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2. What are the UNCLOS provisions concerning ships flag and nationality?

In observation of UNCLOS what the duties are of flag States and how is it enforced? Ans. The United Nations conference convention on the laws of the sea (UNCLOS) was an outcome of the third UN conference in 1982 and entered into force on 16th November 1994. The UNCLOS provides a universal legal frame work for the rational management of marine resources and their conservation. The treaty document consists of 446 articles grouped under 17 part headings and 9 Annexes. SHIPS FLAG AND NATIONALITY Part VIII : High seas consists of Provisions concerning ships flag state and nationality Article 90: Every state coastal or land locked has a right to have its ship fly its flag. Article 91: State should lay down conditions / requirements for granting its nationality, registration and the right to fly its flag. Ships have the nationality of the state whose flag they fly. There must be a genuine link between the state and the ship. The state must issue documents to ships flying its flag. Article 92: Ships to fly flag of only one state and are subject to its jurisdiction on high seas. A ship cannot change its flag during a voyage or while in a part of call. Change is allowed in case of transfer of ownership or change of registry. Duties of flag state: Article 94 initials duties and responsibilities of the flag state salient parts are:1. State shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in Administrative technical and soul matters over ships flying its flag. 2. State should maintain a register of ships flying its flag i.e. names and particulars of ships. State should assure jurisdiction under its laws over ships flying its flag its master officers and crew in respect of Administrative technical and social matters concerning the ship. 3. State to take such measures for ships as necessary to insure safety at sea with regards to Construction equipment and seaworthiness of ships. Manning of ship labour conditions and training of crew with regards to applicable international instruments.

Use of signals maintenance of communications and prevention of collision. 4. Such measures shall include these necessary to ensure: That each ship before registration and thereafter is surveyed by a qualified surveyor and has onboard charts publications and equipment as are appropriate for safe navigation of ship. Each ship is in charge of master / officers / crew having appropriate qualification and numbers with regards to the type due, machinery and equipment of the ship. 5. Each state should conform to generally accepted international regulations procedures and practices and should take steps which may be necessary to secure their observance. 6. A state which has clear grounds to believe that proper jurisdiction and control w.r.t. a ship have not been exercised may report the facts to the flag state. Upon such request flag state must investigate the matter and take appropriate action to remedy the situation. 7) Every state must cause an enquiry to be held in case of a marine casualty involving a ship flying its flag and causing loss of damage to environment to those at any national and state. Every flag state must co-operate with other flag states in conduct of enquiring. ENFORCEMENT BY FLAG STATE Article 217 makes the following provision.

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Every state must adopt laws / regulations to ensure compliance of international laws by ships flying its flag. ii) Every state should prohibit ships frame sailing for man compliance with international laws including requirements relating to design construction equipment and manning. iii) Status should ensure that all certificates as read by international laws are carried on board. States to periodically inspect the vessels to ensure conformity of these certificates with actual conditions on board. iv) Flag state should provide for immediate investigation in case vessel commits relation of international rules and standards. v) Flag states should cooperate with other flag states if assistance is requested. vi) Flag state must investigate any relation committed by vessel flying its flag on a request from any state. vii) Flag state should be prompt in addressing any requests for information by any other state. It should inform competent international organizations about action taken and the outcome. Such information should be made freely available to all flag states. vii) Flag states must impose adequate penalty for any vessel relating the law to discourage further violation.

4. Give a brief history and necessity towards formation of UNCLOS? What are its important highlights? Under context explain (i)Territorial sea (ii)Contiguous Zone (iii)Exclusive Economic Zone (iv)Continental Self (v)High Seas Answer:Oceans always have been a prime source of nourishment for life. Climate and weather changes depend on the interplay between oceans and the atmosphere. They also serve as a convenient medium for trade, commerce, exploration, adventure and discovery. As the mysteries of the oceans gave way to their mastering, a lot of customers traditions and laws arose defining the rights of the ship and the marines what plied the waters of the ocean. Attempts were made to regulate the use of ocean by conventions acceptable to all nations. The UN has made considerable progress in developing and .... the laws of the sea. There UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas) have been convened UNCLOS I at Geneva in 1958 UNCLOS II at Geneva in 1960 International conferences approved conventions which covered the continental shift, Fishing, High seas, Territorial waters and contiguous zones. During the 1970, it came to be accepted that the sea bed is a common heritage of mankind and should be administered by an international authority. UNCLOS III was at GENEVA in 1974 which discussed issues on navigation, pollution and the breadth of territorial waters. It entered into force On 16th Nov 1994 UNCLOS provides a universal frame work for the management of marine resource and their conservation, govern all aspects of the oceans, such as environmental control, marine scientific research, economic and commercial activities, transfer of technology and settlement of disputes relating o ocean matters. UNCLOS is a treaty of 446 articles grouped under17 part heading and 9 annexes. i. TERRITORIAL SEAS:

Extends to 12 Nautical miles from the baseline foreign flag vessels have a Right of Innocent Passage through it. The passage is considered innocent as long as it is not prejudicial to peace, good order or security of the coastal state. Right of innocent passage can be suspended if it is essential for the protection of the coastal state its security or for weapons exercise. The internal waters the coastal state can exercise jurisdiction over all vessels. In territorial seas, it should not exercise criminal jurisdiction except. a) If the consequences of crime extend to the coastal state b) If crime disturbs the peace of the country or good order of the sea c) It master of a vessel or an agent of the Flag State requests the coastal state to exercise jurisdiction d) If jurisdiction is necessary to suppress traffic of narcotic drugs. ii. CONTIGUOUS ZONE:

Extends 12 nautical miles beyond the territorial sea limit Coastal status must exercise control necessary to prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territories. Vessel carrying noxious or dangerous substances or wastes may be turned away on public health or environmental grounds. III. EXLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ) It extends to a maximum of 200 nautical miles from the base line, covering and managing the natural resources whether living or non living of the waters adjacent and of the sea bed and its subsoil. State has jurisdiction, with regard to installation marine scientific research and protection and preservation of the marine environment. All other states enjoy the freedom of navigation, laying of submarine sables and pipelines IV. CONTINENTAL SHELF: The outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the base line or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles. Coastal states have exclusive rights for exploring and exploiting its natural resources. The state also has the exclusive right o authorize and regulate drilling on the shelf or all purposes.

V. HIGH SEAS: Part of the sea that is not included in the exclusive economic zone in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a state or in the Archipelagic waters of an archipelagic state. High seas are open to all states for freedom of navigation, freedom of over flight, freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines, freedom to construct artificial islands and installations, freedom of fishing freedom of scientific research. High seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes. Other high seas precautions are prevention of slave trade, privacy, seizure of ships, illicit narcotics, trafficking and unauthorized broad casting For enforcement purposes, there are provisions for relevant rights of visit, seizure, arrests and hot pursuits.

5. Explain the key features of the United Nations Convention on the Law of The Sea? When this convention was opened for signature and when it entered into force? How many articles and annexes it contains? Enumerate the areas covered under this convention? Ans:- UNCLOS: It is the abbreviation of united nation conference on law of the sea. Three conferences an UNCOLS have been convened so far. UNCLOS I: At Geneva in 1958 UNCLOS II: At Geneva in 1960 UNCLOS III: At Geneva in 1974, which produced a convention document called UNCLOS UNCLOS governs the law of sea for mutual benefit of all members states Necessity of UNCLOS was in order 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To promote peaceful uses of the seas and ocean To facilitate international communication To enable equitable and efficient utilization of oceans resources To protect and preserve The marine environment To protect promote maritime safety

Important highlight/salient features of UNCLOS are as follows 1. It defines international law of the sea 2. Sets widths of the territorial sea at 12Nm with a contiguous zone at 20Nm 3. Sets Transit passages through international straits and territorial sea 4. Sets exclusive economic zone extending 200 Nm 5. It defines continental self and jurisdiction over the resources of the shelf beyond 200Nm where appropriate 6. It defines legal status of the high seas and establishes regulations for the control of the marine pollution 7. It allows dispute to be settled in the international court of justice It was outcome of 1982 UNCLOS III and come into force internationally on 16th Nov 1994. It is a treaty document of 446 articles grouped under 17 parts and 8 annexe Areas covered under this convention: A) UNCLOS provisions relating to zones of coastal state jurisdiction and high seas 1. UNCLOS sets the width of the territorial sea 12Nm with a Continuous Zone at 24 NM from the lease line. 2. It defines innocent passage through the territorial sea and defines transit passage through international straits. 3. it defines archipelagic state and allows for passage through archipelagic waters 4. UNCLOS established exclusive economic extending to 200 NM from baseline 5. It defines continental self and extends jurisdiction over the resources of the shelf beyond 200Nm where appropriate 6. UNCLOS defines legal status of the high seas and establishes regulations for the control of used for the purpose of committing one of one acts mentioned a leave 7. On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any state, every state may seize a pirate ship and arrest the person and seize property on toward. 8. The courts of the state which carried out the seizure may decide upon the penalties to be taken with regards to the ships, aircraft, and property subject to the rights of third parties acting in good faith.

6. Differentiate between Rules, Regulation, Protocol, Act, Tacit Acceptance and Convention as adapted in IMO. Describe the process by which a IMO convention gets converted into a Statutory Rule administered by a maritime member contry. Answer:Procedure for adopting a convention: This is the port of the process with which IMO as an organization is most closely involved. IMO has six main bodies concerned with the adoption or implementation & conventions. The Assembly and council are main organs, and the committees involved are the maritime safety committee, Marine environment protection committee legal committee and the facilitation committee. Developments in shipping and other related industries are discussed by member states in these bodies and the need for a new convention or amendments to existing conventions can be raised in any of them. Normally the suggestion is first made in one of the committees, since these meet more frequently than the main organs. If agreement is reached in the committee, the proposal goes to the council and, as necessary, to the Assembly. If the Assembly or the council as the case may be gives the authorization to proceed with the work, the committee concerned considers the mater in greater detail and ultimately draws up a draft instrument. The draft convention, which is agreed upon is, reported to the council and assembly with a recommendation that a conference be convened to consider the draft for formal adoption. Invitations to attend such a conference are sent to all member state of IMO. Before the conference opens, the draft convention is circulated to the invited Govts. and organizations for their comments. The draft convention, together with the comments thereon from Govts and interested organizations is the closely examined by the conference and necessary changes are made in order to produce a draft acceptable to all or the majority of the Govt. present. The convention this agreed upon is then adopted by the conference and deposited with the secretary-General who rends copies to Govts. The convention is opened for signature by states, usually for a period of 12 months. Signatories may ratify or accept the convention while non-signatories may accede. The drafting and adoption of a convention in IMO can take several years to complete although in some cases, where a quick response is required to deal with an emergency situation, Govts. have been willing to accelerate this process considerably. Before the convention comes into force that is, before it becomes binding upon govt., which have ratified it, it has to be accepted formally by individual Governments. Accepting a convention does not merely involve the deposit of a formal instrument. A Govts. acceptance of a convention necessarily place on it the obligation to take the measures required by the convention. Often national law has to be enacted or changed to enforce the provisions of the convention. Adequate notice must be given to ship owners, ship builders and other interested parties so they make, take account of the provisions of the Convention in their future acts and plans. At present IMO conventions enter into force within an average of five years after adoption. Tacit acceptance Procedure: Technology and Techniques in the shipping industry change very rapidly. As a result, not only are new conventions required but existing ones to be kept up to date. IMO had no authority to adopt let alone amend conventions. Its mandate allowed it only to "Provide for the drafting of conventions, agreements or other instruments and to recommend those to governments and to Inter governmental organizations and to convince such conferences as may be necessary." IMO convention specifically stated that IMO's functions were to be "consultative and advisory." the organization could arrange a conference but it was up to the conference to decide whether the convention under discussion should or should not be adopted and to decide how it should be amended. Most of IMO conventions could only be

updated by means of "classical" (passive) amendment procedure. The number member states of IMO were rising all the time as new countries emerged and began to develop their shipping activities. As the number of parties rose, so did the total required to amend the convention. The problem was made worse by the fact that governments took for longer to accept amendments than they did to ratify the parent convention. The amendments adopted to the 1960 SOLAS convention in 1966, 1967, 1968 and 1969 had failed to enter into force till 1971. It was felt that unless the International maritime community was sufficiently responsive to these charged circumstances states will once again revert to the practice of unilaterally deciding what standards to apply to their owners shipping and to foreign flag shipping visiting their ports. Studies were made on alternative amendment procedures. The main reason why amendments took so long to enter into force was the time taken to gain acceptance by 2/3 of contracting Governments. One way of reducing this period would be by "specifying a date of entry into force after adoption by the Assembly, unless the date of amendment is explicitly rejected by certain number or contracting Govts." The body which adopts the amendments at the same time fixes a time period within which contracting parties will have the opportunity to notify either their acceptance or their rejection of the amendment, or to remain silent on the subject. In case of silence the amendment is considered to have been accepted by the party. This is known as the "tacit" or "passive" acceptance procedure. Convention: is a set of rules which are adopted by all countries and comes into force on agreed date. Any changes in above conventions after date of enforcement are done through various amendments. Rule: is a governing authority. Regulation: is a generally accepted condition or course of action. Protocol: If a majority of changes are required is a convention which has been adopted but not in force, then those are incorporated in the convention and it is called PROTOCOL. e.g.: the Marpol Convention 1973 has also been amended by means of protocols. The 1978 marpol protocol made major changes to Marpol. It also absorbed the parent convention and ensured that the combined Convention / Protocol instrument (called Marpol 73/78) would enter into force at an earlier date then the present convention would have done alone (Marpol 73/78 come into force on 2nd Oct 1983). 10. Give a brief background of ILO, its inception and its fields of mandate for Maritime Labour Development. Name three conventions, protocol of ILO concerning maritime labour, which has come in force in 1996. Answer:Background of ILO World War I transformed the worlds social and economic map. The International Labour Organization (ILO) emerged together with the League of Nations from the treaty of Versailles in 1919. It gave expression to the concern for social reform that grew with the industrial revolution and the conviction that realistic reform had to be conducted on an international plane. The members of the ILO were to be countries of the world member states. Created to develop international labour standards and to ensure their application, the ILO devoted the bulk of its energies to this major task during its firs forty years. During the twenty year period from 1919 to 1939. 67 conventions and 66 recommendations were adopted. Originally, standards focused on working conditions. The first convention in 1919 dealt with hours of work, the famous eight-hour day and forty eight hour week. In 1926, an important innovation was introduced when the International Labour Conference set up a supervisory system on the application of standards which still exists today. It created a committee of independent jurists responsible for

examining government reports on the application of conventions ratified by them and presenting its own report each year o the conference. Its mandate has since been broadened to cover reports on ungratified conventions and recommendations. In 1944, delegates to the International Labour Conference adopted the Declaration of Philadelphia which annexed to the constitution, still constitutes the charter of the aims and objectives of the ILO. The declaration opens with a reaffirmation of the fundamental principles on which the ILO is based notably that Labour is not a commodity Freedom of Expression and of association is essential to sustained progress and poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere The declaration anticipated and set a pattern for the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of human Rights. In 1946 the ILO became the first specialized agency of the newly formed United Nations organizations. In 1969, on its 5oth Anniversary, it was awarded with the Nobel peace prize The ILO: How it works The International Labour office in Geneva is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization, its operational headquarters research centre and publishing house. Administration and management are decentralized in regional area and branch office in more than 40 countries. Under the leadership of a Director general who is elected for a five year renewable term. The office employs some 2500 officials and experts at Geneva headquarters and in more than 40 field offices around the world. Regional meetings of the ILO member states are periodically held to examine the matters of special interest to the regions concerned. The work of the governing body and of the International Labour office is aided by tripartite committees covering major industries and by committees of experts on such matters as vocational training, management development, occupational safety and health industrial relations workers education and special problems of certain categories of workers (young workers women, the disabled etc). The International Labour office maintain a very comprehensive website at http://www.ilo.org/ The international labour conference meets annually. It provides an international forum for discussion of world labour and social problems and sets minimum international labour standards and broad policies of the organization. Every two years, the conference adopts the ILOs beneficial work program and budget which is financed by member states. Each member country has the right to send four delegates to the conference: Two from the government and one each representing workers and employers each of whom may speak and vote independently. The ILO is unique among world organization with its tripartite structure in that employer and workers representatives the social partners of the economy have an equal voice with those of governments in sharing its policies and programs. The ILO encourages triparteism within member states as well by promoting a social dialogue which involves trade unions and employers in the formulation and where appropriate, implementation of national policy on social and economic affairs and a host of other issues. Between the conferences, the work of ILO is guided by the governing body. Comprising 28 government members and 14 worker and 14 employer members. This executive council of the ILO meets three times a year in Geneva. It takes decisions on action to give effect to ILO Policy prepares the draft program and budget which it then submits to the conference for adoption and elects the Direct General. Ten of the government seats are permanently held by states of chief industrial importance (Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russian federation, United Kingdom, and United States). Representatives of other member countries are elected by the government delegates at the conference every three years, taking into account geographical

distribution. The employers and workers representatives elect their own representatives in separate electoral colleges. The international Labour conference meets in June each year in Geneva; delegates are accompanied by technical advisor. As well as the government delegates, the cabinet minister responsible for labour affairs in their countries also generally attend the conference and take the floor. Employers and workers delegates can express themselves and vote independently of their governments. They may well vote against each other as well as their government representatives. One of the ILOs oldest and most important functions is the adoption by the tripartite International labour conference of conventions and Recommendations which set international standards. Through ratification by member states, conventions create binding obligations to implement their provisions. Recommendations provide guidance on policy legislation and practice. Each member state is required to submit all conventions and recommendations adopted by the conference to the competent national authority for a decision to be taken number of ratifications of these conventions have continued to increase. The ILO has established a supervisory procedure to ensure their application in Law and practice. It is based on the objective evaluation by independent experts of the manner in which obligations are complied with and on examination by the organizations tripartite bodies. Mandate of the ILO The ILO formulates International labour standards in the form of conventions and recommendations setting minimum standards for basic labour rights: Freedom of association Right to organize Collective bargaining Abolition of forced labour Equality of opportunity and treatment and other standards regulation conditions across the entire spectrum of work related issues.

It provides technical assistance primarily in the fields of: Vocational training and vocational rehabilitation Employment policy Labour administration Labour law and industrial relations Working conditions Management development Co-operatives Social security Labour statistics and occupational safety and health.

It promotes the development of independent employers and workers organizations and provides training and advisory services to those organizations Within the UN systems, the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing organs 1996 maritime Session of the International Labour Conference the 84th (Maritime) Session of the International labour Conference concluded its work in October 1996 with the adoption of three conventions three recommendations and a protocol concerning the living and working conditions of seafarers. The conference revised and adopted the following international legal instruments: Seafarers hours of work and the Manning of ships convention Seafarers wages, hours of work and the manning of ship recommendation 1996 Labour inspection (seafarers) convention and recommendation 1996

Recruitment and placement of seafarers convention (revised) and recommendations 1996 1996 protocol to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Conventions 1976 Seafarers hours of work and the manning of ships convention The conference revised the wages, hours of work and manning (sea) convention and recommendation 1958 (No. 109). It adopted the new seafarers hours of work and the manning of ships convention 1996 which establishes specific daily and weekly limitations on hours of work or conversely daily or weekly minimum rest periods for seafarers with the aim of preventing fatigue associated with excessive work. It calls upon member states which ratify it to acknowledge that normal work hours shall be based on an eight hour day with one day of rest per work and then provides that maximum limits shall not exceed 14 hours per day and 72 hours in a week. Alternatively, member sates may define working time through a minimum of ten hours of rest per day or 77 hours in a week. These limitations are to be posted in an easily accessible place on board the ship. Records of daily working hours or periods of rest are to be maintained and the competent authority is to examine and endorse these records at appropriate intervals in order to monitor compliance and if the records indicate infringements of the provisions governing hours of work or rest requires measures to be taken to avoid infringements. The new convention has also been included in the protocol to the Merchant Shipping (minimum Standards) conventions 1976 (No.147). This means that, following sufficient ratifications, this instrument may also be subject to port state control. Seafarers wages hours of work and the manning of ships recommendation 1996 The accompanying recommendations which focuses on compensation for overtime and other wage issues is a comprehensive instrument which will serve to clarify wage issues for seafarers and ship-owners. It retains the ILO minimum monthly basic wage figure for able seamen a figure which has long served as an international bench mark for the industry. This is currently (as from 1st January 2003) US $ 465 per month. Labour Inspection (seafarers) convention and recommendation, 1996 International provisions for labour inspection on board of ships were strengthened by the adoption of the labour inspection (seafarers) convention. The first international convention on maritime labour inspection. The preamble of the convention states that measures only apply to flag state control- i.e., subject to inspection by the ships own flag state and not port state control. Recruitment and placement of seafarers convention (Revised) and recommendation 1996 The international labour conference also adopted a convention and recommendations on the placement of seafarers revising the placing of seamen convention 1920 (No.9). The original 1920 convention (No.9) one of the first conventions adopted at the IMO-related to seamen which included all persons except officers employed as members of the crew engaged in maritime navigation. The new convention allows private placement services provided that they are in conformity with a system of licensing or certification or other form of regulation. Ratifying member states shall ensure that no fees or other charges for recruitment or for providing employment to seafarers are borne directly or indirectly in whole or in part by the seafarer The accompanying recommendations set out guidelines for effective co-operation among the different recruitment services, ship-owners and seafarers. Among other tasks the competent authority should approve or prescribe standards for the operation of recruitment and placement services and encourage the adoption of codes of conduct for these services.

1996 Protocol o the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) convention 1976 The Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) convention 1976 (No.147) has become the basic point of reference in the industry for minimal acceptable standards of safety and health, social security and living conditions of seafarers. The conference adopted an optional protocol to the 1976 convention allowing states to accept new obligations but retaining the flexibility for the convention still to be ratified in its existing form. A supplementary appendix which can be accepted by the ratifying state includes ILO conventions regulating accommodation of crew, hours of work and manning seafarers identity documents workers representatives health protection and repatriation.

11. State the Maritime Declaration of Health and the requirements of International Health Regulations for persons employed on board ship. State the steps taken by you as Chief Engineer on board for an Engine Room personnel suffering from a contagious disease while on a voyage. Answer:World Health organization is a specialized agency of United Nations established in 1948. WHOs objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. WHOs objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. WHO collaborates with member governments, United Nations agencies and other bodies to develop health standards. Control communicable diseases and promote all aspects of family and environmental health.

Purpose: WHO regulations were adopted and came into force in 1959, as international sanitary regulation which later renamed in International health regulation in 1969. Its purpose is to ensure the maximum security against the international spread of diseases with minimum interference with world traffic. Maritime declaration of health. At every port of call master of ship has to give a declaration of health to authorized offices which states 1. Particulars of ship 2. Ships crew and officers are fit for service on board 3. During the voyage any case of suspected case of plaque cholera or yellow fever. 4. Any illness of infectious nature, death of any person on board during the voyage otherwise than as a result of accident. 5. Ship is free from rodents and deratting certificate or exemption is valid. International Health regulations were originally intended to help monitor and control six serious infectious diseases: cholera, plague, yellow fever smallpox, relapsing fever and typhus. Today only cholera plague and yellow fever are notifiable diseases. Article 81 of IHR states that No health document other than those provided for in these regulations shall be required in internal traffic. Separate vaccination certificates were once required for small pox, cholera and yellow fever. The eradication of small pox was confirmed by WHO more than 10 years ago. It also states that vaccination against cholera cannot prevent the

introduction of infection into a country and the WHO therefore amended the international health regulations in 1973 so that cholera vaccination should no longer be required of any traveller. A certificate of vaccination against yellow fever is the only certificate which should be now required. In case of Engine room personnel suffering from a contagious disease while on voyage. 1. He should be examined by ships designated medical officer 2. After confirmation, master should be informed and the patient should be shifted to hospital 3. Ensure that Air from the hospital is not recirculated in the ships A/C system 4. Having listed all symptoms and findings relevant section of (shipmasters medical guide) to be consulted and recommended treatments to be followed 5. When patient is ill visitors should be discourages when the patient shows signs of improvement the above ban can be relaxed. 6. willing shipboard personnel must be deputed after taking all possible precautions to attend the patient and monitor his progress 7. Disposable utensils for drinking, eating must be used. 8. all used bed linens and towels must be sterilized and should not be washed with the common linen 9. If the conditions of patient does not improve, radio medical advice should be sought 10. All actions to be recorded in medical log book and company should be informed for each happening

17. For the safety, welfare and working condition of seafarer on board ship, enumerate the various ILO/IMO regulations. Answer:The main IMO conventions regarding safety, welfare and working conditions of seafarers onboard are given below:-

1) SOLAS 74 and its amendments and protocols. Entered into force 25th may 1980, It has two parts. Part I contain 12 chapters Part II certain 4 annexure. The main chapter which deals with safety and working conditions of sea farers are: Chapter II Constructional safety with respect fire, stability and flooding Chapter III life saving appliances and arrangements Chapter V - safety of navigation Chapter VII Carriage of dangerous goods Chapter IX Management for the safe operation of ships Chapter XI-1 - Special measures to enhance maritime safety Chapter XI-2 - Special measurers to enhance maritime security 2) L L 1966 and Amendments In force 21st July 1968 Limits by means of minimum free boards, drafts to which ships may be loaded prescribe minimum standard for internal weather tight and water tight integrity and security for personnel 3) STP 1971 ( Special trade passenger ships agreement) In force 2nd Jan 1974 Complemented by protocol on space requirement for special trader passengers ships.

STP 71 regulates the carriage of large numbers of unberthed passengers in special trades such as pilgrim trades.

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COLREG 1972 In force 15th July 1977 Amended in 1981, 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2001 38 rules divided in to 5 sections and four annexes. Deals with rules and regulation for preventing collisions and technical details 5) INMARSAT 1976 International Maritime Satellite Organization Entered into force 16th July 1979 Define the Inmarsat purpose as being to improve maritime communication there by assisting in improving distress and safety of life at sea, communication, the efficient management of ships, Maritime public correspondence services, and radio determination capabilities. INMARSATS obligations to provide maritime distress and safety services via satellite were enshrined within 1988 amendment (GMDSS) to SOLAS. 6) STCW 1978 International convention on Standards Training, Certification and Watch keeping for seafarers. Entered into force 28th April 1984 Feb 2002 1995 amendment including STCW code entered into force on 1st It establishes minimum international standard requirements for training certification and watch keeping, replaced national set standards. Applies to ships of non party states, when visiting ports of party states. of

7) SAR1979 - International convention on Rescue 1979

Maritime Search

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Aims at developing an international search and rescue plan, irrespective of location of accidents, SAR operations will be coordinated by SAR organizations. Entry into force 22nd June 1985 Parties must have adequate SAR services in their coastal water and to cooperate with other SAR organization. 8) PAL 1974 Convention relating to the carriage of passengers and their luggage by sea called Athens convention In force 28th April 1987 Protocol in 1976, 1990 and 2002 Establish liability regime for damage suffered by passengers carried on seagoing vessel. 9) SUA 1988 ( Convention for the suppression of unlawfull acts against the safety of maritime navigation 1992 In force 1st March, 1992, SUA protocol 1988 in force 1st March Aims at ensuring that appropriate judicial action is taken against persons committing acts against ships, which includes seizure of ship by force, act of violence against persons onboard ships and the placing of devices on board a ship which are likely to destroy

or damage it. Obliges contracting governments to prosecute alleged offenders 1988 Protocol provide similar regulation relating to fixed platform located on the continental shelf. The main ILO convention related to safely, welfare and working conditions of sea farers on board ship are as follows (About 30 convention related to seafarers)

1)

ILO -147 Minimum standards convention In force in Nov 1981 It is the minimum internationally accepted labor standards in merchant ships. It aims to eliminate operation of substandard ship, Aim to improve the efficiency and safely of navigation, Aim to enhance measures to protect the marine environment and aim to advance sea farers interest in the filed of health, safety, working conditions and trade union rights Convention requires flag states to adopt minimum standard relating to safety, social security and shipboards condition of employments and living arrangements. 2) 3) 4) ILO -178 Labor Inspection convention 1996 ILO -73 Medical Examination ( Sea fares) convention 1946 ILO -134 Prevention of accidents ( Sea farers ) Convention 1970 In force 17th Feb 1973 5) ILO - 138 Minimum Age Convention 1973

6) ILO -180 Sea farers hours of work and the manning of ships convention 1996 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) ILO -133 Accommodation of crews convention 1970 ILO 163 Sea farers welfare at sea and port convention 1987 ILO 164 Health protection and medical care convention 1987 ILO 165 Social security for sea farers convention 1987 ILO -166 Repatriation of sea farers convention 1987 ILO 146 Sea fares Annual leave with pay convention 1976 ILO -91 paid vacation ( Sea farers) convention 1949 ILO -74 certification of able sea man convention 1946 ILO 22 Seamans Article of agreement conventions 1926. ILO -56 Sickness insurance (Sea ) convention 1936

17) ILO 87 Freedom of association and protection of the right to organize Convention 1948.

