3x1010 x6.e.10 sec.10 m. When such photon radiation takes place.5 PHOTON NATURE OF LIGHT An electron can be in the excited state for a small period of 10-7 to 10.6 x 10- where A is in Armstrong. so that ( E2 .05 J/Sec 1W = 1 J/sec Converting thi. Problem 2.. This will not occur if the transition is from lower energy state to higher energy state. Afterwards it returns back to the original state. appears in the ultraviolet line 2. In the given problem.1. The frequency of the emitted radiation is given by f = (E2 . lAo = 10-8 cm = 10.E\).EI ).537 = 4..05 W = 0.2 For a given 50 W energy vapour lamp.E\) is the energy passed by each photon in eV of wavelength A. i ·to the electron Volts. I.400 (E2 . According to dassical theory it was believed that atoms continuously radiate energy.1 100 x 50 = 0..400 (E2 . is positive..1 % of SOW energy supplied to the lamp is>. 2.46 Electronic Devices and Circuits EI and E2 are energy levels in eY.34 A = .537 AO.

If the electron is having much energy. Problem 2.12 eY.6 IONIZATION POTENTIAL If the most loosely bound electron ( free electron) of an atom is given more and more energy. If the energy supplied to the loosely bound electron is enough large. total energy energy / photon 3. The energy possessed by the electron which is ejected is 11. it becomes detached from it.4 x 10 photon/sec 16 10 photons / sec of wavelength A = 2. Its velocity v = 6. i. it moves to stable state (since it is loosely bound. energy has to be supplied to it. Ionization Potential ofNa is 5. If the bombarding electron is having energy greater than that required to liberate a loosely bound electron from atom. 2. So another free electron results.93 = 1.6 . 6 .12 = 6.12 x 10 eV/sec This is the total energy of all the photons liberated in the A Number of photons emitted per sec 47 = Wavelength of2.51 x 10 m/sec. Electrons orbiting closer to the nucleus have stable state. to move it away completely from the influence of the parent nucleus.6 e V falls upon sodium vapor.48 volts v= ( . its tendency is to acquire a stable state.5. But the stable state acquired by the electron is away from the nucleus ofthe atom.12 eY.19 J/eV = 3.48 eV or Potential. potential is 1V) x 10 .3 Argon resonance radiation.4 x 4.Junction Diode Characteristics 0.1. Solution Ionization potential is the minimum potential required to liberate an electron from its parent atom. 2.537 A0.. and collides with an atom.05 J /sec 17 1. it gets deflected. with what speed is the dectron ejected? The ionization potential of sodium is 5.e. then this electron transfers its energy to the loosely bound electron of the atom and may remove the electron from the atom itself. But no considerable change occurs in energy.88ev / photon 16 = 6. Argon energy is 11. the excess energy will be shared by the bombarding and liberated electrons. The energy required to detach an electron is called Ionization Potential. and electron orbiting in the outermost shells are loosely bound to the nucleus). Consider the case when an electron is accelerated and collides with an atom.6 eY.537 A0. . If a photon ionizes an unexcited sodium atom. corresponding to an energy of 11.6 x 10.1.: 1eV energy. its direction changes. 12 x 10 17 ev / sec The lamp emits 6.7 COLLISIONS OF ELECTRONS WITH ATOMS If a loosely bound electron has to be liberated.48 5 ~~V = 5. This is called Elastic Collision. If this electron is moving slowly with less energy.j6.

(a) What is the energy of each radiated quantum in ev ? (b) (c) How many quanta are emitted per second? How many quanta are emitted in each period of oscillation of the electromagnetic field? Solution (a) Energy of each radiated quantum = E = hf f= 10 MHz = 107 Hz.11 eV. Total number of quanta per sec. h = 6.48 Problem 2.J2T1 = 8.626 x 10-34 107 = 6..11 Volts) V = 2.5 x 10 /sec 29 (c) One cycle = 10-7 sec Number of quanta emitted per cycle = 10-7 x 1.626 x 10-34 Joules / sec E = 6. the potential is 2.6x10. Solution 12.626 x 10-27 Joules / Quantum -----::-.5 V.400 Be> .51 Problem 2.626 x 10-27.11 eV - 5.61 x 105 m/sec.11 Volts Velocity.893 A0.14 x 10-8 eV / Quantum (b) 1W = 1 Joule/sec 1000 W = 1000 Joules/sec = Total Energy Energy possessed by each quantum = 6.893 - ( Corresponding to evergy of 2.Joules/Quantum.6 (a) x 1022 per cycle (b) What is the minimum speed with which an electron must be travelling in order that a collision between it and an unexcited Neon atom may resuit in ionization of this atom? The Ionization Potential of Neon is 21.19 6.626x 10- = 1. What is the minimum frequency that a photon can have and still be abl~ to cause Photo-Ionization of a Neon atom? .51 x 10 29 = 1. v = ~~V = 5.>2.= 1.93 x 10 5 . N = 1000 27 6.626 x 10-27 4.5 A radio transmitter radiates 1000 Wat a frequency of 10 MHz.4 Electronic Devices and Circuits With what speed must an electron be travelling in a sodium vapor lamp in order to excite the yellow line whose wavelength is 5. Problem 2.

:. . A= 12. Solution v.-.EI ) 12.Junction Diode Characteristics Solution (a) 49 Ionization Potential is 21.= 12...400 ( E2 .400 j - i - C - 3x 108 15 = 5.5 Frequency of radiation.'e o ' T = 2m = 2 2m(4mTI Eo r v But radius. 1.~ 4. .86 eV 1850° AO line is from 6.7 Show that the time for one revolution of the electron in the hydrogen atom in a circular path around the nucleus is T = 4. If one of these is the 1. :.75 x 106 m/sec (b) 12.1E = 2. The second photon must be from 8.71 eY.850 A0 line.IO Prohlem 2.= 1400 = 8.5 V Velocity = Wavelength ofradiation.J2 Eo (_ w)t .400 0 = .400 A0 is absorbed by cold mercury vapor and two other photons are emitted.= 5767Ao 2.15 e Y.400 (E2 ..EI ) = -1. So.15 . ~2:V = 5.2 x 10 Hz 577xlO.71 eV to 0 eY.400 A= .400 12.93 x 10 5 ~ = 2.86 to 6. e e r 2nrt(4nm e Eo )'12 Prohlem 2.. what is the wavelength A of the second photon? Solution 12.=577 A E2 .8 A photon of wavelength 1.EI 21.

An-electron can be in the metastable state for about 10-2 to 10-4 sec. and molecules. atoms.50 Electronic Devices and Circuits METASTABLE STATES 2. He calculated that a particle of mass 'm' travelling with a velocity v has a wavelength A given by A= ~ = ~ ( A is the wavelength of waves consisting of these mv p particles ). 2. Such levels are called metastable states. Then if an atom is in metastable state how will it come to the normal state? It cannot release a photon to come to normal state since this is forbidden. mvr=27t h 2. Thus But according to DeBroglie. A=mv nh 27tr = mv nh This equation is identical with Bohr's condition. Wave properties of moving electrons can be made use to explain Bohr's postulates.1. Another possibility is the atom in the metastable state may receive additional energy by some means and hence may be elevated to a higher energy state from where a transition to normal state can occur.10 SCHRODINGER EQllATION Schrodinger carried the implications of the wave nature of electrons. Transition from higher level to a metastable state are permitted. the photon acts as if it were concentrated in one point in space. Therefore an atom in the metastable state can come to normal state only by colliding with another molecule and giving up its energy to the other molecule.1. If deBroglie's concept of . n = Principle Quantum Number. Metastable state has a long lifetime because they cannot come to the normal state by emitting a photon. A transition from a metastable level to a normal state with the emission of radiation has a very low probability of occurence. This is the mean life of a metastable state. and several of these will occur.8 An atom may be elevated to an excited energy state by absorbing a photon of frequency 'f and thereby move from the level of energy WI to the higher energy level W 2 where W 2 = WI + hf But certain states may exist which can be excited by electron bombardment but not by photo excitation (absorbing photons and raising to the excited state). but is also exhibited by particles such as electrons. where 'p' is the momentum of the particle. dual character of wave and particle is not limited to radiation alone. A branch of physics called Wave Mechanics or Quantum Mechanics was developed by him. So wave properties can not be attributed to such atoms and they behave like particles.9 WAVE PROPERTIES OF MATTER An atom may absorb a photon of frequency f and move from the energy level W I to the higher energy level W 2 where W 2 = WI + hf Since a photon is absorbed by only one atom. Therefore according to 'deBroglie' hypothesis. A stable orbit is one whose circumference is exactly equal to the wavelength A or nA where n is an integer other than zero.1. 27t r = nA r = radius of orbit.

...6.. y.2 2 2 at = jro\jJ(x.=-=- h h v = Velocity. y and z only.6. e iwt {\7 2\jJ + v12 x 41t2f2\jJ} = ° v But '). z and t.2 But '). 8 1 v2 2 <I> _ 8t 2 - 0...Junction Diode Characteristics 51 wave nature of electrons is correct. \jJ is a function of x.. = -.. v is the velocity of the wave... y. It is \7 2<1> __ .2 mv p p=mv This is deBrogile's Relationship.+ ...1) 82 82 82 8x 8y2 8z <I> can be a component of electric field or displacement or pressure. and 't' is the time.. (2..y. co = Angular Frequency = 2 1tf co is regarded as constant..z)e.+ . y.. y. while differentiating. then it should be possible to deduce the properties of an electron system from a mathematical relationship called the Wave Equation or Schrodinger Equation..ro 2 \jJ(x. '). The variable can be eliminated in the equation by assuming a solution. z.. ... 2 f ' Wavelength = 41t2 Velocity Frequency . z)e This represents the position of a particle at 't' in 3-D Motion. = h2 p2 ... jwt <I> (x.2) \7 \jJ+-\jJ = ° '). <I> is a function of x. t) = \jJ (x.. z)eJwt 2 8 <1> 8t 2 = . But To get the independent Schrodinger Equation where \7 = .lCl)t 8<1> co = 27Tf But co 2 = 41t2j So. Substituting th is in the original Schrodinger's Equation.. (2... .

3) in Eq. I\{' 12( dx x dy x dz) is proportional to the probability of finding an electron in volume dx.7.U ) . (n -1) The magnitude of this angular momentum is ..3.. \{' is a quantity whose square gives the probability offinding an electron. This number gives the orientation of the classical orbit with respect to an applied magnetic field. 2. The electron angular momentum is given by ms may have values +Y2 or -Y2. Four quantum numbers are required to define the wave function. dy and dz at point P(x.Potential Energy (U) p2 = 2 ( W .7.. Electron Spin: It was found is 1925 that in addition to assuming that electron orbits round the nucleus.. Tile Principal Quantum Number 'n' : It is an integer 1.. This intrinsic electronic angular momentum is called Electron Spin.. ±2 . which describes the behavior of the particle...~). (2:) where the spin quantum ms number .. I. y. m h2 = h2 ( W V2 \{' p2 2m U) .11 WAVE FliNCTION \{' is called as the wave function. (2.. .2) we get.. 3. Tile Orbital Angular Momentum Quantum Number I: It takes values 0.1. This number determines the total energy associated with a state. -2- + 87t m 2 2. h This is the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation \{' is a function of't' But this equation as such is not containing the term 't'.E. .U) \{' = 0..: K. Tile orbital magnetic number m. = Y2mv2 Kinetic Energy = Total Energy (W) .. When an electron system is subjected to a magnetic field.52 But Electronic Devices and Circuits p2 = m2 v 2 = 2 ( Kinetic Energy )m .. They are: 1. z). 4..: This will have values 0. in addition to orbiting round the nucleus. the spin axis will orbit itself either parallel or anti-parallel to the direction of the field..J(iXI + 1) x J:. It is same as the quantum number 'n' of Bohr atom. (2. 2.. 27t It indicates the shape of the classical orbit.2.3) Substituting Eq. (2. it is also necessary to assume that electron also spins around itself.. ± I. 1.6. ± I.. (W . The magnitude of the Angular Momentum along the direction of magnetic field = mr(.

p..e. A shell is subdivided into sub shells corresponding to values of 1and identified as s. it is's' sub shell If 1= I... .4 ....Junctil}n Diode Characteristics 2. n ... it is 'p' sub shell Number of electron in's' sub shell ( i.1 Shell . This is shown in Table 2... I s2 ) If n = 2. ELECTRONIC SHELLS ( PRINCIPLE QUANTLIM NllMBER ) All the electrons which have the same value of on' in an atom are said to belong to the same electron shell...vill occupy the lower most quantum state... Table 2. M.. h. is the only possibility Number of electrons in K shell = 2(21 + I) = 2(0 + I) = 2 electrons.. d. n = I. Electrons ". N corresponding to n = 1. of electron K 1 0 0 S L M N 4 2 0 1 2 I I 3 1 0 1 2 d 3 f s I P 8 s P d s P 32 2 2 2 I6 2 I 6 18 I 10 2 I 6 I 10 J 14 ELECTRON SHELLS AND SllBSHELLS Number of Electrons in a sub shell = 2(21 + I) n = I corresponds to K shell 1= corresponds to s sub shell 1 = 0. 1= 0) = 2 x (21 + I) = 2(0 + I) = 2 Number of electron is 'p' sub shell (i.. respectively..2.. L.... . (n . These shells are identified by letters K. K shell will have 2 electrons.. I. subshell ..I) if n = I. No.. This is written as I s2 pronounced as "one s two" ( I corresponds to K shell. for 1= 0.1. 2.1. 1= I) = 2[ (I x 2) + I)] = 6 In 1 shell there are two sub shells. mt and ms. Therefore..e.12 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 53 PAlIU'S EXCUISION PRINCIPLE No two electrons in an electron system can have the same set of four quantum numbers n. 3 . 1 . g. s is the sub shell corresponds to 1= number of electron is 2. sand p.. I. f.3. Total number of electron in 1shell = 2 + 6 = 8 This can be represented as 2s2 2p6 ° 1= ° ° . it is 'I' shell If 1= 0.

So the electronic configuration of Silicon is.54 If n = 3.e. The sum of subscripts 2 + 2 + 6 + I = 11. Total number of electrons in M shell = 10+ 6 + 2 = 18 This can be represented as 3s2 3p6 3d 1o Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 1o 4s 2 4p6 4d lO ELECTRONIC CONFIGllRATION Atomic number 'z' gives the number of electrons orbitin§ round the nucleus. . As the temperature is increased. For Carbon... Some electrons may acquire energy greater than EB sufficient to escape from the metal. the metal is in the form of a filament and is heated by passing a current through it.. 1= 0) 2(21 + 1) In 'p' sub shell number of electrons (/ = 1) = 2(2 + 1) = 6 In 'd' sub shell number of electrons (l =2) = 2(2 x 2 + 1)= 10 . 2 In's' sub shell number of electrons (l =0) = 2( :. It is the atomic number represented as Z. In 'L' shell there are two sub shells and p. corresponding to 1= 0. EB Barrier's Energy EF = Fermi Level Ew = Work Function. So from the above analysis. Z = 6. In 'k' shell there is one sub shell (s) (/= 0). Then I shell ( n = 2 ) and so on. electron configuration can be given as 1s2 2s2 2p 3s I. 1. So the electronic configuration of Germanium is. First k shell (n = 1 ) is to be filled. Secondary Emission Photoelectric Emission High field Emission. the electron energy distribution starts in the metal changes. It is the characteristic of the substance.s and then p are to be filled and so on.1. The electron configuration is I s2 2s2 2p2 For the Ge Z = 32.. Different types of Emission by which electrons can emit are (1) Thermionic Emission (2) (3) (4) 1. p. it is M shell Electronic Devices and Circuits It has 3 sub shell s. First . i. Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 1o 4s 2 4p2 For the Si Z = 14. But this energy is not sufficient for electrons to escape from the surface. THERMIONIC EMISSION Suppose.. . the Atomic Number is 6. Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 2. They must posses energy EB = EF + Ew where Ew is the work function in e V. This has to be filled. .13 TVPES OF ELECTRON EMISSION Electrons at absolute zero possess energy ranging from 0 to EF the fermi level. d.

.434 So if a graph is plotted between (log Ith ..Dushman Equation. the T result will be a straight line having a slope = .. Ith It is alsb written as I = S x Ao T2 e. ) from which Ew can be determined. say 1 to the metal of higher Work Function say 2..52 eY. Ith and T can be determined experimentally.!h.1 .. CONTACT POTENTIAL Consider two metals in contact with each other formingjunction at C as in Fig 2.. Taking logarithms This equation is called Thermionic Emission Current or Richardson ..... The reason for the difference of potential is. just out side metal 1 and a point B just outside metal2.' Ew = EB .434 (~.7 ) . ) ~. ( . the thermionic current is. Ew is also called as latent heat of evaporation of electrons similar to evaporation of molecules log Ith = log (S Ao) . when two metals are joined.E" IKT ~-8 kT .2 log T) V s Ew 2 (~. . Based upon that.434 log e = 0.0. It is possible to calculate the number of electrons striking the surface of the metal per second with sufficient energy to be able to surmount the surface barriers and hence escape. electrons will flow from the metal of lower Work Function.0.. For Tungsten.. = J = AoT2 e S = AT2 e T where where A=Ao S = Ao= T = K = and B= Ew k Area of the filament in m 2 ( Surface Area) Constant whose dimensions are A/m 2 oK Temperature in oK Boltzman's constant eV/oK Work function in e V Ew = from a liquid. It represents the amount of energy that must be given for the electron to be able to escape from the metal. Flow of electrons from metal I to 2 will continue till metal 2 has acquired . Ith is a very strong function ofT.kT log e + log T log Ith . The contact difference of potential is defined as the Potential Difference V AB between a point A.EF electrons of lower work function means Ew is small or EF is large). Ew = 4.2 log T = log S Ao . ( 2..Junction Diode Characteristics 55 Ew : Work function of a metal.

the electrons will have energies ranging from zero to EF . and the voltage is reduced below 2V. But it doesn't happen This shows that electrons are emitted from surface of the emitter with different velocities.Ew]. As collector is at a potential less than 2V. The minimum energy required is the barrier potential to escape from the metal surface.. A B 2 c Fig 2. There is accelerating field. The effect that thermionic current continues to increase as E is increased ( even though T is kept constant) is known as Schottky Effect.= 11. the metal with lower work function becomes positive. that is. and the anode is indirectly heated. Ifmetals I and 2 are similar then contact potential is zero. This accelerating field tends to lower the Work Function of the cathode material. (2. It can be shown that under the condition of accelerating field E is I = Itlt e +0. and anode is given a positive potential.44 &l/2/T where Ith is the zero field thermionic current and T is cathode temperature in 0 OK.600 = = kT T . .. since anode is at a positive potential.56 Electronic Devices and Circuits sufficient negative charge to repel extra new electrons. EB value will be almost same for all metals. below 2V... then there will be electron emission due to thermionic emission. Consider a case where anode and cathode are plane parallel.. then there must be abrupt drop of current to zero. VT T K SCHOTTKY EFFECT = --. ENERGIES OF EMITTED ELECTRONS At absolute zero. the electrons are possessing at room temperature. If they are dissimilar. If electrons are being emitted from cathode with 2eV energy. This depends upon the initial energy. the contact difference of potential energy between two metals is equal to the difference between their work functions.e-Vt where V t is the retarding potential applied to the collector and V T is Volt equivalent of temperature.8) Temperature in OK Boltzman's Constant in JfK If a cathode is heated. Suppose the minimum energy required to escape from the metal surface is 2 eY. But EF differs significantly.1 Contact Potential In order that the fermi levels of both the metals are at the same level. since it looses electrons. then the current also decreases exponentially... the potential energy difference EAB = EW2 . electrons will be collected by the collector.. but not abruptly.. If the voltage of cathode is lower. But the electrons can acquire energy greater than EB to escape from the surface. The decrease of current is given by I = hh.. So the electrons liberated from the metal surface will also have different energies. Suppose the voltage applied to the cathode is lower.

this energy lif gets transferred to the electrons close to the metal surface whose energy i~. The physical condition of surface. whether surface is smooth or rough. The angle of incidence. By contamination or giving a coating of alkali metal on the surface. the value being 1. v= ~2:V . That is hf ~ e$ where $ is the voltage equivalent Work Function. It depends upon. very near to the barrier potential. there is a threshold frequency below which emission does not take place. The energy of the primary electrons. For photoelectric emission to take places. When such a photon impinges upon the metal surface.. Work Function expressed in Volts). 1111= =$e + eV 1 LAWS OF PHOTO ELECTRIC EMISSION 1. Yield or secondary emission ratio S is defined as the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to primary electrons. The energy possessed by photons is hfwhere h is Plank's Constant andfis frequency of incident light. (i. 2... 2. PHOTO ELECTRIC EMISSION Photo-Electric Emission consists of liberation of electrons by the incidence of light. The minimumfrequency that can cause photo-electric emission is called threshold frequency and is given by /r=The wavelength corresponding to threshold frequency is called the Threshold Wavelength.9 ) v is the Velocity of electrons in m/sec. I. The amount of photo electric emission (current) is proportional to intensity. For each photo sensitive material. it can be improved to 10 or 15... 4..e. ( 2. the energy of the photon must at least be equal to the work function of the metal. 3.. e<l> h A t =~=~ ft <l>e If the frequency ot"radiation is less than/r.. (hen additional energy appears as kinetic energy of the emitted electron hf= $e + ~ m v2 $ is the Volt equivalent of Work Function.. to overcome the barrier potential and escape from the surface of the metal resulting in photo electric emission. on certain surfaces. The type of material. Such electrons gain energy. SECONDARY EMISSION 57 This emission results from a material (metal or dielectric) when subjected to electron bombardment. 3. It is small for pure metals.5 to 2. .Junction Diode Characteristics 2.

10.10 A photoelectric cell has a cesium cathode.58 3. = 5500 10 x 10.C =e(<I>+V) A. So the electron will travel through the barrier. For fields of the order of 109 V1m. the barrier may be as thin as 100 A 0. Plank's Constant. When the cathode is illuminated with light of A.e = 1. (But the time lag is in nano-sec ).35Yo Problem 2. 4.55 V.55V to anode the emitted electrons are repelled. Photo electric current in amps/watt of incident light depends upon 1'.63 x 10-34 x 3 x 108 5500x10. h. 4. So the current can be inhibited Solution (a) 11/= e<l> + eV C V = 0.6 x 10.m.19 (<I> + 0. Electronic Devices and Circuits Photo electric emission is instantaneous. HIGH FIELD EMISSION Suppose a cathode is placed inside a very intense electric field. the minimum anode voltage required to inhibit built anode current is 0. Charge of Electron. Percentage Increase = 1261-1142 xl 00 0 1142 .10 <I> = 1. h = 6. This emission is called as High Field Emission or Auto Electronic Emission.9 Estimate the percentage increase in emission from a tungsten filament when its temperature is raised from 2400 to 2410 oK. for which photo cell can function.71 Volts = 1. by applying -0.400 oK A and B are constants tn the equation for current density J Solution JS I =AT I2 = 1142A/m2 JS 2 = ATl e -8/T = 1261 A 1m2 .2 x 104 Alm2/°K2 B = 52. Calculate ( a) The work function of cesium ( b) The longest A. Ao = 60.6 x 10.55 volts <I> = Work Function (WF) = ? f= A. Problem 2. then the Potential Energy is reduced.63 x 10-34 J sec.55) . C = 3 x 10 8 m/sec 6.19 C Velocity of Light.

Junction Diode Characteristics (b) 59 Threshold Wavelength : Ao = ~ Ao = Ch -<1>- 12.62 x 105 eV 10 K.52 eY.T .2 log T Ew)dT 2 ( T + KT2 T2 di th Ith _ - = Differentiating.52 ) ~ _ 0 kT T (8.8 x 0.8 )lOge T} 52400 log 2 = 2 log ( 2300 .11 If the temperature of a tungsten filament is raised from 2300 to 2320 OK. Ew for Tungsten = 4.6 + 2 log ( 2300 = .400 +22 8 2 = ( 2300 e T Taking log to the base 10.Ao T2 e-Ew/kT E". In Ith . log 2 = 2 log (2~0) - (52. (2 + Ew) dT _ (2 + 4.22.800 9. by what percentage will the emission change? To what temperature must the filament be raised in order to double its energy at 2300 OK.250 A O Problem 2.62xI0-5~31O 2310 .62xlO-5 Ratio of these two equation is T )2 _ 52. Boltzman's Constant K = 8. Solution (a) Ith = S.4% --452 --452 21th = S Ao (T)2 e8. In S Ao .21..434 T) 22.kT Taking Logarithms.T This is solved by Trail and Error Method to get T = 23700 K .400 = 12 400 -f:71 = 7.00 + 22.434 .x 0.

voltage.37x 10-6 ~ RadIUs of the last semIcIrcle = R = "" Yo B R= 3.~1960x103 =4718 x 10-4 m 1 .82 x 10 10 Hz 2x 106 y 40x 10. the potential is increased by 40. If the ions (electrons) cross the gap between the 0 shaped discs dees twice in each cycle. To gain 2 million electron volts = = 2. 3. Take Ew = 1. Accelerating potential Vo = 49 x 40.13 The radiated power density necessary to maintain an oxide coated filament at 1lOoK is found to be 5.000 = 1. Assume that the heat loss due to conductor is 10% of the radiation loss.T . the particle passes through the gap twice. If in each passage through the gap. . determine the frequency of the R.F voltage should be the same.F. Diameter = 2R = 94.5 X 10-6 Number of passages required: In each passage it gains 40. when it describes one circle. Ao = 100 A/m2 I °K2 S = 1.8 x 104 W/m 2 .000 volts how many passages are required to produce a 2 million volts particle? What is the diameter of the last semicircle? Solution B = 1 Tesla = 1Wb/m 2 Time taken by the particle to describe one circle is T = T 35.Y 1 = 50 Diameter of last semicircle: The initial velocity for the 50th revolution is the velocity gained after 49 th revolution.36 x 10-4 m 6 Problem 2.0 eV. .62 x 10.8 cm 2 K Solution = Boltzman's Constant in eV I oK = = 8. the magnetic field applied is 1 Tesla.8 x 104 W/m 2 .5eV I oK Power Density 5.000 volts. The frequency of the R.12 In a cyclotron.5 X 10-6 1 sec.37xlO.35.51-l sec B = 35. Calculate the total emission current and the cathode efficiency 11 in ma/w.960 KV 49 th revolution .60 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 2. 1 _ 1 j .

.575 A Cathode Efficiency.Junction Diode Characteristics If 10% is lost by conductor.cm Free electron Concentration. B) i :> Q) Forbidden Band (F. Si.1 m2 and the total input power is 6.B) ~ (Wave Vector) ~ Valence Band (Y. Copper p < 10-3 n .. Ag. Ex: C. EG» 1e V Metal is an excellent conductor of electricity.3 8 W/ = l. B) K ~K ~K Insulator Semiconductor Fig 2.8 x 10--4 x 100 x (1100)2 e 4 10 55 Ith = 2.5 = 50 rnA / oK 0. 11 = 862xlO. Ith = SAo T2 e-Ew/kT 61 x 5.8 x 10--4) = 11. E r E Conduction Band (C. EG = 0 Semiconductor is a substance whose conductivity lies between these two.B and V. Ge.B overlap .cm Free electron concentration. GaAs etc.B) Valence Band (Y.5 W. n:: 107 electrons/m3 Energy Gap.8 x 104 = 6. then the total input power density is 1.xllOO s l1. Metal (Conductor) C. Ith = 0.B) E Conduction Band i (C.18 x 10 e.575 2. p > 109 n . Ex: Diamond Resistivity. Ex: AI. n = 1028 electrons/m3 Energy Gap.2 ENERGY BAND STRUCTURES Insulator is a very poor conductor of electricity.38 x 104 x Area (1.2 Energy band structures.

the atom can pull another electron to fill its place. there is one electron 10 the outermost shell which is loosely bound to the parent atom. Hence the conductivity of Copper is high. As T increases.2. The x-axis is wave vector K. Is2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3 p6 3d lO 4s2 4p2 The two electrons in the s sub shell and 2 in the p sub shell are the 4 electrons in the outermost 4th shell. in the case of metals.2. the electron will acquire additional energy and move into higher states.1 INSULATOR Electronic Devices and Circuits For diamond. Eo = 0. But Eo is a function of temperature T.21. So there are no fr~e electrons available in the outermost shell. conduction is impossible and hence diamond is an insulator. For conductors say Copper.2. Since. For insulators the valence shell is completely filled. since the energy levels of different electrons are being compared. 2. under the influence of an applied field. the value of energy gap Eg is 6eY. 2. For Silicon ( Si ) &0 decreases at the rate of 3. Electron can not acquire this much Energy to travel from valence band to conduction band. Varactor Diode Silicon Controlled Rectifier .3. The Ge has structure of. There is no forbidden band. This large forbidden band separates the filled valence band region from the vacant conduction band.3 METAL (CONDUCTOR) In a metal.785 . Since these mobile electrons constitute a current. this substance is a conductor.2. For semiconductors value lies between these two. Light emitting diode.3 CONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORS Conductors will have Resistivity p < 10-3 O-cm. which can be supplied to an electron from an applied field. the valence band may extend into the Conduction Band itself. is too small to carry the particle from the filled valence band into the vacant conduction band. the vacancy so created in the valence band can not act as a hole. When they are also in conduction.21 eV at OOK.6 x 10-4 x T For Ge. The Germanium has a crystalline structure such that these 4 electrons are shared by 4 other Germanium atoms. Tunnel diode.785 eV. Eo = 1. 2. Germanium ( Ge ) has Eo = 0.62 2. 2.2 SEMICONDUCTOR For Semiconducting materials. and Silicon is 1. Semiconductor Diode SCR Zener diode.6 x 10-4 eVfK For Germanium Eo decreases at the rate of 2. n = 1028 electrons/m3 9 n = 10 7 electrons/m3 Insulators will have Resistivity P 2: 10 O-cm. the y-axis is energy. When an electron moves from valence band into conduction band in a metal. Eo decreases. Hence conduction will not take place. the valence electrons are loosely bound to parent atom.23 x 10-4 x T. In the energy band diagram. Since the electron can not acquire externally applied energy. Some of The different types of solid state devices are : 1. The energy. the value of energy gap Eg will be about 1eY. The absence of an electron in the semiconductor is represented as hole.23 x 10-4 eVfK For Si.

on an average there will be as many electrons passing through unit area in the metal in any directions as in the opposite directions.Junction Diode Characteristics 63 PNp. 3. 3. the electrons are in continuous motion. So free electrons are easily available. . Disadvantages 1. in a given time. Smaller in size. 7. the outer or valence electrons of an atom are as much associated with one ion (or parent atom) as with another. the crystal has low conductivity. 4. In metals the binding force is not strong. so that the electron attachment to any individual atom is almost zero. In a metal. Tlte average distance between collisions is called tlte mean/ree path. 2. 6. Germanium semiconductor has four valence electrons. So covalent bonds result. According to the electron gas theory of a metal. 9. Requires no cathode heating power (warm up time compared to Vacuum Tubes ). Advantages 0/ Semiconductor Devices 1. Since the motion is random. NPN Field Effect Transistors Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors Unijunction Transistor Impact Ionisation Avalanche Transit Time Device Trapped Plasma Avalanche Transit Time Device Barrier Injected Avalanche Transit Time Device • 3. Noise is more ( because of recombination between holes and electrons ). when no electric field is applied. 5. The valence electrons serve to bind one atom to the next also result in the valence electron being tightly bound to the nucleus. Smaller power output. band occupied by the valence electrons may not be completely filled and that these are forbidden levels at higher energies. Each of the valence electrons of a germanium atom is shared by one of its four nearest neighbours. 4. In other words. 2. Frequency range of operation is low. They have long life. The direction of flight being changed at each collision with the impinging (almost stationary) ions. 8. Hence the average current is zero. 4. (Tubes will pop up frequently). Transistor ( BJT) FET MOSFET UJT Pltoto Transistors IMPATT TRAPATT BARRITT 5. They operate on low DC power. Depending upon the metals at least one and sometimes two or three electrons per atom are free to move throughout the interior of the metal under the action of applied fields. Hence in spite of the availability of four valence electrons. Low permissible ambient temperature.

For an insulator n is very small-107 electronslm3 . 0 ~t-------------~--" - 0/ ·' Nucleus ----------------~--. The movement of each person is restricted.. as a result of the electrostatic force. So because of this. So finally a steady state condition is reached where an infinite value of drift velocity 'v' is attained. -lri8 electronslm3 . when the electron loses its energy. The valance electrons in a \ Q AI A.. its velocity will also decrease. if a constant electric field 'I>' V /m is applied to the metal. When an electric field is applied. If less number of persons are there the movement is large or mobility is large. Such a directed flow of electrons constitute a current. If the concentration of free electrons is On' (electrons/m 3 ) the current density is J.O· 0 0 0 .. From the above expression for conductivity.. the crystal has low conductivity ( Fig. Hence power is dissipated in the metal. where Il is called the mobility of electrons.10 ) But velocity IV=/lE J = ne /lE But ne Il = cr (sigma) cr is the conductivity of the metal in (O-mr' or mhos/m. . arranged in shells. Germanium has a total of 32 electrons in its atomic structure.. the motion of electrons is in random nature. the number of free electrons.3 Electronic structure. Because of the thermal energy. The fact that valence electrons serve to bound atom to the next also results in the valence electrons being bound to the nucleus. semiconductor are not free to move like in a metal. The electrons acquire from the applied field. the fact is that each of the valence electrons of a germanium atom is shared by one of its four nearest neighbours. steady state drift velocity is superimposed upon the random thermal motion of the electrons.. (amps/m2) J = ne v .. Electron e.. but they are trapped between two adjacent ions.. ( 2. For a semiconductor the value of 'n' lies between these two. Each atom in a Germanium crystal contribute four valence electrons. Because of these collisions.. v Il::.. the electrons would be accelerated and the velocity would increase indefinitely with time if the electron will not collides with any other particle. This is analogous to large number of people in a small room. cr is proportional Electron to on'. E = Mobility is defined as the velocity per unit electric field.. of atom A.64 Electronic Devices and Circuits Now. For a good conductor 'n' mxm Secx Volts = m / volts-sec 2 is very laTlle.. The units are m 2lv-sec. 2. Thus velocity is proportional to E or v = IlE. The boundry forces between neighbours attains result from.. Fig 2. This drift velocity is in the direction opposite to that of the electric field and its magnitude is proportional to the electric field E. E is in vim. Hence inspite of having four valence electrons. as a result of collisions is given to the lattice ions.. is bound by atom A2.11 ) IJ=crxEI So As temperature increases mobility decreases. v ex: I> or v = IlE V is in m/sec.. when no electric field is applied. covalent bonds result. Electron e2 of atom A2 is bond by the atom AI..3 ). ( 2.. But actually the electron collides with number of ions and it loses energy.

0'. This is the concept of hole. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fig 2. bonding the electron are broken. The electron of Ge atom I is dislodged from its original : 0.2. An electron moving from a bond to fill a hole leaves a hole in its initial position.. :)'01' I. .Junction Diode Characteristics 65 At very low temperatures say 0° K. These four valence electrons of each atom are shared by other atoms and so bounded by covalent bonds. Then the configuration is as shown in row (b). Except for 6. 2. and 4..72 eV for Germanium and 1. . . since no free carriers of electricity are available. Its significance lies in this characteristics. are Ge atoms with 4 valance electrons (Fig. because of the thermal energy and so the covalent bonds o • _ ••• ' .1 eV for silicon (at room temperature).)0 ® broken to create innumerable free electrons. . Fig. o 2.. The absence of the electron in the covalent : • bond is represented by a hole. 0@ Ifr. . except for atom : • '. _ _ :0 0 . The explanation is given below: When a bond is incomplete so that hole exists. electron to wander anywhere in the material ti II it collides with o@ : • :Q) ® some other atom. . some of the covalent bonds will be broken because of the thermal energy supplied to the crystal. Here we have a mechanism for the conduction of electricity which does not involve free electrons. Now imagine that an electron from ion 7 moves into the hole at ion 6.. The ion 6 has a broken covalent bond or one of its valence electrons got dislodged. . is shown as being dislodged and so free to wander in a random fashion throughout the crystal. A hole can serve as a carrier of electricity. But ion 7 has a vacancy now.5. So this electron is now a free o (J. the current is due to the holes moving in the opposite direction to that of electrons. : .: . ... Thus hole in its new position may now be filled by an electron from another covalent bond and the hole will correspondingly move one more step in the direction opposite to the motion ofthe electron. all the covalent bonds of the ions are intact. Only the electrons are exchanging their position and there by current is flowing. So the empty place denotes a hole. it is relatively easy for a valence electron in a neighbouring atom to leave its covalent bond to fill this hole.4 Covalent bonds 0000000000 (b) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. To explain this further. An electron which for the greater period of time forms part of a covalent bond.3. since it has lost one of its valence electrons. :. Ion 6 in the row is completely filled. In other words. There is no -broken covalent bond. 1.. The energy required to break different covalent bonds will be different. However at room temperature. :•: ' ~ So at a time at room temperature all the covalent bonds are not o \:.. • .5 Current flow by the movement of holes In row (a) there are 10 ions in Fig. 2. : .( Electron position. the ideal structure is achieved and the semiconductor behaves as an insulator. 0 0 The energy Eg required to break such a covalent bond is about 0.4). Hence the hole effectively moves in the direction opposite to that of the electron. and conduction is made possible.

Standing passenger are free electron.4 CONDUCTIVITY OF AN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR When valence electrons are exchanging theIr posItions. and these wiIl be moving in random directions. So the semiconductros are classified as : n-type Sefiliconductor Free electron concentration 'n' is greater than hole concentration. So at any instant. Holes are positively charged. In a pure semiconductor the number of holes is equal to the number offree electrons. it is analogous to n-type semiconductor. a hole is created. A current is constituted by these electrons. Ifthere are many seats vacant without any standing passenger it is like a p-type semiconductor. the total current density is summation of the current densities due to holes and electrons. without any vacant seat. Suppose to start with. p-type Semiconductor Hole concentration 'p' is greater than free electron concentration.ln + peJ.lp.ln + P J. . So the movement of holes is opposite to that of electrons.lp A pure or intrinsic semiconductor is one in which n = p = nj where nl is intrinsic concentration.. The hole behaves like a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron charge. Though they are of opposite sign. In a pure Germanium at room temperature. So hole movement contributes for flow of current.. 2. Electrons and holes move in opposite directions in an electric field E. As the temperature increases. and its mobility is J..lp) e = neJ. the current due to each ion is in the same direction. So n l increases. there is about one hole-electron pair for every 2 x 109 Germanium atoms. D > p. This process goes on as the bus is moving from stage to stage. Instrinsic Semiconductor D = p. there are many free electrons. This hole is filled by a free electron that is a standing passenger. The charge of both holes and electrons are same 'e'. we say holes are moving.... covalent bonds are broken and so more free electrons and holes are created. Because of the positive charge movement. The hole is positive.. If there are many standing passengers.ln.ln + pJ. as the temperature increases. A hole can move from one ion to the nearest where as an electron is free to move anywhere till it collides with another ion or free electron. The charge of free electrons is negative and its mobility is J.. Current Density.66 Electronic Devices and Circuits Effectively the hole has moved from ion 6 to ion 7. Bus is the semiconducting material. When a sitting passenger gets down. p > D. in accordance with the relationship. This is analogous to passengers travelling in a bus. Thermal agitation continues to produce new electron hole pairs whereas some other hole electron pairs disappear as a result of recombination. J = (JE J = (n J.lp) x ex E = (J x E n = Magnitude of Free Electron Concentration p = Magnitude of Hole Concentration (J = Conductivity n / cm or Seimens (J = (n J. Current is contributed by these holes current is nothing but rate of flow of charge. the direction of hole current is same as that of conventional current.

the impurity atom is surrounded by Ge atoms. the semiconductor may become n-type.05 eY.5 DONOR TYPE OR n. it has 5 electrons in the outermost orbit (5 valence electrons). The impurity atoms have size of the same order as that ofGe atoms. an increase in temperature for metals results in greater thermal motion of ions and hence decrease in the mean free path of the free electrons. (2. with temperature for semiconductor.785 eV at 0 oK forSi EcJ= 1.01 eV to 0. the impurity atom dislodges one from its normal position in the crystal lattices takes up that position. surrounding the impurity atom and they form covalent bonds. So one electron of the impurity atom is left free. it is p-type or acceptor type semiconductor. As n l increases with T. But since the concentration of impurity atoms is very small (about I atom per million ofGe atoms). Depending upon impurity doped.Junction Diode Characteristics 3 67 n.12) EG = Energy Gap in ev..TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS Intrinsic or pure semiconductor is of no use since its conductivity is less and it can not be charged much. The energy required to dislodge this fifth electron from its parent impurity atom is very little of the order of 0. Now 4 of these are shared by Ge atoms. This free electron is in excess to the free electrons that will be generated because of breaking of covalent bonds due to thermal agitation. The impurity atom is pentavalent. e = Charge of an Electron or hole A = Constant for a semiconductor. since it donates an electron.'= AxT2 e-EGo/2kT I . because it accepts an electron to complete the broken covalent bond. or it can denote an electron it is called n-type. for Ge EG = 0. If a pUie semiconductor is doped with impurity it becomes extrinsic. 2.1 e V T = Temperature in 0 oK k = Boltzman 's Constant. for Ge = 0.. Germanium atom with its electrons arranged in shells will have configuration as Is2 2s2 2p2 3s 2 3p6 3d 1o 4s 2 4p2 Ge is tetravalent (4).. 'Ge' becomes n-type if a pentavalent (5). Because of the energy supplied while doping. or Arsenic are added to it. On the other hand resistance increases with temperature for metals.72 eV for S i = 1..64 x 10 21 .. the resistivity decreases with temperature for semiconductor.. In other words.. On the other hand if the majority carriers are holes. Since an excess electron is available for each impurity atom. This results in decrease of the mobility of free electrons and so decrease in conductivity or increase in resistivity for metals. . This is because.21 eV at 0 oK EG at room temperature... for Ge A = 9. or donor type semiconductor. That is. the conductivity also increases. where electrons are the majority carriers or donor type. impurity atoms such as Phosphorus (P).

n . at room temperature. 2.e. As p » OJ. The energy required for the impurity atom to steal one Ge electron is 0. but 0 » OJ and because of breaking of covalent bonds. So hole moves.08 e Y. and in Silicon. i. The 4 electrons in the outer orbit of Phosphorus are shared by the 4 Germanium atoms and the fifth electron of Phosphorus in the outer orbit is a free electron. Now the three valence electrons of impurity atom are shared by 3 atoms. the impurity atom is surrounded by Ge atom. 2. and acceptor atoms concentration in 10 nl" Then No = 0. becomes p-type or acceptor type. '0' also decreases. It has been observed practically that the net concentration of the electrons and holes follows the realtion n x p = n7..6 ACCEPTOR TYPE OR P . the net result will be. there is one impurity atom for one million Ge atoms. encounter with free el~~tmns. by holes only and the current due to electrons is negligibly small. J • = p = ni. The result is that both free electron and hole are lost. As a result holes. as a result of recombination.044 eY. n decreases in acceptor type semiconductor. it can be either.0 I e V to 0.eated :and '0' increases.TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS An intrinsic semiconductor when doped with trivalent (3) impurity atoms like Boron. This hole is in excess to the hole created by thermal agitation. 0» OJ. In the case ofp-type semiconductor the concentration of acceptor atoms Na» nl . This energy required to separate the fifth electron is called Ionization Energy. Assuming that all the acceptor atoms are ionized. There will be a natural tendency in the crystal to form 4 covalent bonds. minority carrier in n type. we assume that all the impurity atoms are ionized. So p » OJ. each acceptor atom contribute at least one hole.8 HOLES AND ELECTRONS \ •. Or the product n x p = ny. in Silicon and Gennanium.. But in order that this electron is completely detached from the parent Phosphorus atom. 'p' also decreases but p >>OJ. Holes are the majority carriers and the electrons minority carriers. So the covalent bond is not filled or a hole exists. both electrons and holes recombine and the place of hole is occupied by the free electrons and this probability is much lager since 0 »p.. The fourth Ge atom has no electron to share with the impurity atom.. The doping level is low. The value of ionization energy for Germanium is 0. In extrinsic semiconductor say n-type semiconductor practically the electron concentration. some energy is to be supplied. For different impurity materials. The impurity atom (and not just 3) since all the other Ge atoms have 4 covalent bonds and the structure ofGe semiconductor is crystalline and symmetrical. If impurities of both donor type and acceptor type are simultaneously doped in intrinsic semiconductor. Though 'p' decreases in n-type semiconductor with recombination. it becomes n-type as Phosphorus is pentavalent.68 Electronic Devices and Circuits 2.p-rype or n-rype depending upon their individual concentration. it is 0. So the hole density 'p' decreases and also that of electron density' n' but still 0 » OJ.aJl(ith-is·probability is much larger since n» p. Gallium Indium. So when a hole encounter a freeelectrc)\:. This is an approximate formula but still valid.7 IONIZATION ENERGY Ifintrinsic semiconductor is doped with phosphorus. This is also true in the case of p-type semiconductor p » OJ. suppose donor atoms concentration is 100 nl .012 eV. The impurity atom tries to steal one electron from the neighboring Ge atoms and it does so when sufficient energy is supplied to it.1 N I . As this energy is small. more free electrons may be cr. To give a specific example. Aluminium etc. The number of electrons combine contributed by In intrinsic semiconductors. the impurity atom dislodges ane Ge atom from the crystal lattice. Because of the energy supplied while doping. the current is contributed almost all. these values will be different.

9 No = 90 Ni. 2. . If NA = ND the semiconductor remains intrinsic. Arsenic. 2. Sometimes they also act as donor or ac:::eptor atoms.S. Copper.1 INTERSTITIAL ATOMS Intrinsic or pure semiconductor is practically not available. Hence conductivity is less. 2.. the atoms are very close to each other.S. Since the covalent bonds are broken. While doping a semiconductor with impurities. So the valency electron of one atom are as much associated with the other atoms as with the parent atom. the ion is having a charge ~+4 (circles) with 4 electrons around it. except Copper and Nickle other impurities do not affect much. Boron or Aluminium may not be available. for a semiconductor also.e. Commonly found such undesirable impurities are Lithium. i.S. Valence Electrons are the outer most electrons orbiting around the nucleus. .Junction Diode Characteristics 69 ND combine with number of holes contributed by Na. Zinc. So every such valence electron has almost zero affinity with any individual atom.6). The electron so released is calledfree electron or excess electron since it is not required to complete any covalent bond in its immediate neighborhood. The atom is neutral when no electric field is applied. pure Phosphorous. Germanium has 4 valence electrons. As the temperature is increased. The covalent bonds are shown by Iines Iinking one electron of one atom to the nucleus of other atom (Fig. they consist of space array of atoms in a regular tetrahedral or any other fashion. In other words. In the adjacent figure. Number of electrons is equal to number of Fig 2. Such electrons are free to move within the body of the metal under the influence of applied electric field. 2. rile regular pattern of atom arrangement is called lattice.2 EFFECTIVE MASS When quantum mechanism is used to specify the motion of electrons or holes within a crystal. the valence electrons f\ of one atom are shared by the other atoms. in each crystal. . Nickel etc.+4 (+~ • free to move. can be regarded as n type semiconductor. Such a semiconductor. On the other hand. Free electrons are those valence electrons which are separated \J from the parent atom. But these binding forces are very strong.6 Covalent bonds protons. an electron is released and a hole is created in the structure of that particular atom. So the valence electrons are very much less mobile.3 HOLES AND EXCESS ELECTRONS When a covalent bond is broken due to thermal agitation. the valance electrons are loosely bound to the parent atom and the valanc~ electrons of one atom are shared by another atom. In the case of metals. Most metals and semiconductors are crystalline in structure. holes and electrons are treated as imaginary particles with effective masses mp and mn respectively. So the net free electrons will be equal to 0. Such atoms are called as interstitial atoms. These impurities themselves will contain some impurities. resulting in electrical conduction. So conductivity of metals is large. This is valid when the external applied field is smaller than the internal periodic fields produced by the lattice structure. . the covalent bonds binding the valance electrons are broken and electrons made . . Now the ion which has lost electron will seek another new electron to fill the .

Since it is n-type. Similarly if NA is the concentration of acceptor ions..13 ) This is called Mass Action Law. np= n~ 3 -EGO nj = AT2 e 2KT . The holes move from the first ion to the second ion... it becomes positively charged ion. nlPI = n~. So positive charge density contributed by them is No. But when electric field is applied. So the acceptor ions contribute charge = ( NA + n ). number of electrons is» number ofholes. No + P = Total negative charge (NA + n ) N o + p=NA + n This is known as Law of Electrical Neutrality. since it has lost an electron. so that 4 electrons in the outer shell are shared by the Ge atoms ). accepts an electron.. In n-type semiconductor the electron density nil = No.. ( 2. Total positive charge. The life period of a free electron may be lp-sec to 1 millisecond after which it is absorbed by another ion. Subscript n indicates that it is n-type semiconductor. If 'p' is the hole density then total positive charge density is No + p. When no electric field is applied. all the free electrons are lined up and they move towards the positive electrode. So 'p' can be neglected in comparison with n.10 LAW OF ELECTRICAL NEUTRALITY Let No is equal to the concentration of donor atoms in a doped semiconductor. the motion of free electron is random in nature. 2. The ion which has lost the electron will immediately steal an electron from the closest ion... nn ::: No.. when no voltage is applied.. the free electron concentration is approximately equal to the density of donor atoms. So because of the thermal agitation of the crystal lattice. the product is always constant... ion.9 MASS ACTION LAW In an intrinsic Semiconductor number of free electrons n = n l = No... the magnitude of positive charge density must equal that of negative charge density.14 ) . (say Boron which is trivalent. 2.. Consider n-type material with acceptor ion density NA = O.70 Electronic Devices and Circuits vacancy. an electron of another ion may come very close to the ion which has lost the electron. ( Since every Donor Atom contributes one free electron... ) In n-type material. it becomes negatively charged. to fill its vacancy. So when these donor atoms donate an electron.. nn x pn = n2 But I Pn = The hole density in n-type semiconductor = N~ 2 nI n2 PI1 = No . ( 2. Since the Semiconductor is electrically neutral. Regardless of individual magnitudes ofn and p. of holes p = PI Since the crystal is electrically neutral..

6 x 10. Conductivity.. ) of pure silicon.Junction Diode Characteristics Similarly Hole concentration in p-type semiconductor.. Solution The effect of minority carriers (impurity atoms) is negligible.12 x 10-6 u/cm Pi= 5.14 A specimen of intrinsic Germanium at 300 oK having a concentratiun of carriers of2.15 Determine the conductivity ( a ) and resistivitd: ( p. 71 Pp::::: N A · _ 2 np x Pp .19 x 1..4 x 1022/cm 3 .19 Iln = = 25. ( Iln for Ge = 3600 cm /volt-sec)..039 O-cm Problem 2. ( 2.4 x 10 16 x 3600 x 1.3000-cm Problem 2.5 x 1013/cm3 is doped with impurity atoms of one for every million germanium atoms.16 Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes in a sample ofGe at 300 oK which has a concentration of donor atoms equal to 2 x 10 14 atoms Icm 3 and a concentration of acceptor atoms 14 3 = 3 x 10 atom lem Is this p-type or n-type Germanium? Solution n x p = nr -Ego n = AT3/2 e 2kT I .37 = 0.nl nI n =p 2 NA .6 x 10 1 Icm 3 for Si and mobilities as Iln = 1500 cm N-sec. No = 4. an = nelln ( neglecting Hole Concentration) n = 4.... I Pn = 25. find the 2 resistivity of doped material..4 x 10 22 106 Icm 3 3600 cm 2 I Volt . at 3000 K assuming that the 2 concentration of carriers at 300 oK is 1.6 x 10 10 x (1500 + 500) 5. So the conductivity will not appreciably change.sec an = 4.15 ) Problem 2. Assuming that all the impurity atoms are ionised and that the concentration of Ge atoms is 4.12xlO-6 =195.4 x 10 22 I cm 3. /lp = 500 cm Solution 0'1 = = (Iln + /lp) e n l = 1. 2N-sec.6 x 10.37 mhos I cm Resistivity..

_ _ _ 3. IIp Mobility of holes in Germanium = 1800 cm 2 I V .. if the conductivity is 100 n . 100 = P e IIp 0" Pp = ell p = 1.n = NA .6xlO-19 x1800 = 3.47 x 10 17 holes/cm 3 n x p = n7 ni = 2.17 Find the concentration of holes and electrons in a p type germanium at 300 oK.sec.cm.18 Find the concentration of holes and electrons in p-type Germanium at 300oK. /cm 3 and p = n + 10 14 = 1. p» n.06 x 10 14 holes/cm 3 As p> n.47 x 10 17 holes/cm3 nxp=n.25 x 1026/cm 3 NA + n = No + P Total negative charge = Total positive charge or p .6 x 10.25 ev n~ = 6.1 u/cm. this is p-type semiconductor.l. if 0" = 0.72 Electronic Devices and Circuits A = 9. if 0" = 100 u/cm. Problem 2.-:_=_ 17 n= (2. Solution It is p-type p » O"p n.25 x 1026 or n = 5.8 x 10 electrons/cm 9 3 Problem 2.19 x 1800 = 3.64 x 10 14 EG = 0.5 x 1013/cm 3 .8 x 10 12 electrons.. 3 EGO ni = AT2 e--2kT = 2..2) x 10 14 = 10 14 or p = n + 10 14 Then n( n + 10 14 ) = 6.No = (3 . ( a) Solution As it is p-type semiconductor.5 x 10 13 /cm 3 13 ---. ( b) Repeat part ( a ) for n-type Si. 0" = peup cr 100 p= ell p = 1.Sx 10 .47x 10 f = 1.

ln ) 1 = 60 u/cm. J..81 x 10 14 Pwblem 2. eE = {( 3.lp ).88)( 1800)} = 52. eE . Solution For intrinsic Semiconductor.88 x 10 13 J = ( nJ... find total conduction current density.6 x 10.8 x 109 electron/m3 n0. ( 1) .47 x 1017/cm 3 n= (b) 0" = 73 p ne f.. x 1013..n ) = NA .ln + PJ.lp for Ge is 1800 cm 21V-sec . p = 0. At room temperature. (2. n = p = nj O"j L = n. the resistivity of pure Ge is 60 O-cm. lO P = nf = (1..5 x 1013 L = 3.ln = 3800 cm 21V-sec.1 = 4.6xIO-19)(3800+1800) = 1.86 x 10 13 )2 NA + n =N o + P NA = 7 x 1013/cm 3 No = 10 14/ cm 3 ( p ....47xl0 17 1.No = -3 x 10 13 Solving (I) and (2) simultaneously to get p and n..81 x 1014/cm 3 n.81 .86 x 1013 electron/cm 3 p x n= nr = ( 1.88 x 1013 n = 3. If the applied electric field is 2 V/cm. n~ = (2... e ( J.68 x 1011 hole/m3 n 4..19 A sample of Ge is doped to the extent of 10 14 donor atoms/cm 3 and 7 x 10 13 acceptor atoms/ cm 3.1300x 1.I11 .5x10 =4...5 x 10 10 .Junction Diode Chara'cteristics p = 3. J..19 = x 1014/cm 3 4.lp + J..88)( 3800) + (0...3 mA/cm 3 ... cr I I nj= e(llp+lln) 60{1. = 1.

n? = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 n = (NA .No) x =_~±~b2 -4ac 2 2a 2 V 2 Negative sign is not taken into consideration since electron or hole concentration cannot be negative. .No n p=_. n =_ (N A .ND? -4n~ = 0 n > 0 and p> O.20 Electronic Devices and Circuits Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes in a sample of Germanium at 300 0 K which has a concentration of donor atoms = 2 x 10 14 atoms /cm 3 and a concentration of acceptor atoms = 3 x 10 14 atoms/cm 3 .No) + i(N A .No) . p . n = 5.8 x IOIS/cm 3 p = 10.n = NA .No ) 2 or n + n ( NA .74 Problem 2.58 x 1019/m 3 as p > n. it is p-type semiconductor. Similarly p is also calculated. Is this p-type or n-type Ge? In other words. is the conductivity due primarily to holes or electrons? Solution n x p = n~ NA + n = P + No Solving ( a ) and ( b ) to get nand p.5 x 10 13 / cm 3 l -EG n. 2 .72eV n? = 6. NA = 3 x 1014/cm 30 No = 2 x 1014/cm 3 nj at 3000 K = 2. n 2 or n 2 _n 2 • n. = AT 2 e 2KT E=O.n2 = n x ( NA .25 x 1026/cm 3 n can be calculated.

17) = 2.36m2 I V .5 x 10 19 (0. 0"1 = enj (f.75 eY.21 Calculate the intrinic concentration of Germanium in carries/m 3 at a temperature of320oK given that ionization energy is 0.lp) = 1.sec f. 3 -EGO nl = AT 2e ~ = 2.ln + f.64xI0 21 E = 0.374 x I 0-23 J 10 K.e. N(E) = Y E ' .22 Determine the resistivity of intrinsic Germanium at room temperature Solution T = 300 oK A=9.. e 2xl 37xl0 . 17) = 5.6 x 10. x320 nl = 6.85 x 10 19 (0. I 7 m21 volt-sec respectively.= 0.17 m I V .13 = .19 x 2. Also calculate the intrinsic conductivity given that the mobilities of electrons and holes in pure germanium are 0.Junction Diode Characteristics 75 Problem 2.11 THE FERMI DIRAC FUNCTION N( E ) = Density of states.75 eV and Boltzman's Constant K = 1.13 u/m p= - = enj( f.35 + 0.ln + f.sec O"j 2 = 1.. Solution ~ -e EGO nl=AT2e 2KT K = Boltzman's Constant in J I oK K = Boltzman's Constant in eV I oK _16)(10.797 u/m Problem 2.lp = 0.5 x 10 19 electrons (or holes) 1m 3 . n = p = n l.6 x 10.lp ) 1 1 2.36 and O.ln = 0.19 xO 75 -21 = 9. i.36 + O.47 O-m (J 2. f. In intrinsic semiconductor.85 x 10 19 electrons (or holes)/m3.64 x 1021 x (320)3/2. The number of states per ev per cubic meter ( number of statesleV 1m3 ) The expression for Y where y is a constant.19 x 6.

82 x 1027 m = Mass of Electron in Kgs h = Planck's Constant is Joule-sees. It specifies the fraction of all states at energy E (eV) occupied under conditions of thermal equilibrium...EF ) and. there is no probability of finding an electron having energy> EF at T = 0° K. it is the Energy State./(E) = l+e (E-E F ) . and the product of these two uncertainities is of the order of magnitude of Planck's constant 'h'. at OaK. 2.7.17 ) . 2... it is shown in Fig. The equation for. ( 2. the free electron or hole in the crystal responds. of a particle ~p ~n is the uncertainty in the position x ~x ~ h. if E > EF then. it will be possible to remove the quantum features of the problem. Since fermi level is the max. it is the mass energy level of the electrons.19 )3/2 = 6. From Quantum Statistics.1 EFFECTIVE MASS When an external field is applied to a crystal./{E) = o.2 FERMI LEVEL Named after Fermi. IfE = E6 . By considering this effective mass. This mass is called the Effective Mass of the electron or the hole. ./{ E)./(E) =~ From Eq. This allows us to use Newton's law of motion to determine the effect of external forces on the electrons and holes within the crystal.16 ) kT where k = Boltzmann Constant. .. energy possessed by the electrons at Oak . . as if its mass is different from the true mass. 2.11. If ~p is the Uncertainty in the Momentum of a particle. That is.76 47t h3 Electronic Devices and Circuits Y= (2m)3/2 (1. Heisenberg postulated that there is always uncertainty in the position and momentum of a particle. 2.6 x 10..7 At T = OaK./(E) varies with temperature as shown in Fig. In other words. with 50% probability of being filled if no forbidden band exists. eVfK T= Temp oK EF = Fermi Level or Characteristic Energy The momentum of the electron can be uncertain.( 2. If a graph is plotted between ( E ./{ E ) is called the Fermi Dirac Probability Function...11. it is found that.

:::: Ev the number of holes per m3 in the Valence Band is.....0 eV ( E. ( EF ..) +1._ _ -1.Er2e-(EI-E)/~ xdE x e-(EF-Ey)/KT 3 -00 where Similarly NY=2[21t:~KTt n = N e-(Ec-EF)fKT e n x p = Ny x Ne e-E"/KT Substituting the values ofNe and N v ... n x p= n..:=_-. ( 2.7 Fermi level variation with temperature.E ) » KT for E . = AT3 e-E"/KT ...-E)/KT Fermi function for a hole = I .. 2.Junction Diode Characteristics f( E) 77 + _____--1.. 2..j( E ).11.11. Ev p= = Nv f Y{Ev .17 ) l' : : e-(E.E. 2.3 UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE This was proposed by Heisenberg... The measurement of a physical quantity is characterized in an essential way by lack of precision.0 Fig._.4 THE INTRINSIC CONCENTRATION I j( E ) = 1+ e(E-E F )/KT e(E-EF)/KT I-j(E)= l+e(e-EF)/KT :::e-(Ef-E)/KT e(E-E F )/KT[l +e(E-Er)/KT ...

is constant.5 dll dn J( E ) N(E) J(E) 00 = = N( E ) x J( E ) x dE number of conduction electrons per cubic meter whose energy lies between E and E + dE The probability that a quantum state with energy E is occupied by the electron. J(E) = e-(E-E.78 Electronic Devices and Circuits CARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN A SEMICONDUCTOR 2. Fermi Level or characteristic energy represents the energy state with 50% probability of being filled ifno forbidden bond exists.Es) is» KT. Density of States. If E = EF. J( E) is the probability that a quantum state with energy E is occupied by the electron. n = Nc x e-(EcEF)/KT 3 where N = C 2(21tlnh 2 KTJ2 n K = Boltzman's Constant in J/oK N. 1 1+ e(E-E F )/KT The concentration of electrons in the conduction band is n= for fN{E)x j{E)x dE Ec E~Ec (E .2 _ [21tm p h 2 KxTJ2 Fermi Level is the maximum energy level that can be occupied by the electrons at 0 oK. where mn = effective mass of the electron. thenJ( E) = Y2 for any value of temperature. Similarly the number of holes / m3 in the Valence Band p = Ny e-(EF-Ey)/KT 3 where Ny . )/KT I 00 e(E-E r )/KT » n= fY(E.Ed l/2 x e-{E-EF)KT .11. dE Er Simplifying this integral. we get. .

18 ) _ N y . =e Taking logarithms on both sides... Nc In Ny = Ec+Ev-2EF KT KT In Nc 2 Nv 3 NC =2(21tm n KTJ2 h2 3 ..... ( 2...2 [21tm p ..19 ) where mnand mp are effective masses of holes and electrons.8 Energy band diagram.. 2.20 ) The graphical representation is as shown in Fig. 2...8.Junction Diode Characteristics 2.. Fermi Level in Intrinsic Semiconductor lies in the middle of Energy gap E G • .6 FERMI LEVEL IN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR 79 n = p = nj Conduction Band n.N c e-(ECEF )/KT e-(EF-Ev)/KT EF p- -N V n =p or Nc e-(EcEF)/KT = N r -------------~ e Valence Band Eo v e-(EF-Ev)/KT Electrons in the valence bond occupy energy levels up to 'EF'... If we assume that mn = m p' ( though not valid ).11.. ( Ec +Ev 2 2........ EF is defined that way. ( 2....s 1. Nc=N y In Nc Ny . Then the additional energy that has to bo supplied so that free electron will move from valence band to the conduction band is Ec N -C = e Ny -(EF-EV) (Ec+EF) KT + KT o o..0 ~f(E) Fig.. EF = =0 .KT)2 2 h .

33 10 18 atoms/cm3.24 10 18 . N = % T. Solution when N v = 4. eV .4)3/2(300)3/2 1 = 6.!p = 0.23 Electronic Devices and Circuits In p-type Ge at room temperature of 300 oK.4 m.33 Problem 2.82 x 101S( ' : Y A 3 x T 3/2 = 4.5 m.026 In (2) = 13.80 Problem 2. Ifthe effective mass of an electron is equal to twice the effective mass of a hole.)3/2 3 2 / N v =2 3 ( 21tmpkT n 2 -J = 4" x 0. If mp=mn then Nc=N v · Hence EF will be at the centre of the forbidden band.82 x x 10 \0. Solution For Intrunsic Semiconductor. find the distance in electron volts (ev) of fermi level in as intrunsic semiconductor from the centre of the forbidden bond at room temperature. But if mp =I' mn.EF will be away from the centre of the forbidden band by 2 KT Nc kT mn In.lnmp v Nc=2 ( 21tmnKT n 2 . for what doping concentration will the fermi level coincide with the edge of the valence bond? Assume J. Doping concentration N x = 6.

In the case of intrinsic semiconductors. ( 2.... The expression for n = Nc e -{E -E )/KT C F and the expression for p = Nv e -(E -E )/KT F Y These are valid for both intrinsic and extrinsic materials. So tbe number of electron hole pairs.. or or . So assuming that all the atoms are ionized. So the first ND states in the conduction band will be filled.. With impurity concentration. Then it will be more difficult for the electrons to reach Conduction Band.. only EF will change.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. respond to an external field as if their mass is m*( m* = O. So this m* is known as Effective Mass. So the electrical characteristics of a semiconductor depends upon 'n' and 'p'. each impurity atom contributes at least one free electron.7 FERMI LEVEL IN A DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR 81 cr = ()lnn + )lpp )e.. bridging the gap between Covalent Bond and Valence Bond. Fermi level is an indiction of the probability of occupancy of the energy states. indicating equal concentration of holes and electrons.. If donor type impurity is added to the intrinsic semiconductor it becomes n-type.6m) and not om'. the concentration of holes and electrons. The electrons and holes. Since Because of doping. more energy states in the ConductionBand are filled. e -(EF-Ey) KT -{EcEy} But and n x p = Nc x N v x e (Ec. EXPRESSION FOR EG -(ECEF) n = Nc x e KT p=N v . the fermi level will move towards the Conduction Band.21 ) .11. thermally generated at that temperature will be decreased..Ev) =EG x p= KT n nr nj = Nc x N v x e n2 _--. EF is in the middle of the energy gap.-1_ 2 -~ KT = e -~ KT NcxNv Taking logarithms.

.l e!l 0 1<: •• t Ev t + 0 t ~.Ed . Fermi Level moves to wards conduction band.. To calculate the exact position of the Fermi Level in n-type Semiconductor: In n-type semiconductor. No In -N = r -(E C -E F ) KT or K T x { In ~} = ...9. So it is as shown in Fig. the number of free electrons has increased. ( 2.9 Conduction Band 1<:.. in the case of p-type materials.~ E.22 ) or EF=Ec-KTx{ln~:} P=NA So Fermi Level EF is close to Conduction Band Ec in n-type semiconductor.. 2.0 o 0. In the case ofn-type semiconductor.. 2.C(E) ---. So energy in Covalent Bond has increased. Similarly in p-type semiconductors.. . c: r.. fermi Level moves towards Valence Band.0 ---. n::::N o But n = Nc x e-(Ec-EF )/KT No = Nc x e-(EcEF)/KT e or Taking logarithms.C(E) For n-type semiconductor For p-type semiconductor Fig.( Ec .82 The position of Fermi Level is as shown in Fig.... Ev 0.5 1. Similarly for p-type material. Electronic Devices and Circuits Conduction Band 1<:. 2.5 1. the Fermi level moves towards the valence band since the number of holes has increased. R I• .9 Similarly.>-. .

14 X9.. Solution Donor atom concentration Silicon atom concentration . the fermi level will coincide with the edge of the conduction band. EF = Ee .23 ) NA=N y Fermi Level is close to Valance Band E v in p-type semiconductor. Nc ~ 2{ 2X:.IO.5 x 10 14 /cm 3 . 83 N N A = e-(EF-Ev)/KT v Taking Logarithms..= Ev . Problem 2. 5 x 1022 atoms/cm 3 2. Assuming that the effective mass of the electron equals true mass..25 In n type silicon. Concentration of Silicon = 5 x 1022 atom! cm3. For n-type....... find the value of temperature at which.KT In ( Ne ) No If EF were to coincide with Ee . the donor concentration is I atom per 2 x 108 silicon atoms.IX. then Ne = No' No = 2.EF Ny N or E F = EY+KTXlnR I . K = Boltzman Constant mn the effective mass of electrons to be taken as = mE 3 e = 2{2 X3.Junction Diode Characteristics But .5 x 10 14 / cm 3.. In NA Nv = _(EF-E v ) KT KTx In---A. Semiconductor. No = 5 x 10 22 2xl0 8 = I atom per 2 x 108 Si atom.KT}' N 3 h = Plank's Constant..28 x 10 T2 .31 xKXT}2 h2 3 15 = 4. ( 2.

Let the semiconductors be 'n' type. the number of free electrons and holes is same as before the application of field. The resulting current is called Drift Current.d holes move in random directions. Now using a battery. since semiconductor has taken equal number of electrons from the positive electrode. under the influence of the electric field..I 0) +: n . intrinsic or impure.. . But when electric field is applied all the electrons are aligned in a particular direction and move towards the positive electrode and holes in the opposite direction. - 0) "-. The donor atoms have thus lost their free electrons. the donor atom loses one electron.. .. exactly equal in number to the free electrons which have entered the electrode.12 2.28 x 10 15 T2 T=O. So the donor atoms !lear the positive electrode pull electrons from the electrode. When the free electron contributed by phosphorus donor atom goes into the positive electrode. Fig.. These collide with lattices. Such a random motion is defined as mean free pat" length 'I'.84 Electronic Devices and Circuits 3 4. all the free electrons move towards the positive electrode and enter the metal of the positive electrode Fig.type semi conductor 0 ~ - r-1 - .10. get deflected and move in a different direction. 2. the distance a carrier travels between collisions and the average time between collisions 't'. till they collide with another carrier.5 x 10 14 TOTAL CURRENT IN A SEMICONDUCTOR DRIFT CURRENT IN AN N-TvPE SEMICONDllCTOR Within a semiconductor.12. because of the thermal energy.10 Drift current in n-type semiconductor.-. 2. So the semiconductors remains electrically neutral. t. I Over a period oftime + . Therefore it will pull one more electron from the positive electrode and hence the number of free electrons in the semiconductors remains the same.14°K 2. average movement is zero or net current is zero. If the battery is removed. covalent bonds are broken and electrons ar. The average velocity of motion v = which is » '1'. The voltage applied results in voltage drop across semiconductor.1 = 2. electric field is applied.

6m. ( 5 x 1014 =0.17 x 10 19/cm 3 v EF . Solution Concentration of Silicon atoms = 5 x 10 22 /cm 3c .Ev = K T In (~:) 19 ) 1. N A = 5 x 1022 108 =5 p 2 x 10 14/cm 3 Nv .2 . h = Planck's Constant = 6.026 In .82 x 10 15 x where p (mp~ m 3 x T3/2 m = 0. K = Boltzman constant in J// oK.62 x 10-34 J-sec K = 1. Assume that m = 0.26 ev or EF .Junction Diode Characteristics Problem 2. Because doping is done at 1 atom per 10 8 Silicon Atoms.26 85 In p-type Silicon.82 x 10 15(0. At room temperature.026 x 10 = 0.38 x 10-23 J/oK = 4.Ev = 0.((27tmh KT)% 1 K = Boltzman's Constant in eVfK.6 m (given) T=300oK N = 4.17 X 10 = 0. the acceptor concentration corresponds to 1 atom per 108 Silicon atoms.26ev EF is above Ev' .6 x 300)3/2 = 1. how far from the edge of the valence band is the Fermi level?" Is EF above or below Ev? The concentration of Silicon atoms is 5 x 1022 atoms/cm 3.

28 x 10 18 • A Doping concentration N = 6. But if m "t: m .4)3/2(300)312 = 6. Solution For Intrunsic Semiconductor.026 In (3) = 21.4 meV .86 Problem 2.33 Problem 2. find the distance in·electron volts (ev) offermi level in as intrunsic semiconductor from the centre of the forbidden bond at room temperature. If then Hence EF will be at the centre of the fo~ bidden band.1n mp kT mn NC = 2 ( -]3/2 21tmnKT n 21tmpkT J3/2 N =2 ( V n 2 = "4 3 x 0.33 x 10 18 atoms/cm 3• If the effective mass of an electron is equal to thrice the effective mass of a hole.82 x 10 15 (0. N v 2 = ~ 2. Solution when 3 N v =4.82 x 1015(:YXT312 =4. for what doping concentration will the fermi level coincide with the edge of the valence bond? Assume ~p = 0. EF will be away from P n the centre of the forbidden band by 2 KT Nc In.27 Electronic Devices and Circuits In p-type Ge at room temperature of 300 oK.4 m.

If these x. . x. Let the concentration of some carriers be as shown in the Fig 2.11 Drift current in p-type semiconductor electrons from the acceptor atom being pulled away.e. Therefore they will move from Al to A2. The acceptor atoms having lost one electron steal another electron from the adjoining atom resulting in a new hole. the number of free electrons may be more. it has acquired an electron. pulling out one electron from the negative electrode from the acceptor '--' '-" atoms ( Fig. This is true with holes also. Area A2 is a measure of the number of carriers between X2 and X3. Area Al is greater than Area A2.12.3 DIFFlJSION CllRRENT This current results due to difference in the concentration gradients of charge carriers.11 ). 2. So electrical neutrality or of its original condition is disturbed. The holes in the acceptor type semiconductor moves towards the negative electrode and enter !-p-Type into it.12. the hole has moved ~----------~:I I~----------------~ away. The new holes created thus drift towards negative electrode. Distance of ( along the Semiconductor) Fig. So the electrons where the concentration gradient is more move from that region to the place where the electrons are lesser in number. 2.12 Diffusion current. Therefore number of carriers in area Al is greater than the number of carriers in A2.12. This results in a Fig. 2.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. Area A. x. In one particular area. These free electrons enter the positive electrode. their number may be less. That is. and in some other adjoining region. 2. i. Area A I is a measure of the number of carriers between XI and X2. The concentration of carriers is not uniform and varies as shown along the semiconductor length. free electrons and holes are not uniformly distributed all over the semiconductor.2 DRIFT CURRENT IN P-TVPE SEMICONDliCTOR 87 The mechanism is the same to as explained above.

e. then electron current directions is from C to A (. Hence Diffusion Current per Sq. the carriers in areas AI and A2 have equal probability to move from left to right or from right to left. Ip dp dx = Q x Dp x For Ge. . If diffusion current is caused by holes. there will be very small current flowing through. though no electric field is applied. Let tx secs be the corresponding time taken. This current is called diffusion current. at room temperature On = 93 x 10-4 m2/sec Dp = 44 x 10-4 m2/sec.: Electrons move from A to C). Because of the thermal agitation.5 X(lx ::)XdX ((lx)2 X )( t: ) :: I x X Vn X Hence Diffusion Current = 1/ /2 ex dn dx where V x is the Average Velocity = tx X Ix and e = charge of an electron. Diffusion electrons density I n is given by the expression J n = + e On x - dn dx positive sign is lIsed since :: is negative and direction of current is opposite to the movement of electrons. During time tx. half the electrons from AI move to A2 and half the electrons from A2 move to AI' The net current is due to the difference of number of electrons from AI to A2 =0. Let Ix be the distance travel1ed by each electron between two successive col1isions. which is cal1ed Diffusion Current..88 Electronic Devices and Circuits charge carriers are free electrons. at room temperature itself. If these are holes then current direction is from A to C. i. the equation of diffusion current is . it results in net diffusion current. meter of cross section is in =e x dn On dx On = Diffusion current constant in m2/sec Vx = Y:! Ix :: is concentration gradient of electrons in Number of carriers / m. So in semiconductors. But because the number of carrier in AI is greater than in A 2. It is independent of any applied field. if the device is connected in a circuit. I x is the mean free path.

24 ) where V T is volt equivalent.. Since p the hole concentration is decreasing . S 0 -ve sIgn IS use d·In t he expressIon fior Jp.. At room temperature. So the resulting Diffusion Current Density J p is written as dp Jp = . There exists a concentration gradient in a semiconductor..is the sum of Drift Current and Diffusion Current.12. 11 = 39D. so that. WIt I1 x. .= \\. Negative sign is used for J p. dx Drift Current Diffusion Current ellppE dp eDp dx dn Similarly the net electron current is In Sin~e = e Iln nE + e Dn dx Diffusion hole current is J p dp J p = --eDp dx p decreases with increase in x. dx since the electron current is opposite to the directions of conventional current. The thermal energy due to temperature T is expressed as electrical energy in the form ofVoIts. dx ... If you consider p-type semiconductor holes are the majority carriers. where On ~n = - Op ~p =V T KT T V T = -..4 TOTAL CURRENT Both Potential Gradient and Concentration Gradient can exist simultaneously within a Semiconductor. ( 2.. E -e Dp . J p will be positive in the positive x direction.. dp J p = e IIp p. So :~ is negative.600 . It is given as.e x Dp x dx where Dp is called diffusion constant for holes. Since in such a case the total current. of temperature. . Dn . It is in m2/sec. D and 11 are interrelated. For electrons dn I n = + e . 2. :: is concentration gradient.. . it results in Diffusion Current. On account of this. dp IS -ve.Junction Diode Characteristics 89 where Dn is called Diffusion Constant for electrons...