19. An Indian flag vessel collided with another vessel off the coast of India, as a result few lives were also lost and vessel damaged. In accordance with the provisions under the Merchant Shipping Act, what steps should be

initiated and who should initiate such steps for the safety of the ships and the marine environment Answer:Whenever a shipping accident takes place and comes under the purview of M.S.Act as a shipping casualty, the master, the pilot or persons in charge of ship at the time of casualty is required to give notice of this casualty to officer appointed by the government under the section 358(2) of the M.S.Act. The proper officers appointed by the government are notified in the official gazette. Preliminary enquiry:- When an officer appointed under the Act received information about the shipping casualty, he is required to conduct a preliminary inquiry about the accident. The purpose of the preliminary enquiry is to establish the following: (a) A shipping casualty has occurred within the meaning of Act. (b) The details of the voyage leading to the casualty. (c) Events that led to the casualty (d) Extent to which loss of life or loss of property has occurred due to shipping casualty (e) The causes that led to the casualty including act of incompetency, negligence or misconduct of person or persons is concerned The preliminary enquiry, which is held under section 359 of M.S.Act is departmental enquiry and the proceedings of such enquiries are not released to public. In conducting the preliminary enquiry, the officer has the following responsibilities: (1) To inform the central government and the state government concerned where necessary of the detail of the shipping casualties occurring within their jurisdiction (2) To go on board the ship and inspect the same including machinery and equipment, but not unnecessarily detaining or delaying her from proceeding on any voyage (3) To enter and inspect any premises to facilitate the completion of the preliminary enquiry (4) To summon persons he thinks to take statement to complete the preliminary enquiry (5) To demand the production of all log books, documents or papers he considers necessary for the enquiry (6) To submit the report to central government If any person refuses to attend and answer or to produce necessary evidence or to impede the enquiry, officer should call his attentions to the power given to him. In case he still refuses, he can take action under chapter X of the Indian Penal Code. Persons who may be present at the examination; where the owner or agent of a ship, a casualty to which is being investigated signifies his desire to be present but only while witness belonging to the ships at which he is directly interested are being examined, and he must be requested to remain silent. He may take note of evidence, if he desires but should not interfere examination of witnesses. Barring this, no person is to be present in room during the examination of the witness excepting the deponent. The officer conducting the enquiry and his clerk and if necessary an interpreter. Professional lawyers are not admitted in to the proceedings of preliminary enquiry or formal investigation. Whenever it appears that the event leading to ship casualty, demand a formal investigation by court, the D.G.Shipping, by virtue of power delegated to him under section 360 of M.S.Act may direct the same to be held. On receipt of the order of director general the proper officer shall make an application to the court of empowered under 361. the objective of court empowered under 361 is not to punish anyone who may have been at fault, but to throw light on the cause of casualty and to consider steps to prevent such casualties in future. Only first class magistrates are empowered to conduct these formal investigations. The courts are assisted by assessors having the requisite technical knowledge and are independent of all the interest concerned. The assessor

are appointed by the court out of the list which is maintained by the directorate. Where formal investigation involves or appears likely to involve any question regarding cancellation or suspension of certificate of competency of master, mate or engineer, the court shall be assisted by not less than two assessors having the requisite experience in merchant marine service. Apart from the officer on whose application this investigation is undertaken, any person upon whom a notice of investigation has been served, any other interested parties may be permitted to appear at investigation and become a party to the proceedings. On the appointment time and place for holding investigation, the court can proceed with investigating witness the parties upon whom notice of investigation have been served are present or not. Report of court, unless the cancellation or suspension of any officers certificate is not involved, the court need not tell its decision in open court. It may send or deliver to the parties a copy of the report as required by 369 of M.S.Act to be transmitted to the central government. The court should submit its report to the central government in duplicate. Where cancellation or suspension of officers certificate of competency is involved, the court may deliver its decision in open court and also send or deliver to the parties a copy of the report to be transmitted to the central government. Where the certificate is suspended and the court has recommended a certificate of lower grade should be issued, the same shall be issued by D.G.Shipping through the principal officer concerned. The power to cancel certificate of competency The certificate of competency may also be cancelled by central government under provision of 373 of M.S.Act

20. A ship is required to be registered at a specific port in India. List the documents that will be required for such registration, detailing related flow process thereof. What statutory surveys will be required to be carried out before the ship makes her first voyage? Answer:Normally an Indian ship is registered in any of the following ports in India i.e. Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. At each port, the principal officer (P.O.) of the MMD is the registrar for that ship. The registrar has a book called The Register book which carries entries made regarding the registration of ship. Following Documents are required for registration of the ship. a) Surveyors Certificate b) The Builders Certificate c) Any instrument of sale, by which the ship was previously sold. d) All declarations of ownership. 1) Surveyors Certificate: The owner of the ship which is to be registered in India makes the arrangements for the vessel to be surveyed by a surveyor, who then ascertains the tonnage of the ship. The surveyor grants a certificate, specifying the ships tonnage and other particulars. This certificate is delivered to the Register for purpose of registry. 2) The Builders Certificate: In case the ship is built in India, a Builders Certificate i.e. true account of proper denomination and the tonnage of the ship as estimated and the name of the person, if any, on whose account the ship was built o be submitted to the Registrar. If the ship is built outside India, the same evidence should be produced as in case of a ship built in India. If the place and time of her building

are not known or if the builders certificate cannot be produced, then the instrument of sale under which ship was sold earlier is required. 3) If the ownership of the ship has been changed in the past. Those instrument of sale is required at the time of registry. 4) Declaration of Ownership : Owner (i.e. a person/company) should sign a declaration of ownership in the prescribed format containing following. Statement containing citizenship of India. b) A statement of the time and place where the ship was built. If the ship was built outside India. in case of a ship previously registered outside India, a statement of the previously registered name and other particulars. c) Name of her master d) The number of shares (of the ship) held by the individual / company ( as the case may be) and e) A declaration that the particulars stated are true to the best of his / her knowledge and belief. The give a minimum of 14 days notice to the Registrar of the name proposed for the ship. The Registrar before registering the vessel in the name of the applicant shall obtain prior approval of the name from D. G. shipping who will also allot an official number of the ship. On being satisfied that the ship, on the strength of evidence placed before him is entitled to be Indian ship, Registrar arranges for a surveyor for the determination of her tonnage in accordance wih the merchant shipping (Tonnage measurement) Rules 1987, as amended from time to time, for the purpose of issue of a certificate of survey. After the formalities enumerated above have been gone thro, Registrar issues a carving and marking note. This note is o be returned to the registrar after carving and marking have been duly carried out on the ship in the prescribed manner & certified by surveyor. It involves carving of name of the ship conspicuously on each side of her bows as well as insertion permanently on her stern the name of the intended port of Registry. After entering the required particulars of the ship in the register, the registrar issues a certificate of Registry to the owner. 5) a)

24. What are the various collision liabilities under international maritime law? How the economic laws in ship collisions are assessed? Highlight your views on collision and conflicts of law ? Answer:Collision Liability When ever by the fault of two or more ships, damage or loss is caused to one or more of them or to the cargo of one or more of them or to any property onboard one or more of them the liability to make good the damage or loss shall be in proportion to the degree in which each ship was at fault. If it is not possible to establish different degree of fault, the liability shall be apportioned equally. Salvage or other expenses, consequent upon that fault, recoverable in law by way of damages. When ever loss of life or personal injuries are suffered by any person onboard a ship owing to the fault of that ship and of any other ship or ships, the liability of the owners of the ship concerned shall be joint and several. When a proportion of the damages is recovered from the owner of one ship, which exceed proportion in which she was at fault, the said owner may recover by way of contribution the amount of the excess from the

owner of the other ship or ships to the extend to which those ship were respectively in fault. In every case of collision between two ships it shall be duty of the master or person in charge of each ship, if and so far as he can do so without danger of his own ship, crew & passengers if any as to rendered to the other ship, her master crew & passengers if any. a) To render to the other ship, her master crew & passengers, it any such assistance as may be practicable and may be necessary to save them from any danger caused by the collision. To give to the master of other ships the name of his ship and of the port to which she belongs and also name of port from where she comes. Immediately after collision occurrence, cause a statement thereof to be entered in official log book, signed by master and also by mate or one of the crew. When ship has sustained or caused loss of life or any serious injury to any person or material damage or hull damage, effecting seaworthiness, the owner or master shall with in 24 hours transmit to the central Govt. or the nearest PO with full ship details non appearance of the ship, owner shall inform Govt. in writing with all ship details name, official no. port of Registry etc. Internal convention for unification of certain Rules of law with respect to collision between vessels, 1910 (Brussels) Ratified by India. 1. 2. 3. 4. At least one vessel must be a sea going vessel, collision may take place any where. In case of doubt or force majored damages are borne by those who suffered them even if one of them is at anchor or made fast. If one of the vessel is at fault, liability attaches to her. If two or more vessels at fault liabilities in proportion to the degree of faults resp. committed. If in doubt, liability is equal (MS act section 345). Applicable to vessels, cargo, property of crew, passengers, other persons onboard, even third party and damages caused by death or injury (MS Act s-346) Limitation of liability of ship owner to persons on board is left to each country (MS act s-345). Liability attaches when damage caused by pilot's fault even it compulsory. Right of action for recovery not subject to fulfillment of any special formality. Barred after two years. Action for recovery of other ships contribution barred after one year from date of payment can be extended by the law of court. Master is bound to render assistance to vessel, crew and passengers of other vessels, exchange names, port of Registry and ports from and to (MS Act s-348) Without prejudice to ship owners limitation of liability or obligations arising from contracts of carriage (MS act -345) Application for damages even when no collision actually takes place. 3/4 Collision Liability : Clause -6 Provides that underwriters will pay for 3/4 of any. Loss or damage to another vessel or property on it.

b)

5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11. 12.

Delay to or loss of use of another vessels or property on it. General average of another vessel or property on it. Salvage or salvage under contract of another vessel or property on it. Where the payment by the assured is a result of a collision with the other vessel. Can be extended to 4/4 th cover (if clause 40 is expressly agreed to in writing by the underwriters. was formally called, and is still often referred to as, the running down clause or (RDC). was originally intended by under writers to make ship owners more careful with the navigation of there vessels, since they would be carrying a quarter of the risk themselves. The one fourth of liability not covered by the underwriters under the policy is normally insured under the ship owner's normally insured under the ship owner's P & I club policy. Sister ship : Clause 7 : Allows vessels owned wholly or party by the same owner, or under the same management, to be treated in the event of collision or salvage as if they were owned by different companies. In such cases liability is to be referred to a mutually agreed rule arbitrator. Conflicts of law : When collision take place in international water, it become difficult to decide that which ships, flag / state law will apply or law of near coastal / state will apply.

25. Differentiate between official logbook, deck and engine room log books.

Highlight their salient features and differences. Also, enlist the number of documents, which are handed over by relieved Chief Engineer during signing off from a vessel. Answer:Official log book 1) Must be kept on every ship, unless exempted it is available with engagement and discharge documents from concerned flag state offices 2) Must be completed in accordance with M.S. (official log book) regulation 1981, as amended 3) Must be kept in one book covering all seaman onboard and remains in force from time of opening crew agreement until closure of crew agreement. 4) It must be delivered on closure to flag state concerned

5) It must be produced by Master, if demanded to the superintendent/surveyor or port authorities 6) Each entry must be dated and the master commits an offence if an entry is not made, signed and witnessed in accordance with the regulations and the schedule. Supplementary officials logs and records: a) Officials log book (part II passenger ships only) it maintains recording of the openings and closing of watertight doors and connivances listed in the M.8. (closing of openings in hulls and in water tight bulk heads) regulations 1980 b) Radiotelegraph (W/T) wg it includes routine tests of equipments in part 1 and part 2 records duty of radio officer and particulars of messages transmitted and received. c) Radiotelephone (R/T) log

It records details of operators battery condition, battery charging, messages transmitted and received. d) GMDSS Log Required under regulation 17(1) of the M.S. (Radio Installations) regulations 1992, be maintained on all vessels and made available for inspection. It records details of:traffic 1) 2) 3) e) Summary of communications relating to distress urgency and safety Important incidents connected with ratio service The position of ship at least once a day

Oil record Book:Under regulation 10 of M.S. regulations 1996, must be kept onboard all tanker (above 150GT) and all non tankers (above 400GT) for machinery space operations (all ships);every oil tanker of 150 GT and above must also have an oil record book (part 2) for cargo and ballast operations.

Deck and Engine room logs: In addition to usual entries of course, speed, weather etc entries should be made regarding: Switching on and off of navigational lights Changing from automatic to hand steering and vice-versa Exaggerated entries of weather conditions or other circumstances should be made Entries should be made of all extraordinary happenings and all matters effecting owners interest, likely to arise. Machinery breakdown, stranding and grounding etc. Searches for stow-ways, drugs or contraband Bunkering operations in detail(commencement, completion etc) Passage through oil slicks Time of arrival, berthing and serving and receipt of readiness Particulars of delays in loading or discharging etc The E/R and Mates log book should be signed by chief engineer and chief officer, ensuring correctness of its contents a) Bridge books and movement book

Record entering and leaving of port, engine movements, change of course etc. Cargo Record Book It is required as per regulations. It is a requirement under chemical and gas carriers codes, as well as for ships carrying noxious liquid substances. Number of documents handed over by chief engineer during sign off: 1. List of status of surveys/certificates , quarterly listing 2. Condition of class (stated) if any 3. Handing over report 4. Fuel oil, diesel oil/lube oil soundings confirm actual figures 5. Voyage requirements for fuel. Lubes 6. Bunkers expected and consumption record 7. Oil record book 8. PMS status of main, auxiliary and electrical machineries 9. Spares onboard 10. Stores onboard 11. Alarm checklist 12. Critical equipment checklist 13. Special and precision equipment onboard

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Records of port state inspections-LSA/FFA Cargo equipment maintenance records Technical file: list of critical components/spares affecting NOx/SOx Bunker delivery receipts Special tools List of manuals and drawings available on board Training records

All other documents pertaining to the particular type of ship.

29.

With reference to record keeping onboard, discuss (i) the necessity of proper filing (ii) efficient control of follow up and verification activities (iii) accident investigation. Describe a situation onboard, which will highlight the importance of record keeping of above three cases.

Answer :(i) The necessity of proper filing - Proper filing of a document mean it should go in a proper file with proper no & in proper order at proper time. It should have month & year section. Once a file is maintained in proper order it. Reduces the time to find out document in less time Once document is found it reduces irritation Looks impressive & show system is organized. Becomes very easy for quick reference, survey etc.

(i) Efficient control of follow up & verification :- follow up means keep your self updating regarding the inquiry you have sent for answer it to know progress. If this communication is a paper correspondence it is very important to have initial letter no or reference no. if it is an e-mail that it is always better the whole correspondence should be sent every time if on communicate. When you receive any correspondence it is equally important to verify it by sending a small note that you have received so & so. If follow up for the queries are kept then it makes easy for the replaying person & it helps in quick decision so saving time.

All the correspondence carried out including the follow up request should also be filed.

(ii) Accident investigations - Records are the main key to investigate the

reasons for any accident. The records can tell whom , how this problem started & what were initial indications what steps were taken to remove the problem. if the people were aware of it or not What correspondence was carried out with officer Who was the in-charge of the job How many people involved, & whether they were right for the job or not Whether correct procedure was followed or not.

All this type of questions can be solved from the records to find out the root cause of the accident and at the basis of it in feature the root cause of it can be eliminated and the record will help in avoiding future accidents.

To highlighted the importance of record keeping let us take an examples of head inquiry due to breaking of helmets by falling hammer. (Requisition filed) we received helmets in store, the received ones were not of same standards we have asked for (invoice filed)

Office was informed regarding this Follow up done & continued In between helmet was used & a hammer fall on the helmet breaking it sand piece of hard plastic piercing in the head (log book entry) - Incident report made & officer informed about this. During accident investigation the requisition checked standard checked, invoice checked, office correspondence & follow up checked log book only & incident reports wee studies & report cause find and. All the documents were filed um proper order so a smooth investigation was followed Hence Record Keeping in day to day life is very very important.

31.

Explain the following the maritime term; (a) Charter Party (b) Freight (c) Bare Boat Charter (d) Bill Of Lading (e) Lay Time, Demurrage and Off-Hire

Answer:(a) Charter party: In trumping the market conditions strongly influence the freight that has to be paid. The contract between two parties is called the charter party. Charter parties are contracts of affreightment under which the shipowner, in return for a sum of money called the freight or charter hire aggress to carry goods in bulk by sea or provide services of a vessel for the purposes of such carriage. There are no international conventions governing charter parties. Most countries have also not made laws for regulating chartering practices. The terms and conditions of charter parties have been evolved over a period of years in preparing with the growth of maritime commerce and the shipping industry. Organization like the UK chamber of shipping and the BALTIC INTERNATIONAL MARITIME CONFERENCE (BIMCO) in Copenhagen have played a significant role in evolving international accepted CHARTER PARTIES. Besides such standard forms, there are also a number of private charter parties forms evolved by individual commodity producers and merchants. Thus, charter parties could vary from place to place and also from one commodity o another. The chartered will normally employ brokers to fire a ship for the carriage of their cargoes. They may be carrying their own goods or goods of another party. They maybe a member of a consortium conference on other multi party agreement or may be outsider. There are three important elements concerning chartering The owner he who puts his vessel or part of the vessel at the disposal of another party for carriage of cargo. THE CHARTERER : He who hires the vessel and pays for it

(b)The FREIGHT : The amount of money which the charterer has to pay the owner for hiring of the vessel. According o the contract both charterer and the owner have their own responsibilities with respect to the fired costs and the variable costs in the use of

vessel. The charter party are normally claused to allow charterers to sublet the vessel in whole are impart on condition that the charterer remain responsible to the shipowner for the performance of original charter. There are different types of charter parties 1. Voyage Charter 2. Time Charter 3. Bare boat Charter Freight: The fright is expressed as per ton loaded cargo. This is usually expresses in dollars per MT or long ton. Freight is the remuneration payable by charters to the owners for the performance of the contract and may be called charter party freight. This is normally payable in accordance with the terms of a freight clause which stipulate the amount of freight the time for payment and the method of payment. This is often payable under the charter party terms partially or fully in advance e.g., on loading on issue of Bill of Lading Dead freight is not genuine freight but owners compensation for loss of freight, payable by charterers on a quantity of cargo short shipped i.e., a quantity they agreed upon but failed to load (C) BARE BOAT OR (DEMISE CHARTER) A bare boat charter may also be called a charter by demise or demise charter and is often described as a type of ship financing arrangement. It will be generally on the BARE CON 89 charter party form It is used by owners such as banks/finance organization who may not be prepared to operate or manage ships themselves. It is a contract for the lease of a vessel for an agreed period. The legal owner ship continues to vest in the owner but her physical possession, operation (including manning) and commercial exploitation are the responsibility of and are the benefit of the charterer. They often have a purchaser option at the expiry of the charter period and are frequently linked to management control. Any bills of lacking for cargo are issued by or on behalf of the charterer and not on behalf of the legal owner. The chartered usually pay the owner a fixed hire per month in advance as detailed in agreement. (d) BILL OF LADING The bill landing is the declaration of the master of the vessel by which the acknowledges that he received the goods on board of his ship and assures that he will carry the goods to the place of destination for delivery, in the same condition as he received them against handing of the original bill of landing. The definition of a bill of lading given in the HAMBURG RULES is the following. BILL OF LADING means a document which evidence a contract of carriage by sea and the taking over of loading of the goods by the carrier, and by which the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods against surrender of the document. A provision in the document that the goods are to be delivered to the order of a named person, or to order or o bearer, constitutes such an undertaking. The bill of lading serves as a a) A receipt of the goods by the shipowner acknowledging that the goods of the stated species, quantity and conditions are shipped to a stated destination in a certain ship or at least received in custody of the ship owner for the purpose of shipment. b) A memorandum of the CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE by which the master agrees to transport the goods to their destinations all terms of the contract which was in fact concluded prior to signing of the bill of loading are repeated on the back of this document

c) A document of little to the goods enabling the consigner to dispose of the goods by endorsement and delivery of the bill of lading. (e) LAY TIME: The lay time is the allowed time for loading and unloading of the vessel. The lay time is determined in the charter party. If this time excelled by the charterer he has to pay the owner compensation called the DEMURRAGE: On the other hand if the ship has loaded or discharged quicker than foreseen then the owner will have o pay the charter a compensation called dispatch. Lay time consists of a specific number of days DAYS means a period of 24 consecutive hours running from 0000 to 2400 hrs. DEMURRAGE: Rate of amount payable per weather working day a portion thereof to the ship owner by the charter as penalty for the letters failure to load or discharge cargo within the lay time specified in the charter party provided however that the delay was not due to circumstances within the control of ship owner or beyond control of the chartered. OFFHIRE: It is the responsibility of the owner to provide the vessel in a seaworthy condition for the purpose of the contract and the time of contract making. Owners usually agree to exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy for each voyage during the charter period. A term charter party usually contains an undertaking by owners to maintain the vessel in a good condition throughout the charter period and owners may be required to keep the vessel in the condition she was stated to be in when the contract was made. The term off hire means that in certain circumstances for which the charterer is not responsible, the hire will be temporarily suspended. So the hire of the vessel is suspended when the charterer cannot use the vessel for which he had hired it. The circumstances in which off hire is allowed are given in the charter party. (eg- dry docking, strike of officers, crew, breakdown of machinery, to maintain efficiency of the vessel, deficiency of owner stores etc.) The boiler and piston cleaning is included to allows owners to carryout maintenance of machinery. This period is normally 48 hours per year. The vessel goes off hire if period of maintenance is exceeded. If deviating for owners purpose eg-landing a sick man, repairs, dry dock the vessels will be off hire from the moment of deviation until she is ready to resume service in a position not less favourable to the charterers. A deduction of hire is calculated on the basis of fuel used in deviation including F.O and D.O at the port deviated to. But if deviation is for the charterer purposes eg.: stress of weather the vessel will remain on hire.

32.

What are the basic contracts used in Maritime transportation? Discuss the basic elements of the time Charter Party and Demise (Bareboat Charter Parties)? State the conflicts between chartering and Maritime Law?

Answer :Contract is an agreement enforceable by law and exists between owner and ship manager if any. Owner, manager and any ship broker fixing the ships employment Owner, manager and any charterer of the vessel. Owner, manager and agent appointed at each port. Master and his employer Legal carrier and each shipper of goods on vessel.

Owner, manager and various parties engaged during a voyage such as ship chandlers. Repairing parties, tug owners, pilotage authorities, port authorities, stevedores. Individual crew members and their employers. Ship owners and charterers. Charterers and sub-charterers. Ship owners and owners of cargo Ship owners ( or carriers ) and passengers ( contracts of passage ) Contracts of carriage by sea are normally made between a shipper or charterer & a ship owner or carrier, by brokers acting as agents on their behalf. ( For brokers services a separate contract is made ). An agent normally has the legal capacity to bind his principal to any contract made on the principals behalf, although he must always act within his authority. A master normally has no capacity to make or alter a contract of carriage made by his employer except in except in exceptional circumstances. ( e.g. when making a salvage contract in time of peril, or in circumstances where he becomes an agent of necessity when unable to communicate with its principal. Time Charter :is a contract for the services of the vessel for a specified period of time which could vary from one trip ( trip time charter ) to as much as a few years. The owners retain possession of the vessel & provide the master & crew, provisions, insurance deck and engine stores & have the responsibility of maintaining the vessel in an efficient state in hull, machinery & equipment. The charterers provide and pay for fuel, port and canal charges, pilotage, tugs, agency fees & commissions. The time charter forms in common use are NYPE, BALTIME, ASBATIME, SHELLTIME, INTERTANKTIME & SUPPLYTIME. The charterer-hire is generally on a daily rate & is usually payable in advance every fortnight/every month. Bareboat Charter or Demise Charter :Is rather more in the nature of a ship financing agreement for the services of the ship. In this arrangement the legal ownership continues to vest in the owner but her physical possession, operations ( including manning ) & commercial exploitation are the responsibility of & are for the benefit of the charterer. Bareboat charters often have a purchase option at the expiry of the charterperiod & are frequently linked to a management contract. The owners are often banks or investment companies who do not have the expertise to operate or manage ships. Any Bills of Lading for cargo loaded are issued by or on behalf of the charterer & not on behalf of the legal owner. The most-often used form for this type of agreement is Barecon-89 published by BIMCO. The charter hire is generally payable in advance on the basis of per annum..

33.

State the responsibilities and liabilities, under Hague-Visby Rules of: (a) The Shipper (b) The Shipowner And explain the difference between Hague rules and Hague-Visby rule

Answer:The duties of the ship-owner/carriers are covered under Article (iii) of Hague Visby rules. I) The carrier is obliged to exercise due diligence before and at the beginning of the voyage in respect of the following: (a) to make the ship seaworthy (b) to properly man, equip and supply her (c) to make the holds and other places where goods are to be carried fit and safe for their reception carriage and preservation.

II) The carriers duty to exercise due diligence in the above respects is a paramount duty and an overriding obligation. If subsequently it is established that loss of or damage to cargo resulted from failure of the carrier to exercise due diligence, the carrier will not be permitted to avail of the benefit of the protection, otherwise available to him under the rules. III) The carrier is obliged to properly and carefully load handle, stow, carry and discharge the cargo. The carrier must have a proper system for taking care of cargo during the time he is in custody thereof. This provision includes aspects such as security, ventilation, maintenance of required temperature and avoidance of contamination (IV) The carrier must demand of the shipper, a bill of loding showing (a) Leading marks necessary for identification of goods. (b) Number of packages or the quantity or weight in writing by the shipper (c) The apparent order and condition of goods. (V) A bill of lading issue as above must be a shipped Bill of lading, provided that the shipper has surrendered any Mates Receipt or Received for shipment Bill of lading (issued prior to the issue of the bill of lading) such a Bill of Lading is also a prima-facia evidence of receipt of goods as described therein but proof to the contrary is not admissible where the B/L has been endorsed/transferred to a third party acting in good faith. CARRIERS LIABILITIES (i) Unless the value of goods has been declared by the shipper before shipment and has been inserted in the Bill of lading the carriers liability for loss of or damage to goods is limited as provided in the rules (ii) Under the Hague Rules, the carriers liability was restricted to G.B. pounds 100 (gold equivalent) per package-unless of course a higher limit had been mutually agreed. (iii) By Hague Visby amendments in 1968, the above limit was raised to 10,000 francs per package or 30 francs per kilogram (whichever is higher). A frame meant 65.5 mgs of gold of 900/1000 fineness (90% pure gold) (iv) By amendments in 1979, the above limits were further raised to 666.67 SDRs per package or 2SDRs per kg. (v) The 1968 amendment provided that where a container/pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, the number of packages mentioned in the B/L as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed to be the number of packages as far as these units are concerned. RESPONSIBILITIES OF SHIPPER (i) The shipper is the person who has a legally binding contract with the carrier. It is the shippers responsibility to provide accurate information about the cargo. (ii) Following information must be included in the B/L (a) Shippers identity (b) Vessel name (c) Port of loading (d) Port of discharge (e) Quantity of cargo. As far as possible the master should insert words viz., shipper figures or shore figures or weight and quantity unknown to protect he carrier from claim short loading date of loading (g) condition of goods (h) freight (i) condition of carriage (iii) The shipper has to clearly declare, the nature of goods being shipped when goods are being shipped without the knowledge of consent of carrier, the carrier is free to jettison land or destroy the goods without any liability. (iv) The shipper is responsible for all damages and expenses resulting from the shipment of dangerous goods, even when such goods are shipped with carriers knowledge. The carrier can deal with the goods when they become dangerous to the ship without any liability except general average. But in such a case, the shipper is not liable for any consequential loss.

LIABILITIES OF SHIPPER 1. If the value of goods has not been declared in the B/L the shipper will get only 666.6 SDRs per package or 2 SDRs per kg 2. In case of loss or damage, written notice must be served on the carrier within are year of delivery of goods. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAGUE RULES AND HAGUE VISBY RULES 1) Under Hague rules (framed in 1920s) carriers liability was restricted to GB pounds 100 (gold equivalent) per package. Under Hague-Visby rules, this limit was raised to 10,000 francs (gold equivalent) per package or 30 francs per kg 2) As per Hague Visby rules, the carrier loses his right to limit liability, if the damage to cargo resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, done with the intent to cause such damage. As per Hague rules, no such provision were provided. Thus the carrier could limit his liability to 100 GB pounds even if the damage caused to cargo was done intentionally with the intent to cause damage. 35. Differentiate the salient consideration taken during survey of a ship under (a) Bare Boat Charter (b) Voyage Charter (c) Time Charter As a Chief engineer on board explain with reasons which of the three survey is most demanding and exhaustive and why?

Answer:Charter : is the contract between the ship owner and the chatterer for the use of a ship or her cargo space for a particular voyage or for series of voyages, or for a stipulated period of time. o Contracts for carriage of specified quantities of cargo in specified vessels between specified ports i.e., voyage charter. o Contracts for hire of specified vessels, including o time charters o bare boat charters (also know as "demise charters). Bareboat charter : is a contract for the hire of a vessel for an agreed period during which the charterers acquire most of the rights of the owners. is most usually on the BARECON 89 charter party form is used by owners such as banks & finance houses who are not prepared to operate or manage ships themselves. may be hinged to a purchase option after expiry of the charter or during the hire period. In essence the vessel owners put the vessel at the complete disposal of the charters and pay the capital costs, but no other costs. The charters have commercial and technical responsibility for the vessel, and pay all costs except capital costs. The "BARECON A" from under which the owners bear responsibility for insurance premiums, was designed by BIMCO for short period chartering. The "BARECON B" form was designed as a long-period, financial type of contracts, mainly for new buildings although it can be modified for second -hand tonnage. The charters are responsible for insurance premiums. BARECON 89 is an amalgamation of the BARECON "A" and "B" forms. There will be an arrangement for on hire survey. In the case of new ship building the survey procedures can be done in the yard itself according to the agreement. Other cases there is a thorough examination considering the following points. Bunkers on board Stores & spares on board.

- General condition of the vessel. - Certificates validity - Tanks condition - Sea worthiness. As a Chief engineer, he is responsible for maintaining the equipment in good condition. Bunker on board to be properly calculated and kept ready for the surveyors to check cleanliness and proper P.M.S. system has to be maintained in view of seaworthiness. It is a more stringent survey since the charter take the responsibility of the vessel in full respect except capital cost. All crew members to be aware of the safety procedure and safe working practices according to the company's quality management system. In this regard proper training and briefing to be given before surveys. Voyage Charter : is a contract for the carriage by a named vessel of a specified quantity of cargo between named posts or places. The ship owner basically agrees that he will present the named vessel for loading at the agreed place within an agreed period of time an following loading, will carry the cargo to the agreed place, where he will deliver the cargo. The charter agrees to provide for loading, within the agreed period of time, the agreed quantity of the agreed commodity, to pay the agreed amount of freight, and to take delivery of the cargo at the destination place. In effect the chatterers hire the cargo capacity of the vessel and not the entire vessel. The owner must provide the master and crew, act as carrier and pay all running and voyage costs, unless the charter party specifically provides otherwise. The survey under voyage charter is not very strict as compared to other charter party : The charter mainly interested on sea worthiness and condition of the cargo space. The surveyor look for whether the vessel can carry the cargo of particular quantity and to be able to discharge within an agreed period of time. As a Chief Engineer he should take care of cargo hold/ tank, cargo gear condition. It any repairs to be necessary to keep in good condition, that has to be carried-out. He has to prove that the ship is able to carry the cargo safely and vessel able to reach in proper time which is agreed. Time charter : is a contract for the hire of a named vessel for a specified period of time. The charters agree to hire from the ship owner a named vessel, of specific technical characteristics, for an agreed period of time, for the chatterers purposes subject to agreed restrictions. The hire period of time, for the charters purposes subject to agreed restrictions. The hire period may be the duration of one voyage (a "trip charter") or anything up to several years ("period charters") The ship owner is responsible for vessels running expenses i.e., manning repairs and maintenance, stores, masters and crews wages, hull and machinery insurance, etc. He operates the vessel technically, but not commercially. The owner bear no cargo handling expenses and do not normally appoint stevedores. The charters are responsible for the commercial employment of the vessel, bunker fuel purchase and insurance, port and canal dues (including pilot age, towage, linesmen etc.), and all loading stowing / trimming / discharging arrangements and costs. A directions and logs clause requires the charters to provide the master with all instruction and sailing directions and the master and Chief Engineer to keep full and correct logs accessible to the chatterers or their agents so that they can monitor the vessels efficiency stevedoring damage notification forms and log abstracts will usually be required to be rent to the chatterers.