D n x. Vr KT =~ = T 11..381 x 10-23 JfK 5 K = 1. But since the electron current is opposite to the conventional current... ( 2.. So the concentration of holes and electrons will be changing continuously and this varies with time as well as distance along the semiconductor.13 EINSTEIN RELATIONSHIP D.800 x 0...hole recombination will be taking place continuously due to thermal agitation...90 Electronic Devices and Circuits dn Similarly for electrons also the expression is similar and the slope is ..026 = 47 cm 2/sec Dn = 1300 x 0.. Dn = ~ x Vr = 3.62 x 10. Dp = 500 x 0.026 = 34 cm2/sec For Silicon. equation which is based on the fact that charge is neither created nor destroyed..6 x 10- ~p= -p = -p.. . ~p .026 = 99 cm2/sec pp = ~p x Vr = 1800 x 0... the Diffusion Coefficient and ~ are inter related as .... We now derive the differential.026 p . Electron ..14 CONTINUITY EQUATION Thus Continuity Equation describes how the carrier density in a given elemental volume of crystal varies with time. ( 2.26 ) = 39Dp ~ = 39Dn ~= 39D or Therefore values ofDp and Dn for Si and Ge can be determined..dx ..+exD n -dx dx 2. ( 2.=39D D D Vr 0. electrons are the majority carriers. This is called Continuity Equation.27 ) Problem 2. Solution For Germanium at room temperature..25 ) I ~ ~ ~ ~VTI where Vr is volt equivalent of temperature...600 19 JfK K = 8.026 = 13 cm 2/sec 2.29 Determine the values ofDp and Dn for Silicon and Germanium at room temperature.. J n = dn) dn ( e. If an intrinsic semiconductor is doped with n-type material...evfK K = 1..

So when only Ip colombs is entering. more number of holes will be created. since more hole current is leaving than what is entering. If Po is the thermal equilibrium concentration ofholes. of holes entering the semiconductor at 'x'. p g=Lp Therefore. 2. Let the average hole concentration be 'p'. Decrease q in holes per unit volume ( hole concentration) per second due to Ip is dIp 1 ---x Axdx q dI But :. length dx (x +. and (Ip + dIp) is the current leaving the volume at (x + dx ) at the same instant of time '1'. If dIp is rate of change of total charge that is dIp = d( n:q) 91 x'--_-.Ip ) = dIp colombs per second within the volume. dx . that is hole current due to concentration is varying with distance along the semiconductor. Let Ip is the current entering the volume at x at time t. then. Fig 2.Junction Diode Characteristics Consider a semiconductor of area A. Or in other words. q But because ofthermal agitation. Therefore effectively there is a decrease of ( Ip + dIp . the increase per second.13 Charge flow in semiconductor dI _P gives the decrease in the number of holes per second with in the volume A x dx.( the steady state value reached after recombination ).l3.& 'p But because of recombination of holes and electrons there will be decrease in hole concentration. Let Ep is a factor ofx. we can say that more holes are leaving than the no. g= .x = dx) as shown in Fig. ( Ip + dIp) colombs are leaving. per unit volume due to thermal generation is. increase per second per unit volume due to thermal generation. = Current Density 1 dJ p xdx . The decrease .

= R dp/dt or = [pn -PnoJ dt 't p where Pn is the original concentration of holes in n-type semiconductors and Pno is the concentration after holes and electron recombination takes place at the given temperature. If a metal or semiconductor carrying a . 2. some holes are lost due to recombination. It is used to determine whether a semiconductor is p-type or n-type. If the semiconductor is n-type. -=----x't p ap at P" .P 1. Because of concentration gradient there is decrease in the number of holes.natIOn rate R = dt Life time of holes in n-type semiconductors AP Pn-Pno 't P =. dt gives the variation of concentration of carriers with respect to time 't'. the life time of electrons dp 't n - _ np -n po dxl dt 2. there is increase in the number of holes. So side 1 becomes negatively charged with respect to side 2. Ifpno is equilibrium density.. Because of recombination. there is decrease in the number of holes.14 current I is in the positive X-direction and B is in the positive Z-direction. " dp Recom b .e. The expression/or the time rate 0/ change 't in carriers density is called the Continuity Equation.15 THE HALL EFFECT current I is placed in a perpendicular magnetic field B. density in the equilibrium condition when number of electron = holes ). Hence a potential V H called the Hall Voltage appears between the surface 1 and 2.92 Electronic Devices and Circuits Charge can be neither created nor destroyed. Similarly for a p-type semiconductors. an electric field E is induced in the direction perpendicular to both I and B. aJ p q ax dp Partial derivatives are used since p and Jp are functions of both time t and distance x. In other word Pno is the thermal equilibrium minority density. the mobility !1 can be calculated using Hall Effect. This phenomenon is known as the Hall Effect. so that current is carried by electrons. So a force will be exerted in the negative V-direction. By measuring conductivity 0. So the net increase in hole concentration is the algebraic sum of all the above. Because of thermal generation. In the Fig. The recombination rate is given as Pn . these electrons will be forced downward toward side 1. If we consider unit volume of a semiconductor ( n-type ) having a hole density Pn.Pno . (i.

. ... ( a ) But where E = VH/d = Hall Voltage = VH d J Thickness of semiconductors.... z Fig 2.... .. the force due to electric field intensity 'E'......14 Hall effect.. because of Hall effect should be just balanced by the magnetic force or eE = B ev v Drift Velocity of carriers in m / sec B = Magnetic Field Intensity in Tesla ( wb/m 2 ) or E = Bv .d ro = width of the semiconductor. rod = cross sectional area I = current J E = Current Density = = VH/d = Ed I rod or VH . In the equilibrium condition.... . Current Density ( Amp / m2 I = nev ) or J=ro.... P J or J = pv = charge density.Junction Diode Characteristics 93 2 .

I . in n-type semiconductors...... side 2 becomes positive and side 1 negative.... ( 2. B.defined as RH = p... RH is. electrons the majority carriers under the influence of electric field will move towards side 1.I VH =--=p.29 ) The Hall Coefficient.ro .e = p = charge density. = RH x cr = ..B. 1 But - P =RH cr=--X/J. From Equation { a ) But v = J/p VH= B x v x d BJ.I. cr=pX/J..pro .d I = ......d pro ~ . P = VH. 1 RH or VH·ro /J.94 But E Electronic Devices and Circuits = Bv .But J = p rod B. ( 2.I .x cr B. n.I VH =pro or and p = n x e ( For n .. cr = ne/J..d B...28 ) If the semiconductor is n-type....type semiconductor) p = p x e ( for p-type semiconductor) p = Charge density..I V H ...ro. I Units of RH are m3 I coulombs Ifthe conductivity is due primarily to the majority carriers conductivity... If on the other hand terminal 1 becomes charged positive then the semiconductor is p-type.

.. I J-lp = 0... So for all particles v will not be the same. Due to the thermal agitation they gain energy. ( 2.000 O-an.I RH VH·w 0. Assume the bar resistivity is 200... there will develop a Hall voltage or field which just opposes the Lorentz field.cm . Whether a given semiconductor is p-type or n-type (from the polarity of Hall voltage VH) The Hall Effect is used to determine the mobility of holes in a f-type Silicon bar..Junction Diode Characteristics 95 We have assumed that the drift velocity 'v' of all the carriers is same. p = 2 x 10 5 0 .3 = 150 =0. Solution B = 0.667. Then it becomes Modified Hall Coefficient. will tend to move in a direction perpendicular to B. Problem 2. Hence a correction has to be 1 31t made and it has been found that satisfactory results will be obtained if R H is taken as 8p .667 x 2000 = 750 cm 1 V . So the majority carriers in the semiconductors. The product Bev is the Lorentz Force. d = w = 3mm = 3 x 10-3 meters B. So with the help of Hall Effect.sec 2 .1 x lOx 10-3 1 50xlO-2 x3xl0. 2.. 1= 10 rnA. their velocity increases and also collision with other atoms increases. because of the applied magnetic field B and the drift velocity v..1 Wblm and d = w = 3mm. Find IIp mobility of holes.1 Wb I m2 (or Tesla) V H = 50 mv.30 The mobility of Electrons or Holes. The measured values of the current and Hall voltage are 1OmA and 50 mv respectively. But actually it will not be so. But since there is no electric field applied in that particulars direction. . Thus mobility of carriers ( electrons or holes) can be determined experimentally using Hall Effect.30 ) 8 Multiply RH by 31t. the magnetic field Bz = 0. Conductivity = J-l = cr x RH p= 1 1 2 x 105 x I 0-2 - 2000 mhos I meter. we can experimentally detemline 1.

.x dV dx (c) ~ectrostatic W .---- (d) Potential Barrier for: Holes ! x (e) -l\j iii Potential Barrier Cor Electron. and become negatively charged. e ® <±I. But because ofthe concentration gradient across the junction. I'D . the volt ampere characteristics of the diodes. (a) Holes-~o eee e® ® e o:e e ® $ (t4"'r-. 2. there are only p-type carriers to the left of the junction and only n-type carriers to the right of the junction. a-diode is realised and it has the properties of a rectifier..16. Therefore in the p-njunction on the pside.15. If donor ( n-type ) impurIties are diffused from one point and acceptors impurities from the other. holes and negative ions are shown and on the n-side free electrons and positive ions are shown. electronhole currents as a function of distance from the junction and junction capacitances will be studied. ..96 Electronic Devices and Circuits 2. holes are in large number on the left side and they diffuse from left side to right side. -+x Fig 2.. .1 THEORY OF p-n JUNCTION Take an intrinsic Silicon or Germanium crystal. Potential distribution in p-n junctioh diode.Free Electrons ®.16 SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE CHARACTERISTICS If ajunction is formed usingp-lype and n-type semiconductors.'~. p-type I In-type ~ tp ~ Charge Density (b) ~ I -. In this chapter. o .. To start with. So they loose electrons and become positively charged. a p-njunction is formed. The donor atoms will donate electrons. acceptor atoms accept an electron. Similarly. Similarly electrons will diffuse to the right side because of concentration gradient.

15 ( c). A is anode. But at a particular stage the negative field on p-side becomes large enough to prevent the flow of electrons from n-side.15 ( b).+ ( a ) Forward bias ( b ) Reverse bias ( c ) p-n junction forward bias Fig 2.2 p-n JlINCTION AS A DIODE The p-n Junction shown here forms a semiconductor device called DIODE. So the net hole current is zero when the diode is open circuited. electric field will appear across the junction.15 ( d ). It has two leads or electrodes and hence the name Diode.16 (a». the barrier potential is developed. Because of the concentration gradient. Donor atoms on n-side have lost free electrons. 2. The potential which exists to cause drift is called contact potential or diffusion potential. holes from the p-side move towards n-side. E = - f dx' This variation constitutes a potential energy barrier against dV further diffusion of holes across the barrier. Its symbol is A ~I K. ( Fig. When the diode is open circuited. This should result in large hole current flowing even when diode is not connected in the circuit. A potential gradient is set up across the junction such that drift current flows in opposite direction to the diffusion current. 2. The charge density far away from the junction is zero. negative field exists near the junction towards left. space charge region or transition region. If the anode is connected to positive voltage terminal of a battery with respect to cathode. The electric field intensity near the junction is shown in Fig. So. Since p-side looses holes. it is called Reverse Bias. This is called depletion region. The electro static potential variation in the depletion region is shown in Fig. But for this they would have been electrically neutral.16. 2. 2. Since n-side looses electrons. that region (p-region ) becomes negative. The charge distribution is as shown in Fig. positive electric field exists on the n side.16 . Because of the movement of holes from p-side to n-side.01 V ). 2. that is not connected in any circuit. concentration gradient should be nullified by drift current due to potential barrier. The thickness of this region will be of the order offew microns 1 micron = 10-6 m = 10-4cm. This curve is the integral of the density function p. (Fig. Positive charge on n-side becomes large enough to prevent the movement of holes from the p-side. Acceptor atoms near the junction have lost the holes. the hole current must be zero. So to counteract the diffusion current. So the region near the junction is depleted of mobile charges. since before all the holes from p-side move to n-side.16 (b». A K A K + - . Its magnitude is a few tenths of a volt ( 0. 'fthe anode is connected to negative voltage terminal ofa battery with respect to cathode. it is called Forward Bias. Now these holes have combined with free electrons and disappeared leaving the acceptor atom negative.Junction Diode Characteristics 97 Because ofthe displacement of these charges. 2. K is the cathode. But this will not happen. These free electrons have combined with holes and disappeared. all the holes from p-side should move towards n-side.

17 Ohmic contacts. So there results some small current called Reverse Saturation Current. As the holes near the junction in p-region they will move away from the junction and negative charge spreads towards the left of the junction. But this is minimized by fabrication techniques and the contact resistance is almost zero. . But n-side has few holes.18 THE P-N JUNCTION DIODE IN FORWARD BIAS When a diode is forward biased.17 THE P-N JUNCTION DIODE IN REVERSE BIAS Because of the battery connected as shown. The newly generated holes on the n-side will move towards junction. So a large current results. Jfthe diode is reverse biased.16.98 Electronic Devices and Circuits OHMIC CONTACT 2. The reverse resistance of a diode will be of the order of Mil For ideal diode. Electrons created on the p-side will move towards the junction. there exists a barrier potential. 10 will increase with the temperature. But this barrier doesn't apply to the minority carriers on the p-sides and n-sides. But some electron hole pairs are generated because of thermal agitation. For ideal diode. "the forward resistance Rf = O. I he same thing can be explained in a different way. Majority carriers from p-side and n-side flow across the junction. 2.16 (b)) p-rype and electrons in nrype will move away from the junction. So the entire voltage appears across the junction of the diode. A K + - Fig 2. the barrier potential height increases by a magnitude depending upon the reverse bias voltage. the potential barrier that exists when the diode is open circuited. holes in ( Fig. because to have continuous flow of holes from right to left. When the diode is open circuited. The flow ofthe minority carriers across the junction results in some current. So the flow of holes from p-side to n-side and electrons from n-side to p-side is restricted. A Metal-Semiconductor Junction is introduced on both sides of p-n junction. So very less current results. external battery is connected to the diode. 10 is of the order of a few ~A. is reduced. reverse resistance is 00. So metal contacts are to be provided for p-region and n-region. So the 0 reverse resistance or back resistance decreases with temperature. Positive charge density spreads towards right. Such a contact is called ohmic contact. But directly external supply cannot be given to a semiconductor. 2. So these must be contact potentials across the metal-semiconductor junctions. It is denoted by 1 . The forward current If' will be of the order ofmA (milli-amperes).3 In tpe above circuits. 2. But this process cannot continue indefinitely. the holes must come from the n-side.

electrons on one side will have higher energy than on the other side. the voltage across it remains constant at Vy cut in voltage. Valence Band energy level on the n-side. the energy band diagram for a p-n junction is where a shift in energy levels Eo is indicated. EG Energy gap in eV EF Eo Een Ecp Eyn Eyp Fermi energy level Contact difference of potential Conduction Band energy level on the n-side. . I '--_ _ __---. If it is not so.1 FORWARD ClJRRENT Ifa large forward voltage is applied (Fig. Ifthe barrier potential across the junction is made zero. 2. We may see in the other sections that when the diode is conducting.19 Forward biasing. the current must increase. So the conduction band edge of n-type semiconductor cannot be at the same level as that of p-rype semiconductor Hence.1S. But this is not practically possible since the bulk resistance of the crystal and the contact resistance together will limit the current. But we have already seen that in n-type semiconductors. 2. as shown. Then the fermi level must be constant throughout the specimen. EF is close to conduction band Een and it is close to valence band edge Ey on p-side.Junction Diode Characteristics 99 A K + - Fig 2. Valence Band energy level on the p-side. infinite amount of current should flow.19). So the transfer of energy from higher energy electrons to lower energy electrons will take place till fermi level on both sides comes to the same level.18 Diode in forward bias.19 BAND STRUCTURE OF AN OPEN CIRCUIT p-D JUNCTION Whenp-rype and n-rype semiconductors are brought into intimate contactp-njunction is formed. If the applied voltage is too large junction breakdown will occur. 2. Conduction Band energy level on the p-side._'--J A-7"i+:rV K Fig 2.

..Een = Eo E} + E2 = Eo· This energy Eo represents the potential energy barrier for electrons..(EF - E2 = But EG 2 .n region -----~ I .EF + Evp .Evp EI + E2 = Eep .Een + EF EG = Eep .Evn· Evp) EF) EG 2.. '~---------------------i-"2 EG 1 .~----..2 1 Fig 2..Een = Evp . If a central line central lines EG 2 is taken.100 Electronic Devices and Circuits I I I Space charge I ... The contact difference of potential .~----. Eo EI = = Eep .(Een - EI + E2 = EG . the shift in energy levels is the difference between the two EG 2 of the two semiconductors. (1 ) .Een + Evp· But Eep .P region ----_~I region I..Evp .EG :_~ -~ .20 Band structure of open circuited diode.

E ) = KT In[Nc) F No = Donor Atom Concentration NJm 3 ..E2 ( E) + E2 ) = EG .32) The energy is expressed in electron volts eV.. nn = No. In the case of n-type semiconductors.Evp ) (E) + E2 ) = Eo (E en . (2) ( EF .~D) n..( Een ... (2. or Een . (Subscript 'n' indicates electron concentration in n-type semiconductor) 2 n1 =n n xpn O n =N xp nn=N o n1 = Intrinsic Concentration np = Electron Concentration in p-type semiconductor nn = Electron Concentration in n-type semiconductor Pp = Hole Concentration in p-type semiconductor Pn = Hole Concentration in n-type semiconductor p =_1 n No n = p _I n2 and and N=~ o Pn n N =_1 2 p 2 n2 NA A n n12 = nn x pn .( EF ..EF ) .EF = 1..62 x 10-5 eV I oK Therefore. = Acceptor Atom Concentration NJm 3 • No NA ( EF . c v n. Eo is in eV and Vo is the contact difference potential in volts Vo is numerically equal to Eo...Evp) + ( Een .EF ) = EG .E) ... K is Botlzman's Constant in eV 10 K = 8.E2 = [E~ ) .Evp) = KT In(~) Eo = KT In[NC"~v x ~D x ~A)= KT In[NA.Junction Diode Characteristics 101 and Adding (1) and (2).... ....E2 .2 ( EG ) ..

I~ I I ~I 1I il li .. v 2..026 x I n 10 4 = 0.li l l l-I I I ~ -1 1 1I I .718 eY..I I ~ Current ~ .21 Current components in a p-n junction.......pn] (nn] = KT In ( Pl1"n p = KT In ~ nno] [ppn) Eo=KTln ( -n =KTlnpO PnO Taking reasonable values ofnno = 10 16 / em 3 n pO = 104 / em 3 KT = 0..20 THE CURRENT COMPONENTS IN A p-n JUNCTION DIODE ['... Total Current I x =0 Distance Fig 2.. ..I I I I .....I I I ...102 Electronic Devices and Circuits Substituting all these value in E o = KT In(NA.026 eV 10 16 Eo = 0. ~~ .N D ] n2 I nn.....

the minority carriers current decreases exponentially. 2. This relationship is called Boltzman's Relationship. the current is hole current (majority carriers are holes). Since the diffusion current of minority carriers is proportional to the number of carriers.).. on the n-side... Pn(o)=Pnox e V/VT . Jpn is small and as hole concentration decreases in the n-region. Equating (1) and (2). There are two minority currents. at the edge of the diode on p-side. with distance. the current is electron current since electrons are the majority carriers... In a forward biased p-n junction diode.. the current enters as hole current and leaves as electron current.Junction Diode Characteristics 103 When a forward bias is applied to the diode. (1) where V 0 is the Electrostatics Barrier Potential that exists on both sides of the Junction. Jpn also exponentially decreases with distance. The decrease in Jpn is compensated by increase in Jnp on the p-side.. they are represented as Jpn(. Since holes are minority carriers in the n-side.y.. the total current at the junction where x = 0 is 1 = Ipn(O) + Inp(O) The total current remains the same... But the thermal equilibrium hole concentration on the p-side Pn (0) e(Vo -V)/VT where Hole concentration on n-side near the junction Applied forward bias voltage. The number of this injected carriers decreases exponentially with distance from the junction. hole current is practically zero. on the n-side.21 LAW OF THE JUNCTION Ppo Pno Ppo Thermal Equilibri't:~m Hole Concentration onp-side Thermal equilibrium hole concentration on n side PnoeVO/VT . What remains of Jpp at the junction enters the n-side and becomes hole diffusion current Jpn in the n-region... V. one due to electrons in the p-region Jnp... Electrons crossing from n to p will constitute current in the same direction as holes crossing from p to n. Pn (0) e(VO-V)/VT = Pno X . Now deep into the p-region ( where x is large) the current is because of the electric field ( since bias is applied) and it is drift current Jpp of holes.. So Jpp decreases near the junction and is just equal in magnitude to the diffusion current Jnp. As the holes approach the junction. some of them recombine with electrons crossing the junction from n to p. Therefore. (2) e VO/VT Vo _ Vo + ~ or Pn(O) = Pno X e V. This current decreases at the junction as the junction approaches and at a point away from the junction. But at the other edge of the diode. Thus in a p-n junction diode.. As these currents vary with distance... and due to holes in the n-region Jpn. V. holes are injected into the n-side and electrons to the p-side.

Inp(O) Ln x n -1) .... This is called the Law of the Junction. So it can be neglected. Reverse Saturation Current V VI / 1= 10 -1) This is the expression for current I when the diode is forward biased...Pno Pno e V/VT _ Pno .. ( 2..26 mY... If the reverse = -- AeDp x Pno+ x (e -v bias voltage is very large. 1 = -10 . Similarly the electron current due to the diffusion of electrons from n-side to p-side is obtained from the above equation itself.. Only the current that results as a result of the diffusion of the carriers owing to the applied voltage is considered.. V is replaced by -Y..22 DIODE CURRENT EQUATION The hole current in the n-side Ipn(x) is given as Aex Op -xjL L Pn (0) e P p Jpn(x) But Pn(O) = Pno (e v /v r -1) Ipn(O) AexOp (v/v) L x Pno\e 1-1 p Diffusion coefficient of holes Diffusion coefficient of electrons.104 Electronic Devices and Circuits Therefore. Pn(O) Pn(O) . . AexOn (e v/v 1 po ~ The total diode current is the sum of Ipn (0) and Inp(O) = .. the total hole concentration in 'n' region at the junction varies with applied forward bias voltage V as given by the above expression...32 ) 2.. e -xjLp at x = 0 is 1. If the diode is reverse biased. ( 2. e VT is very small.33 ) or where I = 10 I 10 (e / v1 -1) v I AeOn L x npo Lp n In this analysis we have neglected charge generation and recombination. V T value at room temperature is ... by interchanging nand p...

the current due to thermal generation of carriers and recombination can be neglected. .12 In p-type semiconductor. I will be less than thatforGermanium. 11 = 1 for Germanium and 1 or2 for Silicon. 10 = AeDpPno AeDnnpo L + p 105 In n-type semiconductor.Junction Diode Characteristics 10 will have a small value and 10 is called the Reverse Saturation Current. 2.VG' where VG is in Volts. n? =Ao T3 e. Therefore. 10 =Ae where [~+ Ln.23 VOLT-AMPERE CHARACTERISTICS OF A P-N JUNCTION DIODE The general expression for current in the p-njunction diode is given by (l 1=10 le 11VT -lj. So the expression for current is modified as I = 10 e 11 V l (l T - \ 1 j \ where n = 2 for small currents and n = 1 forM large currents.N Dn LpN o EGO Jx n7 A 1 nI 2 = A 0 T3 e-EG/KT EG is in electron volts = e. Pp=NA n2 1 :. °n=ND But nn x pn = n. 10 = K JT2 e-VG/VT For Germanium. But for Silicon it cannot be neglected. np= N A Substituting these values in the expression for 10.KT EGo = V G · e But - KT e = Volt equivalent of Temperature V T' For Germanium. For Silicon. V T = 26 mY. temperature dependance of 10 can be written as. Dp and Dn decrease with temperature and o? increases with T.

if the reverse voltage -V» V T' then e -v /VT can be neglected and so reverse current is -10 and remains constant independent ofY.(mA) ---:-4---~t--+''''----:-- V" (Volts) lillA) Fig 2.2V for Germanium and O. i Silicon ) O.6V for Silicon ( Fig. So the actual current is more than the theoretical current. . 2. As V increases Avalanche multiplication sets in. If plotted to the same scale. So I increases exponentially with forward bias voltage Y.2V O. 2. (reverse and forward) they may be similar to the theoretical curves.6V V F (Volts) Fig 2. In the case of reverse bias. 1. below which the current is negligible. CUT IN VOLTAGE Vy In the case of Silicon and Germanium.22 and not like theoretical characteristics.106 Electronic Devices and Circuits If V is much larger than V T' 1 can be neglected.23 Forward characteristics of a diode.22 V-I Characteristics of p-n junction diode. in deriving the equations the breakdown mechanism is not considered. So the characteristics are as shown in Fig. It's magnitude is O. Another point is.23 ). The difference is that the practical characteristics are plotted at different scales. diodes there is a Cut In or Threshold or OffSet or Break Point Voltage.

23. . m = 2 For Silicon.llVT Differentiating with respect to Temperature. or 10 a T2 10 = KTm e-VGO/llVT where V G is the energy gap in volts.) T 10 m - T value is negligible 7 ~ dl o x10 dT Experimentally it is found that reverse saturation current increases::: 7% /oC for both Silicon and Germanium or for every lOoC rise in temperature.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. 10 gets doubled. (EG in eV) For Germanium.1 DIODE RESISTANCE 107 The static resistance (R) of a diode is defined as the ratio of I V of the diode. In 10 = ~ 10 x dl o dT dl o xdT 0 + m _ (_ Voo x T 11Vr J.5 10 = KTm e-VGO/llVT -VGO Taking In.. 11 = 1. Static resistance varies widely with V and I. In( K ) + m x In (T) . The dynamic resistance or incremental resistance is defined as the reciprocal of the slope of the Volt-Ampere Characteristic depends upon V and I. The reverse saturation current increases if expanded during the increasing portion. m = 1. (Natural Logarithms) on both sides. 11 = 2. This is also not a constant but 2.24 TEMPERATURE DEPENDANCE OF P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS The expression for reverse saturation current 10 10 I = __ D p_+ D n Ae [ L N L N p 0 n· A J X 2 nj n 2 a T3 n 2 I = A 0T3 e-EG0/KT Dp decreases with temperature. dV ill.

108 ElectrQnic Devices and Circuits 25V+4--- ·0 IJ1A . 10 = (1+ I~O)lo = 1. For a rise of IOC in temperature. CT = I:~I where IdQI is the magnitude of charge increase due to voltage dV. Before reverse bias is applied. there is some space charge region. So space charge Q increases as reverse bias voltage increases.I'-I1---IOflA Fig 2. Reverse Saturation Current increases 7% JOC rise in temperature for both Silicon and Germanium.07)10 = 2. and hole away from the junction. But we must consider only its magnitude.07 10).25 SPACE CHARGE OR TRANSITION CAPACITANCE C T When a reverse bias is applied to a p-njunction diode.0710.24 Reverse characteristics of a p-n junction diode. For another degree rise in temperature. It is to be noted that there is negative charge on the p-side and positive charge on n-side. the new value of 10 is. Q r"' _ _ But '-' . 2. Therefore for 10 °C rise in temperature.V Therefore. dQ Current I = dt . negative charge is developed on the p-side and similarly positive charge on the nside. because of concentration gradient. When electrons cross the junction into the n-region. electrons from the p-side will move to the n-side and vice versa. Its thickness increases with reverse bias. the increase is (1. Incremental Capacitance. the increase is 7% of(1. Thus for every 10°C rise in temp Iofor Silicon and Germanium gets doubled.

only. I_ I I I I I I I I ----+ x W !( -----":o:. This capacitance is not constant but depends upon the reverse bias voltage V.--t-~) I W Wn Fig 2.. For D.C.25. Wn will be very small. then a current will result.:::: O. . To satisfy the condition of charge neutrality. then Wp» Wn . CT is of the order of 50 pf etc. If this is placed against n-type Germanium. and heated to a high temperature. Such a junction is called Alloy Junction or Diffusion Junction. IfNA «No.Junction Diode Characteristics Therefore. given by 109 1= CT x dt dV This current exists for A. ALLOY JVNCTJON Indium is trivalent. So it can be neglected.. In practice the width of the region. a pnjunction will be formed and for such ajunction there will be abrupt change from acceptor ions on one side to donor ions on the other side. So we can assume that the entire barrier potential appears across the p-region just near the junction. or depletion region capacitance. In the figure.25 Abrupt p-n junction. p-type Charge Density r-- n-type +ve r NA -ve • • • • • • • P • • • ~+"-N D I• IE I I I I I I • • -1-.C.C. For D. It will be negligible. Voltage is not changing with time. No is shown in Fig. since space charge:.(this doesn't exist). indium diffuses into the Germanium crystal. If the diode is forward biased. C T is called Transition region capacitance or space charge capacitance or barrier capacitance. capacitance is open circuit. The knowledge of CT is important in considering diode as a circuit element. ex NA x Wp = e x No x Wn . the acceptor ion concentration NA and donor atom concentration.. 2. ifthe voltage dV is changing in time dt. There is sudden change in concentration levels.

Y: B 2 ~VB = W~e~~A .. So as V increases. It is d2V dx 2 = -E- eNA where E is the permitivity of the semiconductor dV eNA -=--x dx E e. If V0 is the contact potential. 2 At x = wP' V = VB the barrier potential.. Wp = W.N A 2 V=--xW B 2E or dW dV = y: 2 Rxf E ex NA v. VB = V0 .110 Electronic Devices and Circuits Poisson's Equation gives the relation between the charge density and potential.34 ) The value of W depends upon the applied reverse bias V..E x2 X-. W also increases and VB increases Wa JVB If A is the area of the junction.V where V is the reverse bias voltage with negative sign. the charge in the width W is Q=exNAxWxA where W xA=Volume e x N A = Total charge density Cr = I~I =exNAxAx I~~I JexN A J2E VB xA Q But e... ( 2..N A V= .... IV = ~ x W2 1 B .

the junction capacitance will be much larger than the transition capacitance Cr When the diode is forward biased.35 ) This expression is similar to that of the Parallel Plate Capacitor.. ( 2. Carrier Concentration 1 p(O) n p(O} n = Hole concetration in n-region at x = 0 = Thermal Equilibrium Concentration of Holes.. (CD is few mF (2mF. So we can say that the total diode current is mainly due to holes only. .)) C T value will be a few pico farads.26 DIFFUSION CAPACITANCE. Holes which are the minority carriers in the n-side are injected into the n-side from the p-region. Pn(O) is the Concentration ofholes/cm3. The concentration of holes in the n-side decrease exponentially from the junction.. When the diode is forward biased. x=O ---+. DERIVATION FOR CD Assume that. x in cm. the p-side is heavily doped compared to n-side.. Holes from p-side are injected into the n-side and electrons into the p-side. So we can say that a positive charge is injected into the n-side from p-side. So the rate of change of injected charge 'Q' with voltage 'V' is called the Diffusion Capacitance CD' Because of CD total capacitance will be much larger than CT in the case of forward bias. the holes that are injected into the n-side are much larger than the electrons injected into the p-side. The total charge Q is equal to the area under the curve multiplied by the charge of electrons and the cross sectional area A of the diode. the barrier potential is reduced. So the excess charge due to minority carriers will exist only on n-side.Junction Diode Characteristics dW dV 111 ~~~x ~exNAxW E I ---xexNA W ~ & E . 2.x Fig 2...26 Carrier concentration variation. CD When a p-n junction diode is forward biased. This injected charge is proportional to the applied forward bias voltage 'V'.. Area is in cm2...

....' . .....p Dp where Dp = Diffusion coefficient for holes. (1) + exAxDpxPn(O)xe. Lp = Diffusion length for holes.Lp Lp x I / AeD p Lp dl --xAeDp dv Lp AeDp x g ...x/Lp dx 00 0 = Ae Pn(O) Q J e -x/Lp d . x 0 AePn(O) [ . CD ~ Ae Lp [A~~.. Substitute equation (2) in (1).. D p = cm2/sec CD = 't x g..112 Electronic Devices and Circuits 00 . L2 't= ..X/LP Lp or AeDpPn(O) Ipn(O)= 1 = . Q = fAePn (O)e..... (2) where g is the conductance of the diode..Lp [0-1] ] AeLpPn(O) dQ dPn(O) dv CD = -dv =AeL p x We know that Ipn( x ) ...) x x x g = L2 i xg Dp The lifetime for holes 't p = 't is given by the eq.

Charge control description of a diode: =.1 FORWARD RECOVERY TIME (T FR ) Suppose a voltage of 5V is being applied to the diode. Time taken by the diode to reach from 10% to the 90% of the applied voltage is called as the forward recovery time t fT . (3) CD is proportional to 1... the current takes definite time to reach a steady state value.27.Junction Diode Characteristics But diode resistance r--- 113 11.. Pno is the thermal equilibrium concentration of holes on n-side.•. .2 DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY TIME (t rr) When a diode is forward biased.. In the above analysis we have assumed that the current is due to holes only. So it can be represented as COP' If the current due to electron is also to be considered then we get corresponding value of COn' The total diffusion capacitance = COP + C Dn . VT 1.27. Its value will be around 20pF'. =.. Q = A x e x Lp x Pn(O) AeDpPn(O) 1= ---'--Lp L = A x e x Pn(O) p Q But I=QxD/L2 p p L p2/Dp = • 1= - Q 2. Co xg or r x Co r x CD is called the time constant of the given diode. 2. VT I - where 11 = 1 for Germanium 11 = 2 for Silicon I g=11. 2. It is of importance in circuit applications. This is shown in Fig.27. 2.T 11.. Pn is the total concentration of holes on 'n '-side. holes are injected into the 'n' side. The variation of concentration of holes and electrons on n-side and p-side is as shown in Fig..V .27 DIODE SWITCHING TIMES When the bias of a diode is changed from forward to reverse or viceversa.26. But usually this is very small and so is not of much importance.· • 2.. Its value ranges from nano-secs to hundreds of micro-seconds. CD = .

28 Carrier concentration in reverse bias.27 Rise time.29 (iii) up to t\.3 Fig 2. the diode current will not fall suddenly. During 0 .27.29 (i). the equilibrium level of the carrier density at the junction takes place. 2. STORAGE AND TRANSITION TIMES Suppose the input given to the circuit is as shown in Fig. At t =~. Now when the forward voltage is suddenly reversed. 2. These values range from few mill i-seconds to a few micro-seconds.t3) when the diode has normally recovered and the reverse current reaches 10 value is called Transition Time tt.114 Electronic Devices and Circuits i v ) Time i x=o Fig 2. the voltage drop across the diode is small. . Instead. Forward resistance of the diode is small compared to RL . The interval time (t\ -~) for the stored minority charge to become zero is called Storage Time ts. The time (~ . So the voltage across the diode falls slightly but not reverses and increases to VR after time t3' The current also decreases and reaches a value = reverse saturation current 10 . VF IF = RL This is shown in Fig 2. at t = t\.29 (ii) and voltage across the diode in Fig 2. Since all the voltage drop is across RL itself. the diode is forward biased. it reverses its direction and ~ V R: (RL is small compared to reverse resistance of the diode). because of the Reverse Recovery Time.t\.

'!.....2.:o. Minority Forward I B" las II Carrier Storage I I -V R ------.31 (a) (b) For what voltage will the reverse current in p-njunction Germanium diode reach 90% of its saturation value at room temperature? If the reverse saturation current is 10 JlA.. P..:~t ------~----~ v ( iii ) o~==~====~~~t I t.1 Fig 2. calculate the forward currents for a voltage of 0..Pno junction r----+------~~==~~t Ir=S R.3V respectively" ....---.Junction Diode Characteristics liS (i) OI------4-------....I+--I ! 1< tS ~*t ~ I ! Transition intorval t rr .29 Storage and Transition times...-~·t t.. ( ii ) OI---4------4--.L..!!!I!...L---.. Problem 2... and O...

2V =200mV 1.85 rnA V=0.026V at room temperature.C resistance and a.916mA J rDC =I = 0.1 = 109.~2L IJ 52 or (b) V =-O.026V 1=20x V 1~ e ( 0.3.116 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution (a) T V T = 11. T = 273 + 25 = 298°K T) = 1 T (273+25) VT = 11.600 = 11.- KT It is the Thermal Energy expressed in equivalent electrical units of Volts.01A Problem 2.20 0.IA with an applied voltage of 0. T is in ~~.1 VT -1 =0.600 = 0.1 V Solution 1= 10 (eXYr -1) For Germanium.600 = 0. Or it is 26mV V T is volt equivalent of temperature. _1)=1.196 x 10-3 rAC = dI dV I1V = 111 =? .2.I=IO(e I 0. 0.017V For For V = 0.32 Find the value of (i) D. if the temperature is 25°C and 10= 20J.c resistance of a Germanium junction diode.9 10 . for Germanium Diode. T) = I.10 [eO. 1 = 10 (e200/26 -1) = 21. VT = -.

N A B In this formula. N A is used since in the expression we have assumed thatp-side of the p-njunction is heavily doped. nn·pp -2nj KT = 0.Junction Diode Characteristics r =-=g ac dv 117 1 dI AC dI Vr rAC = 26.083 x 10 cm -4 .x 3. it would be N D • V B = Total barrier potential Applied reverse bias voltage + the contact difference of potential (Vo ).30 dv = 38. fln = 3800 cm 2/sec flp = 1800 cm 2/sec.1 x 10-3 0 Problem 2.6x 10.V e. lfn-side is heavily doped. Applied reverse bias voltage = 1V.001 cm 2 .33 Find the width of the depletion layer in a germanium junction diode which has the following specifications Area A = 0. Vo=KT In. n? W= J2E. <Jp = 100 mhos I cm.25 x 1026 T = 3000 K. in the denominators.85 x lO.85 x 10. Solution Permitivity of Germanium. VB= VR +V So first V0 should be calculated.X(0.026 eV W= ----~--'-:-=--~ 2xI6x8.35+I) 1. <In = Imhos I cm.5 x 10 19 17 14 = 0. E = 16 x 8.14 F/cm = 6.

Zener Breakdown 3.25 -eO.0 26 1 .026 1 rf = 0. Avalanche Breakdown 2.34 Calculate the dynamic forward and reverse resistance of a p .25V for Germanium Diode. e0 026 0.= 2.e leakage current.7 Mn In practice rr is much smaller due to surfac. V is positive v I dI 10 v -=-=-eT_O rf (e t) II = I Dynamic Forward Resistance : dV VT 0.57 x 10-9 mhos rr rr = 2.n junction diode. e T Vr 0.026 -0. Solution 10 = lilA T = 3000 K V f =0. 1.734 n rr dI =-= dV I x 10-6 10 V _I< . 2.578 mhos = I x 10--6 .25V 1 = 10 YVr For Germanium. Thermal Breakdown .25 Dynamic Reverse Resistance : rf = 1. when the applied voltage is 0.25V V r = 0.118 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 2. 10 = lilA and T = 3000 K.57xlO-9 =389.28 BREAK DOWN MECHANISM There are three types of breakdown mechanisms in semiconductor devices.

28. Only those atoms. Even if thermally generated carriers do not have sufficient energy to break the covalent bonds. So they again strike the lattice and create more number of free electrons and holes.28.3 THERMAL BREAKDOWN If a diode is biased and the bias voltage is well within the breakdown voltage at room temperature. They strike the lattice and impart some energy to the valence electrons. when the applied voltage is removed. Its constructional features are: 2. more number of carriers will be produced and finally breakdown will occur. then covalent bonds are directly broken. the current flowing through the diode which is proportional to free carriers also increases and when this current is large. In Avalanche Breakdown. there will be certain amount of current which is less than the breakdown current. Since the number of carriers is large. and there will be large number offree electrons. Now keeping the bias voltage as it is. This is Avalanche Breakdown. avalanche breakdown will occur. normal covalent bond structure will be more or less restored.2 ZENER BREAKDOWN Now if the electric field is very strong to disrupt or break the covalent bonds. compared to normal p-n junction diode. to cause Zener breakdown. But if the field strength is not greater than the critical field. These newly generated additional carriers acquire more energy from the potential (since bias is applied). When bias is applied. This is Zener Breakdown. there will be sudden increase in the number of free carriers and hence large current and consequent breakdown. only the excess electron. ZENER DIODE This is a p-n junction device. in which zener breakdown mechanism dominates. the electric field is very high. 2. if the temperature is increased. which have weak covalent bonds such as an atom at the surface which is not surrounded on all sides by atoms will be broken. These thermally generated carriers acquire additional energy from the applied bias. Zener diode is always used in Reverse Bias. the depletion region is narrow and will have high field intensity. 2. But the covalent bonds of all the atoms will not be ruptured. so that the covalent bonds of all the atoms are broken. then normal structure will not be achieved.28. If the doping concentration is high.29 1. due to the thermal energy. A junction having narrow depletion layer and hence high field intensity will have zener breakdown effect. This is known as avalanche multiplication. there are certain number of thermally generated carriers. loosely bound to the parent atom will become free electron because of the transfer of energy from the electrons possessing higher energy. This is Zener Breakdown.1 AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN 119 When there is no bias applied to the diode. the covalent bonds are ruptured. So the valence electrons will break away from their parent atom and become free carriers. electrons and holes acquire sufficient energy from the applied potential to produce new carriers by removing valence electrons from their bonds.Junction Diode Characteristics 2. (== 106 V 1m). This is Thermal Breakdown. 2. Due to heavy doping. In zener breakdown. . But if the field strength is very high. This process goes on as long as bias is increased and the number offree carriers gets multiplied. depletion region width is narrow. Doping concetration is heavy on p and n regions of the diode.

2. In normal p-n junction diode.30 THE TUNNEL DIODE In an ordinary p-n junction diode the doping concentration of impurity atoms is 1 in 108 . Due to narrow depletion region width. So Iz increases sharply and V z remains constant.. the Zener diode regains its original structure. With this doping. 2. is increased much beyond Vz' electrical breakdown ofthe device will occur.29 Reverse characteristic of a Zener diode. near the junction.j In Fig 2. which constitutes barrier potential is 5J. This was found by Esaki iri 1958. Iz almost remains constant.120 Electronic Devices and Circuits 3.. This is what is meant by device breakdown. VR~ ~-------"""':::. At V = V z' due to high electric field (~ ). the characteristics of the diode will completely change. Covalent bonds are broken and suddenly the number of free electrons increases. ) Applications 1. (But if Vi. = V d " will be high. Iz increases through Zener resistance Rz decreases.1 TUNNELING PHENOMENON Barrier Potential VB : .. of the order of J06V/m. the depletion layer width. since. Zener breakdown occurs. the current flowing is only the reverse saturation current 10 which is constant like in a reverse biased diode. In Voltage Regulator Circuits 2. In Clipping and Clamping Circuits In Wave Shaping Circuits. If the concentration of the impurity atoms is increased to say 1 in 103( This corresponds to impurity density of ~ 10 191m3 ). 3.. So the product V z = Rz .lV. The device looses Its semiconducting properties and may become a short circuit or open circuit. Such a diode is called Tunnel Diode. If the input voltage is decreasea. electric field intensity E V = .29. 2. So Zener Breakdown mechanism occurs.30. The reverse characteristic ofa p-njunction diode is shown in Fig. When the Zener diode is reverse biased. avalanche breakdown occurs if the applied voltage is very high.

W = Width of Depletion Region in J. Therefore. the number of electrons on n-side which occupy the same energy level as that vacant energy state existing on p-side. but the empty states existing on the p-side. So..VB e. According to classical mechanics. Hence electrons will tunnel from the n-side to the p-side giving rise to forward current. there is regular p-njunction injection current also.0 I J. 2. there is much probability that an electron will penetrate when a forward bias is applied to the diode. The magnitude ofthis current is considerable only beyond a certain value of forward bias voltage.L N A = Impurity Concentration N o /m 3 . junction barrier varies inversely as the square root of impurity concentration.N A . the barrier potential. The n-side levels must shift upward with respect to those on the p-side.30 V .01J. in tunnel diodes. Therefore. As the forward bias is increased further. Therefore as N A increases W decreases. by increasing NA' W can be reduced from 5J..I Characteristics 0/ a Tunnel diode. a particle must possess the potential which is at least equal to. which are at the same energy level as allowed empty states in the valence band of the p-side. When the barrier width is so thin as 0.. If still more forward bias is applied. Ip = Peak current Iv = Valley current V F = Peak forward voltage Vp~ 50mV . the energy level of the electrons on the n-side increases. so that potential barrier decreases below E . So more number of electrons tunnel through the barrier to empty states on the left side giving rise to peak current Ip. r .L.L to 0. according to Schrodinge equation. to move from one side to the other.L. In addition to the Quantum Mechanical Tunneling Current.30. So there are occupie~ states in the conduction band of the n material.... also increases.. or greater than. I Ip F rnA VRE- Volts Fig 2. So the tunneling current decreases.Junction Diode Characteristics 121 or where W= J2E. reduces. the width of the. the current again starts beyond V v' The graph is shown in Fig.

High Speed 5. The series inductance Ls depends upon t~e lead length and the geometry of the diode package. The voltage at 'Yhich the forward current again equals Iv is called as peak forward voltage V v. So the diode exhibits Negative Resistance Characteristics between Ip and Iv called the Valley Current. since it is a two terminal device and there is no isolation between input and output. Low Cost 2. Simplicity 4. V v =350 mY. So the swing is limited. 2. At the Peak Current I p' corresponding to voltage VP' dV is zero. Ls ~ 5 nH. Disadvantages : 1. Vp C -RN (a) (b) ( b ) Equivalent Circuit Fig 2. Low output voltage swings. 2. Low Input Power 6. even for small voltage.122 2. Beyond this voltage. Low Noise 3.31(a). For small forward voltage (ie. Environmental Immunity. Junction capacitance C= 20 pF. Its circuit equivalent is shown in Fig. Ip -=8 Iv Ip = 10 rnA. 2. the current increases rapidly. Negative resistance Rn = -30n. If V is beyond Vp' the current decreases.30.2 CHARACTERISTICS Electronic Devices and Circuits OF A TUNNEL DIODE ~ 50mV for Ge).31(b). while the current goes to large values. Circuit design difficulty.31 (a) Symbol of Tunnel Diode Advantages : 1. .. Typical values ofa tunnel diode are: Vp = 50 mY. Series Ohmic resistance Rs = 1n. The symbol for tunnel diode is shown in Fig. forward resistance is small ~ 5n and so dI current is large.

there is no time lag between the application of voltage and consequent current variation.J~r Fig 2. The barrier width will be ~ 3Ao. Switching time is in nano-seconds. W a (V)1I3 C a (Vy1/3 . The Symbol is shown in Fig. Varicaps or Voltacaps. The effective depletion region width near the junction must be small. electrons from n-side will increase. --. So it can be used for high frequencies. If width ~ 0. for these electrons to tunnel from n-side to p-side. These are used in LC Oscillator Circuits. In the case of abrupt junction. When the tunnel diode is reverse biased. The two conditions to be satisfied for tunneling phenomenon to take place are: Necessary Condition : 1. If the barrier width is ~ 3A0. when impurity doping concentration is::: 1019/cm3. Diodes made especially for that particular property of variable capacitance with bias are called Varactors.-. 2.-..Junction Diode Characteristics 123 Applications : 1. As bias voltage is increased the number of electrons tunneling will increase. So electrons will tunnel through the barrier from the p side to n side [since when the diode is reverse biased the energy levels on n side will decrease]. Beyond valley voltage V v' it is normal diode forward current. there will be some empty states on n-side corresponding to filled states on the p-side.33 Varactor Diode • C a (Vt Y2 In the case oflinearly graded junction. 2. This is called quantum mechanical current. normal p-n diode current will also be there. of the order of 3A° by heavy doping. ExA W So Cr of a p-n junction diode varies with the applied reverse bias voltage. Apart from this. There must be equivalent empty energy states on the p-side corresponding to energy levels of electrons on the n-side. the probability that electrons will tunnel through the barrier is large.33 Varactor diodes are used in high frequency circuits. As a high frequency oscillator (GHz) 2.01 Jl electrons will tunnel without the application offield. The larger the reverse voltage. EA C= W But Wa (vy. Since tunneling is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. Sufficient Condition: 2. and tunnel through the barrier to p-side.. As a fast switching device. But if width ~ 3A0. very small applied voltage is sufficient for the electron to tunnel. the larger the W. so forward current increases. When the diode is forward biased..31 VARACTOR DIODE Barrier of transition capacitance C r varies with the value of reverse bias voltage.

Yaractors are used in Reverse Bias condition. This junction can be obtained by Epitaxial Process. width ofthe depletion region increases.34 Impurity concentration variation in the junction region. Hyper Abrupt ~ Linearly Graded ~+--Abrupt o w ) Fig 2. . C= W EA As the reverse bias voltage increases. Hence C decreases. So W increases I C a W. FIgureo ment=-C Min RL Fig 2. Therefore.35 Equivalent circuit of Varactor diode L: Rs: Cj : RL : Lead inductance. since W is minimum C is minimum under maximum reverse bias.124 Electronic Devices and Circuits The variation of impurity atom concentration with co for different types ofjunctions is shown in Fig.34. C Max · f . since W is maximum. 2. C changes rapidly with voltage. C is maximum under no reverse bias condition. Series resistance of the diode due to the semiconductor material Junction Capacitance Leakage resistance of the diode since the capacitor can not be ideal one with out any leakage. Capacitance. So Yaractors are used in Reverse Bias condition. Such ajunction is called Hyper Abrupt Junction. since CT proportional to Y and CD = 't x g No direct relation with Y. But 'C' can be made proportional to y2 by changing the doping profile.

36 The transition capacitance of an abrupt junction diode is 20 pF.. k 1 CT = 20 pF.J5. (1) = NA x e x mp e x N A = O"p I Jlp O"p and E 16 F/m 361tx 109 16 4xlO I4 1 x 10-6 x 9 x 1800 x z.. V z = 51 x 45 = 2300V Problem 2.ls mtnnslc... the breakdown voltage V z = E Ell 2eNA.25 pF Therefore. Prove that. at SY..361txl0 2 O"p 51 where O"p V - is in ( O-cmyl.ere O"p = conductivity of the p material is (O-cmyl.JV. when V = 5V = .J5 .18.Junction Diode Characteristics Problem 2. .35 125 For a Zener Diode.. the breakdown voltage for a Ge diode is 51/0"p if Ez = 2 x. k is a constant k= 20.EJl p Vz=~ . O"e = 45 . CT = ? CT = 20. calculate V z Solution V =--z 2eNA or Substituting for e x N A in eq uation (1 ) E . Solution CT a 20 . Compute the value of decrease in capacitance for a 1.. decrease in the value of capacitance is 20 .J6 = 18. 1~7~/m :wh. 1 For intrinsic Germanium.75 pF..0 volt increase in the bias.25 = 1.. Assume NA «No' If p matenal.J5 when V = 6V.

the slop of the curve I:~I ~O. Supply voltage V = 200V. Imax = (40mA . = Find the value ofR so that the combination does not exhibit negative resistance region in its volt ampere characteristic.126 Electronic Devices and Circuits R Problem 2. The tunnel diode has didi 1 idv max 10 o. What is Imax? ( Fig.37 Solution (a) IfIL = 0.8V Problem 2.37 For Problem 2. the maximum possible value of IL. .36 ) IfR is set as in part (a) and IL = 25mA.38. Ifthe V-I characteristics were to exhibit no negative resistance region. v V I=i +D R di diD 1 -=-+->0 dv dv R- Fig 2. what are the limits between which V may vary without loss of regulation in. (b) Imax occurs when 10 = 5mA .the circuit? 200-50 R = 40x 10-3 = 3750 0 + sov Fig 2. 2.37 (a) (b) The Zener Diode regulates at 50V over a range of diode current from 5 rnA to 40 rnA.38 A resistor R is placed parallel to aGe tunnel diode.. 1= iD + iR for all V.5mA) = 35 rnA For V min IL + ID= 25 + 5 = 30 rnA V min = 50 + (30 x 10-3 ) (3750) = 162.5V For V max IL + ID = 25 + 40 = 65 rnA = 50 + (65 x 10-3 ) (3750) V max = 293.36 For Problem 2. Calculate the value ofR to allow voltage regulation from a load current IL = 0 upto Imax. Solution The combination is called as tunnel resistor.

38 represents a D. the Zener Diode conducts and the overload current is shunted away from the meter.026V = +26mV = 1 for Germanium Diode. Rm 5600 V.!di ! dv 127 ~ 0. V For Reverse Bias.O. When VI > 20V. the direction of current is opposite when the diode is reverse biased. The meter resistance is S60 0 and R) + R2 = 99. so that there is no negative resistance region in the characteristic.lA on full scale. When VI = 20V.50 / 26 _ 1 6.SKO 99.S6) x 103 x I 20V I ~ 100KO = 200 ).0 R\ R2 = = = 80KO 80KO .40 What is the ratio of the current for a forward bias ofO. 20V = (R) + R2 + Rm) x I = (99.SKO . find R) and R2 so that.147-1 =-6.SkO.OSV = +SOm V. !di O ! But It IS gIVen that dv max 1 = 10 mhos Therefore.39.79.C volt meter which reads 20V full scale. the Zener should not conduct. V + O.S + 0.82-1 0.Junction Diode Characteristics O > oR .83. = .OSV to the current for the same magnitude of reverse bias for a Germanium Diode? Solution For Forward Bjas. The circuit shown in Fig.OSV = -SOm V.39 The Zener Diode can be used to prevent overloading of sensitive meter movements without affecting meter linearity. = VT v v TJ e VT -I e50126 -I =--e. or (R\ + ~) x I = 16V 16V R) + Rm = 200x 10.I : 20V Solution Fig 2. when Vi> 20V. R should be as least 10 0. e VT -1 Negative sign IS oecause.soon : : 79.SKO = 20KO Problem 2. = + 0. . the voltage across R) and Rm must be equal to the Zener voltage V z = 16V. If the diode is a 16V Zener.. 2. Problem 2.38 For Problem 2.

86mA = 3. -~I I = 0.11 0. 10 1= 10 + R For Germanium. zener current is 25 rnA Solution 30V IL = 2KO = 15mA Max.0.636 0 .68 rnA.5 KO Problem 2. assuming Rs = 200n and max.11 °C-I.41 It is predicted for Germanium the reverse saturation current should increase by 0. will not change with temperature.39 For Problem 2.636 =-- 0.42 Over what range of input voltage will the zener regulator circuit maintains 30V across 2KO resistor.11..364 I .572 10 10 = 5mA IR = 0.636 I. the reverse current is 5 rnA and the temperature dependence is only 0. R = fiR V/ = 10 2.07 °C-I.07 Fig 2.128 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 2.0. + IOV 1 dl o -x10 dT =1 dl 10 -x·~I dT or 10 = 0.41.572(5mA) = 2. ~ dl o 10 x dT = 0. I I Taking the ratio of 1 x dl dT = 0. Zener Current = 25mA . Total Current = 25 + 15 = 40mA VI max = 30 V + Rs x 1= 30V + 200(15 + 25) = 38V .07. It is found experimentally in a particular diode that at a reverse voltage of 1OV. IR = 1-0. What is the resistance shunting the diode? Solution 1= 10 + IR ~ = dl o dT dT IR the reverse saturation current.

l decreases with temperature.ln + peJ. ~ . n.. • Fermi Level lies close to Ec in n-type semiconductor • Fermi Level lies close to Ev in p-type semiconductor • cr = neJ. 10 gets doubled for every 10°C rise in temperature.5V at room temperature. Photo electric Emission 4. High Field Emission • Expression for Threshold FrequencyiT in photoelectric emission. • When the diode is reverse biased. I\. transition capacitance CT results when the diode is forward biased.- 129 81t Eo r • Expression for the radius of orbit. 1.2KT eEG • Law of Electrical Neutrality N A + P = ND + n. • E xpresslOn fior wave Iength 0 f emttted rad·· tatlOn. Thermionic Emission 2. Reverse Resistance Ry will be very high. iT = h e~ • Energy Gap EG decreases with temperature in semiconductors. V H = pro BI • Expression for current through a p-n junction.I 2 2 3/2 = AT e. Units are cm /v-sec.1 V and for Silicon diode it is 0. . • 10 the reverse saturation current of a diode wi II be of the order of a few J. It decreases with increase in temperature. = ( 12. • n p = n. of the order ofMO • Cut in voltage Vv for Germanium diode is 0.l p • Hall Voltage.. e2 E= . Diode is 1~ 10 [e"~' -I] • Forward Resistance Rfof a diode will be small of the order offew O.. Secondary Emission 3.lA. It increases with temperature..400 ) E 2 -E) • Types of Electronic Emissions from the surface. • Mobility J.. r = n 2h 2 E 1tme 2° .Junction Diode Characteristics SUMMARY • Energy possessed by an electron rotating in an orbit with radius r. diffusion capacitance Co is exhibited.I ..

...... • Zener diode is also operated in reverse bias for voltage regulation.... ........... Avalanche Breakdgwn 2.......... Thermal Breakdown.................... Zener Breakdown 3. 9............. OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1...... charge region.................. .................... .......... ...... A very poor conductor of electricity is called ............................. Expression for 'J in terms of E and cr is ..................... ....... 4............. 18......... ....... ................... ° Value of Volt equivalent of Temperature at-25°C is ......... 10..... doping and this relationship. 19............................. 5........ 6.. Einstein's relationship in semiconductors-is ...... 14.... Intrinsic concentration depends on temperature T as .......... 2...... charges and this region depleted of mobile charges is called ....................... According to Law of Mass Action In semiconductors... 7.. the ........... ........................ Free electron concentration in semiconductors is of the order of ..... is ... ...... In n-type semiconductor.......... . the product of the free negative and positive concentration is a constant independent of the amount of ....... ............ 17........... called the mass action low and is given by np = . ...130 Electronic Devices and Circuits • The three types of breakdown mechanisms in semiconductor diodes are 1........... In p-type semiconductor....... ............................. Expression for J in the case of a semiconductor with concentrations nand p is Value of Eo at room temperature for Silicon is . 3.. Insulators will have resistivity of the order of ..... 16.... The unneutralized ions in the neighbourhood of the junction are referred to as ............. . • Tunnel diode exhibits negative resistance characteristics • Varactor diodes are operated in reverse bias and their j unction capacitance varies with the voltage. Cutin Voltages ..... When donor impurities are added allowable energy levels are introduced a little ..... 13.................... .... with temperature Depletion region width varies with reverse bias voltages as . .... The equation governing Law of Electrical Neutrality. The rate at with I changes with temperature in Silicon diode is ...... 15............................................... 12................. Under thermal equilibrium.... 11. band................. Fermi Level lies close to .......... .... 8. Fermi Level lies close to ..............

...... ....... Derive the expression for Transistor Capacitance C T i~ the case of an abrupt p-n junction.......... 3. N A and nj is ..... ..... Expression for 10 in terms of temperature T and VT is ............ With the help of necessary equations................ 12..... Zener breakdown mechanism needs relatively .... Derive the expression for Hall Voltage....... ~ Qualitatively explain the forward and reverse characteristic ofp-njunction diode..... Expression for Volt equivalent of temperature V T in terms of temperature T is 26.. 30.... at room temperature. 24.. it exhibits ..... How n-type and p-type semiconductors are formed? Explain. 6.............. 23.... 28.................Junction Diode Characteristics 20. 131 21......... ....... 8.. 29................... Explain' about Hall Effect....... Typical value of Eo = ..... II... ..... 4....... The value of cut in voltage in the case of Germanium diode ......... General expression for Eo' the contact difference of potential in an open circuited p-n junction' in terms of N c... 13........... 10.. Derive the expression Transistor Capacitance C T in the case of p-njunction diode.... Explain the concept of 'hole'........ Derive the expression for Eo in the case of intrinsic semiconductor. 27......... eV The equation governing the law of the junction is ... electric field compared to Avalanche Breakdown. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1...... Draw the forward and reverse characteristics of a p-n junction diode and explain them qualitatively.......... 25.. and Silicon Diode . ............ 7.................... 5....... .. What are the applications of Hall Effect? Distinguish between Thermistors and Sensistors.... . Compare <Avalanche.. Zener and Thermal Breakdown Mechanisms. ...........the expression for Eo in the case of open circuited p-n junction diode.... Explain the terms Drift Current and Diffusion Current........ Derive the expression for contact difference of potential V in an open circuited p-n o junction............ VT = . characteristics..... Expression for the diffusion capacitance Co in terms ofLp and Dp is . The salient feature of a Tunnel diode is.. ...... 22.... 9... 2....... Derive the expression for EO in the case of of p-type and n-type semicunductors. The expression for the current in a forward biased diode is . Expression for VB the barrier potential in terms of depletion region width W is VB = ....... Derive ..................

The expression for the Kinetic Energy E of free electron in terms of momentum of the electron 'p' and mass of the electron mis. (a) (b) (c) (d) e r 2.132 14.98 AO (c) (b) (d) (b) (d) (b) (d) 0. The energy possesed by the electron.18 AO (d) 0. 15.Secs E = lO-9 /361t o = 6. Distinguish between Avalanche. F a. -e. given. Electronic Devices and Circuits How junction capacitances come into existance in p-njunction diode. The force of electron 'F' between nucleus and electron with charge 'e' and radius 'r' is. The energy required to detach an electron from its parent atom is called. Electron collision without transfer of energy in collision is called.58 AO 6. The value of the radius of the lowest state or ground state is. h 10-34 J . (a) p 2m (b) P 2m2 (c) L 2m2 (d) L 2m 4. Zener and Thermal Breakdown Mechanisms Derive the expression for the diffusion capacitance CD in the case of p-n junction diode. is (a) n 2 h 2c0 7tme 2 (b) nh Co 7t m e 2 2 2 (c) n 2 h C0 2 7t m e 2 (d) n 2 h 2 C0 2 7t m e 2 5. W orbitting round the nucleus is. 17.626 x (a) (a) (c) (a) (c) (a) (c) 0. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.r (a) (b) (c) 87t Co (d) 3.28 AO (b) 0. 16. Ionization potential Kinetic energy Null collision Elastic collision Eienstein theory Bohr mechanics Eletric potential Threshold potential Impact collision Stiff collision Quantum mechanics Classical theory 7. Wave mechanics in electron theory is also known as . The expression for radius of stable state 'e' r. 8. proportional to. Write notes on Varactor Diode.

Fermi level in Intrinsic semiconductor lies 13. The conductivity of a good conductor is typically (a) (a) (c) (a) (c) (b) (c) (b) (d) (b) (d) (d) 11. The equation governing the law of the junction is = (e VNT) nno = Pno + nj (c) pn (0) = p" ( e. The rate of increase of reverse saturation current for Germanium diode is. with usual notation is. (a) 5% r (b) 1% (d) 7% 16.Junction Diode Characteristics 133 9. Cut in voltage V of a silicon diode is also called as (a) (c) break over potential critical potential (b) (d) breakdown potential offset voltage 17. The potential which exists in a p-n junction to cause drift of charge carriers is called (a) (c) (a) contact potential ionisation potential pn (0) (b) (d) (b) diffusion potential threshold potential n po 14." -1] 4% (c) 15. A diode which is formed by using lightly doped GaAs or silicon witil metal is called (a) Zener diode (b) 18. The expression for threshold frequency fT to cause photoelectric emission is. e <j>2 (a) h 10-3 O/cm (b) e<j> h 103 Q/cm (c) eh <j> 10 3 /cm (d) e 2<j>2 h2 10 /m 10. The free electron concentration of a good conductor is of the order of 10 10 electrons/m3 102 electrons/cm3 close to conduction band In the middle 1028 electron/m 3 10 10 electrons/m 3 close to valence band None of the these 12. The symbol shown (a) LED -4.is that ora Schottky diode (c) Varactor diode (d) tunnel diode (b) Schottky diode (c) Varactordiode (d) Gunn diode .

5. BYI27 0/ Diodes o~ A ~ Semiconductor Device. 1. Y ~ Rectifying Diode. 6. 7. 1. 4. I A Silicon Diode. 3.5 2 4 Units V f. B ~ Denotes Silicon Device. Denotes Gennanium device.1 3. 2. 0/ a Germanium Tunnel Diode IN 2939 Symbol IF IR Ip Iv Vp Vy Iplly Parameter Forward current Reverse current Peak current Valley current Peak voltage Valley voltage Ratio ofIp to Iy Typical Value 5 Units rnA rnA rnA rnA V V 10 I 0. 4. 4. 3.No. 7. 2. 6. 4. OA79 2. 7. N ~ Bipolar Device. BY 100 :800V. 50 30 10 - . 5. 1 N4153 Specifications SI. I ~ Single Polar function. Number 127 is owing a type no and has significance. 0/ a junction Symbol WN Iu IF diode Typical Value Units V A rnA rnA V nA V Parameter Working Inverse voltage Average Rectifield current Continious forward current Peak repetetive forward current Forward Voltage Reverse current Breakdown voltage ro 100 300 400 0. 2.No.No. 1. Parameter Reverse breakdown voltage Static Reverse Current Static Forward voltage (for silicon) Total Capacitance Reverse Recovery Time Continuous Power Dissipation Max. 6. 3.lA V pf ns IR VF CT trr P IF 500 50 rnw rnA Some type numbers 1.134 Electronic Devices and Circuits Specifications for Silicon Diode SI.6 ~ Vf IR BY 500 100 Specifications SI. 5. For Ward Current Symbol Vir Typical Value 75 5 0.

Inductor. Zener voltage regulator circuits. • • .In this Chapter. Capacitance. • Circuit applications ofp-njunction diode device namely Half Wave Rectifier (HWR). Full Wave Rectifier (FWR) and Bridge Rectifier circuits. series and shunt voltage regulator circuits are also explained. L-section and 1t-section filter circuits are explained. for rectification applications are described.

But they will get dried quickly and replacing them every time is a costly affair.2. . Now the average value of this waveform is not zero.C. say Half Wave Rectifier Circuit. since there is no negative half. ~t -Vm e = VmSin wt = A Sin wt Fig 3. source of power.C. amplifier circuit for biasing. 1 Tav = -2 1t 2" 0 J A Sin(wt) dt 3.C. D. supply. But without biasing with D.c. Filter converts unidirectional flow into pure D.2 Half wave rectified output (unidirectional flow). the circuit will not work. To get this.1 A C input wave form. since the positive half cycle and negative half cycle are exactly equal.136 Electronic Devices and Circuits 3. ~ rot Fig 3. instruments require D. power into D. will be discussed in this Chapter.C supply is required.C. power.1 RECTIFIERS • The electronic circuits require a D.c. The input signal can be A. Rectifier is a circuit which offers low resistance to the current in one direction and high resistance in the opposite direction.. If the input to the rectifier is a pure sinusoidal wave. D. the average value of such a wave is zero.C.C. 3.C. Hence it is economical to convert A.C.c. signal. Signal with zero average value to a unidirectional wave form with non zero average value.C. For transistor A. their efficiency (11) etc. Hence a rectifier circuit converts A. the output will be as shown in Fig. batteries can be used.C. Such circuits.2 HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER If this signal is given to the rectifier circuit. Rectifier converts sinusoidal signal to unidirectional flow and not pure D. and so the output signal will be amplified A. So more or less all electronic A.

what reading will it indicate? Is it the peak value or will the needle oscillate from 0 to maximum and then to 0 and so on.. step down transformer should be used.C. A basic circuit for rectification is as shown in Fig. Filters and Regulators 137 The rectifying devices are semiconductor diodes for low voltage signals and vacuum diodes for high voltage circuit. or will it indicate average value? The meter is so constructed that it reads the average value. Output voltage is taken across the load r~sistor RL ..3.. .4 Half Wolve rectified output. i = 1m Sin a i=O I =-. and such a high voltage cannot be applied to the semiconductor diode.C. 3. Since the voltage is 230V.Rectifiers. main supply.Base For Half wave rectified output. average value = .2.2.. 3.. Area of the curve By definition..4. ~ i = 1m Sin a between 0 5 a i= 0 7t between 7t 5 a 5 27t -a Fig 3.C input is normally the A. Fig 3. 3. signal is much larger than Vy' we neglect Vy' for analysIs.3 Halfwave Rectifier (HWRJ circuit A. If large D. 3..1 MAXIMUM OR PEAK CURRENT The output current waveform for halfwave rectification is shown in Fig. Ammeter is connected in the rectifier output circuit.2 READING OF DC AMMETER RL is the load resistance If a D.C. Since the peak value of A. base value is 21t for one cycle.!!!-m Rr+RL a = rot 0 ~ a ~ 1t 1t~a~21t Vm Rr is the forward resistance of the diode.C. voltage is required vacuum tubes should be used.

C.6361 m = 2 x - 21t f(lm Sina)da 0 Inns = J2 = O. 1 average 1t = 0. value which produces the same heating effect as the alternating component.c.C.2. the resistor gets heated. Effective or RMS value of an A. the diode conducts. Now during the positive half cycle. 6361 m = I. during positive and negative half cycles. = 0.707 1m RMSValue Form Factor = A verage V a Iue 1 For a sine wave. = 1m J. signal.C.C.J (lmSina) 2n 0 I 2n 2 da 1m a 2n 20r {I -c J2 1m os2a }da 2 = =& 1m ili 2 0 +-4 Sin2a 2n 0 . quantity? The magnitude of this equivalent D.lI 3. The forward resistance of the diode R f wi II be small. DC I = ~[I + I] = ~ 3. is called the RMS or Effective Value of A. quantity is the equivalent D.C..C AMMETER An A. which produces the same heating effects as the A. The complete cycle is from 0 to 21t.707I m 0.c. -Cos a O 21t 0 2n I In 21t 1t Upper limit is only 1t. current is passed through a resistor. or there is some equivalent power dissipation. o :S. What is the value ofD. O.2. also because of the current.1t. If some A.138 Electronic Devices and Circuits I = DC n 1m JimSina da = .4 PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE For the circuit shown. The voltage across the diode v = i x R f i = 1m Sin a o 1t. because the signal is zero from 1t to 2n. ammeter is constructed such that the needle deflection indicates the effective or RMS current passing through it.C. v = 1m RfSin a :s a:s :s a .3 READING OF A.c. the input is A.7071 m 1m Fonn factor (Ji) ~ ~ 1 ('. RMS value of a slOe wave x ~2 + 0 ~ = .fiJ. By definition Inns = .

Rectifiers..sino Fig 3. Therefore. The waveform across the diode is Fig. But during the negative half cycle. V DC = .sina o 1t --0. + 21t JVmSino. - Fig 3. the voltage across the diode V during positive half cycle will be small.1 ) If we connect a CRO across the diode.7 Voltage Waveform across the Diode So the D.1 [1t PmRf·Sino... the diode will not conduct. 21t 0 1t 1 Vm = 1m (R f + Rc) IVDC~ -':RLI . 3.) v = Vm Sin a 1t ::: a ::: 21t. It occurs when the diode is not conducting. v I. So in the above circuits the diode is being subjected to a maximum voltage of Vm. do. So the voltage across the diode is not zero but the voltage of the secondary of the transformer VI will appear across the diode (.8.C.: effectively the diode is across the secondary of the transformer. Voltage that is read by a D. Voltmeter is the average value.. and the waveform is as shown.. the current i through the circuit is zero. ( 3..nR.7..6 Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Since Rf is small.. Filters and Regulators 139 v AC Input -Vm "••• "••• "•••~ -f==""-"\ J____ --'\----. V".5 Fig 3. Hence it is called the Peak Inverse Voltage ( PIV ) . this is the waveform that we see is as shown in Fig.--wt (J.C. 3.. do.

8 HWR current output =!nl 1t But RL = Load Resistance Rf = .da 0 h I = -flmsina.8). ( 3.. EXPRESSION FOR V DC THE OUTPUT DC VOLTAGE For halfwave rectifier circuit (Fig.. YNoLoadYoltage . IDe the average value is: I 21t =- 2n 1 1t Ji.. Therefore.. But .5 The variation of D.C load current is called 'regulation'.... regulation is zero or it should be low for a given circuit.2 Forward Resistance of the Diode.YFullLoad YFullLoad 100 % Regulation = x % For an ideal power supply output voltage is independent of the load or the output in voltage remains constant even if the load current varies..140 Electronic Devices and Circuits REGULATION 3.da =--Dl 2n 1t o -cot Fig 3.2.C output voltage as a function of D. 3.. like in Zener diode near breakdown.

Rectifiers..IDe x Rfl V -.. Rf . % Regulation = -'-'--=-=---'-'---Vm I R . In general.+ IDC' R f x 100 IDc-Rf VITI I R . The larger the value of R f . if a graph is plotted between V De and IDe the slope of the curve gives ( Rf + Rs ) where R f is the forward resistance of diode and Rs the series resistance of secondary of transformer. (3. Filters and Regulators Adding and Subtracting R f . the series resistance of the secondary winding of the transformer Rs should also be considered... and 1t it decreases with increase in IDe Iinearly since R f is more or less constant for a given diode.DC' f 1t x 100 % Regulation = R Rf L x 100 .. The percentage of regulation is defined as % Regulation = As we know that.1t - Vm IDe' R f 1t 1t :. This expression indicates that V De is REGULATION FOR HWR The regulation indicates how the DC voltage varies as a function of DC load current....3 ) at no load or wlten tlte load current is zero. For a given circuit of half wave rectifier.. the greater is the decrease in V DC with IDC' But..DC' f 1t Vm Vm ... I V De = ~ . VNL - VFL VFL x 100 VDC = V NL = - Vm 1t - IDC . = = Vm·(R L +R f -R f ) 1t{R + R ) L f Vm 1t{R + R ) L f Hence V De depends upon R L .!!!. . 141 VDe IDe IDe is determined by R L . the percentage of regulation for ideal power supply is zero....1t Vm and V FL = ..

But the simple circuit shown before will not achieve this.C.5 volts = 12.5 2.C. is sum of D.C.C.5 x 100 = 12. i.6 RIPPLE FACTOR The purpose of a rectifier circuit is to convert A.loci is the total current. While determining the ripple factor of a given rectifier system experimentally. The instantaneous current is given by i' = i .C. Filters convert unidirectional flow into D.5 x 100::: 20%.C components are also present. the no load + Rs ) = 25 0 voltage is 15V and max load current that can be drawn is 100 mAo If the value of ( then the percentage regulation of the circuit is: Rr No Load Voltage = 15V Drop across Diode = 1m ( R f + Rs ) Rs = Transformer Secondary Resistance Max. Voltage with load = 15V .C. to D. 12. Rectifier converts A. and harmonics ). Ripple factor. i' = ( i-IDe) [ ( Total current - IDe) ] RMS value is l:ms = . (Total current i = 1m Sin rot according to Fourier Series.142 Electronic Devices and Circuits Suppose for a given rectifier circuit.2.. component. Hence A.C.C. So filters are used to get pure D. a voltmeter or ammeter which can respond to high frequencies ( greater than power supply frequency 50 Hz) should be used and a capacitor should be connected in series with the input meter in order to block the D. y = ----------=-----'---------A verage Value of the waveform I'nns I DC V'rms VDC RMS Value of alternating components of the waveform y =--=-- I:ms and V~s denote the value of the A.5V 15-12.C.5 3. the specifications are 15V and 100 rnA. In a half wave rectifier. We shall now derive the expression for the ripple factor. to unidirectional flow and not D. Ripple factor should be small. only A.C component is.( 1m x ( Rr + Rs ) ) = 15 = 15 Percentage Regulation = 100 rnA x 250 2. Ripple factor is a measure of the fluctuating components present in rectifier circuits.e.C components of the current and voltage in the output respectively. some D.

loc 2 IOC y= l rms [ loc )2 -I .. - 1 21t Ji. and then Inns or V nns is measured.. So taking this term outside. 21t 0 loc is constant.. Then.. 21t 0 =(Inni Now..C. I 2 21t I DC f dex = de 21t 0 21t [21t] I~s = ~(lnnsY -2Ioc2 + loc 2 The rms ripple current is I~s = ~(InnsY -J OC 2 Ripple factor.dex = ~ DC 21t 0 1t .C value loc. Filters and Regulators 143 I' = nns _1_ 2]i 2dex = Square of the rms value of a sine wave by definition. ( 3. I = 1m sin ex 1[ I =I av = _1_ JIm sinex.. If a capacitor is used to block D. y=-= Ide I'rms ~(lnnsY . I' nns = ~I nns 2 I DC and Ioc = 0 (blocked by Capacitor) output waveform For Half Wave Rectifier Circuit (HWR).dex = The average value or D.Rectifiers.4 ) This is independent of the current waveshape and is not restricted to a half wave configuration....

2.1 21t( 12 f 21t 0 2I.f 1 21t 21t 0 (I-IOC )2 da 2 . So this power is wasted. Hence lac = o.7 RATIO OF RECTIFICATION (T'I): DC PAC DC power delivered to the load Ratio of Rectification = --.21t the AC is not being converted to D.C.--'-----------AC mput power from transfer secondary P De But = Ibex RL I De for HWR=1t 1m P o. .IOC + IOC 2) . DC = (Im)2 xRL n' PAe is what a Wattmeter would indicate if placed in the HWR circuit with its voltage terminal connected across the secondary of the transformer. Pac = (Inns)2 (Rf + R L) Q from 1t . y = ( 1m X1t 2 x 1m ) -1 P 3. From 1t .144 1 1t r 12 Sin2 (a) da 21t Jo m 1 Electronic Devices and Circuits I = nns - = -'!L 2 Peak Inverse Voltage ( PIV ) = Vm Ripple Factor Total current y = .da ~(lrms)2 - 2IOC2 + IOC ~(Irms)2-IOC2 IrmsJ2 -1 ( IOC 2 I'rms y=-IOC for Half Wave Rectifier. I rms RMS value of ripple current --IOC Average value of the current I = IDe + I'(ripple) I'(ripple) = (I .21t the diode is not conducting. as heat across diode and transformer.IDe) If = nns = I'nns= .

because all the rated current of the secondary is not being drawn by the circuit.406 Considering ideal diode. Only part of it is converted to D. Pac = V nns x Inns Vm V nns = .[i 7 =0. the expression ~ I + ( :: ) The AC input power is not converted to D. PAC = (2 ) 1t 212 1m 2 (Rf+R X L) = 1m (2 )2 X RL .406 1t 4 Ratio of rectification for HWR = 0.287 . diode is not conducting and current I in the loop is zero even though Voltage V is present. Filters and Regulators I 2lt 145 I Inns( 1t . If we consider Rf also. During negative half cycle. m 2 It Inns for HWR is I m/2.287 Transformer Utilization Factor for Half Wave Rectifier is 0..C and is dissipated in the load. In ratio of rectification we have considered only the A. 3.fi = Rated voltage of (Secondary Transformer) But Inns = Im /2 Pac =:= V nns x Inns V m = 1m (Rr + R L) :::: 1m RL ( R f is small ) TUF= n 2 x l~ R jlmRL L J2 1m x"2= 2.406 0.oc = PAC P 1~.C output as the secondary of the transformer. We have to consider the rating of the secondary of the transformer. The balance of power is also dissipated in the load itself as AC power.21t ) portion of AC is 2 = -21t fl2 sin ada =-'!!.Rectifiers.C power delivered to the load PAC rated This term TUF is not ratio of rectification.RLx4 R m L = -2 =0.2...C.8 TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) = AC rat·mg 0 ft ranSiormer secondary Co D.

D. ~a l' 0:! .C voltage. it cannot be used. ~ : I . Low ratio of rectification (0.2. Regulation 3. POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS The input characteristics which must be specified for a power supply are: 1.146 Electronic Devices and Circuits DISADVANTAGES OF HALF WAVE RECTIFIER 3. : I .21) 3.------- =. 3. for ripple voltage is greater than DC voltage.57Y-l = 1.9 FWRCircuit . 3. Power is zero ( V x I = P = 0.10 So the ripple voltage exceeds D..9. So integration is from 0 .da .57 "2 = y>1 3.27t. The circuit is as shown in Fig. Ripple factor.!. Low TUF ( 0.287 ) For half wave configuration.m.2. \.C.r---IA 21t Waveforms Fig 3. High Ripple Factor (1.9 1.3 FULL WAVE RECTIFIER ( FWR ) Since halfwave rectifier circuit has poor ripple factor. U i o A. Average and peak currents in each diode 4. Hence HWR is a poor circuit for convertingAC to DC. I = 0 ) I It I =sina. Therefore. since. IDe 1m 17t y= 7t ~(1. I I 1t: I I . i = 0 for one half cycle.C saturation of transformer. Peak inverse voltage ( PIV) 5.C voltage 2. The required output D.da = ~ I-cosallt = ~Il + 11 = ~ DC 27t 0 27t 0 27t 7t = _l_ib~ sin 2 a. Jim Ripple Factor for Half Wave Rectification Irms = 1m 12 = . So now analyze a full wave rectifier circuit. 27t 0 2 Because during negative half cycle the diode will not conduct hence i = 0 in the loop from 7t .21 1. I rms 2.406) 4. Even though V is present.7t only.

O2 conducts and the current through 0] is zero A centre tapped transformer is used.482 for FWR.1 RIPPLE FACTOR 2J2 = 1. y = 1. 0] conducts and the current through O 2 is zero During the . = V1rms -IDe ' Y ~Irm/ -Ioc 2 Ioe Therefore. Inns = 2 x . and it is is 0. So positive half cycle for O2 starts at a full wave rectifier circuit. Inns = . So 0] is forward biased during the input cycle of 0 to 1t.fI~ sin ada = .!. . V Therefore. I For half wave rectifier. for Half Wave Rectifier Circuit.3.ve half cycle. circuit.11 I'rms I 2 2. while the D. o Fig 3. I 2lt. The total current i flows through the load resistor RL and the output voltage V 0 is taken across R L. O2 is forward biased during the period 1t to 21t since the input to O2 has a phase shift of 1800 compared to the input to 0].- Hence.fI~ sin ada 21t 0 m 1=---'-'-'m R f + RL Rf is the forward resistance of each diode.21 for HWR. 1t 3. IDe = Twice that of half wave rectifier circuit IDe = 2 Im /1t flm For half wave rectifier circuit. I =- 1m o i 21m IDe = ---. Ripple Factor is improved. So there is a phase shift of 1800. circuit. 21t 0 2 1 It 1 It 2 For full wave rectifier circuit. current starts through the load resistance RL is twice that of the Half Wave Rectifier Circuit.m. IDe = -2 slOada = --'1l 1t 0 1t For full wave rectifier. Y DC 1t For Full Wave Rectifier Circuit. because of centre tapping. Filters and Regulators 147 During the +ve half cycle.C. A centre tapped transformer is essential to get full wave rectification.Rectifiers.10 FWR voltage output.

3.R f 1t x (R -lJ 1 x 100 100 .VFL % Regulation = V x 100 FL The variation of DC voltage as a function ofload current is as follows V De = IDe RL 2:rn . The percentage of regulation is defined as VNL . I = Vrn ] . RL [.: Irn = R f : rn R L ] _ 2Vrn R [ .R + f ] Rf RL 2Vrn 1t(Rf + Rd IDe' IV = ~ De Rr I IDe' V NL =- Vrn 1t VFL = -1t Vrn Rr % Regulation 2Vrn _ 2Vrn + Ioc .1t(R f +R L)' L . R f ~1t~__~1t~_______ x 100 2Vrn -I .R DC f 1t = IDC R f 2Vrn -I R dc· f 1t x 100 ( l R % Regulation = ~ L 2Vrn x f +Rd 1t 2Vrn .148 Electronic Devices and Circuits REGULATION FOR FWR 3.2 The regulation indicates how D.. rn R f +RL _ 2Vrn .C voltage varies as a function of load current.1t rn =-2V 1t [1.

812.3. (RF +RL). ... Irms for FWR = . . for FWR the ratio of rectification is twice that of HWR. the secondary current flows through each half separately in every half cycle.Rectifiers. Hence TUF is calculated for primary and secondary windings separately and then the average TUF is determined. Pac = (Irmsf. DC power del. 3..(R 2 F + Rd ).C..C.-.fi 1m ( ~ )'. While the primary of transformer carries current continuously. Rr+RL =RL· PAC = -I!L(Rd· 2 e Poe 4Im2RLx2 8 Ratio of Rectification = . Filters and Regulators 3. Secondary TUF = .' .= 2 2 =.vered to load .AC rating of transformer secondary = (~r·RL Vm .2 =0.4 TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR: TUF In fullwave rectifier using center-tapped transformer. .406.. IDe = 21m 1t = 4..812 PAC 1t I m x R L 1t For HWR it is 0...3 RATIO OF RECTIFICATION 149 D. ~(R F +R 2 L If we assume that R f is the forward resistance of the diode is very small. Therefore.1 m R 1[2 2 V PAC is what a Wattmeter would indicate if placed in the FWRCircuitwith its voltage terminals connected across the transformer secondary.. powerdeliveredto Load A. compared to RL.3. : .x1m J2 J2 if Rf « RL ' then secondary TUF = 0. input power from transformer secondary PDe = 16e x RL for FWR.

693 Therefore. During the positive half cycle.11 Bridge rectifier circuit. Hence maximum voltage across RL is V m' since voltage is also present between A and 0 of the transformer.150 Electronic Devices and Circuits The primary of the transformer in feeding two HWR's separately. Voltage delivered to RL is V m. the D. currents I. 3. and 12 flowing through the diodes D. II Fig 3. D3 and D4 are open. then TUF for primary = 0. D~ is across R L. D J and D2 are forward biased.3% in FWR using center tapped transformer. So the transformer secondary line to line voltage should be one half of that. the total voltage across D. In Bridge rectifier circuit. 3. PIV is 2 V m for each diode in FWR circuit because. The total voltage across D2 is V m + V m = 2V m· 3. during the -ve half cycle. SATURATION In a FWR. the transformer is utilized 69. 0. So there is no problem of D. = V m + V m = 2V m ( Fig. is conducting. During the -ve half cycle D 4 and D~ are forward biased and they conduct. peak voltage across It is V m from the second half of the transformer.C. D2 is not conducting. the drop across it is zero. Therefore.Rf I +RL ifRf « R L. is not conducting and D2 is conducting. used for the FWR circuit.C. So we get full wave rectified output.6 D.5 PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE (PIV) FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER With reference to the FWR circuit. when D.812 + 0.11. 3. Therefore.C. there is no need for centre tapped transformer.287 TUF for primary = 2 x TUF of HWR = 2 x . The current flows from D3 through RL to D 4. current flowing through the core of the transformer and causing saturation of the magnetic flux in the core. employing two diodes.4 BRIDGE RECTIFIERS The circuit is shown in Fig. Hence the dIrection of current is the same.574 The average TUF for FWR using center tapped transformer TUF of primary + TUF of secondary 0.3. D. So current will flow through D J first and then through RL and then through D2 back to the ground.574 2 2 = 0.9 ).3. and D2 are in opposite direction and hence cancel each other. During the same half cycle. 3. These two HWR's work independently of each other but feed a common load. 21m 1t .

C..693 0. 3. So the transformer utilization factor is high. Input and two terminals for DC output.Rectifiers.287 0.812 0. 2. Bridge rectifiers are available in a package with all the 4 diodes incorporated in one unit. Four diodes are to be used. Centre tapped transformer is not required.21 1 0. The ripple factor and ratio of recti fication are the same as for Fu II Wave Rectifier. But these factors are minor compared to the advantages.482 2 0. 2.482 4 0.-IDC(RS 7t . Hence the Voltage rating of the diodes can be less. 3. Selenium rectifiers are also available as a package. The peak inverse voltage (PIV) across each diode is Vm and not 2Vm as in the case of FWR. = Forward Resistance of the Diode. 2Vrn + 2R F ) Resistance of Transformer Secondary.C.2 DISADVANTAGES 1. There is no D.1 ADVANTAGES OF BRIDGE RECTIFIER 1. 2R f should be used since two diodes in series are conducting at the same time.812 0. 3. Current flowing through the transformer since there is no centre tapping and the return path is to the ground.812 . There is some voltage drop across each diode and so output voltage will be slightly less compared to FWR. = Load Resistance. Filters and Regulators 151 where Rs+2Rf+RL = .5 COMPARISON OF RECTIFIER CIRCUITS HWR Peak Inverse Vo ltage No Load Voltage Ripple factor Number of Diodes required Ratio of Rectification Pdc PAC TUF= DC Power delivered to the load AC ratings of transformer secondary Vrn -1t FWR 2V rn -1t Bridge Rectifier Circuit Vrn 2Vrn 1t Vm 2Vm 1. It will have two terminals for A.406 0.4.4. 3.

During +ve half cycle.C. D t jsreverse biased and the PIV ~ross it V m. the total output voltage V 0 = 2V m.1 I Electronic Devices and Circuits VOLTAGE DOUBLER CIRCUIT HALF WAVE'VOLTAGE DOUBLEwEIRCUIT The circuit is shown in Fig. In A. 3. C2 charges through O 2 and to V m.C.12 and ' e wave forms are shown in Fig. It is necessary to include a .15 Output waveforms. meter (2V m) is proportional to A. RL is across the series combination of C 1 and C2• Therefore. the total voltage during -ve half cycle V m across C 1 +Vm of -ve half cycle = 2V m.7 INDUCTOR FILTER CIRCUITS Fig 3.15. 3.14. During the -ve half cycle. FILTERS A power supply must provide ripple free source of power from an A.6 3.6.C. So C 1 gets charged to V m. Input.13 Output waveform.2 FULL WAVE VOLTAGE DOUBLER CIRCUIT Fig 3.c. 3. input is given to a voltage doubler and filter circuits.12 Hal/wave voltage doubler circuit. line But the output of a rectifier circuit contains ripple components in addition to a D. The output of D. The circuit is shown in Fig. D2 ~t Fig 3. The actual voltage depends upon the value of RL connected. 0 1 is forward biased. 0 1 conducts C 1 gets charged to V m. So. 3. Therefore. During the +ve half cycle. 3. 3.C.6. V i o I i --+t Fig 3. Input.C. O2 is forward biased during the -ve half cycle and C 2 gets charged to 2V m. Here the PIV across each diode is only Vm and the capacitors are charged directly from the input and not C2 will not get charged through C 1 During the time period 0 to 21t we have two cycles.14 Fullwave voltage doubler circuit.13.C. This is the no-load voltage. Wave forms are shown in Fig. So it is FW Voltage Doubler Circuit. term. Voltage measurements. Current flows from 0 to 1t and 1t to 21t also. The meter calibrated in terms of the rms value of the A.152 3. the A. During -ve half cycle.

passes through it.1t 31t the fundamental harmonic m is eliminated. For simplification. = Fig 3. Therefore.1t 31t 151t The reactance offered by inductor to higher order frequencies like 4mt can be neglected. So the output current 1S i ::::: 21m ... The D.C.. Types of Inductors are : 1.. According to Fourier Analysis. 3. In the case of AC. AC voltage is dropped across the inductors.So any sudden change that might occur in a circuit without an inductor are smoothed out with the presence of an inductor. So it can be used as a filter. (XL = jmL).C output of the rectifier. Air Cored An inductor opposes any change of current in the circuit.-----"=---.C.2 For second Harmonic.. The ability of a component to develop induced voltage when alternating current is flowing through the element is the property of the inductor. the frequency is 2m.C. A. Ripple components are high frequency A.--cos 2 rot . Iron Cored 2.16 Inductor filter circuit One winding of transformer can be used as 'L'. Inductor filter is used with FWR circuit.41m cos2rot . diode and choke (inductor) resistances can be neglected.. 21m Cos4rot An IDU II '""'-"""".C is minimized in the output. . Signals in the D.C.. 1m 1m. Therefore. current. . Inductor is a short circuit for DC and offers some impedance for A. These are not desirable. Vm . there is change in the magnitude of current with time. FWR gives 48% ripple and by using filter circuit we can improve it. So filter circuits are used. Flux linkages per ampere of current L = ~cj> . Filters and Regulators 153 filter between the rectifier and the load in order to eliminate these ripple components.1t 2 1t 3 21m 4Im 4Im cos4rot Current in the case of FWR is i ::::: .. HWR gives 121 % ripple and using filter circuit for such high ripple factor has no meaning. compared with RL . The circuit for FWR with inductor filter is as shown in Fig. I in HWR Circuit is I=-+-Smmt-.Rectifiers. where as D. component of the current is ~= RL Impedance due to L and RL in Series IZI = ~RL2 + (2mL).16. so they must be filtered.

---1!!..L Therefore. the ripple factor is low. 10 Vy max then V R maximum = '2= 5Y.1m _ rnns - .17...e ) nRL 3n~RL2+4roL2 where e is the angle by which the load current lags behind the voltage and is given by 9=Tan. = I' nn/IOC loc = 2Vmin RL I .~R~ +4oo 2L2 x2Vm 2 1 L .. Component of current 1m = VmI ~ R L2 + 4oo 2L2. V/ms = . RIPPLE FACTOR 3.J2. we get. then RL Ripple Factor r = Ripple factor = .x -..18 Vrrms _ 3.C. Suppose the output wave form from FWR supply is as shown in Fig.. values in the expression... then also y is high. Vyp _ p is the peak to peak value of the ripple voltage.C. 2V 4V I = _m_ m cos (2oot ... .54 _ 00118 ..~Rt + 4oo 2L2 4vm xnR 4Vm Ripple factor = 3. Vx 300 % ripple = Ripple factor xl 00 % = 1..1 Y = Ir·nn/IO.3. ... =.» 1.J2-.J2 . A.3.5 ) 3 200L Ji. . Hence inductor filter should be used where the value ofRL is low.54V RIpple Factor y = . for current.12roL RL ... Suppose Voc = 300V. Cos 200 t n 3n by inductor to higher order frequencies like 400t etc.7.J2 4oo 2L2 --2. ( 3.154 Electronic Devices and Circuits So substituting these Therefore. Therefore.J2 5 = 3. then. and Vyp_p is lOY.. for higher values ofL. IfRL is large. 3. 21 41 I = ---1!!.======:= 4oo2L2 1+ RL 2 If RLx2 3-v2 x200L ~ ro~ Fig 3.17 Ripple Voltage V V ......J2 .

3 Ed V nns r::.236. One capacitor filter 3.Rectifiers.. Another formula that is used for Inductor Filter for Ripple Factor = 0. An inductor stores magnetic energy when the current flowing through it is greater than the average value and releases this energy when the current is less than the average value.3 Erms = 2J3 Ed .1 A FWR is used to supply power to a 20000 Load... The rms value for Triangular wave is 2". Single L type filter..414x2 =0..236 Rc +RL ro L ...2 REGULATION 155 v DC = 2ImRL = 2Vm n n Im·RL = Vm· Therefore.074 V= 2. But this is true if L is ideal.-IDc-Rf 1t where Rr is the resistance of diode.1 (2roL) 31t R 2Vm I DC = nRL I ripple RL 100 loe =3~200L =3x1.2 Problem 3. One Inductor Filter : 21m I = ~ .6 ) where RL is load resistance Rc is the series resistance of the inductors. One Inductor filter 2.41m cos (200t .~ ) where ~ = Tan. 3". In practice 2Vm V DC = .7. or r::. Choke Inductors of 20 H inductance and capacitors of l6... Compute the ripple factor using 1.. Filters and Regulators 3..f are available. This is the same as the above formula 3 2roL ~ 1 ~ =0. Capacitor filter : The ripple voltage for a capacitor filter is of Triangular waveform approximately. • 2". Solution 1. V DC is constant irrespective of RL... ( 3.

Calculate (a) The peak load current. 2f Q voltage = C i --+t Fig 3.3 Show that the maximum DC output power PDe = VDe IDe in a half wave single phase circuit occurs when the load resistance equals the diode resistance Rf .5V.156 Electronic Devices and Circuits Suppose the discharging of the capacitor will cut one for one full half cycle .920. (a) I = m R f + RL 1t Vm . 2 V De = -Im·R L 1t = --48.then the change last by the capacitor Q=rot = IDe 1 X-. (1) % regulation from no load to the given load.5 x 1 = --48.5 = 48 . = 110. 1 = 4xJj x50xl6xl0-6 x 2000 = 0. (e) The total input power to the circuit. (b) The DC load current (e) AC Load Current (d) The DC diode voltage.5 mA . 1t I nns = ~= 2 152. Solution Since only one diode is being used. L Type factor: Problem 3.2 A diode whose internal resistance is 20 0 is to supply power to a 10000 load from a llOV «rms) source of supply.~ = 152.5 = 76.18 Vo of Capacitor filter. (I) Problem 3.Ji = 152.09 3.5mA. it is for HWR Circuit. Pi = Inns x(Rf+RL ) =5.2mA. 1020 (b) (e) (d) (e) IDe . .

The sinusoidal input voltage is applied in series with a 5 .--1!!.[i x Vrms IDe = 1tR . 1t V I . C will discharged through R L . If C value is very small. C gets charged.KO resistance.. 3. The effective resistance of each element may be considered to be zero in the forward direction and 00 in the reverse direction. When the input voltage e = Em Sin rot is greater than the capacitor voltage. L RL = 5KO + 100 = (5000 + 10)0 = 5010 0 = Vm lmA = 2.J2vrms 2.. The diode conducts only for a short interval of high current.!!L for bridge rectifier circuit.. During +ve half cycle for a H W R circuit. current should pass through C and C should get f chargeo.8 CAPACITOR FILTER Here X should be smaller than RL . Xe will be large and hence current flows through R only (Fig.[i x Vrms 1txSOIO.S6V. . or Problem 3. m- 21 RL' . Filters and Regulators 157 when RL is very large. 1x 103 Vrms= 2 2 h x 5010 = S. Capacitor opposes sudden fluctuations in voltage across it.4 A 1rnA meter whose resistance is Ion is calibrated to read rms volts when used in a bridge circuit with semiconductor diodes.19) and no filtering action takes place. What is the full scale reading of this meter? Solution IDe = ---. Because.20. The stored energy in the capacitor maintains the load voltage at a high value for a long period. C gets charged when the diode is conducting and gets discharged (when the diode is not conducting) through RL .Rectifiers.. When the input voltage is less than that of the capacitor voltage. 3. 3. So the ripple voltage is minimised. with C filter. The waveforms are as shown in Fig.

Ym' So the first diode conducts from e) to e2 and the second diode conducts from 1t + 8) to 1t + 8 2 . even though the second diode is forward biased. The point at which diode starts conducting and C gets charged is known as cut in point 9 . C will not start charging at 1t itself.. .. The point at which the diode stops conducting or the capacitor gets discharged is known as Cut Out Point 9 2.' . •w : .1 . So the voltage across RL is more or less constant and hence ripple is reduced.: .20 Output of capacitor filter circuit. as shown in the graph. Diode conducts only for a short of time when input current is high and charges C to the peak voltage. 3. t Ie . dt ..19 FWR Circuit with C filter. iB = ie + iR ( Fig. the voltage V 0 is closer to DC wave form.C. •• 91 92 rot ==---. Therefore. ec 1=R R where ec is the voltage to which c gets charged. vo t . _ dV =C dec . At 9) 'C' gets charged and at 9 2 C starts discharging. e c is almost =::.19 ) . Fig 3.158 Electronic Devices and Circuits AC Input Fig 3. Considering one diode.d .

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
But e c = V m Sin cot. Therefore, at that point, diode conducts and C gets charged. 81 = cot l · dec dt = coY m· Cos cot. General expression for

159

. IS

In = co C Vm cos cot + V S·m cot

R

By some mathematical manipulation, ib can be written as is= -; .jl + co R C Sin(cot + 4» where
~ = Tan-l(coRC)
2 2 2

At an co instant 82 , when the capacitor fully discharges, is = 0 Em coC V cos 8 + - S·In 8 2 = 0.
m
2

R

8 2 = tan- i (-nRC) or Thus the value of conduction angle depends upon the values of Rand C, and also the value of is. Ouring the non conducting interval, the capacitor discharges into the load R supplying load current. -ic= iR · de e The circuit equation is -C x ~ = ~
t

or

ec

=;

Ae- t/RL

At cot = 82 e c = V m sin 82. The final expression for EDC seems a little complicated. So a simplified expression which is widely used is V DC = ( V m - VR 2 for Ripple Factor,
.),

where ER is the peak to peak ripple voltage. The expression

y=

V;;; -

V'Ae _ 1t+(81 -8 2 )

2JjcoRC .

where (8 1 - 8 2 ) is the angle of conduction 8 c . For large coRC ( typical value 100), 8 c = 14.6°. The larger the value of R, the smaller the y.

3.8.1 RIPPLE FACTOR FOR C FILTER
Initially, the capacitor charges to the peak value V when the diode 0\ is conducting. When the capacitor voltage is equal to the input voltage, the diode stops conductmg or the current through the diode 01 is zero. Now the capacitor starts discharging through RL depending upon the time constant C.RL. Therefore, RL value is large. Rate of charging is different from rate of discharging. When the voltage across the capacitor falls below the input voltage and when the diode 02 is forward biased, the capacitor will again charge to the peak value Vm and the current through D2 becomes zero when Vc =V m. Thus the diodes 1 and 02 conduct for a very short period 81 to 8 2 and 1t + 8 I to 1t + 8 2 respectively ( Fig. 3.21 ).

°

160

Electronic Devices and Circuits

V,)

i
[ ..

\

\

ur~ ..

- - __ J - - - __ - - ~ __________ / _
I I I I \ \ I \
I

i I
I

I I I I I

\

\

\\

/ I

I

\ \

I

D,_ II Conducting \
It!"
I I I I •
\

I

I

I

I
I

I

\

\

I
I

\ /
\ /
11

I I \

~

D, Conducting

) (l)t

Fig 3.21 Output waveforms of a capacitor filter.
T2 = Time period ofthe discharging of the capacitor T] = Time period of the charging of the capacitor The amount of charge lost by the capacitor when it is discharging = loe.T~. Because, IDe is the average value of the capacitor discharge current. This charge is replaced during a short interval T] during which the voltage across the capacitor changes by an amount = peak to peak voltage of the ripple V' rp_p'
Q=Vxc.
Q charge
= =

V p-px C

Q charge

Q Discharge.

V'p_pxC =IDC xT 2' IDe x T2 C The output waveform can be assumed to be a triangular wave T2 » T](T] +T2 ) when the diode is conducting (0 to n). (T] + T2 corresponds to one half cycle). TIl T 2 = "2 - 2f" "T- 2f . 2 -

or

V'

=

p-p

=

T/2

, _'ocx1"T __1_ 1 V p-p - C2f . 2 - 2f' for the triangular wave, form factor = Jj' V'
=~

V'

Ims

2Jj

Voe IDe = RL

V' rms = 4JjfCR

L

'

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
v'nns y = VDC = 4.J3fCRL

161

Ripple Factor

Therefore, Ripple factor may be decreased by increasing Cor RL or both.

Expression for VDC :
V'p-p

VOC=Vrn-

2
VDC

.. V' P P - IDe I
-

2fC

_ VDe 'De-

RL

Voc= V rn - 4fC.R

L

or

Voc

(I+-l-)=Vm
4fCR L

3.9

LC FILTER

In an inductor filter, ripple decreases with increase in RL. In a capacitor filter, ripple increases with increase in RL. A combination of these two into a choke input or L-Section Filter should then make the ripple independent of load resistance. If L is small, the capacitor will be charged to V rn' the diodes will be cut off allowing a short pulse of current. As L is increases, the pulses of current are smoothed and made to flow for a larger period, but at reduced amplitude. But for a critical value of inductance Lc ' either one diode or the other will be always conducting, with the result that the input voltage V and I to the filter are full wave rectified sine waves. The graph of DC output voltage for LC Filter is as shown in Fig. 3.22.
V DC

'.

rn = -1t-

2V

for Full Wave Rectifier Circuit. considering ideal elements, conduction angle is increased when inductor is placed V R because there is some drop across L. So C can~t charge to V rn' Therefore, the diode will be forward biased for a longer period. Ie --. The ripple circuit which p~sses through L, is not a.Howed to develop much ripple voltage across RL, if Xc at Fig 3.22 LC filter characteristic. rIpple frequency IS small compared to R L, Because the current will pass through C only. Since Xc is small and Capacitor will get charged to a constant voltage. So V 0 across RL will not vary or ripple will not be there. Since for a properly designed LC Filter, Xc «RL XL» Xc at (0 = 21t/ XL should be greater than Xc because, all the Af3twukl be or-opped across XL itself so that AC Voltage across C is nil and hence ripple is low.

i

and

162

Electronic Devices and Circuits
RIPPLE FACTOR IN

3.9.1

LC FILTER

AC Component of current through L is determined by XL' XL= 2coL RMS value of ripple current for Full Wave Rectifier with L Filter is,
I

I rms
I

==

4Vm 3refiX L
~

=

RMS Value of Ripple Current for L Filter

I rms =
I

2V 2 = -m re 3v2XL

2 .J2vDC I rms = 3.J2XL . VDe = 3X L The ripple voltage in the output is developed by the ripple current flowing through Xe'
..

..

V rms

I

= I rms. Xe = ) ' X '
L

I

.J2 Xc V
DC

V'rms Ripple factor = -V-DC

y=

.J2.xc 3X
L

Xe = ~ ,XL .J2
1

1

= coL
1

Y= )X2fficX2;L
XL = 2coL since ripple is being considered at a frequency, twice the line frequency.

If
3.9.2

If=60H z, _ Y= O.83xl0--6 .... ____...... LC

I

BLEEDER RESISTANCE

For the LC filter, the graph between IDe and V De is as shown in Fig. 3.23. For light loads, i.e., when the load current is small, the capacitor gets charged to the peak value and so the no load voltage is 2V Ire. As the load resistance is decreased, IDe increases so the drop across other elements V iz ~iodes and choke increases and so the average voltage across the capacitor will be less than the peak value of2VmIre. The out put voltage remains constant beyond a certain point IB and so the regulation will be good. The voltage Voe remains constant even if IDe increases, because, the capacitor gets charged every time to a value just below the peak voltage, even though the drop across diode and choke increases. So for currents above IB, the filter acts more like an inductor filter than C filter and so the regulation is good. Therefore, for LC filters, the load is chosen such that, the I~e ~ lB' The corresponding resistance is known as Bleeder Resistance ( RB ). So Bleeder Resistance is the value for which loc ~ IB and good regulation is obtained, and conduction angle is 180°. When RL = RB , the conduction angle = 180°, and the current is continuous. So just as we have determined the critical inductance Le> when RL = R B, the Bleeder Resistance, IDC = the negative peak of the second harmonic term.

Rectifiers, Filters and Rellulators

163

i

Fig 3.23 LC filter characteristic.
I
DC

=

2Vm 1tRs

4V 1 If peak = ---1!L._. 31t XL 2Vm 4Vm 1 1tRs =J;-'X L

RB = -2-;

3.x L

RB is Bleeder Resistance.

IDC should be equal to or greater than I peak, since, XL determines the peak value of t.. ripple component. If XL is large I' peak can be ~ I DC and so the ripple is negligible or pure D.C. is obtained, where XL = 2mL corresponding to the second harmonic. Therefore, R should be at least equal to this value ofRB, the Bleeder Resistor.

3.9.3

SWINGING CHOKE

The value ofthe inductance in the LC circuits should be > Lc the minimum value so that conduction angle of the diodes is 1800 and ripple is reduced. But if the current IDC is large, then the inductance for air cored inductors as L =N~II (flux linkages per ampere of current), as I increases, L decreases and may become below the critical inductance value Lc' Therefore, Iron cored inductors or chokes are chosen for filters such that the value of L varies within certain limits and when I is large, the core saturates, and the inductance value will not be < Lc' Such chokes, whose inductance varies with current within permissible limits, are called Swinging Cllokes. (In general for inductors ~II remains constant so that L is constant for any value of current I ) This can be avoided by choosing very large value ofL so that, even if current is large, Inductance is large enough> Lc But this increases the cost of the choke. Therefore, swinging choke are used. Lc ~RL/ 3m RL = Load Resistance Lc = Critical Inductance m = 21tf At no load RL = 00. Therefore, L should be 00 which is not possible. Therefore, Bleeder Resistance of value = 3XL /2 is connected in parallel with RL, so that even when RL is 00, the conduction angle is 1800 for each diode.

164

Electronic Devices and Circuits

The inductance of an iron - cored inductor depends up on the D.C. Current flowing through it, L is high at low currents and low at high currents. Thus its L varies or swings within certain limits. This is known as Swinging Choke. Typical values are L = 30 Henrys at I = 20mA and L = 4 Henrys at I = 100mA.

Problem 3.5
Design a full wave rectifier with an LC filter (single section) to provide 9V DC at I OOmA with a maximum ripple of2%. Line frequency f= 60 HZ.

Solution
RIpple factor y = 0.02 = 0.83 orLC LC

.

J2 1 1 3 X 2roC x 2roL
= 0.83 = 41.51l
0.02

0.83 = LC Il

Voc _ 9V -900 RL = Ioe - 0.1 . LC ~ 3ro ~ 1130' But LC shou'd be 25% larger. :. for f= 60 Hz,the value ofLC should be ~ 900
RL 90 LC ~ 900 ~ 900 = 0.1 Henry. RL RL RL

IfL=O.IH,then

C=

0.1 = 415 Ilf. This is high value

41.5

IfL = IH, then C = 41.51lf. If the series resistance of L is assumed to be 50 fl, the drop across L is IDe x R = 0.1 x 50 = 5Y.

Transformer Rating:
Voe = 9V + 5V = 14V Vm =
7t

2' ( 9 + 5 ) = 22V
.J2
22 = 15.5V

rms value is

Therefore, a 15.5 - 0 -15.5 V, 1OOmA transformer is required. PIV of the diodes is 2Vm Because it is FWR Circuit. PIV = 44V So, diodes with 44V, 1OOmA ratings are required.

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
Problem 3.6

165

In a FWR with C filter circuit, Vrp-p = 0.8v and the maximum voltage is 8.8 volts (Fig. 3.24 ). RL = 1000 and C = 1050 f.lf. Power line frequency = 60 Hz. Determine the Ripple Factor and DC output voltage from the graph and compare with calculated values.

Solution

V/ p-p = 0.8Y.
0.8 V nns ' = 2.fj =0.231V V
DC

= Vm -

Vr'~-P =8.8- 0~8 =8.4V.

y = V'rms VDC

= 0.2 =0.0238 or 2.38%
8.4

Theoretical values, y

v

S.svt
4~3 x 60 x 100 xl 050f.lf = 0.057 or 5.75%
VDC = 1+4~LCxVm =8.46V

~ ------

-----

.O.Sv
+

---. rot
Fig 3.24 For Problem 3.6.

4tR C

3.10 CLC OR

1t

FILTER

In the LC filter or L section filter, there is some voltage drop across L. If this cannot be tolerated and more D.C. output voltage V Q is desired, p filter or CLC filter is to be used. The ripple factor will be the same as that of L sectIOn filter, but the regulation will be poor. It can be regarded as a L section filter with Land C ' before which there is a capacitor C,i.e. the capacitor filter. The 1 input to the L section fhter is tlie output of the capacitor filter C. The output of capacitor filter will be a triangular wave superimposed over D.C. Now the output Vo is the voltage across the input capacitor C less by the drop across Lt. The ripple contained in the output of 'c' filter is reduced by the L section filter LtC t .

L}

C

Fig 3.25 CLC or

7r Section

Filter

166

Electronic Devices and Circuits
1t SECTION FILTER WITH A RESISTOR REPLACING THE INDUCTOR

3.10.1

Consider the circuit shown here. It is a 1t filter with L replaced by R. If the resistor R is chosen equal to the reac~ce ofL (the impedance in 0 should be the same), the ripple remains unchanged. V DC for a single capacitor filter = (V m - IDd4fC) If you consider C 1 and R, the out put across C 1 is ( V m - I DC /4fC). There is some drop across R. Therefore, the net output is IDe Vm - 4fC - IDC x R The Ripple Factor for 1t sector is

.J2xc x cI

........... ( 3.7 )

So by this, saving in the cost, weight and space of the choke are made. But this is practical only for low current power supplies. Suppose a FWR output current is 100 rnA and a 20 H choke is being used in 1t section filter. Ifthis curve is to be replaced by a resistor, XL = R. Taking the ripple frequency as 2f= 100 Hz, XL = coL = 21t(2j).L = 41tjL = 4 x3.14 x50 x20 = 125600 :: 12 KO Voltage drop across R = 12,000 x 0.1 = 1200V, which is very large.

R

Fig 3.26 FWR Circuit

1t Section

I CRC Filter.

3.10.2 EXPRESSION FOR RIPPLE FACTOR FOR 1t FILTER The output of the capacitor in the case of a capacitor filter is a Triangular wave. So assuming th,e output V0 across C to be a Triangular wave, it can be represented by Fourier series as V'P - P sin 40)t sin 60)t V=V DC 1t (Sin2cot2 + 3 ... )
IDe But the ripple voltage peak to peak V' p-p = 2fc' ( for Ll wave)
Neglecting 4th and higher harmonic, the rms voltage ofthe Second Harmonic Ripple is v'p - P
1t..[i

IDe

= 2..[i1tfc =
c

IDe x 2 _ .J2I De 4•./21tfc - 41tfc

I --=x

41tfc

Rectifiers, Filters and Regulators
It is the capacitive reactance corresponding to the second harmonic. V'rms = fi1ocXc. (across 'C' filter only)

167

The output ofC filter is the input for the L section filter of LIC I . Therefore, as we have done in the case of L section filter, . . fiIocXc Current through the mductor ( harmoOlc component) = _--"'-'''---''''XL I Output Voltage = Current ( Xc) ( V 0 = I.Xc ) V, rms = fiIocXc X X . CI LI
(

after L section)

Ripple factor,

y=

v'rms _

Voc

-

(fi.loc.xc) XCI Voc XLI

VOC = IOC·RL
Y=

(fi.xc)·(~l· RL XLI

where all reactances are calculated at the 2nd harmonic frequency (0 = 2rc/ DC output voltage = ( The DC voltage for a capacitor filter) - ( The drop across LI ).

Problem 3.7
Design a power supply using a rc-filter to give DC output of25V at 100mA with a ripple factor not to exceed 0.01%. Design of the circuit means, we have to determine L,C, diodes and transformers.

Fig 3.27 Peak to Peak detector. Solution
Design of the circuit means, we have to determine L, C, Diodes and Transformer R = VDC L Ioc Ripple factor

= 25V =
Ioc
.

25V 100mA

= 2500

_ ~2 Xc _xCI y - v L.. . RL XLI Xc can be chosen to be = Xc I.

168

Electronic Devices and Circuits

e RL.x Ll · This gives a relation between C and L. C2 L =y There is no unique solution to this. Assume a reasonable value of L which is commercially available and determine the corresponding value of capacitor. Suppose L is chosen as 20 H at 1OOmA with a D.C. Resistance of 3750 ( ofInductor).

Y=

J2.

X

2

v

i_~
Voe

~(j)t

Fig 3.28 For Problem 3.7.
C2
= -

or

C=

Jt
2"
Vy

Y L

Voc=Vm-

Vy = 2ft: Now the transformer voltage ratings are to be chosen. The voltage drop across the choke = choke resistance x IDe = 375 x 100 x 10 - 3 = 37.5Y. Voc = 25Y. Therefore, voltage across the first capacitor C in the 7t-filter is V c = 25 + 37.5 = 62.5V. The peak transformer voltage, to centre tap is Y V m::: (V c) + (for C filter)

IDe

-t

IDe
Vy = 2fc

0.1 V m = 62.5 V + 4 x 50 xC Ym _ V = ~.=60Y nns ,,2 Therefore, a transformer with 60 - 0 -60V is chosen. The ratings of the diode should be, current of I 25mA. and voltage = PIV::: 2V m = 2 x 84.6V::: 169.2V

Filters and Regulators Problem 3.. Solution Voe R =L IDe 250V 0. .8 169 A full wave rectifier with LC filter is to supply 250 v at 1OOm. Determine the ratings of the needed diodes and transformer. RL = =25000. ' and Inns == Ioc ' V = 1tVoe (I + Re) = 1tx 250 (l + 400) =455V m 2 RL 2 2500 .Rectifiers. Vnns = 455 =322V J2 Therefore..a.0256A B 31troL 31t x 377 x 10 0. . if Rc of the choke = 4000. the transformer should supply 322V rms on each side of the centre tap.. so that the transformer should be rated at about 340 volts 100 rnA. 3. .-2.47 Ripple factor y= 2 = 2 6 40) LC -I 4x 377 x 20x 10The current ratings of each diode = 0.fi XCI XC 1. L = 10H and C = 20 IlF.11 MULTIPLE LC FILTERS Better filtering can be obtained by using two or more LC sections as shown in the Fig.1 For the choke input resistor. D.= == . y = .46 y = L2C 2 Inductor value L in Henrys and Capacitor value C in IlF(microfarads) So ripple factor will be much smaller or better filtering is ach ieved.. D.47 0. the value of the bleeder resistor and the ripple.29 . . 2Vrn 2x455 0 I = -. 3..C. Should be 50mA.C 3X L The Bleeder Resistance Rs = -2L= 10000n. Ripple factor If we take 3 XLI XL 2 · L = L I = L2 C = C 1= C 2 and f= 60 Hz. This includes no allowance for transformer impedance.00413.

fi .11 x C 1 3 2 2 _ J2. Xc.8KO =8000.--3 ·X L.) . Iffrequency is 50 Hz ripple allowed is 5% Calculate: (a) Required secondary voltage of the transformer..B. (b) Ratio of I peakiI max through diodes. Ioc Voc RL = - =. = .fi Voc VA 8 .Voc.. V A. XL. Therefore. C1 Bl----~------------~------------~ Fig 3.=0.170 Electronic Devices and Circuits 11 = )X ~ (RMS Value of the ripple component of current. Xc.xC X L\ \ VA2B2 1=-2 X L2 The value of XL 2 should be much larger than XC 2 .29 Multiple LC filter sections. V 0 == 12 XC 2 / RL is in parallel with C 2. Ripple factor y .. XL 2 But the actual value ofLc should be 25% more than this because of the approximately made in the series used to represent V. Current of 20 rnA at 16V. . current should get dropped across C2 . Xc.C. Solution IDe = 20rnA Voe = 16V. +X L.9 A full wave rectifier circuit with C-type capacitor filter is to supply a D. .. A.fi Problem 3. 20rnA 16 .C.- _ Vo Voc _. 12 = V A 2 8 2/ X L2 and not X L. Voc. XL. 3 . (c) The value of C required.-. Xc.

1 x 100 x [-cos rot] S1t/6 = .Rectifiers. 171 4 v3fCR L 1 = -----.732 = 27.732 x SO x O. Filters and Regulators y = 5% = 0. Sineot) .fj x 2.=------ 41i xSOxCx800 1 1 = 1 C = -4 x 1.fj x 2000 C V DC with load Ii 8000x3 =72~F Problem 3.drot D 21t 1t/6 100[ S1t 1t] = . Calculate the RMS and DC output voltage. . the A.[-cos(1S00)+ cos(30o) ] = .14 Ii = SO x 1.10 A half wave rectifier allows current to flow from time t J = 1t 16ro to ~ = 51t16ro..S x 800 = 4.+ .5Y.05 r.+ 21t 1t 2 2 = SO x 3.deot = 48. Voltage being given by Vs = 100 Sin rot.6V 3.fj Ii] = .OS x 800 = 4.14 Vnns = - 1 S1t/6 21t 1t/6 J 2 (100.-cos-+cos21t 1t/6 21t 6 6 100 SO[. Solution 1 S1t/6 V c= J 100Sinrot.C.

125 = 23. calculate (a) V m the peak secondary voltage of transformer. Solution (a) RL = Voc loc = 30Y =6000. = Vm Vrms (b) J2 = 33.65.172 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 3. (c) The ripple factor of the output.4V J2 Surge Current through the diode.C. Idiode surge is 1t 1m' X Vm c = Y mcoC = 33.12SV. Idiode swing = Idiode mean (c) 0.06. C-type filter system used.125 x2 xSO xSO x 10 -6 = 0. with a SO~F. RL = YDC = 6000.6 =33. (b) Ratio of surge to mean currents of diodes. SOmA Y DC - - Ym IDC [ 1+ 4fCYoc J= 1 m Y 1 +-4fCR L I DC 1 --=Y DC RL Y I oc DC Y m -Y DC + 4fCR -YDC + 4fC L V m =30+ 4x50x80x10. Current of SOmA at 30V.S33 A I DC = 50 rnA = Idiode mean is the average or mean current througlr the diode. I DC Y= 4J)fCR = 0.11 A full wave rectifier operating at 50 Hz is to provide D. L .S3~3 50 x 10 = 16.

Peak DC component.J2 = 3S. a stepdown transformer is used and then Rectifier and filter circuits are used.'Y . The term voltage regulator is used when the output delivered is DC voltage.SY.707) = IA I~s = ~(Im.C. before the electronic regulator circuit. current drawn by the load I[ from output terminals.C 230 V from mains. If the input is A. RMS and AC component of load current.C. Solution Since. and Temperature T.897 A. IL(rms) = 0.4V Assuming ideal diodes. A. Voltage input to transformer primary = IISY.12 INTRODUCTION TO REGULATORS Voltage Regulator Circuits are electronic circuits which give constant DC output voltage. it is converted to DC by Rectifier and Filter Circuits and given to I.31.636(1.636 x (3S. irrespective of variations in Input Voltage V. Voltage Regulator dircuits are available in discrete form using BJTs. the A..5)2 = 10. Voltage Regulator circuit.707 1m = 1.4)=22.30 and 3. Diodes etc and in IC (Integrated Circuit) form.. The peak value across each half of secondary is 2S. .(IDC)2 = ~12 (0. there must be 2SV across each half of the secondary winding.441 A. The block diagrams are shown in Fig. Filters and Regulators Problem 3.41(0. Transformer secondary voltage is SOY. If the input is AC. 2. 3. = Vm = 35.41A. Peak DC component.9V.Component load voltage is V ~s = ~ Vm 2 = VDC 2 ~(25)2 -(22.4 = 1.c.Rectifiers. The input can be DC which is not constant and fluctuating. the transformer develops SOV between secondary terminals.41) = 0. RL = 2Sft Determine 1. the rectified voltage across RL also has a peak value of3S.6361 m = 0.636Vm V De =0.897)2 = 0. RL 25 IDe = 21m 1t =0. 3. to get constant DC output voltage.12 173 For a FWR circuit. and the output desired is constant DC. RMS and AC component of load voltage.4V(V m)' Average value V DC for FWR circuit is = 2Vm 1t =0.

Zener regulator Shunt regulator .7808.C. electronic circuits. Switching regulators 7. 3.30 Block diagram 01 voltage regulator with A.) I Ideal Values 0% 00 ohms 0 ohms 0 mv/oc.7815 : Three terminal positive Voltage Regulators. Voltage regulator with foldback current limiting 6. The Voltage Regulator Circuits are used for electronic systems. 7805. 7915 : Three terminal negative Voltage Regulators. High Current regulator . Some of the commonly used ICs are.7806. IlA 723.series regulator Negative voltage regulator 5. IC circuits.C. The voltage regulator circuits are available in IC form also.Regulated + Unregulated A. 7912. Input t V. 3. 5.C. Output Resistance (Ro) Temperature Coefficient (ST) Output Voltage V0 Output current range (IL) Ripple Rejection 0% Different types of Voltage Regulators are 1. if the output voltage is AC and not DC. 4. 7906. Regulation (Sv) 2.31 Block diagram 01 voltage regulator with D.Input V1 Regulator Circuit Fig.7812. Input Resistance (R. LM 105.C input. LM 309. 4. The specifications and Ideal Values of Voltage Regulators are : Specifications l. Output Voltage Fig. 3.C input. 7905. etc. 7908.1 Step Down Transformer Rectifier Circuit Filter Circuit Electronic Regulator Circuit RL D. The circuits used for voltage stabilizers are different. 2.174 Electronic Devices and Circuits t---r-. 6. The term Voltage Stabilizer is used. --~---1---:E~le-ctr~o-n~ic----t-------------~+ Un regulated D. 7. 3. CA 3085 A.

Therefore zener diode resistance is much smaller than RL when it is conducting. Typical values are from 10m A to 1 ampere. In the reverse characteristic voltage remains constant irrespective of the current that is flowing through Zener diode.32) Fig. + Fig. 3. The output voltage remains constant only when the input voltage is sufficiently large so that the voltage across the zener is Vz' 2.32 Zener diode reverse characteristic.1 ZENER VOLTAGE REGULATOR CIRCUIT 175 A simple circuit without using any transistor is with a zener diode Voltage Regulator Circuit. The circuit as shown in Fig. Therefore IL remains constant and so Vo remains constant. even if the input voltage increases. the current through Rs increases. Therefore in this region the zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator. (Fig. 3. through the zener diode and not through RL . 3. If the output voltage is taken across the zener. If Vi is increased enormously. The limitations of this circuits are 1. There is limit to the maximum current that we can pass through the zener. 3. Iz increases and hence breakdown will occur. Voltage regulation is maintained only between these limits.Rectifiers. 3. If the input voltage Vi increases. Filters and Regulators 3. the minimum current and the maximum permissible current through the zener diode.12.33 Zener regulator circuit The input Vi is DC. The voltage in the break down region remains constant. the output voltage remains constant.12.34) . Zener diode is reverse biased. 3.33.2 SHUNT REGULATOR The shunt regulator uses a transistor to amplify the zener diode current and thus extending the Zener's current range by a factor equal to transistor hFE • (Fig. 3. This extra current flows.

V B I Fig. V 0 = 0.3 . The nominal output voltage is the sum of the transistor V EB and zener voltage. Maximum transistor power dissipation.13 For the shunt regulator shown. passes through RI Nominal output voltage = Vz + V EB The current that gets branched as IB is amplified by the transistor.7 R = = 340 n 3 I Sx10Sx10-3 3. S. 3. requires SmA minimum curre. Value of R I. IB = I z .34 Shunt Regulator Circuit Zener current. Vi = Constant. Therefore for a small current through the zener.S x 10-3 = 0 .176 Electronic Devices and Circuits + Unregulated D.3V. The nominal voltage 2.3 1. The maximum allowable zener current is Power rating 0.2 + 6. The value ofRs and its power dissipation. Problem 3. Load current range 4. Zener diode 6. we can write. 200mW. determine I.II II is constant at S rnA IB = Iz -1( x II is constant at 5 rnA .C. Therefore the total current 10 = (P + 1) IB.3 = 6. I.2V.nt Transistor Specifications: VEB = O.2 ----=--= = 318 mA Voltage rating 6. In otherwords. IB = S 10-3 . At junction A. The load current range is the difference between minimum and maximum current through the shunt path provided by the transistor. hFE = 49. leBo = O.SV = V Eb + Vz 2.. flows through the load resistance RL . Voltage Vo does not change with current. large current flows through ~L and voltage remains constant. for large current through RL' Vo remains constant. R( must supply SmA to the zener diode: 8 -6. 3.

34 = 1.7 W 5. DC output voltage varies directly as the a. Filters and Regulators IZ Max . Such a system is called a "regulated power supply". output voltage varies with temperature also.c. Rs must pass 1.ilT aVj 1 oiL aT avO avo avo ilVo = SI ilVj + Ro illL + Sr ilT Where the three coefficients are defined as. the d. The maximum transistor power dissipation occurs when the current is maximum IE :::: Ie P D = VolE = 6.5 The transistor emitter current IE = 18 + Ie = 177 18 (min) x 10-3 = 26. Stabilization The output voltage depends upon the following factors in a power supply.5 1.34 A to supply current to the transistor and R L.34 8-6. Full load means full load current or short circuit].1 2 n The power dissipated by Rs' = IS2 Rs = (1. as the load varies (load means load current) [No load means no load current or 0 current.34) = 8.ilV.e.Rectifiers. Load current IL 3. Input voltage VI 2.12) = 3W REGULATED POWER SlJPPLV An unregulated power supply consists of a transformer.8 x 10-3 . input voltage varies 3.8 rnA Ie = IE = P 18 = hFE 18 (P + I) Is = (hFE + I) Is Is ranges from a minimum of 0 to maximum of 26. An electronic feedback control circuit is used in conjuction with an unregulated power supply to overcome the above three short comings. For such a circuit regulation will be very poor i.c.Vo 1 1. . In simple rectifiers and filter circuits. 1. Poor regulation 2. The short comings of the circuits are : I. a rectifier.12 = 31. (1.8 x 10-3) = 1.+--.8 rnA Total load current range is (hFE + I) Is = 50 (26.34 A 4. if semiconductors devices are used.34)2 . Temperature Change in the output voltage il V0 can be expressed as ilV o = --.5 (1. we want the output voltage to remain constant. But this will not be so for unregulated power supply. and a filter. Rs - V· .ilI L +--.

. A fraction of the output voltage b:V0 (b is a fraction.35. Series Voltage Regulator Circuit is as shown in Fig. change in the output voltage as load voltage varies (or input voltage varies) can be improved. But when the input increases. if a large part of the increase in input voltage appears across the control transistor. so that output voltage tries to remain constant. Because the emitter of Q2 is not at ground potential.12.VR) is amplified by the transistor Q2. i. Ll IL ==0. LlT ==0 1 I (ii) This should be as small as possible. D is the reference zener diode. Series Voltage Regulator The voltage regulation (i. Sv = LlVO Ll V. LlT ==0 (iii) I Temperature Coefficient LlV ST == Ll. r 0 RL Y R3 I Samphng resistor r I1Y =Y Control I1Y=Y I I o o J 3.. This increase in output acts to bias the control transistor. 3. 3. there IS constalll . Q acts as the difference amplifier.35 Series Regulator Circuit SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR CIRCUIT Q is the series pass element of the series regulator. Ll VI ==0.tiometer) is compared with the reference voltage YR. there may be some increase in the output but to a very smaller extent. which is taken across R2 and the potef!.3 R2 L Fig. better stabilization would result. If the change in output were amplified before being applied to the control transistor. LlIL ==0 I The smaller the values of the three coefficients. This additional bias causes an increase in collector to emitter voltage which will compensate for the increased input. increase in Vi results in increased VCE so that output almost remains constant. Ideally Output Resistance ° since Vo should not change even if Vi changes.e. the better the circuit.178 (i) Electronic Devices and Circuits Stability factors. The difference (bVp .e. LlVO Ro = LlIL Ll Vi ==0.

(Rl R2 in parallel with R2)+ h.VR) increases. As Vo increases. filter circuit or it can be taken as the resistance of the DC supply in the lab experiment. I+G m (R3+ ro)' R o = The preset pot or trim pot R3 in the circuit :s called as sampling resistor since it controls or samples the amount of feedback. But this will not ensure good protection. the current through the series transistors decrease or folds back. So foldback current limiting is employed. 3. If R3 is increased. Thus all the change in Vi will appear across RJ !tself. The tapping of a transformer should be changed by a relay when Vi changes). The input should also be negative DC voltage. The load current will not increase beyond the set value. output will also decrease.Emitter of the transistor Q2 is (bVo . If the input voltage is much higher. The series pass transistors will not be able to dissipate this much power. This type of circuit supplies regulated negative voltages. constant load current limiting is employed. So Collector current of Q 2 increases and hence there will be large current change in R3. -21 V etc with positive terminal grounded. R3 + h iel also increases. ro is the output resistance of the unregulated power supply which preceds the regulator circuit. When input voltage increases by AVi' the base-emitter voltage of Q2 increases. (b VQ. Hence the increase in the voltage appears essentially across Q\ only. hre2 R3 [Rl + R2 ]. This type of circuit takes care of the increase in input voltages only.e2 +(1 + h fe2 )R 2 Rz = Zener diode resistance (typical value) R3 +h ie1 ro +-----"----'-"-'1+ h fe1 . 3.5 VOLTAGE REGlJLATOR WITH FOLDBACK ClJRRENT LIMITING In high current voltage regulator circuits.e. even when Vi decreases.12. 1+ hfe 3. Therefore the drop across R3 = VCB ofQ\:::: VCE ofQ\ since VeE is small. Therefore the net voltage to the Base . the power dissipation . -18V. but then this term is very small. VBE of the transistor Q\ is small. the input can be upto + 12V or + 15V maximum. When the output is shared. If the input decreases. ro is the output resistance of the rectifier.VR). suppose the output voltage should remain constants at +6V.. i.6 SWITCHING REGlJLATORS In the voltage regulator circuit.Rectifiers. Preregulator It provides constant current to the collector of the DC amplifier and the base of control element.12. -6V. So when the output is shorted or when the load current exceeds the set value. with the result that it may be damaged. the quantity since it is being divided by hfe . buck and boost should be there. the current will be varying.12. (If the output were to remain constant at a specified value. Filters and Regulators 179 voltage YR.4 NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGlJLATOR Sometimes it is required to have negative voltage viz. The expression for Sv (Stability factor) = AV = AyO .

36. 3. This constant current source circuit is often called a transistor preregulator. LM309 K . +13Y~r--~--~ --:>-~-""---r-------r--e 2 +6Y 3 Un regulated mput Fig. So to prevent this. CA3085A is voltage regulator. tllrough R3. the voltage regulators IC is used as a switch between the input and the output. The current I through R3 can be decreased by using a Darlington pair for Q.180 Electronic Devices and Circuits I across the transistor will be large and so it may be damaged. We can increase R3 by decreasing I.lA716C is head phone amplifier. so that R3 tends to infinity (R3 ~ 00). Preregulator The value of the stability factor Sy of a voltage regulator should be very small. 500-6000 load CA3007 is low power class AB amplifier. But if. so that when current excess of the rated values flows.Vo)/!.In a simple circuit.is another Voltage Regulator IC. To get even better values of Sy. MCI554 is 20W class B power amplifier. higher input fluctuations were to be tolerated. I. and delivers 30 m W of output power. This fuse wire is provided before roo Another method of protecting the circuit is by using diodes. thus protecting the components. Short Circuit Overload Protection Overload means 0\ erload current (or short circuit). R3 is replaced by a constant current source circuit. the fuse wire will blow off.36 CA 3085A IC voltage regulator. 3. ~ = R2 Rl +R2 RCA (Radio Corporation of America) uses for the ICs. . protection is provided by using a fuse. A simple voltage regulator circuit using CA3085A is as shown in Fig. the input is limited to around twice that of the input. Sy can be improved if R3 is increased (from the general expression) since R3 :::: (VI . Vi is the maximum value of input that can be given.. It gives 6 V constant output upto 100 rnA. A power supply must be protected further from damage through overlo'ad:. alphabets CA. delivers 50 mW to. The input voltage is not connected permanently to the regulator circuit but ON/OFF will occur at a high frequency (50 KHz) so that output is constantly present.

The reference diodes are chosen such that V R:::: """"2. ~ = t20. and ro = 10 n. Transistor Q I will be safe. Problem 3.VR ID 25 -15 10 =IKn . hfe2 = 200 Choose II = 10 rnA.Rectifiers. At IC2 = 10 rnA. The two diodes DI and D2 start conducting. h ie2 = 800 n. Given: Rz = 12 n at Iz = 10 rnA.VBE1 Y1 Y2 Is = R S When the output is short circuited. 3. So Is Rs drop can be large. II = 10 rnA. h ie2 = 800 n. In the case of a short circuit the current Is will increase upto a limiting point determined by V + V . but such a circuit is relatively costly. DI and D2 will be generally si diodes. hfe2 = 200.5 V in series may be connected.5 V Two Zener diodes with breakdown voltages of 7.14 Design a series regulated power supply to provide a nominal output voltage of 25V and supply load current IL :s IA. The diodes DI and D2 will start conducting only when the voltage drop across Rs exceeds the current in voltage of both the diodes DI and D2.3 7 Circuit for short circuit protection. Rs will also be large. Zener diodes can also be employed. The large collector current of Q2 passes through the diodes D I and D2 and not through the transistor QI.6V. Rz = 12 n at Iz = 20 rnA Choose IC2 :::: IE2 = lOrnA At IC = lOrnA. The unregulated power supply has the following specifications Vi = 50 ± 5V. 2 ~ = 220. the collector current of Q2 will be very high Is . Vo """"2 Vo = 12. since cut in voltage is 0. the h-parameters for the transistor are measured as. Filters and Regulators 181 + From amplifier 02 of series voltage regulator Fig. so that Iz = IDI + ID2 = 20 rnA R = D Vo .

= 220 = 451lA Choose I) as 10 rnA for-~i transistors. 1t5 V 50-25. Stabilizer . 18x10Voltage regulator is a circuit which maintains constant output voltage.6 = 940 Q lOx 10.(P-p) . V~(p-p) V. Load regulation is with respect to change in IL Line regulation is with respect to change in V. This value should be minimum. it is a stabilizer circuit. 1 Line Regulation : It is the % change in Vo for a change in Vi. current gain p) IL +11 +ID I B) = h (A) . E) > E2.3 V2 15.If the input is a. Ic:::: IE = IL + I) + ID fel fJ ) ) (DC Current gain) 1000+ 10+ 10 125 :::: 8 rnA The current through resistor R3 is I = IB) + IC2 = 8 + 10 = 18 rnA The value of R3 corresponding to Vi = 45 V and IL = IA is (since these are given in the problem) VI = 50 + 5. and output is also a..x 100 % flVj In the Ideal case fl V0 = 0 when Vo remains constant.= -3 = 1.c.6 V R = ) VO-V2 II 25-15.. Ripple Rejection : It is the ratio of peak to peak output ripple voltage to the peak to peak input ripple voltage.c.6 V V2 = VBE2 + V R = 15. VBE = 0.6 3 = 1.182 IC2 lOrnA Electronic Devices and Circuits IB2 = -p. E) = Output V<)!tage when IL is minimum (rated value) E2 = Output voltage when IL is maximum (rated value) E I -E2 % load regulation = E x 100 %. irrespective of the changes of the input voltage or the current. R3 = Vi -( YBE I + Vo) I = 3. flVo = .360 Q.13 TERMINOLOGY Load Regulation: It is defined as the % change in regulated output voltage for a change in load current from minimum to the maximum vahre.6 R 2 :::: -1. This value should be small.560 Q I lOxlO For the transistor QI' choose 12 as lA and h FE ) = 125 (d.c.

2roC x 2roL • Expression for Ripple Factor for 1t Filter.... L-Section ( LC ) Filter....... ....... 1 y= 4..Rectifiers... .............. y= 3 ........ • Filter Circuit converts Unidirectional flow to DC...fjroL • Expression for Ripple Factor for LC Filter..... to .. Inductor Filter 3.........21. Ripple Factor in the case of Full Wave Rectifier Circuit is ... RL y = 4.................. ......... to ..... for Full Wave Rectifier y = 0. .. 1t-Section Filter 5..... ..... In the case of LC Filter Circuits.......482 • Expression for Ripple Factor for C Filter..J2Xe(~) RL XLI • Critical Inductance Lc ~ • Bleeder Resistance RB = R 3~ 3X L -2- OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS I.. IDe For Half Wave Rectifier...................... • The different types of filter circuits are 1........fjjCR L • ExpressiollJor Ripple Factor for L Filter...... Filters and Regulators SUMMARY • Rectifier circuit converts AC to Unidirectional Flow.... 4.............. 5... .................... 2 ............... The characteristics of a swinging choke is .....J2 1 1 x y= . Bleeder Resistance ensures (1) .. (2) .. Rectifier Converts .... 4.... y = 1... CRC and CLC Filters • Ripple Factor 183 = II ~......... Filter Circuit Converts .. It minimises Ripple........ Capacitor Filter 2. 3... ...........

1 rnA (c) 0 (d) few rnA . Obtain the expression for ripple factor in the case of Full Wave Rectifier Circuit with Capacitor Filter.. L. 2.1 % (c) 5% (d) 0% 4. Special types of diodes in which transition time and storage time are made small are called . % regulations must be . (a) Snap diodes (b) Rectifier diodes (c) Storage d iodes (d) Memol)' diodes 2. The value of current that flows through RL in a 'n' section filter circuit at no load is (a) 00 (b) 0..184 Electronic Devices and Circuits ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1.. L-Section. For ideal Rectifier and filter circuits. is called (a) Rectifier circuit (b) Converter circuit (c) filter circuit (d) Eliminator 3.C. 3. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Compare C. (a) 1% (b) 0. Explain the terms Swinging Choke and Bleeder Resistor.. x-Section (CLC and CRC ) Filters in all respects. The Circuit which converts undirectional flow to D.

cs In tltis Chapter. The structure of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) and its V-I characteristics are explained. in the three configurations is given. namely Common Emitter. JFET amplifier circuits in Common Source (CS) Common Drain (CD) and Common Gate (CG) configurations are given . • The principle of working of Bipolar Junctions Transistors. Common Base and Common Collector Configurations is explained. (which are also simply referred as Transistors) and their characteristics are explained. The structure of Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and its V-I characteristics are explained. • • • • • • .. The Operation of Transistor in the three configurations. The variation of current with voltage.

As p-n junctions exist in the construction of the device. electrons and holes is called a Bipolar Device.Base Voltage.2). The symbol for PNPtransistor is as shown in Fig.1 (b). 4.1( a) and forNPN transistor.2 Current components in a pnp transistor. 4. it is PNP transistor. 4. Fig. The arrow mark on the emitter specifies the direction of current when the emitter base junction is forward biased.3 shows a circuit for a PNP transistor. .1 POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTIONS THROllGH A TRANSISTOR Fig. In NPN Transistor. 4. 4.Base Junction is reverse biased.186 4.1 Electronic Devices and Circuits BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS ( BJT'S ) The device in which conduction takes place due to two types of carriers.1 Transistor symbols. If the arrow mark is towards the base. it is a junction device. DC Emitter Current is represented as IE' Base Current as IB and Collector Current as Ie' These currents are assumed to be positive when the currents flow into the transistor. 4. When the PNP transistor is forward biased. a p-type Silicon (Si) or Germanium (Ge) is sandwiched between two layers of n-type silicon. So the holes move from emitter to base. holes are injected into the base. is as shown in Fig4. 4. The three sections of a transistor are Emitter. E C E C (a) (b) PNP NPN Fig. V EB reters to Emitter . Base and Collector. The conventional current flows in the same direction as holes. Emitter ( E ) Voltage being measured with reference to base B ( Fig. When there is transfer of resistance from input side which is Forward Biased ( low resistance) to output side which is Reverse Biased ( high resistance ).1. If it is away then it is NPN transistor. Similarly VCB and VCE' PNP +E -+IE Ic -+-- C+ t V EB IB t t VCB B ~ ~ ---------. it is away. it is a Trans Resistor or Transistor Device. There are two types of transistors NPN and PNP. Emitter Base Junction is Forward Biased Collector . So arrow mark is towards the base for PNP transistor. Similarly for NPN transistor.4 ( a) shows potential distribution along the transistor (x). Fig.---------_.

Fig 4. It is the barrier potential. (Such a condition is desired since electron hole recombination can take place at the emitter junction).base junction is increased.base potential is increased by IVEBI. But when transistor bias voltages are applied. (Potential barrier exists all along the base width. The potential barriers adjust themselves to a height V .Transistor Characteristics 187 When the transistor is open circuited. Collector base junction is reverse biaseo. The base potential almost remains constant.Base Junction is to be Forward Biased because. 4. So when the transistor is open circuitt?d h01es will not be injected into the collector. . Emitter . When EB junction is forward biased emitter . effective base width decreases. 4. because the carriers must be attracted into the Collector Region. Basewidth is narrow ( Fig. So 'p' region conductivity will be much larger than 'n' region conductivity. V will be few tenths of a volt.1.Base junction is forward biased. the carriers must be injected and Collector . since the holes from emitter have to reach collector and not just remain in base). So collector extends into the base or depletion region width increases. Therefore the total emitter current IE = IpE + I nE . in a PNP transistor. Then only current flow results through the transistor. material. Also electrops can be injected from base to emitterPr which also contribute for emitter current IE).4(a». holes are injected into the base. Similarly collector base potential is reduced by IVcBI. When Emitter . So the emitter current mainly consists of holes only.3 PNP transistor circuit connections. The injected holes diffuse into the collector across the n-type material (base).Base Junction must be reverse biased. The ratio of ~ is proportional to the ratio of conductivity of the 'p' material to that of'n' ~ I . emitter base junction is forward biased and the collector base junction is reverse biased. since some of them recombine with electrons in the base and disappear. So holes will be injected into the base. So this current is I (holes crossing form Emitter to base). Collector is lightly doped. In commercial transistor the Doping of the Emitter is made much large than the Doping of the Base.2 TRANSISTOR CURRENT COMPONENTS Consider a PNP transistor. All the holes injected from emitter to base will not reach collector. But if the reverse bias voltage of collector . there is no voltage applied. So the resulting current is I nE . Since EB junction is forward biased. the emitter base barrier is lowered.

then I would be zero. junction acts as a reverse biased diode. Under these condItions. In the collector. Currents entering the transistor are positive. So the direction of leo for NPN transistor is the same as the conventional current entering into the transistor. The recombination curreht is equal to ( IrE -Ipe )' If the emitter is open circuited. so that I = 0. : -+-Distance x V EB . the minority carriers in the base moving to collector and holes from collector moving to base. For NPN transistor. IE> I e since some holes have recombinea with electrons in the base. ____ (b) tmiuer ---f -----. EffeCti~e~ ---- : Base' : Width : . leo consists of holes moving from left to right (base to col1ector) and electrons crossing in the opposite direction. which is 'p' type.-! . holes ar:e the minority carriers. If Ip is the current due to holes at the Emitter Junction. which is n-type. I is due to minority carriers.4 Potential barrier levels in a transistor. In the base.188 E B Electronic Devices and Circuits c (a) ~ :+:--p--~_nr-~--p--~~c. then Ie = leo + Ipc For a PNP transistor. 0. y = IpE + InE IE Value ofy is always less than I. le~~onsists of electrons. Hence leo is positive for NPN transistor. IpE = Current due to injected holes from emitter to base InE = Current due to injected electrons from base to emitter. Emitter Efficiency (y ) : Current due to Injected at the Emitter . y IpE = IpE .Base Junction Total Emitter Current For a PNP transistor. electrons are the minority carriers. So tfie Col1ectotCurrent is approximately equal to reverse saturation Current leo' If IE -:j:. \L-____ Fig 4.

the voltage amplification is. Because of change in emitter current ~IE and consequent change in collector current. ~ V0 ~V A small change ~ V of Emitter . e .Current Change = a' x RL X ~IE Since a' = .1. there will be change in output voltage ~ V o . Current due to injected carriers reaching B .Circuit Current Gain.base junction Ipin the Collector _ Hole Current in the Collector Hole Current in the Emitter I pin the Emitter 13 * _ Ipc --= I pE Large Signal Current Gain (a ) a= Collector Current Emitter Current Ipc a= IE Multiplying and dividing by IpE ' IpE Ipc a= xIpE IE - Ipc =13 * IpE 4. Therefore.3 TRANSISTOR As AN AMPLIFIER ~IE' a' is defined ~s the ratio of the change in collector current to the change in emitter current.Transistor Characteristics Transportation Factor ( 13 *) : 189 13* = For a PNP transistor.R ~IC =-- r~' ~IE VCB=K RL > r' e a' Ay> I = Small Signal Forward . A = ~yo = a'RL·~IE v ~Yi re'ME A V = L --'a' a'.Base Voltage causes relatively large Emitter .C junction Injected carrier current at emitter . r' = Emitter Junction Resistance.~IE ~Ic r' x ~IE I e RL is load resistance.

to the molten polycrystalline solution. The crystal starts growing as the seed crystal is pulled. The doping concentration depends upon the amount of indium placed and diffusion length on the temperature raised. The input resistance of the circuit is low (typical value 400) and output resistance is high (3. e So a small change in emitter base voltage produces large change in collector base voltage. Molten Germanium 3. Furnace t 5 2.!. 4. the transistor acts as an amplifier.1 GROWN TYPE It is made by drawing a single crystal from a melt of Silicon or Germanium whose impurity concentration is changed during the crystal drawing operation. Hence.3 MANlJFACnrRE OF GROWN JlJNCTION TRANSISTOR Grown Junction Transistors are manufactured through growing a single crystal which is slowly pulled from the melt in the crystal growing furnace Fig. To get n-type impurities. So it is a transfer resistor device and abbreviated as transistor. Voltages are measured with respect to base ). Seed Crystal 4. A seed crystal attached to the vertical shaft which is slowly pulled at tFte rate of (I mm / 4hrs) or even less. . Gas Inlet 5. So a PNP transistor formed. Alloy type 4. On cooling. Grown type 2. beecause emitter .5 Crystal growth. The magnitude of current remains the same ( a' ~ I ). 1. Vertical Drive 4 1 Fig 4. indium crystallizes and changes Germanium to p-type. 4. transistors and other semiconductor devices are : 1. Gas Outlet 6. r' is used since this resistance does not include contact or lead resistances.2. The seed crystal initially makes contact with the molten semiconductors.2.2. impurities are . 4. 4. dissolves Germanium beneath it and forms a saturator solution.0000).190 Electronic Devices and Circuits The term. So current from low resistance input circuit is transferred to high resistance output circuit ( l\). The purified polycrystalline semiconductor is kept in the chamber and heated in an atmosphere ofN and H2 to prevent oxidation.5. The temperature is raised to a high value where indium melts. Two small dots of indium are attached to the wafer on both sides. (This is for common base configuration. r' value is small.2 ALLOY TYPE A thin wafer of n-type Germanium is taken.2 TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION Two commonly employed methods for the fabrication of diodes.base Junction is forward biased.

p-type impurity (Boron) is diffused into the wafer by diffusion process. Then p-type impurities are added. This technique implies the growth of a crystal on a surface. Over this base and emitter are diffused. a very thick. Now again n-type impurity ( Phosphorus) is diffused into the Base Area in a similar way. Base-collector junction areas is determined by a mask and diffusion length.MOLL EQUATION EBERS .Moll Model. So the crystal now is p-type. (n on n+) or (p on p+). 4. Photolithography 3. Diffusion 4. !I-type 'Si' ( or 'Ge' ) wafer is taken. Encapsulation 4.6 (a).MOLL MODEL OF A TRANSISTOR A transistor can be represented by two diodes connected back to back. aN IE is the current source.7 ). The transistor is represented by the diodes connected back to back. Metallization 5. The structure is shown in Fig 4.Transistor Characteristics 191 added. This forms the collector. Oxidation 2. So transistor action will not be seen.5 EPITAXIAL TYPE In this process. The wafer to be diffused and the Boron wafer which acts as p-type impurity.epitai n . 4.2. Like this NPN transistor can be fabricated.3 THE EBERS . Epitaxi is a greek word. This forms the collector. Baron is driven inside by drive in diffusion process. By this technique abrupt step type p-n junction can be formed. Now the crystal that grows is n-type ~emiconductor. a I Ie represents the current source in inverted mode ( Fig. ~ Ie N aN . 4.4 DIFFlJSION TYPE OF TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION To fabricate NPN transistor. lEO and leo represent the reverse saturation currents. Nitrogen gas will be flowing at a particular rate. with properties identical to that of the surface.6 (a) Epitaxial type transistor. single crystal layer of Silicon or Germanium is grown as a heavily doped substrate of the same material. before the Boron is converted to Boron Oxide and this gets deposited over Siliconwafer. the base region should be narrow. Such a circuit for a PNP transistor shown is called Eber .2.substrate Fig 4. high purity (high resistance). The different steps in process are : B E 1. So the base-collector junction will be formed. are placed side by side. Otherwise the majority carriers emitted from the emitter will recombine in the base and disappear.7 Eber-Moll Model of PNP transistor.--+ IE p C + VE B Ve + Fig 4. A transistor cannot be formed by simply connecting two diodes since. Lo:J p n . Epi mean 'ON' Taxi means 'ARRANGEMENT'. ..

holes are the majority carriers. a =Ae . The convention is currents. Common Emitter Configuration (C. Emitter Base Junction is . 4... 4. (DpPno DnnE) .... (1) a l2 = Similarly -AeDpPno w 1c a = a21 e (VE/VT_l)+ a (vc/vT_l) e 22 .B) The base is at ground potential.192 Electronic Devices and Circuits .. Common Base Configuration (C. .B) 2.4 TYPES OF TRANSISTOR CONFIGURATIONS Transistors ( BJTs ) are operated in three configuration namely.. entering the transistor are taken as positive and those leaving the transistor as negative..E) 3. (2) 21 = -AeDpPno .. 1. For a PNP transistor.w '22 W Lc .........8 Common base amplifier circuit. 4...C) Fig. So this is known as Common Base Configuration or Grounded Base Configuration. Emitter and Collector Voltages are measured with respect to the base..1 COMMON BASE CONFIGURATION (C. Common Collector Configuration (C.+ . all = a21 Equations (1) and (2) are called Eber-Moll Equations.4.

B configuration are as shown in Fig.--=-:O:-mA -4 = 0.Transistor Characteristics 193 Forward Biased. Hence Ic IS negative. 3.B configuration (b) Output characterisitics in C.' with IE increased.. it is operated between cut ott and saturation regions. Holes through the base reach collector. During the region OA. . The characteristics of the transistor can be described as.B configuration.9 (a) and (b) When IE = 0. similarly IB is negative. for a small variation of V BC there is very large. Ic = f2 (V CB' IE) Independent Variables are Input Current and Output Voltage. Since holes are entering the base or IE is positive. For a given V cs. IE (mA) SmA IE = 40 mA :--J'----=I E = 30 mA =20mA IE :. There is no control over the current. there is no appreciable change in~. Hence the transistor can not be operated in this region..6 VED(V) 0. change in current Ic with IE' So current is independent of voltage.3V Cut-off region (b) VCD = (V) (a) Fig 4. Active region Saturation region Cut off region The input and output characteristics for a transistor in C. 4. The region to the right is called active region. for reverse bias collector junction VCB is negative. So it is named as Saturation region. V EB = f\(V CB' IE) Dependent Variables are Input Voltage and Output Current..9 (a) Input characteristics in C. It is in saturation. Even though ICBO is present it is very small for operation. For a Forward Biased Junction VEB is positive. Generally the transistor is not used in this mode and it is regarded as cut of .-----~ Saturation region = 10 mA 6V IV V T ~----. 2. the emitter is open circuited. Transistor Characteristics in Common Base Configuration The three regions in the output characteristics of a transistor are 1. When transistor IS being used as a switch. Ie is flowing out of transistor. So the transistor is not conducting and the IfBu!S not considered. The literal meaning of saturation should not be taken.