On-hire survey and delivery certificate : There will be usually an agreements that there will be an on-hire survey or delivery survey to establish : Bunkers remaining on board (R.O.B.) in order to determine the quantity the chatterers will have to pay the owners for. The general condition of the vessel That tanks or holds are fit for the carriage of the contemplated cargoes. Holds of a dry cargo vessel must be dry and swept clean, etc. and tanks for oil or chemicals must pass survey and be certified fit. The on-hire survey is usually carried out by jointly approved surveyors, paid for 50/50 by the owners and the chatterer. Time spent on the survey is normally at the owner's risk, i.e., the vessel is not on -hire until passing of the survey. A delivery certificate should be issued by the surveyor to confine the date and time of hand-over, bunkers R.O.B. and the condition of holds or tanks. The certificate should be attached to the survey report and is a vital document for the assessment of hire payments due and the commencement of various chatterer liabilities. The on hire survey should not be confused with the condition survey that may be required by a prospective chatterer, particularly where this is an oil company or in the case of older tonnage. As a Chief Engineer, one should calculate the bunker on board correctly and to keep all machinery in good condition. He has to prove that ship is able to satisfy charter party requirement regarding fuel consumption and speed. Any maintenance required for cargo holds or tanks to be carriedout prior survey to keep them in good condition. OFF HIRE SURVEY AND REDELIVERY CERTIFICATE :The chatterers must normally re-deliver the vessel in the "same good order as when delivered to the chatterer, fair wear & tear excepted." In the event of redelivery not being in the same good order and condition, the charters would be liable for the costs of repairs. If the chatterers are given the option of redelivering the vessel "dirty" a sum in compensation to the owners will be provided for. The off hire survey will normally be carried out by an independent surveyor to ascertain the extent of damage done during the charter, bunkers R.O.B. etc. The redelivery clause may provide that repairs necessary to make a vessel sea worthy must be done immediately on redelivery, and any other repairs at a more convenient time, e.g. at the next dry-docking. The off-hire survey is similar in scope to the on-hire survey Bunkers r.o.b. are measured so that they can be "brought back by the owners. The condition of the vessel and her cargo spaces is examined for damage attributable to chatterers operations. A redelivery certificate should be issued to the master. As a Chief Engineer, he should check the bunkers r.o.b. and condition of the cargo spaces. If any repairs to be done has to be notified to the surveyor.

36.

Explain the following; shipbroker

(a) World scale

(b) Responsibilities of a

Answer: (a) WORLD SCALE: This is used for tankers cargoes whereby freight rates are quoted with reference to an international scale called the new Worldwide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale or World Scale in short. This is used as a reference by the parties in the tanker market to easily compare and evaluate freight rate for all the different voyages and market levels.

The basis of world scale is that the particulars of a standard tanker of 75000 tons DWT have been chosen for making round voyage calculation for practically all known tanker trades with the comparatively few. In these calculations specified figures have been used for all items involved, e.g. a distance of 15000 nautical miles, port cost, port time(hour/days) bunker cost, etc. and the additional fictional cost element of 12000 dollars/day. In this way the freight/MT required by the standard ship in each trade has been calculated and these freighted figures are printed in World Scale as a certain dollars/ton. These values are called world scale 100 or world scale in short. In practise, reference is made to these world scales in other freight negotiation and market reports. The prevailing market levels, the actual ship size, the type and quality of product to be supplied and also the loading place, then determine how for above or below the reference level of WS 100, the fixture will be calculated. In other words what percentage of the tabulated freight figure will be used for calculating the freight to be paid, e.g. in a fixture covering 10000 tons DWT from Gulf to Western Europe made at WS 80 means that the owner will be paid a freight equal to 80% of the freight per ton tabulated in the world scale table for the trade in question. The freight rates are normally negotiated on a fixture, using world scale for the basis of negotiations. It is called the world scale freight rate. Advantages: 1) Simplified negotiations for tanker charterers. 2) A simple reference covers all possible voyages within the agreed trading areas. 3) Facilitate ready and quick comparison of fixture. Disadvantages: 1) World Scale is not a substitute for voyage estimating 2) It does not allow for income or freight tax etc. 3) World Scale is only a method of comparison and tool for negotiation, not a substitute for risk management and/or business forecasting. Responsibilities of a ship broker: Ships are normally fixed on charters, between ship owners and charterers by shipbrokers acting as negotiator for the two parties. Many ship brokers are self employed, while others work in large firms active in several of above disciplines. Shipbrokers are remunerated by commissions called brokerage, payable by the ship owner to each broker involved in arranging a contract. In a voyage or time charter, the brokerage payable is stipulated in brokerage clause and is normally 1.25% of the ship owners gross receipts from hire, freight, dead freight and demurrage, payable to each broker involved. The professional body for ship brokers worldwide is the London based Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers. The institute sets and monitors professional standards for shipbrokers through annual examinations. Its tutorship correspondence courses enable shipbroking students (including mariners) to study for the institutes annual exams(from which qualified mariners are granted some exemptions). London is still the hub of international ship broking community and many individual brokers and broking firms are members of Baltic Exchange, which is essentially a ship broking market place. Most shipbroking today is conducted via the international telecommunication network. Such specialists may be engaged by a shipowner are customarily referred to as chartering agents or chartering brokers and are paid a commission for their services (usually paid by shipowner unless otherwise stipulated) which customarily is 1.25% of the gross revenue and any demurrage. When two or more brokers are involved, duplicate (double) brokerage is normally paid. Shipbrokers include:1) Owners brokers, who find and arrange employment for their principal ship. 2) Charterers brokers, who fix ship to carry out their principal requirements. The principal functions performed by the shipbrokers are:1) To determine the form of charter and special provisions that must closely meet the needs of particular transactions.

2) To facilitate the negotiations of the terms and broker the charter on behalf of the principals 3) To chart the vessels position and availability for loading and to coordinate delivery of cargo to shipside. 4) To ensure that the required notices for readiness are given, that the election of loading or discharging parties or brokers are declared, and appropriate insurance coverage is obtained. 5) To supervise the preparations of dispatch, demurrage and loading statement, payment of dues and customs at various ports and settlement in so far as possible of disputes arising in this connection. 6) To obtain certification of freight invoices, arrange for surrender, bill of lading, facilitate collection of freight, etc. 7) To arrange for appointment of port agents and to issue appropriate instructions.

38. Differentiate between Voyage Charter and Time Charter of a vessel. Underline the changes in responsibilities and the scope of activities for a Chief Engineer in each case. Answer:A charter is a contract for the hire of a vessel for carriage of goods/cargo for a specific voyage or series of voyages(voyage charter) or for specified period of time)time charter) Nature of a voyage charter:A voyage charter is a contract for the carriage of a specified quantity of cargo by a named vessel between named ports or certain range of ports. Under the voyage charter, the ship owner agrees to present the named vessel for loading at agreed place or port within an agreed period of time, & following loading will carry the cargo and deliver it to the agreed place. The charterer on the other hand agrees to provide specified quantity of agreed cargo & to pay the agreed freight. In effect the charterer hires the cargo capacity of the vessel and not the entire vessel. Nature of a time charter:A time charter is a contract for the hire of a named ship for a specified period of time. The hire period may be the duration of one voyage(trip time charter) or anything up to several years(period time charter). Under the time charter, the ship owner is responsible for vessels running expenses such as manning, repairs, maintenance, stores, spares, crews wages, hull & machinery insurance etc. In short, the ship owner operates the vessel technically but not commercially. The charterers on the other hand, remain responsible for commercial employment of the vessel, bunker fuel purchase & insurance, port and canal dues, pilotage and all cargo handling arrangements and costs. The time charterers normally provide the master with all instructions and sailing directions.

Charter Party clauses specific to voyage charter:Freight:- This clause specifies the freight rate, how the freight will be calculated, when it must be paid etc. Freight is the remuneration payable by the charterers to the owners for the performance of the contract. In voyage charter , freight is paid on the cargo carried & is directly proportional to the volume of the cargo carried. At times dead-freight may be payable to the owners by the charterers. It is not a genuine freight, but owners compensation for lost freight payable by the charterers on a quantity of cargo short-shipped, i.e. a quantity which charterer agreed but failed to supply. Loading & Discharging costs clause:- This clause allocates the responsibility for the costs of cargo handling. The responsibility for cargo handling can be of the charterers which is termed as FIO, or it can be the owners responsibility. Provisions regulating the rate of loading & discharging:- This clause covers demurrage & despatch claims. Demurrage is an agreed amount payable to the

owner in respect to the delay beyond the laytime, for which owners are not responsible. Despatch:- if the cargo operations are completed before expiry of laytime, a monetary reward is normally payable by the owners to the charterer. Despatch is defined as an agreed amount payable by the owners if the vessel completes loading or discharging before the laytime has expired. Preamble:- This clause identifies parties to the contract, specifies the identity of the vessel(name, flag, cargo capacity, class etc.) Charter Party clauses specific to time charter:Hire:- This clause specifies the charterers obligation to pay hire at the specified rate, until redelivery. In case of time charter, the hire paid is dependent on the period of hire. The volume of the cargo carried has no relation to the charter hire & is directly proportional to the period of the charter. Cargo handling:- In time charters, the responsibility of cargo handling lies on the charterers. The time charterers normally appoint stevedores for cargo handling Charterers to provide:- This clause specifies the obligation of the charterer to pay for port charges, pilotage, canal dues, tug assistance etc. Bunkers:- Under time charter, the charterers provide the bunkers to the vessel. This clause obliges the charterer to buy the bunkers r.o.b. at the time of delivery, obliges the owners to buy back the bunkers r.o.b. at the time of redelivery. It specifies the minimum quantity of bunkers to remain on board at re-delivery. Owners to provide:- Obliges the owners to pay for running expenses like wages, provisions, stores, insurance, repairs and surveys, etc. Preamble:- This clause identifies the parties to the contract. Identifies the vessel(name, flag, ownership, class, tonnages, horsepower etc.) Speed and fuel consumption are given in the charter party in function of determined weather conditions.(e.g. in good weather and smooth waters.) and are always (about) allowing a certain margin. Speed and fuel consumption are vitally important for determining whether the vessel is performing the contract efficiently. Charterers provide the master with all voyage instructions & sailing directions. Vessels deck and engine room log books are to be kept available for charterers inspection. Off-hire clause:- This clause provides that no hire will be paid for any time in excess of the stated no. of hours, if the vessel goes out of service due to machinery breakdown, shortage of stores, dry docking etc. The scope of activities of a Chief Engineer & his responsibilities on a ship under voyage charter:o Initially when the ship has to be presented to the charterers, i.e. in an onhire survey the C/E should pay attention to the general condition of vessels machinery & machinery spaces. Cargo gear should be working satisfactorily o During the ship under voyage charter, the C/E should always make sure that the vessel is seaworthy at all times in respect of the vessels machinery. o A reasonable & careful inspection of all the machineries on board should be done by the C/E before commencement of a voyage. o If cargo handling responsibility lies with the ship owner, than C/E should ensure that vessels cargo gears are properly maintained & in working condition. The cargo gears include deck cranes for a bulk carrier & COPs in case of a tanker o The scope of activities of a chief engineer & his responsibilities on a time chartered vessel: At the time of on-hire survey, the C/E should accurately calculate the bunkers r.o.b. so that there is not any discrepancy in the bunker quantity. Since the charterers provide bunkers to the vessel, C/E should always calculate the quantity of bunkers at all times. The vessels speed & fuel oil consumption are dictated by the charterers, the C/E should make every effort to oblige the

charterers demands in respect to the speed of the vessel and fuel oil consumption; e.g. charterers may want the vessel to proceed with economical speed or stipulated full speed etc. Such things should be clearly taken in to account. A particular attention is to be paid to main propulsion machinery & any equipment which is important for full operation of the vessel, so as to minimize/reduce the breakdown, so that the vessel is kept operational for the charterers use, reducing the downtime required for maintenance, during which the vessel remains off-hire. The C/E should keep engine room log books available and accessible for charterers or their agents.

40. Differentiate between third party liability and contractual liability. When may the ship owner seek to limit his liability? Answer:THIRD PARTY LIABILITY:- When an agreement is signed by the parties(may be 2 or more) they agree on certain conditions and goals written in agreement. They also get certain liability to wards each other for successful achieving of the goals. But by any reason, a third party gets affected, then liability towards the third party is called THIRD PARTY LIABILITY. E.g. compensation required to pay to affected cost during oil pollution becomes third party liability. There is no such agreement between ship owner and coast; cause may be any line operational accident, but coast get affected due to pollution. So ship owner takes P&I insurance cover in respect to third party liability during ship operation. Hence he would give to limit his liability(third party) with regard to:1) Collision liability, th that is not covered in H&M insurance policy. 2) Liability of damage to its cargo of the vessel in case of collision 3) Damage done by ship to other floating/fixed installations 4) Pollution damage caused by his ship and cost involved in oil clean up & other persons property 5) Third party injuries/death claims etc. 6) Wreck and salvage liability 7) Diversion expenses 8) Fine and penalties for not following rules etc. 9) Any other claims made by third party CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY:- During any agreement both parties agree for certain terms and conditions for achieving particular goals and interests. So some liabilities are set towards achieving goals. As agreement is signed by them, the liabilities are called Contractual Liabilities. Liability does not come in picture if everything runs smoothly, but if anything goes wrong then liability comes into picture. Ship owner takes following types of contract: 1) With employee 2) With flag state administration for safe operation, to compliance with national/international regulations/conventions 3) Contract with cargo owner 4) Contract with salver or tug owner 5) Contract with class and his fees and survey 6) Repair contract etc. So there is no mandatory requirement for party to take any type of policy except civil liability for oil pollution damage. Rest is all up to ship owner and cargo owner or other party involved in maritime adventure to cover for various liabilities or bear themselves. Ship owner may limit his liability covering:-

(a) (b)
(c)

(1) With Employee:- Ship owner provides safe plant equipment and safe environment policy and their due care so that he would like to limit his liability regarding;Their medical expenses Compensation to be paid in case of injury or death Breach to anything intentionally or unintentionally by employee which would land him in trouble (2) With flag state/administration:- Registering vessel under administration, responsibility for safe operation and compliance with relevant rules and regulations. So would like to limit his liabilities regarding:(a) Any breach caused by ship (b) Oil pollution caused by ship in their territory (c) Other cost involved in landing sick people or stevedore or other services (3) With local agency:- would like to limit his liability regarding:(a) Agency fee (b) Claim by agent (c) Claim arises if agent breaches the contract or any conflict (d) Any damage or injury caused to their personnel (4) With salver or tug agency:- Ship requires their services often, so owner would like to limit his liability regarding:(a) Tug hire rate (b) Damage caused to tug and their personnel (c) Salvers award or any claim made by salver in rendering his services. (5) With Class:- Ship requires class for trading so having contract with class, owner can limit his liabilities. (6) Repair Contract:- M/c is running, so requires maintenance; hence having contract with repair party, ship owner can limit his liability. For eg. Pay annual fee for repair and maintenance of particular m/c instead of only calling for visit every time.

41. What is a general average act? Name the essential features of a general average act. Answer:A general Average Act is defined in rule A of the York Antwerp rules 1994 Marine insurance Act as follows: There is general average act when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally & reasonably made on incurred for the common safety for the purpose of presenting from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure. Essential features of General Average Act: In order to have a right to claim a contribution from other parties to the common maritime adventure the owners at the vessel which together with as cargo & any other properly have been from danger, must be able to show that there was a general average act. So essential elements are 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) There must be a sacrifice on expenditure The sacrifice or expenditure must be extraordinary The sacrifice or expenditure must be intentionally made The sacrifice is reasonably made as incurred The sacrifice is in order to benefit the common venture The sacrifice is for the purpose of preserving the property from peril.

1 SACRIFICE OR EXPENDITURE Examples of sacrifices that may be allowed under Act are (i) Cargo jettisoned to refloat a grounded vessel or prevent capsizing of dangerously lighted vessel. (ii) M/C damage sustained during refloat operation examples of expenditure. (iii) Cost of salvage expenditure include the salver award

(iv) Costs of entering, staying & leaving a port of refuge 2. EXTRAORDINARY NATURE OF SACRIFICE OR EXPENDUTURE:It must be extra ordinary nature & not an ordinary or every day loss or expenses, incurred in running a ship & carrying cargoes for e.g. losing an anchor in attempting to prevent a ship from running aground is not extra ordinary losing on anchor during a refloat operation could be extra ordinary & may be allowed in general average act. E.g. Damage to marine engine though over working while trying to prevent rounding would not be extra ordinary where as damage alone during a deflating operation would be extra ordinary & may be allowed in general average act A wide variety at costs even including small expenses such as superintendents taxi fare to the yard at a port of refuge may be regarded as extra ordinary & may be recoverable as general average expenditure. 3. SACRIFICE OR EXPENDITURE INTENTIONALLY MADE OR INCURED For E.G. when a ships Co2 cylinders are discharged to put out fire onboard as intentionally expenditure is incurred which will usually be allowed in general average act. For e.g. cline cost of reflections in accidentally grounded ship would be allowed in general average since the act of reflections is intentional. The cost of damage done during running aground however would not be allowed in general average act. 4. SACRIFICE OR EXPENDITURE REASONABLY MADE OR INCURED For eg. More cargo is jettisoned than was necessary to reflect a grounded ship the excess would probably not be allowed in General Average Act Eg: Expenditure at a port of refuse even or above reasons expenditure would not be allowed in General Act 5. SACRIFICE OR EXPENDITURE FOR THE COMMON SAFETY & not for the benefit of only one party. Eg. Where the refrigerating m/c of a loaded reefer vessel breaks down during a voyage through tropical waters making if imperative for the sake of cargo to put into a port for repairs. The threat of loss is limited to the owners of the cargo & perhaps the freight. As far as the ship itself is concerned, could quit safety continue so the cost of deviation to the repair port would not be allowed in the general average. 6. SACRIFICE OR XPENDITUE TO PRESERVE THE PROPERTY FROM PERIL i) The peril must have been real & substantial although if need not have been imminent. A Vessel which lost M.E. power to mid ocean would be in PERIL even though the weather at the time might be good & there seemed to be me immediate threat. Sooner or later however ships & cargo would come to grief, either by running aground & breaking up or foundering it. So the cost of a tow to a port of refuge would normally be allowed on general average act.

ii) It might be agreed that expenses incurred in taking shelter from tropical storm during a voyage should be allowed in General Average Act. Since only tropical storm constitutes a real & substantial peril & the action of sheltering is for the preservation at all property involved. Such action however would be ordinary practice of prudent sea men. It would not be extraordinary & would therefore not meet all the criteria necessary to be allowed in General Average.

42. State the different types of Marine Insurance policies that could be undertaken by owners, shippers or other related parties Explain the salient liabilities and exclusions related with each case for an insurer. Ans. There are various types of marine insurance policies available and they could broadly be classified into 5 types. 1. Time policy - Insures property for a period of time.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Voyage policy - It insures property from one place to another it may include a date limit. Mixed policy - It covers both a voyage and a period of time of voyage and in port after arrival. Construction policy - It insures vessel while in course of construction not for a period of time. Floating policy - cargo policy that insures a number of shipments. In Canada & US this policy is continuous and covers all shipments to a limit of liability for any 1 loss. The marine insurance policies that a ship owner can take are 1) Hull & machinery policy 2) Protection & indemnity cover. The insurance policies for a cargo owner include 1) Marine cargo insurance 2) Goods in transit insurance. Hull and machinery policies : These are usually time policies with a maximum period of 12 months. Normally the items covered will be clearly stated in the clauses of each policy. Any extra port to be covered will raise the insurance premium. Perils include 1) Peril of seas 2) Fire / explosion 3) theft from outside 4) Jettison 5) Piracy 6) Earthquake volcanic eruption, lightening 6) accidents during loading or discharging 7) Machinery damage 8) Latent defects in machinery or hull 9) Negligence of master, officer or crew 10) 3/4 collusion liability items not covered under insurance include 1) loss / damage eg insurer deliberately set fire to ship caused by willful misconduct willful negligence by owner. 3) loss of charter hire due to delays 4) loss due to wear and team 5) war risk cover. Cost for scraping & painting vessel underwater part due to fouling Valuation clause i.e. in case the vessel is a constructive total loss, salvage values are not considered. loss / damage from nuclear weapon or by radioactive material. P & I cover is available fro the following Cargo claims 2) crew claims 3) claims for various fines eg. customs times immigration fine for improper documentation fine due to misconduct of crew etc 4) Collision liability covering the 1/4 liability not covered by H & m insurance 5) liability against collision with fixed or floating objects 6) third party injury & death claims 7) oil pollution liability 8) miscellaneous claims. Restrictions on P & I cover include : Deviation 2) delivery of cargo at port other then port specified in the contract of carriage. 3) failure to arrive or late arrival at port of loading 4) delivery of cargo without bill of lading 5) Out dated bill of lading 6) clean bill of lading in respect to damaged cargo 7) arrest or detention. Cargo insurance policies : The policies will incorporate institute of cargo clause A B or Institute of cargo clause C : This covers only against major casualties eg fire, explosion, grounding or vessel stranded, sinking or capsizing, collusion or contact disc at port of distress general average sacrifice and jettison. Institute of cargo clause B : In addition to the above will also cover casualties like earthquake, volcanic eruption, lightening strike washing obd entry of sea. Institute of cargo clause A - Offers cover against all possible risks. Items excluded from maritime cargo insurance policy are

6. 7. 8. 1)

1)

1) 2)

Claims resulting from insufficient or in suitable packing or protection of matter insured. Claims for loss or damage arising from financial default of owners company cannot be responsible for performance of the carrier and this exclusion is aimed at encouraging the use of reputable company. Claims arising from use of nuclear weapons.

3)

4) 5)

Claims arising from damage by terrorists or politically motivated groups. Claims arising from unfitness of vessel ware risk and strike risk cover is available for cargo insurance for an additional premium for long term insurance, open cover policy and floating policies are available.

43. With reference to marine insurance, write short notes on the following. (a)Port of refuge (b) particular average and General average (c)Total loss and Constructive loss Answer:(a) Port of refuge : It is a port on place that a vessel diverts to when her master considers it unsafe to continue the voyage due to a peril that threatens its safety. Where such a deviation is for the preservation from peril of the property involved is a common maritime adventure, it will generally constitute a general average act. Where the ship-owner or carrier is a party to a contract of carriage, discontinuation of the voyage is deviation from the contract A deviation to a pent of refuge will be regarded as a justifiable deviation if the reasons for the deviation can be shown to be a valid one within the terms of the contract. In such a case all contractual rights will be unaffected. Valid reasons for deviating to a port of refuge usually include: (i) the ship (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Weather, collision or grounding damage affecting the seaworthiness of A serious Fire Dangerous shift of cargo Serious machinery breakdown Any other accident causing a serious threat to the vessel on her cargo Shortage of bunker

Paragraph (a) of Rule X Expenses at pent of refuge etc of the York- Antwerp Rules 1994 provides that when a ship shall have entered a port of refuge fro any of the above mentioned reasons, the expenses incurred shall be admitted as General Avg. A pent or place where a vessel seeks temporary shelter is not a port of refuge (Eg. Due to adverse weather) since running for shelter is ordinary practice and not extraordinary in context of Rule A of the York Antwerp Rules. Particular Average and general Average A marine loss may be either:1. A total loss or 2. A partial loss (termed average) Partial Loss A partial loss may be either: 1. Particular average (PA) i.e., accidental partial loss or 2.General average(GA) i.e., intentional partial loss 1. Particular Average:

It is a partial loss, proximately caused by a peril insured against and which is not a General average loss. Thus, structural damage proximately caused by collision, grounding, heavy weather etc. (perils of the seas) would normally be caused as a PA loss . 2. General Average:

General average is an ancient form of spreading the risk of sea transport and existed long before marine insurance. General average means general loss, as opposed to a particular loss under marine insurance. It is a system, in which all interests involved in the adventure, viz., Hull and Machinery, cargo and Freight at risk must contribute to the losses voluntarily incurred to save all interests on board. The principle is That which has been sacrificed for the benefit of all, shall be made good by the contribution of all, that got the benefit from the General Average Act The object of GA is to ensure, that the owner of the ship or cargo, who has incurred an expenditure or suffered a sacrifice of his property, in order to extricate the ship (and the cargo) from a perilous position, receives a contribution to his loss, from all those who have benefited from this action A GA loss is a partial loss, incurred through a deliberate act performed with the intention of protecting the interests of all involved, in a voyage from a danger, which threatens them all. GA losses are shared equally by all parties to the common adventure each contributing in proportion to his percentage of Net arrived values. The five major component of a general average loss are therefore a) an extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure b) which action taken was intentional or voluntary and not inevitable c) and reasonably made d) against a peril e) in order to benefit the common venture e.g., Damage done when over working a ships engine while afloat to prevent grounding in ordinary, whereas damage done to engines, when already aground, in attempting to re-float the vessel is a GA, since this is an extraordinary Act. Total loss and constructive loss A total loss may be either: 1) An Actual Total Loss (ATL) or 2) A constructive Total Loss (CTL) Actual Total Loss: There is an Actual Total Loss, where the subject matter of insurance is completely destroyed or so damaged as to cease to be a thing of the kind insured, on where the insured is irretrievably deprived of it or where properly is posted missing e.g. when a ship is missing, viz., has not repented for several weeks Constructive Total Loss: As per the Marine Insurance Act, a Constructive total Loss occurs, when an assured is deprived of possession of his ship on goods by a penil insured against and where the subject matter of insurance is reasonably abandoned by the Insured, on account of its actual loss appearing unavoidable, because it could not be prevented from Actual Total Loss without expenditure that would exceed its value after expenses have been incurred. After valid abandonment, the Insurer is entitled to take over the interests of the Assured in whatever remains of the insured property including proprietary rights viz., The right to any freight, that was in the course of being earned when the casualty occurred The right to take over the ship or its goods The right to dispose of the ship or its goods as they think fit and to retain all the proceedings (even if this is more than the claim actually paid)

44. Why does a ship require Marine Insurance cover? Explain Hull Claims and Cargo Claims related with Marine Insurance. State the related documents and information required from the ship in this regard highlighting their validity. Answer:Marine Insurance is a method where by one party called assuror or underwriter, agrees for a stated consideration known as a premium, to indemnify another party, called the insured or assured, against loss, damage or expense in connection with the commodities at risk if caused by perils enumerated in the contract known as a policy of insurance. The policy pledge to compensate the insured by does not guarantee the continued existence or the replacement of the good itself. Insurance provides individuals and organisations with financial protection against the outcome of events which involve monetary loss or liabilities which could not be predicted or anticipated and over which they have no effective control. In the case of ship-owner or ship manager insurance is usually confined to financial consequences of damage to its own ship, damage to the peoples property or death or injury to people all ship-owner and shipping merchants should insure this property against the loss or damage. They are not legally bound to insure except for liability of oil pollution claim. However the modern methods of financing trade and shipping makes it essential that they do so. The capital exposed to loss in modern ship is so huge that no company can afford to bear the liability incurred. Besides most of the tonnage is mortgaged to banks and other financial institutions and they require insurance as collateral security. Hull Insurance claims : Following any cases of Hull damage e.g. collision, grounding etc. ship owner/managers insurance dept. will normally immediately inform H & M lead underwriter via broker. As per clause 49 of IHC 1.11.02, lead underwriter will instruct a surveyor to ascertain the nature, cost and extent of the damage, necessary repairs and fair and reasonable cost there of and any other matter which leading underwriter or surveyor considers relevant. The lead underwriter will make decision in respect of any claim within 28 days of receipt by them of the appointed average adjusters final adjustment or, if no adjuster is appointed, a full document claim presentation sufficient to enable the underwriter to determine their liability in relation coverage and quantum. The underwriter all discharged from the liabilities of the claim if it is not notified within 180 days of the assured becoming aware of accident or occurrence. Documents and information required from the ship. In addition to copies of the relevant insurance policies (which will be supplied by the owner), documents and information listed below may be required to accompany a claim lodged by owners against underwriters Deck and E/R logbooks covering the casualty and the repair Masters and / or chief engineers detailed report (as appropriate) Relevant letters of protest. Protest and extended protests. Underwriters surveyors report class surveyors report owners superintendents report. Receipt and account for repairs. Accounts covering and drydocking & general expenses. Details of E/R stores and spares consumed.

Cargo Claims : 1) When cargo loss or damage is discovered a delivery note or consignment note will be claused with a note of the loss or damage.

2) The cargo owners will immediately inform his insured if it is outside UK, this is done thro the local Lloyds agent in case of Lloyds policy. 3) If loss or damage is extensive underwriters will normally ask for a survey report. This is arranged by Lloyds agent, who can appoint surveyor and pay small claims locally. 4) After the claim is quantified and documented the underwriter settles the claim thro Lloyds agents, 5) Underwriter then decides (under the doctrine of subrogation) whether or not claim is worth pursuing against carrier. 6) If he decides to pursue the claim be immediately makes a written claim on the carrier, failure to claim may prejudice his right of recovery. 7) The claim (including surveyors fee) is settled by the carrier in the currency stated in the policy or on the certificate of insurance. 8) The carrier if a PI member then claims on his club policy. Documents usually required are : Bill of landing / Airway bill, commercial invoice, insurance certificate, copy of Notice of claim reported against carrier, Documentation related to outturn / receipt of goods, local carriers way bill where applicable, copy of temperature records, where available copy of instructions to carrier regarding carriage temperature, where applicable invoices to confirm salvage / sale price.