.E) In this circuit Fig 4. I increases with V exponentially. from -1 to -3 Ib decreases. So this is known as CE configuration or grounded emitter configuration. .. If this reverse bias voltage is increased.&.2 COMMON EMITTER CONFIGliRATION (C. since emitter andYcollector junctions are shorted.12 Input characteristics in C.. V increases.& Vy = 0.. II .194 EARLY EFFECT Electronic Devices and Circuits E B C p The collector base junction is reverse biased.4.. base width decreases ( gy Early effect ). RL 4..::.. I = 0.12...Vee INPliT CHARACTERISTICS If the collector is shorted to the emitter.::.10 ) I . . II ~ . .11 Common Emitter pnp similar to a Forward Biased Diode. So the transportation factors 13* increases. pig in B . As V CE is increased.::.::.W 2 Fig 4.-----i p "------I 1 II II I n V EB IJ VCB _ e.NA VB 2E ..::. beyond cut-in voltage V.. When the base width decreases. The input voltage V BE' and output current Ic are taken as the dependent variables. So IB increases as . If V BE = 0. the probability of recombination of holes and electrons in the base region is less. 4. If V CE increases. .6 ~ VBE(V) Fig 4.::.. The variation is similar to thato!fa Forward Biased~iode.. 4. and results in decreased recombination. These depend upon the output voltage V CE and input current lB' Ie C eE ~ + .. the space charge width at the n-p region of Base . Vy is the cut in voltage ..Collector Junction of PNP Transistor increases. The decrease in base width with increase in collector reverse bias voltage is known as Early Effect. emitter is common to both base and collector.E configuration..11..10 Early effect.& . the transistor is Fig 4.. W = Space Charge Region Width. So effective base width decreases ( Fig. The input characteristics are as shown transistor amplifier ClrCUlt.. II "t IB (rnA) SmA .

The output characteristics is divided into three regions namely. Cut-off Region .-I] The three different regions are 1. Ic~ +~~. Cut-Off Region. therefore Is decreases. Active Region.13 Output characteristics in C.13. increases. 1. If IB increases. Therefore. The mput characteristics are similar to a forward biased p-n junction diode. .istor is similar to a Collector Junction Reverse Biased Diode.E Configuration. Ic increases. Saturation Region 3. So Ie increases. They follow the equation. Active Region 2. Active Region t ~---------------IB=80~ __----------------IB=60~ __----------------IB=40~ _ _~~~~-B =O~ ~ VCE(V) Fig 4. Is = 10 e nvr -1 [ VUE ] The input characteristics Is vs VSE follow the equation. IB ~ If~: -I] OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS The trans. The output characteristics are similar to a reverse biased p-n junction. 2. there is more injection into the collector.Transistor Characteristics IE + IB + Ic = 0 I E = . Hence characteristics are as shown. Saturation Region 3. base recombination will be less.(I B + I e) · 195 As VCI. These are shown in Fig 4. (Collector Base junction is reverse biased).

a .leo + a . through B.196 Electronic Devices and Circuits But 1+1 +1 =0 BeE IE = . The circuit is shown in Fig. II BI> ~fy eB IS In . 4. IE = -Ie Ie = .a(-Ie ) + leo Ie (1. IE + leo' a = Current gain . IE = -(I B + Ie)' IB = 0.a But If or or . Ie will have a considerable value even when IB = O. TEST FOR SATURATION 1. RL CE Fig 4. IB must be equal to zero. But in the case ofC. (Any reverse saturation current flowing because of thermal agitation is very small. Ie = O.a = leBO Ie =.a) = leo leo Ie = 1.leo + a .14 Common Emitter Cut-off region. IE IE = . is p~sitive for PNP transistor and negative for NPN transistor.(IB + Ie) . leo = Reverse saturation current in the collector. Ie Ie (1 . Because.E configuration. COMMON EMITTER CUT OFF REGION If a transistor was to be at cut off.!s.14.. IB If the transistor were to be at cut off. there cannot be injection of carriers from E to C. the transistor saturatIOn. To achieve this.(I B + Ie ) Ie = . even ifIB is made 0.a) = . IB + a . the transistor is not cut off. Hence Ie = O. if the emitter-base junction is open circuited.Ie = +Ieo . So the transistor can not be operated). ~ 2.

SATURATION RESISTANCE For a transistor operating in the saturation region. then leBo ~ 10 leo' So the transistor is not cut off.!£ IB Vee RL 1=- c So ifJ3 is known. Alloy junction and epitaxial transistors give the lowest values of V CEO Grown junction transistor yield the highest V CEO DC CURRENT GAIN J3de J3 = J3 de is also designated as hFE (DC forward current transfer ratio). a is constant for a given transistor. if IB = O. will not be zero. in the C. Therefore. but around it. The collector current in a transistor. Ie . TEST FOR SATURATION . Emitter Base Junction should be reverse biased. when the emitter current is zero. the transistor can be regarded as at cut of .Bo· IlcBol can be> leo' leo is collector reverse saturation current (when collector-base junction IS reverse biased).E contlguration to cut of the transistor. it IS not sufficient.!£ To know whether a transistor is in saturation or not. so that IE is equl to O. and on the type of transistor construction. but will be leo' Since Ico is small.Transistor Ch aracteristics 197 In order to achieve cut-off in the Common Emitter Configuration. This is done in number of ways. Still If. IB = (Ip ) gives the value of base current to operate the transistor in saturation region. REVERSE COLLECTOR SATURATION CURRENT leBO ICBO is due to leakage current flowing not through the j unction. Therefore. saturation resistance for Common Emitter configuration is of importance. The Emitter Base Junction must be reverse biased. is designated by IC. It is denoted by ReEs or RcE's (saturation) or Rcs VCE (sat) Res = Ic The operating point has to be specified for Rcs' Saturation Voltage: Manufacturers specify this for a given transistor. Res value may be given for different values of I or they may supply the output and input characteristic for the transistor itself. . So the actual collector current with collector junction reverse biased and base open circuited is designated by !cOB' If a ~ 0. 1. V CE(Sat) depen9s upon the operating point and also the semiconductor material.9. ~ J3 varies with Ic for a given transistor.

Ic = .198 Electronic Devices and Circuits 2.(IB + Ie) IE + IB + Ie = 0 Ie = . currents leaving the transistor are taken as negative .a - IIc = (1 + (3)1CBO + 13 IB I Transistor is cut off when Ie = 0.IB a=- -Ie IE or for PN P transistor taking the convention.(IB + IE) Ic = ... IE flows into the transistor.+a. The convention is. -Ie 1=E a I I Ie =+ . THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN a AND 13 IE = Emitter Current IB = Base Current Ic = Collector Current Since in a PNP transistor.l B leBo -c I-a I-a But. .ICBO' So at cut-off 13 = O.lB·~ If we replace Ico by ICBo' Ic = ICBO x ( 13 + I ) + . 13=I-a (1. Ie = leBO and IB = .=-IB . In the C.I E . VCB should be positive for PNP transistor and negative for NPN transistor.E configuration.alE + Ico leo . or or But IE = .I CaB e (I_~l a) (a-I) =-1 B le-a.a) a =- a ~ a..Ie 1=--"'-"'--"'E a .1 = . IB and Ic flow out of the transistor.

.a). Hence the transistor is not considered to be cut off.the general expression for Ic in term of a IE and ICBO· when IB = 0. ) Configuration.E.a ) = ICBO ICBO 1 ICEO = (I ..IE = ICEO Ic + IB + IE = 0 18 = 0 ( Since E-B Junction is left open) Ic =-1 E or ICEO = +a ICEO + ICBO ICEO ( 1 . in Common-Emitter (C.B junctton IS left open i.. ( 1) Ic = -a IE + ICBO ... (1 . The magnitude of ICEO is large.I + eBO C I-a B I-a Ic = ~ IB + (~ + 1) ICBO Ic = ~ IB + ICEO CEO I-a ICEO is the reverse collector to emitter current when base is open. f I-a = ~ = Large Signal Current Gain = hFE B The Expression for Collector Current. when E .. (I) Ic = + a (Ic + IB) + ICBO Ic [1 . ...a) = ( ~ + 1) ICEO = ( ~ + 1) ICBO .alE + ICBO This is. I = ..Transistor Characteristics I (I-a) =+1 CaB 199 or ~-~ 'B . The general expression for Ic in the active region is given by. IB = 0 and collector is reverse biased. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN I AND I CBO CEO where I leBo =- Ic = .. (2) IE = .a] = alB + ICBO a .(Ic + IB) Substitute eq.e. Ie : The current flowing in the circuit. (2) in eq. Ic = .

(a) Cirucuitfor C.15 (a) and the characteristics are shown in Fig. 4.4. for NPN transistor. holes in the collector and electrons in the base are the minority carriers. 4. The drop across RL itself acts as the bias for emitter base junction. 4.15 .ICBO ) to the increase in base current from cut off value ICBO to the lB' So [3 is large signal current gain of a Transistor in Common Emitter ConfiguratIOn. Output characteristics Ic vs V EC Input characteristics IB vs V BC The circuit diagram is shown in Fig.C configuration 6V 10 rnA IB = 0 J.C) Here the load resistor RL is connected in the emitter circuit and not in the collector circuit. 4.15 (b) and (c). Input is given between base and ground. travel into the collector resulting in large current. Hence ICEO is large com~ared to I CBO ' When E B junction is reverse biased. Therefore. the emitter has to inject many more electrons. the expression for [3 gives the ratio of change in collector current (Ic . Base current IB shouldl5e increased so that emitter current is some finite value and the transistor comes out of cut-off region.C configuration ~ VBC(V) (b) Input characteristics in C.LA ~ VEC(V) (c) Output characteristics in C. the emitter junction is reduced and hence lCEO IS reduced.3 THE COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION (C.C configuration Fig. So no current flows through the load. When the base current is I 0' emitter current will be zero. These excess electrons which do not combine with the hole. to neutralize this. The operation of the circuit similar to that of Common Emitter Configuration.200 Electronic Devices and Circuits In Common Emitter Configuration. When one hole from the collector is injected into the base.

-Ia - 201 IE .of holes emitter a = Small signal current gain Ic = I . (I) ......... ~ = Emitter Efficiency :: I iIE for PNP transistor..-Ia Ie ... a = ~. (I) in eq.Transistor Characteristics The current gain in CC. IE : ~ ~ [-: a = ~~e 1 . (3) Expression for emitter current..alE + ICBO) IE [I-a] =-IB-IcBO . IE + ICBO IE :: -(I B + Ic) Substitute eq. (1 ) Relationship between 'a' and 'y' : 0. PARAMETERS I =-- Ieao y. p :: Transportation factor • IpC :: IpE = No.. IB = (lc + IE) Substitute eq.. :. (2) IE + IB + Ic = 0.. of holes reaching collector No.. (1) Ic = -a..y a <1 E . (2) IE::~-~ IE = -y IB + IECO ECO I-a Where IECO is reverse emitter to collector current when base is open.. (3) in eq... 'y' : It is defined as emitter current to the base current y... (2) IE = -(I B.- .

B ~ Second Letter : ~ ~ ~ Variable capacitance device ~ Transistor for A. leo = Normal Reverse Saturation Current ~ a=-1+~ 13=I-a 4.0 Kn. Second letter A for diode. RL = 4.F application BY 127: Silicon rectifying diode. Example: AF 139: It is Ge transistor for R. C for transistor.98.202 Electronic Devices and Circuits a' = Small signal current gain = ale/alE = ~ IB hFE ale alB M 1 dIe a' < 1 E hFE = 13 = Large signal current gain 13» dIe dl B = 13' = Small signal currenL6ain = = - 13'» 1 leBO = Reverse saturation current when E-B junction is open circuited. B: Silicon devices C : Ga As devices Indium Antimonide Detection diode.5 CONVENTION FOR TRANSISTORS AND DIODES Two letters followed by a number a First Letter : A D A C Y ~ ~ Ge devices.16 ) . 4. What is the mmimum base current required in order that the transistor enter its saturation region? (Fig.F application: D Power Transistor: Rectifying diode F : Transistor for R.1 Given an NPN Transistor for which aN = 0. A common emitter connectIOn is used and Vee = 12V. 139 is design Number Old System: Letter '0' indicates that it is semiconductor device.F applications No. leo = 2mA. AZ for zener diode OA 81 : It is semiconductor diode OC 81 : It is transistor OA Z 200 : zener diode Problem 4.

B. Solution _ vc Assume e VT is much smaller than 1 and eVE /VT » I.Transistor Characteristics Soluti.B junction is oscillator circuited in C.) ~ 13 = 1_ a IB(mln) = 0. Problem 4. .E configuration.1.0.98 1.16 For Problem 4.3 rnA 3 Fig..1..Vr - nE Inp(0) = Current due to injection of electrons from the base.on Ie (saturation) = 203 R 12v L 4 Kn = Then I 12 4K = 3mA. V BE .17 ) Fig. (in Covalent Bond Configuration when E ...type material.U It is the collector current when ~ = 0 or when E . 4.:::..type material·to that of the n .. n is left open).98 = 49 = 49 = 61. This is the reverse saturation current in the C.2 Show that the ratio of the hole to electron currents I Ell E crossing the emitter junction of a pnp transistor is proportional to the ratio of the conduc&vitY ofthe p ..17 For Problem 4. I~ c + 12 V B(mln) = a . 4. 1) = I I (0) np = Ae On np 0 Ln (e VE '. 4. (l'lg.~- lC<sat.B junction due to minority carriers whe~ IE = O. where The electron current component of emitter current.

..Dn·npo ex Ppo . (1) n2 p=/lxex-' no n an Substituting there two values in the above equation we get..Vc IVT If - I) . vC V T »1. (3) a p = /lp x But P =p np 2 n.........204 Electronic Devices and Circuits Since.... 1(0)= pn +Ae·Dp·pno W v I" e EYT=I pE ~ _ Ae DP... the collector is reverse biased... .Pno eVE/VT InE w -= IpE Ln JuE Ln·Dp·Pno w..' and p p npo n2 n =/l xex-' po p n2 ap .. V c is negative = (e ..... a = /l x e x . e -Vc/VT is negligible../lp But w ... ( 2 ) ~ an .

compared to IB' a~ .E current gain = hFE Solution: The relation between P' and ~ is. d~ B P' = ~ + (leBo + I B)· aI dlB d~ = dIe dIe d~ dI .Transistor Characteristics Problem 4.E current gain = hfe ~ = Large Signal C. Show that hFE h = fe 1-(I cBO + IB)ah FE alc P' = Small Signal C. fJ A=h FE • Problem 4. dl: (Multiplying and dividing by aIe) But P' =dI B dI B = P' d~ ..3 Assuming that ~' 105 = hfe and ~ ~ hFE . dIe d~ d~ But P' == ~ + (leBo) P' . dIe . alB leBO is small.4 If IB » leBo· Show that hfe - hFE h fe Solution: hFE = ~ = Large signal current gain hie = ~' = Small signal current gain P' = ~ + (leBo + I B) .

18 For Problem 4. In order to cut off.5 The reverse saturation current of the Germanium transistor shown in the Fig 4.E configuration to cut off. Solution: leBO at 25°C = 21l A It gets doubled for every 10° rise in temperature. leBo:S . Problem 4. . Increase in temperature is 75 .206 Electronic Devices and Circuits Fig 4.B junction should be reverse biased.25 = 50° C.1 This is valid for Si or Ge devices. In the Fig. Find the maximum allowable value ofRB if the transistor is to remain cut-offat a temperature of 75° C. Note V BE should be negative.18.0. Therefore. Tire reverse saturation current tlrat isjlowing eve" wlren IB = 0 is called I CBO ' For a transistor in C.4. is 21lA at room temperature of (25°C) and increases by a factor of 2 for each temperature increase of 10°C. The bias V BB = 5Y. 4.18 NPN transistor in Common Emitter Configuration is shown. it is not sufficient if IE is made zero. the condition is V BE = . but the E . leBO is at 7SoC.V BB + RB .

0.19 For Problem 4.OV. The equation of transistor to be at cut-off is Y +V BE = .1 V.5kO Problem 4.1 .6 If VBB = -I.1 V.Transistor Characteristics 50 207 ICBO at 75°c = 2 x 10-6 :x. since VBE < V . conduction takes place in the transistor.0007V and VBE = . = 50KO.7 . -0. VBB RB = ? V BE = -0. But because of high value ofRB.0021 V.9 ~ = 64x 10-6 = 76. VBB = -I. transistor remains cut off till the temperature increases above a particular value. ICBO ~ 0.1 = -5 + 64 x 10-6 x RB 4. L'1T=320C T = 25 + 32 = 57°C l------I 1 Kn 1 --. determine the values of Is' Ic and VBC gIVen that VCE = . how high may the temperature increase before the transistor .OV . ICBO = 181lA ICBO doubles for every 10° rise in temperature.7 F?r the transistor AF 114 connected as shown in Fig.2 t1T 10 =9 or 10 ~T =302 Hence Problem 4. and ~ comes out of cut-off? Solution As the temperature increases.'.VBB + 1\ . 18=2x2 t1T 1O = 5V ICBO = 641lA.1 V. RB = 50k -I + 50 x 103 x ICBO = -0. 4019. 210 = 2 x 25 x 10-6 = 6411A rIf VBE is ::. the transistor will be at cut-off.30 Kn B -9V E 77T Fig 4.

2rnA . VBe = VBE . Solution is negative because it is NPN transistor.) IE = (l .96 rnA Ic is positive since it is entering into transistor. So the current flowing is the reverse saturation current. .0.8 If a. entering into the transistor are positive. Neglect reverse saturation current. I C IB = = -9V . The convention is currents. = 0.0 VBN = 0. So actually lJiis flowing out of transistor.208 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution PNP transistor collector is reverse biased.VCE lK -9+ 0. IE = .21 + 0.3 KQ N Fig 4.0..6 : IE = 2 rnA : ~ = 100.293 rnA.a.VCE = -0.20 an Emitter Current IE = -2 rnA.8V V BN is> V BE . VBE = + 0. 4. IE = 0.VSE 30K = 30K = .07 = . and VBE = 0.07 1x 103 =-8. Ic = . find RI in the circuit shown in Fig. IB = (l .98}{-:-2) = 40 J.a.98.93 rnA -9.1) = 0.14V Problem 4.6 V.l.98 x 2 = 1.A The voltage between base and ground V BN = +V BE + IE ~ and (considering only magnitude) IE . ~o IE is negative here. +12V -9+0.21 3. Though there is no separate bias for the emitter. the voltage drop between emitter and ground itself acts as the forward bias voltage. E-B junction is open circuited. .6 +(2 x 0.0.20 For Problem 4.8.

In NPN transistor.)lpPB 2 W .N.34xI03. eNA where E = 12/36rc x lOll F/cm. the voltage V is given by 6.I IR O.S 20k = 40)lA = IRI = IB + IR2 = 40 + 40 IRe = 80)lA IRI + Ie.47 VR R = _.S=4. = .A 1 PB·)lp VB = e.96mA IRC = SO )lA+ 1. <iB = (base) e .OS I I 12-(2. Substitute the value of E. <ip = <iB .N A in the expression for VB' V =--B 2E. W 2 V=----where PB is in n . N A .N = . in which the resistivity PB of the base is much larger than that of the collector.47V = 56K Problem 4...04~lA Ie = 1.Transistor Characteristics VSN R~ 209 I R2 = - = - O. ~W2 VB is called the Barrer Potential or Contact Potential. PH Solution 12 12 ( F/m= . )lp <iB 1 = -)lp PB·)lp or e .F/cm 36rc x 10) 36rc x 1011 )l = 500 cm 2/V .sec. E = p The expression for W2 = 2E. NA = - Thus e.9 Show that for an NPN silicon transistor of the alloy junction type. the base is 'P' type.. IRI = SO)lA .3)-0. VB .09 x 3. 2.96 mA == V R =Vce-VRc-VBN= 4.cm and base width W in mills.

210

Electronic Devices and Circuits

SubstitutethevalueofEofSiliconas Since
W is in mills,

12 II F/cm. 361tx 10

I 1 mil = 1000" (one thousand of an inch)

To convert this to centimeters, multiply by 2.45 :. Barrier Potential,
W 2(mills)x (2.54

f x (_1_)2 1000
500

VB =

2x12
11 x

PB 361txl0 V-sec 2 )l = 500 cm /V - sec = Mobility of Holes p

VB

=

6.1

x

103

x -

W2
PB

Problem 4.10
A transistor having a = 0.96 is placed in Common Base Configuration with a load resistance of 5 KO. Ifthe emitter to base junction resistance is 800, find the values of amplifier current, voltage and power gain.

Fig 4.21 For Problem 4.10 Solution
Al

= current gain = -I
E

Ie

=

a = 0.96

a.RL A =--

v

/'BE

= 60 80 Power Gain Ap = Av x Al

0.9x5xl0 3

=

60 x 0.96

=

57.6

Transistor Characteristics
Problem 4.11

211

If a transistor, with a = 0.96 and emitter to base resistance 80n is placed in Common Emitter Configuration, find AI' Ay and Ap'

Solution
I A=~=j/3
I

/3=I-a 0.96 = 1-0.96 = 24 A = -/3RL
Y

IB a

YBE

24x 7.5x 104 = -22,500 Ap = AI x Ay = 24 80

x

22,500 = 5,40,000.

Problem 4.12
A transistor is operated at a forward current of2J.lA and with the collector open circuited. Calculate the junction yoltages Ve and VE' the collector to emitter yoltage VeE assuming leo = 2J.lA, lEO = 1.6/-lA and aN = 0.98.

Solution

Ie = 0

Since Collector Junction is open circuited.

1= lo(eYN/Vr -1)
Vb IE = IEO e nY1 _l (

1

212

Electronic Devices and Circuits

Problem 4.13
A load draws current varying from 10 to 100 rnA at a nominal voltage of 100V. A regulator consists of Rs = 2000 and zener diode represented by 100 V, and Rz = 200. For IL = 50 rnA. Determine variation in Vi corresponding to a I % variation in V L'

Solution
The zener ~iode is represented by a voltage source with it. V Lcan vary with in I % so what is the allowable range in which V can be permitted to vary? In oraer that the zener diode is operated near the breakdown region,lthe current through the zener diode is operated near the breakdown region, the current through the zener should be at least 0.1 times the load current.

Rs
--'\/\1

i 2000 i
I Z

r----- _:to! 'z
l
i

~

IL

RL

i
V
L

V

V:

..!--~--!..--~--LL----__---'-~ ----1
Fig 4.22 For Problem 4.13
IZm1l1 = 0.1 (lLma) Iz = 0.1 x 100 = lOrnA. V L = Vz + IzRz = 100 + 0.01
x

!

'

I Lmax = 100 rnA.

20 = 100.2V

V I = V I_+ (It + Iz) Rs = 100.2 + (0.05 + 0.01) 200 =112.2V. V L= 100.2V 1% increase is Vt ~ I V. V' = 100.2+ 1= 101.2V L 1 heretore, tile Illcrease 111 , Ve'-Vz R Iz, ]z· =

-

z

101.2 -100 20 1.2 V = 20 n = 0.06A Total Current = 0.05 + 0.06 = 0.1 A Total Voltage V I = VZ + Rs x (lz + I,)

= 101.2 + 200 x (0.05 + 0.06)
VI = 123.2V Change in VI = 123.2V - 112.2V = IIV A change of 11 V in V, on the input side produces a change of I Von the output side due to zener diode action.

Transistor Characteristics
4.6 FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET)

213

The Field Effect Transistor is a semiconductor device which depends fo.. its operation on the control of current by an electric field. Hence. the name FET.

There are two types (FET) :
I. Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) or simply FET. 2. lnsuiated Gate Field Effect Transistor IGFET. It is also called as Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) transistor or MOST or MOSFET. The principle of operations of these devices, their characteristic are"given in this chapter.

Advantages of FET over BJT (Transistor)
I. JFET is unipolar device. Its operation depends upon the flow of majority carriers only. Vacuum tube is another example of unipolar device. Because the current depends upon the flow of electrons emitted from cathode. Transistor is a bipolar device. So recombination noise is more. 2. JFET has high input resistance (MQ). BJT (Transistor) has less input resistance. So loading effect will be there. 3. It has good thermal stability. 4. Less noisy than a tube or transistor. Because JFET is unipolar, recombination noise is less. 5. It is relatively immune to radiation. 6. JFET can be used as a symmetrical bilateral switch. 7. By means of small charge stored or internal capacitance. it acts as a memory device. 8. It is simpler to fabricate and occupies less space in IC form. So packing density is high.

Disadvantage
1. Small gain - bandwidth product.

4.6.1

JFET~

There are two types; 1. n - channel JFET. 2. P - channel JFET. If n - type semiconductor bar is used it is n - channel JFET. If P - type semiconductor bar is used it is p - channel JFET. Ohmic contacts are made to the two ends of a semiconductors bar of n-type or p-type semiconductor. Current is caused to flow along the length of the bar, because of the voltage supply connected between the ends. If it is n - channel JFET, the current is due to electrons only and if it is p-channel JFET, the current is due to holes only. The three lead of the device are 1. Gate 2. Drain 3. Source. They are similar to 1. Base 2. Collector 3. Emitter of BJT respectively.

214

Electronic Devices and Circuits

4.6.2

n-Channel JFET

The arrow mark at the gate indicates the direction of current if the Gate source junction is forward biased. On both sides of the n - type bar heavily doped (p+) region of acceptor impurities have been formed by alloying on diffusion. These regions are called as Gates. Between the gate and source a voltage Vos is applied in the direction to reverse bias the p-njunction. p-Channel JFET The symbol for p-ch,annel FET is given in Fig. 4.24. The semiconductor bar is p-type or source is p-type. Gate is heavily doped n-region. If G - S junction is forward biased, electrons from gate will travel towards source. Hence, the conventional current flows outside. So, the arrow mark is as shown in Fig. 4.24. indicating the direction of current, if G-S junction is forward biased. The FET has three terminals, Source, drain and Gate.

~SD

Fig 4.23 (n-channel JFET)

~SD

Source

Fig 4.24 (p-channel JFET).

The source S is the terminal through which the majority carriers enter the bar (Fig. 4.25). Conventional current entering the bar at S is denoted as Is'
~p

- type Gate

I
Source S

I
n - type channel Drain D

o

Al
Drain

~ 2L-----~----~~~------L-----~~Al

I

I

. - - - p - type Gate

Fig 4.25 Structure of JFET.
The drain D is the terminal through which the majority carriers leave the bar. Current entering the bar at D is designated by ID. VDS is positive if D is more positive than S, source is forward biased.

Gate
In the case of n - channel FET, on both sides of the bar heavily doped (p+) region of acceptor impurities have been formed by diffusion or other techniques, The impurity regions form as Gate. Both these region (p+ regions) are joined and a lead is taken out, which is called as the gate lead of the FET. Between the gate and source, a voltage V GS is applied so as to reverse bias the gate source p-n junction. Because of this reason JFET has high input impedance. In BJT Emitter Base junction is forward biased. So it has less ~. Current entering the bar at G is designated as IG.

CHANNEL
The region between the two gate regions is the channel through which the majority carriers move from source to drain. By controlling the reverse bias voltage applied to the gate source junction the channel width and hence the current can be controlled.

Transistor Ch aracteristics
4.7 FET STRUCTURE

215

FET will have gate junction on both sides of the silicon bar (as shown in Fig. 4.26).

Source ~
S ..-.

"(,(,

+

-

+

Fig 4.26 JFET structure.
But it is difficult to diffuse impurities from both sides ofthe wafer. So the normal structure that is adopted is, a p-type material is taken as substrate. Then n-type channel is epitaxially grown. A p-type gate is then diffused into the n-type channel. The region between the diffused p-type impurity and the source acts as the drain. Source 2b (x) = Actual channel width, at any point x, the spacing between the depletion regions at any point x from source end because the spacing between the depletion regions is not uniform, it is less towards the drain and more towards the source (see Fig.4.27). 2b depends upon the value ofVGs ' Fig 4.27 Structure 2a = Channel width, the spacing between the doped regions of the gate from both sides. This is the channel width when V GS = 0 (and the maximum value of channel width).

4.7.1

THE

ON

RESISTANCE r

DS

(ON)

Suppose a small voltage Vos is applied between drain and source, the resulting small drain current 10 will not have much effect on the channel profile. So the effective channel cross section A can be assumed to be constant, throughout its. length. A = 2bw Where, 2b = Channel width corresponding to zero 10 (Distance between the space charge regions) w = Channel dimension perpendicular to b.

216

ElectJ'OJH(:

n·;··.. ices and Circuits

.. Expressions for, ID = A . e . N D ~n Ex J = n e. ~ . E (J = cr.E. U .= r:C.~L) I = A x J, But A = 2b (x) . w Considering b along x-axis, since 'b' dependf, upon the voltage V GS' b(x) is till' width at any point 'x'. J .. ID = 2b (x) roo q. ND . ~n .':, en

= ~s = 2b

V

.
; L is the length of the channel

(Electric field strength depends upon VDS' Channel width 2b depends upon .. ID
(x) w. q. ND .

Vas.)

. Vos L 'This expression is valid in the linear region only. This is the linear region, It behaves like a resistance, where ohmic resistance depends upon V as.v DS / ID is called as the ON drain resistance or rDS(ON) ON because, JFET is conducting, in the ohmic regions when V DS is small and channel area A = 2a.w, rDS(on) = Ll2 b(x) wq ND ~n rDS(on) will be few n to several 100 n. Because, the mobility of electrons is much higher than that for holes, rDS(On) is small for n-channel FETs compared to p-channel FETs.

~n

4.7.2 PINCH OFF REGION
The voltage V DS at which, the drain current ID tends to level off is called the pinch off voltage. When the value of VDS is large, the electric field that appears along the x-axis, i.e., along the channel ex will also be more. When the value of ID is more, the drain end of the gate i.e., the gate region near the drain is more reverse biased than the source end. Because, the drain is at reverse potential, for n-channel FET, source is n-type, drain is n-type and positive voltage is applied for the drain, gate is also reverse biased. Therefore, the drop across the channel adds to the reverse bias voltage of the gate. Therefore, channel narrows more near the drain region and less near the source region. So, the boundaries of the depletion region are not parallel when V DS is large and hence Ex is large. . As V DS increases, Ex and ID increase, whereas the channel width b(x) narrows (.: depletion region increases). Therefore the current density J = ID / 2b(x) w increases. If complete pinch off were to take place b = O. But this cannot happen, because if b were to be 0, J ~ 00 which cannot physically happen. Mobility ~ is a function of electric field intensity ~ remains constant for low electric fields when Ex < 103V/cm.

~a

k
Ex

when Ex is 103 to 104 V/cm.(for moderate fields).

u a _1 for very high field strength > 10-1 V!ern.

'0 =

2bwe ND ~n Ex'

Transistor Characteristics

217

As V DS increases, Ex increases but )..tn decreases, b almost remains constant. Therefore If) remains constant in the pinch off region. Pinch off voltage (V PO or V p) is the voltage at which the drain current ID levels off. When VGS = OV, if V GS = - 1, V, the voltage at which the current ID levels off decreases, (This is not pinch off voltage). If V GS is large - 5, V DS at which the current levels off may be zero. So the relationsh ip between V DS' V PD and V GS is

V DS = V PD + V GS V DS is positive n-channel FET. VPO = P indicates pinch off voltage, zero indicate the voltage when VGS = Ov.
V DS is the voltage at which the current ID levels off.(See Fig. 4.28).
lOrnA VGs=O

iDrnA

-I

-2 -3 2 3 4 5=V po
Vos

Fig 4.28 JFET drain characteristics.

,

4.7.3

EXPRESSION FOR PINCl-I OFF VOLTAGE, V p

Net charge in an alloy junction, must be the same, semiconductor remains neutral. e.N A
Wp

=e

ND . wn

If NA » N D, from the above eq, wp « w n • The relation between potential and charge density (p) is given by Poisson's equation. d V
2

e.N D
E

dx 2

We can neglect w p and assume that the entire harrier potential VB appears across the increased donor ions. e.NI) = charge density P
d\'
:c-

_x

e1x

n -----.x
E

I!.N

,

Fig 4.19 Charge density variation

V=

e.N n
E

~l~~~~~~"~
=

At the boundary conditiuns, x

wn

Fig 4.30 Structure

218
Wn

Electronic Devices and Circuits

= depletion region width
=
D 2E . Wn
1

V

e.N

2

or

Wn

=

{~}2 e.N
D

This is the expression for the penetration of depletion region into the channel. As the reverse bias potential between Gate and drain increased, the channel width narrows or the depletion region penetrates into the channel. Therefore the general expression for the spacecharge width Wn (x) = w(n). w(n) V
w
=

2E { -{Vo eND

- V{x)}

}li

= Voltage between drain and source V DS = Penetration of depletion region into the channel,

Where V = Vo - Vex); Vo is the contact potential at x and V(nl is the applied potential across space charge region at x and is negative for an applied potential. This potential (between D and S) is not uniform throughout the channel. The potential is higher near the drain and decreases towards the source. The depletion region is more towards the drain and decrease towards the source. .. V = Vo - V(x) The actual potential is the difference of V0 and V(x).
E

= Dielectric

constant of channel material

w(x)

=

a-b(x) = {e~: (Vo - V(x)>t

.....(1)

a - b(x) = Penetration w(x) of depletion region into channel at a point x along the channel from one side of gate region only. 2a = Total width between the two gate diffusions. 2b(x) = Depletion region width between the two sides of the gate regions. If ID = 0, b(x) is independent of x and it will be uniform throughout the channel and will be equal to 'b'. Vo will be much smaller than Vex). If in equation (1), we substitute b(n) = b = 0, neglect V o, and solve for V we obtain the pinch off voltage. Because at pinch off, the two depletion regions from both sides meet each other, therefore the spacing between them b(x) = 0. Therefore, w at pinch off, V 0 neglected, b = 0,

w={~v}X eND
or
w2

= clf.: .'vp
Q.

2,E

.•

P

Transistor Characteristics
4.8 FET OPERATION

219

If a p-n junction is reverse biased, the majority carriers will move away from the junction. That is holes on the p-side will move away from the junction leaving negative charge or negative ions on the p-side (because each atom is deprived of a hole or an electron fills the hole. So it becomes negative by charge). Similarly, electrons on the n-side will move away from the junction leaving positive ions near the junction. Thus, there exists space charge on both sides of the junction in a reverse biased p-n junction diode. So, the electric field intensity, the lines of force originate from the positive charge region to the Fig 4.31 Space charge in p-n negative charge region. This is the source of voltage drop .. across the junction. As the reverse bias across the junction JunctIon. increases, the space charge region also increases, or the region of immobile uncovered charges increases (i.e., negative region on p-side and positive region on n-side increases as shown in Fig. 4.31). The conductivity of this region is usually zero or very small. Now in a FET, between gate and source, a reverse bias is applied. Therefore the channel width is controlled by the reverse bias applied between gate and source. Space charge region exists near the gate regi·on on both sides. The space between them is the channel. If the reverse bias is increased, the channel width decreases. Therefore, for a fixed drain to source voltage the drain current will be a function of the reverse biasing voltage across the junction. Drain is at positive potential (for n-type FET). Therefore, electrons tend to move towards drain from the source (1) Because, source is at negative potential, they tend to move towards the drain. But because of the reverse bias applied to the gate, there is depletion region or negative. charge region near the gate which restricts the number of electrons reaching the drain. Therefore the drain current also depends upon the reverse bias voltage across the gate junction. The term field effect is used to describe this device because the mechanism of current control is the effect of the extensions, with increase reverse bias of the field associated with region of uncovered charges The characteristics of n-channel FET between ID, the drain current and VDS the drain source voltage are as shown in Fig. 4.32, for different values of Vas.
0
10 • rnA

--

+0.5 V OV -2V -3.5V 20V
----.. V OS' Volts

J

i

((
&
~

Fig 4.32 Drain charecteristics To explain these characteristics, suppose Vas = 0. When Vos = 0, 10 ~ 0, because the channel is entirely open. When a small Vos is applied (source is forward biased or negative

the gate is p-type. From the FET characteristics it can be observed that. in vacuum tubes. Because of the ohmic drop. Positive voltage is applied to the drain. But at this voltage.33 Structure of n-channel . source and drain are n-type. '0 value will be comparatively larger. pinch off will occur for smaller values of (V os). (But the characteristics are similar to pentode). drain is at negative potential with respect to source. Consider n-channel FET. across the gate junction. the ohmic voltage drop between the source and the channel region reverse biases the junction and the conducting portion of the channel begins to constrict.e. This is because. If V GS is made + O. FET characteristics are similar to that of a pentode. Drain is similar to anode (at positive potential). But the channel cannot be closedown completely and there by reducing the value of 10 to zero.O. and positive voltage is applied. the channel width is narrow at the drain and wide at the source. the source gets reverse biased or the negative potential at the n-type source reduces. I Gate I Source S p I Drain D n . . Because. Pinch off will occur early.33 below). 4. the constrictions is not uniform. so negative voltage is applied. along the length of the channel it self. Therefore. the characteristic for V GS = + O. and gate is p-type. For p-channel FET. but is wore pronounced at distances farther from the source. the n-type bar acts as a simple semiconductor resistor and so 10 increases linearly with Vos' With increasing current. the gate current will be very small because for Si FET.SV is just equal to or less than the cut in voltage. Now if a gate voltage V G5 is applied in a direction to reverse bias the gate source junction. Therefore.SV).I FET. O. the reverse bias gate source voltage adds to the drain voltage because drain though n -type (for n-channel FET).. source to cathode and gate to grid. Gate source junction should be reverse biased. Therefore.type channel I p I I Fig 4. gate is n-type.SV. a positive voltage is applied to it. For n-channel FET. (compared to V GS = OV or . voltage or negative voltage is applied to the gate. the effective voltage across the gate junction is increased. The maximum voltage that can be applied between any two terminals of the FET is the lowest voltage that will cause avalanche breakdown. Therefore. n-channel FET is exactly similar to a Vacuum Tube (Triode). i. The source and drain are n-type and p-type gate is diffused from both sides of the bar (See Fig.220 Electronic Devices and Circuits voltage is applied to n-type source). because the required reverse bias will not be there. The source should be forward-biased. the current will remain constant at a particular value and the corresponding voltage at which the current begins to level off is called as the pinch off voltage. Finally.SV. as the reverse bias voltage for the gate source junction is increased. the gate source junction is forward biased. and the maximum drain current will be smaller compared to when V GS = O. avalanche breakdown occurs early or for a lower value of Vos.

The current flowing from source to drain ID depends on the potential between source and drain. So channel width decreases and channel resistance increases. So the depletion region is not uniform VDS < V po. electrons from the source will move towards the drain.~ P i n : .D junctions Consider a p-n junction which is reverse biased.35 . drain is n-type and positive voltage at drain is increased. If V DS is increased. This resistance is a function of the doping of the n-material and the channel width. But extends more towards drain than source. Source Drain Fig 4.35. the reverse bias voltage for the gate drain junction is increased. As V DS is increased. since. There are no mobile charges near the junction. This result is directly applicable for JFET.34 Reverse biased G . the depletion region width 'I' increases.Transistor Characteristics 221 Suppose source and gate are at ground potential and small positive voltage is applied to the drain. The holes on the p-side remain near the negative terminal and electrons on the n-side reach near the positive terminal as shown in FigA. depletion region is increased (shaded portion). Because drain is at positive potential. the rate at which ID increases reduces. o _ + + + I + I v Fig 4. This problem is similar to that of a reverse biased p-n junction diode. eventhough there is positive potential for the electrons at the drain and hence they tend to move towards the drain and conventional current flows as shown by the arrow mark. in the FigA.'_ _.-_--'-_ _ -. V DS' resistance of the n-material in the channel between drain to source. Therefore. since these p-n junctions are reverse biased and so the current is due to minority carriers only. So we call this as the depletion region since it is depleted ofmobile carriers or charges. As the reverse voltage is increased. Because gate is heavily doped..0 _ . the current between Sand G or G and D can be neglected. _ 0 I~ I -> I _ r--::.. So it is Forward biased. length and thickness..34... V PO is the pinch off voltage. Source is IHype.L.+ I ... The depletion region extends more towards drain because points close to the drain are at higher positive voltage compared to points close to source. Negligible current flows between source and gate or gate and drain.

222 Electronic Devices and Circuits When VDS = Vpo When Vos is further increased.37 Depletion region width variation in JFET.9 JFET VOLT-AMPERE CHARACTERISTICS Suppose the applied voltage Vos is small.4. as Vos increases ros also increases. Therefore. Therefore. w . the depletion region thickens. because it pinches off the channel connection between drain and source. When the two channels meet. its length. The resulting small drain current 10 will not have appreciable effect on the channel profile. more electrons tend to move towards the drain. So the resistivity of the channel increases. for any Vos above Vpo' Vos 10= ros In the linear region. Because drain is at more positive potential.36. Source Drain Fig. So 10 remains constant. So as Vos is increased.36 When Vos > Vpo If Vos is further increased.w. The corresponding VDS is called as VPD' the pinch off voltage. the net result is 10 levels off. 4. Where 2b is the channel width corresponding to negligible drain current and w is channel dimension perpendicular to the 'b' direction. But. No Iln E A = 2b . 4. 10 decreases.3 7) Source Drain Fig 4. because channel resistance increases.(See Fig. the channel cross-section A can be assumed to be constant throughout. A = 2b. Io=Ae. Hence 10 should increase. ros is almost constant.4. 10 increases. the depletion region on each side of the channel join together as shown in Fig.

EXPRESSION FOR V Gs V= e. No Iln · VOS L .b (x) at pinch off. Therefore.b) because for a given VGS' as Vos increases. Eliminating 'b' which is unknown.. [!Vp ! = . W . the reverse potential between drain and gate increase.N D x 2 2E We can get the expression for VGS if we replace x by (a . Vp Substituting.. b =a = 0..N o Vp 28 . (1) Where L is the length of the channel. VGS = ( 1- ~ r.b)2 ..Transistor Characteristics E = 223 VOS L 2bwe . depletion region width increases. . .b) and V by VGS' VGS = ---""-2'-E--'-- e. w = a = The spacing between the two gate dopings.. Vp ~ a = 1 _ [VGs)7. this value in equation (1 ).:-.ND(a .. a2 [ VOS controls the width of the depletion region (a . But. _ e. ID = 2awe~D~n [1-[~ V DS 2 W n This is the expression for 10 in terms of VGS' V p and Vos because the value of b is not directly known.

ID vs V GS (loss + IGSS) [ 1.38 Drain characteristics 4.N D . los = los -loss _ [1.Vp VGS]2 Transfer characteristic follows the equation."onic Dc. . It is found that the transfer characteristics giving the relationship between los and V GS can be approximated by parabola. ices and Circuits But IVpl = = e. the FET behaves like an ohmic resistance whose value is determined by VGS' The ratio 2bwe ND ~n' Vos L L = r 2a we N D Iln ds(ON)' --+Vos Fig 4.224 Elect. loss = The saturation value of the drain current when gate is shorted to source that isVGs=O. to S will be of the orderofnano amperes.10 TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF FET The saturation value of the drain current or the value at which ID remains constant. channel width reduces.) Therefore. channel width is controlled by V GS and depletion region width by V DS' hs ~ (I-Hvp I ID = THE ON RESISTANCE r ds (ON) When Vos is small. so it can be neglected.a 2 2E e.Vp VGS]2 ID = - IGSS With negligible I GSS ' because IGS is the leakage gate current between G and S when Dis shorted.N D 2E IVpi a2 Substituting this in expression for V Gs' V GS = Vp 2 -(a-b) a2 Channel width is controlled by V GS' As V GS increases.

a constant value of VOS is selected. (say) that it is due to V GS(off) because V p is negative. Sinc~ in the latter case 10 is not zero. If V p is positive.10. The transfer characteristics can be derived from the drain characteristics.1 FET BIASING FOR ZERO DRIFT CURRENT As Temperature (T) increases.amps). So conductivity 0' of the channel increases.es by 0. This channel width is made zero either by controll ing Vos or V GS' Hence there are two types of pinch of voltages. If the end points V p and loss are known.7 % per degree centigrade. For n-channel FET. This pinch off voltage is different from Vos voltage at which 10 levels off. The intersection of the vertical line abed gives a particular value of 10 for different values of VGS' SO the transfer characteristics between 10 and V GS can be drawn.loss _ (1- VGS]2 Vp This Vp is VGS(oft) and not Vos because when Vp = VGS(Oft). Vos 4. a b c Vp ~ -4 d IOV -3 -2 -I 0 ---+ Vos V Fig 4. G-S junction is reverse biased) is positive. As T increases depletion region width decreases. . depletion region width increases. a transfer characteristics for the device can be constructed. but channel width becomes zero and channel pinches off. This is the voltage between gate and source for which 10 becomes zero. To construct transfer characteristics.39 Drain and Gate characteristics of JFET. loss = The saturation value of drain current when gate is shorted to source or VGs=O. VGS is negative (since gate is p-type. The specified pinch off voltage VJl for a given FET can be known if it is due to Vos or V GS from the polarity of the voltage V . it is due to Vos at which loss levels off. So this gate source voltage at which 10 becomes zero is also called as pinch off voltage or VGS(oft) voltage. As the reverse potential between G and S increases. because the characteristics are flat. If the specified V p is -5V. 10 also increases. therefore 10 increases. Mobility (Jl) decreases at constant Electric Field (E). For some value of VGS channel pinches off or 10 practically becomes zero (It cannot be exactly zero but few nano . 10 decreas.Transistor Characteristics 225 10 .lo = O. Normally this is chosen in the saturation region. So channel width decreases. Here Vp is again called the pinch off voltage or V GS(oft) voltage.

63 (a) (b) _ (1.8 mAN loss = 1.314 V gm IIVpl-IVGSI=0. for a FET having the following particulars: Vp =-3V.08 rnA (d) gm = gmo VGS .75 rnA. IV pi-IV Gsl = 0. Solution For zero drift current. (b) V GS (c) Rs (d) Voltage gain with Rs bypassed with a large capacitance. if Rd = 5kn (a) Find 10 for zero drift current.v GS Fig 4. Rd = 1.63VI VGS 12 Ios=loss ( 1.2 mVJOC change in VGS' Therefore change in V GS = 2.89 . For zero drift current.63 =-3.. or or gm = gmo (1p VGS] V p . gmo = 1.Vp V = 0.Vp ) .378 mAN p Ay = gm .63 V (c) .63 Vp =-3V VGs=Vp-O.VGS]2 lo-Ioss Vp :::::0.0022 gm W=O. 0. ~o= .226 10 Electronic Devices and Circuits increase at a rate of 2.V.0 07 110 1 = 0.14 Problem Design the bias circuit for zero drain current drift. 363 R =~=-'-= s 10 10 3.08 rnA V GS =-3 -0.-.63 =43Kn 0.40 Biasing for zero drift current.2 mVJOc..2 Ioss V 4.

towards V po' Above V po' The current tends to level off at Ipo and then rises slowly.. between gate and source becomes forward biased and current flows from gate to source.N o 2 The expression for the pinch offvoltage IV pi = 2. Vpo oindicate VGS = O. Gate cut-off current when Drain is shorted to source.E o r a = Effective width of Silicon bar .. breakdown (avalanche) occurs and the current rises rapidly. depletion region decreases and hence 10 increases. If gate voltage is made positive.+ Vos Fig 4. BVDSS VI'O .4.O. As VGS is made negative. -I. Current levels off because as V increases. Mutual conductance gm when VGS = O. -2 etc. The p-n junction.. The region before V po is called ohmic region because ohms law is obeyed (see Fig.41 Drain characteristics. ' ..a where No = Donor atom concentration E = Permitivity E . R increases..41).. Suppose Vos is fixed and VGs is varied... loss BVoss IO(oft) IGSS Saturation value of the drain current for V GS *. .... resistance of the channel also rises. Just as a p-n junction breakdown when reverse voltage is very high FET also break down if Vos is high due to high electric field. This decreases channel width and increases channel resistance. As V increases...-. When VGS = Breakdown voltage BV oss. E. Breakdown voltage Vos ' when gate is shorted to source. therefore % = constant.Transistor Characteristics 227 In t '1'0 ohmic region saturation region /VGs=O breakdown region . The drain current 10 increases rapidly as Vos increases. So n-type JFET is usually operated so that VGS = 0 or negative. p-n junction is reverse biased and depletion region between gate and source increases. Therefore... I remains constant.. Saturation value of the drain current when gate is shorted to source (V GS=O)..... Hence 10 decreases. Pinch offvoltage when VGS = O. Drain current when the JFET is in OFF state.

NA 2 (forp-channeIFET) sec.. JFETs make good digital and analog switches. The drain current 10 is a function of gate voltage V GS and drain voltage (Vos) 10 = f(V GS' V os ) .(2xlOp 4 4 2x12(36nx10 11 t L =3. They are used in special purpose amplifiers such as very high input resistance amplifiers. 2 x 10-4 cm and channel resistivity p = Ion . gate is p . because for n .1 amps to few nano amps at 25°C.type and source is n . e :::'~A fl p ' e 1 or e. Source junction. IGSS is due to the minority carries ofthe reverse biased gate.10.. Find the Solution Vp= ForSi. 2. Because drain is at positive potential for n-channel FET. E ~..channel Silicon FET. (1) .NA=2x 10-4 V = 2xl0. offresistance is very high.channel FET. = 12 eo flp = 500 cm2 /v = p::: A I 0' pflp. there will be some current called gate reverse current or gate cut off current.78V 4.10. It can be used as a voltage controlled resistance because resistivity of the channel varies with Vos.15 Problem For a p .3 ApPLICATIONS 1. 3. IO(oft) is due to the carriers reaching drain from source because channel resistivity will not become infinity.228 Electronic Devices and Circuits 4. There exists some drain current under these conditions also called ID(off)' 10 (off) and IGSS will be in the range 0. designed as IGS ' this is when drain is shorted to source.type.. 4.cm. with a = pinch offvoltage.2 CUT OFF A FET is said to be cut off when the gate to source voltage IV Gsl is greater than the pinch off voltage V p' IV Gsl > IV pl. buffers voltage follower etc.N =-- Pflp or 10x500 e.11 FET SMALL SIGNAL MODEL The equivalent circuit for FET can be drawn exactly in the same manRer as that for a vacuum tube. and increase by a factor of 1000 at a temperature of 150°C. more electrons will reach the drain. Under these conditions.a e. 4.

11..1 ----"0. I " " .. . Sometimes it is designated as Yc or gc the second subscript's' indicating common source and y or g for forwards transadmittancJ or co~ductance respectively. V ds where.~V OS OS Vas GS VI" In the small signal notation the incremental values can be assumed to be a..~Breakdown region ~VDS I .42 Drain characteristics of JFET. . ~VGS = Vgs . or ~VGS ~IO I VDS = Vgs Id I VOS The mutual conductance or transconductance.c quantities.. 4. regIOn I ---. . ~Io= aiD 229 a:v..I . .Transistor Characteristics Expanding (1) by Taylor's series. . I. 1 Id = gm . .I ~GS + aID ---av. I" I '.1 DRAIN RESISTANCE OR OUTPUT RESISTANCE r D ro= avOs mo I VGS ::: ~ aVos I VGS = -1d Vds I VGS . ~ Vos = Vds. Fig 4. ' .. I'. V gs + rd .+- • Saturation .. ~Io = Id .

FET is a voltage controlled device. In low frequency circuit. 4. -.1 . we are controlling the current. (See Fig.44 Simplified equivalent circuit .44. by controlling the channel width by voltage. Cds represents the drain to source capacItance ot the channel.gm C gs = I-IOpf Cds = 0.I-IOmAN rd=O.2 EQlJIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR FET The ~xpression for drain current Id in the case of a FET is I Id=gm V gs + -. This is similar of a transistor h-parameter equivalent circuit. Between gate and source the capacitance is C gs and C gd is the barrier capacitance between gate and drain. Ifwe neglect the capacitances the equivalent circuit ofFET can be drawn as given in Fig. IlforFET = ~ av I avGS 10 = ~ Vos I ~V GS 10 = Vds V I gs 10 TYPICAL V ALlJES gm =O. .11. Gate -----r---1 C gs Drain gd . Fig 4. ro ofFET is analog to rp of vacuum tube.l C Cds Source'---~------~----~----~~~ Source Fig 4. gm ofFET is analog to gm of vacuum tube.. 4.10 pf 4. So the equivalent circuit can be drawn as a current source in parallel with a resistance.43 JFET equivalent circuit This is high frequency equivalent circuit because we are considering capacitances.Vds rd This is similar to the expression Ip of a triode. Xc will be very large so C is open circuit and neglected.230 Electronic Devices and Circuits Drain conductance = Yos = output conductance for common source.I-IMO p=rd.43).

Lp= 500 cm2 /v-sec.78V 2XI2(361tXI011t 4. e.N A =2 x l0-4 2 x 10-4 (2 x lO-4t V = p =3.e=NAf. J 7 Problem For an n-channel silicon FET. with a = 3 x 10-4 cm and No = 10 15 electrons/cm3• Find (a) The 1 pinch offvoltage.Trans istor Ch aracteristics 231 Arrow mark is downwards in the current source &n Vgs because the current (conventional current) is flowing from drain to source for n-channel FET (Because electrons are the majority carriers)..for p-channel FET.16 Problem For a p-channel silicon FET.N A EO ~ ForSi. Solution (a) D V =--.19 XlO l5 X(3XIO-4 )2 2 x 12 x (36 n x lOll = 6..Lp.a .Lp·e or or 1 1 e. Find the pinch off voltage. Solution V p = ~. NA = Pf. 4.L p = tOx500 e. E = 12 1 f.6 x 10. (b) The channel halfwidth for VGS ="2 Vp and 10 = O.8V (b) t b=? for b= all-(~s )11 (3 x = II>') (I-Gr) = 0. with a= 2 x 10-4 cm (effective channel width) and channel resistivity P = 1on~ cm.N 2 p 2E 1.87 x 10-4cm . 0-= P=pf.a e...

VGS) Vp Vp But or 1 ( - ~:S J ~ /:ssS = gm =.Ios m I Vp I" Solution -gm _ _ (1.19 Problem Show that for small values of V GS' compared with V p. the drain current is 10::::: lDSS + gmo VGS . gmo-= _ Dss Vp 21 gnl 21 DSS [1. Vp ~ los loss = _2_~IDss. g = _2_ i1oss. Solution .vGsJ V p where gmo is the transistor conductance ~ fdr VGS = O.18 Problem Show that for a JFET.lDs I Vp I 4.232 Electronic Devices and Circuits 4.2Ioss .

. These are also known as IGFET (Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor). But in MOSFETs. These devices. [two conductors separated by dielectric] . enhancement mode and depletion mode. In FETs the gate source junctions is a p-n junction. there is no p-njunction between gate and channel. ( If the source is n-type.. The gate is a metal ang....> insulated from the semiconductor (source and drain are semiconductor type) by a thin oxide layer.Transistor Characteristics 233 I D = I DSS + gmo V... . derive their name from Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) or MOS transistor (See Fig.. a dielectric ofSi02 and the semiconductor channel.46).12 FET TREE The input Z of JFET is much higher compared to a junction transistor. .----. There are two types ofMOSFETs. . gate will be p-type). g (JS .It is this construction which accounts for the very large input resistance of 10 I 0 to 10 15 0 and is the major difference from the JFET.!-.45 FET Tree. [ .1 Depletion type only MOSFET (IGFEl) N-channel P-channel Depletion type Enhancement type N-channel ~ P-channel N-channel ~ P-channel Fig 4. 4. but rather a capacitor consisting of metal gate contact. SOLID STATE DEVICES FET 1.-_. So these are very widely used in ICs and are fast replacing JFETs. But for MOSFETs.2I IllO - VI' [)S5] 4... the input Z is much higher compared to JFETs.

47 Some manufacturers internally connect the bulk to the source. source and drain are n-type. Stray and gate capacitance limits speed. 4. CMOS or NMOS reduces power dissipation. micropower operation. 6. Disadvantage 1. Input impedance is very high Zn::: 10 140. But in some circuits. 4. 2.47. for p .4. 4. For the MOSFET shown in Fig. But for bipolar devices. depletion type Fig 4.234 Electronic Devices and Circuits The symbols for MOSFETs are. 5. depjetion type Fig 4.channel Enhancement mode devices require 1 diffusion and 4 photo masking steps. 4 diffusions and 8 . 7.48.1 ENHANCEMENT TYPE MOSFET n-channel is induced. Can be used as passive or active element. Gate is Al (metal) in between oxide layer is there. High package density::: 105 components per square cm. Slow speed switching. Passive: As a resistance or voltage variable resistance. The source and drain are separated by 1 mil. Inherent memory storage: charge in gate capacitor can be used to hold enhancement mode devices ON. Because of this an electric field will be directed perpendicularly through the oxide. and a positive voltage is applied at the gate. 2. Hence. Self Isolation: Electrical isolation occurs between MOSFETs in ICs since all p-njunctions are operated under zero or reverse bias. Active: As a storage device or as an amplifier etc. the arrow will point outwards.46 p-channel MOSFET. if they are connected together is. 4. 3. Slower than bipolar devices. given in Fig. This field will induce negative charges on the . So it is called as n-channel MOSFET. 3. Suppose the p substrate is grounded. Bulk is the substrate material taken. CMOS ICs are popular. Advantages of MOSFETs (over JFETs and other devices) I. these two are to be separated (See Fig. between source and drain. The symbol. G ~-+----oB G S S n-channel MOSFET.46).channel. p .12.10 photo masking steps are required. High fabrication yield.

slowly first and then much more rapidly with an increase in V GS (Fig. IO(Ot-l) of MOSFET is the maximum value of 10 which remains constant for different values of V os' In the ohmic region.49. the induced negative charge in the semiconductor increases. The region below the Si02 oxide layer has n-type carriers. the drain characteristic is given by 10 _ IlC o· W :s 2L [2(VGS-VT)VOS-Vos] 2 . As V GS is made positive. the drain current is enhanced by the positive gate voltage and such a device is called an enhancement type MOS. source threshold voltage V GST at which 10 reaches some defined small value:: 1O~A. For a voltage < V GST' (V GS threshold) 10 is very small. As the positive voltage on the gate increases. Source Gate Drain Induced Channel p ( substute ) (n . Sometimes the manufacturers specify gate. 4. the current 10 increases.48 n-channel MOSFET The volt-ampere drain characteristic of an n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET are as shown in Fig. 4.49(b).Transistor Characteristics 235 semiconductor side.type substrate form an inversion layer.49 The current 10 for V GS 0 is very small being of the order of few nano amperes. So the conductivity of the channel between source and drain increases and so current flows from source to drain through the induced channel. The negative charge of electrons which are the minority carriers in the p . Thus. ohmic or non saturation l constant current or saturation region i 5 i o 10 20 30 loss I .channel MOSFET) Fig 4.+ Vos (a) Drain characteristics -2 -1 -+ V GS (b) Gate characteristics Fig 4.

Electronic Devices and Circuits /. An T} .substrate (below the Si02 layer between n .Substrate Induced n .50 MOSFET structure 4. So the resistance seen by the Vos depends on the voltage applied to the gate. If the gate voltage is further increased. Therefore. Co = Gate capacitance per unit area.l = Majority carriers mobility.type region now extends continuously from source to drain. This process is referred to as ..type substrate. The constant current region is known as pentode region because the current remains constant with Vos' Vos + s G D + + + + Electric field lines of force p . the effective channel resistance decreases. L = Channel length. because like in a triode 10 increases with Vos. and the higher drain current 10 .236 where.12. It is sandwiched between two conducting regions the gate (metal) and the S.substrate. The nchannel below the gate is said to be induced because it is produced by the process of electric inductor. Si02 is an insulator.type source and drain only) decrease.2 MOSFET OPERATION Consider a MOSFET in which source and drain are of n-type. Suppose a negative potential is applied between gate and source.. equivalent capacitor is formed. This is true only in the relatively small region of the substrate directly below the gate. A positive potential is applied to the gate. The electron~ in the p . If the positive gate potential is removed. in the p . because of the applied positive potential to the gate V GS' As more number of electrons are attracted towards this region. in the p .channel (n.C p-type substrate. greater number of negative charge carriers are attracted towards the induced channel. So as the carriers density increases. because there are large number of free carriers (electrons). w = Channel width perpendicular to C The ohmic region in the 10 vs Vos characteristic of FET or MOSFET is also known as triode region. So a negative charge is induced on the opposite plate by the action of electric field within the dielectric. with Si02 as the dielectric whenever a positive charge is applied to one plate of a capacitor a corresponding negative charge is induced on the opposite plate by the action of the electric field with in the dielectric.substrate are attracted towards the lower region of Si02 layer because there is positive field acting from the gate through Si02 layer. This charge results from the minority carriers (electrons) which are attracted towards the area below the gate. The higher the gate potential..-channel MOSFET) Fig 4. the induced channel disappears. the hole density in the p . the lower the channel resistance.

Therefore ID decreases as VGS increases. depletion type. As V GS is increased in negative values (0.52. The channel is depleted of carriers. etc) if ID decreases.12. then it is enhancement mode of operation because ID is enhanced or increased.52 n . But enhancement type cannot be used as depletion type. Here the region below the gate is doped n . +2 etc) ifiD increases.. holes. Enhancement type 2. Fig. D G ~-t----oB S Fig 4. and the resulting MOSFET is called enhancement type MOSFET. Depletion type MOSFET can also be constructed in the same way. These holes will recombine with the electrons of the n . Depletion type MOSFET can also be used as enhancement type. -2.channel between sources drain since channef resistivity increases.channel MOSFET. then it is depletion mode of operation. These are also known as DE MOSFETs. 4.e. + 1.Su bstrate Fig 4. If negative voltage is applied to the gate. (negative voltage) Ifwe apply ~ositive voltage to V GS' then this becomes enhancement type. As VGS is increased in positive values (0.type. So channel resistance increases. the channel is depleted of carriers. Depletion type. The resistance will be of the order of 10 150 and the capacitance value will also be large. Consider n . the name is given as depletion type MOSFET which can also be used in enhancement mode. So to distinguish these two. Here as the gate voltage increases. negative charge on the gate induces equal positive charge i.51 MOSFET biasing. The resistance looking into the gate is high since the oxide is an insulator. 1.channel MOSFET. .Transistor Characteristics 237 enhancement because ID increases. p . -I.3 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS There are two types ofMOS FETs. 4.

) it is as if a negative voltage is applied for one plate of plate capacitor.. So.53 Drain characteristics (N MOS). etc. for a given VDS' significant current flows just like in a JFET.54 Gate characteristics . The channel between the source and drain will be depleted of majority carriers electrons. there is no such p . In a FET. Similady in the depletion mode as Vas is increases in negative values. So a positive charge will be induced below the gate in between the n type source and drain. Because it is semiconductor electrons and holes are induced in it below the gate. But in MOSFET. When the gate is made negative (i. Hence. concentration.n junction between gate and source.238 DRAIN CHARACTERISTIC : ID versus V DS Electronic Devices and Circuits When Vas = OV.. Thus. the current is enhanced. the free electron concentration in the channel between source and drain decreases or channel resistivity increases. In the transfer characteristic as Vas increases. there is a p . Therefore current decreases as Vas is made more negative i. -1. because these induced holes will recombine with the electrons. Therefore. bt!cause the channel will be depleted of majority carriers as Vas is made negative (for n-channel MOSFEn. Now a negative charge is induced in the channel. So channel conductivity increases and hence ID increases. ID decreases Depletion +EnhancelOent -+ -I o Fig 4.njunction.e. V D increases. thereby increase free electron lornA +2V +IV OV -IV Vas=-2 V t IOV 20V Fig 4. positive voltage positive Vas can also be applied between gate and source.e. This is the depletion mode of operation. Vas = -1 V. -2. the device can be used both in enhancement mode and depletion mode.

12. If the gate is left open circuited. So drain is made positive. Thus NMOSFETs have replaced PMOSs and PMOSFETs have almost become obsolete.R is decreased by increase in A).5 COMPARISON OF p-CHANNEL AND n-CHANNEL MOSFETs Initially there were some fabrication difficulties with n-channel MOSFETs.4 MOSFET GATE PROTECTION The Si0 2 layer of gate is extremely thin. the induced mobile channel surface charges would be electrons.lp' 1 If the ON resistance of a p-channel device were to be reduced or to make equal to that of n . Similarly. some MOS devices are fabricated with zener diode between gate and substrate.Transistor Characteristics 239 A JFET is a depletion type. But in 1974. hence no distinction is made. the electric field will be large enough (due to accumulation of charge) to cause punch through in the Si02 layer or the dielectric. at the same values of 10 and V DS etc.l' of carriers because (J = p = neJ.channel enhancement MOS. The second advantage of the NMOS devices is fast switching. source and drain are n-type.sec. the zener will conduct and the potential at the gate will be limited to the zener breakdown voltage. Therefore n . In NMOS. it will be easily damaged by excessive voltage. But there is no other type of JFET which is used only in enhancement mode and no depletion mode. Electron mobility = 1300cm2/v-Sec. the zener is open circuited and has no effect on the device.regions separated by the channel length to form source and drain. if we take n -type substrate and diffuse two p . The hole mobility in Silicon at normal fields is 500 cm 2/v. So it can be used in enhancement type. Therefore p-channel ON resistance will be twice that of n-channel MOSFET ON resistance (ON resistance means the resistance of the device when 10 is maximum for a given Vos) ON resistance depends upon' J. PMOSFET will be formed. When the potential at the gate is not large. (Because in n-channel MOS. and if two 'n' regions separated by the channel length are diffused into the substrate to form source and drain n-channel enhancement device (designated as NMOS) is obtained.channel devices will be smaller or packing density of n-channel devices is more (R = ~ . 4.ln or peJ. these difficulties were overcame and mass productions ofn-channel MOSFETs began.type Silicon. Ifthe body (bulk) ofMOS transistor (MOSFET) is p . . To prevent this damage. then the p-channel device must have more than twice the area of the n-channel device. 4. For enhancement type the gate which is AI metal is made positive). because as V GS is made positive (+ 1.channel device.12. Here in the induced mobile channel surface charges would be holes. The third advantage is NMOS devices are TTL compatible since the applied gate voltage and drain supply are positive for an n . Tht! op·erating speed is limited by the internal RC time constant of the device. When the potential at the gate is large. The capacitance is proportional to the junction cross sections. +2 etc for n-channel FET) ID increases.

large drain current denoted as IDss (Drain to source current saturation value) flows. depletion type MOSFET can also be used as enhancement type by applying positive voltage to the gate (for n-channel type). this type of MOSFET is knows as depletion type MOSFET. But if a channel is diffused between source and drain with the same type . Hence. JFET and depletion MOSFET have identical characteristics. the electrons from the source recombine with the induced positive charges. The conductivity of the channel in the case of depletion type is much less compared to enhancement type. But the current in MOSFET is due to majority carriers.6 ADVANTAGES OF NMOS OVER PMOS I.The current ID decreases because. Therefore its conductivity further decreases and hence ID decreases as VGS is made more negative (for n-channel depletion type).. So.Substrate Fig 4. Packing density of NMOS devices is more 4.13 THE DEPLETION MOSFET In enhancement type MOSFET. The characteristics of depletion type MOSFETs are exactly similar to that of JFET. with the induced charges in the channel. ). If V GS is made negative. In the case of n-channel depletion type (source and drain are n-type). . the majority carriers (electrons in the source) are more and hence ID will be very large. positive charges are induced in the channel through Si02 of the gate capacitor. more positive charges are induced in the channel. negative charges are induced in the channel.t of 4. So because of the recombination of the majority carriers. S G D p .12. NMOS devices are TTL compatible since VGS and V Dto be applied for NMOS devices are positive 3. the majority carriers will be depleted.240 Electronic Devices and Circuits 4. 2. So the number of electrons reaching the drain reduces and hence ID decreases.55 Depletion MOSFET. So the induced pesitive charges in the channel reduces the resultant current IDS' As V GS is made more negative. a channel is not diffused. Thus. NMOS devices are fast switching devices since electron mobility is less than holes. . It is of the same type (p-type or n-type) as the bulk or substrate. A MOSFET of depletion type can also be used as enhancement type. if we apply-positive voltage to the gate-source junction. When V DS is positive and VGS = 0. The ON resistance is less because conductivity of NMOS devices is more since electrons is greater than that of holes.of impurity as used for the source and drain diffusion depletion type MOSFET will be formed.

RL I = Voo . it should be within ± 1Y.7kn ::: ± O. ~ Depletion ID 16 ~ 12 Enhancement Type t -4 -2 2 4 Fig 4. L 4.Mo= -R .7 kn.57 Gate characteristics of depletion type MOSFET. .20 A JFET is to be connected in a circuit with drain load resistor of 4. V 0 is to be approximately 20V.20.7kn = 2.1 rnA G ±V = ±IV 4. Problem 4. Solution V0 = y DO - Io . . and a supply voltage of VDO = 30Y. and is to remain constant within ± 1Y.2mA Fig 4. Design a suitable self bias circuit.Vo o RL 30Y -20Y for V 0 to be constant.56 Drain characteristics of DMOSFET.Transistor Characteristics +4V 241 t __---+-2------ } Enhancement Type Depletion Type -2 -4 ~ VDSv Fig 4.58 For Problem 4.

IfR2 = 700 kO. Rs = ~I = 2.1 .1 + 0.0.~V ----------~~~1 Fig 4.3 MO 4. RL = 1O.2mA) Io(min) = (2.I.3mA Indicate the points A and B on the maximum and minimum transfer characteristics of the FET.1 ±O. VG= R2 ~V lOY R J +R2 .9mA 10 (max) = (2.21 Problem (a) For the common source amplifier. Join these two points and extend.5mA = 4kO The bias line intersects the horizontal axis at V G = 7V An external bias of 7V is required.09kO =-27.20. R\ =2.3 -3000xl0-6 x 100 x 103 xlOxl0 3 (100 x 103 Solution )+ (lOX 103 ) . calculate the value of the voltage gain.vGS ~1~~------.59 For Problem 4.2) = 1. .it till it cuts at point C. gm = 300 J.242 Electronic Devices and Circuits 10 = (2. Ro = 9.2) = 2.Voo R2 7 - RJ 23 R2 and R\ should be large to avoid overloading input signals. given rd = 100 kO.kO. The reciprocal of the slope ofthe line gives Rs c -+--VGS 1 --.

So the dielectrics between metal (AI) and semi-conductor (Si) is a sandwich ofSi02 and Si 3 N 4. we will have Silicon semiconductor.)i02 over it and then layer of Silicon Nitride (Si 3 N 4) and a metal layer. So we get the Metal. High speed. Less number of devices per unit area. 243 Solution X c = 1 21tf Cos f= 1 MHz. Fabrication is more difficult. 2.14. 1 X = = S3kn c 21txlxI06x3x10-12 IZol = 4.14 9. But the disadvantages are I. Nitride. because the device chip area is more. Fabrication density is less.09kn)2 + (S3kn)2 = 8.09knx S3kn ~(9. 4. AI AI Al N .96kn CMOS STRUCTURE (COMPLEMENTARY MOS) This is evolved because of circuits using both PMOS and NMOS devices. Hence. l.Transistor Characteristics (b) If Cos = 3pf. The advantages that we get with this complementary use of transistor are: 1. Low power consumption. the name MNOS.60 MNOS FET. whereas in ordinary MOSFETs we have only Si02 . CMOS devices incorporate p-channel MOSFET and n-channel MOSFET.Si Fig 4.1 MNOS STRUCTURE In this process. More number of oxidation and diffusion steps are involved. . It is the most sophisticated technology. (Si 3 N 4) Oxide (Si0 2 ) and Semiconductor structure. determine the output impedance at a signal frequency of 1MHz. 2.

14. So. Low threshold voltage V T. 4. Capacitance per unit area of the device is more compared to MOS structure. or G and D junction or D and S junctions increase. The substrate used (Fig. the parasitic capacitance will be very low. Io Fig 4.244 The advantages are : Electronic Devices and Circuits 1. For such a device. 4.61 SOS .MOS Structure.62 JFET circuit.MOS STRlJCTURE This is Silicon On Saphire MOS structure.4. A/ Al Al n + p n + p n Insulating saphire substrate Fig 4. charge storage is more.3 VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN IN JFETs There is a p-n junction between gate and source and gate and drain. Just as in the case of a p-n junction diode if the voltage applied to the p-n junction of G and S. Is = 0 BVGSS : This is the value of V GS that will cause breakdown when drain is shorted to source. When drain is shorted to source. Because the dielectric constant will have a different value since because C is more. It is used as a memory device.. (V 0) beyond which only the increase in drain current 10 will be significant) 2. when the source is left open i.BV DGO . BV DGO : This is the value of V DG that will cause junction breakdown.61) is the silicon crystal grown on Saphire subtrate. (V T is the voltage of the drain.14. avalanche breakdown will occur. BV GSS = .e.2 SOS . there will not be much change in the voltage which causes breakdown.

loss = 5mA.3Y 10 .25Y Vos = 10 . A positive voltage is applied to G and negative voltage to drain. since no DC voltage is applied between gate and Source.63 For Problem 4.10 . Sand Dare p . But or YGS + Is .2V and VGS = -7. RL = 2kQ.8Y.2Y.7. Rs = . YGS 2 + 11 YGS + 25 = 0 Fig 4. .5000 1 . Rs::: 5000 10 = 3.3.2Y Gsi. The pinch off voltage V p for which 10 becomes zero is given as 5V therefore VGS cannot be 7.5000 V GS = (-5000)(5 ~G5S r c 10-3)(1 + 0.8 Y. 10 = 10SS(I- ~c~~ r ? =5 x 10-3 (1But YGS 10 = . Y OG is negative voltage. 10 = (5 x 10-3)( I .64)2 = 0.65 mA x IlJ' RL = 2000 10 = 1.22 YGS = . IG is negligible Y GS + 10 Rs = 0 YGS = . Therefore YGS = .BY OGO gate junction breakdown can also result by the application of large Y Oli' Yos = Y OG + YGS More Y os that can be applied to a FET = Max.type. Gate is l1-type.45Y. Y 00 = lOY Solution The gate is at DC ground potential.22 Problem Determine the values ofY GS' '0' and Yos for the circuit shown in using the following data. must be conducting. The FL'.3. the FET in cut off.3 . YGS is positive voltage because G is at positive potential with respect to source.1. Rs = 0 Is::: 10 .3. Therefore Y p = -5Y. Therefore with respect to D.0. YGS BY os X = Breakdown voltage Yos for a given value of YGS' X indicates a specific value ofY GS BY osx = BY DCiO + YGSX 4.Transistor Characteristics 245 For a p-channel FET.25 = 5. Y OG + Max.5 Y. Since BY GSS = .3. Therefore YGS is chosen as .2Y. 0 Vo YGS is unknown and 10 is unknown. Y p = . Rs = 5kO.8Y. If YGS = .

Gate p n p fG K A Anode Fig 4. the cathode connection is taken. As the gate current is increased. B. From the diffused n region.65 SCR symbol. But if the voltage between anode and cathode is increased beyond a certain voltage. This is also called as shorted emitter construction. . the gate is shown close to the cathode. So in the symbol for SCR.:: 50 rnA.. If the gate is open.64 SCR structure. If the value of Ia is very large .15 SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER Electronic Devices and Circuits Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a 4 layer p-n-p-n device. when Ia = O.type impurity is diffused.O : Breakover 0 : Zero gate current. The advantages of this type construction are (i) Fast turn on time (ii) Improved high temperature capabilities. the voltage to be applied between anode and cathode to turn the device ON decreases. the forward break over voltage decreases. As the gate current increases. with the cathode surrounding it. V BOO: THE FORWARD BREAK OVER VOLTAGE This is the voltage to be applied between anode and cathode to turn the SCR ON. In one type of construction. V BO called as the forward breakover voltage.15. So that current flows through the device. the SCR will turn ON and current will be limited by only the applied voltage VBO called as the forward breakover voltage. Ia = 0 .1 ANNULAR TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION OF SCR Fig 4. This is known as planar construction. the SCR will turn ON immediately when same voltage is applied oetween anode and cathode. From the p region on the other side anode is formed.region into which n . 4. The anode current that flows is only due to leakage. n-type material is diffused into a silicon pnp pellet to form alloy junction. the SCR is in the OFF state. the SCR will turn ON and current will be limited by only the applied voltage. In this type of construction gate is central to the device. 4. Gate is taken from the p .15. This is also known as forward blocking region. projecting into it.2 STATIC CHARACTERISTICS The gate current Ia determines the necessary forward voltage to be applied between anode and cathode (Anode positive with reference to cathode) to cause conduction or to turn SCR 'ON'.246 4.

the SCR will switch off.~~~~ . The Base of p-n-p transistor is connected to the collector of the n-p-n transistor. The emitter of n-p-n transistor is the cathode. IH : Holding Current Minimum Anode Current required to keep SCR in the conducting state. SCR H is turned off ( To hold in conducting state ). The base ofn-p-n transistor is connected to the collector of p-n-p transistor.Transistor Characteristics 247 Usually. some voltage is applied between the anode and cathode of the SCR. LATCHING CliRRENT IL Minimum value of IA to be reached to keep SCR in the ON state even after the removal of gate trigger signal. The SCR can be regarded as two transistor p-n-p and n-p-n.)nt is the leakage current. Once the SCR is turned ON. Suppose a positive voltage is applied to the anode (p type) since there is no base injection for both the transistors. the current that results is the leakage current (leOl + le02)' .15. If V A _ K is reduced to zero ( as automatically happens in rectifying application) or if the current is reauced below I If the device will turn off. a minimum amount of current is required to flow to keep the device ON. The emitter of p-n-p transistor is the anode. (To latch on to the conducting state.3 ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATION OF SCR The SCR can be regarded as two transistor connected together. Therefore when SCR is not tUrI'!cd ON.. Fig 4.66 SCR Characteristics IG = 0 HOLDING CliRRENT IH Once SCR is ON. S IA I~_ _ _ High conduction region ON state • Holding <:urrent IH Leakage current ~~ . Ifthe current is lowered below IH' by increasing external circuit resistance. and it is turned ON by a pulse of current in the gate. The gate can not be used to switch off the device. IfIA goes below I . leOI and le02 of the two transistors. The only currl'. the transistors are off. the gate looses control over the device.) 4.

.. (4) CONSIDER TRANSISTOR Q The base current of transistor Q is the collector current Ic I of Q I' 2 IC2 = [32 ( ICI + IC02 ) + IC02 .................. Anode current is IE2 = IB2 + IC2 .. .. ..67 Two transistor analogy of SCR... ( 1) . (3) CONSIDER TRANSISTOR Q1 Ic The base current for the transistor Q I' IB I is the collector current IC2 of Q2' = r3 (IB + lco ) + Ico IBI = IC2 ICI = r3 I (IC2 + ICOI ) + ICOI 2 . In a transistor.....-----' P n E2 K Q1 r3 1 le2l leo2 leo1 r32 IG G Fig 4...... (5) ... (2) ........248 Electronic Devices and Circuits p n n B2 G P '----...

So leI increases. . . 1 2 (lcol +IC02Xl+0Xl+0) IA = 1-0. This increases collector and emitter currents. °.. P IB)=IC2 C2 n E) B) 13) le2l leo2 leo) B2 p n G C) 132 IB2 IG G E2 K Fig 4. But this is the base current for 02' 1 So transistor 02 is tuned uN. Once the SCR is turned ON. removal of gate current will not stop conduction because already the transistor 02 is turned ON and it provides the base injection for SCR can be represented as a pnp and npn transistors connected together.68. to inject holes into the base ofO]' emitter base junction of0 is forward biased.0 13 will be small. Therefore when 13 = 13 = O.-----------------~ (1 + PI Xl + P2 XI col + IC02 ) J -PI' P2 The two transistor will have wide base regions.Transistor Characteristics But IB2 = IC1 249 . as shown in Fig.68 Two transistor analogy of SCR. So upon the value oflE' When IE is very small. 4. IA = IC1 + IC2 IA can be written in the forms. until both the transistor are driven into saturation. The value of 13 depends ::: ICOJ + IC02 When a negative voltage is applied from gate to cathode. 13 ::: O. The IC2 of 02 now becomes trigger current and so increase I ' So the action is one of internal regeneration feed C1 back.

. (7) = f3 1 . (6) .... (9) Substitute the value ofIB I from eq. IBI + (f3 1 + 1) ICOI + IBI .......... IC2 = f3 2 IB2 + (f3 2 + 1) IC02 IB2 = ICI IC2 = f3 2 Ic I + (f3 2 + 1) ICo2 IA = lEI = ICI + IBI But ICI is given by eq.250 Electronic Devices and Circuits IBI = IC2 ICI = IB2 Anode current = IA = lEI General expression for Ic in term of f3.. .... IEI=IA=(f31+1)(lBl+IcOl) Since we must get an expression for IBI" Substitute eq. . IB and Ico is Ic = f3 IB + (f3 + 1) Ico Since for transistor QI' ICI = f3 1 IBI + ( f3 1 + I) ICOI Since for transistor Q l' But .......... I =1 =(1+A )[132(l+13I)I col +(l+132)lc02 +1 EI A 1-'1 1-13 13 COl 12 1 .. (9) in (8). (6) in (7).... But ...... (6) .... (8) ... or or IC2 = f3 2 [f3 1 IBI ·+ (f3 1 + 1) ICOl ] + (f3 2 + 1) IC02 IC2 = IBI IBI = f3 2 f3 1 IBI + f3 2 (I + f3 1) ICOI + (f3 2 + 1) IC02 (1..f3 1f3 2) IBI = f3 2 (1 + f3 1) Icol + (1 + f3 2) Ic02 IBI = 132 (1 + PI )Icol + (1 + 132 )1 CO2 1-131132 .

~VR 2 __--------------~~1 1 6 V 80: Breakover voltage when IG = 0 7 Fig 4.ClIRRE.16 UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT) This device has only one p-n junction and three leads like transistor. The construction ofthis device is as shown in Fig. .4 ANODE TO CATHODE VOLTAGE ..5: 3 : Forward blocking state Forward avalanche region Forward breakover point Negative resistance region Forward Conducting characteristic Holding current .Transistor Characteristics 4.15.I. 0 .6 Reverse blocking characteristic : The device is in blocking state o .2: 2: 2 . P-N junction EC-"""'~:::J Aluminium rod ./' Base n-typesilicon bar Ohmic contacts B1 (a) UJT structure (b) Symbol Fig 4. 4.70.69 SCR characteristics. Hence it is called as unijunction transistor (UJT).70 (a) UJT structure (b) Symbol . -. .2: I .. 4.\T CHARACTERISTIC 251 o .7: o. .4: 3 .

Vp = (11 V BB + V v). +v E n-Silicon bar Fig 4. (J == ne Il + p e II ' p will be almost comparable with n.: it has only one p-n junction and two base leads). 4.72. (J . there is leakage current lEO from B2 to emitter. when E . called emitter E is alloyed to the base close to B2 to form a p-n rectifyingjunction. 4. When the E-B. decreases.B].16. The resulting current IE gives the emitter to base B] diode characteristic. So there is sudden increase in the number of holes in the region close to B].73). Now if V BB == 0. With temperature. even after recombination of holes and electrons. the alloy is formed by diffusing Alluminium into n type silicon close to the B2lead as shown in Fig. Therefore material is the same (n type sfIicon bar). because of the increase in the number of free carriers. With V BB == 10V or 20V. The doping and construction is such that. So UJT consists of emitter and two bases with the emitter close to the second base. But now it is called as UJT (. Suppose V BB is the voltage from B2 to B].71. RB decreases. Now R2 has positive temperature coefficient. The doping concentration ofp-region is large. Because of increase in the n p values of nand p. RB and RB have the same temperature coefficient. A 3 mil aluminium wire.252 Electronic Devices and Circuits A bar of high resistivity n-type silicon of typical dimensions 8 x 10 x 35 mils called base B. Vv decreases with increase in temperature. The symbol for the voltage between emitter and base 1 (B] is n-type). To recombine with these holes. If R2 is chosen such that it increases by the same amount as to decrease in RB] and 11 and V v' V p will remain constant. Polarity is as shown in Fig. This device was originally described in the literature as the double-base diode. is taken and two ohmic contacts are attached to it at the two ends to form the base leads B2 and B]. UJT basically consists of a bar of n-type silicon with one p-type emitter providing p-n junction. . Therefore V p decreases with temperature. The net :effect is n decreases slightly with the temperature.71 UJT structure.junction is forward biased. :. The emitter will be close to the base two (B 2) than base one (B]) (see Fig. R B. Because threshold voltage decreases with increase in temperature. Thus there is large increase in the number of holes and electrons in the region corresponding to R B]. The change is :::: 4% for 1000 C rise in temperature. R2 will provide temperature compensation. and positive voltage V E is applied. holes are injected into the n-silicon bar from the p-region towards the B] lead. junction is forward biased. 4. still there will be large number of electrons and holes in the region close to B]. the free electrons from B2 region will mo"e towards the B] lead. So conductivity (J increases. Holes will not travel upwards because B2 is at positive potential. Thus.increases.1 UJT CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION In UJT. The emitter is ptype and the two bases are n-type. 4.

82. So negative resistance region results.' B2 is n-type-and E is p-type when B2 is at a higher potential. II = R + ~ B2 = Intrinsic stand off ratio. RS2 i V RSI + RBI i ~ V BB ~ V RB . Its value depends upon the biJs voltage Yo' The p-n junction formed due Ito emitter is shown as a diode. = llV BB = R RB B' + R B2 x V BB . decreases since holes are injected from emitter into 8. because the cathode voltage is II V BB and anode current is O. It takes::::: 7 volts from E to B" to reduce this current to zero and then cause current to flow in the opposite direction.SY. This lasts until the valley voltage is reached and the device saturates. B.73. the minority carries from B2 and E will flow which results in leakage current). .Transistor Characteristics 253 (. Therefore RB . RB is variable resistance. Since no voltage is applied at the emitter. reaching peak point V p' After this point IE increases suddenly and V E drops.. Peak voltage Vp = II VBB + Vy' Vy = O. The resistance of the silicon bar is represented by two series resistors.5 and 0. This is the unstable resistance region. the diode is reverse biased. + (a) Symbol Fig 4. decreases or VE decreases and IE increases.. where. Now as V E is increased. 4. RB is the resistance of base two portion.72 (b) V-I components The equivalent circuit for UJT is as shown in Fig. So the resistivity between E and 8. Its value lies between 0. from zero and when V E is> II V BB' the diode will be forward biased.

IE = O. So the voltage across RB 11 V BB decreases. As the hole concentration in the base region increases. VE decreases and the device exhibits negative resistance region. So the holes injected into B1 region also increases (cr = pe IIp). When IE = 0. 4. :.) negative ~ resistance region : I .V. the voltage across RBI = 11VBB" Where. 2. 11 RBI . If VBB is small. In Relaxation oscillator circuits to produce sawtooth waveforms. = RBI Vp = 11 VBB + VV V p = Peak Voltage Vv = Valley Voltage For current greater than the valley current the resistance becomes positive. . 3. RBB will be in the range 5 to 10 kn. So as IE increases.74 (a) UJT circuit (b) V-I Characterisitic of UJT 4.3 ApPLICATIONS OF UJT 1. It is the reverse saturation current lEO which is of the order of 10 RB. (Fig. 4.16.-----(a) (b) I valley point Fig 4. + RB2 If VEis < 11 VBB the p-njunction diode or the E-B junction ofUJT is reverse biased and the current IE is negative. I : ~ Saturation region BI . If VEE is increased beyond 11 VBB' input diode becomes forward biased and becomes positive. 74(b)) When IE is very large the current IB2 flowing from VBB into B2 load can be neglected. This is the voltage VEbetween E and B I. the resistance becomes positive. IE increases. (Fig. its resistivity decreases.11 is called is intrinsic stand off ratio and its value lies between 0.75. For current greater than the valley current.74. As VEE increases. In thyristor circuits. RBB = (RBI + RB2 ).5 and 0. So holes are injected from the emitter into the base region B I.2 V-I CHARACTERISTIC OF Electronic Devices and Circuits UJT Suppose some voltage VBB is applied between B2 and B I. In triggering SCR circuits. Then the silicon bar can be considered as an ohmic resistance RBB between the leads B2 and B I.254 4. .16.

K diagram. On the application of voltage. N 18 =~ AOI 4.SiC LED Yellow colour Silicon Carbide LED Amber colour Gallium phosphide. Sulphur S.75.17 LED'S 255 These are Light Emitting Diodes. (Magnesium) Mg.= E. the complete-electromagnetic spectrum visible spectrum extends in the range ::: 4000 7200 A .(Gallium Antimony) Ga Sb.' /. For Photo diodes also dark current will be specified.70 n A at V = 30 V. Group VI donars: Tellicum Te. When light falls on the device photo induced electrons and holes cross the junction and thus increasing the current through the device.10 18 fcm 3 .15 e V. The symbol for LED and its V-I characteristics are shown in FigA. They are mounted in standard To . the difference in energy is released in the form of light.. (Phosphorous) P. Direct Band gap semiconductors usedfor LEDs: (GalliumArsenide)GaAs. when electron transition occurs from excited state to lower energy level. LEDs are based on Injection IIIuminisence. Impurity concentration: 10 17 . When no light is applied the current is the reverse saturation current due to minority carriers.K diagram of semiconductors. It is typically 30 . (Antimony) Sb. 7 5 . This is the current through the device with no light falling on the device. LED Red colour Gallium phosphide . R The active diameter of these devices is only 0. Indirect Band Gap Conduction band minimum and valence band maximum energy do not occur at the same value of K (wave vector) in the E . Thus Iight emission takes place. P. Photons create electron hole pairs on both sides of the junction. Th is property is exhibited by direct band gap semi conductor materials. Photons have high energy and low momentum.. (Cadmium) Cd. hC h ·f= E I/.18 PHOTO DIODES Instead of photoconductive cells. Impurities added are Group II materials: (Zinc) Zn.N .10 19fcm 3 . Semiconducting materials suitable for light emitters should have energy gap EG in the range l. (Arsenic) As.5 package with a window. Because when reverse biased energy transition and hence light emission will not take place. if a reverse biased p-njunctions diode is used the current sensitivity to radiation can be increased enormously. for donor atoms. Impurity concentration for acceptor atoms: 10 17 .3.Transistor Characteristics 4. Direct Band Gap Materials: Conduction band minimum energy and valence band maximum occur at the same value of K (wave vector) in the E . . The mechanism of current control through radiation is similar to that of a photo conductive cell. LEDs are always used in Forward Bias.Zinc oxide LED Green colour Gallium phosphide . Due to injection of carriers light is emitted.1".

But this can be further increased by taking advantage of the inherent current multiplication found in a transistor.19 PHOTO TRANSISTORS Fig 4. the device is called photo duo diode. Symbol for photo transistor: Ifthe base lead in left open. 4. to focus the radiation or light on to the common base junction of the transistor. Symbol is It has two diodes pn and np. 76 Symbols for photo diode.256 Electronic Devices and Circuits They can operate at frequencies of the order of 1 MHz. Photo transistors have a lens. A A or ~ ~ K Light intensity K t ~ I~J. These are used in optical communication and in encoders. Photo induced current of the junction serves as the base current of the transistor (I.).78 Symbols for Photo transistors Therefore collector current Ie = ( 1 + h ) 1.79 Symbol for Photo duo diode. So it is called as photo duo diode. 4. 4. or Fig.fe The base lead may be left floating or used to bias the transistor into some area of operation.77 Photo diode reverse characteristics. the current sensitivity is much larger compared to a photoconductive cell. .LA Fig 4... Fig. In a photodiode.

l = Amplification factor = aVDSI av GS In= K Relation between J. when operated in the Active Region.~s r = Satuaration value of Drain current when gate is shorted to source. interms of pinch off voltage V p is W = {~Vp}1/2 eND • • Expression for 1m. The proper name for this device being referred as transistor is Bipolar Junction Transistor ( BJT ). The disadvantage of JFET amplifier circuits is Smaller Gain . As the input side in forward biased and output side is reverse biased. The three configurations of Transistor are Common Emitter. when operated in the cut-off and saturation regions. there is transfer of resistance from a lower value on input side to a higher value on the output side.l. Common Base and Common Collector. Active Region 2. It is also used as a Switch. rds (ON) = aI D avosl V". The three regions of the output characteristics of a transistor are 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Transistor is an acronym for the words Transfer Resistor. = K J. JFET is UNIPOLAR Device (Unipolar only one type of carriers either holes or electrons) JFET device has Higher input resistance compared to BJT and Lower input resistance compared to MOSFET. rd and gm for a JFET is J. Transportation Factor Gain a is. is In IDss ~ Inss {I . 257 13* and Current a=13 xy * . . in tenns of Inw VGS and V. Transitor can be used as an amplifiers.l = rd x gm Width of the depletion region W n for n-channel JFET.Transistor Characteristics SUMMARY • The relation between Emitter Efficiency y.Bandwidth product compared to BJT amplifier circuits. Saturation Region Cut-off Region 3.

.... 4... 15. ........ types of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) have faster switching times... 10..... The parameters B Voss stands for breakdown voltage Vos when drain is shorted to source................ 0..... IB and leBO is ......... J3' of a transistor ( BJT ) is ..............S) JFET amplifier is to reduce distortion............ .......................... a = ..... Enchancement type In JFET terminology.. The expression for 13 in terms of a for a BJT is . 9.................... IV pi-IV osl = 0..... in the case of JF ETs........ ... C m = Cgs + [I + gm (R L II rd)] Cgd The purpose of swamping resistor rs connected in series with source resistance ~ in common source (C..... ..... B V DGO parameter means the value of breakdown voltage VDO at breakdown when the source is left open i......... .......... .. 2................... ............ and 13 is same as ...e......0022 gm For zero drift current................ The arrow mark in the symbols of BJTs indicates ................... The two types ofn-channel or p-channel MOSFETs are I........... .................. Expression for leEO in terms of leBO and a is ... .... J3' is synonymous to .... Relation between J3' and 13 is .......... 5.... Relation between a...... For NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor Emitter Efficiency y = ....~:s ) • • • • • • I. OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS For identical construction....... ....... 13..... the expressions for input capacitance C m of JFET shunting Ro is........... ...................... ( for DC Currents ).00711DI = 0.... Simplified expression for voltage gian Ay in the case of common Drain JFET amplifier Rs is A = ----"-y 1 Rs+gm The distortion caused due to the non linear trarfsfer curve of JFET device....... gm = (1... 13* and y for a transistor ( BJT )... the transportation factor 13* = ... 6..... 7.............. Expression for Ie in terms of 13.................. . ...... The expression for a in terms of 13 for a BJT is .. Depletion type 2..... 8.. 12.. 3... 13 is .............. Is = O...... J3' is .. II......258 Electronic Devices and Circuits • • • • For zero drift current in the case of JFET.... ........ ..... 14..... ( for AC Currents )......63V Expression for gm for JFET interms of gmo is. For PNP Transistor (BJT)............. in amplifier circuits is known as Square Law Distorion... J3' of a BJT is defined as . At high frequencies.

..... Draw the Eber-Moll Model of a transistor for NPN transistor and explain the same........... ........ Obtain the expression for the pinch offvoItage Vp in the case ofn-channel JFET 14.... ex . For low electric fields Ex of the order of 103Vfcm.... . Qualitatively explain the input and output.................. 11.............. .... 259 18. Derive the relation between 13 and 13' .......... IDSS in defined as ..... Compare BJT. The voltage V DS at which ID tends to level off.... JFET can be used as . .. The D..... critically... Derive the relationship between them........... S terminals of JFET are similar to ............ in JFET is called ............... device. .... rd and gm for JFET is ... terminals of BJT respectively..... 12.......... ....... G. 4... device.............. 25................ 28.... . Derive the expression for the width of Depletion region' W' in the case of p-channel JFET..... 9... .. Compare the input and output characteristics of BJT in the three configurations... 2............ 21... 7.... 23........... With the help of a neat graph qualitatively explain the Potential distribution through <t transistor (BJT).... 10.. /J... IGFET is the other name for ..... 13.... The MOSFET that can be used in both enhancement mode and depletion mode is ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1.............. The range of r DS (ON) for JFET is .... 13* and y 5... Describe the V-I characteristics of a transistor in Common Collector Configuration and Explain... ........ Expression for V GS in terms of V P' .............. JFET and MOSFET devices in all respects.......... ........ 22... The square law device is ......... 24... The voltage V GS at which ID becomes zero in the transfer characteristic of JFET is called .... 30. 29... The disadvantage of JFET amplifier circuit is ... Deduce the condition for JFET biasing for zero drift current... Derive the relation between ex. 3..... 20................. fe 6..... Expression for IDX in terms of IDSS in IDS .... 17......... Base width modulation is ................................. 31.. 8.....Transistor Characteristics 16.... Explain about the different current components in a transistor. ........ Differentiate between the terms hFE and h .................. ... 26. resistor. Relation between /J. 27... In JFET recombination noise is less because it is .......................... 19.. Explain the V-I characteristics in Common Emitter Configuration....

ICBO:S:-O. the condition is. Expression for satlJrafic»I=resistance Rcs of a transistor (BJT) is ••.a) 5.Vss + Rs. The condition for test for saturation in a BJT is 7. 19. I pc (a) I PB (b) I pc InB I pc (c) IPE (d) I PE I pc 4. Expression for 'a.I (d) VBE=-VBB-RB.4 (c) VBE=-VBB+~. What is the significance of negative resistance region? Explain how UJT exhibits this characteristics ? MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. (d) YCE Ic .:.I 6. Repeat the same for p-channel JFET. What are the applications of JFET and MOSFET devices? 18. the base width at the junction (a) decreases (b) increases (c) pc remains same . (a) V SE = . 17. ICBO:S: 0. Draw the structure of p-channel MOSFET and Qualitatively explain the static Drain and Gate characteristics of the device. As reverse bias voltage is increased. ICBO ~. Give the constructional features ofUJT.' of a BJT in terms of I (a) ~ IE (b) ~ IE (c) ~ IE (d) lnE Ic 3. VCE -Je(sat) VCE (sat) Ie (b) VeE R c s = Ic(sat) Rc s=~- (c) R~-=. 20. for a diode.260 Electronic Devices and Circuits 15. Qualitatively explain the static V-I characteristics ofUJT.ICBO:S:-O. The relation between I CEO' ICBO and a.IE' I etc is c (d) none of these 2. ~a) "rl R-~s= . I = CEO (a) leBO a (b) ICBO (1 + a) (c) I CBO (1.0. Draw the structure and explain the static Drain and Gate characteristics of n-channel JFET. Expression for (3 * is.E configuration to be at cut-off.4 (b) V SE = + Vss - Rs. 16. For a transistor in C. is.a)2 (d) ICBO (1..

The condition to be satisfied for zero drift current is. JFET is (a) Less noisy (c) (a) (b) (c) (d) Same noisy 13.. At pinch off voltage in a JFET device.007 1101 0.0022 gm 0... layer device (a) 3 layer (c) 10.007 1101 = 0. DIAC is a ... Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET) is (a) (c) Normal JFET device p-channel JFET device (b) (d) (b) (d) n-channel J FET device MOSFET device more noisy can't be said 12. Expression for In in the case of JFET is. (a) (a) N 2 0 1 (b) (c) ~No Vgs loss 1.1 17. The symbol shown is (a) 261 is that of a .V" ] Vp Vgs loss 1+ Vp (b) ( )' (c) ( )' = 0. mobility of carriers is proportional to (c) 4 (d) None of these 15...022 gm 0... The forward break over voltage is symbolically represented as.071101 = 0. 11.7 1101 (b) (d) 0.. Channel width is zero and 10 becomes zero Channel width is zero. (c) V GTO DIAC 4 layer (b) (b) SCR 6 layer (d) TRIAC (d) Two layers 9. but 10 is not zero Vos becomes zero None of these E 14. Compared to BJT. The pinch off voltage Vp in the case of n-channel JFET is proportional to No 16. a .Vp (d) No loss ( 1.0022 gm = (d) loss ( r VgS Vp ..022 gm (c) . For high eletric field strengths > 10 V/cm. (For SCR) (a) VBO (b) V BOO . (c) VBR (d) VFBO " . (a) 0.Transistor Characteristics 8.

17. rd = 10 n. gm = 0. dB I . gm = 10K V 20. .1 mU Il= 7.gm=100mV (b) (d) Il= 1000. nSec. 4.2gm (c) Il=rd. ! : 1 10 20 50 200 4 .No. 19. 16.gm (b) 19.262 Electronic Devices and Circuits J. °C V V MHz Pr Pr I 1 i I I I 1 Emitter-Base Break down voltage Current .Gain Bandwidth product Output Capacitance Input Capacitance Small Signal Current gain Output admittance Voltage feedback ratio Input impedance Delay time Rise time Fall time Storage time Noise Figure ~~ I i ! fT Co Chi h re hoe hre hie td tr tr ts NF ~ ~. Typical values of Il' r d and gm for JFET are. ~ SI.5 mAN Il = 6.~ . nSec. 3. rd=Il.4 25-80 40 50 250 8 20 100 Units V V V 1. 10. 14. gm = 0. 7. 12. 18. The resistor which is connected in series with source resistance Rs to reduce distortion in JFET amplifier circuits is called (a) (c) Swamping resistor \ (b) (d) swinging resistor distortion control resistor bias resistor Specifications of a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) ~. The relation between (a) Il=rd/gm rd and gm for JFET is. 11. I 1 Parameter Collector-Emitter Voltage Collector-Base Voltage Emitter-Base Voltage Collector-Current Total Power Dissipation Operating Temperature Collector. 2.1. 18.rd=100n. 20. I I 6.Emitter Break down voltage Symboi VCE Typical value 40 60 6 500 0. ! mU I i 1 i i I 10 8 x 10-4 3 kn nSec.~ ~ . rd = 1Mn. 8. nSec. 9. . 15. 13. ! I ! ! .gm (d) ll=rd2. rd = IMn. : I V CB V EB Ic Po Top BV CEO BVEBO 1 I rnA W 5. (a) (b) 1l=5.

/ ' Cathode Anode Gate Cathode (a) Cathode" Gate Anode~ (c) . Two Junction semiconductor device 2N 2222 (NPN Transistor) AC 128 BC 147 2N 3866 2N6253 2 N 1481 2 Germanium Audio Frequency range BJT Silicon Audio Frequency range Transistor NPN RF Power Transistor. 30V O. 115W.~ . .4A. '. 45V. 4.38 Transistor terminal identification .:e f. Anode Fig. (b) and (c) courtesy international rectifier corporation} . 15A.SA c . E Ee B C Fig.39 SCR case construction and terminal identification {(a) courtesy general electric company.lE Gare- B . 5W. "w:. NPN High power.. 40V.& .. NPN 5W. I. 4.Transistor Characteristics Nomanclature used for Transistors (BJTs) BC107 (NPN Transistor) 263 B C Silicon Device Audio Amplifier application Type Number (No Significance) Germanium Device 107 AF 114 A F 114 High Frequency Applications Type No.

4.Enhancement i Fig 4..40 Identification of JFET leads 2N4351 Case 20-03. Styles T0-92(TO-226AA) 1 Drain 3 Gate 2 Source JFElS General purpose N-Channel-Depletion Fig.channel Silicon JFET N .41 Identification of MOSFET leads .264 Electronic Devices and Circuits Type Numbers of JFETs 2 N 4869 BFWIO BFW 11 N .channel Silicon JFET 2N5457 Case 29-04. Styles 2 TO-72(T0-206AF) 3 Drain a-J Gate .channel Silicon JFET N . _ ~ J ! - 4 Case I Source MOSFET Switching N-Channel.

3. loss VGS (th) 1 V .Source voltage Gate Current Junction temperature range Gate source Breakdown voltage Symbol Typical Value Units 1 Vos VOG V GSR IG 1] 25 25 -25 10 V V V rnA °C 2. 5. 2N5457 n.No. 4. 6. Value Units Vos VOG VGS 10 25 30 30 30 10 V V V rnA nA 2.channel JFET Type No. Parameter Drain-Source voltage Drain-Gate voltage Gate-source voltage Drain current Zero gate voltage drain current Gate threshold voltage Symbol Typical. 4. 1. Parameter Drain-Source voltage Drain-Gate voltage Reverse Gate . 5. 3.Trans istor Ch aracteristics 265 Specifications of JFETs (Typical Values) SI. 125 -25 V(BR)GSS V Type No. 6.2 N 4351 n-channel Enhancement type MOSFET MOSFET SI.No.

1. 5. 7.lA Specifications of Light Emitting diode (LED) SI.No.lA rnA f. Parameter Power Dissipation RMS Emitter current Emitter reverse voltage Inter base voltage Intrinsic stand off ratio Peak Emitter current Valley point current Emitter reverse current Symbol PD IE (rms) V ER V B are (inter) Typical Value Units mw rnA V V 2. 1. 3. 6. Parameter Average forward Current Power Dissipation Peak forward Current Axial luminous Intensity Peak wavelength Luminous efficiency Symbol IF PD i f(peak) Iv Typical Value Units rnA mw rnA mcd milli candelas nm 20 120 60 1 600 140 2.No. 4. 6. 3. A Peak nv Im/w . 5. 8. 11 Ip Iv lEO 300 50 30 30 0.5S 0. 4.14 4 1 f.266 Electronic Devices and Circuits UJT SI.

The Quiescent point. Variation of 'Q' point with temperature and temperature compensating circuits are given. • The need for biasing and its significance in amplifier circuits is explained.In this Chapter. or operating point or 'Q' point is explained. Different types of biasing circuits are given and the expressions for stability factors are derived. • • .

Transistor when being used as an amplifier is operated in the active region. leo or V BE etc. 13 and leo depend upon temperature.1.268 Electronic Devices and Circuits 5. 5.1 TRANSISTOR BIASING The transistor output characteristics in Common Emitter Configuration are as shown in Fig. This is shown in Fig. Q 60 30~ ) Vn: Fig 5. Hence operating point changes with temperature. there is corresponding large change in Ie and thus transistor acts as an amplifier. transistor acts as an amplifier. So by suitably biasing the transistor circuit. The operating point must be in the active region for transistor to act as an amplifier. 5.1. As IB (in IlA) increases. The point in the characteristics of the transistors indicated by VeE' Ie is called Operating Point or Quiescent Point Q. a . The operating point or the quiescent point has to be fixed when any transistor is being used as an amplifier. So for a small change in IB. aIR A = __ L y re RL « rc' RL = Load Resistance r c = Collector resistance a' = Small signal current gain ( less than 1 ) Ay = Voltage gain Therefore. because it depends on the parameters 13. Ie (in rnA) increases. the quiescent point may be made stable . LlIe LlIE a' x RL x LlIE re LlIE Ll Ve = alRL x LlIE = alRL LlVj RL»rc' SoA y > 1 The quiescent point changes with temperature T.1 Output characteristics of BJT.

To draw the load line. Compensation techniques are also used in order to make the operating point stable with temperature. Fig 5.1 ). the output will also be a true replica of the input or it will also be a perfect sine wave.2 Amplifier circuit. Since if the input is sinusoidal wave. V CE = Vee .Transistor Biasing anti Stabilization 269 or not to change with temperature.. Rio ~iu r Ie PNP RIJ Vo: - + Vee /--+---:-I-~=--:2:-::0:-::0-~-lA-:-+ Is = 400JlA VBU '-----=-=j I-'+'------'----~--' ) Fig 5. if the quiescent point is not chosen correctly or it is changing with temperature.. So now the question is how to choose the operating point? Before this let us consider as to how the quiescent point is fixed.1 ) Vcc is DC Bias Supply... the output will be distorted.3 Variation of operating point.. Operating point is fixed with respect to the output characteristic of a transistor only. ro ~ ( R~~CrJ .. Let Let Ie V CE = = 0 then VCE = VCC" This is one point of the load line. IC = Vce R' L This another point of the load line. Hence it is essential to choose the operating point correctly. Otherwise. ic is instantaneous value of AC Collector Current. Consider the circuit as shown in Fig. It is very essential to choose the operating point properly so that the transistor is operated in the active region and that the operating point does not change with temperature. It is Common Emitter Transistor circuit with a load resistance RL .2 and 5. 0 then .. The value of rc is very small compared to RL . V CE = Instantaneous Voltage From the Equation ( 5. Hence· it can be neglected. From the above circuit. the load line can be drawn. 5. PNP transistor is being considered.ic x RL .3.... ( 5. t Neglecting. clipped etc .

It blocks DC since capacitor is open circuit for D. The slope of the line depends on RL the load resistance only.c signal between Band E ). Ie' VCEo (if the transistor is in Common Emitter Configuration) so that we get undistorted output. ( V ce . so that the output signal is a true replica of the input without distortion ( Vee and V ss are bias voltages. RB provides the bias voltage for the base. While drawing a load line. it is called AC Load Line or Dynamic Load Line. Since from the above circuit. Now. when the input signal applied between base and emitter is a symmetrical signal.4. The drop across Rb . But if the input signal is greater than 40 /lA on the negative side. a correct value of Is. VeE = 0. Rc. Choosing the operating point means. C e is coupling capacitor. Since this is NPN transistor. with QI' the transistor will be cut off stnce for that swing Is :. The load line as explained above. the quiescent point is cltosen at tlte centre of tlte load line.2 FIXED BIAS CIRCUIT OR ( BASE BIAS CIRCUIT) Consider the NPN Transistor Circuit as shown in Fig. V CC is a fixed quantity. if drawn. Collector to Base Bias circuit 3.VCE e Rc .I x Rs) is negative and it provides positive bias for the base. and the resistance considered is RL in parallel with Re .c signal. For Is = 800 /lA. When the input signal is symmetrical. 5. Self Bias or Emitter Bias circuit (Universal bias or Voltage divider bias circuit~.270 Electronic Devices and Circuits So by setting ie = 0. There are three types of Biasing Circuits I. then the load line is drawn with the points [ ~e~ and VCE ) .5. is called as the dynamic (AC) load line. So the output signal will be pure a. then the load line will be elliptical. and the resulting equation will be that of an ellipse. so another operating point is to be chosen. Therefore for Is = 200/lA. 5. If the output impedance in the circuit is reactive. Input signal is the a. Suppose the output characteristics of the transistor are as shown in Fig.C. Suppose Q] is the centre point. Since the voltage and current are shifted in phase. the operating point is Q4 and so on. It is called as Static Load Line or DC Load Line But if the load line is drawn considering a finite load resistance R L. the quiescent point is QI.: 0. I S = VCC-VSE RB I :. Vee should be positIve. with AC Input. and it is chosen as the operating point.e.: 300 /lA). and the transistor is cut off. For a resistance the load line is a straight line. Fixed Bias circuit or Base Bias circuit 2.limits the current Ie . varying both on positive and negative sides equally. because the collector should be reverse biased.: Vec . For a given value ofi s ' Ie is also fixed when the transistor is being operated In the active region.. Since RL is connected. 5. within the range of the transistor characteristics. Re is collector resistance. dynamic load\ne has to be considered. It is a straight line independent of the transistor parameters. then the operating point is chosen to lie in the centre of the output characteristics (i. if only the collector resistance Rc is considered and load resistance RL is infinity ( 00 ). corresponding to Is:. the load line is drawn.

Suppose the transistor in the circuit is AC 128. if one AC 128 transistor is replaced by another transistor. In the above circuit. in fabrication cannot be controlled precisely.5 Operating point variation V SE is the base emitter. VCE Fig 5.Transistvr Biasing and Stabilization 271 ( Cc N PN E Vo 0 1 R. leo doubles for every 10°C rise in temperature. In order to get a large value of Is or the change in the operating point. On the other hand Is should be changed to account for the change in f3 so that the operating point is fixed or Ie and VeE are fixed... for Is' f3 is not appearing.6 for Silicon... since Is is fixed. Is is fixed when Rs and Vee are fixed.3 BIAS STABILITY The circuit shown in Fig.4 Fixed bias circuit Fig 5..nt..4 is called as a Fixed Bias Circuit.voltage for a forward biased EB Junction. Hence the name Fixed Bias Circuit. The characteristics of these two transistors will not be exactly the same. ( 5. Since once V ce' Rs etc...4 THERMAL INSTABILITY· Change in temperature also adversely effects the operating point. it need not be the same.. Vee or Rs has to be changed.. and we replace this transistor by another AC 128 transistor.. Hence in the above circuit. If we say impurity concentration is 1 in 106/cm 3. The doping concentration. (Is ~ V ss/Rs). 5. because of the change in the operating point.2 ) . The diffusion length will also be not the same since the temperature inside the furnace during drive in diffusion may vary. So the above circuit is called as Fixed Bias Circuit. diffusion length etc. Is is fixed.. 5. 5. Because of these reasons. the transistor may be cut off. There will be slight difference. In some cases. the biasing point is also fixed. the operating point will change. the operating poi~ is not fixed. Because in the expression. because Is remains constant for given values of Vee and V ss and Rs. transistors of the same type may not have exactly the same characteristics. and f3 changes. Hence for the same circuit when one transistor is replaced by the other. So the operating point must also remain fixed.2V for Germanium and 0. It is because of the limitations in the fabrication technology. So once Rs and Vee are fixed. are fixed. operating point changes. The furnace may not have constant temperature profile along the length of the furnace. . This will be 0. since the characteristics of the transistor will be slightly differt<.

. 2. the operating point will shift. aV ole . So Ie also increases. Compensation Technique: In this method. increases the temperature and so leo still increases.. This in turn. VBE co ~lc ~Ieo ole = K The value olS should be small. In order to keep operating point fixed. operating point will shift with changes in the values ofIe with temperature. There are two methods to keep Ie constant.. leo a. SE Expression for Ie' Ole a~ . 1. and then Ie So the transistor output characteristics will shift upwards (because Ie increases)..272 Electronic Devices and Circuits leo a. the operating point will be shifted to the saturation region.4 ) S . So in certain cases.... to keep Ie constant..Is Ie = I-a + I-a leo gets doubled for every 10°C rise in temperature.I 1=--+-s - e I-a I-a . keeping f3 and V8E constant.. Stability Factor S is defined as the rate of change of Ie with respect to leo the reverse saturation current...p. are al"o some times called as Stability Factors. temperature sensitive devices such as diodes..e. i. 18 decreases if leo increase. Stabilization Technique: Here resistive biasing circuits are used to allow 18 to vary to keep Ie relatively constant. Ie and VeE should be kept constant.5 STABILITY FACTOR'S' FOR FIXED BIAS CIRCUIT In the previous circuit. 5.. ifIs is fixed. ( 5. even if the operating point is fixed in the middle of active region. VBE = K . with variation in leO' f3 and V8E. thermistors etc.. Hence leo increases .81 -~ eo p = K. because of the change in temperature. it indicates that the circuit is thermally unstable. So ins is fixed.. which provide compensating voltage and currents to maintain the operating point constant are used. s=m. Then the operating point changes. ( 5. If it is large.. transistor....3 ) The collector current causes the collector junction temperature to rise. Ie also increases with temperature...

/3. S = 5 is a reasonable value for practical circuit. 5. So some circuits are available which make Ie more independent ofIeo and hence S will be low../3( ale s) .. = 1+ /3 ale S S = 0 implies that Ie is independent ofI eo . since Is is fixed. al aI ( I ..Transistor Biasing and Stabilization Therefore. differentiating Equation (5.4) with respect to Ie' with /3 as constant. Is is independent of Ieals = ale o._ 1 I 1 B E Fig 5..6 COLLECTOR TO BASE BIAS CIRCUIT The circuit shown in Fig. 273 1 =(1 +/3)x ~ +/3 x ~ ale ale I = (I + /3) + /3. This is ideal case. al s) aI S= -~'----:- 1+/3 1. So Ie is not differentiated directly with leo. S = 41. 5. if Vee' Re and V ss are fixed.. Ie and Is can be measured directly. S=I+/3 If /3 = 40.4 is fixed bias circuit. General Expression for Sis. But an improvement over this circuit is the circuit shown is Fig.. .5 ) I = Vee . ~ R" IB v. r IC : B ~ Vee B v u .6 Collector to base bias circuit.VSE s Rs For a fixed bias circuit.6. It is a very large value or thermal instability is more. ( 5.. al s Sale leo cannot be measured directly... 5.

which controls .t >l1ector reduces.(Ie + IB) Re I = Ie + IB With temperature Ie increases. VeE = Vee . 5.VBE -IeRe B Re+RB VBE is the cut in voltage and it is 0.274 Electronic Devices and Circuits In this circuit. (I + /3) is the maximum value for the fixed bias circuit. collector junction is reverse biased. Since Vee is same. Applying KVL.6V for Silicon. the reverse bias voltage of the collector junction with respect to emitter. VBE . Vi is input. So VeE reduces.. is an improvement over the fixed bias circuit.2V for Germanium. That 1l1l':1ns the reverse bias voltage of the colIector junction is reduced or number of carriers collected b~' I Ill' . the value of S is less than (1 + /3). RB is connected to the collector point C. Hence JBalso reduces. RB = 0 or Vee .I Re . We can calculate the stability factor for this circuit. Re I = Vee . . Re is a resistor in the collector circuit. I is same and so IB decreases.4 fixed bias circuit because.VBE =: IB ( Re + RB) + Ie . Now let us consider the effect of /3 on the stability of the circuit. and O. 5. As Ie increases with temperature because of the increases in leo' (Ie + IB) Re product increase.Vee + (l~ + Ie) Re + IB . discussed above. VeE = Vee . because of the reduction in the bias CUfl"l'1I1 ' • the increase in Ie will not be as much as it would have been considering only increase in leo ~Ilh temperature. 1·= Ie + IB fhis circuit is an improvement over the Fig. instead of Vee as in Fig.4. It is independent ofIe' So differentiate this expression with respect to leo we get al O-Re -0 = ---'=---ale Re+RB The expression for stability factor S ---1i -Re Re+RB I+P S = -1 a'--J _-p7( B---) 8I e But alB _ -Re ale Re +Rb l+P S = ------'-:--R 1+ /3x e Re+RB .~ Therefore. Therefore collector bias circuit. the capacitor will block DC input and allow only AC signal to the base. Since it is NPN transistor. Therefore.

V BE] + (Re + RB) leo (1 + P)) P» 1 = 1 + P ::: P IdRe + PRe + R B] = P[Vee . this may not work out. I _ P[Vee-VBE+{Re+Rs)IcoJ Ie - (1 + p)l eo e- --'=--------'------'---"'- PRe PRe» RB Ie::: Vee ..9) and transferring Ie to one side Vee -ieRe ..V BE] .. with the changes in the value of p. But in all cases. to .10) is. with increase in Ie (Because leo increases with temperature) to keep operating point constant.V BE] + )(Re + RB) leo P Ie [(P + 1) Re + RB]::: P [Vee ....PIc Re Ie (Re + RB) + P Ie Re = P ([Vee .VBE P Re +RB Ie (Re + RB) . draw the load line on the output characteristics of the given transistor. in this form is derived to get the condition to make Ie independent of p..P[Vee . IB = Ie - . For a given circuit.VBE I B = ~""-R-e-"'-+-'R"-B---"-'=From Equation (5.V BE + (Re + RB)I o ] Again (P + 1) ::: p...8) and (5. IB is being decreased..8 ) (1 + P)Ieo P ..7 ) Vee -leRe .VBE + (Re + RB)Ieo Re So if we choose RB very small compared to PRo the circuit will work satisfactorily.VBE + (Re + RB)leo] ....9 ) Equating (5. P x Re» R B· Therefore.determine the operating point... ( 5. it is essential to make Ie insensitive to p. Ie also changes and thereby operating point changes.(1 + P)(Re + R B) leo = P[Vee . Therefore. so that the modified circuit works satisfactorily to keep the operating point fixed.. ( 5. The assumption to be made in the above expression (5.... Load line is drawn as given below: Vee = Ie RL + VeE . and since P changes with temperature. Since Ie is dependent on the P from the above expression. the abOve expression becomes.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 275 .. (5...10) e(pRe+R B) This expression. ( 5. Therefore from the above expression. IfRB value is not so small........7). I .. then the above assumption is not valid and hence the circuit won't work satisfactorily... is an improvement over the fixed bias circuit. with temperature... The above circuit..le changes so the operating point also changes.

the component of base current coming through RB decreases. Is is decreased with increase in Ic to keep operating point fixed. there is feedback from the output to the input through the resistor Rg. Re is small. Such an amplifier circuit with feedback is called as Feedback Amplifier Circuit. then.8 Thevenin's equivalent. In collector to base bias circuit. The current in the emitter lead causes a voltage drop across Re in such a direction.- Vee 5. and IB is fixed. Corresponding to a given value ofIs ' where this line cuts the output characteristic. But the advantage is stability is improved. the above assumption will not hold good. +Vcc Vi i 1 I( CB N Fig 5. Ie increases. But VCE decreases. Fig 5. and Ie depends on p.• 276 Electronic Devices and Circuits If Ie = 0. operating point changes. In that circuit. is the SelfBias on Emitter Bias Circuit. This circuit is also known as Voltage Divider Bias or Universal Bias Circuit. This type of circuits are discussed in subsequent chapters.If the signal voltage causes an increase in IB. So because of this.7 SELF BIAS OR EMITTER BIAS CIRCUIT :. In the collector to base bias circuit we said that the stability is good since. But if in one circuit.7 Self Bias circuit. Hence the increase in IB is less than what it would have been without feedback. Vee = VeE RL With these points. In the fixed bias circuit. IB also changes to keep operating point fixed. a straight. that it forward biases the emitter-base junction. A circuit which can be used even if there is zero DC resistance in series with the collector terminal. So collector to base circuit is as bad as fixed bias circuit. line is drawn on the output characteristics of the transistor. The circuit is as shown. If VeE = 0. Negative polarity . But since P changes with temp. though Ie changes with temperature. since Ie increases with temperature. thenIe = . In feedback circuits the amplification factor will be less than what it would have been without feedback. the assumption has to be made that PRe » RB to make Ie independent of p. [In transformer coupled circuits Re will be small]. It is NPN transistor emitter is n-type. it is called as the operating point.

Hence stability is good. So the drop across R2 which is equal to V. Ie also increases. RB + IB Re = + V . Therefore Ie 'will increase less . So current I or emitter current increases. I = Ie + IB. 5. R = V = IBRB + Re (IB + Ie) + V BE Assuming V BE to be independent of Ie' differentiating IB with respect to Ie' to get'S' . [The voltage drop across Re provides the self bias for the emitter].8 STABILITY FACTOR'S' FOR SELF BIAS CIRCUIT S is calculated assuming that no AC signal is impressed and only DC voltages are present.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 277 should be at the emitter. the voltage V is the drop across R2. Combination acts as a potential divider.Ie x Re IB (RB + Re) = V .Ie x Re (v . That is why the symbol is with arrow mark pointing outwards.--~---'7--=B (RB +RJ alB . had there been no self biasing resistor. With reference to Fig. Hence the drop (IB + Ie) Re has the polarity such as to reverse bias or to oppose the forward bias voltage V BE junction. I B. So the conventional current is flowing out of the transistor. Therefore IRe drop increases. from the emitter. Since the polarity of this voltage is to reverse bias the E . is given by the expression. If Ie increases due to increase in leo with temperature the current in Rc als9 increases.V EN As IB increases.V BE -lcRJ I = -'---.8. IB decrease.8. it is NPN transistor.al c Re Re + RB The expression for stability factor S = I_p(aI I+P ) B al c . V BE = V BN . Vee ·R 2 V=R 1 +R 2 ' RB is the effective resistance looking back from the base terminal RIR2 B RI + R2 Applying Kirchhoff's Voltage Law around the base circuit. than it would have been. RB can be regarded as parallel combination ofRI and R2. In the Fig 5.B junction.V BE .V BE . So emitter point is at positive with respect to N. 5.

( 5. Ie Is = {I + P)Ieo P IsRs x (Is + Ie) Re .12) V = Is x Rs + VSE + (Is + Ie) Re Ie = (1 + l3)1eo + 13 ..{I+p)xI P P + eo 1+ ( p P) Re x Ieo - ~ x e.......~ )R. V SE But Is =V - = Ie .... Hence Ie changes...... al c S . the potential barrier is reduced and more number of carriers can move from one side (p) to the other side (n)... 13 also increases side with temperature.....11 ). (5. collector to base bias circuit and Emitter bias circuits provide stabilisation of Ie against variations in leo' But Ie also varies with V SE and 13.(l + P)l eo P Substituting this value in equation ( 5... e x R e R :..} -Ie ~' OE V SE = V+(RS+Re) {1+P}leo. I p V ~ V {R~B + +R.11) .RB+Rb.... Is Therefore.278 Rs R e Electronic Devices and Circuits . From equation ( 5..... (5.. . with the increase in T. ..9 STABILITY FACTOR S' The variation of Ie with V SE is given by stability factors S' ..12 ).. Because. 5.14) S'= ~ aVSE aVSE =_{R s +R e{I+ P)} ale p . If IS very small.5 mV. VBE decreases at the rate of 2.13 )..-I aVSE p= K where both leo and 13 are considered constant.13 ) From equation ( 5. (5.{R s +R e (I+ P P P )}l e .{ le-O+P)leo } P Rs - {lc-{l+P)Ico P + c I}R e V_IC.} +leo {RB~+~) +('. V SE VSE V.. . . S ::: 1.tOC for both Germanium and Silicon transistors. The fixed bias circuit.

. l+P+~=l+~=l+P Re Re R when RB is small. If a graph is plotted between Sand RB .. Now for a fixed R B .(.9 Variation oj stability Jactor . Re S = ----. then S = 1 + p... If P is small.then we get. S increases with increases e Re R p...1 +-~""')~ (l+~(l+ RB) Re = 1+ R e RB If RRB is very large.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization or But 279 P+l::::P R B if it small can be neglected Re .0 RB Rc Fig 5. Or to a better accuracy.0. Is' = - S Re I R S = 1. S is almost independent of p. e the graph as i s 100 10 1. implies that the stability of the circuit is very good.

Ie increases. the variation will be 30% when the . the better the stabilisation. To prevent this. S has the units of . V BE = V + (RB + Re) -p. The variation in the value ofle for Silicon transistor is 30% for a typical circuit when the temperature varies from -65°C to + 175°C. 01 S"=~ op where both leo and V BE are assumed to be constant. From equation ( 5. . S'-. So R) and R2 should be small. But for Germanium transistor. variation ofS"with V BE is also less.vBE + V.V . the value ofRB. than S' will also be less.14 ). The smaller. Re is shunted with a capacitor whose reactance at the operating frequencies is very small so that AC signal passes through the capacitor only.10 STABILITY FACTOR S" The variation of Ie with respect to ~ is given by the stabil ity factors S".(RB+ReXI+~) eo ale = (RB+ReXl+~XV-VBE)-~(V-VBEXRe+RB) (RB + Ref(1 + ~f op (RB + ReXV . We get stability ofIe with respectto both V BE and leo.VBE ) (RB + Re)+ (1 + pf "Ole S = 8i3 = p{l + p) le· S 5.~ leo(RB+ReXI+~) (RB+ReXI+~) (RB+ReXl+~) RB+Re(I+~) V.x leo = 1 e I RB +Re(I+P) p x Ie ><: (1 + ~) = -~. S is negative indicate that as V BE decreases.(RB + Re) -p.x leo - P+ 1 R B + Re (l + p) p x Ie P+I V BE . For selfbias circuit. the AC gain is reduced.280 Electronic Devices and Circuits The smaller the value of RB the better the stabilisation RB = R) in parallel with R 2. Because of feedback through Re.11 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Silicon transistors are superior to Germanium transistor as far as thermal stability is concerned. S"is approximately equal to 1. ifS is made unity.~-~VBE +1 e .RE Therefore. -S 5. n 1 or mhos.

Is = 202x 103 = 49. Solution Vee S= (13 + 1) Is x Re .Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 281 temperature is varied from -65°C to +75°C. But we said that there is feed back from the output to the input.6 Problem 5.3 10. even though the stability is improved. +-Assume V SE = O.12 BIAS COMPENSATION The collector to base bias circuit and self bias circuit are used for stability ofIe with variation in leo' VSE and 13.10 For Problem 5.475 rnA 51 E ~ Ie W+ B B r ! +R. Hence the amplification will be reduced.1.2 A transistor with 13 = 100 is to be used in Common Emitter Configuration with collector to base bias. the thermal stability is poor for Germanium transistor. Choose Rs so that quiescent collector to emitter voltage is 4Y. Find Stability Factor. + Fig 5. 5. -~----o- 1+ 50x2 102 = 25.4 = 0 . Re = 1KO Vee =: lOY.VeE = 0 101 100x 1 = 41 1+-68. Find ( a) The Quiescent Point ( Ie + Is ) ( b) The Stability Factor He Solution Neglecting leo' Ie = 13 x Is Then 1) Is Re + Is Rs = Vee (50+ l)x2 x 103 + 100 x 103 xI s = 10 10 :. Silicon transistors are never used above 175°C and Germanium transistors above +75°C.101 x 103 Is .1 An NPN transistor with 13 = 50..5 x 10-6 = 2. Such high temperature will be encountered in the electronic control of temperature for furnaces. Therefore. is used in Common Emitter Circuit with VeE = 10V and Re = 2KO. Assume V SE = O. Problem 5. The bias is obtained by connecting a 100 kO resistance from collector to base.5 /-tA Ie = 50 x 49. space applications etc.

3.3.4Il A Electronic Devices and Circuits V CE = IB RB = 4V R B = 4 59.282 6 IB = 101xl03 = 59.2 . Find the Stability Factor. Fig 5. Rc = 0. The circuit components values are Vcc = 4.27 KO. R2 = 2. If ~ = 44.7 KQ and Rl = 27K.409 = Is x (2.5K. +V IB x Rs + VSE + (l + ~) RCIB +0. Ic).3K Problem 5.7K 1 N Fig 5.5V.27) + 0.12 For Problem 5. Also determine the Quiescent point Q (V CE . Applying KVL over the loop. Rc = 1.4xlO-6 = 67.3 One NPN transistor is used in the self biasing arrangement.46 + 45 x 0. Solution . The Quiescent Point Vee 27K + T V 2.11 For Problem 5.

12.2 DIODE COMPENSATION FOR leo leo the reverse saturation current of the collector junction increases with temperature. Therefore. as V BE decreases.Ie x Re .14. The decrease in V BE is nullified by corresponding increase in Vo.6 = 1.1 DIODE COMPENSATION FOR V BE The circuit shown in Fig.1 = 48. 5. 5.14 Diode compensation for I CO' .4 rnA VeE = Vee . if V BE decreases with increase in temperature (V B is cut in voltage). Since the diode is connected as shown. Therefore.13 Diode compensation for V BE to variations in V BE. the mobility of carriers increases. So Ie also increases with temperature. The diode should be of the same material as the transistor.2 14.409+ 0. 5.13 employs self biasing +Vec technique for stabilization. In addition a diode is connected in the emitter circuit and it is forward biased by the source V DO.4V If the reduction in gain is not tolerable then compensation techniques are to be used.(IB + Ie) Re = 2. Thus both stabilization and compensation technique are used depending upon the requirements. Vo increases with temperature. Since with temperature.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization or 0. diode compensation should also be given against variation in leo. So the net voltage more or less remains constant. I o 1 o 1 Fig 5. so that Ie will be insensitive Fig 5. Resistance Rd limits the current through the diode. A circuit to achieve this is as shown in the Figures 5.12. Thus the diode circuit compensates for the changes in the values of VBE. so current through the diode increases and V 0 increases. + Vee NPN -l.1 rnA 283 IB = Ie = 13 x IB = 44 x 1. The negative voltage Vo across the diode will have the same temperature coefficient as V BE. Vo increases.

Ie is essentially is constant.13 Ie = P x I .R\ The diode D is reverse biased by an amount 0. capacitors etc. V BE = 0.2V for Germanium. Now the collector current through transistor Q1 is.the transistor collector saturation current leo' I Vee -VBE = --"=--~ RI Therefore. incorporating the passive components particularly capacitors in ICs is difficult.P x 10 + P x leo -P x 10 and +P x leo are of opposite signs. in biasing and stability circuits. the rate of increase of 10 and leo will be the same. 5. I ~ Vee . Vee is measured with respect to ground.6Y. IB = 1-10 But we know that Ie = ( 1+ P) leo + 13 x IB Substituting the value ofI B. Therefore. lei = Vee . Transistor Q I is used as a diode between base and emitter because. P+1:::. Instead of a diode. If the diode and the transistor are of the same material.P x 10 + (I + P)Ieo P» 1. transistors and diodes can be used. With today's technology. 10 and leo need not be the same.2 or 0. a transistor is being used as a diode. Hence certain circuits incorporating transistors in biasing compensation are developed. the active components made with this technology are no more costlier than the passive components like resistors. If the diode and the transistor are of the same material.13 BIASING CIRCUITS FOR LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS With the advancements in semiconductor technology.15. Moreover. 5.284. Electronic Devices and Circuits The diode D is reverse biased since the voltage V BE which also appears across the diode is so as to reverse bias the diode. V BE is small compare to Vee' Vee:::' 15V. Why should transistor be used for compensation when it is being used as a diode only? It is because of convenience in fabrication technology. a transistor is used. It is one step process and fabrication is easy. the reverse saturation current 10 of diode will increase at the same rate as . Q I is connected as a diode across the emitter base junction of trans istor Q2' SO effectively the circuit is same as circuit in Fig. In IC fabrication for a diode.14. But Ie = P x 1. 5. Current through the diode is the reverse saturation current 10 .VBE -I BI -I B2 RI . So net value of Ie will remain constant. One such circuit is shown in Fig. Only the changes in leo and 10 will be of the same order. collector and base are shorted.

14 THERMISTOR AND SENSISTOR COMPENSATION By using temperature sensitive resistive elements rather than diodes or transistors. V BE or the forward bias voltage of E . such circuits are employed for biasing stability. Hence Ie reduces. Since the emitter is grounded.B junction reduces. V BE and Ico' The corresponding increase in Ie is nullified by the increase in the reverse bias voltage at the emitter. there is voltage drop across Re' Since.--. As this current passes through Re. V BE is the same. RT decreases. there will be increase in (3. The circuit is as shown in Fig. Hence the stabihty will be good. 5. V BE = Drop Across RE· As current through RE increases. The materials used for thermistors are: Mixtures of such oxides as NiO (Nickle Oxide). this acts as the reverse bias for the emitter. its R decrease exponentially with temperature. Instead of a thermistor. due to increase in temperature. As temperature increases. it is PNP transistor. Hence in ICs. as temperature increase. practical experience has shown that. .16. When a semiconductor is heavily doped.e. the stability factor will be around 5. Even if the two transistors are not exactly identical. 5. V ce and Rc are also fixed.-------. As the drop across Re increases. mobility of carriers decrease since there are more number of thermally generated free carriers (n is large). So th current through RT increases. the emitter reverse bias increases and hence Ic decreases.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization V BE « V ce' and (lBI + IB2 ) « ICI ICI = ~ = 285 Vee Constant. Hence ICI = IC2 = Constant if RI = Re' These two transistors are being driven by the base voltage V ~E' Since. Sensistor is a heavily doped semiconductor material..7% j0c. Thus compensation is achieved.. Ie will not increase. compensation can be achieved. RT is the thermistor. Collector is to be reverse biased and hence Vce is given.+ Vee I=----v o NPN Fig. their V BE' (cut in voltage) will be the same. If transistors QJ and Q2 are identical. (C0 2) 03 (Cobalt Oxide). a temperature sensitive resistor with positive temperature coefficient like a metal or sensistor can be used. So the potential at the emitter (E) point is negative. Thermistor has negative temperature coefficient i. Its temperature coefficient will be + 0. 5.15 Biasing circuit for ICs. Mn 20 3 (Manganese Oxide). . Thus the effect of temperature on Ic i.e.

Therefore. So the current will get branched equally. V BE decreases hence Ie decreases. As the junction tempetature rises. For Silicon transistor the max temperature range is 150°C to 205°C and for Germanium it is 60°C to 100°C. So apc apo -. Ie increases. So the effect of temperature on Ie is nullified. The condition for thermal stability is that the rate at which heat is released at the collector junction must not exceed the rate at which heat can be dissipated.Drop across Re)' As Drop across Re increases. The maximum power is limited by the temperature also that the collector to base junction can withstand. Po is the power dissipated at the junction in Watts. For Germanium it is low since the conductivity is more for Germanium compared to Silicon.286 -Vee Electronic Devices and Circuits ~l ___+o:-_ _--'+ Fig 5. Now L. 5. Re will have the same So temperature compensation can be obtained by placing a sensistor in parallel with R J or Vi i value of sensistor. This process can become cumulative to damage the transistor. As T increases. So this results in increased power dissipation.<-aT] aT] .15 THERMAL RUNAWAY The max power which a transistor can dissipate (power that can be drawn from the transistor) will be from mW to a few hundred Watts. since current takes the path of least resistance. Hence the reverse bias of emitter increases and so Ie decrease. to start with. 8 is the so called Thermal Resistance of the transistor varying from 0. The junction temperature will increase either-because of temperature increase or because of self heating. This is known as Thermal Runaway. more current will pass through Re now.\T=TJ-TA =8 x Po where TJ and T A are the temperature of the junction and ambient. Also the resistance of sensistor increases. So temperature increases and Ie still further increases.16 Thermistor compensation Re' Sensistor should be placed in parallel with Re because. (Since V BE = Drop across R2 .2° C/W for a high power device to I OOooC/W for a low power device. collector current increases.

. >. But it follows a certain law. Problem 5. As Ie increases.. But if V. TJ = 100°C Solution It has been found that. (i) T J -TA =9xP D or 150-25=9xI25 or 9 = I°C/mW (ii) TJ .4 Calculate the value of thermal resistance for a transistor having Pe (max) = 125 mW at free air temperature of 25°C and T J (max) = 150°C.(21 + 0.5 A silicon type 2N780 transistor with f3 = 50. if the operating point is so chosen th~t VeE = -2- Vee then the effect of thermal runaway is not cumulative.4) 250 V CE :::: 4. Vee = 10V and Rc = 2500 is connected in collector to base bias circuit.4 rnA and 21 rnA respectively.s:£. Also find the junction temperature if the collector dessipation is 75 mW. eE 2 then temperature increases with a increase in Ie. V CE = V ce .25 = I x 75 .Ie . So it can be neglected. Pe increases. the stability factor. Find RB and Calculate'S'. so IB and Ie are chossen as 0. Solution V CE = Vcc . . Heat sink is a good conducting plate which absorbs heat from the transistor and will have large area for dissipation.. It is desired that the quiescent point be apporoximately at the middle of the load line.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization aPe < ~ aT] e 287 or e= aT] aP D Heat Sink limit the temperature rise.(lc + IB) Rc IB is very small compared to Ic.Again with increase in Ie' T increases and hence the effect is cumulative. Problem 5. Rc = IOV . If Ie is so chosen that V VeE = -2- Vee rate of increase of Pe with Ie is not large and Thermal Runaway problem will not be there.6 V .

(101) IB x I x 103. VCE is voltage drop positive to negative.288 Electronic Devices and Circuits Since it is Silicon transistor. Rc = I kn Vee = 10V S=? Rb =? .VCE = o.4 S= ---'-----=-- [3+1 1+ [3.6 =IOkn 0. (50+1) 250 = 23 1+50x ( ) 250+IOx10 3 23 Vee . Ie .VeE = O.6-0.4 f!A = But VCE = lB· RB 4V 59. Solution [3 = 100 .([3 + I)IB Rc . But Ie value is not given. Vee = 10V VeE = 4V Re = I kn 10 .6 A transistor with [3 = 100 is to be used in Common Emitter Configuration with collector to base bias.4 f!A x RB .4 = 0 or [3 = 100 IB = ? 6 IB = 10lxl03 = 59.6V VCE .=[3 IB Ie = [3 x IB Vec . Assume V BE = O. Rc Rc +Rb S= S= Problem 5.(Ic + IB) Rc .VBE IB 4. V BE = Vy = 0. (a) Choose RB so that the quiescent collector to emitter voltage is 4V (b) Find the stability factors. VeE should be 4 V Applyining KVL around the loop. Vce is voltage these negative to positive. The collector circuit resistance is Re = 1kn and Vec = 10V.

Since the two transistors are identical.4x1O.. Stability Factor. Find the currents IBi' IB2' ICI and IC2 at T = 25°C (b) Find IC2 at T = 175° C when ~ = 98 and V BE 0. V cc = 20. S= 1+~. RI = I B2 .I vj-_I ~ Q1 v 0 ! NPN Fig 5. C.6V at T = 25° C.6-0.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 4 = 59. RI = 10K and Rc = 5K are connected as shown. 'YBE 20.=.6 10k =2mA = O.7 Two identical Silicon transistor with ~ =48.3} 3 =41 S=41 Problem 5. 1= .22V Solution + Vee R.7. we can assume that IBI Vcc -VBE 1= ~~~.6V at 25° C . V BE = 0.17 For Problem 5. S= ~+1 Rc Rc+RB 101 1+ 100 x 1x 10 103 (1+67.6 = 67.3kO 289 RB Therefore.6V.

2V ·. then I = 21B + ICI = 2IB + J3I B or 2mA = (2 + 48)I B ·. ICI = IC2 = I-' A X IB = 98 x 2038 . Re = 0.038mA = (2 + J3)I B 2. (b) At 17S oC. 13 is same for the two transistors. V BE = 0.290 Electronic Devices and Circuits Since IBI = IB2= IB. Hence V BE at 17S o C = 0. Find the stability factor S. V = IB x RB + V BE + (lB + IC)Re .8.92mA ·. Solution Sx20 = 100+S = 0. Rc = 2K.22V and 13= 98 I= or VCC-VBE 10k = 2.38~A.18 For Problem 5. x 10-6 = 2mA Problem 5. 2 IB = SO rnA = 40mA ICI = IC2 = 13 x IB = 48 x 40 x 10-3 = 1.038 IB = 2+98 rnA = 20.8 Determine the quiescent currents and the collector to emitter voltage for a Ge transistor with 13 = SO in the self biasing arrangements.9S2 V Fig 5. The circuit component values are Vcc = 20V. V BE decrease with temperature. IB is same.1 k. For Germanium transistor. RI = lOOk and ~ = Skn. Hence Ic should be the same.

5K.76 0.2 Is = = 76.08 = 0.76 x 103 + 51 x 0.leRe .1 = 12V S=(l+~)x l+~~ 1 _1_+=-~"'--'~-16_=25 [ 1+~+--.89 x 0. The quiescent point is chosen to be VeE = 8V and Ie = 4rnA.9.-l! Re =51 x 51+ 4.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 291 v = Is x Rs + VSE + (~ + 1) Is Re = Is [Rs + Re(l +~) ] +V SE 0. Solution v~ Fig 5.49k .1 Problem 5.IE Re =20-3.VCE -IeRe (Is+Ic) 16-8-4x 1. Stability factor S = 12 is desired ~ :.9 Design a circuit with Ge transistor in the self biasing arrangement with Vee = 16V and Re = 1.86 X 103 0.81 rnA VeE = Vee .952 = Is [4.2 rnA Ie = ~ x Is = 3.81 rnA IE = (Is + Ie) = 3.5 4.19 For Problem 5."1] + 0.952-0.81 x 2-3.2 9.: 50. Is = 13 = Ie 4 SO = 80llA R e- --=~~=-~-= Vee .

..IB x RB .08 x 7.. ~ =8....17) .... ( 5....2 + 0...76V V V RB R2'VCC = R) + R2 ..16 STABILITY FACTOR S"FOR SELF BIAS CIRCUIT V .18 ) ........ IE is negative. = Base to ground voltage = V BE + IE Re Therefore..05 = 2.292 Electronic Devices and Circuits or RB Re RB V BN = 14.49 = 2.4 x Re == 7. 2..(IB + IC)Re = 0 or V BE ....2V V =V BN +IBRb = 2. ( 5. (5. (5.ICRe But or Ic = (1 + ~) x Ico + ~ x IB Ic -(i+p)lco -I = -=----'-~~ B P . V BN = 0.V BE .. RB == Vcc 16 =-=Rl R\ 16R B =-- RIR2 Rl + R2 V = V 16x7....16 ) ...05k.4 = 14.76 = 41k =2..56k 5.2 + 4.76V R 2 xVCC ' = Rl +R2 R 2 x16 = 41k+R2 .05 .19) =V - IB X (RB + Re) .08 x 0....

l}eo B e {RB+~e(l+J3)} Let (R B + Re) (~. 293 i V.20 Stability factor S". ! Fig 5.leo13 Ie = V .1 7).Transistor Biasing and Stabilization V("(.19) in (5. S " aIe = a 13 = 13{1 + (3) = S Ie.Ie { Y BE =Y-I e (RB+R e) } (P+l) J3 + Re + (RB + Re)-J3. I( Co N Fig 5. Substituting equation (5. R B + Re + (3) V +V ~ x Ie 0 (-VBE + V + V') = RB + ReO + ~) x Ie ~ I3(V + Y'-VBE ) Ie"" RB+Re(I+I3) y' can be assumed to be independent of 13. 1) x leo = V' J3 + I --I J3 y' ::: (Rb + Re) leo Y BE or = .21 Self bias circuit. S " . ~ + 1) R B + Re (I + 13) V BE =V+(RB+Re) ( -13.leo +(R +R )(J3.

..22 ) Problem 5... ( 5.VBE ) = RB + ReO + 132) .75 to 2. V cc = 20V..Ic .21 ) lCl _ lCI . RE (Rc + Re) = =0 20-10 2 = 5 KQ Rc=:4KQ Re = (5 . and simplifying equation. ( 5.10 A transistor type 2N335 is used in the selfbias configuration may have any value ofB between 36 and 90 at room temperature.Bt = 90-36 = 54 .Ic .1.4) KQ = I KQ L\ Ic L\ B = IC2 - I Ct =: 2. ( 5. R t and R2) subject to the following specification R = 4 Kn..PI RB+Re(I+~2) Subtracting I from both sides.. {h} RB+Re(I+~d .VBE ) ICt IC2 = RB+Re{I+Bt) P2(V + V' .25 rnA as B varies from 36 to 90. Neglect the variation ofIco Solution Ic » I B · So neglecting IB.294 Electronic Devices and Circuits or S" - IC2 - ICI _ - ~2 -~I L\lc L\~ ..20 ) Bt(v + V' ....75 =0.. Rc .25 .5 rnA = B2 .VCE Ic e V cc . Design a self bias circuit (Find Re.... normal bias point is to be at V CE = 10V....V CE .. Ic = 2mA and Ic should be in the range of 1... (R + R ) C = Vcc .

38 RI =R B Vee .22 For Problem 5.3.5 54 or S2 = 17.(1+90) 0.38=242K VCE-V (20-3.38) .10. 1+ RB S2 = (l +13 2) 1 + R 1+132 +-'! Re Re .38V V = V BE + = 0.s2 _ 52 .Transistor Biasing and Stabilization ~Ic 195 ~13 _ Icl.3.~. V R = 2 =20. S2 is the Stability Factor ( S ).6 + (20. 13 2 = 90..1 K!l Neglecting the effect of leo' B Fig 5. RB =20.1x~=119K R1V =119x3.131(1+132) .75 = 3. Re =1 K!l. S2 = 17. Rs + Re (1+ (3) 13 x Ie 3. 37) 1.

--_ = .11.27 2.5 x (a) 2..7 29.11.biasing arrangement the circuit components are Vee = 4.409 5.24 For Problem 5.5V. = 2.27 K . R) =27 K of J3 = 44.296 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 5.46 k!l = + 4.23 For Problem 5.7 K .35 .7x27 29.11 A PNP transistor is used in self .1+13 Re Re + Rb ~ = 8.__1_+-::13. RE = 0. R2 = 2. V~ Fig 5.. Solution The circuit and its Thevenin's equivalent are shown in Fig.7 = OAIV 44 + 1 1+ 44 0. 5.73 s . (b) Quiescent point (c) Recalculate these values if the base .23.spreading resistance oJ690 n is taken in account.7 =2. Find (a) Stability Jactor.22 and Fig. 5. Fig 5.

6 + (2.42 -0.1.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization (b) In base circuit.5 .41 = (45) IB (0. (0.41-0.15 =-O.Ic· RE .5 . Problem 5. determine the stability factor S and Thermal Resistance 9 Th • V CC = 24V Rc= 10K VCE = 5V RE = 270 0 13=45 Solution: In Collector-Emitter Circuit.27 + 2.6) = 297 V2 -0.572mA IB =O.Rc + RE + 13 RE) + V CE .484 V Quiescent Point: V CE= 3. V CE = 4.012mA These are the values taking rbb' into consideration.938 = 3.012mA Ic = -0.528mA IB = 0.19 = (45xO.562 V CE = 3. = IE RE + V BE + RB IB = (1 + 13) IB . (c) s IB = 45 0 27 = 10.27)+3.484V Ic =0. Vcc = Rc Ic + VCE + IE RE = IB (13 .46) IC = 13 IB = 0.0.12 For the given circuit.013mA Taking rbb' = 6900 . RE + V BE + RB IB 0. Vee = Ic Rc + V CE + IE RE = Ic Rc + V CE + (1 +p) -p..528 rnA V CE = 4.013 rnA (45xO.562V Quiescent Point: Ic =0.016 = 3.572mA In collector circuit.46) lB.06 1+44-·3.27) + 0.

BFW 10.0911 = 107. .. This cannot be exactly defined.08Kn (b) Stability factor = S = 1 1+~ +: Rc+ R 46 C 1+45~ 117. (known).849 rnA.17 FET BIASING One of the problem in using FET is that each device type does not have a single transfer characteristic. Vos = V 00.6 41. Vos is fixed. This is because loss and V p cannot be specified accurately. the voltage Vas for which pinch off occurs varies.08 KO S =9.844 =9. So by choosing any convenient value of 10 in eq (1).496 (c) R = 107.496 We know that AT = TJ = TH = (Th. So we get point A as the characteristic X-axis. .. Accordingly. Vos can be calculated.849 =41. Hence the manufacturers specify maximum and minimum values for loss and Vp. (a) = ~= 1. Recombination of carriers can cause variation in depletion region thickness.10 . V p and loss will not be constant.0. when 10 = 0. two transfer characteristics are drawn for FET. They vary. loss and V p will not be constant.. For the same FET. (1) Vos = Voo . V CE = IB x R + V BE R = 5 . The DC load line for a FET circuit is drawn upon the device characteristic in exactly the same way as was done with bipolar transistor circuits. Maximum transfer characteristics which is a plot between maximum loss and maximum V p and minimum transfer characteristic which is a plot between minimum Vp and minimum loss. because. RL RL is known.09 ~ ~ 45 In collector base circuit.298 Electronic Devices and Circuits 46 = 10 Ie + 5 + 45 Ie (270 ) = 1. Res) TJ - Thermal resistance T A = 6 Th x Po· 150-25 125 = 1000oC/W 5. So..08 = 46 1+3.

29.Transfer CharacteristIc Min .-4E:--+-"--loss (min) ~=-+--- Max .27 DC loadline.25 Transfer characteristics. The variation of maximum and minimum values can be as much as ±50 Yo or more over the typical values..1 FIXED BIAS CIRCUIT The circuit is shown in Fig.. This is an example of fixed bias circuit.Va> Fig 5.. . For a FET. 5. Fig 5. when Vos = 0.17. So the maximum and minimum levels of 10 for a given bias voltage can be best determined by a graphical first plot maximum and minimum transfer characteristics as shown in Fig. and loss are not fixed. The gate is biased via resistance Ro to a negative voltage Va.26 FET biasing circuit.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization loss (max) loss 299 . Join points A and B. V8.5. So we get point B on y-axis. Then the point at which the load line intersects the corresponding drain characteristics is the operating point Q. Choose any value of V as say -I. This will be RL the load line. B I I VO) Fig 5.Transfer CharacteristIc Vp (Mini) . 5. 10 = Voo .28.

Rs will also tend to stabilize 10 against signals applied to the gate i. Let VGS is chosen as . (Because AC current is not passing through Rs but only through Cs)' (V RS) voltage drop across Rg = 10 x ~. the fixed bias circuit is not useful.IV. B gives minimum 1 . Cs is the bypass capacitors (CE in BJT circuits). RL V OS(max) = V 00 .ID(max) • RL As is evident. A B ID Max ID Min ---VGS -IV 0 Fig 5. So.28 JFET Fixed Bias Circuit. Rg will reduce the AC voltage gain ofthe circuit. Rs will stabilize the drain current. The total DC load is (RL + Rs). Then draw a base line (vertical line) through the -IV VGS value. 5.17.e.29 Transfer characteristics. Therefore gate is negative with respect to source. A gives maximum 10 .2 SELF BIAS CIRCUIT In self bias circuit. Vos = V 00 . It cuts the maximum and minimum transfer characteristics at two points A and B. Therefore total AC load with Rg bypassed is Rv Therefore AC load line must be drawn to describe the AC performance of the circuit.300 Electronic Devices and Circuits RG -VG Fig 5.10 . Gate is grounded via Ra. a resistance in series with source terminal provides the gate bias voltage. the maximum and minimum 0 values of Vos can be calculated using the expression. .ID(min) • RL V OS(mm) = V 00 . the operating point is not fixed in a fixed bias circuit. Corresponding to these values. The Q point (V os and 10 values) vary over a wide range.

.10 x Rs V00 = 10 . if V GS is fixed. Source is 1V positive with respect to ground .Transistor Biasing and Stabilization +VDD 301 Fig 5..3 SELF BIAS WITH EXTERNAL VOLTAGE IMO ----"'---.: Gate is grounded through RG • Gate is 1V negative with respect to source. maximum and minimum values ofIo are determined.------0 V ss = .30 JFET self bias circuit. Hence Gate-Source junction is forward biased. V RS = 1rnA x 1kO = 1V .31 JFET self bias circuit. Let 10 = ImA. VGS =. Rs From the maximum and minimum transfer characteristics.1.3 V Fig 5. Self bias technique minimises variations in 10 and Vos' compared to fixed bias circuit.17. .'. 10 variations will be less if larger value of Rs is chosen. 5.. Then. RL + Vos + 10 . Rs = lkO . maximum and minimum values of Vos can be calculated.