45. What are the principles of modern salvage law? What is general average? Explain with context to general average (i) Entitlement (ii)Artificial (iii)Adjustment (iv)Contestation Answer:Salvage can be described as a service rendered to save maritime property in danger. Salvage can be characterized by the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let us look Salvage service must be voluntary Salvage property must be recognized maritime property Subject must be in danger Salvage must be successful. at above in detail-

1) Vessel crew pilot cannot claim salvage as they are bounded by contract to protect the vessel and its cargo from danger. Tugs arranged previously for to wage cannot claim salvage. However tugs called in an emergency tacs claim salvage. 2) Subject can be vessel cargo special equipment on board ship boundaries as any other maritime property out risk of being lost if salvage is not rendered. Provisions crews effect etc o not qualify for salvage 3) Dangers must be at commencement of salvage. However it might not be immediately present or imminent eg., a vessel which has lost its propeller is not if any immediate danger, if it is at sea however, if may taken lead to grounding. 4) Salvage claim is paid out of the value of the property saved hence salvage must be successful (at least partly). Hence the term No cure no pay viz if salvage operation is unsuccessful there can be no value to effect payment. Beneficiaries of salvage are liable to pay salvage These includes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Owner of vessel Owner of any special equipment fitted on board Charters of vessel Owners of salved cargo Owners of bankers on board

GENERAL AVERAGE ACT: Principles and object of 6.A That which has been for the benefit of all shall be made good by the contribution of all. The object of 6.A is to ensures that the owner of a vessel or cargo who has incurred an expenditure the vessel from a previous position receives a contribution o his loss from all those who have benefited from the action The York Antwerp rules 1974, .. act as There is a 6 A out when and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice as expenditure is . Made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure A common maritime adventure is a voyage in which several parties have some financial interest. The policies to a common maritime adventure would include the ship owner. (i) General Average Adjustment Assessment of each partys contribution is caused on average adjustment Governed by York Antwerp Rules 1974 The rules ensure that all the average adjustments. To as international standard The adjustment is made by an average adjuster The average adjuster is appointed by the ship owner to collect all the facts surroundings the incident to collect various parameters from various policies before the cargo is discharged and to ensure payment of contribution The adjuster have all the facts and figures at his disposal In addition to calculating contributions due from each party he will be frequently requested to adjust any types of claim. The declaration of G-A is normally made by shipowner, but in criteria countries any one of the interest parties may initiate an adjustment A declaration must be made before cargo is discharged and to ensure payment of contribution Ship owners will usually allow the discharge of cargo when owner interested parties to the ventures provided suitable security. (ii) Artificial 6.A: is the .. of a claim for 6A when even when one of the fine basic principle found in Rule A of the York Antwerp Rules is not present claims for 6A were originally for .. of cargo cutting away of anchor cables etc. carried out for the common safety in order to avoid imminent ship wreck caused by a peril of sea The creation of artificial 6.A was part of slow evolution favouring ship owners If peril was an essential ingredient of G.A if was reduced in importance by Safe prosecution rule and peril did not have to be immediate provided that it was real and not imaginary. Some numbered rules and do not retain interpretation rule of Rule paramount. Thus it is not dear weather the principles in act 193 have precedence over the rules in out 194 or vice versa. Articles 203allows particles to opt out of changes 10 by agreeing to a different set of rules. Because their was no specific peril read. In rule x(b) and x1(b) claims may be made for there is no peril. This is G/a by agreement as artificial G.A (iii) Entitlement to 6/A: A claimant is entitled to obtain contribution from other parties to the common venture (cargo as the ship). But a carrier is not entitled to obtain contribution in 6A from cargo if the peril arises as a result of his actionable faults as negligence in law as that of his employees (iv) Contestation to 6A: GA has been in subject to dissatisfaction for the following main 6 reasons 1. Exoneration of carriers for the faults of master and crew under the hague of MV rules, carrier is exampled from liability for the negligence of its employee 2. interpretation of rules: Numbered Rules lettered rules 3. emergency of marine insurance has made GA reluctant

4. Expenses and delay in adjustments 5. Problems in collision of G A contribution 6. Small G A 46. Write short notes on the following: (a) Lloyds Open Form (b) General Average

(c) Particular Average

Answer:- (a) Lloyds Open Form:- The first modern text of the Lloyds form of Salvage Agreement known as Lloyds Open Form or LOF was adopted in 1892. Since then Lloyds Open Form has undergone ten revisions; the current version is LOF 2000. LOF is the most widely used no-cure-no-pay Salvage Contract. In return for salvage service, the salver receives a proportion of salved values, the value of the ship, its bunker & cargo. Traditional removal depends upon success, and the recovery of property. In the past, if there was no recovery, there was no payment; whatever the expenses of the operation. This has changed in recent years so that whenever there is a threat of damage to the environment, the salver can expect a fair return for his efforts, even in high risk and low property value situations. (b) General Average:- GA is one of the oldest forms of spreading of risk by all the interest of a maritime adventure namely ship, cargo, freight (if at risk). Freight is at risk when it is to be paid at destination. Thus when freight is prepaid it is not at risk. The sacrifice or expenditure must be of extraordinary nature. Damage to a ship, her machinery or equipment whilst being used for the purpose for which they are intended, would not amount to general average. On the other hand using a ships engines in an effort to re-float when stranded would if the engine were damaged as a result, be an extraordinary sacrifice. (c) Particular Average:- This is defined by the marine insurance as a particular loss of the subject matter insured caused by a peril insured against which is not a general average. It may perhaps be more directly described as a partial loss arising from any kind of accident. General Average, sacrifices and expenditures, particular charges and salvage charges do not arise by accident; and therefore are not included in Particular Average. A Particular Average loss falls directly upon the party interested in the subject matter. In the case of accidental or fortuitous damage to the ship, it is the ship owner, or, to the extent that he is insured against such loss, his underwriters, who must bear the loss. Similarly in the case of accidental damage to cargo, the loss rests with the cargo owner or his underwriter. There are innumerable variations of particular average, including such things as:o Stranding of ship in bad weather o Loss of masts or spurs through heavy weather o Damage to hull, machinery or cargo due to heavy weather or fire 47. As per the Marine Insurance Act, write short notes on the following (a) Deviation (b) Warranties (c) War Risk Clause (d) Charterers Contribution Clause Answer:The Marine Insurance Act 1963 (N/A 1963) of India is substantially a reproduction of its English counter parts, the Marine Insurance Act 1906. The Act codifies the law relating to marine Insurance i.e., it defines various terms of the contract and their amplified contents. Insurance provides individuals and organizer with financial protection against the outcome of events which involve monitory loss or liabilities which were not anticipated or protected and over which they have no effective control. In case of ship owner or ship manager insurance is usually confined to the financial consequences if damage to its own ship, damage to other people, property or death/injury to people. Deviation:

As per the MIA section 46(1) where a ship worthout lawful excuse, deviates from the voyage contemplated by the policy, the insurer is discharged from liability as from the time of deviation and it is immaterial that the ship may have regained her route before any loss occurs. Section 46(2) There is a deviation from the voyage contemplated by the policy (a) Where the course of the voyage is specifically designated by the policy and that coarse is departed from or (b) Where the course of voyage Is not specifically designated by the policy, but the usual or so many course is departed from. Section 46(3) The intention to deviate is immaterial; there must be deviation in fact to discharge the insurer from his liability under the contract. The next section 47(1) of N/A which requires consideration is that relating o a voyage when there are several ports of discharge. Where several ports of discharge are specified by the policy, the ship may proceed to all or any of them, but in the absence if any usage of sufficient cause to the contrary. She must proceed to them or such of them as he goes to, in the order designated by the policy. If she does not than there is a deviation. 47(2) Where policy is to ports of discharge within a given area which are not named the ship must in the absence of any usage or sufficient cause to the contrary proceed to them, or such of them as she goes to, in their geographical order. If she does not there is a deviation. The section 48 deals with voyage policy. In case of a voyage policy, the adventure insured must be . Throughout its course with reasonable dispatch and if without lawful excuse it is not so prosecuted, the insuler is not discharged from liability from the time when the delay becomes reasonable. Section 49(1) Deviation or delay in prosecuting the voyage contemplated by the policy is excused. a) Where authorized by any special term in policy b) Where caused by the circumstances beyond the control of the master and his employer c) Where reasonable necessary in order to comply with an express or implied warranty. d) Where reasonably necessary for the safety of the ship or subject matter insured e) For the purpose of saving human life, or aiding a ship in distress where human life may be in danger f) Where reasonably necessary for the purpose of obtaining medical or surgical aid for any person on board the ship Section 49(2) When the cause excusing the deveator or delay ceases to operate, the ship must resume her course and prosecute her voyage with reasonable dispatch.

Warranties: Section 33(1) of the N/A defines a warranty as a promissory warranty, i.e., to say the warranty by which the assured undertakes that some particular things share or shall not be done, or that some condition shall be fulfilled, or whereby he affirms or negatives the existence of a particular mate of fact A warranty may be expressed or impled. Express Warranty: An expressed warranty must be written into the policy in any form of words or contained in some document incorporated by ref. into the policy.

An express warranty does not override an amplified warranty unless the two conflict. Implied warranty: There are not written in the policy but are implied by law to exist in the contract. There are 2 major important warranties in marine insurance policy. (a) Seaworthiness: The hip at the commencement of the voyage be seaworthy, for the purpose of the particular voyage insured in voyage policy. Where with the assured knowledge and consent, a ship is sent to sea in unseaworthy state, the insurer is not liable for any loss attributable to unseaworthiness. (b) Legality: There is an implied warranty that the adventure insured (voyage time are mixed policy) is lawful and that so far as the assured can control it. The adventure will be carried out in a lawful manner. If the adventure is illegal at the time of the insurance is effected, the policy will be void. Thus drug running or gun running trips or voyages to countries or ports subject to a Govt. embargo would be deemed unlawful). WAR RISK CLAUSE: marine I A includes war perils within he meaning of the term (Maritime perils). With respect to the hull insurance in order to cover war risks it was at one time customary to delete the (free of capture and seizure) clause (fc & s) and institute the war clause. When the ordinary marine insurance market found itself unable to give adequate cover on account of the enormous losses suffered during the war. So the cover was obtained by mutual insurance through P&I club. During 1st world war a scheme was brought into operation under which vessel could be covered 80% by the Govt and 20% by the clubs. At the end of war Govt dropped out. With respect to cargo insurance goods are .. insurable against war risks in any part of the world by the simple expedient of deleting FC&S clause in the cargo policy and institute war clause on the contract of insurance. Premiums would be adjusted accordingly. There are also special war clauses drafted to suit the requirements of particular traders. Charter Contribution Clause Where there is 6A loss (general average loss or a personal loss) followed as a direct consequence of 6/A act. It states that cohere any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is voluntary and reasonably made or incurred in time of peril for the purpose of preserving the property imperelled in the common adventure. It should be noticed that the 6/A act embraces both a general average sacrifice and a general average expenditure. When there is a 6/A loss the party on whom it falls is entitled to a ratable contribution from the other interested parties. The parties benefiting by the sacrifice or expenditure may be: 1. The ship owner for the value of the ship saved 2. Cargo owner for the value of the cargo saved 3. The ship owner in respect of freight payable by charter party or bulls of leading or charter here money 4. The charter under a time charter, for freights payable under bills of lading. Each will be called upon to contribute according to the value of his interest saved as a result of the sacrifice or expenditure, the main contributing interest are therefore ship, freight and cargo. All there contribute to their net values at the place where the voyage ends or is abandoned. Such values are called contributory values.

48. State the different types of Marine Insurance policies that could be undertaken by owners, shippers or other related parties Explain the salient liabilities and exclusions related with each case for an insurer.

Answer:- There are various types of marine insurance policies available and they could broadly be classified into 5 types. 1. Time policy - Insures property for a period of time. 2. Voyage policy - It insures property from one place to another it may include a date limit. 3. Mixed policy - It covers both a voyage and a period of time of voyage and in port after arrival. 4. Construction policy - It insures vessel while in course of construction not for a period of time. 5. Floating policy - cargo policy that insures a number of shipments. In Canada & US this policy is continuous and covers all shipments to a limit of liability for any 1 loss. The marine insurance policies that a ship owner can take are 1) Hull & machinery policy 2) Protection & indemnity cover. The insurance policies for a cargo owner include 1) Marine cargo insurance 2) Goods in transit insurance. Hull and machinery policies : These are usually time policies with a maximum period of 12 months. Normally the items covered will be clearly stated in the clauses of each policy. Any extra port to be covered will raise the insurance premium. Perils include 1) Peril of seas 2) Fire / explosion 3) theft from outside 4) Jettison 5) Piracy 6) Earthquake volcanic eruption, lightening 6) accidents during loading or discharging 7) Machinery damage 8) Latent defects in machinery or hull 9) Negligence of master, officer or crew 10) 3/4 collusion liability items not covered under insurance include 11) loss / damage eg insurer deliberately set fire to ship caused by willful misconduct willful negligence by owner. 12) loss of charter hire due to delays 13) loss due to wear and team 14) war risk cover. 6. Cost for scraping & painting vessel underwater part due to fouling 7. Valuation clause i.e. in case the vessel is a constructive total loss, salvage values are not considered. 8. loss / damage from nuclear weapon or by radioactive material. P & I cover is available fro the following 1) Cargo claims 2) crew claims 3) claims for various fines eg. customs times immigration fine for improper documentation fine due to misconduct of crew etc 4) Collision liability covering the 1/4 liability not covered by H & m insurance 5) liability against collision with fixed or floating objects 6) third party injury & death claims 7) oil pollution liability 8) miscellaneous claims. Restrictions on P & I cover include : 1) Deviation 2) delivery of cargo at port other then port specified in the contract of carriage. 3) failure to arrive or late arrival at port of loading 4) delivery of cargo without bill of lading 5) Out dated bill of lading 6) clean bill of lading in respect to damaged cargo 7) arrest or detention. Cargo insurance policies : The policies will incorporate institute of cargo clause A B or Institute of cargo clause C : This covers only against major casualties eg fire, explosion, grounding or vessel stranded, sinking or capsizing, collusion or contact disc at port of distress general average sacrifice and jettison. Institute of cargo clause B : In addition to the above will also cover casualties like earthquake, volcanic eruption, lightening strike washing obd entry of sea. Institute of cargo clause A - Offers cover against all possible risks. Items excluded from maritime cargo insurance policy are 1) Claims resulting from insufficient or in suitable packing or protection of matter insured. 2) Claims for loss or damage arising from financial default of owners company cannot be responsible for performance of the carrier and this exclusion is aimed at encouraging the use of reputable company. 3) Claims arising from use of nuclear weapons. 4) Claims arising from damage by terrorists or politically motivated groups.

5) Claims arising from unfitness of vessel ware risk and strike risk cover is available for cargo insurance for an additional premium for long term insurance, open cover policy and floating policies are available. 49. How many types of warranties are there in Marine Insurance? Give an example of each type with reference to a hull and machinery policy of insurance [Express, Disbursement, Seaworthiness, warranty of Legality] Answer:Warranty is the term used in formatting the WARRANTY:- A warranty is a promise by the insured that a specified state or condition will continue to exist for the duration of the policy.[A breach of warranty makes policy void from time of breach (Notes)]. A breach would entitles the infured (others) party to claim damages from the party breaching the warranty and the contract remains in force. Warranty may be 1) Express Warranty 2) Implied Warranty 1) Express Warranty:- Specifically it is written into the policy or contained in some document (e.g. institute warranties). An expressed warranty does not overside an implied warranty unless the two conflict. 2) Implied Warranty:- [Understood, seaworthy and Legality if all activities are done into a legal way then it is covered by warranty]. These warranties are not written in the policy but implied by law to exist in the contract. They must be strictly complied with in the same way as express warranties. These are two major implied warranties in marine insurance policies covering seaworthiness and legality. A) SEAWORTHINESS: Under the M/A 1963 ship should be seaworthy at the commencement of voyage for the purpose of the particular voyage insured. Thus a ship is deemed to be seaworthy when reasonably fir in all respects to encounter the ordinary perils of the seas of the Adventure insured where ship is sent to sea unseaworthy with assured knowledge the insurer is not liable for any loss if the ship sent to sea unseaworthy condition with the knowledge of the owners senior management knowledge would include both express, clear knowledge (e.g. after defects have been reported in writing by Master or Surveyor) and deliberately turning a blind eye cover would only be lost where the known unseaworthiness had caused the loss. B) LEGALITY: There is an implied warranty that the adventure insured is lawful and that so far as the assured can control it, the adventure will be carried out in a lawful manners. If the adventure is illegal at the time the insurance is affected, the policy will be void. Thus drug running or gun-running trips or voyages to countries or ports subject to a Govt. embargo, would be deemed unlawful.

51. Give a brief history of P & I Clubs highlighting its inception, and growth. It is said Rebirth of P & I Clubs is due to growth of Third Party LiabilitiesElucidate. Ans. Shipowners insure against loss of or damage to their ships with hull underwriters. They look to the P&I Clubs for insurance against their liabilities to others. P&I stand for Protection and Indemnity. Shipowners take P&I insurance cover in respect of third party liabilities and expenses arising from owning ships or operating ships as principals. An insurance mutual, a Club, provides collective selfinsurance to its members. The membership is comprised of a common interest

group who wish to pool their risks together in order to obtain at cost insurance cover. The beginning of the P&I Clubs The present P&I Clubs are the remote descendants of the many small hull insurance Clubs that were formed by British shipowners in the 18th century. These were set up by groups of shipowners, drawn in each case from a small geographical area, who were dissatisfied with the scope and cost of the hull insurance then provided by the two companies who had been granted in 1720 a statutory monopoly which excluded other companies from such business, namely the Royal Exchange Assurance and the London Assurance, and by individuals operating in London from, for example, Lloyds Coffee House. These hull Clubs were essentially unincorporated associations or co-operatives of shipowners who came together to share with each other their hull risks on a mutual basis, each being at the same time an insured and an insurer of others - still the basic concept of the present P&I Clubs, despite the fact that they are now incorporated so that in law it is the Club and not the individual Members who provide the insurance. Temporary decline of the P&I Clubs After the removal in 1824 of the company monopoly in favor of the Royal Exchange and the London Assurance, greater competition had a salutary effect on the rates, terms of cover and service offered by the commercial market and by Lloyds underwriters. The hull Clubs became less necessary and went into decline. A few exist today, but their share of the total market is not very significant. Rebirth due to Growth of Third Party Liabilities But as the hull Clubs declined, shipowners found the need to create similar associations for a different purpose. The need sprang partly from the steady increase from the middle of the 19th century onwards in the burden upon British shipowners of liabilities to third parties. It became more usual for injured crewmembers to seek compensation from their employers, and claims by dependants of crewmembers who were killed were facilitated by Lord Campbells Act of 1846. The possibility of claims by passengers was greatly increased by the same Act and by the vast numbers of passengers who constituted the flood of emigrants to North America and Australia in the second half of the century. Shipowners needed cover against these risks. They were also becoming increasingly aware of the inadequacy of the insurance cover that they did have in respect of damage caused by their ships in collisions with other ships. The usual cover for claims by other ships and their cargo for damage caused in collision excluded altogether one fourth of such damage and, more seriously, was limited in amount (apparently the maximum recovery under the policy, including both damage to the insured ship and liability for the damage it had caused, was the insured value of the ship). Eventually, in 1855, the first protection association was formed. This was the Shipowners Mutual Protection Society, the predecessor of the Britannia P&I Club. It was intended to operate like a mutual hull club, but to cover liabilities for loss of life and personal injury and also the collision risks excluded from the current marine policies, particularly the excess above the limits in those policies. Other similar associations were formed. In 1874 the risk of liability for loss of or damage to cargo carried on board the insured ship was first added to the cover provided by a protection Club. The values of cargoes had risen and cargo underwriters had become keener on recovering their losses from shipowners, in which they were encouraged by a somewhat more sympathetic approach by the courts. After 1874 many Clubs added an indemnity class to provide the necessary cover. Subsequently, most of these separate classes have been amalgamated with the class reserved for the original protection risks, and today the distinction between the two classes has virtually disappeared within the P&I Clubs.

While all the original P&I Clubs were based on various towns and cities within the United Kingdom, Clubs were subsequently established and today flourish in Scandinavia, in the United States and in Japan. Most of the major Clubs now belong to the International Group for reinsurance and other purposes. Moreover, many Clubs originally based in the UK have comparatively recently been re-formed in such places as Bermuda and Luxembourg in order to secure, in respect of Clubs funds representing calls or premiums paid by their Members but not yet used for the payment of claims, freedom from exchange controls. Such freedom is demanded by the shipowners from all parts of the developed and developing world who now make up the truly international membership of the larger Clubs. The popularity of the Club system of insuring liability risks can be judged from the fact that approximately nine out of ten ocean-going ships are currently entered in a P&I Club

52. What is a P & I Insurance ? How these clubs operate worldwide ? Connected with P & I Clubs, explain control, dividends, scope of cover and letters of undertaking. Answer:P & I stands for Protection and Indemnity. Here protection is ship owner's protection from third party liabilities i.e. the 1/4th of collision liability traditionally H & M insurer did not cover. 'Indemnity' refers to clubs indemnity' or compensation for liability to cargo under the contract of carriage. So ship owners take P & I insurance cover in respect of third party liabilities and expenses arising from occurring ships as principals. An insurance mutual, a club provides collective self insurance to its members. The membership is comprised of a common interact groups who wish to pool their risks together in order to obtain "at cost" insurance over. How these clubs operate world wide ? P& I club are associations of member ship owners and charters; which are owned and controlled by the insured ship owners or charters members for the purpose, precisely of mutual insurance against third party liabilities which arise in connection with the operation of ships. P & I clubs operate on non-profit making basis. For their management, these clubs do hire an organization or agency which can be an insurance company or a Law firm for their day to day management. For this the manager or management agency charges the managing fees from the club : For their operation P & I clubs retain correspondents at numerous ports world wide. In some countries the correspondent may be a firm of insurance specialist acting for more than one club or alternatively a ship broking or insurance company or law firm with maritime law practitioners. P & I clubs issues handbooks containing club rules and list of correspondents which care very useful to a master seeking advice and assistance when in any kind of trouble. There are 13 P & I clubs belonging to the International group clubs. Together these clubs insure over 90% of the worlds blue water tonnage. Connected with P & I clubs Explain : CONTROL : Ship owners who are the members of the P & I club are required to maintain their ships as per clubs rules. Club may subject a ship of member for random inspection. If on the basis of random inspection there are reasons to believe that vessel is not being of random inspection there are reason to believe that vessel is not being operated as per clubs rule. Then ship will be subjected to more intense condition survey by independent surveyors called by the club manager.

An owner who fails to keep his vessel in the continuous required by the clubs rule may be expelled from the club. DIVIDENDS : As the P & I clubs do operate on non-profil making basis, there is no policy of giving dividends to club members or manager of the club. SCOPE OF COVER : P & I clubs may cover their members exposure to claims for damage of compensation of the following :

Crew : The members liability for injury, illness or death and medical expenses arising from injury, illness or death, costs of repatriation and maintenance ashore resulting from injury illness or death, costs of repatriation and maintenance ashore resulting from injury illness or death. Personnel Injury to or loss of life of stevdores. Personnel injury to or illness or loss of life of passengers and others. Loss of personnel effects Ships Diversion expenses including running expenses and port charges incurred solely for this purpose. Life salvage : award to a person who has saved or attempted to save the life of person onboard the salvaged vessel. One fourth collision liability Oil pollution o Standard oil pollution cover o Oil pollution cover for USA

Liabilities under contracts and indemnities Wreaks liabilities Cargo liabilities

The members liability for cargo loss, shortage, damage or delay occurring in relation to the carriage of cargo on the entered vessel. Cargos proportion of general average or salvages. Certain expenses of salvers Fines Legal Cost

Omnibus Cover : In recognition of the fact that the list of liabilities to which ship owners are subjected is constantly increasing in unforeseen ways, the valves of the clubs give their directions discretion to pass for payment certain claim that are not expressly covered by any of the heads of cover set out in their rules provided that they are within the general scope of the club cover and are not expressly excluded elsewhere within the rules. Letter of Undertaking : When there is an incident of pollution following a bunkering accident or jelly damage to jelly caused by the ship then club may be required to post the bond to avoid the arrest of the ship which can lead to delay of ship schedule. To avoid this the correspondent of the club can offer a letter of undertaking on the instruction of club; to pay for the possible liabilities of the ship arising from the accident or damage.

53. Illustrate the present service philosophy of P & I Clubs and how they work on a day- to- day basis world- wide? How is it controlled? Ans) Introduction:- P&I clubs properly called Pollution and indemnity associations

Protection in the little originally referred to shipowners protection from the of collision liability that traditionally. London Hull and machinery I owners did not cover while indemnity referred to club indemnity or compensation for liability to cargo under a contract of carriage. P&I clubs are association of members ship owners and charterers, owned and controlled by the insured shipowner or chartered members for the purpose of basically of mutual insurance against their party liabilities which arise in connection with the operation of ship. P&I club include 13 members of the international group of P&I club and their 4 associates clubs Service philosophy P&I club offer shipowners and characters various classes of over eg. Protection and indemnity strike freight demurrage and damage etc. Most clubs offer two principal classes of a) PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY KNOWN AS CLASS I b)FREIGHT, DEMURAGE AND DEFENCE (fdd) KNOWN AS CLASS II protection and Indemnity cover includes the following liabilities 1) Cargo claims:- For shoot delivery, loss or damage to cargo 2) Crew claims:- Medical expenses, repatriation, substitute expenses, compensation for death and injury 3) Collision liability: To the extent that the claim is not covered under hull policy 4) Fixed and floating objects: damage to clocks, wharfs and buoys 5) Third party injury and death claims: From stevedores crew members and passengers 6) Oil pollution liability: And liability from pollution by other substances 7) Special compensation: payable in accordance with article 14 of the international convention of salvage 1999 including payments to assessed under the scopic clause 8) Miscellaneous claims: Including fries for innocent breaches of regulation, diversion and other expenses incurred in landing refuges, sick persons, stowaways, contractual liability including those of customary towage, unrecoverable general average when in excess of the insured valve. Salvers expenses under Lloyds opens forum and wreck removal . 9) Freight, Demurrage and damage: This cover indemnifies members of legal and related expenses incurred in connection with disputes under character parties and other contracts as define in club rules but does not extend to the principal amount in dispute. Omni Bus Cover: In recognition of the fact that the list of liabilities on a ship owners are constantly increasing in unforeseen ways the rules of the clubs give their director discretion to pass for payments, certain claims that are not expenses by covered by any of the heads of cover set out in their rules, provides they are with in the general scope of the dust cover and are not expressly excluded elsewhere within the rules. This is a most . Provision and is a reminder that the club exists, not us a profit making insurance company but also an organization for the benefit of the ship owners who are members LIMITS AND RESTRICTIONS OF P&I COVER The board of directors will determine what limits and restrictions should be placed on the cover offered to members (their decision usually taken and announced shortly before the next annual renewal date of 2oth Feb. following are some examples 1) Liabilities arising from towage of an entered ship may only be covered if the member has become liable under the terms of towage contract for normal port towage of unneutered large. For covers on other types of towage the members must advise the dub in advance.

2) When the member vessel is touring another vessel, loss or damage to low or cargo on the tow or wreck removal of the low and cargo is only covered if towage contract is approved by the managers. 3) Liabilities arising under indemnities in respect of delivery of cargo requested at a port other than that stated in the bill of lading or without production of bill of lading may be covered only on approval of the club management and of terms of indemnity have been approved by the diet. 4) Liability to resumes under a crew contract are carried only if the contract has been approved in writing by the manger. This also applies to cover for repatriation loss of seamen effect of ship wreck, unemployment indemnity. 5) Liability arising from carriage under bills of lading are normally only covered if the bills of lading are subject to the hague rules or Hague Visby rules 6) The board of directors of each club will usually determine in accordance with the club rules the limit of the club liability in respect of any and all claims for oil pollution for next policy your. The discussion bring taken towards the end of a current year. {Some clubs impose a limit of 1000 million USO for each accident or occurrence in respect of each ship entered on behalf of owner, demise or bare boat charter} WORK ON A DAY TO DAY BASIS WORLD WIDE P&I clubs retain correspondents at numerous ports world wide. In some countries the correspondent may be firm of insurance specialities acting for more than are club or alternatively a ship broking or insurance company only handling occasionally.. In all cases correspondents 1) Are for legal reasons, representations and not agents of the club 2) Will attend member vessels when so requested by the master or agent in order to protect members interests. 3) They are generally well acquainted with the club rules and policy 4) Will report any occurrence likely to result in a claim on the club to the club managers, but will generally be able to anticipate the managers reply and instructions 5) May be instructed by club to offer letter of undertaking in cases of possibilities liability [In most cases where there is a pollution following bunkering accident or jelly damage caused by as ship this will avert the need for a bond to be posted to avoid arrest] Most clubs provide each entered ship with a list of correspondent for the use of the muster. In the absence of a list on board the port agent should be able to furnish the name of nearest correspondent of most clubs Reimbursement of claim costs by p& I Clubs Where a member of P&I club makes any claim against the club 1)The first 5 million will be met by the clubs own resources barring the members owns deductible 2) 5 million USD to 30 million USD are compensated under group market reinsurance arrangements also called excess of loss reinsurance contract (total Commercial market reinsurance is 2000 million USD) 3) Should a claim err exceed the upper limit of excess of loss contract it would then full back on the pool and be borne by each club on Pro-rata basis (according o its entered tonnage) such as claim is called overspill claim and would be funded by each club from club reserves or by making a special overspill call on the membership P&I Club Control and Management P&I clubs are controlled by boards of directors representing the ship owners members large claims are examined and approved by the directors at regular melting before payment is made Are managed by firms of . Experts maritime lawyers and mariners Operated on a non profit making basis

Club members entered ships may be subjected to random ship inspection concentrating on management of vessel. If failed a more intensive condition survey by independent surveyors may be called by the club manager. An owner who fails to keep the vessel in condition required by the club rules may be compelled from the club Mangers generally strive to keep the calls on members to a minimum e.g., through loss prevention methods and such as information on bulletins, handbooks and videos aimed at owners and ship officers [these should be on board entered ship and not kept in owners/managers office]

61. Answer:- Marine hull policies are usually time policies, the maximum period of insurance being 12 months. It comes last damage suffered to a ship and machinery hull, the hulls, machinery, materials and financial interests of all oceangoing vessels/ ../ dredges/tugs/salvage/vessels/launches/ferry/ steams/boats/yachts/other pleasure craft/self propelled bays/lights craft and other country craft can be insured marine hull cover is generally arranged by brokers.

The insurance of goods in transit from one place to another by any single mode or combined modes of sea, rail, road, air and inland waterways under marine cargo export and import shipments including goods in transit by rail, road or sea can be insured. Most goods shipped are usually insured on a warehouse to warehouse basis rather than far a sea voyage only.

Open cover: An open cover is a commonly used farm of long term cargo insurance contract covering all goods shipments forwarded by an assured. The period of open comes is generally fixed at 12 months with a 30 day notice period for cancellation Documents and information required from the ship: The addition to copies of the relevant insurance policies (which will be supplied by owners), the documents and information listed below may be required to accompany a claim lodged by owners against underwriters. If an adjustment is prepared, the adjuster will extract the required information from the documents and incorporate it in the adjustment. But they can any time see the originals General documents are: Deck and Engine log books covering the casualty and the repair period Masters and/or chief Engineers details report (as appropriate) Relevant letters of protest Protests and extended protests Underwriters surveyors report Class surveyors report Owners superintendents report Receipted accounts of repairs and/or any spare parts supplied by owners, in connection with repairs, endorsed by underwriters surveyors as being fair and reasonable 9. Accounts covering any dry docking and general expenses relating to the repairs endorsed as above 10. Accounts for all incidental disbursements at the part of repair eg: for port charges, watchmen, communication expenses, agency fees etc 11. Details of fuels and E/R stars consumed together with the cost of replacement 12. Accounts for owners repairs effected concurrently with damage repairs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

13. Copies of faxes and telexes sent and details of long distance calls made in connection with the casuals. 14. Accounts for the outward port charges at the last port prior to the repair part, inward and outward part charges at the repair part, and, if the vessel returns to her original part from which she originally manned, inwards part charges at that part. 15. Portage bill showing the officers and the crew during the removal to the repair part and also for the return passage if the vessel returns to her original part. 16. details of adapters of original/dep at the relevant parts 17. Accounts in respect of and temp repairs effected solely to enable the vessel to move to the repair port Information required after a collision 1. Details of steps taken to establish liability for the collision and the essential settlement made between the two parties 2. A detailed copy of any claim received from the other vessel together with details of which items included in the claim have been agreed 3. I a recovery has been attempted against the colliding vessel, a detailed copy of the claim 67. A second hand single hull VLCC built in 1990 is to be acquired by your Company. The vessel is to be registered under Indian flag As Chief Engineer / Owner representative, what aspects you would look for, with respect to: (a) SOLAS 74 (b) MARPOL 73/78 [CAS 13G] (c) Crew accommodation (d) Machinery/ boilers (e) Previous survey report Ans. (1) SOLAS 74:- w.r.t. to Solas 74 is will look in IGS requirement is

8% in tank 5% in scrubbers

Check all IGS Trips and Alarms

Alarms

1) Oxy high / 100 alarm 2) Scrubber water high / low 3) Deck gear water low. Flue gas vv / 500t blowing interlock .

Single hull construction

CBT, SBT, SBT PL (Protective Location) I will check that Ballast P/P is of sufficient capacity. I will check whether motor drive for Ballast P/P is steam or electric.