10 Rs . 5. 1MQ Fig 5. A potential divider R) and ~ is used to derive a positive bias voltage from V DO' (VG should be positive because G-S junction should be reverse biased. Rs + VGS V GS = V ss . Gate is p .VG .33 CS amplifier circuit . VDD =20V G -VG Fig 5.18 BASIC FET CIRCUITS Bias circuit which have an external voltage source Vss and source resistances maintain . Rs Another self bias circuit is . V G = V GS + 10 Rs V G VOO ·R 2 = --="'--~ RI +R2 _ _ VOO ·R 2 V GS . Q point will be more stable.e.R R 1+ 2 10 Rs' 10 within closer limits i.302 Electronic Devices and Circuits v ss = 10 ..10 .type).32 JFET self bias circuit. G is grounded.

in this circuit..1 COMMON SOURCE FET AMPLIFIER: (C.S.34 C.. it produces variations in gate .. V In = V gs . This produces a sinusoidal drain current.0 Vo Fig 5... C.18. +VDD I .10 . As in the case of common emitter configuration.S. Vos = V DO .S. C. RL (DC values) 5.. Vm Yo =-gmRo .S amplifier circuit. A=-gm Ro Some times a resistance rs is added in series with Rs. Since AC flows through the drain resistor.34... . Amplifier equivalent circuit..j 1 . To reduce this. Fig 5. When a small AC signal is coupled into the gate. As common emitter configuration is widely used. Distortion is more.-.18. CONFIGURATION) 303 This is FET equivalent of common emitter transistor amplifier in BJT. the source is not at ground potential...5.2 THE COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER USING SELFBIAS The circuit is shown in Fig.. swamping resistor is connected. V 0 = gm V gs .V gs is a current source 1800 phase-shift will be there. Now. configuration is also widely used in the case ofFETs.~rs is called as swamping resistor. Ro ~.35 C.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 5. we get an amplified AC voltage at the output.source voltage.S configuration also introduces a phase-shift of 180°.

Because ofthis JFET distorts large signals.10 Ro = Vos decreases. Thus local feedback will help in reaching the non-linearity of the square law transconductance curve of JFET.. The source resistance Rs is bypassed by Cs ' the source bypass capacitor. because source is not at ground potential. AC current is passing.304 PHASE INVERSION Electronic Devices and Circuits An increase in gate .37 Circuit with Swamping resistor. DISTORTION r-'\ produces ' -. Therefore The transconductance curve of a JFET is non-linear.. This is known as square law distortion.. It follows square law.. ./ decreasing output voltage..source voltage produces more drain current. (Similarly to RE in BJT circuit) If rs is not there. source is at ground potential. +VDD 1-----1 1 . through this. So distortion will be reduced.0 Vo (n-channel JFET) rs (Swamping Resistor) Fig 5. So increasing input voltage there is phase inversion. SWAMPING RESISTOR The resistor that is connected in series with the source resistance Rs is called Swamping resistor. which means that drain voltage is decreasing because drop across Ro increases. V 00 ..36 Transfer characteristic. Fig 5. But when rs is connected.

=Av= rs +(Rm) r.39 . .. It reduces distortion..D amplifier circuit.-----.38 Equivalent circuit. It reduces voltage gain.39 C.8m Vgs Ro V Vi: If 8m is large. Vgs + gm V gs rs ..3 COMMON DRAIN AMPLIFIER The circuit is shown in Fig.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 385 Fig 5.-----0+ V DD (n-channel JFET) Fig 5.s -RO -Ro A =-- v 5. 1.18.Vm = 0 Vm = (1 + 8m rs) Vgs Vo = . .5. The voltage gain will be (.Ro / rs). So the effect of swamping resistor is. 2.

Rs Yo = gmRs Y l+gm R s IIl It is similar to C. 1. 5.18. So it is also called as source follower.4 COMMON GATE AMPLIFIER The circuit is shown in Fig. .306 G Electronic Devices and Circuits --L---------~------------~--~~D Fig 5. Ay < 1 2.41.41 Common gate amplifier circuit. because the source resistor is not bypassed. No phase change.Vm = 0 V Ill = (1 + gm Rs)V gs V 0 = gill V gs . 5.C amplifier or emitter follower.40 Equivalent circuit.Vss Fig 5. Less distortion than a common source amplifier. (n-channel JFET) . 3. KVL: v gs +V 0 -V In =0 V gs + gm Vgs Rs .

a JFET takes larger changes in input voltage to produce changes in output current.r Problem 5.S junction is a reverse biased p .: IG = 0). therefore the input side i.B junction is forward. In the ideal case.Vo=gm Vgs·R o Av= gm Ro im = id Vgs = lin = gm V gs gm JFET amplifier has very small gate leakage current.e.loss _ [1- VGS]2 Vp This is a square law. E . [For a bi polar transistor amplifier circuit.n junction.13 What is the DC input resistance of a JFET which has IGSS (gate leakage current) = SpA at 20 V ? Solution: RGS = Input resistance. G . G . This is equivalent to saying. The price paid for high input resistance is less control over output current. This is another name for parabolic shape. IG = O.. therefore a JFET amplifier has much less voltage gain than a bipolar amplifier. So it has less resistance].42 Equivalent circuit. the input side i.S junction is reverse biased. 20V = . 10 = Is ( . .=4 x 10 12 0 SpA . JFET amplifier has high input impedance. So JFET is often called as a square law device.e.. Vm=Vgs. That is.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 307 D s G Fig 5. Equation 10 .

. 3000 Vo = 3380 x 4. and Vm = 5 mY.949) (5mV) = 4.14 For the JFET amplifier circuit shown in Fig.43 For Problem 5.5 K Vo ~3 K Fig 5.75 mY. gm gm = 7500 0 11400 0 =3800 This is the AC equivalent circuit.? Solution: ~ Electronic Devices and Circuits = 2500 J.-.75 mV is in series drawn circuit with an output impedance of 380 O.308 Problem 5. ---=4000 2500 j. if value of V.14.. that is without considering Ru = (0. An AC source of 4..22 mV Output impedance is.-----.l!l. .14. Zo = Rs II _1_ 380 0 5mV::1 SOOK I Fig 5...!Q Open circuited output voltage. AC voltage across the load resistor is.+ 30 V 1 MO (n-channel JFET) 1 MO t----r---o 7.75 mV = 4.44 For Problem 5. Therefore. what is the ..

• Thermistors have negative temperature coefficient. 2. compensating techniques must be used. The circuits are: 1. circuit. . VBE I ~ and VBE = Constant General Expression for.(-'-a-I s-. biasing circuit must be employed.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization SUMMARY • 309 In order that for a transistor. Thermistor and sensistor compensation. Usually VCE is chosen to be equal to -2-. Fixed bias or Base bias circuit. Sensistors have positive temperature coefficient. The operating point is defined by Ic. Emitter-Base junction is forward biased and collector-Base junction is reverse biased.al c al eo 13. VCE and lB. Cobalt and Manganese. It ensures that the operating point is in the centre of the active region. resembling metallic thermal characteristics. Diode Compensation for Ico 3. S = -1_-~-. They are very heavily doped semiconductors. (or operating point or biasing point) changes with temperature. • Quiescent point Q. Vee • • Stability factor is a function ofIco' S .:-) ale 1+~ For a Self bias. The materials used are oxides of Nickle. Selfbias or Emitter bias Selfbias circuit is commonly used. Collector to base bias 3. The three types of biasing circuits are 1. So to nullify for the effect of temperature. Diode Compensation for VBE 2.

........ . 13........................... 15..... what are the factors affecting the stability factor....... 2........ ... .. Compare all the three biasing circuits... What are the limitations of this circuit? 3.. What are the advantages of this circuit? 5.. 4..... ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1............ ..... 2. ..... General expression for S = . 11.... 7...... ....... 12.. .... .................... 9.......310 Electronic Devices and Circuits OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS l... Draw the Self bias circuit and obtain the expression for the stability factor S...... the operating point must be located at ......... = . Explain about the need for biasing in electronic circuits..... .......... Thermistors have .... Materials used for Thermistors are .. Operating point is also known as '" ............. ....... Draw the Collector to Base bias circuit and derive the expression for the stability factors What are the limitations of this circuit? 4. For normal amplifier circuits........ temperature coefficient of resistance 14.............. Expression for S for self bias circuit is . .............. ... Stability factor S is defined as S == .. 8. the operating point is chosen such that VCE 5.. Operating point depends upon the following BJT parameters ........ VBE or Vr cut in voltage decreases at the rate of ... 6...... Draw the Fixed bias circuit and derive the expression for the stability factor S.. For both Silicon and Germanium............... Semiconductor materials having positive temperature coefficient of R (PTCR) are called . ...... .... Self bias circuit is also known as .. S· is defined as S· = ... Fixed bias circuit is also known as ... Vcc 10...... 3... For a transistor to function as an amplifier...... = .... Stability factor S" is defined as S...

311 S.Transistor Biasing and Stabilization 6. 7.. AC load line is also known as .. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.. Explain the terms: Thermal Runaway and Thermal Resistance. For fixed bias circuit. When the input is symmetrical.a~ . Draw the circuits and explain the principles of working of Diode Compensation for V BE and leo. expression for stability factor S" is (a) s" = ~ a Ie I VBE=K IeO=K (b) s" =~Iv a Ie I BE' CO =K (c) s" a I~ a Ie (d) s" a I~ . value of stability factor'S' must be (a) large (b) as small as possible (c) (d) 0 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) at the top edge of the load line at the bottom edge of the load line at the centre of the load line can be chosen any where on the load line 2. (a) (c) dynamic load line quiescent load line (b) (d) variable load line active load line 3.. the expression for stability factor'S' is (a) 1- 13 (b) 1 +13 2 (c) l+~ l-~«()Ie) (d (d) 1 + 13 IB) 5.. the quiescent point is chosen . to operate the BJT in active region. By definition.. For better stability of the amplifier circuit. Explain the terms Bias Stabilization and Bias Compensation. Voltage divider bias or universal bias circuit is also known as (a) (c) self bias circuit collector to base bias circuit (b) (d) collector bias circuit Fixed bias circuit 6.

.312 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7.. temperature coefficient (a) -ve (b) +ve (c) zero (d) None of these 10. Compared to silicon BJT.• (a) good (b) poor (c) same (d) can't be said 9.... thermal stability for germanium transistors is . The units of thermal resistance (a) °CIO (b) OloC (c) nloc (d) °C/O. . The units of stability factor S are (a) ohms (b) constant (c) mhos (d) volt-amperes 8.. Sensistors have .

In this Chapter,
• A Transistor ( BJT ) can be represented as a group of elements consisting of Current Source, Voltage Soutc~, Resistor, Conductor, etc. Using this equivalent circuit, it is easy to aria lyse Transistor Amplifier Circuits. The Transistor is represente? in terms of h - Parameters or Hybrid Parameters. The values of these parameters vary with the configuration ofthe transistor namely Common Emitter ( CE ), Common Base ( CB ) and Common Collector ( CC ). The expressions for Voltage Gain Av' Current Gain AI etc., are derived using these h - Parameters.

314

Electronic Devices and Circuits

6.1

INTRODUCTION

In thi~ chapter, the definitions ofh - parameters, expressions of Av' Al etc., in terms ofh - parameters are gIven. These are also known as hybrid parameters ( h for hybrid ), so called because, the units of these parameters are different, Ohms ( n ), mhos ( U ), constants etc. Because the units are different for different parameters, these are called Hybrid Parameters. In defining these parameters short circuit and open circuit conditions are used. In order to analyze different amplifier circuits and compare their merits and demerits, equivalent circuits of the amplifier must be drawn. These circuits are drawn in terms of the h - parameters. The transistor equivalent circuits assume that the operating point is chosen correctly and does not involve biasing resistors. An amplifier circuit is one which will increase the level or value of the input signal. If the output voltage (V ) is greater than input voltage (V. ), it is called voltage amplification. Similarly if P > P., it is po~er amplification. The voltage arhplification factor is represented as A and ° I V A =V IV. v 0 I The other parameters of an amplifier circuit are: Input resistance R. ( or input impedance Z. ) I I Output resistance R (or output impedance Z or out admittance Y ) u 0 The resistance associated with the amplifier circuit, as seen from the input terminals of the amplifier, into the circuit is called input resistance ( R.). For a given circuit, R. must be high. ( Ideal value of R. = 00). Because, when the input signJI source V is connected fo the amplifier circuit, the amplifier circuit will draw current ( I. ) from V s. (1. = IR.). IfR. is small, I. will be large, which V s the signal source may not be a~le to supply. So ~ rrlay fall1from the s~t value ( due to loading effect). So R. must be large for a given amplifier CIrcuit. I Similarly, the output resistance R of the amplifier must be small. Because, the amplified signal V 0 must be fully delivered to the looad RL connected to the amplifier. The signal voltage drop in the amplifier must be as small as possible. So R must be small. Ideally Ro must be zero. Output resistance is the resistance of the amplifier cft.cuit, as seen through the output terminals into the amplifier circuit.

°

V

6.2

BLACK BOX THEORY

Any four terminal network (two terminals for input and two terminals for output), no matter how complex it is, can be represented by an equivalent circuit, if there is a connection between input and output, as shown in the Fig 6.1

II

'1'
VI

./

_A

C_

12
......

l'
V

Linear circuit
B

t

0-

t

2

Fig 6.1 Four terminal network.

Amplifiers

315

If a voltage V2 is applied at the output terminals and current 12 is allowed to flow into the circuit, the Thevenins equivalent circuit looking into the input terminals is given by a voltage source VOl in series with an impedance ZOI. Similarly, if a voltage V I is at the input, the equivalent circuit can be represented as a voltage source VO) in series with an impedance Z02 so the Thevenins equivalent circuit reduces as shown in Fig 6.2. 11 ZOI Z02 12

~
VI

~
V2

V

V

Fig 6.2 Equivalent circuit of a four terminal network.
But it is convenient to represent the output equivalent circuits by following Nortons Theorem as

acurrent generator Vo in parallel with an impedance of Z02. Therefore, the final equivalent zo:
II ZOI 12

circuit reduces to as shown in Fig 6.3.

~
VI V0 2 Z02 Z02

t
V2

V

V

Fig 6.3 Equivalent circuit with the current source.
What is the relationship between the Variables VI' II' V 2, lz' and the constants of the circuits ZOl' Z02' VOl' V0 2, etc? The general symbols that are used m these equivalent circuits are detmedas: h n : Jfvoltage VI is applied to the device, the resulting input current is II then the ratio

V t
h tl h 21
:
:

represents the resistance. This parameter represents input resistance. Units are

I

Ohms ( (2). VOl is related to V 2 as VOl = hl2 V 2. It is called as Reverse voltage gain. The current in the output circuit depends upon the forward current gain and magnitude of the input current I I. Hence I I and 12 are related as 12 = h21 I I· The output of a device has some output resistance or admittance which is represented as h . This is output admittance parameter. Units are in mhos ( U )
22

h 22 :

Therefore, for transistors we use, hll for ZOI or h22 for \/Z0 2 and so on.

316

Electronic Devices and Circuits
The equivalent circuits for a transistor can be represented as shown in Fig 6.4. II hll
12

Fig 6.4 Equivalent circuit of a transistor.
This is the hybrid equivalent circuit for a transistor. From the equivalent circuit, VI = hllII + h l2 V 2 12 = h21 I I + h22 V 2 These h-parameters are constant for a given circuit but they depend upon the type of Configuration i.e. parameters vary depending upon, whether the circuit is in Common Emitter, or Common Base or Common Collector Configuration. So these are represented as h ,h ,hfi and h in Common Emitter Configuration. The second subscript 'e' indicating co~hto~e Em1tter. {~Common Base Configuration, these are represented as h b' h b' htb and h b' In Common Collector Configuration, the h - parameters are represented as hi, h 0, h., and h r. The second subscript 'b' and 'c' indicating common base and IC oc IC rc common collector. The general equations are .......... ( 6.1 ) VI =hlIII +h 12 V 2 .......... ( 6.2 ) 12 = h21I1 + h22 V 2 From the first equation 6.1, VI h II = -I when V 2 = 0
J

........... ( 6.3 )

It has the units of Resistance and V 2 = 0 indicates that output is shorted. Therefore, hJJ. is the input .resistance when output is shorted. It is represented as h. , in Common Emmer

Confi guratlOn.
h21

~

= ~I
II
V2 = 0

..... (
Ie

6.4 )

This is Forward Current Transfer Ratio or Forward Current Gain, or Forward Short Circuit Current Gain V 2 = 0 means, output is shorted. Second subscript 'e' in h represents C.E. Configuration.

h12

=

~I I
2 '1=0

.......... (6.5 ) .......... (6.6 )

It is the ratio of input voltage to the output voltage. Hence it is called as Reverse Voltage

Gain, with Input Open Circuited, since I) = O.
h22

=

~I

2 '1 =0

This parameter is called the Output Conductance when the Input is open circuited.

Amplifiers
6.2.1
OUTPUT CONDlJCTANCE

317

In the audio frequency range, the h - parameters are real numbers ( Integers). But beyond this frequency range, they become complex. The reason is that in the audio frequency range, the effect of Capacitance and Inductance

= 21tfC. If f is small, Xc :: 00 and can be neglected (Open Circuit). Inductive Reactance XL = 21tfL. If f is small X :: 0 and can be neglected
are negligible. Capacitive reactance, Xc (Short Circuit). Beyond. audio frequency range, they can't be neg1ected and reactances must also be considered. Transistor can be represented as a two port active device. It is specified by two voltages input and output and two currents input and output. The Representation can be shown as in the Fig 6.5 .

1

. zS_1___ 1_---iI TWO Port Active DeVicell-__
Fig 6.5 Block diagram.

~_i

O(-_ _

i2_ _ _

v-x~

Current flows only when there is closed path. Input current enters the two port device and the output current flows through the return path back into the device. Hence the direction ofI2 is as shown. Now of these 4 quantities (iI' i2, vI' v 2 ) two can be chosen as independent parameters and the remaining two can be expressed as variables. A transformer is a two port device. But V I and V 2 cannot be chosen as independent VI 12 parameters because V = ~. Hence we cannot choose independent parameters on our choice.
2

If v2 and i I are chosen as Independent Variables, then v I and i2 can be expressed in terms ofv2 and i l . VI = hlli l +h 12 v 2 .......... (6.7) i2 = h21 i l + h22 v2 .......... ( 6.8 ) hll is in n, h\2 is constant, h21 is constant and h22 is in mhos. All these are not the same dimensionally. Hence these are known as Hybrid Parameters. Suffix 1 indicates input side and Suffix 2 denotes output side. h-parameters are defined as, hI I =

~II
I V2=0

Input Resistance with Output Shorted. (0) Reverse Voltage Gain with Input open circuited (Dimension Less) Forward Current Gain with Output Shorted ( Dimension Less ). Output Conductance with Input Open Circuited ( U )

h 12
h21

=~I v
=

2 il =0

~21

I v2=O

h22 =

~21

2 11=0

318

Electronic Devices and Circuits

But, according to IEEE Standards, the notation used is 'i' for 11 ( input) '0' for 22 ( output) 'f' for 21 ( Forward Transfer) and 'r' = 12 (Reverse Transfer). The subscripts b, c or e are used to denote Common Base, Common Collector or Common Emitter Configurations. Thus for Common Emitter Configuration, the equation are . .......... ( 6.9 ) v 1 -hIe 11 +h re • v2 i2 =h fe i 1+ hoe v2· .......... (6.10) If the device has no reactive components, the hybrid parameters are real. But if the device consists of reactive elements also, h - parameters will be functions of frequency. The four h - parameters can be used to construct a mathematical model of an Amplifier Circuit. The Circuit representing the two equations relating v 1' v2' i1 and i2 is shown in the Fig 6.6. h12 v2 is a Voltage Source. h21 i2 is a Current Source.

Fig 6.6 h-parameter equivalent circuit

6.3

TRANSISTOR HYBRID MODEL

In drawing the equivalent circuit of a transistor, we assume that the Transistor Parameters are constant. With the variation in operating points, transistor parameters will also vary. But we assume that the Quiescent or operating point variation is small. The advantages of considering h-parameters for transistor are They are easy to measure. Can be obtained from Transistor characteristics. They are real numbers at audio frequencies. Convenient to use in circuit design and analysis. Manufactures specify a set of h-parameters for transistors. 6.4 TRANSISTOR IN COMMON EMITTER CONFIGURATION
The variables are ib, ie' Vb and ve. We can select ib and ve as independent parameters. vb =f1 (i andve ) ........ (6.11) b

1. 2. 3. 4.

These are DC quantities Incremental variation (Elementary Changes) in DC is considered as a.c. quantity. So small/etters v and i are used..

Therefore, Vb depends upon ib, and also the Voltage across Collector and Emitter is VCE ........ (6.12) i e = f2 ( i b, ve )

Amplifiers

319

Making a Taylor Series Expansion of ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) and neglecting Higher Order Terms, ilv b =

aa:11

ilib + aaf
c

1

18 V

Vc 1

I

ilvC

........ ( 6.13 )

b

iliC =

a~21
18

af2 ilib + a V Vc c

1 ilvc
Ib

........ ( 6.14 )

ilv ,ilic are A.C. quantities and ( Incremental Variations in D.C. quantities). The quantities ilv b, ili b, Xv c and ilic represent small signal (incremental) base and collector voltages and currents. They are represented as Vb' ib, Vc' and ic ( A.C. quantities, so small letters are used) vb = h Ie ib + h re Vc ........ ( 6.15 ) ic=hfeib+hoevc where ........ (6.16) Vc is kept constant ........ ( 6.17 )

af aV b h = ~ 1 = ai
Ie
U1b

I

B Vc= K

h -avBI re -

avc

........ ( 6.18 )
IB= K

DC values ofi b ~: or~vCd~c KI
........ ( 6.19 ) fe ACib=OorvC=O h - aic oe aVe ai B
Vc= K

I
Ib=K

( ib is kept constant)

........ ( 6.20 )

Parameters 6.17 to 6.20 represent h-parameters for C.E configuration from equations ( 5 ) and ( 6 ), we can draw the equivalent circuit.

6.5

DETERMINATION OF h-PARAMETERS FROM THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TRANSISTOR

The output characteristics of a Transistors in Common Emitter Configuration are as shown in Fig. 6.7.

Q

A

Is = Const.
VCE

= Const - - .

VCE

Fig 6. 7 Transistor output characteristics (To determine hr,e,hoe graphically)

320

Electronic Devices and Circuits

h fe -

aiel ai B

Ve=K

i _ AibCI v -0 L'1 c-

hI£! h can he determined/rom output characteristics. hi£! h,e can he determined from inpul~haracteristics.
Suppose Q is the Quiescent Point around the operating point hfi is to be determined. For hfl , we have to take the ratio of incremental change in ib keeping V ~onstant. From the output characteristics two values i ,and i are taken corresponCling to ib a~d ib . Then,
CI C2 I 2

h fe

= (iC2 - iC1 )/(i b2 - i bl )

h fc is also known as Small-Signal Beeta (13) of the transistors. Since we are determining the incremental values of Current Ratio of iC and i b. h te is represented as 13· 13 is represented as hfi and is called large signal 13. 13 = i / ib, since here no incremental values are being considered. e c

h
oe

=

aie av e I Ib=K

Output characteristics of a transistor are plotted between i and v. Therefore, h is the slope of the output characteristics, corresponding to a give n value 'bfIb at the operating point. For Common Emitter Configuration, in exactly the same way we have drawn for amplifier system, the h-parameter equivalent circuit can be drawn. The Transistor in Common Emitter Mode is shown in Fig. 6.8. The h-parameter equivalent is shown in Fig. 6.9
+-i
c

C

C

E~----------~--~

Fig 6.8 Common emitter configuration.
+ 8
~ib

h.Ie
+
hreib

+-ic

i

C

Vb

h re V ce

~

V ce

i
E

E

~

Fig 6.9 Equivalent circuit in C.E. configuration.

;Amplifiers
Equations are Vb= h Ie ib+ h reVc iC=htei b +hoevc

321 .......... ( 6.21 ) .......... ( 6.22 )

6.6

COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION ( CC )

The NPN Transistor in Common Collector Configuration is shown in Fig 6.10. The h - parameter equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 6.11.
+-i c

B

NPN

v e =V0
Fig 6.10 Common collector configuration.
Equations are, v=hi+hve b Ie b re . -h t.t. +h V t e eb oe e

Fig 6.11 Equivalent circuit in common collector.
........... ( 6.23 ) .......... ( 6.24 )

Common Base Configuration ( CB )
Transistor in Common Base Configuration is shown in Fig. 6.12. The h-parameter equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 6.13.
~i

E

r
Ve

.1
Fig 6.12 C.B. Configuration.
The equations are, v e = hI b ie r bV +he

1 •

Fig 6.13 Equivalent Circuit in C.B.

ie = htbi e + h0 bVe The above circuits are valid for NPN or PNP Transistors. For PNP Transistors, the direction of current will be different from NPN Transistor. Therefore, at the operating point, Q, a tangent AB is drawn The slope of AB gives hoe .

322

Electronic Devices and Circuits

h.Ie

h -aV b I Ie -

alb

ve=K

Llib

This can be obtained from the input characteristics. The input characteristics are drawn as shown in the Fig 6.14. Then a tangent drawn at the operating point and its slope directly gives hoe .
hre

~IB

h =
re

aV b

aYe

Fig 6.14 To determine h'J h re graphically. Ie

=V
b2

~:bc I

Ic=K

From the input characteristics corresponding to two values Vc and Vc VB and VBare
V
-

noted then the ratio V _ V
C2

bl
CI

I

2

I

2

gives h re ·

Here we have seen the methods of determining 'h' parameters for Common Emitter Configuration. The same is true for Common Base and Common Collector Configuration. 6.7 HYBRID PARAMETER VARIATIONS From the above analysis, it is clear that, when 'Q' the operating point is given, from input and output characteristics of the given transistors, we can determine the h-parameters. Conversely if the operating point is changing, the 'h' parameters will also change. Ie changes with temperature. Hence 'h' parameters of a given transistor also change with temperature because the output and input characteristics change with temperature . Hence when the manufactures specify typical h-parameters for a given transistor, they also specify the operating point and temperature. SpecifYing the operating point is giving the values of If! p and VeE ( DC Values). h fe the small signal current amplification factor is very sensitive to Ic' Its variations is as shown in Fig 6.15. The variation ofh fe with IE and Temperature T are shown in Fig. 6.16.

1
h,.
--~)Ic

i
) IE

50·C

Fig 6.15 Vqriation of hie with Ie

Fig 6.16 Variation of hie with IE and T.

E. TO C. in the three transistor configurations. The circuit in Fig. In Common Emitter Configuration.5 x 10-4 50 24J. 6. B 'b --thrbv~ v B B C E ! VBE hOb t VBCJvce E t rho E Vee t ! E Fig 6.49J.C voltages and currents.8 CONVERSION OF PARAMETERS FROM C. !fence the ci~cuit has to be drawn as ~hown ~n the Fig.B.lAN 6.V is across h b' I is entering into htb I and h b' There is nJ connection b~tween E and C termmais.C characteristics of the transistors But the' h' parameters are defined with respect to A.1 Comparison of h-parameters in the three configurations (at IE Parameter hJ hr hf ho = 1. base is common point Hence the above circuit is to be redrawn so as to get' E' emitter.1. h b is in parallel with hjb I . Common Collector and Common Base are given in the Table 6.17 is the h-parameter equivalent circuit in Common Base Configuration.18 is in Common Emitter Configuration.3 rnA) CE I loon 2.18 (b) .17 h . Emitter is the common point In C. 6.18 is exaGtly the same as Fig. Hence invert the voltage source h rb Vcb ' From the -ve ofh rb V cb ' we go to htb Ie pomt: I~ Ves 1 B B Fig 6. 6.Amplifiers 323 We are determining these h parameters from the static D.C.9xI0-4 -0. Typical values of h-parameters at room temperature.17. We are taking incremental values of DC to represent AC quantities.lAlV CC 11000 ~1 -51 25J.B. 6.98 0. So AC voltage Vb may be represented as small changes in D. This circuit is to be redrawn in the Common Emitter Configuration.18 (a) Equivalent Circuits Fig.lAN CB 21.parameters circuit in C. Table 6.17. But the figure in 6. 6. as the ~ommon point.B. namely Common Emitter. The circuit shown in Fig. configuration htb I is as shown.60 2. levels of V BE' Hence the above graphical analysl~ is correct.

." Vbe = Vbc + Vce (of redrawn equivalent circuit) Vbe + Vee hre = ---"''-v--'''''ee 18 =0 ~be I I ee 18=0 IfIb = 0. 0 Hence hfb Ie .. .26 ) l.andhobh «(l+hfb)= 'b h'bhob _ h hre == 1+ h tb rb.. I = hOb· V be ..I = Ic hfb 1-1=-1e e or I=hfble +1. ( 6. Ie gets brandied through hob)...hrb)(l + h tb ) hjbhob .(1 + htb)hrb hjbhob + (1.h rb )(1 + h tb ) h = 1 + Vbc re Vee hrb « = hjbhob .(1 + htb )hrb (l+h )..25 ) 1= (l + hfb) Ie· hob V be = (l + hfb) Ie or I e h = (1 + VbC) re V = --"!<-. But the current Through h b is I.... +rV hI'b x Ie h beb + Vbe + Vee = 0 = (hjbhOb)Vbc =-h V +V +V =0 1+ htb rb be be ce or Hence But Hence. hob Vbc l+hfb Applying KVL to the output mesh.=1e (l +hfb) e Since hob represents conductance....... IB + Ie + IE = 0 for any Transistor. ( 6.324 Electronic Devices and Circuits But h = = Reverse Voltage Gain re ce lb.!::!:. (I is in oppoCsite direction... I =-I .. tb ... Therefore. Vee hjbhob + (1...

..hrb V cb = O. 1+1 +h tbe -h obbe =0 I V be or I = (1 + h ) __r_b V + h V b tb be ob J-h h lb be Hence then .. So the .Amplifiers 315 h Ie = Vbe Ib v"''"'' Ifwe connect terminals C and B together. 6..b Applying KCL to node B. I = .--------i I 0 0 Fig 6... The operating point is chosen by suitably adjusting R2. V be + h lb Ie ....18. VEE and V ce' there by adjusting the values of Ic and V CB' The h-parameters depend upon the frequency ot operation.hrb)ybe h e . PNP transistors are taken into account.. 6.Vbe = + h Vb I Vbc=Vbe ·· . Applying KVL around the I mesh on the left hand side.. ( 6.19 to determine the h-parameter.. hOb Ie rbe .19 Circuit for determining h .parameters.--------. .(I . we get the circuit as (the same redrawn circuit in Common Base Configuration with C and B shorted) is shown in Fig.9 MEASUREMENT OF h-PARAMETERS In the circuit shown in Fig..27 ) 6.. Com bmmg t hese two equatIOns.

(as shown by the dotted lines). vc Since the input resistance of the transistor is small compared to the Tank Circuit Resistance. all the current Ib flows into the transistors alone. Therefore. as water is stored in a tank. Voltage of V is = 0 or the collector is at ground potentta{for A. voltages. while determining the h-parameter. 1 KHz is in the audio frequency range. The stray signal will pass through the LC tank circuit. But if the collector is dfrectly connected to the ground. The operating point will change h parameters. of the order of500kO. the tank circuit impedahece is v~ large.Vs .c. So the h-parameters are assumed to be real at audio frequency. Hence AC short circuit is to be done. since it offers least impedance. So this is called AC short circuit. Hence the D. The tank circuit is tuned to the same frequency of the signal generator (1KHz). The input Sloe can be regarded as open circuit. So spurious signal will not affect the net voltages and currents of the transistor. because energy is· stored in these elements.C.326 Electronic Devices and Circuits signal generator is adjusted to be 1KHz.parameters differ. I Now h = JCRI fe Vs where V0 is the voltage across Rr hand h are defined when Ih = 0 or input is open circuited. But the A. is used for LC Parallel circuit.C values of VCE' I will not change at all.I b-~ . C:z. at which frequency normally all the transistor h parameters are specified by the manufactures. = Vs b RI Now hand hfj are determined when V = 0 or the collector is shorted to ground.1 will be different and VCE will be different. The tank Circuit impedance will be very high at this frequency. h re = Vbl Vc Ib=O = Vb Vc . This will prevent any stray pick up. tank circuit.C. This is very high compared to the input resistance of the transistor. ~ill block D. The signal generator is connected on the output side. Rs is negligible compared to ~ ( 1MO ). Vb hie = ~ I . The name. Dep~nding on the operating pomt h .

or a transducer like thermocouple. So this additional energy is being gained from the D. Input signal is a low level voltage such as the one obtained from a tape head. So without Vee or DC Bias Voltage. DC Source AMPLIFIER Fig 6. So in the case of electrical signals. The notations that are used in the case of amplifier circuit are ( Fig.C. Internal resistance of the source in Amplifier input resistance. The amplifier may be thought of as a black box.21 Block schematic. and two output terminals for the connection of the load and a means of supplying power to the amplifier. that has two input terminals. a motor in a servo amplifier or a relay in control applications.20 ). V I s s R s RI VI Vo I o = = Ro Open circuit signal voltage Source or signal current. the output of the amplifier is an enlarged version of the input to amplify means to increase the size. One of the input and output terminals will be common for the input and output ( Fig.Amplifiers 6. the circuit will not work. The signal to be amplified may be AC or DC. if it is voltage or power amplifications. .21 ) Vee AMPLIFIER Fig 6. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. 6. bias supply.10 GENERAL AMPLIFIER CHARACTERISTICS 327 An amplifier generally produces an enlarged version of an input signal. In ~ny case. there is some additional energy being gained by the output signal. The output load can be a loud speaker in an audio amplifier. 6. (in the case of transistor amplifier circuit).20 Block schematic of amplifier. Amplifier input voltage Amplifier output voltage Amplifier output current Load Resistance. pressure gauge etc. n.

328

Electronic Devices and Circuits

Current Gain Voltage Gain Power Gain

A

= 10 15 - •
I

. I. - io peak to peak
15

peak to peak

_ V 1 V = Vo peak to peak Av - 0 I VI peak to peak

A = -.JL= ~ =A A
P

p


I

p.

I

V.is

An amplifier mayor may not exhibit both voltage and current gains, but in general, it exhibits power gain. 6.10.1
AMPLIFIER INPUT RESISTANCE R.
J

The amplifier circuit presents a load R to the source which can be 50 n to few thousand n for I transistor circuits. The input voltage to the amplifier will be reduced from V by an amount that depends on s both Rand R.I (Fig. 6.22 ) S

V=iRS 5
V.I

vs

1

Fig 6.22 Input side equivalent circuit for an amplifier.
V=Vx
I S
I

+Rj IfR.» R the input voltage to the amplifier is same as that of V . or ifR is small then also V. = V ushally It = 50 n. From the above equation, we can determir:e the input resistance of a gi~en :mplifier ci}cuit by noting the open circuit voltage ofthe voltage source V and then voltage V.I after connections to the amplifier. If RS of the voltage source is known, R.I can be calculated.
6.10.2
AMPLIFIER OUTPUT RESISTANCE Ro

R.I +R S

1 =Vx--

sIRs

R. is used to denote the load resistance. So Ro is the output resistance of the amplifier circuit. (Fig. 6.23). The amplifier can be represented as a voltage source in series with internal resistance of Ro in parallel with 1\ is the external load resistance K is the amplification factor.

Amplifiers

329

R.."'-L_ = KV x - - V =Ky' __ o I I 1 Ro

+RL

Output voltage V can be made large by increasing the value ofRL But the output current will be small and so the °current gain will fall. Hence power gain will also be less. In order to get maximum power gain, R, should be matching with R . It should be complex conjugate of R according to Maximum P'ower Transfer Theorem. For °this purpose, matching transformers ar~ used (::
=

~:)

in the output stage of an amplifier. Similarly matching transformers are also

used to couple one stage of an amp lifer to the second stage, if the input resistance of the second stage amplifier is very small.

vo
KV. •

i 1

Fig 6.23 Output side equivalent circuit. Conversion Efficiency :
An amplifier circuit draws energy from the D.C. source and amplifies the A.C. signal. The D.C. supply provides the major portion of the extra energy. A.C. signal power delivered to the load I 00 ~ . ConversIOn TJ = . .. x =:: p . D.C. tnput power to the actIve devIce DC This is also known as collector circuit efficiency in the case of transistor and plate circuit efficiency in the case of tube amplifier circuits.

Problem 6.1
A single stage amplifier employing one active device, is powered by a 9V battery which has a current drain of20 rnA. Ifthe load voltage is 3V at 12 m A, determine the conversion TI.
Po == Volo == 3x 12x 10-3 ==36mW Poc ==Vocloc ==9x20xI0- ==180mW
n=::

3

.•

36 xI00=20% 180 .

330

Electronic Devices and Circuits

6.11 ANALYSIS OF TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT USING h-PARAMETERS
To form transistor amplifier configuration, we connect a load impedance ZL and a signal source as shoWn in Fig. 6.24.
Rs

1

II ~

~ 12

2

+ t
VI
Transistor

+t
V2

,1. IL
ZL

,1.

-,1.
2'
Fig 6.24 Amplifier circuit.

l'

rransist~r can be connected insC.E, C.B. and C.C. Configuration. To analyse these circuits i.e. to
determine the current gain AI' Voltage gain A , input impedance, output impedance etc, we can use the h parameters. So the equivalent circuit fo; the above transistor amplifier circuit in general form without indicating C.E, C.B, or C.C. Configuration, can be denoted as in the Fig. 6.25.

V is the signal source, R is the resistance of the signal source, and ZL is the load impedance.

Rs

1

II ~

hi

2

,1.-

l'
Fig 6.25 .h-parameter equipvalent circuit (general repersentation).
Current Amplification,
A
_-1.,.
I II'

I

But

1L = - 12

A
I

=-~.

I' 1

Negative sign is because 12 is always represented as flowing into the current source. For a transistor PNP or NPN type, if it is flowing out of the transistor, 12 is represented as - 12, Now voltage across Z2 is taken with 2 as +ve and 21 as -ve The directIons of IL are as shown and IL = -1 2, From the above circuit we have, But 12=hfll+hoV2 V2 = IL ZL = - 12, ZL (Since IL =-12)

Amplifiers

331

or
A =_ ~=
I II

-hf 1+ hoZL

.......... ( 6.28 )

Negative sign indicates that I) and 12 are out of phase by 180°. 6.11.1 INPUT IMPEDANCE: Z. Input impedance of any circuie is the impedance we measure looking back into the amplifier circuit. Now amplifier terminals are 1and 11. R is the resistance of the signal source. So to determine the output Z ofthe amplification alone, Sit need not be considered.

Z=~
I

II

But Hence

VI

= hi I) + hr V 2 ·
.......... ( 6.29 )

VI V2 Z = -=h l +h r - · I II II

But

V

, 2 12ZL'
= = hi

..

~2

= (

~:2 ) ZL = AI ZL

.......... ( 6.30 )

Substituting the values of V 2 in Equation ( 6.29 ),

I Zj
But
A
I
I

+ hr' ArZL
-hf

I

1+ hoZL h f hrzL Z =hI

= ---'-

1+ hoZL

Z
I

=h
I

_

hfh r

YL +ho

.......... ( 6.31 )

Y I... i~ load a~mittance. Therefore, Input impedance is a function of load impedance.

If

ZL -

0, YL ..

00,

ZI=hl

6.11.2

VOLTAGE GAIN

But

332
But

Electronic Devices and Circuits

12 = - AI· 1\
V 2 = + AI" 1\ ZL·
~

A1l1Z L
-

v1

V1
I

But

~=Z. 1
1

z.=h.I I

hf.hr
_l_+h RL 0

A1Z L A =-V ZI

.......... ( 6.32 )

o The output impedance can be determined by using two assumptions ZL =

6.11.3

OUTPUT ADMITTANCE, Y

00, and Vs =

°

Yo is defined as
But Dividing by V2,

;2

I

with ZL =

00

12 _ y _ h l h - - 0 - -r- 1 + V2 V2 0 From the equivalent circuit with V 5 = 0,

.......... ( 6.33 )

Rs· 1\ + hi 1\ + hr V2 = 0.
Dividing by V2 Through out, we get RS.I1 + hil1 +h =0
V2 or V2
r

..!L=
V2

-h r hi +Rs

.......... ( 6.34 )

Substitute this value in the equation for Yo or equation 6.23.

Y
o

= h ( - hr ) + ho
r
hi + Rs

Amplifiers

333

Therefore, Zo = iN0 Therefore, output admittance is a function of Source Resistance R where as Z. is a function ofY L " IfRS = 0, Y0 -=:: h. Since (hfh rIh I ) is very small. S I 0

6.11.4

VOLTAGE GAIN A

vs

CONSIDERING SOURCE RESISTANCE, R
=

s

A
vs

V

2

= V2

Vs VI Vs Vs This is the equivalent circuit of the input side of the amplifier circuit. V =
1 Zj

x~=Av'~'

Vs.zj +Rs

~Is

Avs =
A = -1...
v

r
Z.I
vI

'v

Fig 6.26 Voltage source.
But

A1Z L IfR = 0 A = A . .. ........ ( 6.35 ) Rs + Zj . S 'vs v Hence Av is the voltage gain of an ideal voltage source with zero terminal resistance. 6.11.5 CURRENT GAIN A IS CONSIDERING SOURCE RESISTANCE The input source can also be represented as a current source Is in parallel with resistance R or voltage source V in series with resistance R . Now let us consider the input source as a cur';ent source in parallelSwith Rs' The equivalent circSuit is 1 +

A

vs

It i
ZjVI
1..-_ _"--_ _ ,

l'

Fig 6.27 Current source.
.......... ( 6.36 )

334

Electronic Devices and Circuits
. Is·R s From the Fig 6.27, I) = Rs + Zj
.. A IS

= (R s + Z.) = (R s + 2.)
.......... ( 6.37 )

AI xRs

AI·R,

If Rs = 00 , AI =A IS ' Therefore, AI is the current gain for an ideal source AI.z L Now A = Z R vs j + s

AI·R s Avs = Z, + Rs
A Z Dividing 1 and 2, A vs = RL
IS S
.

.......... ( 6.38 )

or

.......... ( 6.39 )

This equation is independent of the transistor parameters This is valid if the equivalent current and voltage sources have the same resistance. 6.11.6 POWER GAIN Ap
2 L 2 A =_= __ P PI VIII =Ay.AI

P

VI

AI,Z L A=-y Z,
........ ( 6.40 )

6.12 COMPARISON OF THE CE, CB, CC CONFIGURATIONS
Of the three, it is the most versatile. Its voltage and current gain are> I. Input and output resistance vary least with Rand R . R. and R values lie between maximum and minimum for all the thr~e conttgurktions. °Phase shift of 1800 between V and V . Power Gain is Maximum. , ° C.B : AI < 1 Av > I. R is the lowest and R is the highest. It has few applications. Sometimes it is u~ed to match low imp~dance source V I and V 0 . No phase shift. C.C : Av < 1. AI is very high. It has very high input Z and low output Z. So it is used as a buffer between high Z source and low impedance load. It is also called as emitter follower. To analyse circuit consisting of a number of Transistors, each Transistor should be replaced by its equivalent circuit in h-parameters. The emitter base and collector points are indicated and other circuit elements are connected without altering the circuit Configuration. This way the circuit analysis becomes easy. C.E :

Amplifiers Example 6.2

335

Find the Common Emitter Hybrid parameters in terms of the Common Collector Hybrid parameters for a given transistor.

Solution
We have to find h. ,h ,h" and h
Ie re Ie oe

in terms ofh. ,h ,h" and h .
IC rc IC oc

The transistor circuit in Common Collector Configuration is shown in Fig. 6.28. The h-parameter equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 6.29 .
...... i
<

B

1
Fig 6.29 Equivalent circuit. Fig 6.28 For Example 5.2.

C.C :
vb -h IC' . +h rC ve Ib ie = h., ib + h0 C v e. IC ie =h fe ib -i] = (h fe ib - Vce hoc) v be =i b .h Ie -h re v ee +v ee =i b .h IC But h Ie =h Ie .
........ ( 6.41 )

Sincevce =0

ie = - ib - ie = - ib -hfe . ib .+ hoe v ee

336

Electronic Devices and Circuits

But

vce =0

= - i b - (hfeb - hoeee ) i v
=

-i b -hfeb + hocee i v

vee =0

hie =
........ ( 6.42 )

V

be

=i ble -h reee +Vee . h V

i b =0

h =re

hrevee + Vee Vee

=l-h

re

........ ( 6.43 )

ie =-i e -ib But ib = O. ieI=ie ie =Vee hoc

ie =-ie =-hfu ib +Vee hoc hoe =hoe Since,
ib = 0

........ ( 6.44 )

i e =Vee x hoc

hoe =h oc

is admittance in mhos ('0).

Amplifiers
6.13 SMALL SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF JUNCTION TRANSISTOR

337

Small Signal Analysis means, we assume that the inputAC signal peak to peak amplitude is very
small around the operating point Q as shown in Fig. 6.30. The swing of the signal always lies in the active region, and so the output is not distorted. In the Large Signal Analysis, the swing of the input signal is over a wide range around the operating point. The magnitude ofthe input signal is very large. Because of this the operating region will extend into the cut-off region and also saturation region.

i
Fig 6.30 Operating point Q.
6.13.1 COMMONEMITTERAMPLIFIER Common Emitter Circuit is as shown in the Fig. 6.31. The DC supply, biasing resistors and coupling capacitors are not shown since we are performing an AC Analysis.

B

Fig 6.31 C.E. Amplifier circuit.
Vs is the input signal source and Rs is its resistance. The h-parameter equivalent for the above circuit is as shown in <fig. 6.32.

it is the Reverse Voltage Gain.----. hoe = 8 J. VBE hie = -1.2V 9ie = 50 x 10-6 Ic hfe = -I B = 4Kn = 100 .2 x 10-3 . Is in IlA.. . 100 IlAand so on.338 I h =~ oe VeE I B . VSE is a fraction of volt 0. Because. re VCE re Output Output is » input. because amplification takes place. The typical values of the h-parameter for a transistor in Common Emitter Configuration are.. Ie is in rnA and Is in IlA.) The general expression for Ri in the case of Common Emitter Transistor Circuit is . hie=4 Kn..l U and hoe = V· CE I Ic INPUT RESISTANCE OF THE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (R... .32 h-parameter equivalent circuit.2V. \ 0.--~~C vs "'" + E Fig 6.--_.and VeE> VSE .. B ~ince.----. Therefore hre « 1. hfe » 1 :::: J3 hre = 0.J Electronic Devices and Circuits B=<l ~IB . h __ Input VBE h = .

hre will change with frequency jofthe input signal. 6... L ~ varies with frequency f because h-parameters will vary with frequency. Ro depends on Rs' If ~ is very small compared to hje' . R j decreases as RL increases. hfe . with R . It is of the order of few hundred O. the second term cannot be neglected.-I I I lKQ IMO Fig 6. R j = hje . R j is not affected by RL ifRL < I KO and RL> I MO as shown in Fig.( finite value) Therefore. 6. _1_ will be negligible compared RL to hoe' Therefore. If RL is very small. The graph showing ~ versus RL is indicated in Fig.33..33 Variation of R. R 3KQ I I 300Kn I I I I I I I I -+----------. _1_ is large.. R j remains constant. .Amplifiers For Common Emitter Configuration. therefore the denominator in the RL second term is small or it can be neglected. R o = 1 hoe _ ( hreh fe ) hie +Rs Rs is the resistance of the source.". ~ == hie' If RL increases. IfRL is very large. OUTPUT RESISTANCE OF AN AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (Ro) For Common Emitter Configuration. 339 R j depends on RL.33.

34 Variation of R 0 with R S CURRENT GAIN ( A) I h re A·= --=-I l+h oe RL If RL is very small. Ai::: h fe ::: 100. Current Gain is large for Common Emitter Configuration. Because. Ai drops and when RL = 00. when RL = 00.35 Variation ofAi with R • L . Variation of Ai with RL is shown in Fig. hoe 800 KO The graph is as shown in Fig. 10 = O.I t R.35.--+Fig 6. Therefore. As RL increases.340 Electronic Devices and Circuits Ro = h _ hreh re (independent ofRs) oe Then. Ro will be large of the order of few hundred KO. Ai = O.34. So. 6. then Ro =-1 =150 KO. 100 KO A. If ~ is very large. Ro i 200KQ ------------~--- Rs--+Fig 6. Ai = o. 6..

POWER GAIN As ~ increases. Ay also increases. But ifRL » _1_. As RL increases.36 Variation of Av with R .---.--. output voltage increases and hence Av increases..36). 6. L If RL is low. As RL increases. most of the output current flows through RL. 1 Output Voltage = hoe' Ib . Therefore. AI decreases. hoe (RL is in parallel with hoe' So voltage across hoe= voltage across RL)· Therefore. Power Gain which is the product of the two.37 Variation ofAp with R .37. L .-------_. Ay and AI varies as shown in Fig. then the current from the current generator hoe in the h-parameters equivalent circuit flows through hoe and not RL. Then the. I lKn 7100Mn L Fig 6. Ap t RL -+ Fig 6. V 0 remains constant as output voltage remains constant (Fig.Amplifiers VOLTAGE GAIN (AV) 341 -.6.

ie. . 4.5K. 180 0 phase-shift between input and output voltages. Moderately High Output Resistance (lOOKn . amplifier circuit.39 CB. Amplifier circit. 6. Vo = Vee .800Kn). Large Current Amplification. Large Power Gain. there is a phase shift of 180°. Low to Moderate Input Resistance (300n .342 Electronic Devices and Circuits Power Gain is maximum when RL is in the range 100 KO .2 COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER The circuit diagram considering only A. S. 6.Q). 6.38 CE. Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier Circuit will have.39. under such conditions. Large Voltage Amplification. Therefore Drop across Rc increases. As the input current iB' increases. The amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. Therefore. B G Fig 6. 3. 2.13. when RL is equal to the output resistance of the transistor.1MO. Maximum power will be delivered. 6. Fig 6. it can be summarised as.(drop and across Rc)' Therefore.38.C is shown in Fig. ic increases. 1.

1 R L can be neglected.0. hjb is small. RI varies from 200 to 5000. when RL is very large. This current flows in between base and collector loop. 6. Rj = hib :: 300. R . oon i 20n ~ RL 100Mn R l Fig 6. = 0 = 37 x 10-6 (Typical Value) hrb is small.=h. h = Veb rb V cb I. the second term can be neglected. L . because Veb will be very small and Veb is large.7 x 10-8 mhos (Typical Value) Ie will be very small because Ie = o. So.h hfb·h rb i.ib. Ie is in rnA. INPUT RESISTANCE (R) I Ri = h ib - 1 h ob + RL hfb·h rb htb is -ve when RL is small < 100 KO. + ~ I Ib h ob The variation ofRI with RL is shown in Fig. htb= 343 IIe e VCb =0 = .99 (Typical Value) 6.40.40 Variation of Ri with R .h ob So Ri :: 5000 (Typical value) [.: ~ is negative] h h R..Amplifiers Veb is small fraction of a vo It.

in the denominator..41 Variation of Ro with Rs' CURRENT GAIN (A. Therefore. Because hfe < 1. ib But htb is negative.344 OUTPUT RESISTANCE (RO) Electronic Devices and Circuits Ro = h h h ob . of the order of300 KO. As RL increases. 6.-. [This will be much larger because.41. Ai is negative due to hib.) I A I = -hfb 1+ hobRL Ai is < 1. Ro == h 1 ob also increases. (Ay ~ 0. as RL~ 0 ). 6. Ro = ((hOb - h:~tb ). Ai decreases. ~fl2 _________ _ Ro t (K. Ro == 12MO The variation ofRo with Rs is shown in Fig. 6. Ro == h h rb fb h b+-o h This will be sufficiently large. VOLTAGE GAIN (Av) As RL increases.] . As Rs increases. Av also tends to zero. IfRL tends to zero. value of hob is small. in the previous case..42. The variation of Ai with RL is shown in Fig. . some quantity is subtracted from hob.43.Q) --+ Rs Fig 6. rbfb h ib + Rs IfRs is small.The variation of Voltage Gain Av with RL is shown in Fig. Ay also increases.

13.43 Variation of Av with RL Fig 6. High Output Resistance (MQ). High Voltage Amplification and No Phase Inversion 5. < 1. Therefore. Ap t 40 n Fig 6.44 Variation of A p with R L" The characteristics of Common Base Amplifier with typical values are as given below. . < 1. 6.44.45 (a).42 Variation POWER GAIN (Ap) Power Gain Ap = Ay . 6. But AI decreases as RL increases.Amplifiers 345 ----~------------ A. which is product of both. 4.C. Low Input Resistance (few 100 Q). 2. 3.in Common Collector Configuration is as shown in Fig.3 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER The simplified circuit diagram for A. 1. Current Amplification A.I t 0/ Ai with RL t --+ RL Fig 6. AI Ay increases as RL increases. Moderate Power Gain (30). . of a transistor (BJT). 6. Power Gain. varies withRL as shown in Fig.: A.

7 = x 10. IE and IB are in opposite direction.45 (b). RS B h. E-B junction is not forward biased.45 (b) h-parameter equivalent circuit.780 n ( Typical Value) B VCE=O hoc = ~E I ECIB=O = 7. V BC =V EC ( TYPIcal Value) EC IB=O Because.6 mhos (Typical Value) h fc =.. IB = 0. VBCI hrc = V .346 Electronic Devices and Circuits ~IB Fig 6. VEB = O. .IC Ib--++ i VS '" + +-~ E + !IL hrc Vec Vbc t hfc Ib hoc Vec RL C Fig 6. The h-parameters equivalent circuit of transistor in Common Collector Configuration is shown in Fig.45 (a) Common collector amplifier circuit. hic = ~B~ = 2. 6.' IE» lB' (Typical Value) hfc is negative because'.I ~I B VCE= 0 100 . .

Good Current Amplification. hre is negligible. The graphs (variation with Rc) are similar to Common Base Configuration. For Common Collector Configuration. Av:::' I 5. Low Output Resistance 30 f2 (RJ 3.Amplifiers For other circuit viz Common Base. hrc :::: 1. . AI» I Since. hr is much less thanl.[=----=] h:r~~s 1 hoe - Because. Now Ro of the entire amplifier circuit is. the output voltage ( Emitter Voltage) follows the input signal variatio~. Characteristics 347 1. the second term can be neglected. Therefore. [ h +oe R L J RL is very small and hre is negligible. Ri input resistance looking into the base is hie only The expression for Ri of the transistor alone = hie - hfehre1 .925 KO OUTPUT RESISTANCE (RJ Ro = --. So Ri of the transistor alone is hie. Av is < 1. considering the bias resistors is. Ro of the transistor alone in terms of h-parameters of the transistor = _1_. hoe _1 II R4 = (2. Hence it is also known as Emitter Follower. The graphs of variation with RL and Rs are similar to Common Base amplifier. Now RI of the entire amplifier circuit. High Input Resistance:::: 3 KQ (R) 2. INPUT RESISTANCE (R ) I 4. Lowest Power Gain of all the configurations.1 x 10-3 )11 ( 100 K(l) hoe =2KO. Ri = hie II Rl II R2 R\R2 100 x 100 R\+R2 =100+100 =50KO 2x50 Ri = 2+50 =-~ 1. and Common Emitter.

~= 02 --6.1 V be = lb' hie hIe = 10--4 x (2000) = 0. So the above formula cannot be used. v VI Vi=V be 1: I 6. Vo = -10' RL = (.78V Because. the collector voltage goes more negative. (it is NPN transistor).2y. .78 rnA.78x 10-3 = 104 xl 0-6 = 65.= 2.78 =-33. hfe Ib gets divided between R4 and RL only. because V0 is measured with respect to ground. as base voltage goes more positive.A. Therefore. i.78 x 10-3) x (10-3) =-6. .2 Current Ii = 50 x 103 = 50kO = 4 !lA. all oe the current on the output side.e. But actually 10 flows down.9 Negative sign indicates that there is phase shift of 1800 between input and output voltages. the direction oflo is taken as entering into the circuit. 10 is the current through the 1KO load. (This is AC Voltage not DC ) Voltage across R) R2 parallel configuration is also Vbe' Vbe 0. Current through RL = 10 = hfe lb' R 4 If- R4 +RL I = 100 x 10 o 4 ----::-3--::.1xlO +10 3 ) 6.1. .1 x 10 3 (2.348 CURRENT GAIN Electronic Devices and Circuits (AI) To determine Ai the direct formula for Ai in transistor in Common Emitter Configuration is. h fe • But this cannot be used because the input current Ii gets divided into I) and lb' There 1+ hoeRL is some current flowing through the parallel configuration of R) and R2 .. Current amplification = Ai = Vo A = -.6. Total Input Current II = I) +Ib = 100 + 4 = 104f. = 100 KO is very large compared with R4 and RL . Problem 6.

----.. So it is at ground. So R4 is in parallel with lIhoe in the output.I E Fig 6. Ii R s ~I B C . equivalent circuit in terms of "-parameters of the transistor is shown in Fig.46 estimate Ai' Av ' RI and Ro using reasonable approximations. .6. Vee point is at ground because the AC potential at Vee = o.47.-----. The h-parameters for the transistor are given as hIe = 2000 n hre is negligible and hoe = 10-5mhos. Solution At the test frequency capacitive reactances can be neglected.6. I vo . hfe = 100 + Vee v.---E--""--'--t 10 hoe R4 RL C R IIR I 2 h.47 Equivalent circuit..V.Amplifiers Problem 6. R J is connected between base and ground for AC. R J II R2 · R4 is connected between collector and ground.I Fig 6. Therefore...C.3 349 For the circuit shown in Fig.3.46 For Problem 6. The A.

Hence both the circuits are identical.48 For Problem 6. R4 is in parallel with R7 and R2 is in parallel with R3 ( Fig. Solution: The same circuit can be redrawn as shown in Fig.V 0 Fig 6.49).the capacitors C[ and C 2 can be regarded as short circuits. hie = lKO. . Problem 6.---. So they are not shown in the AC equivalent circuit.48). Because Xc is also negligible. hre is negligible. Circuit in Fig.48 is same as circuit in Fig. estimateAy and R J • _1_ is large compared with the load seen hoe by the transistor. 6. 5x20 R4 " R7 = RL = 20+5 = 4KO. (6. emitter is at ground potential and t&is circuit is in Common Emitter Configuration.350 Electronic Devices and Circuits The voltage source h re V c is not shown since. 6. the direct current source should be shorted to ground. all the AC passes through C3 . Therefore. h fe = 99 and hre is negligible. 6. R4 is between collector and ground and R2 is between base and ground.49. Therefore. R4 is between collector and positive of V cc. Therefore. At the test frequency of the input signal . in Fig. R 2 II R = 3 60x30 = 1800 60 + 30 90 = 20KO. 6. All capacitors have negligible reactance at the test frequency. R2 is between +V cc and base. In the AC equivalent circuit.4.4 Forthe circuit shown. In the second circuit also. The emitter is at ground potential. 1----1 1-----.49.

V.50 Equivalent circuit.: hre is negligible) hl.Amplifiers ~----------~-------r------oVo 351 R. C B B --~------------~--~ C V.51) ( . Ie hoe .49 Redrawn circuit.E 1 E 131 Fig 6. 6.V I =h I =_e_..J. R7 V r 0 12 E --~------------~--~--~~------~----~------~--. c fe b h Ie . r I R211 R 3 h.Vee Fig 6. Therefore. h')b R. the circuit reduces to. (as shown in Fig.~~------~-----------H I + .

1 .1 = 0 974 419.e lKO E s vo E Fig 6. Calculate AI' A v . 8x I 04 = 409.. A Vs ' R 1..parameter as hic = 1.625 X .3 25 x 10-6 + 51 x I (1. effective value will be Rs only.1 4 = 0998 . and Ro for the Common Collector Configuration. with Rs = RL = 10K.998 x 409.R L = 40.51 Simplified circuit.8 x 10 Rj 409. Solution -h"c 5I A = " = 40. RL = - ~-h-'--"'Je h[e vi RL _ Vo _ hteRL -99(4xI03) A .. Problem 6..352 Electronic Devices and Circuits B c 20KO ~ h. h fc = -51..1 KO A y = Aj. Av·R J Ays= R +R I s 0.1 x I 03 + I x 40 . V0 1 = -Ic .5 Given a single stage transistor amplifier with h . hoc = 25 )lA/v.8 I I+hocRL 1+25xlO-6xI04 R 1 = hic + h rc AI RL = 1.1 KO. But since Rs value is very small (R2 parallel R 3). 10.. h rc = 1.---'---~ y V h 10 3 I Ie Ay =-400 Ri is the parallel combination of20KO and hie 20x IkO 20+ I = 9500 While calculating R o' R2 is in parallel with R3 and Rs will come in parallel with these two.1 + 10)10 3 4.

hfe · hre 0.. Solution Expression for Ri is.50 x 10--4.RL ~ = hi + hr Al RL AI Ri .AI·Ay. A = AI·RL Substituting this value ofRL in equation (I) R \..' I ' " I 1. Ri = hie' The value of RL for which Ri = 0.R....= hi \ r' v. hfe = 50 h re = 2.Amplifiers Problem 6. AI =h + h A R. (1) R L = Av·Ri v . hoe = 25~U.. Ri= h iehfe·hre I h oe + R L If RL = 0. what is the maximum value ofRL for which RI differs by no more than 10% of its value at R2 = 0 ? hie = 1100n.6 For any transistor amplifier prove that hi R= .. =h I' + ~.9 hie = hie 1 h +oe RL or .7 For a Common Emitter Configuration.\ I-hrAy 353 Solution R I =h·I But A I -hf = ----'-I +ho. . R.h r A y Problem 6.' .9 hie is found from the expression.

52 is used.e II. The same circuit can be redrawn as AC equivalent circuit. But if still higher input impedance is required a circuit shown in Fig. 6. So. In this circuit. Common Collector Amplifier circuit has high input impedance and low output impedance.3KO O.52 Darlington pair circuit.IxI IOOx25xIO. This circuit is known as the Darlington Connection (named after Darlington) or Darlington Pair Circuit.. Darlington Circuit is nothing but two transistors in Common Collector Configuration connected in series. For the analysis of the circuit.Hence. But its Ay < I. Ihoeh. DC is taken as ground shown in Fig.5xlO. The input resistance of the second transistor constitutes the emitter load of the first transistor. So. There is no resistor connected between the emitter ofQ j and ground i. So. Collector Point.oe Electronic Devices and Circuits hfeh re .Ih.e hfeh re . The AC equivalent Circuit is shown in Fig.e . I x I 100 50x2.53. If the input impedance of the amplifier circuit is to be only 500 KO or less the Common Collector Configuration can be used. consider the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.6 4 6. hoe and hfe . 6.354 1 _ hfe·h re h O. we can assume that infinite resistance is connected between emitter and collector.14 HIGH INPUT RESISTANCE TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS In some applications the amplifier circuit will have to have very high input impedance. Ie enters the transistor and Ib leaves the transistor. .e. 'C' at ground potential. Collectors of transistors Q j and Q 2 are at ground potential.lh. Ie leaves the transistor.e RL - or R L =----=-- RL = O. i C Cl C B B E icz PNP E Qz E ~ -------T------------~------r_--~E L ________________ Fig 6.-O.54. the two transistors are in Common Collector Configuration.O.Ih. The output of the first transistor Q) (taken from the emitter of the Q)) is the input to the second transistor Q 2 at the base.Ihoeh. For PNP transistor. hie' hre .O.54 and we use Common Emitter h-parameters.6.e O.6.

---L-- -Vee V.I . 1 I. (1 ) .Amplifiers 355 B 1 V.14.. 6..I R.. I = 00 I C Fig 6.I R V t 0 e Fig 6.. (2) = Ib + Ic I l = Ib (1 I + I I = c l hI I hfe ) fe b .53 Equivalent circuit. Ic Ic = Ie( But = Ib h fe · (Assuming identical transistor 2 2 Ib = Ie (the emitter of Q I is connected to 2 I Ic = Ibl hfe +Ie1 hfe Ie and hfe is same) the base of Q2) .....54 Darlington pair circuit..1 ClJRRENT AMPLIFICATION FOR DARLINGTON PAIR + I c2 · ICI = Ibl hfe .

Ri2:S O.000. since it is in Common Collector Configuration.1 and can be neglected. RL = R i2and Ri2 = (1 + h fe ) Re· 1+ h fe All = I + hoe (1 + h fe )Re hoe Re will be < 0. Ri2 == (1+ hfe ) Re The input resistance Ril of the transistor Q\ is.R I L Here. Ie = Ib hf / \ It means that we get very large current amplification ( A. h fe is of the order of 100. hic == hie. Ri = hie + hre AI·RL· Expressing this in term of Common Emitter h-parameters. output is taken across emitter resistance.l. hoe.14. (For Common Collector Reverse Voltage Gain resistance of transistor Q2.e. Therefore. 1002 = 10. Ri2 But Ru I = hie + (1 +h fe ) RL I hie « hfeRL' and hfe RE » hie AI = ~ = (1 + hfe ) 2 12 Here RL is Re.I. Electronic Devices and Circuits Ie = Ib hfe + Ib (1 + hfe)h fe = Ib (2hfe + hf/) \ \ \ But h2fe » 2h fe Since. = ib~ J in the case ofDarlington 6.parameters in Common Emitter Configuration is. since. hOe value is of the order of J.. and AI # 1+ hfe Ril == All Ri2 Ri2 = (1 + h fe ) Re But the expression for Common Collector Configuration in terms of Common Emitter h-parameters is A= 1+ hoe.356 Substituting equation (2) in (1). = 1) and RL for transistor Q I is the input Ril = hie + All R i2 · ~2 is large. it is of the order h f/ i. . hre == l.2 INPUT RESISTANCE (R) Input resistance of the transistor Q 2 (which is in Common Collector Configuration) in terms of h. Pair Circuit. mhos(micro mhos) 1+h fe .

14. AVJ = ( . ( .4 OUTPUT RESISTANCE The general expression for Ro of a transistor in Common Collector Configuration in terms of Common Emitter h-parameters is. Darlington Circuit has very high input impedance and very large current gain compared to Common Collector Configuration Circuit. R j = 1. Ifwe take typical values. 12 Therefore.15. using h-parameters. Rs + hie Ro ROJ = 1+ hCe Rs + hie = 1+ hCe Now for the transistor Q2' Rs is RoJ ' . . ofRe = 4KO. Ay is always < 1.e R II 1 '2 A = Vo =[I-~] V2 V 2 R.Ri2 Therefore.A h. over all Voltage Gain Ay = AYJ x AY2 [ 1A II ·R i2 hie ]l Ri2 1 I-hie 1 hie) Ay:.3 VOLTAGE GAIN General expression for A for Common Collector in term of h-parameters is v h Ay= 1.Amplifiers 357 R. A II ·R2· :.e y-= [ -R'It 1 1 But R j :. _ (1 + hce )2 Re I - 1+ hoehCeRe This is a very high value. Rj2 = 205 KO. 6.h jc orA VI = V2 .h.73 MO. AIj is »1 6. Therefore. hje :.~e .. AI = 427. .

since. 1+ h fe is» 1. Av < 1. 1 hob is the resistance between base and collector. Disadvantages : We have assumed that the h-parameters of both the transistor are identical.358 Rs +hje = Electronic Devices and Circuits R 02 l+h[e 1 +h[e +hje Therefore. hje value will be small for the transistor Q/. Higher input resistance cannot be achieved because of the biasing resistors R]. Leakage Current is the current that flows in the circuit with no external bias voltages applied (a) The h-parameters for both the transistors will not be the same. hob 1 . 2. But in practice it is difficult to make out. R02 is the output resistance of the Darlington Circuit. . Voltage Gain. Very Low Output Resistance ( of the order of few il). (b) Leakage Current is more. What is Boot Strapping? . the characteristic of Darlington Circuit are 1.: hje = (I/I. They come in parallel with R j of the transistors and thus reduce the value of R. 3.000 6. The maximum value of R is only _1_ since.). 2. Very Large Current Gain ( of the order of 10. the Darlington Circuit through the addition of Co between the first collector C] and emitter B2 . The quiescent or operating conditions of both the transistor will be different. Since the emitter current of transistor Q] is the base current for transistor Q2' the value of IC2 » IC] 1. The input resistance can be increased greatly by bo~t strapping.R 2 etc. 4. h-parameters depend upon the operating point of Q] and Q2. Very High Input Resistance ( of the order of Mil).15 BOOT STRAPPED DARLINGTON CIRCUIT The maximum input resistance of a practical Darlington Circuit is only 2 MO. R 02 = Rs + hIe (1 + h fe )2 +-l+hfe hIe This is a small value.Ib2 is less CDIL make CIL997 is a transistor of Darlington Pair Configuration with hje = 1000. Therefore. Darlington Pairs are available in a single package with just three leads. (b) Darlington transistor pairs in single package are available with hje as high as 30. 000). The second drawback is leakage current of the 1st transistor Q/ which is amplified by the second transistor Q2 (": Ie/ = Ibi Hence overall leakage current is more. like one transistor in integrated form.

= J-K . another voltage source ofKV (K< I)..--=-1- VR R (l-K) l-K I' can be increased by increasing V. if the potential at one end ofR is changed.6. V is an AC signal generator. the input resistance of the circuit as seen by the generator is R j = I R itself. If the potential at one end of the resistance changes. This is called as the Boots Strapping method which increases the input resistance of a circuit. the bottom end ofR is not at ground potential but at higher potential i.55).= V 1 I' = (V-KV) I R or R . = __ Ie_. Ifwe pull the boot with both the edges of the strap (wire) the boot lifts up. So the input resistance R. there is no current flowing through R (So V = KV there is no potential difference). Therefore. K = Ay:::= 1.' = Rll-k I Fig 6. K is constant.. can be made very large by this technique. Both the top and bottom of the resistor terminals are at the same potential. R. Now the input resistance of the circuit is (Fig.. For Common Collector Amplifier. R j can be made large . therefore R.c. Fig 6.amplifiers Av < 1 : := 0. R'.095. > R. is connected between the bottom end ofR and grounri.- R=R I R. So R. For c.. : it is of the same form as R R. the voltage at the other end also changes or the potential level of R3 rises. Now suppose. supplying current I to R. When V increases KV also increases. 1 h· I-Av. the other end of R also moves through the same pote:1tial difference. as if it is being pulled up from both the ends. Therefore the potential at the two ends of R will increase by the same amount..55 V = In Fig. Here also. Av:::= I. K is less than 1.6.60.Amplifiers I 359 I' R V r-. It is as if R is pulling itself up by its boot straps. = 00.54 Equivalent circuit.e.- R Vr-. Therefore. Now ifK = 1.

There and C\.. So C) and E2 are boot strapped. DC condition will change. 1 v. A. The value of Xc is chosen such that at the lower frequencies. If the collector C) changes by certain potential.Vj (assuming the resistance of Co is negligible) Therefore. Rj will be much larger. Re If we take hfe as 50.360 Electronic Devices and Circuits In the circuit shown in Fig.C. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT : The input resistance R = _ I == hfe. Re = 4KO. h1 ob between B) Direct short circuit is not done between C) and E2. we get R j as 10MO. capacitor Co is connected between C) and E2 . under consideration XCo is a virtual short circui~. hfe. Since. 6. Xc is 0 a short only for AC signals and not for DC. Ibl ~II. t!ob is now effectively increased to hob(l ~AV) == 400MQ V =Av o i Fig 6. .56. R eff = h ob (I . If a transistor with hfe = 100 is taken. If the input signal changes by V0' then E2 changes by Av.A) v IS . E2 also changes by the same amount.56 Boot strap circuit.

parameters of the two transistors. Equivalent circuit.Amplifiers 361 h V re eel V.parameters of the entire circuit in terms of the h .E.B configuration). 6.e. the h .58 CASCODE Amplifier (C.16 THE CASCODE TFtANSISTOFt CONFIGUFtATION The circuit is shown in Fig. Let us consider the input impedance (hI I) etc.58.57 A.I N Fte = Ftell! Fte2 Fig 6..C. 6. . C.E) R -L V0 =V2 I V' 1 Fig 6. output admittance (h 22 ) i. This transistor configuration consists of a Common Emitter Stage in series with a Common Base Stage. The collector current of transistor Q) equals the emitter current of Q2' Q1 (C. The transistor Q) is in Common Emitter Configuration and transistor Q 2 is in Common Base Configuration.

But h lb . (Since Q I is in Common Emitter configuration and hoe is defined with 11 = 0). What is the value ofRo of the transistor Q 2 with R. C 2 is shorted. Q 2 is in Common Base Configuration. Therefore C 1 is virtually shorted to the ground. for the entire circuit is. We can conclude tnat the collector ofQ 1 is effectively short circuited. hi2 = h lb2 · But h lb2 is very small. the net impedance for the transistor Q 1 is only h lb2 . = 40k .362 INPUT IMPEDANCE (h ll ) Electronic Devices and Circuits h11 = Input Z = ~I v. Ih i = hie I SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT GAIN (h 21 ) 1= hfe 1 I' since h I h21 =hfe I OUTPUT CONDUCTANCE (h 22 ) fb =- Ie IE Output Conductance with input open circuited. the output resistance of the transistor Q 1 is h 1 oe =40 Kn. Therefore. for a transistor in common emitter configuration is very small = 20. when II = 0. 11 = 0 If V 2 is made equal to 0. 1 -=40Kn hoe is the source resistance for Q2. h11 = hie· When V 2 = 0.

363 Since. hI == hl1 == hie' Typical value == 1. The above values are correct. since. CASCODE Amplifier will have 1. Typical value = 7 x 10 . there is negligib1e internal feedback in the case of cascode amplifier.Amplifiers It is == lIhob itself. Its output resistance is equal to that of a single Common Base Transistor (hob)' The reverse voltage gain is very very small. Very Large Voltage Gain. In otherwords. if we make the assumption that hob RL < 0. Q2 is in Common Base configuration) hl2 == h re h rb · h re == 10--4 hrb == 10--4 . .E. Therefore. Large Current Gain ( hje ). This will not affect the values of hI' hr. Therefore. there is no link between VI (input voltage) and V 2 (output voltage). hoel is very large. When the value of RL is < 200 K.x - VI V' V' V2 II ==0 VII yo = Ii == 0 hre · V y' 2 =h rb (Since. i. its input Z is equal to that of a single Common Emitter Transistor (hIe)' Its Current Gain is equal to that of a single Common Base Transistor (h fe ). 2. 3. Very High Output Resistance. the value ofhr is very very small. . for a CASCODE Transistor Configuration. A CASCODE Transistor Circuit acts like a single stage C. ho' h f of the CASCODE Transistor. Or between E2 and ground there is infinite impedance.49 ~ AN m hr = h12 == hre h rb .' hl2 is very small . .1 kO hI' == h21 == h fe · ho == h22 == hob' Typical value == 50 Typical value = 0. output conductance ofthe entire circuit is h22 == hob' REVERSE VOLTAGE GAIN (h ) 12 == . h re is very small) and very small output conductance..e. (== hob) or large output resistance ( == 2MO equal to that of a Common Base Stage). Transistor (Since hIe and hfe are same) with negligible internal feedback (:.1 or RL is < 200K. we can say that I'I == O.8.

8 x 5 x 103 =5 x 10. and C.364 Electronic Devices and Circuits Problem 6..6. Assume -Vee vo Fig 6.59 For Problem 6. Solution The second transistor Q2 is in Common Collector Configuration Q I is in Common Emitter Configuration. Therefore. 6.59. hoe' RLI < 0. AV2 = 1= 1- R~e 12 h· lkn = 1-0. hoe RL2 is < 0.C.RL2 = 10. .B Configuration need not be used. and hoe hie = lKO.50 . .. Av2 is the expression for Voltage Gain of the transistor in Common Collector Configuration in terms of Common Emitter h-parameters is. It is convenient if we start with the II stage.996 256kn I Stage: RLI = 10KII Ri2 = 10k II 256kO = 9. hfe = 50 = 10 -8 A/V.' hre = 10-4. Ri2 = hie + (1+h fe )RL2 = lKO + (1 +50) 5KO = 256 KO.AVI and AV2 ofthe amplifier shown in Fig.' Approximate equation can be used All = .1. (h fe ) .1. .8 Find the voltage gains AVs .5 <0. D Stage: hoe .0039 = 0.36 kO. Ril = hie' ~ lkO. Rigorous Expressions of C. approximate analysis can be made.1.

... Rs AyS = Ay x R + h s oe = Av x lkQ 2k = -240..:=----o:. ~ = -50 x 9. Id = AC drain current rd = drain resistance Vo = Id x (rd II RL ) = I d x [ rd·R L fd + RL I 1 But Id = .1 THE JFET LOW FREQUENCY EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS COMMON SOlJRCE AMPLIFIER Capacitance and DC voltages are shorted. FET is replaced by its small signal model so the equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig.996 = .60 C. .::...S amplifier. 6.gm V (The value of the current source) VI = But rd» fd -gm·rd·RL rd+RL RL + RL = fd AV = -gm·rd·RL rd Av =.480..5 Overall Voltage Gain = A y \. S~--~----------~--~--~--~~ S Fig 6.A Y2 = -482 xO..Amplifiers R hfe.17 6.gm· RL -=. 6.63k hie lkQ 365 = _ = -481.60..17...