MARPOL 73/78:- Annex 1 Reg. 9 deals with discharge criteria.

Annex 1 Reg. 9 (a) for tanker cargo important thing is instantaneous rate of discharge 30 / NM.

Annex 1 Reg 9 (b) all ships 15 PPM machinery space bilges for operation of OWS in special area 15 PPM (it) should have stopping derive & Alarm.

Calibration of 15 PPM equipment should be every 2 years. (Oil content monitor) every 2 years calibrate.

I will check that sufficient filters spare are available for OWS.

Reg 13 G Since it is a single hull tanker it is allowed to operate as double hull tanker for 25 years and comply with Regulation 13G. As per this I will check carried out and also survey DOCUMENT FILE is on board. The survey document file contains

a) Plan for enhance survey b) Access and lighting arrangement during survey c) Area for which close up survey should be carried out close up survey is (it arms length). d) Thickness measurement. e) Ships inspection report of cargo comportments and Ballast tanks Regulation 26 Check SOPEP is on board, Regulation 20 Oil Record book (Old Record to keep on board till 3 years). SOPEP MUST be stamped and approved by Govt of India, DGS surveyor.

CREW ACCOMODATION:- the Indian Govt has regulations in Merchant Shipping Act because India complies with ILO Convention No. 55 which gives details of accommodation of crew, each cabin should be marked as fit for seamen etc. and should comply with the requirements of size cabin sanitary arrangements etc.

In addition recreation facilities, mess room and washing and drying facilities are required which I will check whether are satisfactory as per Merchant Shipping Act. MACH / BOILER:- Boiler should have enough capacity of steam production capacity so as to meet the needs

COPS TURBIMES CARO HEATING SYSTEM PRODUCTION OF INERT GAS On many tankers the deck machinery was also seam (driven specially on old ships)

Boiler combustion control are proper 15 20% excess air are supplied in boiler.

Steering gear of such ship (VLCC) must be fitted with a safematic system so that in case of Hyd fluid leakage, the pair of rams will automatically be

connected & disconnected to retain control required for tanker above 70000 DWT.

All certificates to be issued by Govt. of India will be checked as issued by Govt of India DGS.

EX IOPP SAFCON SEQ ILLC

However certificate of class may continue enforced if classification society is not changed.

Therefore continuous Survey of Machinery Record quarterly listing record, will check.

The enhance survey should have been conducted for this ship as per Reg. 13G MARPOL Annex 1 and therefore such certificate and survey document fill will be rechecked.

68. Answer:- Classification societies are organisations that establish and apply technical standards in relation to the design, construction, and survey of marine related facilities including ships and off shore structures. The vast majority of ships are built and surveyed as per standards laid down by classification societies. These standards are issued by classification societies as a published rules A vessel that has been designed and built to the appropriate rules of a society may apply for a certificate of classification from that society may apply for a certificate of classification from that society such certificate is an attestation that a vessel is in compliance with the standards that have been developed and published by the society issuing the classification certificate. In UNCLOS convention of IMO responsibilities of flag state granting the registration of a ship are outlined. Under article 94, the flag state must effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative technical and social matters over ships flying its flag........ many flag state countries in the world dont have sufficient expertise, experience and technical manpower to carry out the responsibilities of flag state nation regarding maintaining the standards of ships flying their flag so SOLAS and other international conventions permit the flat Administration to delegate the inspection and survey of ships to Recognised Organisation. Requirements for Recognised organisation are as follows : 1) R. O. must have established rules for design, construction and maintenance of a ship. 2) Government representation is necessary Classification society organisation structure must include a representative from flag state nation placed at higher level in organisational hierarchy. 3) R. O. should have adequate resources financial / personal. 4) Society must have internal audit equivalent to ISO 9001-2000

5) Society must present itself to external audits by auditing body approved by flag state govt. So classification societies fulfilling above criterias will be given status of recognised organisation by flag state to do duties on their behalf. Limitations to the role of classification societies as R. O.: 1) Though many flag status delegate their authority of surveys and certification to classification societies, flag state may not delegate all its authority to class what all authorities are to be given to class will be clearly mentioned in the agreement between flag state and class. In some cases for e.g. class may undertake the survey of vessels under certain convention i.e. SOLAS (surveys for safety construction, safety radio and safety equipment) but class is not authorised to give certificates to vessels under that convention. But under other conventions like MAROL, L.L. , or Tonnage class can give certificate as well as carry out surveys also. This will be mentioned in the agreement between flag state and class. 2) Certain flag states e.g. India require that any statutory deficiency observed by class surveyor during the survey of a vessel must be reported o flag state and its permission taken for issuing outstanding recommendation to the vessel for allowing the vessel to sail. Vessel will be given certain period of time within that she has to fix that problem. 3) Many flag states dont allow class to carryout ISPS survey. As these are country specific (port facilities are also involved in ISPS survey) And due to security reasons flag state prefer to carry out ISPS survey reasons lag state prefer to carry out ISPS survey themselves instead o delegating it to class.

Q. 69. A ship on which you have joined as Chief Engineer is scheduled to be put in active service after major lay-up and necessary repairs. State the survey inspections and trials to be made by the surveyor in presence of Chief Engineer and Master.

Major Lay Up: In this question it implies that the ship was not operational on account of undertaking major surveys, repairs inclusive of Docking Survey. In such cases trials are to be carried out.

Trials are not made by the surveyor. The Class surveyor witnesses the trials. It is the responsibility of the ship owners to carry out the trials in presence of surveyor.

Machinery verification runs at the time of dry docking and at the completion of significant repairing

-1. A dock trial is to be conducted at the time of dry-docking at least in the following cases. (1) When Main engine and/or Propulsion shafting system and/or Main generator and/or Prime mover for Main generator and/or Boiler and/or Steering gear were overhauled for repairing or inspection.

(2) When docking work was conducted for two weeks or longer. It may be allowed to conduct mooring run for dock trial of Main engine, Propulsion shafting system and Main boiler. But, in principle, dock trial must be conducted prior to sailing, and at least start engine / stop engine, change of ahead / astern and low load operation must be conducted at the dock trial. The operational test of the machinery concerned may be acceptable at the discretion of the attending surveyor only for repairing of Main generator and/or Prime mover for Main generator and/or Auxiliary boiler and/or Steering gear.

-2. If the following significant repairs are carried out to main or auxiliary machinery or steering gear, consideration is to be given to a sea trial. (1) The welding works for cracks of frame or bed plate of Main engine and/or Prime mover for Main generator. (2) Renewal or repair of Crankshaft of Main engine and/or Prime mover for Main generator. (3) The repairing work for Camshaft and/or Camshaft driving device of Main engine and/or Prime mover for Main generator. (4) Renewal or repair of main parts for Main engine and/or Prime mover for Main generator. (5) The repairing work for power transmission system of Propulsion shafting system. (6) Repair of Propulsion shafting system. (7) The welding work for Boiler plates subjected to internal pressure. (8) The repairing work for Propeller blades affected to the balancing of Propeller. (9) The repairing work for main power transmission part of Steering gear including Rudder stock. (10) Renewal of Main engine and/or Propulsion shafting system and/or Prime mover for Main generator and/or Boiler and/or Steering gear. (11) Other significant repairs found. The extent of sea trial and survey items depend on at the discretion of attending surveyor in addition to consideration of contents of the repairing work. When repairing work for Main generator and/or Prime mover for Main generator and/or Auxiliary boiler were conducted, it may be allowed to conduct operational test of subject machinery instead of sea trial.

70 ANNUAL, INTERMEDIATE, RENEWAL/SPECIAL SURVEY OCCASSIONAL SURVEYS

Certificate of Classification

1The Society will issue a Certificate of Classification for a ship registered in the Classification Register in accordance with the provision its Rules. The Society will issue a Provisional Certificate of Classification, which is valid until the issue of a Certificate of Classification, for a ship which has been surveyed for classification and reported by the Surveyors to be fit for classification.

2The Society will issue a Certificate of Classification for a registered ship once the Special Survey has been completed in accordance with the provisions of the Rules to the satisfaction of the Surveyor.

3The Society will endorse a Certificate of Classification when the Annual Survey or the Intermediate Survey has been finished to the satisfaction of the Surveyor.

Class Maintenance Surveys

Class Maintenance Surveys consist of Periodical Surveys, Surveys under the Planned Machinery Surveys and Occasional Surveys, which are as specified in the following (1) to (3). At each of these surveys, inspections, tests or examinations are to be carried out to verify that hull, machinery, equipment, fire-fighting equipment, etc, are placed in good order.

(1) Periodical Surveys (a)Annual Surveys The surveys consist of general examinations of hull, machinery, equipment, fire-fighting equipment, etc. as specified in Chapter 3 of this Part.

(b) Intermediate Surveys The surveys consist of general examinations of hull, machinery, equipment, firefighting equipment, etc. and detailed examinations of a certain part of them as specified in Chapter 4 in this Part.

(c) Special Surveys The surveys consist of detailed examinations of hull, machinery, equipment, fire-fighting equipment, etc. as specified in Chapter 5 of this Part.

(d) Docking Surveys

The surveys consist of bottom inspections normally carried out in a dry-dock or on slip-way as specified in Chapter 6 of this Part.

(e) Boiler Surveys The surveys consist of open-up examinations and performance tests of boilers as specified in Chapter 7 of this Part.

(f) Propeller Shaft and Stern Tube Shaft Surveys The surveys consist of open-up examinations etc.of propeller shafts and the stern tube shafts as specified in Chapter 8 of this Part.

(2) Planned Machinery Survey

(a) Continuous Machinery Survey (CMS):The Survey consists of open-up examinations of machinery and equipment specified in Chapter 9 of this Part which are to be carried out systematically, continuously and sequentially so that each survey interval for all CMS items does not exceed five years.

(b) Planned Machinery Maintenance Scheme (PMS): The Survey consists of open-up examinations of machinery and equipment specified in Chapter 9 of this Part which are to be carried out according to the machinery maintenance scheme approved by the Society.

(c) Preventive Machinery Maintenance Scheme (PMMS):The Survey consists of open-up examinations of machinery and equipment specified in Chapter 9 of this Part which are to be carried out on the basis of the results of regular condition monitoring and diagnoses according to the machinery maintenance scheme approved by the Society.

(3) Occasional Surveys The surveys consist of examinations of hull, machinery and equipment including damaged part and of works for repairs, modifications or conversions, which are carried out separately from (1) and (2) above.

STATUTORY SURVEYS

(1) SAFETY CONSTRUCTION -Initial Survey: The initial survey shall include a COMPLETE INSPECTION of the structure, machinery and equipment. this survey shall be such as to ENSURE that the arrangements, materials, scantlings and workmanship of the structure, boilers and other pressure vessels, their appurtenance, main and auxiliary machinery including steering gear and associated control systems, electrical installations and other equipment COMPLY with the requirements of the regulations, are in SATISFACTORY and are fit for the service for which the ship is intended and that the required stability information is provided. In case of tankers such a survey shall also include an inspection of the pump rooms, cargo, bunker and ventilation piping systems and associated safety devices.

(2) Renewal and Periodical Surveys

Shall include an INSPECTION of -------- referred to in para (1) to ENSURE that it COMPLIES with the relevant requirements of the present regulations.

(3) Annual Survey Shall include a GENERAL INSPECTION of the ------- referred to in para (1) to ensure that it has BEEN MAINTAINED in accordance with 11(a) [Maintenance of conditions after survey] and that it remains satisfactory for the service for which the ship is intended.

(4) Intermediate Survey ( SC, OPP, SE for tanker . 10yrs) The survey shall include an INSPECTION of (------ ) to ensure that they remain SATISFACTORY for service for which the ship is intended. In the case of tankers, the survey shall also include an inspection of the pump rooms, cargo, bunker and ventilation piping systems and associated safety devices and testing of insulation resistance of electrical installations in dangerous zones. REVISED LIST OF CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS REQUIRED TO BE CARRIED ON BOARD SHIPS 1 The Facilitation Committee, at its nineteenth session, developed a list of certificates and documents required to be carried on board ships together with a brief description of the purpose of the certificates and other relevant documents. This work was carried out in connection with the provisions of section 2 of the annex to the FAL Convention concerning formalities required of shipowners by public authorities on the arrival, stay and departure of ships. The Facilitation Committee considered that these provisions should not be read as precluding a requirement for the presentation for inspection by the appropriate authorities of certificates and other documents carried by the ship pertaining to its registry, measurement, safety, manning, classification and other related matters. 2 The list, as approved by the Maritime Safety Committee, the Facilitation Committee and the Marine Environment Protection Committee, at their respective sessions, was circulated under symbol FAL.2/Circ.35-MEPC/Circ.207-MSC/Circ.593. The list was later revised and circulated under symbol FAL.2/Circ.42-MEPC/Circ.303-MSC/Circ.704, dated 21 September 1995 and FAL/Circ.90-MEPC/Circ.368-MSC/Circ.946, dated 3 July 2000. 3 Due to amendments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, which entered into force on 1 January 2002, 1 July 2002, 1 January 2004 and 1 July 2004, respectively; and amendments to MARPOL 73/78, which entered into force on 1 September 2002, as well as the entry into force of Annex IV of that Convention on 27 September 2003, the list has been revised to take account of the relevant provisions of the aforementioned amendments. The revised list of certificates and documents required to be carried on board ships, approved by FAL 31 (19 to

23 July 2004), MEPC 52 (11 to 15 October 2004) and MSC 79 (1 to 10 December 2004), is set out at annex. 4 The certificates and documents this circular lists are only those required under IMO instruments and it does not include certificates or documents required by other international organizations or governmental authorities. 5 Member Governments are invited to note the information provided in the annex and take action as appropriate. 6 This circular supersedes FAL/Circ.90-MEPC/Circ.368-MSC/Circ.946. ***

FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc ANNEX CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS REQUIRED TO BE CARRIED ON BOARD SHIPS (Note: All certificates to be carried on board must be originals) 1 All ships Reference International Tonnage Certificate (1969) An International Tonnage Certificate (1969) shall be issued to every ship, the gross and net tonnage of which have been determined in accordance with the Convention. Tonnage Convention, article 7 International Load Line Certificate An International Load Line Certificate shall be issued under the provisions of the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, to every ship which has been surveyed and marked in accordance with the Convention or the Convention as modified by the 1988 LL Protocol, as appropriate. LL Convention, article 16; 1988 LL Protocol, article 18 International Load Line Exemption Certificate An International Load Line Exemption Certificate shall be issued to any ship to which an exemption has been granted under and in accordance with article 6 of the Load Line Convention or the Convention as modified by the 1988 LL Protocol, as appropriate. LL Convention, article 6; 1988 LL Protocol, article 18 Intact stability booklet Every passenger ship regardless of size and every cargo ship of 24 metres and over shall be inclined on completion and the elements of their stability determined. The master shall be supplied with a Stability Booklet containing such information as is necessary to enable him, by rapid and simple procedures, to obtain accurate guidance as to the

stability of the ship under varying conditions of loading. For bulk carriers, the information required in a bulk carrier booklet may be contained in the stability booklet. SOLAS 1974, regulations II-1/22 and II-1/25-8; 1988 LL Protocol, regulation 10 Damage control plans and booklets On passenger and cargo ships, there shall be permanently exhibited plans showing clearly for each deck and hold the boundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings therein with the means of closure and position of any controls thereof, and the arrangements for the correction of any list due to flooding. Booklets containing the aforementioned information shall be made available to the officers of the ship. SOLAS 1974, regulations II-1/23, 23-1, 25-8; MSC/Circ.919 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 2 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Minimum safe manning document Every ship to which chapter I of the Convention applies shall be provided with an appropriate safe manning document or equivalent issued by the Administration as evidence of the minimum safe manning. SOLAS 1974 (2000 amendments), regulation V/14.2 Fire safety training manual A training manual shall be written in the working language of the ship and shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin. The manual shall contain the instructions and information required in regulation II-2/15.2.3.4. Part of such information may be provided in the form of audio-visual aids in lieu of the manual. SOLAS 1974 (2000 amendments), regulation II-2/15.2.3 Fire Control plan/booklet General arrangement plans shall be permanently exhibited for the guidance of the ships officers, showing clearly for each deck the control stations, the various fire sections together with particulars of the fire detection and fire alarm systems and the fire-extinguishing appliances etc. Alternatively, at the discretion of the Administration, the aforementioned details may be set out in a booklet, a copy of which shall be supplied to each officer, and one copy shall at all times be available on board in an accessible position. Plans and booklets shall be kept up to date; any alterations shall be recorded as soon as practicable. A duplicate set of fire control plans or a booklet containing such plans shall be permanently stored in a prominently marked weathertight enclosure outside the deckhouse for the assistance of shore-side fire-fighting personnel. SOLAS 1974 (2000 amendments), regulation II-2/15.2.4

On board training and drills record Fire drills shall be conducted and recorded in accordance with the provisions of regulations III/19.3 and III/19.5. SOLAS 1974 (2000 amendments), regulation II-2/15.2.2.5 Fire safety operational booklet The fire safety operational booklet shall contain the necessary information and instructions for the safe operation of the ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety. The booklet shall be written in the working language of the ship and be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin. The booklet may be combined with the fire safety training manuals required in regulation II-2/15.2.3. SOLAS 1974 (2000 amendments), regulation II-2/16.2 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 3 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Certificates for masters, officers or ratings Certificates for masters, officers or ratings shall be issued to those candidates who, to the satisfaction of the Administration, meet the requirements for service, age, medical fitness, training, qualifications and examinations in accordance with the provisions of the STCW Code annexed to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978. Formats of certificates are given in section A-I/2 of the STCW Code. Certificates must be kept available in their original form on board the ships on which the holder is serving. STCW 1978, article VI, regulation I/2; STCW Code, section A-I/2 International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate An international Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate shall be issued, after survey in accordance with regulation 4 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78, to any oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and any other ship of 400 gross tonnage and above which is engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to MARPOL 73/78. The certificate is supplemented with a Record of Construction and Equipment for Ships other than Oil Tankers (Form A) or a Record of Construction and Equipment for Oil Tankers (Form B), as appropriate. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 5 Oil Record Book Every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker shall be provided with an Oil Record Book, Part I (Machinery space operations). Everyoil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above shall also be provided with an Oil Record Book, Part II (Cargo/ballast operations). MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 20 Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan Every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and every

ship other than an oil tanker of 400 gross tonnage and above shall carry on board a Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan approved by the Administration. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 26 International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate An International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate shall be issued, after an initial or renewal survey in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4 of Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78, to any ship which is required to comply with the provisions of that Annex and is engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to the Convention. MARPOL 73/78, Annex IV, regulation 5; MEPC/Circ.408 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 4 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Garbage Management Plan Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons or more shall carry a garbage management plan which the crew shall follow. MARPOL 73/78, Annex V, regulation 9 Garbage Record Book Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above and every ship which is certified to carry 15 persons or more engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to the Convention and every fixed and floating platform engaged in exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed shall be provided with a Garbage Record Book. MARPOL 73/78, Annex V, regulation 9 Voyage data recorder system-certificate of compliance The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility to verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data. In addition, tests and inspections shall be conducted to determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location. A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship. SOLAS 1974, regulation V/18.8 Cargo Securing Manual All cargoes, other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes, cargo units and cargo transport units, shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual approved by the Administration. In ships with ro-ro spaces, as defined in regulation II-2/3.41, all securing of such cargoes, cargo units and cargo transport units, in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual, shall be completed before the ship leaves the berth. The Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk

cargoes, which shall be drawn up to a standard at least equivalent to the guidelines developed by the Organization. SOLAS 1974 (2002 amendments), regulations VI/5.6 and VII/5; MSC/Circ.745 Document of Compliance A document of compliance shall be issued to every company which complies with the requirements of the ISM Code. A copy of the document shall be kept on board. SOLAS 1974, regulation IX/4; ISM Code, paragraph 13 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 5 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Safety Management Certificate A Safety Management Certificate shall be issued to every ship by the Administration or an organization recognized by the Administration. The Administration or an organization recognized by it shall, before issuing the Safety Management Certificate, verify that the company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved safety management system. SOLAS 1974, regulation IX/4; ISM Code, paragraph 13 International Ship Security Certificate (ISSC) or Interim International Ship Security Certificate An International Ship Security Certificate (ISSC) shall be issued to every ship by the Administration or an organization recognized by it to verify that the ship complies with the maritime security provisions of SOLAS chapter XI-2 and part A of the ISPS Code. An interim ISSC may be issued under the ISPS Code part A, section 19.4. SOLAS 1974 (2002 amendments), regulation XI-2/9.1.1; ISPS Code part A, section 19 and appendices. Ship Security Plan and associated records Each ship shall carry on board a ship security plan approved by the Administration. The plan shall make provisions for the three security levels as defined in part A of the ISPS Code. Records of the following activities addressed in the ship security plan shall be kept on board for at least the minimum period specified by the Administration: .1 training, drills and exercises; .2 security threats and security incidents; .3 breaches of security; .4 changes in security level; .5 communications relating to the direct security of the ship such as specific threats to the ship or to port facilities the ship is, or has been, in; .6 internal audits and reviews of security activities; .7 periodic review of the ship security assessment;

.8 periodic review of the ship security plan; .9 implementation of any amendments to the plan; and .10 maintenance, calibration and testing of any security equipment provided on board, including testing of the ship security alert system. SOLAS 1974 (2002 amendments), regulation XI-2/9; ISPS Code part A, sections 9 and 10 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 6 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Continuous Synopsis Record (CSR) Every ship to which chapter I of the Convention applies shall be issued with a Continuous Synopsis Record. The Continuous Synopsis Record provides an on-board record of the history of the ship with respect to the information recorded therein. SOLAS 1974 (2002 amendments), regulation XI-1/5 2 In addition to the certificates listed in section 1 above, passenger ships shall carry: Passenger Ship Safety Certificate1 A certificate called a Passenger Ship Safety Certificate shall be issued after inspection and survey to a passenger ship which complies with the requirements of chapters II-1, II-2, III and IV and any other relevant requirements of SOLAS 1974. A Record of Equipment for the Passenger Ship Safety Certificate (Form P) shall be permanently attached. SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12, as amended by the GMDSS amendments; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12, (2000 amendments), appendix Exemption Certificate2 When an exemption is granted to a ship under and in accordance with the provisions of SOLAS 1974, a certificate called an Exemption Certificate shall be issued in addition to the certificates listed above. SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 Special Trade Passenger Ship Safety Certificate, Special Trade Passenger Ship Space Certificate A Special Trade Passenger Ship Safety Certificate issued under the provisions of the Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement, 1971. A certificate called a Special Trade Passenger Ship Space Certificate shall be issued under the provisions of the Protocol on Space Requirements for Special Trade Passenger Ships, 1973. STP 71, rule 5 SSTP 73,

rule 5 Search and rescue co-operation plan Passenger ships to which chapter I of the Convention applies shall have on board a plan for co-operation with appropriate search and rescue services in event of an emergency. SOLAS 1974 (2000 amendments), regulation V/7.3 1 The form of the Certificate and its Record of Equipment may be found in the GMDSS amendments to SOLAS 1974. 2 SLS.14/Circ.115 and Add.1 refers to the issue of exemption certificates. FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 7 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc List of operational limitations Passenger ships to which chapter I of the Convention applies shall keep on board a list of all limitations on the operation of the ship, including exemptions from any of the SOLAS, regulations, restrictions in operating areas, weather restrictions, sea state restrictions, restrictions in permissible loads, trim, speed and any other limitations, whether imposed by the Administration or established during the design or the building stages. SOLAS 1974 2000 amendments), regulation V/30 Decision support system for masters In all passenger ships, a decision support system for emergency management shall be provided on the navigation bridge. SOLAS 1974, regulation III/29 3 In addition to the certificates listed in section 1 above, cargo ships shall carry: Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate3 A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate shall be issued after survey to a cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and over which satisfies the requirements for cargo ships on survey, set out in regulation I/10 of SOLAS 1974, and complies with the applicable requirements of chapters II-1 and II-2, other than those relating to fire-extinguishing appliances and fire control plans. SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12, as amended by the GMDSS amendments; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate4 A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate shall be issued after survey to a cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and over which complies with the relevant requirements of chapters II-1 and II-2 and III and any other relevant requirements of SOLAS 1974. A Record of Equipment for the Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate (Form E) shall be permanently attached. SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12, as amended by the

GMDSS amendments; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 (2000 amendments), appendix 3 The form of the Certificate may be found in the GMDSS amendments to SOLAS 1974. 4 The form of the Certificate and its Record of Equipment may be found in the GMDSS amendments to SOLAS 1974. FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 8 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate5 A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate shall be issued after survey to a cargo ship of 300 gross tonnage and over, fitted with a radio installation, including those used in life-saving appliances, which complies with the requirements of chapters III and IV and any other relevant requirements of SOLAS 1974. A Record of Equipment for the Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate (Form R) shall be permanently attached. SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12, as amended by the GMDSS amendments; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 Cargo Ship Safety Certificate A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Certificate may be issued after survey to a cargo ship which complies with the relevant requirements of chapters II-1, II-2, III, IV and V and other relevant requirements of SOLAS 1974 as modified by the 1988 SOLAS Protocol, as an alternative to the above cargo ship safety certificates. A Record of Equipment for the Cargo Ship Safety Certificate (Form C) shall be permanently attached. 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 (2000 amendments), appendix Exemption Certificate6 When an exemption is granted to a ship under and in accordance with the provisions of SOLAS 1974, a certificate called an Exemption Certificate shall be issued in addition to the certificates listed above. SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12 ; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 Document of authorization for the carriage of grain A document of authorization shall be issued for every ship loaded in accordance with the regulations of the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk either by the Administration or an organization recognized by it or by a Contracting Government on behalf of the Administration. The document shall accompany or be incorporated into the grain loading manual provided to enable the master to meet the stability requirements of the Code. SOLAS 1974, regulation VI/9;

International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk, section 3 5 The form of the Certificate and its Record of Equipment may be found in the GMDSS amendments to SOLAS 1974. 6 SLS.14/Circ.115 and Add.1 refers to the issue of exemption certificates. FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 9 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Certificate of insurance or other financial security in respect of civil liability for oil pollution damage A certificate attesting that insurance or other financial security is in force shall be issued to each ship carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil in bulk as cargo. It shall be issued or certified by the appropriate authority of the State of the ship's registry after determining that the requirements of article VII, paragraph 1, of the CLC Convention have been complied with. CLC 1969, article VII Certificate of insurance or other financial security in respect of civil liability for oil pollution damage A certificate attesting that insurance or other financial security is in force in accordance with the provisions of the 1992 CLC Convention shall be issued to each ship carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil in bulk as cargo after the appropriate authority of a Contracting State has determined that the requirements of article VII, paragraph 1, of the Convention have been complied with. With respect to a ship registered in a Contracting State, such certificate shall be issued by the appropriate authority of the State of the ships registry; with respect to a ship not registered in a Contracting State, it may be issued or certified by the appropriate authority of any Contracting State. CLC 1992, article VII Enhanced survey report file Bulk carriers and oil tankers shall have a survey report file and supporting documents complying with paragraphs 6.2 and 6.3 of annex A and annex B of resolution A.744 (18) Guidelines on the enhanced programme of inspections during surveys of bulk carriers and oil tankers. SOLAS 1974 (2002 amendments), regulation XI-1/2; resolution A.744(18) Record of oil discharge monitoring and control system for the last ballast voyage Subject to provisions of paragraphs (4), (5), (6) and (7) of regulation 15 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78, every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above shall be fitted with an oil discharge monitoring and control system approved by the Administration. The system shall be fitted with a recording device to provide a continuous record of the discharge in litres per nautical mile and total quantity discharged, or the oil content and rate of discharge. This record shall be identifiable as to time and date and shall be kept for at least three years. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 15(3)(a)

FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 10 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Cargo Information The shipper shall provide the master or his representative with appropriate information, confirmed in writing, on the cargo, in advance of loading. In bulk carriers, the density of the cargo shall be provided in the above information. SOLAS 1974, regulations VI/2 and XII/10; MSC/Circ.663 Bulk Carrier Booklet To enable the master to prevent excessive stress in the ship's structure, the ship loading and unloading solid bulk cargoes shall be provided with a booklet referred to in SOLAS regulation VI/7.2. The booklet shall be endorsed by the Administration or on its behalf to indicate that SOLAS regulations XII/4, 5, 6 and 7, as appropriate, are complied with. As an alternative to a separate booklet, the required information may be contained in the intact stability booklet. SOLAS 1974, regulations VI/7 and; XII/8; Code of Practice for the Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers (BLU Code) Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual Every oil tanker operating with dedicated clean ballast tanks in accordance with the provisions of regulation 13(10) of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 shall be provided with a Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual detailing the system and specifying operational procedures. Such a Manual shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration and shall contain all the information set out in the Specifications referred to in paragraph 2 of regulation 13A of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 13A Crude Oil Washing Operation and Equipment Manual (COW Manual) Every oil tanker operating with crude oil washing systems shall be provided with an Operations and Equipment Manual detailing the system and equipment and specifying operational procedures. Such a Manual shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration and shall contain all the information set out in the specifications referred to in paragraph 2 of regulation 13B of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 13B FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 11 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) Statement of Compliance, CAS Final Report and Review Record

A Statement of Compliance shall be issued by the Administration to every oil tanker which has been surveyed in accordance with the requirements of the Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) (resolution MEPC.94(46), as amended) and found to be in compliance with these requirements. In addition, a copy of the CAS Final Report which was reviewed by the Administration for the issue of the Statement of Compliance and a copy of the relevant Review Record shall be placed on board to accompany the Statement of Compliance. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I (2001 amendments (resolution MEPC.95(46)), regulation 13G; resolution MEPC.94(46) Hydrostatically Balanced Loading (HBL) Operational Manual Every oil tanker which, in compliance with regulation 13G(6)(b), operates with Hydrostatically Balanced Loading shall be provided with an operational manual in accordance with resolution MEPC.64(36). MARPOL 73/78, Annex I (2001 amendments (resolution MEPC.95(46)), regulation 13G Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control (ODMC) Operational Manual Every oil tanker fitted with an Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control system shall be provided with instructions as to the operation of the system in accordance with an operational manual approved by the Administration. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 15(3)(c) Subdivision and stability information Every oil tanker to which regulation 25 of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 applies shall be provided in an approved form with information relative to loading and distribution of cargo necessary to ensure compliance with the provisions of this regulation and data on the ability of the ship to comply with damage stability criteria as determined by this regulation. MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, regulation 25 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 12 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc 4 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1 and 3 above, where appropriate, any ship carrying noxious liquid chemical substances in bulk shall carry: International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (NLS Certificate) An international pollution prevention certificate for the carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk (NLS certificate) shall be issued, after survey in accordance with the provisions of regulation 10 of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78, to any ship carrying noxious liquid substances in bulk and which is engaged in voyages to ports

or terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties to MARPOL 73/78. In respect of chemical tankers, the Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk and the International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, issued under the provisions of the Bulk Chemical Code and International Bulk Chemical Code, respectively, shall have the same force and receive the same recognition as the NLS certificate. MARPOL 73/78, Annex II, regulations 11 and 12A Cargo record book Every ship to which Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 applies shall be provided with a Cargo Record Book, whether as part of the ship's official log book or otherwise, in the form specified in appendix IV to the Annex. MARPOL 73/78, Annex II, regulation 9 Procedures and Arrangements Manual (P & A Manual) Every ship certified to carry noxious liquid substances in bulk shall have on board a Procedures and Arrangements Manual approved by the Administration. Resolution MEPC.18(22), chapter 2; MARPOL 73/78, Annex II, regulations 5, 5A and 8 Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for Noxious Liquid Substances Every ship of 150 gross tonnage and above certified to carry noxious liquid substances in bulk shall carry on board a shipboard marine pollution emergency plan for noxious liquid substances approved by the Administration. MARPOL 73/78, Annex II, regulation 16 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 13 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc 5 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1 and 3 above, where applicable, any chemical tanker shall carry: Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk A certificate called a Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, the model form of which is set out in the appendix to the Bulk Chemical Code, should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a chemical tanker engaged in international voyages which complies with the relevant requirements of the Code. Note: The Code is mandatory under Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 for chemical tankers constructed before 1 July 1986. or BCH Code, section 1.6; BCH Code as modified by resolution MSC.18(58), section 1.6 International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of

Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk A certificate called an International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, the model form of which is set out in the appendix to the International Bulk Chemical Code, should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a chemical tanker engaged in international voyages which complies with the relevant requirements of the Code. Note: The Code is mandatory under both chapter VII of SOLAS 1974 and Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 for chemical tankers constructed on or after 1 July 1986. IBC Code, section 1.5; IBC Code as modified by resolutions MSC.16(58) and MEPC.40(29), section 1.5 6 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1 and 3 above, where applicable, any gas carrier shall carry: Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk A certificate called a Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk, the model form of which is set out in the appendix to the Gas Carrier Code, should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a gas carrier which complies with the relevant requirements of the Code. GC Code, section 1.6 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 14 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk A certificate called an International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk, the model form of which is set out in the appendix to the International Gas Carrier Code, should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a gas carrier which complies with the relevant requirements of the Code. Note: The Code is mandatory under chapter VII of SOLAS 1974 for gas carriers constructed on or after 1 July 1986. IGC Code, section 1.5; IGC Code as modified by resolution MSC.17(58), section 1.5 7 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1, and 2 or 3 above, where applicable, any high-speed craft shall carry: High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate A certificate called a High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate shall be issued after completion of an initial or renewal survey to a craft which complies with the requirements of the 1994 HSC Code or the 2000 HSC Code, as appropriate. SOLAS 1974, regulation X/3; 1994 HSC Code, section 1.8; 2000 HSC Code, section 1.8

Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft A certificate called a Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft shall be issued to a craft which complies with the requirements set out in paragraphs 1.2.2 to 1.2.7 of the 1994 HSC Code or the 2000 HSC Code, as appropriate. 1994 HSC Code, section 1.9; 2000 HSC Code, section 1.9 8 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1, and 2 or 3 above, where applicable, any ship carrying dangerous goods shall carry: Document of compliance with the special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods The Administration shall provide the ship with an appropriate document as evidence of compliance of construction and equipment with the requirements of regulation II-2/19 of SOLAS 1974. Certification for dangerous goods, except solid dangerous goods in bulk, is not required for those cargoes specified as class 6.2 and 7 and dangerous goods in limited quantities. SOLAS 1974, (2000 amendments), regulation II-2/19.4 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 15 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc 9 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1, and 2 or 3 above, where applicable, any ship carrying dangerous goods in packaged form shall carry: Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan Each ship carrying dangerous goods in packaged form shall have a special list or manifest setting forth, in accordance with the classification set out in the IMDG Code, the dangerous goods on board and the location thereof. Each ship carrying dangerous goods in solid form in bulk shall have a list or manifest setting forth the dangerous goods on board and the location thereof. A detailed stowage plan, which identifies by class and sets out the location of all dangerous goods on board, may be used in place of such a special list or manifest. A copy of one of these documents shall be made available before departure to the person or organization designated by the port State authority. SOLAS 1974, (2002 amendments), regulations VII/4.5 and VII/7-2; MARPOL 73/78, Annex III, regulation 4 10 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1, and 2 or 3 above, where applicable, any ship carrying INF cargo shall carry: International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of INF Cargo A ship carrying INF cargo shall comply with the requirements of the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Packaged Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code) in addition to any other applicable requirements of the SOLAS regulations and shall be surveyed and be provided with the International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage

of INF Cargo. SOLAS 1974, regulation VII/16; INF Code (resolution MSC.88(71)), paragraph 1.3 11 In addition to the certificates listed in sections 1, and 2 or 3 above, where applicable, any Nuclear Ship shall carry: A Nuclear Cargo Ship Safety Certificate or Nuclear Passenger Ship Safety Certificate, in place of the Cargo Ship Safety Certificate or Passenger Ship Safety Certificate, as appropriate. Every Nuclear powered ship shall be issued with the certificate required by SOLAS chapter VIII. SOLAS 1974, regulation VIII/10 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 16 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Other certificates and documents which are not mandatory Special purpose ships Special Purpose Ship Safety Certificate In addition to SOLAS certificates as specified in paragraph 7 of the Preamble of the Code of Safety for Special Purpose Ships, a Special Purpose Ship Safety Certificate should be issued after survey in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.6 of the Code for Special Purpose Ships. The duration and validity of the certificate should be governed by the respective provisions for cargo ships in SOLAS 1974. If a certificate is issued for a special purpose ship of less than 500 gross tonnage, this certificate should indicate to what extent relaxations in accordance with 1.2 were accepted. Resolution A.534(13) as amended by MSC/Circ.739; SOLAS 1974, regulation I/12; 1988 SOLAS Protocol, regulation I/12 Offshore support vessels Certificate of Fitness for Offshore Support Vessels When carrying such cargoes, offshore support vessels should carry a Certificate of Fitness issued under the "Guidelines for the Transport and Handling of Limited Amounts of Hazardous and Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk on Offshore Support Vessels". If an offshore support vessel carries only noxious liquid substances, a suitably endorsed International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk may be issued instead of the above Certificate of Fitness. Resolution A.673(16); MARPOL 73/78, Annex II, regulation 13(4) Diving systems Diving System Safety Certificate A certificate should be issued either by the Administration or any person or organization duly authorized by it after survey or inspection to a diving system which complies with the requirements of the Code of Safety for Diving Systems.

In every case, the Administration should assume full responsibility for the certificate. Resolution A.536(13), section 1.6 Dynamically supported craft Dynamically Supported Craft Construction and Equipment Certificate To be issued after survey carried out in accordance with paragraph 1.5.1(a) of the Code of Safety for Dynamically Supported Craft. Resolution A.373(X), section 1.6 FAL.2/Circ.87 MEPC/Circ.426 MSC/Circ.1151 ANNEX Page 17 I:\CIRC\FAL\02\87.doc Mobile offshore drilling units Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Certificate To be issued after survey carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units, 1979, or, for units constructed on or after 1 May 1991, the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Drilling Units, 1989. Resolution A.414(XI), section 1.6; Resolution A.649(16) section 1.6; Resolution A.649(16) as modified by resolution MSC.38(63), section 1.6 Wing-In-Ground (WIG) Craft Winginground Craft Safety Certificate A certificate called a WIG Craft Safety Certificate should be issued after completion of an initial or renewal survey to a craft, which complies with the provisions of the Interim Guidelines for WIG craft. MSC/Circ.1054, section 9 Permit to Operate WIG Craft A permit to operate should be issued by the Administration to certify compliance with the provisions of the Interim Guidelines for WIG craft. MSC/Circ.1054, section 10 Noise levels Noise Survey Report A noise survey report should be made for each ship in accordance with the Code on Noise Levels on Board Ships. Resolution A.468(XII), section 4.3

72. As a Chief Engineer on a vessel scheduled to make a voyage from India to the U.S. Coast, list the salient items you will inspect, machinery installations you will ensure for satisfactory operation and documents you will keep handy for making a satisfactory voyage. Give reasoning in each case.

Ans. The salient items to be injected on a vessel scheduled to make a voyage from India to US coast are:-

I.S.M. Code

(a) Confirm that there is a Company Safety & Environmental Protection Policy on board & that all the key Personnel are familiar with Safety Management System (SMS). (b) Ensure the Safety Management Documentation & Manual are upto date & reality available. (c) All personnel should be able to give the identity at D.P.A. (Designated Person Ashore) who is to be contacted for a energy ensure procedure are in place to establishing to maintaining contact with shore management through the DPA in an emergency. (d) Records for maintenance, periodic testing, training drills, books & safety register are to be updated. (e) Ensue that you (C/E) are familiar with any non conformity that has been reported to the company & what corrective action is to be taken. Communication:-

Ensure that all key personnel are able to communicate & understand each others signals during drills.

Fire drills & Fire equipment:-

Confirm that all crew members can titrate the fire alarm & know the location of battens & are familiar within the documented procedures for reporting the fire to the bridge & sections to be taken check whether all the fire fighting parties promptly master at the Designated Station, when the alarms sounded during a smelted fire drill, confirm that all crew members are able to demonstrate he correct are at the appropriate fire fighting equipments. Ensure that the following items are functioning correctly

the doors, including remote operation (if applicable) fire dangers & smoke pips, quick closing valves; spicy stops of fans & F.O. pumps; Fire detection & Fire alarm system; Main & Spicy fire pumps.

Bunkering Operation:-

Ensure Bunkers Procedures are posted, understood by all personnel & Spill Equipments are readily available. Test the means of communication between ships bunkering personnel & shore procedures to report & detail with oil spills should be understood by all (SOPEP)

Control of oily mixtures from machinery spaces:-

Ensure that all the operational requirements of Marpol Annex I have been complied within taking rate account

1) The quantity of sludge / oil residues being generated daily 2) The capacity at sludge & bilge water holding tanks 3) The capacity at oily water separator / incinerator. Ensure both OWS & incinerates are functioning properly. 4) Check that oil record book is upto date & correctly filled up. 5) Ensure correct use at reception facilities, inadequate facilities noted & reported by the master to the has state 6) Ensure that responsible persons are familiar with the procedure for handling sludge & bilge water. Operation of Machinery Installations:-

1) Emergency & stlby sources at electrical power to be listed but they are readily available. Especially in a black art situation stand by generator engines automatic start to be tried out. 2) Check that the load sharing system at generators is tested is functioning correctly. 3) Confirm Emergency stop for pump & blower functioning properly. 4) Emergency generator, Emergency Air Compressor, Emergency steering arrangement Emergency bilge suction & bilge pumps to be working with record of all maintenance upto date . 5) Try out M.E. start from local control station. 6) Check life boat & rescue boat engines are working correctly. 7) Check proper functioning of safety cut-outs of ME; Aux / engine & boiler. Basically the most important aspect at ship operation is conformance at ISM on board as any deviation will mean a major non conformity.

Communication is the next single most important factor while dealing with emergencies.

Most common emergencies on board is a fire hence impacting knowledge about fighting fire & its equipments is paramount in savings line ship.

Oil pollution liabilities may be so with that may can even shake up big oil companies, hence control oil / bunker operation is important in day to day operation as a Chief Engineer.

Lastly keeping all machinery installations up to the mark with documentations can enable satisfactory peacefully sailing for Chief Engineer & all onboard 82

Classification society are neutral third party survey organization under taking ship survey in support of insurers. The societies are the primary means by which the shipping industry regulates itself and verifies the maintenance of ship safety. Classification society establish and apply technical requirements for the design, construction and survey of marine related facilities. The requirements are published as classification rules. SOLAS and other International conventions permit the flag administration to delegate inspection and survey of ships to classification society. Thus a classification society becomes a recognized organization by the flag state. When issuing or endorsing statutory certificate on behalf of the flag administration verify that the condition of ship confirms with relevant rules and regulations of the flag state (i.e.) it performs a Governmental function). However, it needs to be clearly understood that the primary objective of a classification society is to undertake ship survey in accordance with the class rules. Maintenance of class depends on the program of periodical Hull and machinery surveys, being carried out within stipulated periods. Survey programmes comprise of special, annual and Intermediate surveys. Classification societies however, are private entities and class surveyors are not a substitute for governmental officials who have enforcement powers. 1. Special Surveys : Special surveys of hull and machinery are carried out at 5 yearly intervals in order to establish the condition of hull structure / machinery respectively, to confirm that the same is in accordance with the class requirements. Special surveys are intended to detect possible damages and establish that extent of any deterioration following satisfactory completion of special surveys, a new certificate of class is issued by the society. Annual Survey : Must be carried-out 3 months before or after each anniversary date of completion, commissioning or special survey in order to confirm that the general condition of the vessel is maintained at a satisfactory level. following satisfactory completion of annual survey, the certificate of class is endorsed by the class surveyor. Intermediate surveys : are carried out on all ships, instead of either second or third annual survey. Docking Surveys : Docking surveys are carried-out by arrangement with owners ships under 15 years old must be examined in dry dock twice in any 5 year period, not more than 3 years may elapse between docking ships with 15 or more years old, must be examined in dry dock at 2 yearly intervals with extension to 2 1/2 years, when suitable high resistance paint is applied to the underwater portion of the hull.

2.

3. 4.

5.

Continuous Surveys : Continuous survey of hull are permitted on all ships other than bulk carriers, combination carriers and oil tankers, which are now subjected to enhanced surveys. All hull compartments are to be opened up for survey and testing in rotation with 5 years interval between examination of each part. Continuous survey of machinery : are carried-out every 5 years, with parallel arrangement as for the hull. C/E's examination of Machinery : May be made where the society agrees to some items of machinery being examined by the Chief Engineer at ports where the society is not represented or where practicable at sea. A limited confirmatory survey is carried out at the next post where the society surveyor is available. Where an approved planned maintenance system operates. Confirmatory surveys may be held at annual intervals. In-water surveys : May be accepted in line of one of the two docking surveys required every the information, normally obtained from docking surveys. The beam must be greater than 30m (or as agreed) and a suitable high resistance paint must have been applied to the under water portion of the hull. I. G. System Survey : Annual survey. In addition, on ship to which IGS notation has been assigned, a special survey of the IG plant must be carried out every 5 years. LIMITATIONS OF CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY While the authority to carry-out statutory surveys and inspections on behalf of flag administration may be delegated to the RO, the powers of enforcement of R.O. are limited when required repairs or corrective actions are not carried out or a survey is not passed satisfactorily, R.O.'s do not have the powers need to detain the ship. At the most R.O. can withdraw the statutory certificates or declare them invalid, and notify the ships flag state and the port state where vessel happens to be located for further action. Also, classification societies are not guarantors of safety of life at sea or the seaworthiness of vessel because classification society has no control over how a vessel is operated and maintained in between the periodic surveys which it conducts. Therefore, responsible ship owners employ highly qualified superintendents, carry out vessels maintenance on a regular basis and ensure that their ships undergo all class surveys and retain class.

6. 7.

8.

9.

94(a) INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON LOAD LINES, 1966, or PROTOCOL OF 1988 RELATING TO THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON LOAD LINE, 1966 RECORD OF CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT TERMINOLOGY CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT REFER TO INTERNATIONAL LOAD LINE CONVENTION.

Conditions of Assignments deal with following in order to determine the load lines. Master of the ship must be provided with information on conditions implemented on their ships. It is imperative that the items coming under each heads below are maintained as described. It is only when the conditions are met that the assumptions considered

for maximum inclination hold true. Unfortunately poor maintenance of these items, however trivial they may appear can be catastrophic and lead to uncontrolled flooding

REG 10 _- REG 26

1. LOADING INFORMATION (Reg. 10(1))

2. SUPERSTRUCTURE END BULKHEADS (Reg. 11)

2. OPENINGS IN FREEBOARD AND SUPERSTRUCTURE DECKS (Regs. 12, 17 & 18)

3. DOORWAYS IN SUPERSTRUCTURES, EXPOSED MACHINERY CASINGS AND DECKHOUSES PROTECTING.

4. OPENINGS IN FREEBOARD AND SUPERSTRUCTURE DECKS . 5. HATCHWAYS AT POSITION 1 AND 2 CLOSED BY PORTABLE COVERS AND SECURED WEATHERTIGHT BY TARPAULINS AND BATTENING DEVICES (Reg. 15) 6. VENTILATORS ON FREEBOARD AND SUPERSTRUCTURE DECKS (POSITION 1 AND 2) (Reg. 19). 7. AIR PIPES ON FREEBOARD AND SUPERSTRUCTURE DECKS (Reg. 20)
LI-2 LI-10

8. CARGO PORT AND OTHER SIMILAR OPENINGS (Reg. 21)

9. SCUPPERS, INLETS AND DISCHARGES (Reg.22) 10. SIDE SCUTTLES (Reg. 23) 11. FREEING PORTS (Reg. 24)

12. PROTECTION OF THE CREW (Regs. 25 & 26)

13.TIMBER DECK CARGO FITTINGS (Reg. 44)

96

Statutory certificates & documents to be carried on board by all ships. Sr. No. 1. Name of Certificate Reference International Tonnage Tonnage convention Article 7 certificate 1969 International Load line certificate

2.

L.L. convention (1966) Article 16 International load line L.L. Protocol (1988) Article 18 exemption certificate L.L. convention (1966) Article 6 LL. Protocol (1988) Article 18 Intact stability Book let

3.

4.

Solas (1974) Reg. 1/25 - 8 L.L. Protocol (1988)

II-1/22 & II -

5.

Damage control Plans & Regulation 10 Booklets. Solas 74 Reg. II - 1/23 2-3-1, 25-8 MSC / Circ 919. Minimum safe manning document.

6. SOLAS 74 2000 Amendment Fire safety manual 7. Solas'74 (2000 Amend) Fire control Plan / Book let Reg. II 2/15.2.3 8. Onboard Training Drills Record. 9. Solas'74 (2000 Amend't) Fire Safety Operational Booklet Reg. II-2 / 15.2.25 10. Certificates for masters, Solas '74 (2000 Amendt) officers or Ratings. Reg. II-2/16-2 11. STCW 1978 Art VI Reg I/2 International oil pollution Prevention STCW Code Sect A-I/2 Certificate. 12. Oil Record Book Marpol 73/78 Annex I, Reg. 5 13. International sewage pollution prevention & Solas 1974 (2000 Amend) Reg. II-2 / 15.2.4 Training Reg. V/14-2

certificate. 14. Garbage Plan 15. Garbage Record Book

MARPOL - 73/78 Annex I Reg. 26 uanacement MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV Reg.5 MEPC / circ 408 MARPOL 73/78

16. Voyage data recorder system certificate of compliance 17. Document compliance 18. of

Annex V Reg. 9

MARPOL 73/78 Annex V Reg. 9 Solas 74 Reg. V / 18-8 SOLAS 74 Reg. IX / 4 ISM Code, Para 13

A. 1.

Additional certificates carried by the vessels carrying Dangerous Goods. Document of compliance : With the special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods as per SOLAS 1974 (2000 Amendments) regulation II-2/19.4. The administration shall provide the ship with an appropriate document as evidence of compliance of construction and equipment with the requirements of regulations II-2/19 of solas 1974.

2. B. 1.

Dangerous Goods manifest or STOWAGE PLAN Detailed in IMDG code. Additional certificates carried by the vessels carrying NOXIOUS LIQUID CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN BULK. International pollution prevention certificate for the carriage of Noxious Liquid substances in Bulk (NLS Certificate) This certificate will be issued after survey in accordance with the provision of regulations 10 of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and regulation 11 & 12 A.

2.

Cargo Record Book As per MARPOL 73/78 Annex II, Req.9 Every ship to which annex II of Marpol 73/78 applies shall be provided with a cargo Record Book, whether as part of the ships official log book or other wise in the form specified in appendix IV to the Annex.

C. 1.

Additional Certificates carried by Gas Tankers Certificate of Fitness for the carriage of liquefied Gases in Bulk. This certificate should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a Gas carrier which complies with the relevant requirements of the Gas carrier code (G.C. Code) Section 1.6.

2.

International Certificate of Fitness for the carriage of liquefied Gases in Bulk.

This certificate should be issued after an initial or periodical survey to a gas carrier which complies with the relevant requirements of the International Gas carrier Code. The code is mandatory under Chapter VII of SOLAS 1974 for gas carriers constructed on or after 1 July 1986. Reference : IGC Code Section 1.5 IGC Code as modified by resolution nsc 17 (58) Section 1.5

98

Most of the merchant ships trade internationally all over the world. Many companies today employ multinational crew on board. People from different countries not only have different cultures but have different beliefs values and attitudes. This kind of backgrounds can lead to differences in opinions / perceptions which may create problems on board ships. While satisfying organizational needs, A person in addition will try to satisfy his own individual needs. As a result of this individuals join together knowingly or unknowingly to form groups and social systems. Being a social animal, he has to interact with other fellow working men. Hence there are chances of interpersonal conflict. Attitude and behavior makes a person liked or disliked among others in a group. This results in the formation of groups with like minded people. Wherever there are groups, there are different arms and goals. Hence chances of conflict. In an organization conflicts can be due to Unnaturally competitive environment Differences in values, goals, attitudes expectations Stereotyped behavior stubbornness unfair decisions or wrong judgement due to some prejudices. Someone taking under advantage and not sharing in team work. Misunderstanding lack of understanding or communication Ego.

Conflicts may be actual or even threatened with the misuse of force, which proves hindrance in any continuing social or working relationship interpersonal conflicts creates an unhealthy atmosphere on board. It not only affects the efficient running /operation of the vessel but could also become a safety hazard. Strategies for Interpersonal conflicts resolution There are lot of theories about interpersonal conflict resolution. A few of them are : i) Lose - Lose : wherein both parties lose This could be achieved by a) b) c) d) ii) iii) Compromise Pay off one of the party Arbitration or the use of outside party Resort to bureaucratic rules.

Win - Lose : wherein one party attempts to marshal its forces to win and the other party losses. Win - Win : This is the most desirable strategy of conflict resolution from a human and organizational stand point. Energies and creativity are aimed at

solving the problem rather than defeating the other party. The needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. Win-win decision strategies are associated with better judgments, favourable organizational experience and more favourable bargains. Interpersonal conflict can be resolved by taking into consideration the nature of differences. Amicable solution could be found where acceptance of differences can be agreed upon. Interpersonal conflict can be resolved by developing a co-operative relationship based on job related performance rather than on communal / race basis. To avoid interpersonal conflicts or to minimize A biased approach should be avoided A common language should be used for communication to minimize misunderstanding. Individual must be respected for his skill / effort. Everybody should be made to realize that a team effort is required for efficient running of the ship. Instructions / Directives should be clearly explained to all.

100. As Chief Engineer Officer how will you motivate good inter personal relationships and teamwork. Ans. A Chief - Engineer officer has to be a good manager to achieve his goals safely and successfully. On board a vessel, chief engineers goals are mostly related to physical work such as maintenance of machinery and running of engine room operation smoothly etc. Jobs involved on board ship cannot be done alone or just with the involvement of 2 or 3 persons. If needs 'team work' and good 'Inter personnel relationship' among the team member to complete a job smoothly and safety so it becomes very important for chief engineer to inculcate good inter personal relationship and team work in the engine room staff to get the job done. But there are some factors which causes dissatisfaction and de motivation on-board. Chief Engineer should try to remove the causes for this dissatisfaction and de-motivation to achieve his goals as teamwork. Following are the reasons for dissatisfaction and denomination:1) 2) 3) 4) Multinational crew onboard: Difference of culture, values language religion and poor understanding of each others problem. Reduced number of crew manpower: Leeds to overwork and work stress. Commercial pressure: C Need to finish job within the short time frame, lead to overload and extra working hours. Frequent port of Call: Duties at port require more physical effort and longer working hours. All these factors lead to do silly mistakes by a person. He adopts shortcuts to finish his job. Following factors also leads to psychological stress and ultimately to demotivation. 1) Problem at home e. g. family problem. 2) Not being relieved on time. 3) Difference of opinions among colleagues 4) Dissatisfaction with company policies / arguments with regard to salary / promotion / leave and found on board.

Inter personnel Relationship : The key to good inter personnel relation ship is that the people should know each other well so that they are able to understand the values, knowledge and the skill other people do have. For this to happen people should come together so that they can interact with each other. So chief engineer should try to ensure that people interact with each other. Quite often this can be done by:i) Morning tool Box meeting : Should involve whole engine room staff during assigning the daily E / Room work, safety precautions to be taken and suggestion for the improvement of work process should be discussed. ii) During tea Breaks : All E/Room personnel shook sit together for tea in the tea break session during working hours where crew can discuss the work in progress or other things which they feel to discuss. iii) There should be training session onboard in which all crew sit together and in safety committee meeting should try to ensure the participation of the maximum no of crew. iv) People should sit together in officer lounge or crew lounge to watch movies or play games. v) In a month there can be kept a day for sport where all the people should participate. vi) Parties and get together should be organized so that people can inter act with each other. If these above mentioned problems are addressed a good team work can be obtained while maintaining good inter personnel relationship and goals can be achieved safely within time frame and peacefully using resources properly. To motivate the good inter personnel relationship and team work C/E should do the following. 1) C/E has to communicate with people onboard (E/R staff) one should create a trust in him of others. C/E should understand the problems of individuals through open communication. Good communication skills help to interact with each other and create good harmony among the team. 2) C/E should understand needs / grievances with respect to money / wages approval / promotion, special recognition for good work by seeking to create a more transparent atmosphere so that no ambiguities remain. 3) Recording Performance: Which will motivate the performer to work harder and create an environment of "willingness to improve". 4) Assigning responsibilities to an individual / team for doing a particular job makes him feel important (Give feeling of an important part of team and perform with greater skill and efficiency). 5) Justifiable praising: which should be specific to his / her actual performance this makes performer feel good" often a pat on back works under this motivated person will work harder than who works for money 6) Conduct small gathering / parties / meeting: this makes the people to feel a part of the team, interact and understand the others it helps in good inter personnel relationship and motivation. 7) Discuss problems regarding signing off, payment and through master contact the company office to solve the problems. 8) Use common language which every crew understand, while communicating with others onboard. 9) Also try to ensure that food is served onboard without any discrimination.

101. As Chief Engineer on board stress the issues you will address for lack of motivation, differences in attitude and to increase sense of competitiveness for better management and effective control? Also formulate a flow chart for a work programme to be availed within a target

date from a group of Engine Room Personnel of above mentioned mixed thought processes. Ans. Lack of Motivation: - Man is a social animal and to make him work in isolation will lead to dissatisfaction and unnecessary stress. Companies often employ multinational crew, which may lead to potential conflicts. In order to improve profitability, companies try to reduce the number of crews on board to a minimum. In case every thing works properly, there is no perceived problem. In case something should go wrong, the manpower available is not sufficient to deal with the problem. This is one of the main reasons leading to stress, which would either be physical or psychological. Reasons leading to physical stress & then to lack of motivation could be reduction in manpower on ships to reduce costs or frequent calling at ports. This leads to an imbalance in the human biological clock, when working/rest hours (in port) are different from those at sea... Duties in ports may require far more physical effort and longer working hours due to the work load completing the work to sail. Therefore officers and crew members, working in above environment, will reveal typical symptoms of fatigue. Reasons leading to de-motivation could be: Problems at home/family end Not being relieved on time which could lead to home sickness. Differences of opinion among colleagues Job pressures Dissatisfaction due to companys policy; arguments with regards to salaries/promotion/leave etc., Issues and reasons related to differences in attitude:INTEREST: - Different people have different interests in a work organisation. In ships environment different people like different jobs. Some people are expert in finding out solutions to a problem, some are very good in workmanship, and some are good in planning. But, the problem is usually confronted when these interest are not met. Thus attitude of a person changes. KEITH DAVIS (professor of management in the School of Business Indiana University) said, Human relations, an area of management practise, are the integration of people in to work situation in a way that motivates them to work together productively, cooperatively and with economic, psychological and social satisfaction. It simply means that there should be no diversity in interest; but an attempt should be made to integrate the interest of each person with the interest of all others in the organisation. COOPERATION: - No objective can be achieved without cooperation among people. In shipboard management also if subordinates are not satisfied with cooperation of their superiors, attitude of a person is bound to change as a result, a problem of disobedience, lack of interest or even confrontational behaviour itself will be evident. In KEITH DAVIS definition; secondly, principal objectives of integration should be to secure the willing cooperation of the employees. As a result of sincere efforts on the part of management, the workman can be motivated to offer their willing cooperation for achieving the targets of greater, better and cheaper production. In ships, an environment of cooperation is essential due to diversity in kind of work/jobs required on board at a given time. To do this, personnel have to understand each others comfort and care for their help in any situation. PERCEPTION: - Human beings react to different situations differently. Even the same human beings may react to different situations differently at different points of time. The way a human being looks at a thing is called perception. It is worth noting that perception of a fact may not be the fact itself. Then reality as it is and the reality as we see it may be quite different. As a matter of fact we see realities in our own way and consider that to be the only way. There are various need levels which a human being attempts to satisfy through work; which was first written by Mr. A. H. MASLOW, known as

MASLOWS NEED HEIRARCY 1943:-

achievement
ESTEEM

SELFACTUALIZATION NEEDS

status

NEEDS

BELONGINGNESS friendship NEEDS

stability

SECURITY NEEDS

food

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

Maslow viewed human motivation as a hierarchy of five needs, ranging from the most basic physiological needs to the highest needs for self actualization. Physiological needs are the most basic physical needs for food, water shelter, etc. On shipboard environment, engine room temperature, proper ventilation/E/R blowers; engine control room A/C not working and accommodation A/C not functional or food served is not of taste, then attitudes of people are definitely bound to change. Security needs are the needs for a safe and secure environment in the work place. If people are not happy with wages, bonuses, etc; their behaviour will show in negative approach towards job requirements. Belonging needs relate with their relationship with other ship staff. If people are involved in backbiting, lot of politics, then peoples behaviour will not be in favour of ships efficient running. Hence atmosphere has to be guarded against these factors Esteem needs relate to pat on the back when certain jobs are done. This creates lot of wonders. Every one wants word of appreciation from others/superiors. That creates a lot of faith between themselves. Self actualization need relate to peoples self fulfilment. This is highest & most matured approach towards a situation/persons. In this, person wants to help others; impart some knowledge to them; guide them and be happy in himself. These types of people to be regarded in same manner As a manager, I have to be seeing always above stated needs when dealing with persons on board. I have to see that where a person concerned stands and accordingly I have to make an atmosphere of cooperation, to increase fair competitiveness to achieve another step in the hierarchy triangle. Once faith is established, manager has full control over situations/persons. People may have their own mixed thought processes; that means in a group of people, some may be on first step or others may be on say second or third step; but as far as manager knows where they stand and why a particular person behaves in a particular manner. He has to act according to that. Here, mixed thought processes and different attitudes can be turned around to make positive effect on efficient running of ship. FLOW CHART: - for a work program to be availed within a target date from a group of engine room personnel of mixed thought processes. Liner renewal within 12 hours Ship Name :- M. V. Darya Ganj

Co. Name :- Chellaram Shipping (HK) Ltd., Hong Kong Last departure port :- GOA (INDIA) Arrival Port :- DALIAN (CHINA) ETA :- 15th May07 @ 0200 hrs Engine :- 6S42MC, MAN B&W BHP :- 8370 Personnel :- C/E, myself, INDIAN; age 34 yrs :- 2/E, Bangladeshi, -- 39 yrs :- 3/E, Ukrainian, -- 39 yrs :- E/O, INDIAN, -- 50 yrs :- Fitter, INDIAN, -- 45 yrs :- Oiler, INDIAN, -- 50 yrs :- Tr. Wpr. 1, INDIAN, -- 22 yrs :- Tr. Wpr. 2, INDIAN, -- 22 yrs Perceived behavior & thinking of E/R personnel:2/E: - is in the company from long time, wants to pursue a career with company and wants to become chief engineer as fast as possible. Full of motivation, fast worker, but expects others also to be in same speed, but looses control if expectations are not met. Do not get along well with fitter and 3/E. 3/E: - is new in company and due for sign off; hence has casual attitude and lacks in interest, motivation. Do not believe in PMS. Believes that if this is working OK, why to open it. Very hard working but chooses work according to his wish. Small jobs, he does not consider for himself. He is not always obedient to me and 2/E. E/O: - Old hand of company. Specialist in deck cranes and other electrical jobs. Has good knowledge and experience. Has drinking habit, due to which is not reliable. Does not like late night or early morning working. Has complaining nature. Do not get along with C/O. But, gets along nicely with 2/E and 3/E. Fitter: - Old hand of company. Very hard working and full of motivation, but highly short tempered. Likes others to work/help with him; especially 2/E. He wants superiors to give ideas for work. Does not like only orders, expects others to have a discussion prior bigger, technical jobs. Does not like late evening and early morning working. Oiler: - Old hand. Not much interested in jobs. Wants to finish his time for the day and leave E/R. Does only jobs which are ordered. Sometimes shows short temper. Does not participate in technical job discussion. Wants good overtime. Always complains about tr. wprs. Is not interested in their training also. Tr. wprs: - Both are young and obedient and hard working. Cannot be given independent jobs, and they are under training. On 1st May07, while making/checking maintenance status of Main Engine, found out that a liner renewal is coming due this month. Spare new liner is found OK after calibration. New piston rings made ready and put in spare piston with new stuffing box after calibrations. During sailing itself, spare piston removed and kept on cyl. head platform, i.e. on 14/05/07 pm. I have checked tools with the help of 2/E. 1) Liner measuring tool 2) Feeler gauges 3) Liner lifting tool 4) Hydraulic jacks 5) Hydraulic p/p and pipes 6) All required spanners(told to fitter) 7) Crankcase job to 3/E; his spanner and jacks are made ready with him. As he likes working independently, he himself has prepared for the job. But, 2/E is in between checking all the tools. I have personally told 3/E that night 12 oclock will be 2 hrs notice; hence he can take leave from E/R @ 1500 hrs, after preparing for crankcase job with oiler. He has prepared and left, very happy as he is signing off and new 3/E (with higher ticket) is signing on. I have clearly communicated to Co. that new 3/E must be sent in the morning or may be up to noon; so that new 3/E gives hand to old 3/E and handing over-taking over is done timely.