: rd is large. Electronic Devices and Circuits Yis = forward transfer admittance in C. At high frequencies. The actual capacitance presented to an input signal is amplified by the Miller effect. VG is not the same as V GS. Zo = rd :::: RL I RL .S. C m = C gs + (I +Av) .366 Fora FET. are shunted by Cds. (RL I rd)] C m = C gs + [1 + gm (RL II rd)] C gd (C.61 Common drain circuit. configuration =gm Yos = Out put admittance in C. r-------. S is not at ground partial.S configuration 1 rd At low frequencies. C gd where Ay = circuit voltage gain gm.-----O + V DD = 20 V 3. II RGS But RGS is a very large value.O) 6. Therefore Z\ :::: R G.2 COMMON DRAIN AMPLIFIERS This is also known as source follower. input impedance Z\ = RG .3 M RJ Co v'~v t 0 C I -'>t I 470KQ t---1 tO~ 0 -'>t R2 Vc IsRL Fig 6. This is FET equivalent of emitter follower or common collectors transistor amplifier circuit.17. At high frequencies rd and RL 1 At low frequencies. the input capacitance shunting Ra becomes effective. VG = VGS + VRL = VGS + ID · RL .

VI· rd . Vo = gm . RL) = gm . G . D~--~------~--~-~-~·D Fig 6. RL Vo(rd + RL + gm rd . 10 = {~:: ~~} from the circuit gm . rd· RL .gm ..V0) 10 = gm (V I .. V gs VGS = (V I . So.. V I .. there is no phase-shift and voltage gain = I. VI . R Z o (rd·R L ) = ---'-"-----"-"--rd + RL + gmrd RL ..Amplifiers 367 If the input increases by I V.. Vo = 10 x (r d II RL) = 10 .62 CD amplifier.. output also increases by IV. Vord . RL Voltage gain rd·R L R rd + L +gmrd· L gm VI is output current proportional to VI' and.V 0) Solving for Vo V 0 (rd + RL) = gm .

----{ ~---~--~---~D 10 G . . G Fig 6. I RS Fig 6. ---'-------+----'---... s ~---. ..17. Vo = 1D x (rd II RL) . + V t--'"""--i I--_ _ -o~o f\y Pv~ v.G configuration.G) DO C gd is in parallel with Zl 6. 6..63.3 COMMON GATE The circuit is shown in Fig..368 Electronic Devices and Circuits L = ---"---"--- Z o rd·R rd + R L (1 + gmrd) [rdII +gmrd]RL [(rd /1 + gmrd )]+ RL Zl = RJ II R2 FET AMPLIFIER CIRClllT (C..64 e..63 Common gate circuit.

T Fig 6. also as temperature increases. The circuit input impedance is. In pentode it is only due to electrons... As Is decreases Ie decreases in a transistor. Anode ~ collector.18 COMPARISON OF FET AND BJT CHARACTERISTICS From construction point of view triode is similar to BJT (Transistor).65 4. B ~ Grid. As Vcontrol grid increases Ip decreases in pentode.. So 10 decreases. as temperature increases.66 ." Vos . I increases. But from characteristics point of view pentode is similar to a BJT..VGS=O ~------2 Fig 6. '11' decreases. As T increases. V gs = gm . But in BJT it is due to both electron and holes. t _------1 . In FET and pentode current is due to one type of carriers only. gm 6. VI 1 Z=_I=I ID gm V This is the input impedance ofthe device. As VGS decreases. But it is less sensitive compared to a transistor or FET. _1_11 Rs. leo increases. 2. But no such channel closing in Transistor and Pentode.T ID t ~ -. Pentode Transistor FET Ip t / Ie t -"T / -.Amplifiers 369 Zo = R2 II rd :::: RL 10 = gm . 1. 10 decreases in FET. Cathode E . In FET pinch off occurs and current remains constant.. But in FET. so I in a BJT increases. 3. _ . In pentode..

at the centre of the active region of the transistor characteristics.----1 f--r----O Vo Output I Fig 6. Transistor is current dependent. So it is called R-C coupled amplifier. If an external resistance is connected on the mput side. so that the D. But in pentode it is much higher.is the blocking capacitor.67 R. 60V etc. IB will be about 100 BE Il A and Ic 5 mAo These are the proper bias conditions.C coupled amplifier circuit.. Rs is the source resistance of the input A.C. C. ro ofFET is very large. equivalent circuit.. voltage so that the BJT is not damaged due to excess input current. V . FET and pentode are voltage dependent devices.68 In the A. the collector output of the transistor (BJT) is coupled to the output point V0 through a resistor (R) and capacitor (C). reg. 7. It blocks D. typically 5 to 7 V..: Ohimic region (it is more) ~ Pentode or Saturation region ~VCE Fig 6. The operating point 'Q' is locate. Breakdown occurs in FET and BJT for small voltages 50.C source.. . It is a self bias circuit. Ca." 'D Cutoff region t I:. it is to limit the input A. BJT JFET t I: 6.C.C source.C components present in the A. 8.68 R. 6. RL and Co are the coupling elements. Rl' Rand RC' RE are biasing resistors.370 Electronic Devices and Circuits 5. VCE will be must be 0.. rc of transistor is less (in kO)... COUPLED AMPLIFIER The circuit is as shown in Fig.19 Saturation (it IS very narrow) A".. MO.5 V for silicon transistor. 6.c biasing provided is not about Vc~.

Rc is collector resistor to limit the collecPor current from V CC' to protect the transistor. gain of the amplifier also varies.5 to 0. .= . so that V 0 . At high frequencies. CE E The A. because of the variation of the reactance of capacitors with frequency. ' . = 10 log pO . P .' o =_0 R R Gain = 10 log ~ = 20 log V db Y.-----.C signal at the collector of the c transistor to the output point V 0 RE is emitter resistor to provide biasing. Frequency Response is a plot between frequency and voltage gain..707 of the maximum gain value.69 A.Amplifiers 371 changed.. y2 y2 P. ) 2 IR y2 = --'l!.J2 0 output power IS - . At f) and f2' Po and f2 are also called as 3 db points. E so that A. at the CE E E E lower cut off frequency f1' X will be any way smaller than R . C is emitter bypass capacitor... y2 y = ( R -v 2 = . It by passes A.J2 I or 0. IR As the frequency of the input signal varies..----.V EO = YBE.----'\ hie . ){o . to couple the amplified A. C is chosen such that X = R .--~-~Vo t Fig 6. Because at these frequencies vo Itage IS --'l!. fo f1 . At f1 and f2' output power is half of the maximum value. Voltage gain is measured in decibels. 'R [Y J f1 and f2 are chosen such that the gain at these frequencies is . f1 or fL is called Lower cut off frequency or Lower half power point or Lower 3db frequency (f2 .C signal..= 0. y2 P max = --'l!. capacitance associated with BJT also must be considered.---. Y S .ax .C signal does not pass through R . I decibel = P 10 1 I P bel. C is the coupling capacitor..69... 1 0 yg. In decibels it is 20 log (~) ::: 3db.C equivalent circuit.C equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig.6 V for silicon transistor. 2R R So f and fare ) 2 called as half power points. 6..---.---.f ) is called Bandwidth. I b ..

~ O.-.70. u b = 27tfC decreases. -Y.n decreases and hence Ay decreases.71 Phase response. 6.372 Electronic Devices and Circuits FREQUENCY RESPONSE The graph of voltage gain versus frequency is as shown in Fig. the capacitance reactances of both Cb.W ~/ ~I I Fig 6.~. .F) I = R S + h ie PHASE RESPONSE Phase shift between Vo and Vi varies as shown in Fig. tl~ ----+/ Fig 6.71J. Hence Ay = VO also increases.-. Cb b I So the drop across it also decreases and hence net input at the base of transistor increases and V so V 0 increases. C As the frequency is further increased. XCc = 27tfC I A.707A~ r~ " L z B. In the mid frequency range. In the low frequency range. So the net change with frequency. and C are negligible. I In the mid frequency range.-. So rue shape of the cufve is as shown in the Fig. -hfeRL c is open circuit (in the Expression Ay (M.70 Frequency response. remains constant as shown in the figure.C equivalent circuit). capacitance reactance due to Cc ?ecreases.6. V0 is taken across C . Initially as frequency increases. XCb is almost a short circuit.71. capacitance reactance due to C . So as frequency increases. Hence V0 decreases because.------. since its reactance decreases with increasing frequency. 6. 7z ---.

we examine how transistor's CE short-circuit forward-current gain varies with frequency.Amplifiers 6..c) ] . IL I E The current gain.. When RL = 0. AI= T= -gm Vb'e I. b'e gm 1+j21tf(Cb'e+ C b'c) A = I -h~ 1+ {~) e 1 f.• r: hfe ] [ . I Ii = Vb'e gb'e + Vb'e [jro (C be + Cb'c)] A I - -gm Vb'e _ -gm Vb'e [gb'e + jro(Cb'e + Cb.: gb'e = gm hfe A = I -gmhfe gm + j21tf(C b'e + Cb'c)h fe -hre -hre = [(. .gb'e + jro(Cb'e + C b'c) . = . Cb'e +C b . c ~ gm Vb'e 1 Fig 6. B r bb . + J 1tf(C b'e + Cb'c )h fe ] = '2 J gm .20 CONCEPT OF fa' fp AND fT 373 In order to obtain some idea of a transistor's high frequency capability and what transistor to choose for a given application..p 21tTb'e(Cb'e +Cb'c) hfe = CE small signal short-circuit current gain.. I V b'e E B + C ~\. Where .72 Approximate high-frequency circuit. the approximate high-frequency equivalent circuit is drawn below.

I ~ I. i. is the CE short-circuit small-signal forwardcurrent transfer ratio cutoff frequency.707 from its value at low frequency.]' » fr / f~ '" . The expression for the current gain by considering approximate high frequency circuit ofthe CB with output shorted is given by Where fa is the alpha cutoff frequency at which the CB short-circuit small-signal forward current transfer ratio drops 0. hre. also referred as fhfe .hre fr '" httJp :. Hence.374 Electronic Devices and Circuits 'fP' : P Cut-off Frequency The '[3' cut-off frequency f~. IA 1= I h fe )l+(f/fpt I. The value offr ranges from 1MHz for audio transistors upto 1GHZ for high frequency transistors. The 'fr' is lies in between f~ and fa. fa. and CE bandwidth fW fr is also the product of the low frequency gain. The fr is defined as the frequency at which the short-circuit CE current gain has a magnitude of unity. and the CB bandwidth. It is the frequency at which a transistors CE short-circuit current gain drops 0. fa. I I . ( ~.e fr = h$ .707 from its 1KHZ value. fr is the product of the low frequency gain. h th . a Cut-off Frequency 'fa' : A transistor used in the CB connection has a much higher 3-dB frequency. are even more important characteristics is fr. f~ represents the maximum attainable bandwidth for current gain of a CE amplifier with a given transistor. Gain Bandwidth Product : Although fa and fb are useful indications of the high-frequency capability ofa transistor. at we obtain f~ f" IA.

AI 100 50 h f e l . using h-parameters. 6.-:':-~!(:-:). Ie • • • • • = 500 n·' r e = 1. in Common Emitter Configuration are.--r~l"":"().--. Expressions for Voltage Gain A v ' Current Gain AI' Input Resistance Ri' Output Resistance R etc..1 lU7-. o 'J.Amplifiers 375 The following Fig. It is the resistance between the fiction base terminal Bf and the outside base terminal B.' h h lin· h fe = 250·' The second subscript denotes the configuration.5 x 10-4·' o e = 6 r .--:".--+ Frequency 0 l In liZ * f~ v fT fa * Fig 6. similarly band c represent Common Base and Common Collector Configurations.73 indicates how short-circuit current gains for CE and CB connections vary with frequency.. so called because the units of the four parameters are different..73 SUMMARY • Hybrid Parameters are h .---'-. ..parameters and their typical values.. h.!-"":"I::. can be derived in terms of h-parameters.:O.b' is called the base spread resistance.---.:-.-__ (CE) 0707 hfc Gam Bandwidth 1 ____________ ~ ___ ~~ct o 70~ ~~r-~--:-=-=---=-~-=-=-~-:--:-:--::-:-::-~=-=~~(CB) I a Cut off 0...parameters. replacing the transistor by h-parameter equivalent. These are used to represent the equivalent circuit of a transistor..l. The Transistor Amplifier Circuit Analysis can be done. The h .

.. In the low frequency range and high frequency range...... The lower cut-off frequency 1............E.. 5.......fi) is called Band width..E. Amplifier circuit characteristics are: (a) Low to moderate Ri (300 0 ....... No phase inversion.. Low R o' Large AI' Av < 1......... ... Low Ap In Darlington pair circuit....B.. The general equations governing h-parameters are VI······························ 2.... the two BJTs are in C.......... amplifier.......B.... In the case ofR-C coupled amplifier.. is also called lower 3-db point or lower half power point.... rc Conversion Efficiency of an amplifier circuit is ...... the output is coupled to the load through Rand C... 7.... Its characteristics are........... frequency range.... . Typical values of h-parameters in Common Emitter Configuration are The units of the parameter hare .. The parameter h re = . configuration is in series with another BJT amplifier in C.376 Electronic Devices and Circuits • C...... The upper cut-off frequency h is also called upper 3-db point or upper half power frequency................. 9.. is defined as h re = ................... Expression for cun·ent gain AI in terms ofh fe and h are AI = . hence the name... ..5 kO) (b) Moderately high Ro (100 kO - 800 kO) (c) Large current amplification (d) Large voltage amplification (e) Large power gain (f) 1800 phase shift between Vi and Vo. 12 4... • • OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1.... h-parameters are named as hybrid parameters because ................ In the mid frequency range....... if2 .. High Ro' Ai < 1.. amplifier: Low R i...... the gain decreases... • • • For C. configuration. ......... The characteristics are : High Ri' Large AI' Very low Ro' Ay < 1 In CASCODE amplifier configuration. High R i .... re ...C........ 6.....C. configuration... Moderate Ap ForC.. . Large AI and thigh Ro..... 8... The units of h-parameters are .... Ay > 1. ... the gain remains constant.... .. 3. Very large A y... h-parameters are valid in the . one BJT in C....

. 15.. In Common Collector Configuration.... Write the general equations in terms of h-parameters for a BJT in Common Base Amplifiers configuration and define the h-parameters....... 12.............. current gain in Darlington Pair circuit is approximately The disadvantage of Darlington pair circuit is .. Compare the transistor ( BJT ) amplifiers circuits in the three configurations with the help of h-parameters values. Draw the h-parameter equivalent circuits for Transistor amplifiers in the three configurations.... . Discuss the Transistor Amplifier characteristics in Common Base Configuration and their variation with Rs and RL with the help of equations.... 20. is Among the three transistor amplifier configurations.. . 13......... obtaining overall values of the circuit for hI' hI' ho and hr' .. 17....... 9. discuss the variations of Av' AI' R...... 2....C Configuration is also known as .. Interms of hfe ..Amplifiers 10.. With the help of necessary equations. and Ro' Draw the circuit for CASCODEAmplifier. ...... Compare the characteristics of Transistor Amplifiers in the three configurations.. 14.... ... The salient featuers of CASCODE Amplifier are ....... 4...... Current Gain AI in Common Base Configuration is .. I 377 Current Gain AJ of BJT in Common Emitter Configuration is high when Power Gain of Common Emitter Transistor amplifier is ........... Compared to Common Emitter Configuration R of Darlington piar circuit is I In CASCODE amplifier. deriving the neces~ary equations. ............... C........ configuration...... 11............. circuit...... Draw the circuit for Darlington piar and derive the expressions for AJ' Ay.. 21. the transistors are in . 22. . under identical conditions is obtained in ...... transistor amplifier configuraiton...... R .... I\......... Convert the h-parameters in Common Base Configuration to Common Emitter Configuration...... as I\. configuration.. . In the case of transistor in Common Emitter Configuration.... 8. large output resistance is in ..... ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1... R... 19. 6.. Explain its working...... 18. 16. increases..... Ro' Ap with Rs and RL in Common Emitter Configuration..... 7.. Highest current gain. 3.. 5..... the values of hrc ..

I1 (d) h22 = 3.ZL ZL (b) (c) (d) Rs + Z. 10. Rs + Z. Z is .. the resistance between fictious base terminal B' and outside base terminal B is. AI (a) ho l+hfZ L (b) hf l+hoZL S S = hf l-hoZL (c) I ho I-hfZ L 0 (d) 9. oe (a) a Ie alB IE=K -0.. Rs + Z. AI Aj.Ie hIe"::::: . called (a) (a) (c) Base resistance Base spread resistance (b) (d) Base drive resistance Base fictious resistance . Expression for Avs in terms of A .I is... h. The ratio of A~ signal power delivered to the load to the DC input power to the active device as a percentage is called (a) conversion (b) Rectification 11 (c) f (a) htb ~ ~ ~ power 11 (d) utilisation factor 8. In the case of BJT. The expression defining the h-parameter h22 is..3 b (d) a IB a VB le=k (d) 26.(b) I+h (c) I+h (d) I h I-h tb tb tb 7.. Rs .. The h-parameters have (a) (c) Same units for all parameters do not have units (b) (d) different units for all parameters dimension less 2. (a) h22 = :1 II =0 (b) h22= :~I II =0 ~J II = 0 (c) h22 = I2.. The general expression for AI interms of h ho and ZL is ..Parameters are valid over a . By definition the expression for his. Typical value of htb is (a) (b) (c) n 6..Ie interms of htb and h. ZL' Z.. R . h ..378 Electronic Devices and Circuits MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.6 I 5.Z. frequency range (a) (c) R.98 I (b) a Ie aVe IB=k -101 I (c) a Vel a Ie IB=k + 2. Audio frequency range (b) (d) ForDe only upto I MHz 4. The expression for h.F.

Compared to C... AI= 10k... Operating point swimgs over large range stability factor is large power dissipation is large 379 12.c. configuration C..... the amplifier stage is in ..... (a) (b) 13. Ro = 1.... CASCODE amplifier characteristics are (a) (b) (c) (d) Low voltage gain. Characteristics of Darlington circuit are typical values (a) (b) (c) (d) Ri=MO...Av= 100 Ri = MO. large current gain.. (a) (c) low current gain leakage current is more (b) (d) low output resistance high input resistance 19.B configuration emitor follower (b) (d) c. on the input side. Av > 1 Ri=MO.. Ro = 100... The units of the parameter hoe . For CASCODE amplifier... configuration 16. CASCODE transistor amplifier configuration consists of (a) (c) CE-CE amplifier stages CE-CB stages (b) (d) CE-CC stages CB-CC stages 15.. Av < 1 Ri = 100.c. Ro=MO. Large voltage gain Low putput resistance 17. AI = 10 k.. configuration.. Typical value of hre is (a) 10-4 VIA ° 10-4 (c) constant 10-6 AN (d) V-A 104 (b) (c) (d) 14.Ro= 100.E... (a) (c) C. In large signal analysis of amplifiers .= I.. The disadvantage of Darlington pair circuit is ..00.. (a) (b) (c) (d) The swing of the input signal is over a wide range around the operating point...- ---- Amplifiers 11....A.. large current are Low voltage gain.. low current gain large voltage gain... high output resistance Large current gain.Av< 1 18. AI = 1. AI is approximately (a) 2 hfe (b) 4 hfe (c) hfe .. In the case of Darlington circuit. Darlington pair circuit has (a) (c ) low current gain large current gain (b) (d) low voltage gain large p output resistance 20..

Type of Amplifier Frequency Range Typical Values Audio / Typical Values / Power / RF / Video 15 Hzs . 2. Input impedance 8. Band width . Voltage gain 5.••d Circuits Specifications of Amplifiers Parameters 1.100 KHzs 200mW 20db 100 3. Current gain Power gain 6. Output Power 4. 9 10 kO 5 pf 500n 1 pf 100 KHzs 7.380 Electronic Devices. Output impedance 9.

. :". ~... . ' . .\~ . . .~ 'r' ... ~ ~ :~' . " .:~ .

the input can be made to depend on output. 3. output will be I V. If a traffic policeman is placed. which we need. If the timings of red. If the input is 10mV. Distortion in wave-form due to non linearities in the operating characters of the amplifying device. We take the book. we can't choose the book we need. Therefore we must have a thermocouple. If the system is to perform smoothly. green and yellow lights are fixed. it can be made to increase by having a link between the output and input.382 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7. 2. If power is supplied on. the temperature of a furnace. If the input is increased. So eyes will provide the feedback. the temperature may come down below 1000oc.2 CLASSIFICATION OF AMPLIFIERS Amplifiers can be classified broadly as. But some ofthe short comings of the amplifier circuit are I.1 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS Any system whether it is electrical. Voltage amplifiers. On the other hand. Thus the thermocouple and relay system provides the feedback between input and output. . If our eyes are closed. This classification is with respect to the input and output impedances relative to the load and source impedances. which can measure the temperature. I. Current amplifiers. our human mind and eyes. reaches a value corresponding to 1000oC.1 V. our eyes will search for the book which we need and indicates to the mind. So in the ideal case. 3. Suppose. there can be control over the output. hydraulic or pneumatic may be considered to have at least one input and one output. The amplifier may introduce noise (undesired signals) The above drawbacks can be minimizing if we introduce feedback 7. Tr~nsresistance amplifiers. output will be 0. One example is. gain of the amplifier is 100. on one side of the road even if very few vehicles are there. Another example is traffic light. the traffic will not be cleared. the green light will be on for sometime. to switch on the power. the temperature should be limited to 1000°C. we must be able to measure or control output. But by introducing feedback between the output and input. inside the furnance. still if the green lamp glows for the same period. Change in the value of the gain due to variation in supplying voltage. with change in magnitude and with or without change in phase. 4. 2. If the input deviates to 9m V or 11 mV. a relay should operate which will switch off the power supply to the furnace. Transconductance amplifiers. Basic definitions Ideally an amplifier should reproduce the input signal. temperature or due to components. mechanical. the furnace may get over heated. he provides the feedback. Then after sometime. So there is no control over the output. Then again another relay should operate. if the traffic is very heavy on the other side of the road. When the output of the thermocouple.9 V or 1. the timings of the red and green lamps must be proportional to the traffic on the road. Another example is. Ifwe go to a library. By providing feedback. continuously.

2.Vs. ifRL » Ro. drop across Rs is very small. Suppose R. The constant of proportionality Ay doesn't depend on the impedances. Ay represents the open circuit voltage gain. Therefore. Output voltage is proportional to input voltage.7. Vo::::Av· VI" ButV. 7. For ideal voltage amplifier.2 Current amplifier.Feedback Amplifiers 7.1). .1 Equivalent circuit of voltage amplifiers. (Source or load).2 CURRENT AMPLIFIER An ideal current amplifier is one which gives output current proportional to input current and the proportionality factor is independent ofR s and R L. V. R.2. Vo::::Av· Vs· :. Such a circuit is called as Voltage Amplifier.» Rs. =- Vo VI with RL = 00. Ro= o.---+ r - - - - - - - - - - - - .::::V s · Similarly. = Ay 00. '.. output voltage is proportional to input voltage and the constant of proportionality is independent of Rs or RL. for ideal voltage amplifier R.1 VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER 383 This circuit is a 2-port network and it represents an amplifier (see in Fig 7. Fig 7.2. The equivalent circuit of current amplifier is shown in Fig. Fig 7. R.

independent of Rs a. . Ideal Transconductance amplifier will have R j = 00.3 TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER Ideal Transconductance amplifier supplies output current which is proportional to input voitage independently ofthe magnitude ofRs and RL. AI represents the short circuit current amplification. (See Fig. On the output side. AI = T with RL = O. A voltage source comes in series with resistance.---J\/\ ~ ~=~ + Fig 7. Ro= 00. Thevenins' equivalent circuit on the output side.4 TRANS RESISTANCE AMPLIFIER It gives output voltage Vo proportional to Is. IL .. 7. Fig 7. If Ro= 00.. IL = 10 = Aj Ij = Aj Is.4 Trans resistance amplifier. 7. Norton equivalent circuit on the R j input side.3 Equivalent circuit 0/ Transconductance amplifier.. it is Norton's equivalent circuit with a current source in parallel with resistance.2. 7.384 For ideal Current Amplifier. Ro=O Equivalent circuit R. I Electronic Devices and Circuits . In the equivalent circuit. on the input side. Rj=O Ro= 00. For ideal amplifiers R j =0.3).2. . it is the Thevenins' equivalent circuit. RL..

. V = Output voltage of the basic amplifier before sampling [see the block diagram of feedback] V. " i - Basic amplifier A -. But usually a resistance is used as the feedback element. Here the output current is sampled and feedback. The feedback network is connected in series with the output. A voltage feedback is distinguished in this way from current feedback. capacitors or inductors.5. Sampling Network 0 = L . 7.1 V -. This is called as Current Sampling or Loop Sampling.. COMPARATOR OR MIXER NETWORK This is usually a differential amplifier. For current feedback the element will be in series.f» + Ir t vr + -t - Feedback network p Fig 7.Feedback Amplifiers 385 7. GENERALIZED BLOCK SCHEMATIC Signal Sou ree . . For voltage feedback. It has two inputs and gives a single output which is the difference of the two inputs.. = Input voltage to the basic amplifier Av = Voltage amplification = VN... G M = Transconductance of basic amplifier = IN i RM = Transresistance = VII. + v. AI = Current amplification = III.. Signal Source It can be a voltage source V s or a current source Is FEEDBACK NETWORK It is a passive two port network.. t + ' Vo - ~ ... omparatio[ or mixer .. t + - .3 FEEDBACK CONCEPT A sampling network samples the output voltage or current and this signal is applied to the input through a feedback two port network. Vs -"'1. It may contain resistors. The block diagram representation is as shown in Fig.5 Block diagram of feedback network. the feedback element (resistor) will be in parallel with the output..

Vf V (This 13 is different from 13 used in 8JTs ) o (I3)(A)(. . AVf= Vo Vs A 1f = G Mf = - 10 Is -10 - Vs Vo Is Feedback amplifiers are classified as shown below. Feedback I RMf = Positive (regenerati ve) I Voltage N egatIve (degenerative) I.I is due to phase-shift of 180° between input and output in Common Emitter Amplifier.I.1 Types of Feedback How to determine the type of feedback? Whether current or voltage? If the feedback signal is proportional to voltage. Since Sin(1800) = . If the feedback signal is proportional to current. Af. This is called as the transfer gain of the amplifier with feedback. it is Current Feedback. Ar is used to represent the ratio of the output to the input with feedback. G M and RM represent the transfer gains (Though G M and RM are not actually gains) of the basic amplifier without feedback.1) = -I3A 13 Loop gain / Return Ratio .386 Electronic Devices and Circuits All these four quantities. Return difference 0 = I-loop gain negative sign is because it is the difference 0= 1-(-[3A) 10= 1+ [3·A. it is Voltage Feedback. So the symbol 'A' is used to represent these quantities. I I Current I Series Shunt Series I Shunt A = voltage gain = Vo V. A v. = Feedback Factor.

Input impedance can be increased. Input signal is transmitted to the output through amplifier A and not through feedback network 13. Negative Feedback Negative feedback is also called as degenerative feedback. 4. 7. Because in negative feedback.4 TYPES OF FEEDBACK FeedbacK means a portion of the output of the amplifier circuit is sent back or given back or feedback at the input terminals. 7. the feedback signal opposes the input signal. 7. But there are many advantages with negative feedback. There are two types of feedback. Transfer gain Afcan be stabilized against variations in It-parameter of the transistor with temperature etc. stability is improved. 6 Block scltematic for negative feedback. I. Noise reduces.e.-I3V o . 2. The reverse transmission factor 13 is independent of Rs and RL . 2. 3. Bandwidth is increased.5 EFFECT OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON TRANSFER GAIN Fig 7. Advantages of Negative Feedback I. 5. Positive Feedback 2. Output impedance can be decreased. By this mechanism the characteristics of the amplifier circuit can be changed. i. So it is called as degenerative feedback. Ay=yI Vo A'v= Vo/V. Dist0l1ion is reduced. 3. Linearity of operation is improved.Feedback Amplifiers 387 Conditions to be satisfied I.' VI' = V. Hence feedback is employed in circuits. 6. The feedback signal is transmitted to the input through feedback network and not through amplifier.

~ is V e) .Ay .. :.2 INCREASE IN BANDWIDTH If..A Av J For negative feedback A'v = Denominator is > I. A 'v = Av 1. ~ Vo V 0 (1 + ~ Ay) = Ay V I Ayf = Electronic Devices and Circuits v0 = Ay (V i Vo = I ~ V A.5.. If the feedback is negative.{.L fH . 1 + n.388 V 0) Vo = Ay. (2) Substituting equation (1) in (2) for Av. fH is upper cutoff frequency. Ay = ..L fH 1+ Aymid 1+ jf / fH A y = p[ 1 (for negative Feedback. There is reduction in gain. (Open loop gain). A y = -----'--'--~ Av{mid) 1+ j.1 REDliCTION IN GAIN (for positive feedback) Ay = Voltage gain without feedback.. A I-' v 7. Expression for Ay (voltage gain at any frequency f) is. (l) Ay (mid) = Mid frequency gain Av (mid) 1+ PAy for negative feedback. VI . ~ is negative. --I+PA v 7.. fL is lower cut off frequency.p.. Ay{mid)/1 + j. f is any frequency.5..

.' . Negative feedback. Vi = V.'-~vvol+D .5. . + D.Feedback Amplifiers 389 Simplifying.f + ~. :. or A '= y Ay 1+ j f~ f 7. Where.--------.3 REDUCTION IN DISTORTION Suppose. Vo = Ay . Vo (for negative feedback) Vi' = Vi . increases bandwidth. in addition to voltage amplification is also producing distortion D. Vo' =Ay [v.~y. Ay = AyCmid)11 + ~vAv(mid) jf 1+ -. Similarly. A'= y A~ (mid) 1+ fH Where Ay' (mId) ~ AvCmid) = 1+ ~vAv (mid) fH' = fH (1 + ~y Ay (mId» and ~ is negative for negative feedback.--------"'--..AYmld.. the amplifier.f +~ [Ay mid] Ay (mid) [1 jL] fH + j.fH' > fH.f fH 1+ j.fH .. (3) fH[l + ~vAv(mid)] Equation (3) can be written as.~ Vo and ~ is negative for negative feedback. Ay = Ay (mid) + fH + j. V.

in Fig. 7. Therefore these two are out of phase. so as to oppose the input. Build an amplifier of gain A2 = DA. Sensitivity is improved by the same factor D. The overall gain is not a function offrequency. with negative feedback. . in which D is large. Q factor will be high. . So the new input Vi will have distortion introduced init.Ay+D V Electronic Devices and Circuits = o V:. o t ---+ t (a) Input signal Fig 7. V. f3 is negative therefore denominator is> 1 The distortion in the output is reduced. suppose the input is pure sinusoidal wave. the distortion introduced in the input cancels the distortion produced by the amplifier. Because these two distortions are out of phase.390 Vo [l+Ay Py]=V. So frequency duration is less.7.. The feedback signal cancels the distortion produced by the amplifier.is<D 1+ PvAv The physical explanation is.4 FEEDBACK TO IMPROVE SENSITIVITY Suppose an amplifier of gain Al is required. There is distortion in the output as shown. 7.5 FREQUENCY DISTORTION A A=-f l+PA If the feedback J'U:twork does not contain reactive elements. The stability will be improved by the same factor. because both gain and instability are divided by D.5.'.7 (b) Output with distortion (without negative feedback) Now. because of mixing of distorted Vfwith pure VI' So the distortion in the output will be reduced because..Av + 0 (1 + Ay.5. the feedback signal and input will be out of phase. If f3 depends upon frequency. 7.f3v) (1 + f3vAv) For negative feedback. if a part of the distorted output is fed back to the input. Feedback is now introduced to divide the gain by D.

Am) A BW > ' BW (BW)f = (1 + I3Am) BW wIthout feedback Gam . A AmplifIer 13 Feedback Network Fig 7.6 BAND WIDTH 391 It increases with negative Feedback ( as shown in Fig.12 1 > /2 BW' = (j. temperature effect etc...'.Jt wIth negatIve feedback i .Feedback Amplifiers 7..fa :::'/2 (BW)f = I~ -/1.2) /11 </1. stability of the amplifier will be affected Fractional change in amplification with feedback divided by the fractional change without feedback is called Sensitivity of Transistor. ..5.5.. 7.I~): BW = (/2 .. on circuit capacitance.7 SENSITIVITY OF TRANSISTOR GAIN Due to aging. = 1 (l+f-.I~ 1+~Am f....... dAf Af Id:1 .7.-.__ --------..8 Frequency Response with and without negative feedback.. transistor or FET.9 Feedback network.Ii Fig 7./1 ) 'f 12= 2 BW = /2 ..

. = = Reciprocal of sensitivity is Densitivityl D = (1 + I3A).10 The basic amplifier shown may be a voltage amplifier or current amplifier. B2 . 7. It is amplified to .AI3 B2 f = B 2f· B2 B2f = I + J3A B2f < B2 or So it is reduced. Noise is reduced with negative feedback. B2f appears at the output.AI3 B2 f. .6 TRANSFER GAIN WITH FEEDBACK Consider the generalized feedback amplifier shown in Fig.5.8 REDUCTION OF NONLINEAR DISTORTION Suppose the input signal contains second hannonic and its value is B2 before feedback. . : . Xd= X. It is amplified to . transconductance or transresistance amplifier. 7.J3AN F.392 dA f Af I IdAI 11+J3AI A I + ~A I Electronic Devices and Circuits Differentiating. NF = N . 7.J3ANF NF (1 + J3A) = N as N =-F 1+ J3A N NF < N. Because of feedback. Sensitivity.5.9 REDUCTION OF NoIsE Let N be noise constant without feedback and NF with feedback. Basic Amplifier A Output signal Xo =AX I Xs Input signal RL External load Feedback Network 'p' Feedback signal Fig 7.AI3 B2 f .---------.\ 7. Output with two tenns B2 . NF is fed to the input and its value is J3N F. Comparator mixer ~ + Difference signal .10. So positive I3B2 f is fed to the input.

Current series feedback. [Difference between the input signal and the feedback signal].Xr Substitute ( 2) in (1).. 3.Feedback Amplifiers The four different types of feedback amplifiers are.. f3 = Reverse transmission factor or feedback factor = Xf / Xo. The mixer can be a difference amplifier.1-~ Xa/~ Xa/~ 1--. Xo It is often a positive or negative real number. Xo A= ----"-Xs -X f Dividing Numerator and Denominator by X s' A= f3= - Xf -x.Xf = XI· Xd is also called as error or comparison signal. Xo = Output signal... This ~=. The feedback network can be a simple resistor.. ~ = feedback signal.. 2. 1. Voltage series feedback. Xd = Difference signal...-.. (1 ) I . (2) . Current shunt feedback... Xa~ Xc Xa .. (3) Xo From (2). Voltage shunt feedback. The output of the mixer is the difference between the input signal and the feedback signal. 4. 393 Xs = Input signal. Xd = Xs . Xd = Xs .& f3 should not be confused with the f3 of a transistor _Xo_Xo A---XI Xd I f B Transfer gain X=X d I Gain with feedback Af = Xo Xs X d =X s -Xf =X But .

will be modified not by Vf but because of the drop across Rs itself. . So effect of V f will not be there. Then it passes through a feedback network and hence gets multiplied by 13.394 Electronic Devices and Circuits gam WIt feedback. If IA~ < IAI the feedback is called as negative or degenerative. the signal Xd which is the output of the comparator passes through the amplifier with gain A. completed the loop. compared with R"V.11 Series feedback. the amplifier should be driven from a constant current source whose resistance Rs is very high ( Rs » RJ Rs Fig 7. the voltage source should have less resistance. In order that seriesfeedback is most effective. So the total product AI3.1 LOOP GAIN In the block diagram of the feedback amplifier. feedback f = 7. of the amplifier. and in the comparator it gets multiplied by-I. the circuit should be driven from a constant voltage source whose internal resistance Rs is small compared to R. II ). In order thatshuntfeedback is most effective. R s Amplifier Fig 7. feedback If IA~ > IAI the feedback is called as positive or regenerative. IfRs is very large. So it is multiplied by A.6. (See Fig. In the process we have started from the input and after passing through the amplifier and feedback network. A = transfer gain without feedback. 7. Therefore for series feedback.12 Current shunt feedback.

When the feedback is series derived. the feedback current will pass through the source and not through R. so ~ increases. When the feedback is shunt derived. output voltage is simultaneously present across RL and across the input to the feedback. then it is series derived feedback.Feedback Amplifiers 395 If the resistance of the source is very small. Return Ratio f3A = Product of feedback factor [3 and amplification factor A is called as Return Ratio. 7. Amount of feedback introduced is expressed in decibels = N log (A') N = 20 log Af = 20 log A A 1_1_1 1 +AP If feedback is negative N will be negative because A < A. Therefore 10 remains constant. Return Difference (D) The difference between unity (1) and return ratio is called as Return difference. so R0 increase. So the change in I. will be nominal. If the feedback current is same as the output current. it increases the output resistance. If it is series fed.13 Series derived feedback. Fig. Io remains constant. even through V0 increase. Similarly if the feedback signal is shuntfed it reduces the input resistance.14 (a) Shunt derived feedback. I . should be large and hence a current source should be used. Therefore the source resistance . An amplifier with shunt derived negative Feedback increases the output resistance. D= 1-(-f3A)= l+f3A. Fig 7. So in this case Vf is proportional to Vo' V.

7. the stability of the voltage gain. Let the change in Av is represented by S.l4).proportional to Vo.7 CLASSIFACTION OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS There are four types of feedback. V I Fig 7. Voltage series feedback. 4. 2. 3.. Current series feedback. The voltage gain must have a stable value. Voltage shunt feedback. with frequency. Vf is coming in series with VI So it is Voltage series feedback. Voltage Series Feedback Feedback signal is taken across RL.J I\.(See Fig.15 Improvement of Stability with Feedback Stability means. So it is voltage feedback.14 Schematic for voltage series feedback. (c) Current Series Feedback Fig 7. VI VI (a) Voltage shunt Feedback (b) Current Shunt Feedback VI r-----. .. 1. Current shunt feedback..396 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7.

.8.1 EFFECT OF FEEDBACK ON INPUT RESISTANCE INPlJT RESISTANCE WITH SHlJNT FEEDBACK With feedback If = 13.. is less with -negative feedback. f -dSl Ay (l+~.8 7. S' < S i.Ay)-Ay(+~) ( l+~. . dAy Dlfferentlatmg wIth respect to Ay. Stability is good. 0 I=I+AI 0 SIt-' [-: ~. dA'y Dlvl'd'tng by Avon b ot h'd es. = :: 1 . .'y = S' dAy =S v = 1+ ~Ay Ay Ay S=-_v = . variation in A y' or % change in A..Ay )2 ° =( 1 1 1+~Ay )2 dA~ 1 Av dAy 1 = (1 +~Av)" A~ But A' A~ and dA. Ay = ---'-y 1 + Av ~l . dAy (1 +~Av dA' 1 f For negative Feedback... 1 .Feedback Amplifiers 397 A~ = Vo A Vs (for negative feedback) .. :. denominator> I.. A = y .e. 7. 13 is negative:.

R. EXPRESSION FOR R WITH CURRENT SHUNT FEEDBACK I AI = Shunt circuit current gain of the BJT AI = practical current gain 10111 I. 7.l+p. AI represents the Shunt circuit current gain taking Rs into accounts. If the feedback signal is in shunt with the input.---'------. . I.(I+p.398 Electronic Devices and Circuits R . I.) Input resistance decreases with shunt feedback. ..--'-- for shunt feedback the input resistance decreases. V. If the feedback signal is taken in series with the output tenninals. it is shuntfeedback.16 Current shunt feedback. A.I. V.) R . feedback signal is proportional to 10 . R = ----. it is a Vo or so it is Voltage feedback. (I + p. . Is = II + If = II + f3 10 and R If - VI (l+PA])I. If the feedback signal is in series with the input. +p. = .A] R. it is seriesfeedback.A. = . If the feedback signal is taken across R L .A. So it is current feedback. + R 1 AI 1 1 Fig.

(I +~A) R.' = V. + ~V 0 (in general case). Vi _ _---. = I R I I V' -1-' = Input Z seen by the source .Feedback Amplifiers 7. V' == V . increases.18).17 Feedback network.' + A. Vl=VS-Vf or Vs=V\+Vf R~ = R\f = V s/I\. 7. I L J V' = V + ~ Vo . V f = 1\ R\ + V f == 1\ R\ + ~Vo Ay V. = R. EXPRESSION FOR I (1+~A) R WITH VOLTAGE SERIES FEEDBACK In this circuit Ay represents the open circuit voltage gain taking Rs into account.(I+~A) In general.' I.' = V. .f = R.18 Voltage series feedback.8. I Fig 7. (see Fig. + R I Fig._ _V-"--II I l A I J ~_ V. V 1 lit V.2 INPUT IMPEDANCE WITH SERIES FEEDBACK 399 V.A. For negative feedback. (I+~A) But V' . R.R L Vo = R R = (Ay 1\ R\) 0+ L Let.I. ~ is negative.7. .

without feedback. for series feedback input resistance increases. Then. 7.9. Feeding the voltage back to the input in a degenerative manner is to cause lesser increase in Vo.1 VOLTAGE SERIES FEEDBACK Expression for ROf looking into output terminals with RL disconnected. V0 R If =R[l+~. ROf = VII. or Is = 0) Let RL = 00. . with input Rof terminals.19 RO is determined by impressing voltage 'V' at the output terminals or messing '1'.AV) VI I AV = voltage gain. increases. + R.9 EFFECT OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON Ro Voltage feedback (series or shunt) Ro decreases. OUTPUT RESISTANCE Negative feedback tends to decrease the input resistances. For current feedback ROf> Ro. Impress a voltage V across the output terminals and calculate the current I delivered by V. Hence the output voltage tends to remain constant as RL changes because output resistance with feedback ROf« RL" Negative feedback. Hence an output current source is created (ROf » R L).-shorted. Series feedback (voltage or current) R. 7. which samples the output current will tend to hold the output current constant. Current feedback (series or shunt) Ro increases. decreases. Shunt feedback (voltage or current) R. For voltage sampling ROf< Ro. 7. Disconnect~.VOJ=RI(l+~.400 Electronic Devices and Circuits Vo VI AvRL Ro + RL A V = -=--'---"'---- VS = Ii RI + 13 . So this type of connection increases output resistance. To find Rot' remove external signal (set Vs = 0. Fig.

[fwe consider RL also Rof is in paraIlel with RL. .2 CllRRENT SHllNT FEEDBACK ~I I I s RI AI I I Fig. Because with Hence. V o V V Ro - 13 A ( I or I (I + 13 A (= ) R Rof = [= Ro (I + 13 A) A( = short circuit current gain.Feedback Amplifiers 401 Vo = output voltage.20 Block schematic for current shunt feedback amplifier.=O. Substitute the 1 value of Rof ~(-)-xR Ro/ = ---'---'---~-+ 1 + PAv L Ro RL l+PA v 7. VI = -l3 v V.If = -131 I= - + 131.. I( = .9. 10= -I Ai = Shunt circuit current gain Al 1= With. = Practical current gain V (II~ J R o -A( I( = Is = 0. Roc' includes RL as part of the amplifier. 7.VI =-v f =-l3 v Rof= I Vo = This expression is excluding RL.

402 Electronic Devices and Circuits x 1+~Ai } + ~A. . is less negative Vo Output voltage = V.V 0 I J tJ y = 10-3 +(. 1+~A.01 (.0.1 The following information is available for the generalized feedback network. input voltage to the amplifier. R~ = RO j I R~f= RO (1+ f3 A )1 Problem 7.5 mY. .0.'+A.50 = .01. . there is increase in gain. o Ro·R L = Ro+RL .0. = 0. x 10. Open loop voltage amplification (A) = .01. Solution A A~ = closed loop voltage amplification = I _ A VA Pv v Sign must be considered.005 (c) f3 = 0 (d) f3 = 0.100.Ro Ro +RL R .5 mY. Determine the closed loop voltage amplification. Vx Feedback voltage = f3Vo = 0. Input voltage to the system (V.: It is positive feedback.3 mV =-50mY.5 x 10-3) = 0.Ro Ro +RL AI = ~= 10 A. (b) f3 = .50 X 10. RL = AI 00.3 ) V=V.') = ImY. and type of feed back for (a) f3 = 0. the output voltage. Rof =Rol+~AI If.01(-100) . Ay = . A. -100 =::-50 A' = v 1-0. :. feedback voltage.

2 In the above problem determine the % variation in Av l resulting from 100 % increase in A.66. It is necessary to have an amplifier where voltage gain varies by not more than ± 0.'. Then new value of A v = .1 % (a) Find the reverse transmission factor 13 of the feedback network used (b) Find the gain with feedback.01.7 Variation = 16.7 ---so x 100 = 33. Hence.1 1 100 100 = (1 + I3A)' 1000 (1+I3A) = 100 or I3A = (100 .50 = 16. V.Feedback Amplifiers This is negative feedback because.7 .099 A = _A_= 1000 =10 f 1 + I3A 1+ 99 99 (b) . 13 = 1000 = 0. When Av = .01(-200) Change in A~ is . Solution (a) --=--- dAf Af dA 1+I3A' A or 0.100 ' Ay I = .3 An amplifier with open loop voltage gain Ay = 1000 ± 100 is available.7.1) = 99.3% Problem 7. . Ay Av = I_A A y t-'y l-l3v A v Now.50. -200 = -66. < V.200. 1-0. Solution If Ay increases by 100 %. 403 Problem 7. when I3 v = 0.

(]-I ~ '\y) = 0. we can improve the stability to 1%. Ay Ay Ay = 100 = I+PAv = 10 A~ = 100 x 10= 1000.4 Electronic Devices and Circuits A gain variation of + 10% is expected for an amplifier with closed loop gain of 100. 5 1+P [500] ~ = 4.1 = 9 ~= Problem 7.9 = 0. S=O.098.009 ~= 9 9 By providing negative feedback. 1 = or ---. .01 = 1 =S 0 S .A v tJ = 10 . I + t---J" = 10' ~A "I ~.1 N N' = (I+PAJ o. produces 5% harmonic distortion at full output. How can this variation be reduced to + I % Solution S' S for positive feedback.404 Problem 7.1 % ? What is the overall gain? Solution D . = Ay -Ay =_ 500 =-10 I+PA y 50 . An amplifier with Av = .I 0. with 0.1 for negative Feedback. s S'= I-PAy S'=O. What value of f3 is required to reduce the distortion to 0.Ol.----. 50 .5 A:" = 1000 = 0.500. 0=5. D = 0.009. = D I+PA y (for negative feedback) .

1 ) =-10 v v 5 Problem 7. V 0 = 10. 10.000 80 I + Px 10000 1 + ~ (10. Afb1 = 80 10.000 with ground plate supply of 150 V and voltage gain of8000 at reduced rate supply of 130 V. 405 A' =A ( -0. Calculate the 1) voltage gain of the amplifier with feedback for two values of plate supply voltage.000) = 80 10. The voltage gain at normal plate supply is reduced by a factor of 80. 7 % stability of gain without feedback = % stability of gain with feedback = 10. with and without feedback.000 . 2) Percentage reduction in voltage gain with reduction in plate supply voltage for both condition.24% :. it is reduced by a factor of 80 with feedback.7 125 100 = 0.000) ~=+~ 4 10 =0.000 . On application of negative feedback.000 = 125. . With negative feedback stability is improved.000 10.. When Vs = 150 V and A = s 10. Vs = 130 V.000 x 100 = 20% x 125-124.6 An amplifier has voltage gain of 10.Feetlback Amplifiers D' A' . Solution A= Vo V. (at normal supply voltages) ~ .000.1+ PA But A fb =80 (faTh of 10.0079 Vo when Vs = 130 V is gain x Vs = 8000 x 130 = 104 x 104 V Voltage gain of ampl ifier with feedback when V s = 150V.000 _ VI' x 150 = 15 __ A_ x 105 V.0079 x 8000 = 124. 8000 Afb2 = 1+ 0.8000 10.Vo' Afb .

because feedback signal is proportional 10 output voltage. Draw the basic amplifier without feedback 3. Indicate V fand Vo in the circuit. 7. can be determined. 7. it is current feedback. From A and ~.22. Step II : 2. Determine the feedback factor ~.10. the characteristics of the amplifiers R i.. 7. calculate A f = 1+ PA . it is voltage feedback. This is emitter follower circuit because output is taken across R . Complete analysis of the feedback amplifier is done by the following steps: Step I : First identify whether the feedback signal X f is a voltage feedback signal or current feedback signal. Afetc. 5. 7. If the sampled signal Xo is taken between the output node and ground. it is series feedback. Calculate ~ = V fl Vo 6. also Incre<ftse and if V 0' V f also decreases because V f aVo' So it i~ . Rif and Rof· A 1t equivalent Fig. Calculate 'A' of basic amplifier.1 VOLTAGE SERIES FEEDBACK Amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. Knowing A and ~ of the feedback amplifier. If the feedback signal is applied in series.21 Circuit for voltage series feedback. Replace the active device (BlT or FET) by proper model (hybrid circuit or It-parameter model) 4. If the feedback signal X f is applied in shunt with the external signal. separate the basic amplifier block and the feedback network. R o' noise figure. The feedback signal is also across R . it is shunt feedback. So V f = V . If V increases V.406 Electronic Devices and Circuits 7. Then determine whether the sampled signal Xo is a voltage signal or current' signal. Ifthe sampled signal is taken from the output loop.10 ANALYSIS OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS When an amplifier circuit is given. Determine the gain of the basic amplifier A.

it is emitler foll()\\er circuit. coming in series with V HI >nd it opposes it .Feedhack AmpNfiers ~07 Voltllge feedback. V I is the voltage across Re but. 7.-----------I I R L -A/V'v------. B ~--------------~-----------~. So in that case VI' a I or I or Iwt VII . But in this case.e .24 Block Schematic . 7. Vr opposes the input voltage. Output is taken across Rc and that itself is the feedback signal V f' I .I. i .. R " Fig.23 Block schematic. . Now the drop across R. output is takt.. R. 7.So it is negati\e series voltagefeedback In the current series feedback. EQI'IVALEI'iT CIRCl'IT Now replace the transistor by its low frequency h-parameter equivalent circuit. It reverse biases the fCedback in V!.22 R Sil1lp/~fied circuit.et llS draw the base amplifier without feedback. Fig.. (1 ( .\l across Rc or R\ and not Re. R 1c R e V " _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _L~_ _ _ _ _ _~'- Fig.

. or <1. Rs in services with hie) Vo Ie:::: Ie .J = Voltage gain without feedback A v = hfe·R e Rs + hIe A'v : Voltage gain with feedback.: h fe . Vo = hfe · Ib·Re . C: It is voltage source. which is true for emitter follower. R: = Input resistance without feedback is Rs + hie' R ~I = Input resistance with feedback R: = Ri (I +13 A) (voltage Feedback increase input resistance) 13 = I.e h fe Re» (Rs + hie) AVf == 1. Ib Vi = (Rs + hie) Ii Ii = Ib v A = ----.~-=--~ h fe Ib Re Ib(Rs + h.h fe · Re Rs +h .e 1+ l. So VI = Vs' Av = V . . Ie::. Av Av= l+~Av 13=1 hfe' Re Rs +h .408 Electronic Devices and Circuits v s is considered as part Qfthe amplifier.

--0 - 10 V 10 KO Fig.. All these capacitances represent negligible reactance at high frequencies. I 1+[3Av Problem 7. + hreReJ (Rs + hie) 409 R.25 For Problem 7. Load resistance is also R e.7 Calculate Ayf' Rof and Rif for the voltage series feedback for the circuit shown in Fig. Considering load resistance. [R: = = Rs +hie+ h fe Re Ri : Output resistance with feedback Output resistance of the circuit is Re' Because output taken across Re and not Rc and ground. tRs + hieXRs + hie. 7. 1 khr e = hoe = 0 and identical transistor. The second collector is connected to the first emitter through the voltage divider RI R 2 . I R I Ro = 0 .25. ~------~----------'-------~r------o-l0V --1:-------1 1---. Capacitor C I' C 2. Assume. C 3 and C 4 are bypass capacitors for the emitter resistors. Rs = 0... 7.7. Solution Voltage gain without feedback Ay = AYI x A y2 ' . h fe = 50. hi e = I.Feedback Amplifiers . C s are DC blocking capacitors.

:. R A _ RL _ I . IS A =- VI = ----.1 Ilie with 2.1+(5I)xO.2 kO Ilie with 10. So for Av.2 kO = 0.A] . Av 728 A AYf = I + f3A = 0 = 8..28 .1 For Q 2 emitter is bypassed..' at high frequency XC2 is negligible). h . So Re = O.098 :::-7. R~ = Rs II R7 II Rsil h ie2 Effective load resistance R~2 of transistor Q2 is its collector resistance ~ in parallel with (R 1+ R2).980 = 1.1 kO = 9800. For Ay this formula is used.28 ::: 90 .__ .- hfeRL h Ie hfe·R L 50 X 2 =2 =.410 Electronic Devices and Circuits Load resistance. in parallel with Rs ' and h 1e2 R~I = 2.01 13 = 728 x 0. -SOX 0.3 111. = A Y1 x A Y2' x 91 -728 = 778 I 13= Ay x R RI +R2 100 100 100+ 10.01 ='7.098kO = 980 The voltage gain AV1 of Q] for a common emitter transistor with emitter resistance v] V. R~2 = ~ II (R 1+ R2) .2 II 33 114.78 Voltage gain AY2 of transistor Q2' AY2 .28 D = 1+ 13 Ay = 8.1 kQ::: 2 kO Effective emitter impedance Re ofQ] is R] parallel with R 6.hfeR'.... R~2 = 2..000 = 10100 I = 101 ::: 0. RLJ . this formula must be used. Voltage gain Ay of the two stages is cascade without feedback Vo A y = -V. Re1 = R] I lie R6 .e + (\ + h fe )R e For Q 1 emitter is not at GROUND potential. Rs in parallel with R7 (.=-91 Y2 hie 1.-~.' C 3 is short for AC Re = 0.

So it is emitter follower].24 K 0 411 Equivalent Circuit RJ Fig.28 = 0.99 . [T~is voltage follows the collector voltage. Feedback is provided from the emitter ofQ2 to the base ofQI. 51 Output resistance without feedback R' = R'L 1 = 2 kO .1 (1+7.1 + {I +50) 0.Feedback Amplifiers Input resistance without external feedback Ri=h . Voltage is taken across Re. So circuit analysis is not simply parallel or series combination.:: 0.7.30). Av is large.098::6. A =~ = Rs I II Rs +rbb' 7. Viis 180 0 out of phase with V I Q2 is emitter follower because emitter is not at ground potential.7. This is negative feedback because.10.26 For Problem 7.2 CURRENT SHlJNT FEEDBACK The circuit is shown in Fig.27. hfe = P hoe = Ro The circuit shows two transistors Q 1 and Q 2 in cascade(See Fig.(I+~A) =6. =Rif=R. Amplifier circuit parameters in terms of transistor h-parameters. Also.V I2 is out of phase with VI!" V I2 » Vii because Q 1 is in Common emitter configuration. 7. hie = R. R 2 Output resistance without feedback ROf = 1+ ~A = 8. BJTwill not behave like a fixed resistor with hie' value. So Av < I.28) =50.1KO R.5".e + (1+hfJ Re= 1. V i2 the input voltage to Q2 is » V tI . 7.

and there is no phase shift. [because emitter follows action] 12 V is in phase with V I2 e2 V I2 is out of phase with Vi!" Ve 2 is out of phase with Vi I (180°).IfI~ increases. 7. V e2 »VI]' :. If also increases ('.27 Current shunt feedback.If' (Ii is the base current for the transistor QI' SO it is negative feedback) This is current shunt feedback because. I~ the input current from source also increases. Dividing by R: .412 Electronic Devices and Circuits Ve2 is slightly less than V .' II = V e2 increases as I~ increases) I~ . ve -vI = 2 I f R' But ViI «Ve2 . So it is negative feedback V I2 » Vii' V e2 ::: V i2 . If the input signal Vs increases. Ve If _+_2 R' 10 = collector current of Q2' ::: emitter current of Q2' R' Fig.

A II = Ib (s .Feedback Amplifiers 413 If a 10 This is current feedback A~ : Current gain with feedback.l. RC2 Vs=ls·Rs· V Io ·R c2 _0 = _ _ Vs IsRs I s . 10 I~ = Ii + If which is small J.If ~ .If ~ A~ : Voltage gain with feedback. AI =~ s . Vo V s (with feedback) Vo = 10 .

R' or Re2 are in parallel. and ground. So the formulae derived earlier can be used directly. Hence on the input side.28 Current shunt feedback without R' .31. considering R' can be drawn as shown in Fig.8 To find A'v ' R. -lc2 Ib2 (Multiplying and dividing by Ib2 .50. R~. Because it is shunt feedback. . 7. A=-=-·I Is Ib2 lei -Ie.. RCJ = 3 kO.28) I~ I s R' Ri Ri. .= .28 To represent R' on the input side.it~out feedback. 7. we have shown this as a current source with Rs in parallel with Is' Problem 7. -1-. output is taken across emitter and ground). 7. R' = Rs = 1. :. with output terminals open circuited (:. hre = h re = O.1 kO RC2 = 5000. ICJ and Ibl ) -I e. output is taken at the collector 2 and not emitter 2. A'I for the circuit shown in Fig. R' is in series with R e2 . (Fig. Re2 = 500 Solution In this problem. R' is in series with Re2 and thus total resistance is between base B[. R~ taking numerical values.2 kO hie = 1.414 Electronic Devices and Circuits We shall determine R. 7.. To find the output resistance. Ri2 Fig. hfe = 50. (EmItter follower) b. When E2 is left open (To make 10 = 0). The actual circuit.hfe = . the base of Q[ is shorted to ground because one terminal of R' is connected to (input shorted looking the high outputterminals) B[ is at ground. The circuit is as shown below. w. it is emitter follower configuration.

25 (Re2 = 0.25 = 1.55 k n R = Rs in parallel with (R' + Re2 ) 1.04.2+1.Feedback Amplifiers 415 fI = + hfe = + 50 (common emitter configuration) bJ IC!. (For emitter follower corfiguration this is the input resistance). .61 + 1.50) (.61 = 0.040)(406) = 17.358) =+406 50 = 1.1 AI = (.2 =23.2 J AI 406 A J = I+PA = 17. (l + I 13 A) = I + (0. Ri2 = hie + (1 +h fe ) (Re2 II R').20] 1. = 1.457.83 1.= V0 -Ie 2 .6XO.25 =0. A I =. current gets divided depending upon RCJ and RI2 of transistor Q2' 1b2 # -3 = 3 + 3.6. The current gets divided in the ratio ofthe resistances.2 .1 + (50 + I) [ Let 0.358 Q 0.0.R e2 V Vs Is..05 x 1.250 = 0.457) (50) (0.05 k n) = 3.0.S) = 9.612kn 0.R s = (23.55 = .2 x 1.

with feedback considering RL.' Ro is large R~ = "hIe 1 = a. = Ro in parallel with RC2 = RC2 . RI 394 RI = 1+PA = 17.2) = lOA] S Ri = Input resistance without feedback = R in parallel with hi e (0. We are taking into account the effect of R' and not the feedback effect. Ra= r 200 0 = =20 I+PAo 10 Fig.= (0.416 Electronic Devices and Circuits ~A'v R C2 0.71 = 0. So thus AI will not be the same if R' is actually connected between E2 and B I.2 = 23. 1+ PAl = Ro = RC2 = 500 When we represent R on the input side and output side and calculate the value of AI' it is not the current gain with feedback. In practice for shunt or series feedback. The current source will supply sufficient current to drive the resistance.6 IX1.5 is also = -PR.1) = 1. 7. the signal generator will act as a current source or voltage source. = RoL(I+PAJ .394 kO . Therefore for shunt feedback we must have a current sources irrespective of input voltage.In theory we assume ideal voltage and current sources.00 I ROL = Output resistance considering RL.. Therefore it is capable of supplying current or voltage required . R' is represented on the input side leaving E2 terminal open and on the output side shorting BI to ground (to make 10 and Is = 0) . . RI = (1 +9) 20 kO = 200 kO Rs is negligible compared to 200 kO.29 Equivalent circuit.040X1. Because.

R) and R2 will come in parallel with Rj ' = R j II R)II R2 VOLTAGE GAIN (A'y ) I A v = Ay=~ . but Rj will be R' J .- Ie Ie P 1+ P -= Ie Ie Ie le+lb . .R L [This is the general expression for Av interms of Ai] . RL will not change.: negative current series feedback] (lb) R =R.10. V V..= -fe - IelIb Ie -+ 1 Ib I h I+hfe' R'=R+ . -I =R I . A.+-- leRe Ie -Ie Dividing II term by Ie' -=a= . + VI' I.. Vf = Ie Re .Feedback Amplifiers 417 7. II .R L R. I.V f R =-= 'I. ' V. Re 1-~ 1+ h fe R: But Rj = = RI + (l + hfe)·Re hie for the transistor R. I = Ie .3 CURRENT SERIES FEEDBACK INPUT RESISTANCE (R'I) VI = V/ . f =-+I. V. .Ie [.. AI will not change. V. . A. = hie + (1+ hfe ) Re Ifwe consider the bias resistor also. [With feedback.

hfe · R L · The expression we get for = f3 .::: 1. Because V f is in series with Vj' It is current series feedback..30 output is taken between collector and ground. fe f3::: 7.e + Rs P THE FEEDBACK FACTOR: -hfe·R L R..h oe This will be very large.418 AI::: .3 R Re L ClJRRENT SERIES FEEDBACK (TRANS CONDlJCTANCE AMPLIFIER) Consider the circuit shown in Fig. V = -hfe·R L h. (2) Comparing (l) and (2).. 7.. the feedback.. we find that (1 + htJ ... R't = ~ (1 + f3.hfe A Electronic Devices and Circuits . Ay) Ay= R j .h . (1) R'. ~ h fe RL This is the actual expression for f3 f3 = 1+ hte . Taking into effect.10. . R'o = Ro II RL = _1_ Ro ACTlJAL EXPRESSION FOR h _ hfeh re oe h.e + (1 + hfe)Re A~ <Ay OllTPllT RESISTANCE (R'o) 1+ h fe R without feedback::: . I With negative feedback. The drop across Re is the feedback signal V f' The sampled signal is the load current 10 and not Vo' This is current series feedback. = RI + (1 +hfe)·Re ..

Y f = Ie Re' Ie ::::: Ie = 10 . Since. 7.31 below. + 13= vs R e Re + vf Fig. . [13 must be independent of Rs or RL] Vf = -Io·R e =_ Re Vo Io·R L RL The basic amplifier circuit without feedback is shown in Fig. 13 is taken as VI' Vo It depends.7. The equivalent circuit when the active device is replaced by h-parameter circuit is shown in Fig.31 Circuit without feedback. Y f = 10 Re .7. on R L .7.32. This has to be considered as Transconductance Amplifier.Feedback Amplifiers cc 419 + ~_J Fig. G M is considered. Y fa 10 .30 Current series feedback. because for this circuit. Re is constant.

---=--"--""7 m Ib(Rs + hIe + Re) Rs + hIe + Re D = 1+ I3.hfe · Ib (Input current gam) . 8 b ~ .. 7.= y=G Mf s s A yf = OM f .32 h .RL -hfe·R L Rs + hIe + (I + hfJR e (1 +h fe ) Re » Rs + hie· Since hte is a large quantity.parameter equivalent circuit.) GM = Since. = I = .-.420 Electronic Devices and Circuits ~s Rs I ~I~I=II I R. . Vi = Ib (Rs+ hi e + Re) -h fe . hIe + Fig.Re · o 0 C: the sampled signal is 10 and not V0. GM = 1 + hfe·R e Rs + hIe + Re Rs + hIe + (1 + hfJR e Rs + hIe + Re G = GM = -hfe Mf D Rs + hIe + (I + hfe)Re Voltage gain 10·R L 10 A yf = -V.Ib G = -----. 10 VI 10 = . Vf -'o·R e 13 = . Denominator::: (1 +h fe ) Re· hfe » 1.

34 Redrawn circuit for voltage shunt feedback. c~ Fig. [We are not interested whether voltage is fed or current is fed. 7. .4 VOLTAGE SHlJNT FEEDBACK (TRANS RESISTANCE AMPLIFIER) This is voltage shuntfeedback because. Rlf = RI D = Rs + hIe + (1+ h fe ) Re' 7. the feedback current through R8 is proportional to the output voltage or it is in shunt with the input.33 Circuit for voltage shunt feedback. 7. 7. Denominator::: h fe · Re' 421 RI = Rs + hIe + Re (without feedback). But the feedback signal is proportional to output voltage.33.Feedback Amplifiers :. Fig. shown in Fig. So it is voltage feedback] The circuit can be written as.10. So it is voltage shunt feedback.

shown in Fig. Fig. 7.. hie v (AIRL) R' 1_ I Ay -AY • R +R' S I R'. B ~=- -If Vo -1 ~=- RB A Y V = _ 0 = . 7.=-Is·R s . Amplification is there.-.h fe • R~ without +" leedback . Rs V.422 Electronic Devices and Circuits The low frequency h-parameter equivalent circuit is.35. = Input resistance with feedback AYf = V Vo S = --..~Rs Rs Yo -RB . -V If::: ~.R V.35 h-parameter equivalent circuit. V o » Vi .

= hIe in parallel with I _ ~ v R Transresistance Where R = Rs II Rs . Rs = 40 k. . Find Avf ' Rlf .1 kO.9.i 7.36 For Problem 7.Feedback Amplifiers 423 Is = If+ lb' Ib is negligible -1 I . Prohlem 7. hre = ho e = O.If or (3 = . hfe = 50. s- RB R. + E I = S Vs Rs t vo F.9 For the circuit shown. Rc = 4 kO.. hI e = 1. Rs = 10k.

968 kO.0kO =-= R Vo ' Is . Rs Rxh. Though gain reduces due to negative feedback.Rc" _ Ie _ 4x40 _ RB . = I+PR 968 = 5. low noise and high stability. To achieve these characteristics a part of output signal is feedback and coupled to input.e 8xl. M R' 32 A'v = -. low distortion. to oppose in phase with (V).0 = 1930 SUMMARY • An Amplifier circuit is to provide voltage gain or current gain or both in the form of power gain. W.e = 8 + I. Low Z .10 + 40 .00 =-32.4 + 40 .02SmAIV -I R~ = I+PR RM M -160 = 5. .3.424 Electronic Devices and Circuits Solution .64 kO R ._ Ie Rc . So it is negative feedback. Large B. I 0 .8 kO (R+hJ Is = RIb. Rj M R.l RI = R + h. it is employed in amplifier circuits to get the other advantages.I = 0. But the other desirable characteristics of the amplifier circuits are high Z.2L =-10 =-3. RM =-160 k ~=-R8 =-0.Rs" _ IOx40 _ RB .2.

gain reduce by a factor (1 + I3A).. 5.. (1 + I3A) is called return difference D or desensitivity factor.. If the feedback signal is proportional to voltage.Characteristics of ideal voltage amplifier are: _ _ _ _ _ __ Desirable characteristics of practical current amplifier are = I3A in feedback amplifier circuits is called _ _ _ _ _ __ --------- With voltage feedback... 9.' = _ _ _ _ _ __ Negative feedback is also called as For Ideal transconductance amplifier R...Relation between upper cut-off frequency J. noise. IfVj is in phase with V" adding to it or aiding V" it is positive feedback. If the feedback signal is porportional to current.. it is desirable that R is Ro is Voltage sampling is also known as .. Bandwidth. If the feedback signal V] is coming in series with input signal V" it is series feedback..I For practical transresistance amplifier. If the feedback signal VI is out of phase with V" opposing it is negative feedback.. 3. With current feedback (series or shunt) Ro increases. 12... 6... (ii) current series With voltage feedback (series or shunt) output resistance Ro decreases. The different types of feedback are (i) voltage series (iii) voltage shunt and (iv) current shunt.Feedback Amplifiers • • • • • • • • 425 Feedback factor 13 = V ~V o' The product I3A is called returned ratio. f2' stability improve by (l + I3A). it is current feedback. it is voltage feedback. 7..' without negative feedback isJ. 11. output resistance Ro of an amplifier . With shunt feedback (current or voltage) Ro decreases. The disadvantage of negative feedback is _ _ _ _ _ __ The expression for sensitivity of an amplifier with negative feedback The expression for Desentivity of negative feedback amplifier is D = IS ------- The relation between bandwidth of an amplifier without feedback and with negative feedback is . 8. With series feedback (current or voltage) R I increases. (series or shunt). 4. 2. it is shunt feedback. 10. 13.. distortion. ------= _______ and . If V] is in parallel with V. With negative feedback.. • OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1. with negative feedback and J.

Define the terms Return Ratio. 16. input resistance R. 6. Current series feedback amplifier. ~ = _______ V. (i) (ii) ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Give the equivalent circuits. What type offeedback is used in electronic amplifiers? What are the advantages of this type of feedback ? Prove each one mathematically.) in the case of (a) (b) (c) (d) Voltage series feedback amplifier. (ii) Current amplifiers. What are the advantages and disadvantages of positive and negative feedback? With the help of a general block schematic diagram explain the term feedback. Electronic Devices and Circuits With series feedback. (iv) Transconductance amplifier. 2. 15. 4.) and output resistance with feedback ROf (or R. and characteristics of ideal and practical amplifiers of the following types (i) Voltage amplifier. Cunent shunt feedback amplifier. Return Difference feedback factor. (i i i) amplifier. Vo v. Why negative feedback is used in electronic amplifiers eventhough closed loop voltage gain decreases with this type of feedback ? 5. Derive the expression for the input resistance with feedback Rlf (or R. Voltage shunt fec'lback amplifier. (voltage or current). of an amplifier Expression for reverse transmission factor or feedback factor Identify the type of feedback. Transres i stance . closed loop voltage gain and open loop voltage gain.426 14. Explain the concept of feedback as applied to electronic amplifier circuits. 3.

and R~ for the circuit. Derive the expressions for A'v ' f3. the linearity of operation of the amplifier circuit (a) deteriorates (b) improves (c) rem ian same (d) norw of these 5. R.Feedback Aml!iijiers 7. Derive the expressions for A~ . (a) Va V f (b) _0_ V' Vf (c) V f V' a (d) V f Va 4. Derive the expressions for A'v ' f3. R. Derive the expressions for A'v . Equation for feedback factor 'P' is . and R~ for the circuit. 10. With negative feedback. and R~ for the circuit. Positive feedback is also known as (a) (c) regenerative feedback Loop feedback (b) (d) degenerative feedback return feedback 3. 427 In which type of amplifier the input impedance increases and the output impedance decreases with negative impedance? Prove the same drawing equivalent (·. Draw the circuit for Voltage series amplifier and justify the type of feedback.. R. Draw the circuit for Voltage shunt amplifier andjustify the type of feedback.. Draw the circuit for Current series amplifier and justify the type of feedback. Loop sampling is also known as (a) (c) Voltage sampling Power sampling (b) (d) Current sampling Node sampling 2.. 11.rcuit.f3. Draw the circuit for Current shunt amplifier and justify the type of feedback. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Expression for distortion D' with negative feedback. 8. f3. R. with usual notation is D' == (a) (b) D(l-f3A) (c) (d) D(I+f3A) . 9. and R~ for the circuit.

. Expression for densitivity of an amplifier circuit with negative feedback is.•• input resistance (a) decreases (b) no effect (c) can't be said o (d) increases 10.=oo' 0 =00 R I return ratio shunt ratio 8. With voltage feedback series or shunt.. Characteristics of ideal voltage amplifier are . The product of feedback factor (a) (c) return difference series ratio '13' and amplification factor' A' is called .428 Electronic Devices and Circuits 6. (b) (d) 9. output ressitance R ••.Ro=oo (b) (d) R j = 0... (a) decreases (b) increases (c) remains same (d) non of these .. Negative series feedback voltage or current . Ro = ° R. Ro = 0 Rj=O.•.. (a) (c) R j = 00. (a) D = (l-I3A) (b) D = ~A 1 (c) D=(l+I3A) (d) D= (1+~A) 7.

R-C phase shift oscillator circuit. input is explained. Colpitts oscillator. Hartley oscillator. Resonant oscillator circuits are given. Barkhausen criteria to be satisfied for generation of oscillations is given. • • .In this Chapter. Generation of sinusoidal waveforms by the oscillator circuits without external A. crystal oscillator. • Basic principle of oscillator circuits is explained.C.

1 PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS: 1. AC DC power Fig. R. hSignal output Oscillator I--~. it is not so. Harmonic Oscillators 2. There are two types of oscillators circuits: I. only output power is the criterian and not the actual shape of the wave form . Harmonics: Undesirable frequency components are harmonics. But there is no AC input signal.C and L determine frequency of oscillations.2 .1 i output DC input (a) Amplifier circuit (b) Oscillator circuit For an amplifier. An elementary sinusoidal oscillator circuit is shown in Fig. 'Invertors ' in electrical engineering convert DC to AC.I below: Input _I IL-. So an amplifier effectively converts DC to AC . but there. the electric energy in the form of DC is converted into electric energy in the form of AC. In the oscillator circuits that we are describing now. Active devices convert the DC power to AC. Relaxation Oscillators produce sawtooth and square waves etc. 3. In alternators (AC generators) the thermal energy is converted to electric energy at 50Hz. Class A gives less output power but hormonics are low. 8. there is no AC output. Band C operations can be done. the DC power conversion to AC is controlled by the AC input signal. IfR changes with T. Harmonic Oscillators produce sine waves. 2. So the difference between amplifier and oscillator is in amplifiers circuits. Amplitude stability: To get large output voltage.c. This is shown in Fig. Class C gives largest output power but harmonics are more. .430 8. 4. In the oscillator circuits also DC power is converted to AC. But an oscillator doesn't need any external AC signal. But in oscillators.1 OSCILLATORS Electronic Devices and Circuits Oscillator is a source of AC voltage or current. 8.___-:--__ Amplifier i ----J. the additional power due to amplification is derived from the DC bias supply. Output Power: Class A.C. We get A. Stability: This is determined by the passive components. Capacitors should be of high quantity with low leakage. But it needs AC input. input which will be amplified.fchanges so stability is affected .1. Passive components determine the frequency of oscillators. Without AC input.output from the oscillator circuit.S. Relaxation Oscillators. An amplifier is different from oscillator in the sense that an amplifier requires some A. Oscillator circuits employ both active and passive devices. So silver mica and ceramic capacitors are widely used. S. amplification is to be done.

4 Damped oscillations. Voltage across C decreases.. so that the circuit operates on its own. ideal devices. the energy stored in inductor L increases. Because we have to take output from the circuit. So the charge across Capacitor C decreases. Inductor stores energy in its magnetic field whenever current flows. So as the energy stored in Capacitor decreases. When switch is closed. energy has to be extracted. Voltage across L will be V. Then the current in L starts charging C in the opposite directions. 431 v 1+ t C i F f V ~ Fig. the current starts charging C in the opposite direction.t - Fig. i. Both C and L are lossless. So output also decreases or the voltage across C and L decreases so we get damped oscillation as shown below. They can store energy. So at t = t\ current in L is maximum and for t > t\. So quality factor is infinity 00 • Energy is introduced into the circuit by charging capacitor to 'V' Volts. . Then current flows.Oscillators S ---. 8. Thus we are getting sinusoidal variations without giving anyone input. The capacitor stores energy whenever there is voltage across its plates. the energy stored in C and L decreases. C cannot discharges because there is no path for discharge current to flow.e. 8. What we have done is depositing some charge on C. If switch is open. current flows.3 Waveform. At t = to' the Voltage across C is V volts. So V across C becomes negative as shown in the wavefrom. Thus we get sinusoidal oscillations from LC circuit.2 LC Tank circuit. As we draw energy from the circuit. 8. energy in L is maximum. as shown in the waveform. current through the inductor is maximum. But the above circuit is not a practical circuit. Yp t V C':'\ 'CO? <=> <=> ---. from the circuit. because current is flowing through L Thus total energy in the circuit remains the same as before. When V across C becomes 0. But why should we get sinusoidal wave and not triangular or square wave? Sinusoidal function is the only function that satisfies the conditions governing the exchange of the energy in the circuit. Land C are reactive elements. When the energy in C is 0. Y t ---"t Fig. Suppose at t = to' switch'S' is closed.

VI is provided from the feedback signal of V 0 itself.. whatever energy that is lost in the circuit. To get initially Yo. v v t ---. etc.5 Amplifier response. Thus. Av= Vx x Vo Vo VI . A = Vo V VI' VX=VI ~. 8.432 Electronic Devices and Circuits The energy lost by the elements must be replenished. 8. Av » 1. the noise signal of transistor after switching itself is sufficient. VI Vx Fig. after feedback the feedback signal Vx will be removed. Thus without external AC input we get sinusoidal oscillators. UJT.. V Fig. the feedback network provides 180°. so that oscillations are obtained continuously. exhibit -ve resistance. it replenishes.6 so that after feedback. the feedback signal V x = VI' and also. The energy supplied by the -ve resistance to the circuit actually comes from the DC bias supply. v t ---.8. phase shift. Certain devices like tunnel diode. If a negative resistance R is connected in the circuit.6 Feedback network.. Another method of producing sinusoidal oscillations is: Suppose we have an amplifier with gain Av and phase shift 180°. without any input we get sinusoidal output. If we connect V ° through a feedback network to VI as shown in Fig.

Total Loop phase shift must be 0° or 360°. phase and frequency of Xi and X~ be identical. = - X f = -APX I = Loop gain. The condition that. and the amplifier feedback network contains reactive elements. the feedback network must produce another 180° phase shift so that net phase shift is 0° or 360° and V [is in phase with VI to make it positive feedback.AP = o.. 8. is X. 8. 7 Block schematic. (Amplifier circuit produces 180° phase sh ift and feedback network another 180°. .7 shows an amplifier.3 BARKHAUSEN CRITERION We make an asssumption that the circuit operates only in the linear region. V[must be in phase with VI to get added to VI . The amplifier provides an output signal X o' as a consequence of the signal XI applied directly to the amplifier input terminal. the amplitude. 2. Phase shift is zero at that frequency. For oscillator circuits positive feedback must be there i. When active device BJT or FET gives 180° phase shift. Oscillations will not be sustained if. The loop gain must be unit I. even if the input source is removed. the loop gain must be 1. If X~ were to be identically equal to XI' input signal. Therefore. 8.e.AP = 1 is called Barkhausen criterion i. to get sustained oscillations.. if XI = X~ . is X[= PX o = A PX i and the output of the mixing circuit. I.e.PA = 1 means. IPAI = 1 and phase of . so the output will be X o. For a sinusoidal wave form. a feedback network and input mixing circuit not yet connected to form a closed loop. The conditions .Oscillators 433 Total phase shift = 360° (180 + 180). at the oscillator frequency the magnitude of the product of the transfer gain of the amplifier and of P are less than unity. Output of feedback network X X'f=Xf Mixing on inverting network X f = PXo I Base Amplifier I-I_-r---I~---o X o =AX I Feedback network P V0 Fig. The frequency of a sin'lNiOidal oscillator is determined by the condition that loop gain. -PA should be = 1.2 SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS Figure 8. X~. XI = - A~XI XI = -~A.

But practically. IfPA > 1. since circuit components and transistor change characteristics with age. Fig. 2. This larger voltage will then reappear as a still larger voltage and so on. At that frequency.. So if I~AI is larger than 1. Though a circuit has been designed for I~:. The type of noise in electronic circuits and the causes are: 1. with an amplitude larger than 1V. = .-I = 1.C phaseshift oscillator circuit.4 R . IfPA < 1. 8. At this particular frequency. nonlinearity ability of the circuit will be set in. the oscillations will stop. The RC network shifts the phase by additional amount. the amplitude of oscillations will continue to increase without limit. 8.8 JFET R . the amplitude practically will increase.434 Electronic Devices and Circuits A Af = 1+ ~A . But which implies that.1. (Fig.8). the circuit will oscillate. Schottky noise or Shot noise: Because of variation is concentration in the Semiconductor Devices. I~AI will become larger or smaller than 1. i R V. the phase-shift introduced by this network will be exactly 180°. there exists an output voltage even in the absence of an externally applied voltage. to limit the increase of amplitude of oscillations. after a trip around the loop and back to the input terminals.C PHASE-SHIFT OSCILLATOR (USING JFET) This is voltage series feedback. The output of the last RC combination is returned to the gate. . V. Johnson noise or Thermal Noise: Due to temperature. than Af ~ 00. 8. . temperature. resistor R. from the gate around the circuit and back to the gate is + 180 . The FET amplifier shifts the phase of voltage appearing at the gate by 180°.Vf 180° out of phase. This forms the feedback connection. I~AI shall not fall below unity. If PA = . A I-V signal appearing initially at the input terminals will. voltage etc. So. to achieve a sinusoidal osciallation practically I~AI > 1 to 5%. appear there. FET amplifier is followed by three cascaded arrangements of a capacitor C. so that with incidental variations in transistor circuit parameters. The total phase-shift at this frequency. At some frequency.180 = 0°.

L is ~ ~~ 29 ·1 1 8. So select FE T whose f.1 TO FIND THE OF THE RC PHASE-SHIFT NETWORK (JFET) C C C Each RC network introduces a phase-shift of 600 .6a) -1 29 or In order that atleast 29.S x 6 _ S(6a .Yf .~= where The phase-shift of -v: I Yf' 1 = 1 . total phase-shift = 1800 . 8.+ 1. 1 f.= . Therefore j (6a . show below in Fig. A should be atleast 1291.+ 1. for a o 2= 6 or ~ must be real. =-v S ~----------~----~--~~~------~----~----~-4S f S Fig.8. 8.4.1 0). i 1.9. - ~= 1 1.j(6a . 1 IpAI is not les than unity. Therefore..2rtRCf6' It ~ 2'R~~·1 when a 2 = 6.Oscillators The equivalent circuit is. o •• A tJ = Yf Yo an d y'f = . (See Fig..Sa 2 .a 3 ) • a = (ORC' V' -¢ is 180°..a 3) = O.9 Equivalent circuit.10 R C phase shift network. .. C 435 C C G v.1 _I Fig. 8. Y The transformation of RC net work is yf = -p.

.... (2) .. d.+Vtb o R(jroc) jroc R jrocR 2 jroc R jrocR 2 (jroc)2R R (~+ jrocR 2 1) . and e equation in (b) and simplify V= 3Vtb + tb (~+_l_)+ Vtb 2V Vtb(l I) +.. (a) . (b) To eliminate II' 12..-+-. and 13. ........ II=T Vtb ...... (e) Substitute c........ (3 ) . (d) Vfb 12 = V fb (~ + Jro~R 2) _ (1 2 +1))+1 13 ...436 Electronic Devices and Circuits .. (1) ..jroCR 2 1= ~(~+_1_)+ V(~+ 1 ) tb 3 jrocR R jrocR 2 R jroCR 2 . (c) I) Vfb 12 = jrocR + I) = jrocR2 +T ...

50.J6.ll(a) and Fig. 3 = O. Ib C = Collector C B2 Rc ~ C C t 3 R3 R3 hfe Ib RI (a) (b) Fig. 6 a .) 1 13 = 1. because the input impedance of transistor is small. 2 + j(a 3 P or But 60. corresponding to this frequency will be 29. 2 .'6 The gain A.50. Therefore equating imaginary part to zero. voltage shunt feedback is employed. = a 3. Ifvoltage series feedback is employed.Oscillators Vo Vtb 437 =~=1- P 5 + m2c 2 R 2 j( I __ 6_) m3C 3R 3 mCR Let. 60. 8.j(6a _ 0. I 0)= .0. 8. the resistance offeedback network will be shunted by the low 'R' of the transistor.5 TRANSISTOR RC PHASE-SHIFT OSCILLATOR For transistor circuit. 3 ) 13A=1 13 is a complex number.- .11 Transistor phase shift oscillator. But or or mCR . I 0.c~.J6CR It ~ 2. (Fig. .=-mCR ~ = 1'.J6. or a = I a = meR' 1 . = .8. 8.11(b».

. The three RC sections of the phase-shifting network are identical RI R2 and Re are biasing resistors..C Equivalent circuit...ja.) 12 .R i. The feedback current x f = .roc) 13 = 0 By taking 'R' as common....ro~C}3 =0 1 R Rc = K and a. '. = roRC' the equations are (1 + K .R 12 = .. (2) . (7) .. (9) .. R Fig.. R j ...ja.. (3) Loop 2 : -RI I + (2R ..roc) 12 .... (1 ) ..) 13 = 0 ..h fe Ib Rc ... (8) ....!J. the modified given by equations are Rc +1 __J_') ro II ( R RC _ Rc 12 ...12 R .) II -12 = ..hfe Ib = 0 -II + (2 .-h fe Ib .. where Ri :::: hie' the input resistance of transistor. (6) (2 . j Loop 1 : (Rc + R ....RI3 = 0 j Loop 3 : -R12 + (2R . (4) -I I + (2---)1 2 -13. (5) .438 Electronic Devices and Circuits The value of R3 = R . 8...13 = 0 -12 + (2 ..roc) II . Ib can be found out.ja. =0 roRC -1 2"+ Let j . =- -Xf = -I b 13 Xi By writing K V L for the three nodes. Loop current gam .13 Input current Xl = Ib (Negative sign is because it is negative feedback) . ....

j4Ka .ja -1 I 3 -1 2.)6 + 4K :.5a2 .23K .(2 ..)6+4K 1 a = roRC' ro = RC..291 h fe K > 4K2 + 23K + 29 29 hfe > 4K + 23 + K .2 + ja j6a .a 2 ...ja -1 o =tl.ja -I o tl.ja] [4 ..j4a .)6 + 4K For mantaining the oscillations at the above frequency.ja -1 -1 439 [ 2...ja)] = [I + K .1] + [.ja] [(2 .a 2K + 3K + 1 tl...r. = [1 + K . 113 / Ibl > I 1 1-1-(5 + K)(~:f~~) + 3K + 11 > I ~: \-hfeK\ > 1-(5 + K)(6 + 4K) + 3K + II l-hfeKI > 1-4K2 . the optimum value ofK should be determined by differentiating hfe w.t K and equate it to zero.2nRC. (11 ) 1 f----=== . = -(5 + K) a 2 + 3K + 1 + j [a3 . I / I = 3 b -hfe K -(S+K)a2+3K+l+j[a3-(6+4K)a] I f .. The phase b = .ja3 - :. Hence a 3 = (6 + 4K) a a 2 = 6 + 4K a Since phase shift must equal zero. .I] .(6 + 4K) a] =.Oscillators 1+ k..ja)2 . I l-k. (12) To determine the minimum value ofh fe . The frequency of oscillation fis given by .. (10) The Barkhausen condition that the loop gain shift equals zero provided imaginary part is zero.

If only 2 sections are these.7 .7 + 23 + e 2.5 cannot be used in this phase shift oscillator.(4K+23 + . 8... K2 < K2 4' 29 29 :. 8.13 (a) and (b).5 . Fig. each RC network produces 60 0 phase shift.7 in eq... h fe > 44. In R-C phase shift oscillator circuit.7 :.13(b) shows the equivalent circuit using an amplifier with negative gain Av and output resistance Ro. This is Voltage Series Feedback. Z3 Z2 ZI Vo Ay V 8 Vc Z2 i L (b) L ..> . (14) The BJT with a small-signal common-emitter short-circuit gain hfe lessthan 44. Thus 3 sections produce the required lSOo phase shift.S. K < 2.7 LOOP GAIN . (12) 29 hfi > 4 x 2. 8.S. (13) Substitute the optimum K = 2.L (a) Fig.6 A GENERAL FORM OF LC OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT 2 Ro Many Oscillator Circuits fall in to the general form as shown in Fig.. each sections must produce 45 0 phase shift.. 90 0 phase shift must be produced.440 dh fe d 29 .13 General form of oscillator circuit The active device can be FET.) dk dk K Electronic Devices and Circuits 0>4:. If there are 4-sections. transistor or operational amplifier. But more number of components are to be used... which is not possible for practical R-C network.

---' - If 13 A = or AyXI X2 _ Ay~ . then ZI = j XI' Z2 = jx2.14).(See Fig.. X2 same sign. AvXI . or for zero phase-shift.. AyXI X2(j)2 jRo(XI +X2 +X 3)-X 2(X I +X 3) 1.' --AY'ZI -Z2 . 8... 8.Oscillators 13=-= Vo ZI +Z3 The load impedance..14 Potential divider network. XI+X3=-X2 -Aj3= .= . ZL = (Z3 in series with ZI) parallel with ZL' Ro is the output resistance. XI + X2 + X3 = 0 -Aj3=---~~~'---- -13 A = . jRo (XI + X2 + X3) = O. Than XI and X2 must have the r-----------------------------------------------~ So if XI and X2 are capacitive. imaginary part must be zero. .Aj3 must be positive.ZL Gain without feedback A = Z R L+ 0 (Z2(ZI (zI +Z 2 +Z) (ZI + Z2 +Z3) +R 0 )(Z I +Z 3) 3 + Z3) Ro(ZI +Z2 +Z3)+Z2(ZI +Z3) If the impedances are pure reactances. -Vf 441 i Fig. and at least unity in magnitude.Aj3 = -X 2(X I + X3 ) But = XI + X3 X I +X 2 +X3 =O :. X3 should be inductive and vice versa.. -AV.

X3 =jroL. where jroL I + jroL2 + -.15(b)) L C (a) Colpitts oscillator Fig..L ..15(a)) If XI and X2 are inductors. ---=-. I roC I roC 2 XI + X2 + X3 = 0.1 FOR HARTELY OSCILLATOR (b) Hartely oscillator circuit Condition for oscillations. 8..7. 8. XI + X2 + X3 = O.---=-L + roC I roC 2 jro L = 0 or . X2 = . the circuit is called Hartely Oscillators (Fig.442 Electronic Devices and Circuits If XI and X2 are capacitors. the circuit is called Colpitts Oscillator (Fig._1Jro C =0 or roL + roL I 2 = -roC 1 1 1 2 ro (LI + L2) = C . -~F(L=1=+=L=2=)C= = ro 8. 8.2 FOR COLPITTS OSCILLATOR j -j X =.7.15 8.

16. The active element is an operational amplifier. c~. as shown in Fig. External voltage V 0' is applied betweeen 3 and 4. To find loop gain. 8. V 1 + i i Fig. It employs lead-lag Network. a balanced bridge is used as the feedback network. (-sign because phase-shift feedback) I C ~ II I R YIv V ~I Same I is passing through C and R.17 . So I leads V.Oscillators roL= .roC) roC 2 443 1 1 roL ~ ro~~~ ~~' ~~~ ~. or ro = (F.8. I lags with respect to V.kl = C1C2 C)+C-) c T 8. Frequency fo can be varied in the ratio of 10 : 1 compared to 3 : 1 in other oscillator circuits. Lead Network: I~ ~A.8 WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR In this circuit. +c~' 1 t~ where 2.16 Wien bridge oscillator circuit.. 8.+ . C Lag Network : ~ 1 Fig.

..18 8.~A . 8.: o V Yr =\. o . (1) 0 VI and V 2 are auxiliary voltages. c~ v.9 EXPRESSION FORI V... . .VI is(V 2 -V I).444 Electronic Devices and Circuits Frequency variation of 10: I is possible in Wein Bridge compared to 3 : 1 in other oscillator circuits.----y:--. 8. :.y.V I = V 2 . A=A. Fig. Vo=AyVI.19 Wien Bridge oscillator circuit. Fig.VI· -13 = Vi. VI=V f · Loop gain _ Vo _ Av·VI _ .

If a senistor is introduced. A = 1 + ~+S R = eo 2 C2 R2 R R2 C2 ' 2 2 or If~ 2n~C I So the minimum gain of the amplifier must be 3.. These are also used for temperature compensation like thermistors. orl f~ 2n~C 1 This is the frequency at which the circuit oscillates. 8.Oscillators 445 RJR = (R2 R+ . taking advantage of this property is called a Thermistor.11 SENSISTOR A heavily doped semiconductor can exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of resistance because under heavy doping. 8. Continuous variation of frequency is accomplished by using the capacitors 'C'. R J R2 coC + R2 coCR = R J ReoC Equating real parts. So R increases because mobility decreases. Ex : NiO.R2 ) (1 + jwCR) JWC R2 · R + j:~ C+~:CR) = [(R R2) (jCOC) + R2] R2 jcoCR . semiconductor acquires the properties of a metal. (when A changes).12 AMPLITUDE STABILIZATION The amplitude of oscillations can be stabilized by replacing R2 with a senistor. If ~ is fixed. it changes ~. as A increases. Such a device is called Sensistor. amplitude of oscillations increases.10 THERMISTOR Conductivity of Germanium and Si increases with temperature.2 ~ (R~)' .co2 C2 R2 R2 = R J RjcoC (R J R2) (jCOC) + R2 + R2 jeoCR .C02c2R2R2 = R J R jcoC Equating imaginary parts. so that ~A is always constant. . 8. Mn20 3 etc. A semiconductor when used in this way. These are used for temperature compensation in oscillator circuits. or -R2 --=roCRR 2 roCR . as its 'R' changes with temperature.

LL\ is a transformer. the total phase-shift is zero. Output is coupled to the base oftransistor through L\. Or' is very small.e. V=L=~ o . These are feedback to the transistor as input. R represents the resistance in series with the winding in order to account for the losses in the transformer shown in Fig. . but the imaginary part will be zero. 8.446 By equating the imaginary part to zero we get f = Electronic Devices and Circuits 21t RC 6+4K ~ where K = RR C Forward Current Gain I h fe = 4k + 23 + ¥·I Practically RC phase-shift oscillators can be used from several hertz to sev. Amplitude of oscillations will not vary if any C is varied. Frequency of oscillators can be changed by changing Rand C.14 RESONANT CIRCUIT OSCILLATORS Initial transient due to switching will initiate electrical signals. Burglar detection: frequency of oscillators change as a result oflocal disturbance. Phase-shift oscillator is operated in class A in order to keep distortion minimum.. 8. because Xc varies.20.eral hundred kilohertzs. The change in frequency causes further electronic action or alarm signal. In the mega hertz range. The input is amplified and obtained as output. 8. tuned LC circuits are more advantageous. If the Z is purely resistive. Then voltage drop across inductor is "LC 1800 out of phase with the applied input voltage to the FET. then at ro = ~ 1 Re C" Fig. 8.13 ApPLICATIONS Elevation levelling systems.20 Resonant circuit oscillator. If the direction of winding of the secondary connected to the gate is such that it introduces another 1800 phase-shift. The ratio of the amplitude of secondary to the primary voltage is MIL where M is the inductance. Vf M I. Oscillations are sustained.

they generate within them. 1 Il= 13 Il= - L M Il= LIM If we consider resistance 'r' also. The frequency stability will be ± 0.Oscillators Voltage gain Av =-Il 447 f3 Av =-1 -1lf3 = -1. L. It is same as ± 10 parts per million (l0 ppm).C. This is called Piezoelectric effect. BaTi03 (Barium Titanate). very stable oscillators can be designed. Naturally available materials: 1.8. the material will mechanically deform in response.. Quartz 2.R are analogous to mass. Synthetic materials: 1. spring constant. and an electro mechanical system is formed which will vibrate when properly excited. a . the characteristics are extremely stable. Lithium sulphate 2.00 I %. This effect is reversible in that. deformations take place within the crystal. Rochelle salt. The electrical equivalent circuit of a crystal is as shown in Fig. and for Quartz..21 . PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate). The resonant frequency and Q depend upon crystal dimensions etc.------a c:::J C lb Crystal b Electrical Model Fig.. temperature etc. 8.15 CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS When certain solid materials are deformed.21. Ammonium-di-hydrogen phosphate. if a charge is applied.000 can be obtained. Since Q is high. frequencies from few KHz to MHz and Q in the range from 1OOOs to 100. If the crystal is properly mounted. With these. with respect to time. and viscous damping factor of the mechanical system. 002 = L~ (l + ~) I~~~L·I 8. an electric charge.

C' = When the crystal slabs are cut in proper directions. accuracy can be improved to 0. circuit in the plate circuit is tuned close to the crystal resonant frequency. Such a crystal can be employed to maintain an oscillation of great frequency stability.5 mm. These are maintained by C whose oscillations value is small. C C ·r---G XTAL 10M Fig. transistor parameters. voltage from the output.16 FREQUENCY STABILITY It is a measure of the ability of the circuit to maintain exactly the same frequency for which it is designed over a long time interval. (Fig. Accuracy::::: 0. And if the slab is placed in an electrostatic field. steady oscillations will be established.1 to 20 MHz.22). This is because of variations of number of parameters. and feeding back a small A.500. supply voltages temperature. circuit components.c. a potential difference exists between the faces ofthe crystal slab when pressure is brought to bear on them. with regard to the crystal axis. 8. C' is the electostatic capacitance 3. Effect of temperature on inductors and capacitors amounts to more than 10 parts per million per degree change. to keep crystal vibrating.5 pF and is larger than C. between electrodes with the crystal as a dielectric. 8. the circuit becomes an oscillator with precise stability. When the L. .c. .448 Electronic Devices and Circuits Values for a 90 kHz crystal are L = 137 H.00 I %.023pF. C = 0. of the FET amplifier. stray capacitances etc. If the electric field is an alternating one.01 % 'f range is 0.8. the slab undergoes deformation. R = 15kO corresponding to Q = 5. But actually in many circuits the 'f will not remain fixed but it drifts from the designed frequency continuously. If 'f depends only on Rand C high precision Rand C should be employed. Also temperature compeilsating elements are to be employed. the slab will physically vibrate vigorously. with a frequency which sets the slab into mechanical resonance. By placing crystal between the gate an~ source. In order to increase the stability the factors which effect the 'f largely should be taken care of. By keeping crystal in an oven. The dimension of a crystal will be 30 x 4 x 1.22 Crystal oscillator circuit.

crystal Land C are being used.1_ JroC R + jroC Total admittance At resonance. and the LC circuit oscillates. 8. Its value is of the order of 10. In the oscillator circuits. or This is the expression for frequency of oscillations.Oscillators 449 Crystal will have mass.18 I-MHz FET CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT In the basic configuration of oscillator circuit. So parallel tuned circuits are employed. ZI+Z2 +Z3 = o. 'f' will not vary with temperature. Crystal will have very high mass to elastic ratio (~) and to a high ratio of mass to damping (high Q). So 'f' is fixed by crystal itself.000 to 30. . crystal is connected. instead of external Land C. elasticity and damping. Zl is crystal Z2 is Land C combination. Amplitude of oscillator will be very small (v is Less) for series resonance circuit. The crystal is coupled with external C.1_ JroC Z = ----"--(R + jroC)+ _. 8. To change 'f' another crystal is used.000. imaginary part is zero R ~oo. i.17 FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATIONS FOR PARALLEL RESONANCE CIRCUIT (R _ jroC)x _.e.

C and R ofthe crystal.1o = 21tRC. SUMMARY • • • • • Oscillators generate A.. the conditions known as Barkhausen criterion to be satisfied are (i) II3AI?: I (ii) Total loop phase shift must be 0° or 360° (or phase shift of feedback network must be 180° when the amplifying device produces another 180°). When electrical input is given.23 Crystal oscillator circuit.. Z2 and Z3 values are insignificant compared to Zj of the crystal.C. R ... . 10 = 21tRC. R .c. . as their values are less compared to L. So it acts like a I~ Ro L. For sustained oscillations.C power from Vee or V DD is converted to A..-----. Therefore the stability is high. The frequency of oscillator essentially depends up on crystal only as shown in Fig.C input by using Noise A.J6+4k where Rc K=R For Hartley oscillator circuit which employs two inductors and one capacitor in the feedback network is.- Fig.j6 In the case BJT. Other Land Cs are insignificant.450 Electronic Devices and Circuits Z3 is C gd . due to piezoelectric effect. C combination. power.. 8. But the crystal is being considered as an inductor capacitor combination only. Frequency of oscillations depend only on crystal. 8.1o = 21t-y L J + L2 C 3 l( 1 ) ..C phase shift oscillator circuit.22V 0-1 221lH C gd C -+-----' 300pF ill. D.C phase shift oscillator circuit. output without external A.C signal generated in switching. The range of frequency signals generated by the circuit can be high and output power is small. mechanical vibrations are set in the crystal.23. 1 In the case of JFET..

... II3AI must be _ _ _ _ _ __ The range of frequencies over which R .Oscillators • 451 For Colpitts oscillator circuit with two capacitors and one inductor in the feedback • For Wein Bridge oscillator circuit... Oscillator circuits employ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ type of feedback.degrees. 5. 4. As per Berkauhsen criteria for sustained oscillations. 8.. Itcan produce variations in fo in the ratio of I 0 : I compared to a variation of3 : I in other types of oscillator circuits. 2. One condition for sllstained oscillations is total loop phase shift must be 3. exhibiting piezoelectric effect are I. the minimum gain of amplifier must be 3.- . Naturally occuring materials used for in crystal oscillator circuits. The specification parameters of oscillator circuits are (i) Amplitude stability (ii) Frequency stability (iii) Frequency range (iv) Distortion in output waveform etc. the oscillator circuit is IS ------- The oscillator circuit which employs two capacitors and one inductor in the feedback network. output signal is generated by the oscillator circuits without external A..C phase shift oscillator circuit is used is In the Mega Hertzs frequency range. 2.. OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1... Crystal oscillators produce highly stable output waveform in the high frequency range of MHz also.C input. • • • Thermistors with (NTCR) and sensistor with positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) are used for frequency stability in oscillator circuits. . 10. 9.oscillator circuit.. by amplifying signal..... 7. The difference between an amplifier circuit and oscillator circuit is _ _ _ _ _ __ A. the type of oscillator circuit used The range of frequency over which Wein Bridge oscillator used is _ _ _ _ _ __ In the feedback network if two inductors and one capacitor elements are used. 11. . 6.. is .C..

10.phase-shift oscillator circuit. 5. (a) (c) Humidity Temperature (b) (d) Atmospheric conditions Interference 2. 13. C. 15. 1. 2. 8...C. 6. Explain how better frequency stability is obtained in crystal oscillator? Draw the equivalent circuit for a crystal and explain how oscillations can be generated in electronic circuits.. 3. 2... fo = (a) I 2rcRC (b) (c) (d) 2rcRCJ6 . Oscillator Circuits? Deduce the Barkausen Criterion for the generation of sustained oscillations. 14. _ _ _ _ __ 12. The noise that arises in electronic circuits due to variation in concentrations of carriers in semiconductor devices is (a) shot noise (b) thermal noise (c) Johnson noise(d) None of these 3. 3. The ratio of frequency variation possible with Wein Bridge Oscillator circuit is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is compared to the ratio of with others oscillator circuits.452 Electronic Devices and Circuits Synthetic materials which exhibit piezoelectric effect are. Derive the expression for the frequency of Crystal Oscillators. Johnson Noise is due to . How are the oscillations initiated? Draw the circuit and explain the princple of operaiton of R. 4. 9. What is the frequency range of generation of oscillations? Derive the expression for the frequency of oscillations. Rand Q of a crystal used in oscillator circuits are L= C= R= Q= . using crystals.. Thermistors have temperature coefficient and the materials used are _ _ _ _ _ __ Typical values of L. Why three identical R-C sections are used in R-C phase-shift oscillator circuits? Consider the other possible combinations and limitations. Derive the expression for the frequency of Colpitt Oscillators. Expression for frequency of oscillations for the R-C phase shift oscillator circuit using JFET is.. 4.- ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Derive the expression for the frequency of Hartely oscillators. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.C. What are the considerations to be made in the case of practical L. Explain the basic principle of generation of oscillations in LC tank circuits... 7. Derive the expression for the frequency of We in Bridge Oscillators.

Oscillators 453 4.02~lfR=10KQ=1 (d) None of these One characteristic feature of crystals is .. In the case of JFET R-C phase shift oscillator circuit. is inductive IS •••• AI t 2 3 6.500 (b) L= 1 HC=0..0235IlfR= 15 KQ=5.. in order that I~ is not less than unity. (a) Colpitts oscillator (b) Hartelyoscillator (c) Crystal oscillator (d) None of these In wein bridge oscillator circuits the range over which frequency of oscillations can be varied is . 8.. Il of JFET must be at least (a) 16 (b) 92 (c) 29 (d) None of these 5. (a) 3: 1 (b) 10: 1 (c) 6: 1 (d) None of these Example for naturally occurring piezoelectric crystal material is . are capacitive and 0. 7. 9. 10.ofthe above is correct For Wein Bridge oscillator circuits. (a) BaTio3 (b) Rochelle salt (c) PZT (d) None of these Typical values for 90 KHz crystal are: (a) L= 137HC=0.02fR= lQQ= 10 (c) L=137HC=0... (a) They have low mass to elastic ratio (b) They have high mass to elastic ratio (c) They have low Q (d) None. the minimum gain of amplifier must be (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 10 (d) None the these . 0.. . ?scillator circuit in which the reactances o.

7. The maximurll voltage that can be applied between any two terminals of the FET is the _______________ voltage that will cause avalanche breakdown across the 2. 8. Some times the symbol for the JFET is also is used for the MOSFET with the understanding that is internally connected to source. The emitter efficiency of a BJT is defined as the ratio of current of injected carriers at _ _ _ _ _ _ _ junction to total current.. In the active region of common base output characteristics. A MOSFET of the depletion type may also be operated in an mode. . 5. the collector junction is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ biased and the emitter junction is biased.. It is therefore a device. type of npn junction transistor is made by drawing a single crystal from a melt of silicon whose concentration is changed during the crystal drawing operation by adding n or p type atoms as requires. In a BJT the arrow on the emitter lead specifies the direction of _ _ _ _ _ __ where the emitter-base junction is biased. the transistor is said to be operating the region. (b) reverse biased.- 10.454 Electronic Devices and Circuits Additional Objective Type Questions (Chapter 1-8) 1. 6. If both emitter and collector junctions are (a) forward biased. the transistor is said to be operating in the regIOn. The operation of a FET depends upon the flow of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ carriers only. 4. 3. 9.. In an type of pnp transistor two small dots of indium are attached to opposite sides of a semiconductor... between . The emitter diode of a UJT drives the junction of RBI and RB2 and RBB = RBI + RB2 • The intrinsic stand off ratio is defined as 11 = and its value usually lies.

O. drain-source junction Enhancement. Forward Saturation.S & 0. Cut-off Majority. Answers toAdditional Objective Type Questions J Holes or conventional current. 8. 10.Oscillators 455 [ 1. 3. s. 6. Unipolar Breakdown. the gate RB1 2. emitter Grownjunction. 7. 4.82 RBB . 9. forward Emitter base. + RB2 . doping Alloy junction Reverse.

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II Appendix .Appendix .VIII Colour Codes for Electronic Components Resistor and Capacitor Values Capacitors Inductors Miscellaneous Circuit Symbols Unit Conversion Factors American Wire Gaugcy Sizes and Metric Equivalents .III Appendix .VI Appendix .VII Appendix .IV Appendix .V Appendix .I Appendix .

."n. First Three Bands Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green ."t d..7 White .1 9 JO 5 20 .9 Silver ± 10% None ±20% ----tm""""-=Ir"T'rT-' ."".0 .I Fourth Band F.'. !II!I~:""Second digit Capacitance In pF ber of zeros .0\ 0.2 -3 -4 -5 CAPACITOR COLOUR CODE: Colour Black Brown digit } .. .01 0.1 Gold ±5% Violet .t ~_ I 01d ) silver or g 7 Tolerance Blue Grey Silver Gold -6 -8 0. 1111T-----l~ ." (%) dc working voltage (x 100V) Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold No Band Figure Significant Tolerance (%) 0 I 2 3 4 20 I 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 0.g..APPENDIX-l Colour Codes for Electronic Components RESISTOR COLOUR CODE: Number of zeros (except when Second digit .

..01 0 .APPENDICES INDUCTOR COLOUR CODE: Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey Significant Figure 0 1 459 Tolerance (%) 2 3 4 Inductance in IlH Decimal point or first digit ._ ..1 10% 5% .+ Decimal point or second digit ... Tolerance (%) ... / 5 6 7 8 White 9 Silver Gold Decimal point No Band 10 5 20 COLOUR CODE MEMORY AID: W G VIBGYOR BB (WG Vibgyor BB) Memory aid Black Bruins Relish Ornery Young Greenhorns Blue Violets Growing Wild Smell Good Color Black Hrown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.. / { Number of zeros ~ ....

08 ' 8 2. .HZs ~ 2N6688 2N3442 BUX39 ECP149 NPN NPN NPN PNP 20 10 30 4 200 140 <Xl 40 300 160 120 50 ~ 80 70 45 - ~ 0.460 APPENDICES In "'f2!1g \W ) « !!. ! Fig. A-i.5 15 30 Darlington Pair 2N6052 2N6059 PNP NPN 150 150 12 12 100 100 100 100 750 750 - 4 4 .} Relative size of carbon composition resistors with various power ratings Specifications of Power Transistors Device Type PD(W) 200 117 120 30 Ic(A) VCEO{V) Vcoo(V) hJlEMIN Max f T M.

8 8.3 3.2 1.6 6.2 1.8 27 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 1.8 2.9 4.7 5.2 2.7 3.8 2.7 5.2 12 15 18 22 27 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 15 22 2.3 3.5 1.7 3.3 3.7 3.APPENDIX-2 Resistor and Capacitor Values Typical Standard Resistor Values <± 10% Tolerance) n n 10 n 100 ill ill ill Mn 1.2 33 39 47 56 33 39 47 56 68 82 68 82 .6 6.5 1.6 6.7 5.9 4.8 Mn 10 10 100 12 15 18 22 2.9 4.

8 2 15 18 20 68 0.056 0.68 6.047 47 .068 0.oJ5 O.oJ8 0.8 75 80 '75 82 8200 9100 0.039 0.02 0.012 O.7 25 27 250 270 300 330 2500 27 270 300 330 360 390 430 470 30 33 36 30 33 39 3000 3300 39 43 47 400 4300 4700 0.000 150 180 200 240 1500 2000 24 025 0.027 0.5 5 50 50 5000 51 56 0.12 0.oJ 0.6 6 56 5600 6000 62 6200 6800 7500 8000 8 0.15 0.9 4 0.2 1.06 0.82 82 10 82 91 10 12 15 18 20 100 110 120 130 150 160 180 200 240 250 100 1000 10.05 0.47 4.56 5.1 0.462 Typical Standard Resistor Values (± 10% Tolerance) APPENDICES P' 5 P' 50 P' 500 510 560 620 680 750 820 910 1000 1100 1200 1300 1500 1600 1800 2000 2400 2500 2700 3000 3300 3600 3900 4000 P' 5000 5100 5600 6000 ~F ~F ~ ~F ~F ~F ~F 0.033 0.082 O.5 1.Q4 027 OJ 0033 0039 2.18 02 1.7 3 303 3.03 0.

60 9.09 x 10.19 coulombs 10-31 Kg lOll x elm h 1.257 x 10-6 Him 8. = .023 x 1023 moiecules/mole 3 x Avogadro's number Velocity oflight Permeability offree space Permittivity offree space Intrinsic concentration in silicon at 300 oK Intrinsic resistivity in silicon at 300 oK Mobility of electronics in silicon Mobility of holes in silicon Energy gap at in silicon at 300 OK NA c mo 108 m/sec 1.62 x 10-5 ev/oK 6.85 = '0 n.1 ev.12 F/m 1.759 x 6. r.5 x 1010 Icm 3 = 230.381 x 10-23 JfOK 8.000 W--cm =1300cm2/V-sec = mp 500 cm 21 V-sec 1.APPENDICES 463 Physical constants Charge of an electron Mass of an electron elm ratio of an electron e m 1. mn x 10.626 x ClKg Plank's constant Soltzman's constant 10-34 J-sec K K 1.

At the other extreme. A-3. The complete equivalent circuit for a capacitor [shown in Fig. an electrolytic capacitor may have a microamp (or more) of leakage current. The farad is the capacitance of a capacitor that contains a charge of 1 coulomb when the potential difference between its terminals is 1 volt. the plate resistance can be completely neglected. and the capacitor is then treated as an ideal capacitor. The parallel Rc circuit in. Thus. With capacitors that have a very high leakage resistance (e. / .APPENDIX-3 Capacitors Capacitance The farad (F) is the Sf unit of capacitance. which have relatively low leakage resistances. may have insulation resistances higher than 100 000 MW. and in parallel with a resistance RL representing the leakage resistance of the dielectric. Capacitor Equivalent Circuit An ideal capacitor has a dielectric that has an infinite resistance and plates that have zero resistance. for example. The actual level of leakage current depends on the insulation resistance of the dielectric. Plastic film capacitors. Usually. for example.1(b). However. Leakage Current Despite the fact that the dielectric is an insulator. and the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Fig. they are said to be polarized. This is further discussed for electrolytic capacitors. mica and plastic film capacitors). small leakage currents flow between the plates of a capacitor. A-3. as all dielectrics have some leakage current and all capacitor plates have some resistance. 1(a)] consists of an ideal capacitor C in series with a resistance RD representing the resistance ofthe plates. Polarization Electrolytic capacitors normally have one terminal identified as the most positive connection. This cannot normally be done for electrolytic capacitors. the parallel resistor is frequently omitted in the equivalent circuit. This usually limits their application to situations where the polarity of the applied voltage 'viII not change. an ideal capacitor does not exist.g. with only 10 V applied to its terminals..

3. so that it can be grounded to avoid pickup of unwanted signals. 3.3. A variable air capacitor is made up of a set of movable plates and a set of fixed plates separated by air.2.. external connections are brought out from the foil layers. The capacitance is variable. A variation of this is the metalized paper construction. This does not mean that the device is polarized but simply identifies the terminal that connects to the outside metal film. A. Because a capacitor's dielectric is largely responsible for determining its most important characteristics.3 . Movable \Plates -Fig. the area of the plates opposite each other is increased or decreased.. A. There are two sets of metal plates.1 (b) can be shown to have an equivalent series RC circuit....1 (c). Thus. A. Air Capacitors A typical capacitor using air as a dielectric is illustrated in Fig.. as illustrated in Fig... and the capacitance value if altered. and the plate resistance Ro in series with C and RL. Fig. A.3 (b)]..-- .. The movable plates can be adjusted into or out of the spaces between the fixed plates by means of the rotatable shaft. A. A.1 A capacitor equivalent circuit consists of the capacitance C. as in Fig. A. one set fixed and one movable. in which the foil is replaced by thin films of metal deposited on the surface of the paper. One end of the capacitor sometimes has a band around it [see Fig.3 (a). This is treated in Section 20-6. as is the case with virtually all air capacitors.. 3.2 A variable air capacitor is made up of a set of movable plates and a set of fixed plates separated by air Paper Capacitors In its simplest form. .. The metal foil and paper are rolled up. the leakage resistance RL in parallel with C.- APPENDICES 465 c c (a) Complete equivalent circuit (b) Parallel equivalent circuit (c) Series equivalent circuit Fig..3. and the complete assembly is dipped in wax or plastic. a paper capacitor consists of a layer of paper between two layers of metal foil.------------- .3. capacitors are usually identified by the type of dielectric used..

its..of. The entire units is then encapsulated in a protective coating of plastic.466 APPENDICES Paper capacitors are available in values ranging from about 500 pF to 50llF. This gives capacitors that are . . with the capacitor surviving 1500 V surges for a brief period.3 In a paper capacitor. with dc working voltages up'to 1000 V. 3. Becaus. Films of metal are deposited on each side of a thin ceramic disc. two sheets of metal foil separated by a sheet of paper are rolled up together.the order.47 IlF. One disadvantage of . Capacitance tolerances of ± 2. A. A.IIlF. Plastic Film Capacitors The construction of plastic film capacitors is simi lar to that of paper capacitors.r:esistance is not as high as with other types. A. 3. They are typically available in values ranging from 5 pF to 0.of 7500 MW.4(a).leakage . In a variation of the process. except that the paper is replaced by a thin film that is typically polystyrene or Mylar. They are among the lower-cost capacitors for a given capacitance value but are physically larger than several other types having the same capacitance value.. . Connections are made to the metal foil for capacitor leads. . Mica Capacitors As illustrated in Fig. \ The range of capacitance valuesavaihiblewith·cetamic capaciforsistYilicaUy tpFto·O.resistances on . Plastic film capacitors are physically smaller but more expensive than paper capacitors. and copper wire terminals are connected to the metal. Ceramic Capacitors The construction of a typical ceramic capacitor is illustrated in Fig.3. much smaller than paper or mica capacitors having the same capacitance value. one of which has extremely high relative permitivity. External connections are made to the foil sheets. mica capacitors consist of layers of mica alternated with layers of metal foil.hlfgefor a giYen ~a. and in dc working voltages up to about 600 V. and the entire assembly is dipped in plastic or encapsulated in a molded plastic jacket.produces'capacitors that are rela~ively .1ower Another ! . This type of dielectric gives insulation resistances greater than 100 000 MO.4(b).. this particular ceramic dielectric. Precise capacitance values and wide operating temperatures are obtainable with mica capacitors.lue ofcap<lC}tance. is that its leakage .ofcerarnic gives .I' jiF. Typical capacitance values range from I pF to O. Two different types of ceramic are used. Foil Band identifies outer foil terminal (a) Construction of a paper capacitor (b) Appearance of a paper capacitor Fig. type .e . silvered mica capacitors use films of silver deposited on the mica layers instead of metal foil. as are temperature coefficients of 60 to 150 ppm/oC. . this'Cetamic .permitiyity. and voltage ratings as high as 35 000 V are possible. Working voltages are as high as 600 V.5% are typical.

3.5(a». with a working voltage of only 3 Y. A. 3. Typical values for electrolytic capacitors range from I J-lF through 100000 J-lF. gas forms within the electrolyte and the capacitor may explode! Such an explosion blow§ the capacitor apart and spreads its contents around. The construction of an electrolytic capacitor is similar to that of a paper capacitor (Fig.5 cm cylinder. Typical ranges of adjustment available are 1. a 1 F capacitor is available in a 22 cm by 7. and the electrolyte and positive sheet of foil are the capacitor plates. By means of a screwdriver. This could have tragic consequences for the eyes of an experimenter who happens to be closely examining the circuit when the explosion occurs. a direct voltage is applied to the capacitor terminals. When assembled.4(c) shows a variable ceramic capacitor known as a trimmer.4 Mica capacitors consist of sheets of mica interleaved with foil. It is very important that electrolytic capacitors be connected with the correct polarity. the plates area is m screwdriver adjustable. 3.5 pF to 3 pF and 7 pF to 45 pF. the area of plate on each side of a dielectric can be adjusted to alter the capacitance value. A. The extremely thin oxide dielectric gives the very large value of capacitance. Fig. The terminal designated as positive must be connected to the most positive of . For example. A. a capacitance of 5000 J-lF can be obtained in a cylindrical package approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm in diameter. and this causes a thin layer of aluminium oxide to form on the surface of the positive plate next to the electrolyte (Fig. in a ceramic trimmer. When incorrectly connected.5(b». Two sheets of aluminium foil separated by a fine gauze soaked in electrolyte are rolled up and encased in an aluminium cylinder for protection. Electrolytic Capacitors The most important feature of electrolytic capacitors is that they can have a very large capacitance in a physically small container. Similarly. The aluminium oxide is the dielectric. A ceramic disc silvered on each side . A.3. In this case the dc working voltage is only voltage is only lOY.akes a ceramic capacitor. A tantalum capacitor has a relatively large capacitance in a small volume.APPENDICES Metal film _ Ceramic disk 467 (a) Construction of mica capacitor (b) Ceramic capacitor Electrolyte Tantalum (c) Ceramic trimmer (d) Construction of tantalum capacitor Fig.

.lUze (b) The dielectric is a thin layer of aluminium oxide Fig.6 It is very important that polarized capacitors be correctly connected. A. 3. Fig. ~---O + 12V +5 Vt-----.6 illustrates some circuit situations where the capacitor must be correctly connected. Electrolytic capacitors are available with dc working voltages greater than 400 Y. Another disadvantage of electrolytic capacitors is their relatively high leakage current. but in this case capacitance values do not exceed 100 mF. A. the dielectric is a layer of aluminium oxide at the positive plate the two points in the circuit where the capacitor is to be installed. .. 3.468 APPENDICES --. Nonpolarized electrolytic capacitors can be obtained. -+-gauze (- plate) Foil (a) Rolled-up foil sheets and electrolytesoaked g:. They consist essentially of two capacitors in one package connected back to back. The capacitor positive terminal voltage must be more positive than the voltage at the negative terminal. = = == =="".. 3./ Foil (+ plate) ======'. so one of the oxide films is always correctly biased. In addition to their low working voltage and polarized operation.5 An electrolyte capacitor is constructed of rolled-up foil sheets separated by electrolytesoaked gauze.7 V and a grounded ac voltage source Fig. + 5 V t--------+ (a) Capacitor connected between +5 V and ground (b) Connected between +7 V and +5 V ~------O+12 V 1----~5V ac voltage (c) Connected between + 5. A.

the coil inductance is variable.APPENDICES Tantalum Capacitors 469 This is another type of electrolytic capacitor.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 20 A typical tantalum capacitor in a cylindrical shape 2 cm by I cm might have a capacitance of 100 mF and a dc working voltage of20 V. tantalum capacitors must be connected with the correct polarity size of the inductor. A. Here is one of the most common. . Small capacitors (like small resistors) use a code of colored bands (or sometimes colored dots) to indicate the component parameters. 3. but with capacitance values on the order of 3. is a large capacitance value in a small volume. The tantalum then has a large surface area in contact with the electrolyte (Fig. Other types are available with a working voltage up to 630 V. the electrolyte is absorbed into the tantalum. again. Powdered tantalum is sintered (or baked). tolerance and dc working voltage printed on the side of the case. a thin oxide film is formed throughout the electrolyte-tantalum contact area.5). Note the graphic symbol for an inductor with an adjustable core [Fig. A. so that when immersed in a container of electrolyte. Thus. the maximum current can be anything from about 50 mA to I A. The core in such an inductor may be made adjustable so that it can be screwed into or partially out of the coil. When a dcforming voltage is applied. Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold No band Significant Figure 0 I Tolerance (%) 20 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.01 0.5 mF. The resulting solid is quite porous. typically into a cylindrical shape. 3. There are several capacitor color codes in current use. Capacitor Color Codes Physically large capacitors usually have their capacitance value.6(b)]. Like aluminium-foil electrolytic capacitors. The result.

. The values of molded inductors are identified by a color code. The. that is. Inductance The Sf unit of inductance is the henry (H). the tesla can be described as 1 Wblm 2.lH to 10 mH.2(c). Molded Inductors A small molded inductor is shown in Fig. Fig. A. Alternatively. maximum currents of about 70 rnA. Laboratory Inductors Laboratory-type variable inductors can be constructed in decade box format. similar to molded resistors. The coils may be connected in series or in parallel. and the total inductance is controlled by adjusting the position of one coil relative to the other. two coupled coils can be employed as a variable inductor. The tesla is the flux density in a magnetic field when 1 Wb offlux occurs in a plane of 1 m2. in 'Which precision inductors are switched into or out of a circuit by means of rotary switches. The inductance of a circuit is 1 henry (1 H) when an emf of 1 V is induced by the current changing at the rate of 1 Als.APPENDIX-4 Inductors Magnetic Flux and Flux Density The weber* (Wb) is the Sf unit of magnetic flux. The weber is defined as the magnetic flux which. produces an emfof 1 V when the flux is reduced to zero at a constant rate in 1 s.2 J. 4. Typical available values for this type range from 1. tesla* * * (T) is the Sf unit of magnetic flux density. In this case the inductor is simply a thin metal film deposited in the form of a spiral on ceramic base. linking a single-turn coil. A.2(d) shows a tiny-film inductor used in certain types of electronic circuits. 4.

.~ Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Silver Gold No band Significant Figure 0 I Tolerance (%) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to decimal point 5 20 t J"_/ .2..__ \ ' ) Ferrite pot core I / Fig.APPENDICES Color Code For Small Inductors 471 ~ . high-frequency inductors are wound on bobbins contained in a fer· rite pot core.K ~ V .--. Inductance in IlH Decimal point or fir: Decimal point or sec ( Number of zeros Tolerance (%) ~~~. Depending on the thickness of wire used and the physical. Fig. A.. The coil is wound on a bobbin.. A.-. A 4. BobbIn ~'--~=1 ' . 4.1 Some low-current.. the inductance values up to about 10 mH can be obtained. The ferrite core increases the winding inductance and screens the inductor Coil to protect adjacent components against flux leakage and to protect the coil from external magnetic fields. // . so its number of turns is easily modified. With an air core. 4. Coil .2(a) shows a type that is available either as an air-cored inductor or with a ferromagnetic core. Three different types of low-current inductl)rs are illustrated in Fig...

the coefficient of coupling of the two coils can be determined. So every current-carrying conductor has some self-inductance. L=L+L+2M a I 2 for series-aiding for series-opposing and Subtracting. but in radio frequency ac circuits it can be considerable nuisance. and every pair of conductors has inductance. although they are sometimes used as components in a circuit design . . it can be determined by measuring the total inductance of the coils in series-aiding and series-opposing connections. Stray Inductance Inductance is (change in flux linkages) / (change in current).2 Small inductors may be wound on an insulating tube with an adjustable ferrite core.472 APPENDICES /'t.2M b I 2 L . Stray inductance is normally minimized by keeping connecting wires as short as possible. Then.L a b = 4M M = k~LIL2 From these two equations. 11 II 11 II 11 II (a) Inductor with air core or ferromagnetic core (b) Circuit symbol for an inductor with an adjustable ferromagnetic core (c) Molded inductor (d) Thin-film inductor Fig. Therefore. or deposited as a conducting film on an insulating material If the mutual inductance between two adjacent coils is not known. stray inductance is normally unimportant. These stray inductance are usually unwanted. In dc applications. molded like small resistors. 4. L=L+L . A..

... 5 I 2 3 I I I I ...= ....l ..Induced emf Induced emf Inductance Inductance Flux change Self ....+ ..1i I ~t ill e L ~<1>N\ =-- M = ~<l>N......l 0 N..lo ~i N ~i ? A t L = J..inductance Mutual inductance Induced emf Mutual inductance Mutual inductance Mutual inductance Energy stored Energy stored Inductances in series Inductances in parallel Total inductance (series-aiding) Total inductance (series-opposing) Mutual inductance e L =-- .APPENDICES 473 ... J.2M I 2 M = ---"'4 Lo -Lb .. Lp LI L2 L) L = L +L +2M I :2 L = L +L .l.Summary of Formulae .. M M= k~LIL2 W= - I 2 U2 B2AI W=-2J..-t A M=~ ..lO L = L+L + L + .+ ........ J.. M M = k ~<l>N.1<1> ll! e = -- ~<l> L ll! L=~ MIll! ~<1>N ~i L = -~<1> = J..+ ....

and these are.1 Conductors employed for industrial and domestic purposes normally have stranded copper wires with rubber or plastic insulation . the atoms are ionized. Thus. ~ II Ii :' Printed copper conductor Insulation Protecti ve _ sheath --- Fig. and the material is an insulator. of course. termed ionic bonding. In electronics equipment. flat cables of fine wires and thin printed circuit conductors are widely used. _. Conductor ' '--'''. individually insulated. Insulators Fig. Conductors The function of a conductor is to conduct current form one point to another in an electric circuit.1 Insulation --.APPENDIX-5 Miscellaneous Ionic Bonding In some insulating materials. the bending process is also covalent. In other types of insulating materials. some atoms have parted with outer-shell electrons. no current can flow... Ionic bonding is found in such materials as glass and porcelain. those which gave up electrons have become positive ions. Because there are virtually no free electrons. electric cables usually consist of copper conductors sheathed with rubber or plastic . This creates an electrostatic bonding force between the atoms. A. Electric cable usually consists of conducting copper wire surrounded by an insulating sheath of rubber or plastic. As discussed. so the possibility of current flow is virtually zero.. 5. but these have been accepted into the orbit of other atoms. Sometimes there is more than one conductor. A. 5.1 shows some typical arrangements of conductors and insulators. and those which accepted the electrons become negative ions. notably rubber and plastics. The valence ~Iectrons in these bonds are very strongly attached to their atoms..

the conductor voltage drop may cause unsatisfactory performance of the equipment supplied. Three different types of cables used in electronics equipment are illustrated in Fig. 5. Power (12 R) is also dissipated in every current-carrying conductor.3 Conductor resistance (R) is determined by applying the voltage drop and current level to Ohm's law. 5.APPENDICES Screened coaxial cable 475 aA_~ /A/ . A. A. and one flat. When conductors arel long and/or carry large currents. one circular. and this is. Where very small currents are involved.2 Many different types of cables are used with electronics equipment. Between these two extremes. the conductor may be a thin strip of copper or ~en an aluminium film. Cables that have to carry large currents must have relatively thick conductors.3). The other two are multi conductor cables. as wen as an outer insulating sheath. A. insulating material.2 conductor and a circular plated conducting screen. a wide range of conductors exist for various applications. 5. The resistance per unit length (R/I) is then used to select a suitable wire gauge. a current passing through it causes a voltage drop from one end of the conductor to the other (Fig. A./ ' Conductor Screen Circular multi conductor cable Flat multiconductorcable Fig. ofcourse. Because each conductor has a finite resistance. I (a) Current flow through a conductor produces a voltage drop along the conductor ~ o~--~~~~~~------o f:E~ Cable resistance ~ R~ R=- Conductor resistance E I (b) Conductor resistance causes voltage drop when a current flows Fig. wasted power. . 5.

lIon) or as low as lOon . 5.4 Individual resistors are typically wire-wound or carbon composition construction . A. Using the adjustable contact. 90n)..10% (i..5. ± 5% or ± I %. Color bands to identify resistance value . ± 10%. Metal film resistance values can be more accurate than carbon composition type. The resistance tolerances on these standard values are typically ± 20%. The decade box shown can be set to within + I n of any value from on to 9999n. The illustration in Fig. As illustrated. the resistors with the smallest tolerance are the most accurate and the most expensive. and so on.5(c). 20n. the first switch (from the right) controls resistance values in I n steps from on to 9n and the second switches values of lOn.. and a third terminal is connected to a movable contact with a shaft adjustment facility.:-=-=== Carbon rArnne.. is shown in Fig. known as a decade resistance box. Resistor Tolerance Standard (fixed-value) resistors normally range from 2. A tolerance of + 10% on a lOon resistor means that the actual resistance may be as high as loon + 10% (i. A. Obviously. Wirewound resistors are used where high power dissipation is required. . 30n.. the resistance from either end terminal to the center terminal may be adjusted from zero to the maximum coil resistance. Carbon composition type is the least expensive. This is a laboratory component that contains precise values of switched seriesconnected resistors. The coil has a low-resistance terminal at each end.7n to 22Mn. 5. The movable contact can be set to any point on a connecting track that extends over one (unisulated) edge of the coil.5(a) shows a coil of closely wound insulated resistance wire formed into partial circle. Another type of variable resistor.476 APPENDICES Porcelain coating Nickel resistance / wire Connecting wire.t. resistance element (a) Wire-wound resistor (b) Carbon composition resistor Ceramic base Metal film I Protective insulating cover • (c) Metal film resistor Fig. A.e.e. Other decade boxes are available with different resistance ranges.

Large decade resistance boxes are employed in electronics laboratories. A.5.End termin al Resi stance wire (a) Typical construction of a resistor variable resistor (and potentiometer) o ! . . _.APPENDICES Moving End 477 Shaft for adjustment Moving contact terminal .5 Small variable resistors are used in electronic circuit construction .. h : } I U 1 I (b) Circuit symbols fora variable resistor (c) Decade resistance box Fig.

the cell resistance is very high. Resistance wire Contact ajusting screw Low Power Variable Resistor A small variable resistor suitable for mounting directly on a circui board. Photoconductive Cell This is simply a resistor constructed of photoconductive material (cadmium selenide or cadmium sulfide). When illuminated. . '. '''. set the position of the moving contact on a resistance wire. One construction method uses a thick film techniqu in which conducting solutions are deposited in the required form. which is adjustable by a screwdriver.1 . Sliding contact Wire terminals High Power Resistor High power resistors are usually wire-wound on the surface of a ceramic tube. When dark. .- APPENDICES '.<' '" . Air flow through the tube helps to keep the resistor from overheating. A threaded shaft. .478 More Resistors 14 pin dual-in-line package ."" Resistor Networks • Internal resistor arrangement Resistor networks are available in integrated circuits type dual-in lin package. the resistance decreases in proportion to the level of illumination.

Direction of rotation Direction of motion Direction of lines offorce (same as d' . the coilIrulY have many turns. The right-hand-screw rule as illustrated in Fig.~'. A. -Therefore.. obviously has a magnetic field pattern very similar to that of a bar magnet. 5. 5. . f . f C §)"j'cY§~y d. Fig. 5.6.7(a) shows the effect on the fields when two conductors carrying in opposite direction are adjacent. This type of coil. Because a current-carrying conductor has a magnetic field around it.".o" em. In this case the flux generated by each of the individual current-carrying turns tends to link up and pass out of one end of the coil and back into the other end. A. 5.6 The right-hand-screw rule and the right-hand rule can be used for determining the direction of the magnetic lines of force around a current-carrying conductor. The horizontal direction of the screw is analogous to the direction of current in a conductor. d t on uc or (same as direction of motion of screw) (a) Right-hand screw rule Thumb points in current direction -I Conductor Fingers point in direction of lines of force t (b) Right-hand rule Fig..ointing in the (conventional) direction of current flow.6(a) shows a wood screw being turned clockwise and progressing into a piece of wood. The fingers point in the direction of the magnetic lines of force around the conductor. illustrated in Fig. and the circular motion of the screw shows the direction of magnetic flux around the conductor. A. In the right-hand rule.6(b). 5. 5. Instead ofa single turn. A. known as a solenoid. A.7(c). A. a right hand is closed around a conductor with the thumb p. The directions of the magnetic passes through the center of the coil.APPENDICES 479 Two memory aids for determining the direction of the magnetic flux around a current-carrying conductor are shown in Fig. when two current-carrying conductors are brought close together there will be interaction between the fields. the one-turn coil acts like a little magnet and has a magnetic field with an identifiable N pole and S pole. as illustrated in Fig.

7(d). The converse is also possible. the magnetic lines of force around the conductors all pass through the center of the coil.--. t .-.. Flux around .--- I. 5. • (d) Right-hand rule for solenoid flux direction (c) A solenoid sets up a flux like a bar magna Fig.7 In current-carrying coils. A. 5. toward the Npole end of the solenoid). 'conductor /~ (a) All of the flux passes through the center of the coil turn (b) Side view of coil turn and flux .. When the solenoid is gripped with the right hand so that the fingers are pointing in the direction of current flow in the coils...480 APPENDICES The right-hand rule for determining the direction of flux from a solenoid is illustrated in Fig. a magnetic flux can produce a current flow in a conductor. ... that is...e. the thumb points in the direction of the flux (i. Electromagnetic Induction It has been demonstrated that a magnetic flux is generated by an electric current flowing in a conductor._ .. A.

an electromotive force (emf) can be measured at the coil terminals. a current flows. The magnetic field may be from a bar magnet or from a current-carrying coil. A. in which a handled bar magnet is shown being brought close to a coil of wire. As the bar magnet approaches the coil. A. (a) emf induced in a coil by the motion of the flux from the bar magnet (b) emf induced in a coil by the motion of the flux from the solenoid when the current is switched on or off Fig.APPENDICES 481 Consider Fig. This produces a current flow in the conductors proportional to the total flux that cuts the coil. . Whether or not the circuit is closed.5.8 An electromotive force (emf) is induced in a coil when the coil is brushed by a magnetic field. the flux from the magnet brushes across the coil conductors or cuts the conductors. This effect is known as electromagnetic induction.8(a). If the coil circuit is closed by a resistor (as shown broken in the figure). S.

/ / " --+--' / __ + __ N I /'/" --+--. ----. '--.J / \ ___ .. A...... ..... .. '.... ......+.... "".Ii \' .. \ \ \ / ----. . ~ ._ ... __ ..... r-'.._.. 1 ...-."....-.....--""" // (b) Showing the force on each side of a single-turn pivoted in a magnetic field Fig.... . -' /"" / .-+-. -.. This force tends to cause the coil to rotate .. ..'-______.." --..... \ -....... ...... \ . --+...... ~.." /' / / / ..9 A force is exerted on each side of a current-carrying coil pivoted in a magnetic field.....__ \' ""..... ... 5.~ //0 \.482 APPENDICES N (a) Single-turn coil pivoted in a magnetic field /". //// /' -. \ \ \:l)+ \ "\:. --... '" -~ . ..--+--II( +.... .. .-.. " / / f---"" .. \ \' \...' ........ I ---... . .. \ ' " ...... ...'..-. ' .

. Twisted steel centre gives the cable strength Optical fibre s are colour-coded . making their tips glow. Light rays are just a tiny pari of a huge range of ra) s and waves called the c1c. l'\\ V i f Light waves IV·I " Radio waves Micro-waves Infra-red waves Ultra-violet waves X-rays Gamma rays .: called electromagnetic radiation .APPENDICES Fibre Optic Cables: Lij!ht and Other Rays 483 • / The parts of the eit:ctromagnetic spectrum have different wavelengths and different names . Outer sheath protects from dirt. Core Glass cladding Glass cladding +~Sheath (I Enlarged view of an optical tibre Laser light . \ Light rays or waves are a type of energy called electromagnetic energy. • Inside an optical tibre cable .:tromagnetic spectrum (EMS) \ ! I . so that tho y can be correctly connected to other macilines. or radiate. They shine out. so they ar. from tht:i l source.<! • Light shines from optical tibres... damp or damage.

APPENDIX-6 Circuit Symbols 1 i dc voltage source or single-cell battery ~ -- I Multicell battery Generator Current source ac voltage source Lamp Voltmeter Ammeter ell Wattmeter Chassis Unconnected crossing conductors Ground Conductor connection or junction +++ Fuse .

I Resistor Variable resistor Potentiometer Capacitor Variable capacitor f .0 10 )0 ~ ~ )0 1 Variable inductor Inductor Air-cored inductor Iron-cored inductor . .APPENDICES 485 1 de voltage source or single-cell battery 1j1 Two-way switch Double-pole switch ~1 .-------'C . J } jll r Iron-cored inductor jll r" Variable inductor Air-cored inductor ~ Capacitor j~ r 1 ~lli r '-I . t .0 P I~ f? <> p G i'> p .

067 x 10.8 2.(cm~) hectares (h2.55 x lO-5 10-8 1 79. inch Maxwells mhos Oersteds amperes/meter (A/m) teslas (T) ampere (turns) (A) teslas (T) webers (Wb) Siemens (S) amperes/meter 39.4047 5.7958 1.1383 .APPENDIX-7 Unit Conversion Factors The following factors may be used for conversion between non-SI units and SI units.10 0.59 0.2778 x lO-13 1. To Convert Area Units acres acres circular mils square feet square inches square miles square miles square yards To Multiply By square meters (m 2 ) hectares (ha) square meters (m:!) square meters (1112) square centj"n"wr:.452 259 2. square kilomdcrs (km:!) square meters (m:!) 4047 0.37 10-4 0.356 0.928 x 10-4 10-7 0.0909 6.8361 Electric and Magnetic Units amperes/inch gauses gilberts lines/sq..577 Energy and Work Units Btu Btu ergs ergs foot-pounds foot-pounds joules (J) kilowatt-hours (kWh) joules (J) kilowatt-hours (kWh) joules (J) ki logram meters (kgm) 1054.

54 x 10-3 0.meter (kg/m 2 ) 10332 101.8288 2.7 Pressure Units atmospheres atmospheres bars bars pounds/sq.9144 Power Units horsepower watts (W) 745.325 100 1. inch kilograms/sq.807 x 10-3 Illumination Units foot-candles lumens/cm2 10.1383 9.8 273.15 + (OF .10 0. foot pounds/sq.882 703 Temperature Units degrees Fahrenheit (OF) degrees Fahrenheit (OF) degrees celsius (0C) degrees kelvin (K) (OF .32)/1.853 1.32)11.02 10-5 x 487 10-3 4.meter (kg/m 2) ki lograms/sq.meter (kg/m 2 ) kilograms/sq.APPENDICES Force Units dynes dynes pounds poundals grams grams (g) newtons (N) newtons (N) newtons (N) newtons (N) 1.8 .3048 1.448 0. meter (kg/m 2 ) kilopascals (kPa) kilopascals (kPa) kilograms/sq.54 10-6 1.764 To Convert Linear Units angstroms feet fathoms inches mIcrons miles (nautical) miles (statute) mils yards To Multiply By meters (m) meters (m) meters (m) centimeters (cm) meters (m) kilometers (km) kilometers (km) centimeters (cm) meters (m) 1 x 10.02 x 10-4 4.609 2.

35 0.) gallons (imperial) gills pints (U.5683 Gauge 36 37 38 39 40 Copper Wire Resistance Diameter (mm) (O/km) 0.01639 0.113 0.) gallons (imperial) gallons (U.1 Copper Wire Resistance (O/km) 415 523 655 832 1044 To Convert quarts (U.) pints (imperial) cubic meters (m 3) cubic meters (m 3) cubic centimeters (cm 3) liters (I) cubic meters (m 3 ) cubic meters (m 3 ) cubic meters (m 3) liters (I) liters (I) liters (I) liters (I) liters (I) 0.4732 0.7853 4.387 0.9463 1.S.127 0.03524 0.090 0.7646 3.1183 0.5 4 3.853 Volume Units bushels cubic feet cubic inches cubic inches cubic yards gallons (U.488 Velocity Units miles/hour (mph) knots kilometers/hour (km/h) ki lometers/hour (km/h) APPENDICES 1.101 0.S.02832 16.45359 1016 907.5 3.546 x 10-3 3.7853 x 10-3 4.18 The siemens* is the unit of conductance.546 0.) quarts (imperial) To liters (I) liters (I) Multiply By 0. conductance = ---resistance .080 1360 1715 2147 2704 3422 Diameter (mil) 5 4.S.S.609 1.I37 Weight Units ounces pounds tons (long) tons (short) grams (g) kilograms (kg) kilograms (kg) kilograms (kg) 28.

06 6.30 2.999 1.6 21.395 0.3 181.026 1.543 5.6 364.511 0.63 2.3 .115 3.29 1.1 50.05 1.10 5.29 1.3 40.83 1.098 0.264 2.26 1.665 3.52 3.8 324.0 Copper wire Diameter (mill) Resistance (Q/1000 ft) 460 409.9 289.645 0.313 0.40 9.45 1.63 1.160 0.248 0.1 57.255 0.6 229.26 10.8 45.59 2 2.906 2.59 3.197 0.316 0.078 0.7 80.189 4.252 7.348 6.620 4.02 5.02 0.203 0.588 2.55 8.5 114.9 90.498 0.628 0.1 16.813 1.827 5.792 0.062 0.8 72 0000 000 00 0 I 11.18 4.15 1.049 0.124 0.4 204.68 10.406 0.3 257.156 0.06 2.20 6.4 13.3 128.39 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 64.4 101.APPENDIX-8 American Wire Gauge Sizes and Metric Equivalents Gauge Diameter (mm) Copper wire Resistance (Q/km) 0.266 8.27 4.9 162 144.

4 64.227 0.511 0.4 103 130 164 206 261 329 .6 11.05 10.490 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 0.143 26.455 0.180 0.2 41.644 0.813 0.9 106 134 168 213 267 337 425 537 676 855 1071 35.9 52.1 12.2 12.5 25.8 16.7 32.255 0.202 0.361 0.8 66.9 15.1 20.573 0.405 0.321 0.7 83.3 5.3 33.160 0..3 22.9 8 7.9 32 28.9 14.912 0.3 10 8.3 25.6 APPENDICES 8. .1 17.4 41 51.286 0.6 20.9 81.1 6.723 0.

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-Be mv Be /xD 21tm 17.JVa 10. SE = 2sV. 22. 24. 4. The deflection produced when the deflectin~magnetic field intensity is I wblm . Vim or V/cm Nickel Cylinder with a coating of Barium and Strontium. Sawtooth Wave form. d 2. 9. a 7. 8. Graticules Acquadag Coating 25. 6. d 6. 21.492 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter-1 Answers to Objective Type Questions I. 5. 18. /xL 2m x . S = M g. c 5. a d 3. Electron volt 2. 11. NIT Parabolic path 3000 BIL Circular Electrostatic Electrostatic Lissajous mO 19. a 10. 14. 23. 20. emN 9. &= - V d 12. < a = Circle T = r m 16. 3. The deflection produced when the deflecting voltage is I V. V = f m = ~2X:XV B x I x L Newtons Ee 13 . a 4. 15. b . ~I_ V 2 C 2 Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. c 8. 7.

n x p = n2 i 3/2 n.5V Silicon 10. Immobile. 10. b . 21. d c 4. 24. 23. b b 3. T 11.5eV 6. 25. 18.600 Negative Resistance Characteristic Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. oc T I o 22. 5. n. 20. 29. < 1028/m 3 and> 107 electrons/m 3 10 Q-cm.026V T 0 26.e n p Eo = l. a a 7. 13.Answers 493 Chapter-2 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. 2.E. 9 18. It gets doubled for every 10 rise in temperature V = 0. 9. 12. 11. 14. Conduction 30. 16. a b b 5. 15. 9. 17. Impurities added in. 16. a 2.IVand = 0.E J = (nell + pell ). Space 2 I J = cr. I o High 28. 14. 11. 19. 8. d d 17. 27. 12. d c 6. 4. b 15. Insulator Lower than. e P(0) n NA + n =ND + P Decreases Decreases as V Valance Band Con'duction Band mcreases v I (e1'\VT_1) o Germanium = O.leV E E o KTln( N~~A 1 0. c c 8. 7. 13. 3.

2.494 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter-3 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. a 2. 4. 111 3. d 4. Good regulation and conduction angle of 0 180 for the diode Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. AC to unidirectional flow Unidirectional flow to DC Ripple Factor = 1.21 Inductance varies with current permissable limits. 5. c 3. c .

17. 20. 19. 5. NPN the direction of conventional current when the E-8 Junction is forward biased. 9. 22. . a = 13* y a = 6.Answers 495 Chapter-4 Answers to Objective Type Questions I. 12. 13= {I-a} 8. c c 8. b a c 19. 18.VGS)2 Vp 10. (I + 13) 24. II. C. 14. Small Signal Common Emitter Forward Current Gain 28. P a 7. 17. h fe and hFE Large Signal Current Gain Small Signal Current Gain Change in base width with the change in the base voltage V BE MOSFET UNIPOLAR gain band width product is less. d a 15. c b 4. 13. 31. IpE ::1.E Pinch off Voltage Pinch off Voltage few tens of ohms to few hundred ohms. b 2. 16. 11. a a 3. I DS = IDSS(I. d 10.e. 3. d 20. IpC 4.Vp a 9 . a b a 7. i. d 16. c 6. 30. 14. V GS = 0 voltage variable /-l = rd * gm JFET Depletion MOSFET ( DMOSFET ) Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1.. Ic = IE: V GS 13 I B + (13 + I )I CBO --leBo 25. d 5. J IS. J 8. the saturation value of the drain current when gate is shorted to source.B. 2. 29. 23. 13. =(J_~)2. l3' = 8I e I 8I B VC'E=K 27. I CEO - {I-a} 26.

Mn. 14. VCE = 0. b 4.496 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter. semiversal bias or Voltage divider bias circuit. 12. c 8. 4. ale s---I 7 I-P(~:. 9. c b 2. a 7. 2. ale S'=-aV BE I". Biasing point Ico' V BE' 9. a 6. b d . aiel S" = - 13 10. a 3. S= a~ VSE = K.5 Vee' Base bias circuit. Co. 8.J3=K Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. Emitter bias. 10. 6.5 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. leo = K The centre of the active region on the load line.) l+~( RE RE +RB II.5mv/oC Negative (NTCR) Sensistors Oxides ofNi. S ~ 7 ) 7. VAl = K 13. Q . Quiescent point. I =K. aleo 2. 5. 3. 15.point. J3 = K. d 5.

c c 4. Common Base configuration Common Collector Configuration Voltatge follower/buffer 4. 22. b a c 5. 19. = 1KO. b d 11. 12. d d 3. Decreases Low Large <1 3. c b 20. hoe = 6)lmhos. 12. 5. 15. 17. 10. -4 Audio h. a 6. h = 1. b 2.5 x 10 . 18. 9. htle = 200 7. 17. d . a c 8. 13. 18. 21. 15. 13. 2.Answers Chapter-6 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. n. aVe IB=K 16. 14. Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. 16. 20. mhos and constants the units of different parameters are not the same hllll +h 12V 2 h21 I I + h22 V 2 aVB 10. x \00 h~e Leekage current is more High Common Emitter and Common Base Configuration High voltage gain and high current gain No units (constant) AC Signal Power Dehvered to the Load DC Input Power h fe 1+ hoeRL 8. 9. c 7. 19. Ie re 6. 11. a c b 14.

Low R" High Ro Return ratio Decreases Increases f3 = V) V0 = feedback signal/output signal (B.:duced 1 8.Low Node sampling AV = 00 9. S= l+~A R=oo R0 =0. R = I 7. 6. 5. 12. 11.498 Electronic Devices and Circuits Chapter-7 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. a d . D=(I+f3A) High current gain. • (i) voltage-series (ii) voltage-shunt Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. c 6. 00· ' R=oo 0 16. = (1 + f3A) B.W). 10. Low. a 3. . b 5. 2. 13. b b 2. 10. 9. 8. d a 4. c 7. Gain is n.W f~ = f2 (1 + f3A) Degenerative feedback 15. 14. 3. 4.

Internally generated Noise Signal Positive feedback Zero or 3600 I(3AI ~ 1 Few 100 Hz to KHz range Tuned oscillator circuit 5 Hz to 1 MHz Hartley oscillator 10. Oxides of Nickel and Manganese L = 137 H C = 0. 13. 14. 11. 8. Lithium sulphate 2.C. Collpitts oscillator circuit Quartz and Rochelle salt 1. Oscillator circuit doesn't need external A. a 6. input.C. Amplifier needs external A.3: 1 Positive. 5. 10: 1. 6. PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) 4. b 8. 9. Baaium titanate (Batio. c 5. 7. 9. . d b 4.Answers 499 Chapter-8 Answers to Objective Type Questions 1. R= 15K Q = 5500 Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 1. input. 12.0235 flF 15.) 2. 3. b 7. a b 3. 10. 4. c a 2. Rochelle salt 3.

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335 Common emitter 410. 322. 322. 420. 163. 378 Basewidth 187 Bias 270. 62. 10.27. 269. 189. 453 Crystal oscillators 447. 87. 325 hybrid parameters 314. 416. 390. Input resistance 257. 169.32. 258 E Effective mass 39.37 CMOS 234 Common base amplifiers 377 Common base configuration 321 Common collector 366 Common collector configuration 321. 153 c Capacitance 366. 42. 450.452. 62. 411 Cathode ray tube 26. 451. 64.406 Feedback amplifiers 381. 452 Current amplification 342 Current gain 182. 257. 368. 3 18 I Input characteristics 194. 183 Frequency 143. 314. 83 Electron emission 28.337. 376 Crystal oscillator 429. 330 Amplifier 268 Amplifiers 359. 54. 54. 81 Conductivity 61 . 62 B Band structure 44 Barrier potential 56. 322 Input impedance 214.152. 280 Cascade 410. 389. 272. 445 H Hartley oscillator 429 h-parameter 406 h-parameters 316. 76. 366.272. 404 Drift current 84.448. 319. 377 Atom 40.42 Avalanche 63 D Diffusion 87. 196.284. 56 FET 63.502 Electronic Devices and Circuits A Acceptor impurities Active region 257. 270. 195.449. 323. 409 Capacitor 4. 365. 62. 88. 417 Ionization potential 47 .370. 283.451. 322.271 Diffusion current 88 Diode 27. 408. 200.268.41. 273 BJTs 386 F Feedback amplifier 276.281 .366.371 Alloy junction 197 Amplification 189. 369. 309 Distortion 382.34. 64 Conversion efficiency 329. 89. 57 Base spread resistance 375. 268. 56 Electron volts 7 Energy band 40. 406 Field Effect Transistor (FET) 213 Filters 143. 382 Fermi dirac function 75 Fermi energy level 99 Fermi level 54. 318. 43 . 424 Cut off region 371 G Germanium 40. 320. 276. 415 Conduction band 62.

213. 130. 177 Sensistor 285. 73.225. 217 Power amplification 314 Power gain 328.445 MOS 213. 293.269.119.214.85 o Oscillators 430 p Parameter 419.371 Schottky diode 133 Schottky effect 56 Self bias 241.195. 71. 95.130.283.235 MOSFET 257. 191.382. 130.62.236.216. 84.219.265 Junction diode 39. 239.62. 251.337.132. 299. 67. 309 Silicon 40. 209.213.420 Peak detector 167 Silicon diode 129. 67 n-type impurities 190 s Saturation region 193. 320 R Radiation 41 Radiation energy 41 Relaxation oscillators 430 Resistivity 61.347. 126. 285. 227. 30 I. 254. 68 p-type impurity 191 L LEDs 255 Load line 269. 129.377.258.392 n-type 66.334. 293 .228 Resonant circuit oscillators 446 N Negative resistance 122. 276. 88.133. 185 Micron 97 Minority carrier 68 Mobility 64. 370 Semiconductors 40.258 Quality factor 431 Qui\scent point Q ~.281. 311 Low frequency equivalent circuit 365 M Majority carriers 67.268.259. Stability factor 279.424 p-type 66.297. 69.254.71. 302.261.345.Index 503 J JFET 257. 62. 122.131.262.272.285. 275. 197.341. 195. Peak Inverse Voltage (PlY) 151 Photo diode 256 Plank's constant 42 Poisson's equation.387. 311. 133.270.257. 260. 432 NMOS 234 Noise 63. 433 .210.54.120.238. 222.240 Mass action law 70 Mean free path 63 Metal 98. 68.125.135 Sinusoidal oscillators 432. 287.131. 298. 253.329. 234. 225.

300. 384. 70. 298. 445 Threshold voltage 252.49. 392 Transistor (BJT) 345. 88 Thermal energy 64 Thermal resistance 286.49. 121. 286.50. 120.504 Electronic Devices and Circuits T Temperature 54. 119. 131. 78 Thermal 66. 304. 424. 120.47. 382. 84.370 Tunnel diode 39. 426 w Wavelength 45. 315.57 Work function 54 z Zener diode 39. 287.122. 264 Transconductance 229.123. 305.126. 136 Valance 79 Valance band 62 Varactor diode 62 v Voltage amplification 314 Voltage gain 268. 410. 45. 287 Thermistor 285. 56. 312 Thermal runaway 286.62. 385. 130 Zener breakJown 118.62. 120 .

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