Since job is lengthy and requires continuous stressful working, fitter is also given rest @ 1500 hrs. 3/E @ standby has to call me and 2/E in the morning. Job is scheduled to start @ 0630 hrs. My effort has been to make engine room personnel happy and sufficiently rested before starting job. 2/E will stay up to 1730 hrs, put watch in 3/E cabin and take leave. Now all tools ready, job planning is:0630 to 8000 hrs cyl. head out & banjo bolts for quills out. 1000 hrs piston out 1200 hrs cyl. liner out 1300 hrs new cyl. liner in (people have lunch one by one and work continues) 1400 hrs spare piston in 1500 hrs spare piston tightened and quills bolts tightened 1600 hrs cyl. head tightened 1700 hrs all connections finished 1800 hrs water opened up 1900 hrs engine to try out. 3/E is conveyed that, since he will depart @ 2000 hrs only and since he has been working very hard and I had been happy with his jobs; hence not to loose interest in the job; finish it with all his vigor and interest and utilize new 3/E also fully. New 3/E is told you have to help him as he is signing off and you have to face the problem; if anything goes wrong and he has been offered a promotion by Co. when present 2/E signs off. Hence he will be thorough with all the jobs of Main Engine and fully responsible for this job. He is not given the impression that I will be judging him for his promotion, and this fact is communicated that I have all the faith in him (by body language), but simultaneously watching him also. The entire job finished at 2000 hrs as jacks started leaking. Liner came out easily and new one went in easily. In between 2/E took over crank case job and I was at cyl. head. 3/E took over fully. It has taken 13 hrs. 3/E has signed off happily with a warm hug by me and 2/E. Happiness was there on every face and one tr. wpr. and fitter; 2/E & E/O went out together for relaxation. Although people are of mixed thinking, but if faith is developed and love and affection is communicated honestly it does wonders

102

Man is a social animal and to make work in isolation will lead to dissatisfaction and unnecessary stress. Many companies are trying hard to remove this dissatisfaction by implementing motivational techniques as below. i) Loyalty : Gearing greater trust, better communication and sharing problems. The sense of belonging motivates the person to work for the team. Understanding needs / grievances w.r.t. money / wages apparel / promotion, special recognition for good work by seeking to create a more transparent atmosphere, so that no ambiguities remain. Rewarding performance, which will motivate the performer to work harder and create an environment of willingness to improve. Justifiable praising as per performance, creates a feel good factor in the workers. Often a pat on the back works wonders. The motivated worker will work harder than one who is only doing it for money. Responsibility helps the person to participate willingly as responsibility imparts a sense of importance. Encourage in action thereby facilitating team work.

ii)

iii) iv)

v) vi)

1.

INCENTIVE PROGRAMME : Considering the motivational techniques, money can never be overlooked as motivation. Whether in form of wages, bonus incentives etc. An incentive program based on performances may be developed for the engine room and deck crew on quality basis. This is turn increases the effectiveness and performance level of the workers. Crew members may be rewarded for good work by either giving extra overtime, bows etc. Junior officers may work harder for the much sought after promotion, which in turn brings better wages. Thus incentive in any form increases the over all effectiveness of the crew. Long term personnel development concept : An individual is judged for his skill and job competence special skills and innovative jobs should be recognized and entered in his appraisal report, for further development without delay. By developing such a transparent atmosphere individual will have long term in personnel relation development. Human resources quality assurance : Shipping companies are very particular while recruiting personnel for deployment on their ships. The background of the person is known, and his qualification and last company records are checked. Their skills are tested before finally employing them. These techniques are really working and quality of personnel on board the ships is getting better day by day. An individual is also assessed and appraised on board ships. On board training helps to improve the individuals over all competence. Attitude and motivation development : Shipping companies are trying various theories to develop individual's attitude and motivation by applying techniques like positive reinforcement, behaviour modification, stress relief etc. It may be in manner of continuous employment in company and on rotation basis, so that the individual can plan his leave and come back on finishing his leave, for better prospect and need of money, self esteem, security etc. As a chief engineer, one should deploy techniques to identify and slowly change the behaviour of dissatisfied personnel. Due to the complexity of the world and increase in personal needs, competition is also increasing. One has to prove that he can fit into any organization. The attitude and motivation is also improving by the fear of losing job. Emergency response : Each and every person should be allotted his duties in case of different types of emergencies. All personnel should be educated about their duties and responsibilities. Frequent drills and energizes on board ships help the personnel to be familiar with the procedures and improves their response to any type of emergency situation. Also during drills the important of team work is emphasized which motivates people in acting faster and in an organized manner in any kind of emergency. Training Programs : The drills conducted on board should be as realistic as possible. The response of personnel is assessed and any need of training is considered. Training programs make people more confident in all aspects of their jobs and enhances their complements. Different techniques adopted for training may include videos, lifetimes, demonstrations, computer based training programs etc. COPING WITH STRESS : The personnel on board a ship are burned with the magnitude of work due to reduced crew strength on ships. This along with the fear of doing something wrongly, differences among various people and lack of sleep may lead to tremendous amount of stress in the personnel living a way from home for months together compounds this problem many folds. It is the duty of C/E to ensure that his staff do not get over stressed. This can be done by encouraging better in the personnel relations, praising persons for good jobs done, briefing them how to avoid mistakes and delegating work so that nobody is overburdened. In addition to all these, talking personally to people, engaging about their family and other personal matters sometimes helps in keeping the environment cool and thereby reducing the chance of over stressing.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

110What is perception and perceived behaviour? As a Chief Engineer on board how do you foresee such issues can be a critical area in man management? Ans. Perception:- is the set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment. Basic perceptual processes that are particularly relevant to organisation are:- (1) Selective Perception and (2) Stereotyping Selective Perception:- is the process of screening out information with which we are uncomfortable or that contradicts our beliefs, e.g. suppose manager is exceptionally fond of particular worker. The manager has a very positive attitude about the worker and thinks he is a top performer. The manager may notice the worker goofing off. Selective perception may cause the manager to quickly forget what he observed. Similarly manager might form a negative image of a particular worker. In such case the manager may not recognize the good job done by the same worker; hence it may be quite detrimental. Stereotyping:- is the process of categorizing or labelling people on the basis of single attribute. Common attributes from which people often stereotype are face and gender. Of course, stereotypes along these lines are inaccurate and can be harmful. For example, suppose that manager forms the stereotype, that women can perform only certain tasks and that men are best suited for other tasks. This can affect managers hiring practices. On the other hand, certain forms of stereotyping can be useful and efficient. Suppose manager believes that common skills are important for a particular job and that communications majors tend to have exceptionally good communication skills. As a result, at the time of interviewing he pays close attention to speech communications major. As a chief engineer, selective perception will affect the performance of his staff. Say even though third engineer is doing his job satisfactorily, but to chief engineer has already made up his mind. This will not help the full potential of third engineer to be exploited. The company on the other hand may loose this persons service in future. Senior management personnel must judge person based on the facts rather than selective perception. Stereotyping perception; say a person may not be able to express himself properly even though he understood his job. Well , in such case chief engineer has to judge person at work rather than judging him on the basis of his communication skills. Stereotype perception of his boss may dissuade him from taking initiative. Sometimes it is necessary for chief engineer to leave his office, if not always to evaluate competence of his team on site. At other times chief engineer may have come across different nationalities of crew on board. Under such circumstances it becomes all the more important to exercise professional judgement based on facts rather than perception to deal with people on board and run engine room. 113 NO ANSWER AVAILABLE

125. A successful voyage for a Chief Engineer is a combination of trouble free run of machineries, optimum use of fuel, minimum interpersonal conflicts and less intervention from shore authorities. Considering the ship as an Organisation how this can be best achieved? Ans. Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposely made by 'A' to offset the offset of 'B' That will result in frustrating 'B' in attaining his goals or frustrating his interest. It would also be defined as the actual or threatened use of force in any continuing social relation ship conflict surface due to : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Limitation of resources Difference in values, goals, attitudes, expectation, etc. Competitive environment as in any organizations competency is rewarded. Stereo typing or sharp judgment leads to elevate others list & form hurried opinion of them. Biased behaviour Habit of taking under advantage of others.

The interpersonal conflict because of above said reasons, can be best resolved or taken case of by adopting win-win attitude. In this need of both parties in the conflict are met and both parties in the conflict receive rewarding outcome win-win decision strategies are associated with better judgment, favourable organization, experience and more favorable bargains. A close interpersonal relations is maintained by building trust, acceptance and support, in case one party becomes angry with other when failing to meet psychological contact, these first party should constructively confront other party. The effectiveness of constructive confrontation can & improved by observing the following principles i) ii) iii) Importance of relationship Use of empathy, View the problem from the confutes perspective Ability to confront with other persons only when you perceive he or she has the ability to act on your feed back. If the confrontation is not changing the behaviour the confrontation may lead to frustration. Focusing on behaviour. Focus your feedback on specific behaviour rather than the person. Use the I language such as words like I, me or we to reduce the defensiveness of confronted your language is more closely to related to criticism. Use of descriptive statements. Describe how you are and fact about the situations Evaluating Judgmental statement can easily evolve defensive behaviour because such statements can be interpreted as criticism.

iv) v)

vi)

vii) Exploring alternative behaviour Instead of suggesting any specified solution to the problem help the person to explore various means of overcoming it. viii) Importance of Privacy : confront the person in private. Open confrontation can be taken as a personal attack rather than helpful encounter. ix) Use of non verbal behaviour use of non-verbal behaviour which speaks louder than words to express yourself to others. Eye contact, appropriate tone of voice and correct posture can all add the effectiveness of confrontations. Selection of time since time is important for as effective confrontation select a time when the confrontee is released or more open to receive feed back without being defensive. Rules and procedures should be established in advance which will regulate interdepartmental contact. Hierarchy : This condition is achieved by referring the problem to the common superior in the organization (ship). Planning : If each workgroup has specific goals for which they are responsible then each know what it is supposed to do. Intra group tasks that create problem are resolved in terms of goal & contribution of each group. Potential source of conflict and dissatisfactions should be avoided and properly taken care of These sources are as follows. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Inadequate training program and familiarization Poorly designed equipment and technology. Wrong choice of person for a particular job. Physical environment and lack of amenities (e.g. A/C, drinking water, sanitations etc.) Personality clash. Use of alcohol

x)

vii) Insecurity of employment viii) Class structure and attitude ix) Failure or insensitivity to appreciate social, personal and community relation.

Efficient of economical running of equipments / machineries. To achieve the efficient and economical operation the following stops should be observed. 1) 2) 3) Ensure a good healthy atmosphere or ship Chief Engineer should know how to get best out of his mess. For this he has to develop managerial skills. Chief Engineer should try his best for economy and maximum possible output. Wastage of material, time, money should be avoided. Wastage of time can be avoided by minimizing fatigue and proper planning of job. Ability of C/E to take proper decision at proper time will save lot of man house and avoid lot of machinery breakdown. 4) 5) Right selection of passes for a particular job is very important as it will help in completing the job efficiently and quickly. Make sure that all officers are proficient in their job. If anybody is lacking in carrying out their job additional training programs should be developed. This may help to avoid lot of break downs. All machineries to be properly run and maintained so as to give optimum performance. Planned maintenance system and conditions monitoring system to be followed strictly to minimize the machinery breakdowns. Spares and stores to be consumed only when required. F.O. & C.O. consumption to be recorded regularly and any deviation from optimum consumption should be avoided. For efficient and economic running of machinery C/E should know how to get best out of his man, how to operate machineries to optimum performance and how to minimize the store & spares consumption.

6) 7) 8) 9)

10) Any leakage of C.O. I.O. should be rectified immediately.

128. With respect to engine room man management enlist the key issues you will address with proper justification in the following areas (i) incentive programmes (ii) Long term personnel development concept (iii) Human resources quality assurance (iv) attitude and motivation development (v) Emergency response. Ans. As a chief engineer, following issues will be addressed with an objective of safe, efficient & effective team management in consideration with relevant compliance with international regulations. (1) Incentive Programmes Incentive programmes, especially safety incentive programmes have their intended effect : a reduction in the loss due to accidents. They also have positive side effects. For one thing, they are a profitable proposition in industry, as the savings usually exceed the costs. Incentive programmes can help improve the general organisational climate &, therefore, make a positive contribution to productivity over & above the gain due to accident reduction. Reinforcing safe acts removes the unwanted side effects with discipline & the use of penalties; it increases the employees job satisfaction; it enhances the relationship between the supervisor & employees. E.g. gift for reporting near-misses. This is one of the methods of motivation. This can be effective in the sense that people will work hard, thereby improving the performance of the team, due to either greed or some need. Many companies have framed an incentive program for the ships crew on a quarterly basis which is entirely based on their performance. Crew members are rewarded by either giving them extra overtime, bonuses etc. Junior officers may work that much harder when promotion is used as an incentive, which would also bring better wages.

(2) Long term personal development concept The success of any industry do not only depend on the technical qualification of existing & potential employees but also on the social competence, decision making qualities, team spirit, guidance qualities, ability to communicate etc. Senior management on board must observe the performance of the engine room personnel in due regard with the above mentioned criteria. Accordingly, crew must be advised to improve upon the area which they are lacking by providing them the respective assistance. Moreover, company must be informed for the specific training requirement of the concerned crew by Appraisal Report. In due course, resources invested in long term personnel development programme earns higher return by the service of the effective & efficient personnel involved. An individual is judged for his skill and special work in a particular field or an innovative job performed by him should be recognized & the same can be entered in his appraisal report for further deployment without delay & can be recommended for promotion. By developing such a transparent atmosphere, an individual will look at a long term personal development concept as beneficial to his own needs (3) Human Resource quality assurance:- Human resource quality refers to the competence of the personnel involved in any of the specific job on board. STCW (adopted on 7th July 1978) was the first convention to establish mandatory minimum requirements on training, certification and watch-keeping for seafarers on an international level. In due respect to the code, companies have to assure that they employ the personnel in compliance with the code:Chapter 1 deals with general provisions & includes mandatory medical standards, communication skills, simulator training, revalidation of certificates, companies responsibilities etc. Chapter 2 gives mandatory minimum requirement for master & deck department officers/ratings. Chapter 3 deals with engine department officers/ratings. Chapter 5 deals with special training required for personnel on certain type of ships. Chapter 6 deals with emergency, occupational safety, medical care & survival functions. Chapter 7 deals with alternative certification. Several shipping companies are very particular while recruiting personnel for deployment in their ships. The background of the person is checked, his qualifications and last company records scrutinized as well as the reasons for leaving his last company. There are also some computer based test programs that are conducted to ascertain his knowledge & skill as also interviews conducted to check that he will fit into the new organization. These techniques are working and quality of personnel on board are substantially increasing. Also an individual is assessed based on his on board performance in the form of an appraisal report & mentioned whether any additional shore based training (value added courses) is required or not (4) Attitude & Motivation development:- It seems likely that peoples attitude all cohere, in other words they fit together without contradicting one another. They do not contradict one another, because they derive from underlying core system of values. This view of the internal consistency of attitudes seems to be supported by liberal-conservative factor. Shipping companies are trying various theories to develop an individuals attitude and ways to motivate him to perform better. A persons attitude is influenced by various factors such as his needs, his state of mind i.e. stress levels, feeling of security, self esteem etc. The most important step before trying to develop an individuals attitude & to motivate him is understanding. Only after understanding him & realizing his needs, aims etc. can one go about trying to improve his attitude & motivate him. The feeling of belonging / incentives, both promotion & monetary wise / recognition of a job well done etc. go a long way in improving an individuals attitude & thereby also motivating him to give more to the team.

For developing attitudes, it is essential to know following Assuming that we can actually determine what peoples attitudes are in the first place, then it seems that attitudes work best as predictions of behaviour when:1) they are strong and consistent 2) they are based on and related to personal experience 3) they are specifically related to the behaviour being predicted. Common barriers in attitude change:1) they are likely to have arisen at an early age and are therefore virtually personality traits. 2) because each attitude is correlated with others in the whole scheme of attitudes & is therefore likely to be difficult to change piecemeal. Motivation Development:- Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job satisfaction Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement The last three factors were found to be most important for bringing about lasting changes of attitude. Recognition here refers to recognition for achievement as opposed to recognition in the human relations sense. The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be : Company policy Administrative policies Supervision Salary Interpersonal relations Working conditions Motivation development, henceforth, must be issued keeping following twodimensional need structure :- 1) one need structure for the avoidance of unpleasantness, & 2) a parallel need system for personal growth Corrective Motivation is :Job enrichment: adding different tasks to a job to provide greater involvement and interaction with the task Job loading: adding meaningful tasks that will lead to growth Monetary incentives Support style of leadership techniques (5) Emergency response:- By assigning every person on board a particular duty for different emergencies & also responsibilities, every individual will know exactly what to do in a given situation. Drills & pre & post drills briefing/debriefings also help the crew members understand what is expected of them & where they could improve. Drills should be made as realistic as possible & not made a routine that persons labour through. Different emergencies at different locations should be practiced so that crew members are exposed to as far as possible all the emergencies they may be faced with. By doing this the response of the crew members will be swift as they will know what is expected of them in any given emergency. Clause 8 of ISM code deals with the emergency preparedness. As per this clause, company should have an integrated ship and shore contingency plan, which should comprise of the following o Composition and duties of each person in various . o Procedure for mobilisation o Procedure to be followed in response to different types of accidents & hazardous occurrences.

o Procedure for establishing & maintaining contact between ship & shore based management. o Availability of ships particulars, plans & stability information, safety & environmental protection equipment on board. o List of contact names & telecommunication details of all relevant parties, who may need to be informed & consulted. o Reporting methods for both ship & shore based management. o Procedure for notifying with next of kin of the persons on board. o Backup arrangement for companys initial response in the event of a protected emergency o Procedure for issuing information bulletin to media & answering queries from media & public.

129. You are required to send a Voyage abstract to the head office containing all salient data as per regulatory feature. For making the spreadsheet, underline the specific computer application tools you will use and formulate a format for the abstract, which will show the salient data within available format of software to the best advantage. Use realistic data. Ans. Specific computer application tools that will be for making the voyage abstract spreadsheet is Microsoft Office software and in that we will use Microsoft Office Excel. The abstract of the voyage should contain all salient data pertaining to a particular voyage. The abstract is sent to head office, hence it should have all items which can give a fair idea to owners/managers/charterers about the voyage, related to but not necessarily limited to fuel consumption of each machinery, different grades of lube oil consumption and their ROBs, running hours in that voyage of important machineries, any major breakdown or repair during voyage, any stoppages etc. A format of abstract which will show the salient data of a voyage abstract is drawn below. Name of Company Anglo-Eastern Abstract Voyage No. Departure from Arrival to 004/ L BITUNG ROTTERD AM LADEN Date Date BALLAST DEC,17 JAN, 24 sea passage 54150 miles sea passage 11.8 revs. propeller pitch 713 m FEW hrs FEW hrs 21:30 12:30 Ship Name MV Canmar Pride 24/01/0 7

Date

Displacement

9906 485798 0

Mean Draft

Sea Passage hrs

4.08

Maneuvering hrs anchorage/harb or hrs total voyage hrs M.E.HFO cons. Sea passage tons M.E.HFO cons. Maneuvering tons M.E. cyl. Oil cons for passage ltrs M.E. lube oil cons for passage ltrs Voyage running hours Aux. Eng 1 Aux. Eng 2 Aux. Eng 3 Aux. Eng 4 Shaft Gen. A/E HFO total cons. A/E lube oil total cons. 460 440 480

h h h

average 27 rpm average 145 speed 885 %age slip M.E.HFO daily 863.2 cons

113.63 13.9 7.44

29.08

9.7 M.E.cyl oil daily 7750 cons M.E.lube oil daily 1000 cons Running hours since decarb. 1410 1030 600 L.O. cons 285 275 300

261.05

85

tons ltrs F.O. / L.O. STATUS

73 cons/day 860 cons/day

2.1 23.8

Type

ROB before voyage

Quantity bunkered

Bunker Port

ROB end voyage 919 -102

sp.gr. total cons. 0.98 97 -1104 -7 7750 1000 860 200 50 15

HFO DO MGO Cyl Oil C/Case Oil A/E Oil Hyd Oil Gear Oil Grease

326 -109 16500 30000 15000 8200 3050 200

1697 Singapore ---

15250

24000 29000 14140 8000 3000 185

Name of Company Anglo-Eastern Abstarct Voyage No. Departure from Arrival to Displacement Mean Draft Sea Passage hrs Manoevering hrs anchorage/harbo ur hrs total voyage hrs M.E.HFO cons. Sea passage tons M.E.HFO cons. Manoevering tons M.E. cyl. Oil cons for passage ltrs M.E. lube oil cons for passage ltrs Voyage running hours Aux. Eng 1 Aux. Eng 2 Aux. Eng 3 Aux. Eng 4 Shaft Gen. A/E HFO total cons. A/E lube oil total cons. ROB before voyage 326 -109 16500 30000 15000

Ship Name 004/ L BITUNG ROTTERD AM t m h h h h

MV Canmar Pride LADEN Date Date 54150 11.8 713 27 145 885 863.2 9.7 M.E.cyl oil daily 7750 cons M.E.lube oil daily 1000 cons Running hours since decarb. 1410 1030 600 BALLAST DEC,17 JAN, 24 sea passage miles sea passage revs. propeller pitch m average rpm average speed %age slip M.E.HFO daily cons

Date

24/01/ 07

FEW hrs FEW hrs

21:30 12:30 9906 485798 0 4.08 113.63 13.9 7.44 29.08

261.05 85 L.O. cons 285 275 300

460 440 480

tons ltrs F.O. / L.O. STATUS Quantity bunkered Bunker Port

73 cons/day 860 cons/day

2.1 23.8 sp.gr . 0.98 97 --

Type HFO DO MGO Cyl Oil C/Case Oil A/E Oil

ROB end voyage 919 -102 24000 29000 14140

total cons. 1104 -7 7750 1000 860

1697 Singapore --15250

Hyd Oil Gear Oil Grease

8200 3050 200

8000 3000 185

200 50 15

130. Detail the inspection that you as the new Chief Engineer of a passenger ship, would make on joining the ship with regard to (i) Stability (ii) Damage control (iii) Fire fighting (iv) Critical Machinery and equipment installed. Ans. As a New Chief Engineer on joining I will check w.r.t. to stability following

1) Stability:- I will check if chief officer has the book called Trim and Stability

which give details of GM, GZ area under GZ curve and other parameters for different conditions. I will check whether the basic intact stability criterion for passenger ship is being complied with .

I will double check that this important book is approved and endorsed by Director General of Shipping or DGS surveyor.

a) Damage Stability for:-

Damage Stability Passenger ship has to comply with Solas Chapter II 1 for adequate stability in damaged condition from this I will know the nimbersand location of the transverse bulkheads which divide the hull. b) Damage Control:- A passenger ship must have a damage control plan and damage control booklet. These documents will contain boundaries of water tight compartments location of water tight doors, pumping out arrangements cross flooding arrangements etc.

I will check that all the water tight doors in water tight bulkheads are in good working order & check the controlling and indicating panels which will be found in central control station.

In addition, I will also test the bilge alarm in EIR check that the Emergency bilge suction is looking good order.

Also I will confirm that the bilge pump (Emergency bilge PIP) require on passenger ship are in good working order.

I will also ensure that damage control equipment for structure welding equipment Nuts, bolts studs, canvas are available for stopping any leaks and carrying any damage repair.

c) Fire Fighting:-

(a) Fire plan I will study the fire plan, check the maintenance Registers for which 3rd officer / 2nd Engineer may be responsible officer and no urgent fire fighting stores are outstand ting.

I will personally inspect the CO2 room, the farm system fitted and inspect all the outlets to confirm that everything is in order.

As per Solas Chapter II 2 FSS fire safety system & FTP Fire Test Procedure are mandatory w.e.f. 1.7. 2002.

I will ensure that Training Manual and Training booklet for fire are available in officer & crew mess room and that all persons are well aware the contents of these Manual.

d)

Critical Machinery:- As per safety management system required by ISM Code element 10 maintenance, E/R should have a list of critical items of machinery and procedures for inspecting and maintaining such machineries such as.

Steering gear Emergency comp Emerges Emerge Fire P/P 5) Breathing air comp 6) Anchor handling equipment 7) Cargo gear 8) Main & Aux machinery 9) All ISA / FFA items 10) SOPEP 11) Water fight doors 12) Anti pollution comp. 13) Bilge / ballast pumping & separator system 14) Navigational equipments 15) Fire gas and heat detection system 16) I.G. System. 17) Communication equipment.

Critical spare list

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

At least one liner (spare) At least one spare (cylinder head complete) At least one lubricator Some mechanical seals Some fuel pump plungers Bilge alarms Calibration equipments for thermometers and Pr gauges.

Maintenance routing as per Solas Chapter III for fie fighting equipments and critical machinery is carried out.

131. Detail the inspection that you as the new CE on an Oil Tanker / Gas carrier would make on joining the ship with regard to (i) Stability (u) Damage Control (iii) Critical Machinery Ans. With regard to stability most important document provided on board of ship is stability booklet which gives an accurate guidelines regarding the stability of ship under various conditions of service. Chief Engineer must have knowledge of details given in stability booklet. If any alternation is made to ship then C/E should ensure that amended stability booklet is availability. He should ascertain the validity of oil Tanker / gas carrier safety load line certificate watertight integrity of peak & space bulk heads, drainage & scupper arrangements must be checked look for cracks, deformation or repairs carried out, if any. Ensure that these are no opening for manhole, ventilation, pipe cable in collision bulkhead check the effectiveness of stern tube sealing management stability aspect of oil container / gas carrier is dealt. With in detail in SOLAS. As stability & damage is concerned all tankers gas carrier are safest as they have zero permeability all tight integrity of deck and low free surface effect double her requirement for oil tanker / gas carrier provided then extra buoyancy but this lead to high permeability due to double hulls. Damage control : This is in dealt with SOLAS Ch-2 C/E should aware of permanently exhibited & readily available damage control plan on navigation bridge for guidance of officers. A plan showing clearly each tank double bottom boundaries of water tight compartments opening wherein means of closers & position of any controls there of arrangement of correction of any hit due to flooding. All ballasting, de-ballasting & bilge arrangement should be properly studied. Most important is emergency power supply CE should check handing over reports, condition of class, previous dry dock reports for any damage faced by vessel in history damage plates or structure should be verified. Critical Machinery : New CE for tanker & gas carrier test out critical machinery operating procedures for along with out going CE & deficiencies rectified if any. He should thoroughly undergo with part stay control & class surveyor inspection reports superintendent give quite close picture of these machinery Saturday routine books should be check for proper working of these emergency machinery. Responsible person should be concerned for any deficiencies for operational problems. As soon as possible all emergency equipment must practically tried out for e.g. main engine change or procedure to emergency mode from remote / bridge control. - Emergency steering gear. - Fire pumps & emergency fire pumps. - Emergency generated & emergency batteries. - Emergency air compressor, these taken for filling up emergency air battle. - Sprinkler, S.W. pumps, cut in / out & compressor lifeboat engines. Water tight doors & their indicator mechanics - O.W.S. - Indicator - Sewage Treatment plant.

132

132. Suggest with reasons, why each of the following courses of action are appropriate if a ship operating in heavy seas: (a) frequently sound all hold

bilges (b) frequently sound bilges in chain locker, fore and aft peak tanks, cofferdams and other void spaces (c) sound all fuel, fresh water and ballast tanks (d) if satisfied with (a), (b) and (c) trim ship by the stern and correct any list (e) reduce speed of the main engine. Ans (a) If a ship is operating in heavy seas, there is more likelihood of structural damage to the hull, hatch covers, ventilators, etc. due to green seas. This could allow water ingress in to the hold & there will be an increase in the mean draft, as a result of flooding, to make up for the lost buoyancy. In addition, if the centre of buoyancy of the intact volume after bilging does not lie in the same transverse plane as the centre of gravity, there will be a change in trim, and if the bilged space is asymmetrical with respect to the centreline of the ship, the ship will heel till the centre of buoyancy of the intact underwater volume lies in the same fore and aft plane(perpendicular to the equilibrium water line) as the centre of gravity. If the metacentric height GM in the flooded condition is negative, the resulting moment will cause the vessel to heel to the angle of loll, even though the bilged space is symmetrical with respect to centreline. This is a permanent list, due to instability due to shift of centre of gravity. The result of heel and trim may also result in further entry of seawater through non-watertight openings which would further aggravate the situation; by causing loss of stability by flooding and free surface effect & could cause cargo damage. So frequent soundings of the bilges give an indication of any such damage (b) Again, checking and sounding bilges in chain locker, fore and aft peak tanks, cofferdams and other void spaces for water ingress will indicate any structural damage affecting watertight integrity, e.g. chain(spurling) pipe covers to the chain locker, air pipes to the tanks. The effect on stability would be the same as in case of (a) above & there also may be a problem of increased trim by head, with more green seas being taken at forward, aggravating the problems. (c) Checking for watertight integrity problems & particularly with fuel tanks & fresh water tanks for sea water contamination. Fuel oil contamination with seawater would increase the amount of water & sodium content in the fuel oil. The presence of sodium is determined for main engine, when sodium to vanadium ratio increases more than 1:3, this could lead to main engine components failure due to hot corrosion with serious consequences. Fresh water tanks contamination would lead to water shortage on board. Flooding of ballast tanks will affect the stability of the vessel due to free surface effect and unbalanced moments. So sounding of all above mentioned tanks is important for vessel safety. (d) Generally even keel is the desirable sailing condition, but in heavy seas if a trim by stern is maintained particularly in ballast condition, then there would be less likelihood of propeller/rudder emerging out of water. Thus propeller racing and engine load fluctuation is avoided giving better power and steering. A trim by the head would cause more green seas to be taken over the bows making the condition worse. Any list would reduce the roll angle necessary for deck immersion, hence any list should be corrected. (e) Reduction in main engine speed would lower the effect of green seas & thus reduce the possibility of structural damage, particularly at the fore end. Ship motion(rolling, pitching, etc.) would generally be better & the change in speed would cause a change in the periodic time of wave encounter; which would reduce resonant motions & vibrations if they had been occurring. 134 134. Detail the inspection that you, as the new Chief Engineer of a Ro-Ro passenger ship, would make on vehicle decks. The followings headings are suggested: (i) Stability (ii) Damage control (iii) Fire fighting (iv) Machinery Give reasoning in each clause of your inspection. Ans. IMO - Ship constructions standard for passenger ship:- Standards for the construction of the equipment of passenger ship on international voyage are set out in Solas chapter II1 (Construction, structure, Fire fighting, Protection, Fire detection and fire extinction regulations imposed for the supervision on their

closing. They also impose requirement for the control of watertight and weather tight door fitted in bulkhead above the bulkhead decks. 1. Stability: Under stability the subdivision load lines applicable under the different type of voyages depending on the number of passenger carrying or cargo carrying in passenger spaces. Regulation 31 of the MS Regulation Act 1998 provides that every subdivided ship of the classes III, IV, V or VI (A) on completion must be inclined and the elements of her stability determined. For passenger ships, the angle of heel due to crowding should not exceed 10o Similarly, the angle of heel due to turning should not exceed 10o. RoRo ship has to conform to the Severe Wind Rolling Criterion as ships has high windage factor. 2. Damage Control: Solas Regulation chapter II- 1B damage control plan shall be permanently exhibited for the guidance of officer in charge of the passenger showing clearly for each deck and hold. The boundaries of water tight compartment, the openings therein and means of closure the arrangement for correction of list due to flooding. In addition to damage control plan booklets containing the same information must be made available by the owners for the use the officers of the ship. Ramp door seals are satisfactory and in accordance with the regulations. Fire Fighting: Prior to being assigned ship board passenger ships (as per regulation II-1) seafarer must have completed the following training:- Training in crowd management. - Training in passenger safety and hull integrity. - Training in crisis management and human behavior and other training like the standard modular courses for all ship types as per STCW-95. The Chief Engineer to understand that fire protection for Ro-Ro spaces comes under Special Category ships, requiring horizontal zoning as vertical zoning is not possible The Chief Engineer to ensure following safety and fire-fighting items to be ready for any emergency use: 1.
2.

3.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. room. 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sprinkle system. Co2 flooding system. Familiarization with all portable and fixed fire extinguisher. Location of fire hoses and hydrants. SCBA fireman outfit &its location. Familiarization of all areas of E/R, accommodation & cargo spaces. Fire pumps & emergency fire P/P. Location of fire dampers. Location of quick closing valves and remote stops for fire control station. Location of water tight door local and remote operation and their control Location of fire control plan and with international shore coupling. The following items to be inspected for condition and operation:Confirming that the fire control plans are properly posted. An examination of the fire main system and confirming that each fire pump including emergency fire P/P can be operated separately so that required jet of water can be produced simultaneously from different hydrants and different pumps An examination as far as possible and testing of the fire and/or smoke detection system. Confirming as far as practical that remote control for stopping fan and fuel P/P and for shutting off fuel supplies in machinery spares are in working order. An examination of the closing arrangement for ventilators, funnel flaps skylights door ways etc. 4. Machinery(including critical machinery): The new Chief Engineer for passenger ship should list out critical machinery operating procedure along with out going C/E if any deficiency observed should be rectified.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Main engine change over procedures to emergency mode from remote / bridge control. Emergency steering gear. Fire pumps and emergency fire P/P. Emergency generator and emergency battery. Emergency air compressor, time taken for filling up the emergency air bottle. Sprinkler sea water P/P in/ out and compressor. Satisfactory operation of bow thrusters (if any fitted) Satisfactory operation of fin stabilizers (if any fitted) 148 Answer:(ADOPTED : 1-11-1974, IN FORCE : 25-5-1980) Main Objects : Of the convention is 1) To specify the minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ships, and their reliability toward safety. 2) Flag states are responsible for ensuring that ships under their flag, comply with its requirements. 3) A no. of certificates are prescribed in the convention as a proof of compliance. 4) Control provisions allow contracting governments to inspect the ships of other contracting governments if their are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements of the convention this procedure is known as PORT STATE control. RESPONSIBILITIES & CONTROL PROVISIONS Chapter 1 : General provisions of the SOLAS 1974 convention includes provisions for the control of ships in ports of other contracting Governments. a) The contracting governments undertake to give effect to provisions of the present convention and the Annex there to, which shall continue an integral part of the present convention b) The contracting governments undertake to promulgate all laws, decreases, orders and regulations and to take all other steps which may be necessary to make the present convention effective, so as to ensure that the safety of seafarers on board is not impaired and the ship is fit for the service for which it is intended. CHAPTER OF SOLAS The current SOLAS convention articles setting out general obligations, amendments procedure and so on followed by an annexure divided into 12 chapters. CHAPTER General Provisions This Chapter includes regulations concerning the survey of the various types of ships and the issuing of the documents signifying that the ship meets the requirements of the convention. This chapter also include the provisions for the control of the ship in the ports of the contracting governments. Chapter II - 1 Construction : subdivision and stability machinery and Electrical installations. The Subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments must be such that after assumed damage to the ships hull the vessel will remain afloat and stable. The degree of sub division measured by the maximum permissible distance between two adjacent bulkhead varies with ships length and the service in which it is engaged the highest degree of subdivision apply to passenger ships. Requirements covering machinery and electrical installation are designed to ensure that the services which are essential for the safety of the ship are maintained under various emergency conditions. CHAPTER 2-II Construction : Five protection, Five detention and fire extinction

This chapter includes detailed five safety provisions for all ships and specific measures for passenger ships, cargo ships and tankers they include the following principle. 1) Division of ships into main and vertical zones by thermal and structural soundness. 2) Separation of the accommodation spaces thermal and structural boundary. 3) Restricted use of combustible materials 4) Detection of any five in the zone of origin. 5) Containment and extension of five in the space of origin. 6) Protection of the means of escape of excepts for fire fighting purpose 7) Ready stability of fire extinguishing appliances 8) Minimization of the possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapor. CHAPTER - 3 CHAPTER - 4 CHAPTER - 5 Deal with the life saving appliances and arrangements for passenger and cargo ships Deals with Radio communications provision of communication services, GMDSS and ship requirements radio from the reminder of the ship by

Deals with the safety of navigation which includes navigational warnings, life saving signals, ship reporting system ship meaning, carriage requirement for ship borne navigational systems. Deals with carriage of cargoes which deal with special provision for bulk cargo other then given are carriage of grains. Deal with the carriage of dangerous goods which includes carriage of delivery goods in packaged form, in solid form in bulk, covers construction of ships carrying dangerous liquids chemicals in bulk and construction of ship carrying liquefied gasses in bulk, Nuclear ships : Give requirement for nuclear powered ships and is particularly concerned with reduction hazards. Management for safe operation of ships. The chapter makes mandatory the international safety management (ISM) code, which requires a safety management system to be established by the ship owner or any person who how taken responsibility of managing the ship. Safety measures for High speed craft

CHAPTER - 6 CHAPTER - 7

CHAPTER - 8 CHAPTER - 9

CHAPTER - 10

CHAPTER - II - I Deals with special measured to enhance maritime safety which include enhanced surveys, ships ID number PSC operational requirement. CHAPTER II - 2 Deals with special measures to enhance maritime security which includes 'ISPS' codes and responsibility of company, ship and port. Deals with additional safety measures for bulk carriers which include damage stability requirement applicable to bulk carriers & structured strength of Bulk carriers.

CHAPTER 12

149. Highlight the following amendments to IMO Conventions and its effects in ship operation thereof. Mention their date of entry into force (a) CLC and Fund Convention (b) SOLAS-IMDG Code An older version of CLC convention was adopted by IMCO in 1969 and came into force on 19-6-75. An amendment was adopted in 1992 and entered into force on 30th May 1996. In October 2002 another amendment, giving the new limits for liability was adopted and entered into force on 1-11-2003. Objectives:1. Ensure adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer from oil pollution by ships even if the owner is unable to pay the same.

2.

Adopt uniform international rules & produces to determine civil liability etc., for losses due to pollution of oil from ships. (Note : civil liability means responsibility to compensation etc. in money. It does not include criminal liability may be finalized by fines and / or imprisonment etc.,) To encourage government and others to feel more confident in taking early and decisive action in containing / minimizing the adverse effects of oil pollution . Salient features of this convention : The owner of every tanker is liable for pollution damage caused by his tanker (even though he may have taken all possible care and precautions) unless the damage is caused by reasons external to (i.e., not connected with) the ownership and operation of the tanker) This strict liability is based on the principle "polluter may pay. The owner of every tanker may limit his total liability in the following manner. For a ship not exceeding 500 gt liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR. For a ship 5000 to 140,000 gt liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR plus 631 SDR for each additional gross tonnage over 5000. For a ship over 140,000 gt liability is limited to 89.77 million SDR (1 SDR = 15 GF, 1 GF = 65.5 mg of Gold of 900 fineness). No claim can be made against the charter include Bare boat, master, pilot crew, salver or agent of the ship. After a pollution incident, if owner wishes to avail of the benefit of limitation as described above, he deposits a run equal to its maximum liability either with the court or with any other competent authority of the country. If the owner incurs any expenses to prevent or minimize pollution damage, then such expenses are deductible from the amount deposited by the owner in the same ratio as other claims on the fund. The object of this provision is to encourage immediate measures by the owner to minimize / contain damage and be willing to spend money therefore. Every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or other financial security (such as a bank guarantor) to ensure that the tanker can meet her pollution damage liabilities to the extent indicated above. The flag state shall issue a certificate to each ship after she has complied with the above condition regarding financial security. The certificate must be carried on the ship and must show the name of the insurer etc., giving security in respect of the ship certificates by all countries that have ratified the convention. The liability insurer (P & I clubs) of the ship owner usually provides the proof of insurance policy / financial security. On the basis of this document the flag state issues the "certificate of civil liability of oil pollution damage" (CLC certificate) The certificate shall not be valid beyond the validity of the insurance policy. Any one who suffers loss due to oil pollution from a ship may she either the owner of the V/L or even the insurer who has issued the policy within three years of the loss. Ever if the owner goes into liquidation, the insurer continuous to be liable to those who may have suffered a loss. Fund Convention was first adopted in 1971. This was amended and renamed in 1992. Entered into force 30-5-96. Aim of this convention is to provide compensation for losses due to pollution where the security provided by the 1992 CLC convention is inadequate. Fund provides supplementary compensation to oil pollution disasters. The fund convention is an attempt to ensure that losses due to oil pollution damage are borne not only by the shipping industry, but in part also borne by the cargo interests.

3.

Salient features : 1. All persons / companies in any country importing more than 150,000 tons of oil in any year shall make contributions to the fund. This fund is managed as an independent entity under the overall supervision of al director who is appointed by and responsible to IMO. 2. October 2000 amendments which entered into force in 1-11-2003 raised the max. amount of compensation to 203 million SDR as compared to 135 million SDR. However, if three states contribute to the fund receive more than 600 million tones of oil per annum, the maximum amount is raised to 300, 740,000 SDR. Effects of CLC and fund convention in ship operation : 1. After the implementation of CLC convention every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or other financial security and obtain a certificate of CLC for oil pollution damage based on that. CLC convention fixed a upper limit to liability of ship owners in case of oil pollution from tankers so, ship owners were encouraged to invest in high risk venture like oil transportation. Both CLC & fund convention ensured adequate compensation is available to parties who suffer from oil pollution by ships even if the owner is located in a country for away from the scene of disaster or he may not have sufficient financial resources to meet all the claims. These conventions encourage government and others to take early and decisive action in containing or minimizing the adverse effects of oil pollution, because these conventions ensure adequate compensation. If owner incase any expenses to prevent of minimize pollution damage, then such expenses are deductible from his total liability. IMDG Code : The IMDG code was developed as a uniform international code for the transport of dangerous goods in packaged form by sea covering such matters pas packing, container traffic and stowage with particular reference to the segregation of in compatible substances. The IMDG code lays down basic principles; detailed recommendations for individual substances, materials and articles and a number recommendations for good operational practices including advice on terminology, packing, labeling, storage, segregation and handling and energy response action. The IMDG code was made mandatory from 1st Jan. 2004 by IMO, by adopting SOLAS chapter VII on 24 May 2002. This code applies to all ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form. Provisions of this code do not apply to ships stores. Effects of IMDG code in ships operation. 1) 2) In documents relating to the carriage of dangerous goods, a proper shipping name of this goods shall be used. The transport document prepared by the shipper shall be included a signed declaration or certificate that the consignment is properly packaged mark, labelled and in proper condition for carriage. The person responsible for loading a dangerous goods in a container shall provided a signed container packing certificate stating that cargo has been properly packed. Ship shall have a detailed storage plan which identify by class and sets out the location of all dangerous goods onboard. Administration shall issued detailed instruction on emergency response guide and medical first aid guide relevant to incidents involving dangerous goods.

2.

3.

4.

3)

4) 5)

150. Briefly discuss the reasons for Bulk-Carrier losses in the last decade and explain how provisions detailed in Chapter XII of SOLAS 74 as amended

will contribute towards the safety of bulk-carriers? Ans. Originally grain was carried in sacks

Then Bulk carrying concept

Sinkage

1948 & 1960, Solas required expensive temporary fittings and/or bagged grain

Next 4 years 6 ships loaded according to 1960 Solas were lost

Because it underestimated the Sinkage

IMO assembly in 1969 adopted new resolution 1969 equivalent grain regulation

These (1969 rules) were adopted in Solas 1974

IMO also adopted -

Code of safe practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes which was adopted in 1965

It categorized cargoes highlights dangers associated with shipment of particular cargo. Gives properties of different cargoes and handling procedures. It emphasis the need to distribute cargo throughout the ship to avoid overstressing and improve stability. Cone when loaded Angle between slope of cone and bottom of hold is called angle of repose

Iron has

high angle of repose

Grain has low angle of repose (more shifting ability) hence more prone to dry surface movement o To overcome this code states that cargo should be trimmed reasonably level and all spaces should be filled as fully as possible. o Use of shifting boards or bins

No. of accidents dropped during 1980s and it seemed to many that the problem of bulk carriers safety has been solved.

Until: 1990 1991

20 Bulk carrier sank 94 lives lost 24 Bulk carrier sank 154 dead

Investigation proceeded :1. Importance of age:There was a clear link between accidents and age of bulk carriers o 1990 18/20 ships lost were over 18 years old o In 1995 LR of shipping published a table giving details of accidents involving 88 Bulk carriers between Jan 1990 and Dec 1994 only 3 ships were less than 10 years old and nearly half were over 20 years Corrosion and fatigue:The main reason why age is so relevant here is that corrosion and general fatigue increases as ship grows older. This is partly because of stress to which the ship is inevitably subjected by routine operation, cargo handling, weather, waves and partly due to sea water effect on steel. Bulk carriers is great lakes survive to 50 or 60years sulphur residues present in coal also aggravate the corrosion.

2.

Intercargo investigations shows:of 15 losses in 1994 40% were caused by plate failure followed by ingress of sea water. 6 - 7% losses never explained because ships disappeared too quickly. 70% losses occurred in heavy weather American B.S. in 1991 said The recent spate of casualties on conventional bulk carrier appears to be directly traceable to failure of cargo hold structure. L.R said :that prime cause of most casualties is the inability of the side structure to withstand the combination of local corrosion, fatigue cracking and operational damage. Operational Factors:Corrosion was important so was physical damage suffered during operations. Loading pattern can make the effect worse.

A) B)

Dense cargoes like iron ore often carried in alternate holds to raise (CG). This according to LR increases the stress on inner hull components (Bulkheads etc) Cargo handling method:For faster turn-around the loading rate is increased some terminals can load up to 16000 ton / hr. iron ore. IACS in a report said high cargo rates under uncontrolled process could result in an over loading which can cause local or global damage.

1994 One proof was when vessel TRADE DRINKING, Cyprus, 1974, 145000 dwt, breaks at Ponta Madeira July 1993 - wreck of Derbyshire (went down Sept 1980) 1991 Mineral Diamond (Anglo Eastern) but in 1976 all 26 died In a study by IACS showed that a 5% overload shear forces by 5% 10% overload force by 20% increases still water bending moment by 15% & increases still water bending moment by 40% and shear

A 10 percent overload could be caused by a 5 to 8 min delay in stopping conveyor belt with capacity of 16000 t/hr Last of the cargoes are removed by bull dozers and hydraulic hammers fitted to extended arms of tractors Question of attitude Owners try to run ships where Port State Controls are relaxed High tensile steel:In early 1980s increasing use has been made of high tensile steel, especially in construction of bulk carriers. As thinner plates can be used without loosing any strength. A normal MS plate will be 24-29 mm thick, using HT steel this can be reduced to 20mm. The weight saving might amount to several thousand tons. This cuts building costs and enables to carry more cargo. But there is a price to pay one simple fact that HT corrodes just as quickly as MS. As HT plates are thinner, corrosion is likely to reach danger point more quickly. IACS observed that most common example where failure had occurred on HTS built bulk carriers was at side longitudinal connection to web frame. According to LR in Sep 1995, HTS ships are also prone to a phenomenon known as springing Chapter XII:- (13 Regulations)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Enhanced survey schedule Old fore most cargo hold flooding New any cargo hold flooding Code of safe practice for loading & unloading (BLU Booklet) Any restriction of cargo type. Loadicator Bilge Alarms Pumping system 151. List the amendments to the existing Conventions of IMO to come into force in the year 2005. Briefly describe the amendments. What changes are likely to be foreseen on ship operation worldwide on implementation of these amendments?

Ans) The amendments to the existing conventions of IMO to come into force in the year 2005 are as under:2) MARPOL 73/78 (Adopted: 4 Dec 03, Enforced: Apr. 05) Annex I - Phasing out cat 1 tanker 2005 from 2007 cat 2 & 3 tanker 2010 from 2015 CAS for all single hull tanker more than 15 yrs new reg 13H 3) LL 1966 ( Adopted: jun-03, Enforced:1 Jan 05) Amend to annex B 4) FUND 1971 (Adopted:16 May 03, Enforced : 3 Mar 05) supplementary fund

1)MARPOL 73/78 (Adopted 1 Apr 04, Enforced: 1 Aug 05) amend annex IV and V 5) MARPOL 73/78 (Adopted: 26 Sept 97, Enforced 19 May 05) Protocol of 1997 add annex VI

MARPOL 73/78 1) The protocol of 1997 (Annex VI-Regulations for the prevention of Air Pollution from ships) Adoption : 26 September 1997 Entry into force : 19 May 2005 The protocol adds a new Annex VI on Regulation for the prevention of Air pollution from ships to the convention. The rules set limits on sulphur oxide (Sox) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from exhaust and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances.

Annex VI Includes a global cap of 4.5% m/m on the sulphur content of fuel oil and calls for IMO to monitor the world wide avg sulphur content of fuel oil

Contains provisions allowing for special Sox emission Control Areas to be established with more stringent control on sulphur emissions.

In this area the sulphur content of fuel oil used on board ships must not exceed 1.5% m/m or alternatively ships must fit an exhaust gas cleaning system or use any other technological method to limit SOx emissions. The Baltic sea is designated as a Sox Emission control area in the protocol.

It prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances, which includes halons and chlorofluorocarbons

(i) new installations are prohibited on all ships (ii) new installations containing HDFCs are permitted until 1 Jan 2020

Note:- These requirements of IMO are in accordance with the Montreal Protocol of 1987, as amended in London in 1990 The Montreal Protocol is an international environmental treaty, drawn up under the auspices of the UN, under which nations agreed to cut CFC consumption and production in order to protect the ozone layer.

It sets limits or emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engines. A mandatory NOx technical code developed by IMO defines how this is to be done.

as (PCBs).

It also prohibit he incineration on board ships of certain products, such contaminated packaging materials and polychlorinated ..

Also, appendices of the Annex VI give criteria and procedures for

(i) designation of Sox emission control areas (ii) information for inclusion in the tanker delivery note

(iii) approval and operating limits for shipboard incinerators (iv) test cycles and weighting factors for verification of compliance of marine diesel engines with the NOx limits and (v) details of surveys and inspections to be carried out.

2) The 2003 Amendments Adoption Entry into force : : 4 December 2003 April 2005

Regulation 13G of Annex I was revised: The final phasing out date for cat 1 tankers (pre-MARPOL) is brought forward to 2005 from 2007. The final phasing out date for Cat 2 and Cat 3 tankers (MARPOL tankers and small tankers) is brought forward to 2010 from 2015 Under the revised regulations, the condition Assessment Scheme (CAS) is to be made applicable to all single hull tankers of 15 yrs or older It allows the Admin to permit continued operation of Cat 2 or 3 tankers beyond 2010 subject to satisfactory results from the CAS, but the continued operation must not go beyond the anniv of the date of delivery of the ship in 2015 or the date on which the ship reaches 25 years of age after the date of its delivery whichever is earlier. A new regulation 134 to Annex I of MARPOL on the prevention of oil pollution from oil tankers when carrying heavy grade oil (HGO) the carriage of HGO

(i) In single hull tankers of 5000 tons dwt and above (ii) in single hull oil tankers of 600 tons dwt and above but less than 5000 tons dwt not later than the anniv. of their delivery date in 2008. The regulation defines HFO as any of the following: (i) Crude oils having a density higher than 900 kg/m3@ 15oC (ii) fuel oils having a density higher than 900 kg/m3@15oC or a kinematic viscosity higher than 180mm2/s @ 15oC (iii) bitumen, tar and their emulsions.

The regulation has some exemption like it may allow operation of (i) Oil r\tankers 5000 tons dwt and above carrying crude oil with a density higher than 900kg/m3 but lower than 945kg/m3 @ 15oC with satisfactory CAS results and (ii) single hull oil tankers of 600 tons dwt and above dwt less than 5000 tons dwt, if in the opinion of the Admin the ship is fit o continue such operation and (iii) an oil tanker 600 tons dwt and above engaged in voyages exclusively with in an area under the Partys jurisdiction or under the jurisdiction of another party, provided it aggress and (iv) the same applies to floating storage units (FSUs)

all the above may be denied if the party feels this is necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of a ship or caving life at sea

3) The 2004 (April) Amendments Adoption Entry into force : : 1 April 2004 1 August 2005

The revised Annex will apply to new ships engaged in international voyages of 400 GRT and above or which are certified to carry more than 15 persons. Existing ships will be required to comply with the provisions of the revised Annex IV five years after the date of its entry into force. The Annex requires ships to be equipped with either a sewage treatment plant or a sewage commuting and disinfecting system or a sewage holding tank. The discharge of sewage into the sea will be prohibited, except when (i) the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or (ii) in discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance or more than three nautical miles from the nearest land or (iii) is discharging sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land Also, amendments to the appendix to MARPOL Annex V on prevention of pollution by garbage from ships which relate to the recording of the disposal of cargo residues in the Garbage record Book. International Convention on Loadlines, 1966 2003 Amendments Adopted Entry into Force : : June 2003 1 January 2005

The amendments to Annex B to the 1988 load lines protocol include a number of important revisions, in particular to regulations concerning strength and intact stability of ships International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund Compensation for Oil pollution Damage (Fund), 1971 The 2003 Protocol (Supplementary Fund) Adoption Entry into Force : : 16 May 2003 3 March 005

The 2003 protocol establishing an International Oil Pollution Compensation Supplementary Fund was adopted by a diplomatic Conference held at IMO headquarters in London. The aim of the established fund is to supplement the compensation available under the 1992 civil liability and fun conventions with an additional their tier of compensation. It is optional and the total amount of compensation payable for any one incident will be limited to a combined total of 750 million special Drawings Rights (SDR) (just over Rs 1000 million) including the amount of compensation paid under the existing CLC/fund conventions

152

Various IMO convention have been developed to deal with the prevention of pollution by ships. Various IMO instruments are listed below.: 1) MARPOL - 73/78 : International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships 1973, as modified by the protocol of 1978. The various annexes to this conventions are as follows : Annex - I : Deals with regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil. Entry into force on 2nd October 1983. Methods and aids to prevents pollution includes following : a) International oil pollution prevention certificate (IOPP) - (Reg.5) This certificate is mandatory / statutory certificate to be issued in initial or renewal survey, to any takes of 150GT and other ships 400 GT. Valid for 5 years issued by administration. Oil Discharge monitoring and control system (ODMCS) shall be provided for tankers to control oil in shops (Reg.-15) Oil filtering equipment, OWS, for any ship 10,000 GT, should be provided with alarm and automatic stopping device, in case the effluent exceeds 15 ppm, for E/R bilges. Bilge water, sludge and dirty oil reception facilities to be provided at all ports or terminals (Reg.-12) Segregated clean ballast tanks (SBT) and crude it working system (COW) to be provided for oil tankers. Imploding the requirements for the design & construction of oil tankers to prevent oil pollution in the Event of collision and standing. Reg. 13F for new tankers & Reg. 13G for hinting tankers which apply to crude carriers 20,000 DWT and product carriers 30,000. Introduction of Enhanced survey programs during periodical almost & intermediate surveys. (phasing out of single hull tankers) g) h) Oil record book : Every tanker 180 GT & other ships 400 GT shall have an oil record book. Reg. 20 Shipboard oil pollution Emergency plan (SOPEP) Reg.26 Every tanker 150 GT and others 400 GT shall carry supplied SOPEP plan by Administration. Sufficient sludge and bilge water holding tanks stop should be provided to all ships. Double hull and double bottom requirements for oil tanks delivered after 6 July 1996 & before 6 July 1996. (reg.19) Pump room (cargo) bottom protection (Reg.22) Limitation of size & arrangement of cargo tanks. Annex - II Defines regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk. Methods and aids to prevent pollution includes :

b) c)

d) e) f)

i) j) k) l)

a) b)

Categorization and control of noxious liquid substances in and outside special areas Reg. 3 & 5 Cargo record book : To record loading, unloading cleaning and ballasting facilities at terminals for discharge of residues and mixtures containing NLS Reg.7. To have shipboard marine pollution prevention Emergency plan (SMPEP) along with SOPEP or a combined plan. Annex - III Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form E/F = 1st July 1992

c)

a) b) c)

Marking and labeling - Reg 3. Storage shall be properly stored and secured so as to minimize hazards Reg.5. Document correct technical names to be used and further identified by the words marine pollutant. International maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) Code : defines the harmful substances, which are identified as marine pollutants. Annex IV : Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships forced on 27th Sept. 2003. Methods and aids :

a) b) c) d)

An International sewage pollution prevention certificate is issued by the administration after survey has been carried out in accordance with reg.3. Ship must have in operation an administration approved sewage treatment plant Reg.8 Reception facilities at ports & terminals Reg.10. Standard discharge connection. Annex V - Regulation for prevention of pollution by garbage from ships E/F 31st dec. 1988. Methods and Aids

a) b) c) d) e)

Requirements for disposal of garbage with in & outside sp. areas. Reception facilities in parts & terminals. Placards shall be displayed for every 12 m ship for the crew. Every ship 400 GT to carry garbage management plan. Garbage record book required for ship > 400 GT and preserved for 2 years after last entry. Annex VI : Regulation for prevention of air pollution from ships enforced 19th May 2005 Methods and Aids :

a) b) c)

Ships must have an International Air Pollution prevention (IAPP) certificate by administration, after initial survey. valid for 5 years. Restriction of use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as HCFCs. phasing out of existing ODSs by 1st January 2020. (i.e. R-22) Control of emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) by limiting sulphur contest of fuel oil to 4.5% m/m and 1.5% for sulphur emission control areas (SECAs) Reg.13 Installation of approved incinerators with monitoring devices for fuel gas outlet and combustion chamber temperatures. Reception facilities for exh. gas cleaning residues, oil etc. Bunker delivery notes must specify parameters of fuel supplied, F.O. samples must be taken in continuous drip method, stored for not less than 12 months. VOC system for tankers sailing to VOC designated port.

e) f) g) h) i)

As a Chief Engineer on board ship, one must ensure the following, for successful implementation of methods and aids to prevent pollution to the Environment. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Familiarization of personnel's responsible for operating pollution preventing equipment, with the operation & maintenance of equipment Familiarization of personnel with MARPOL regulations. Regular testing of parts / million equipment, (15ppm), alarms and stops. Must ensure minimum recommended spares always onboard for pollution prevention equipment. Eg. spare set of filter cartridge. Proper documentation via IOPP, LAPP, ISPP certificate and their validity. Surveys due for pollution prevention equipment. Bunker checklist bunker transfer procedures are clearly posted. To properly keep bunker samples & delivery notes. Operating procedures for pollution prevention equipments must be clearly posted.

10) Regular testing of pollution prevention equipments. 11) Entries in oil record book. 12) Ensure sounding records updated. 13) Good E/R house keeping minimum leakages.

153. List the IMO Conventions and guidelines dealing with marine environment protection. State how each of the convention contributes to the protection of the marine environment. Ans) Convention are the main instruments of IMO, a binding legal instrument regulating some aspect of maritime affairs of major concern to IMO (eg safety, pollution). Various conventions have been developed to deal with the prevention of pollution by ships some of which are as listed below: (1) International Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships, 1973 as modified by the protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78). The various annexes to this convention are as follows:

a] Annexe-1: Deals with regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil. Entered into force on 2nd October 1983 few important regulations in this annexe includes the following (i) International Oil pollution prevention certificate (IOPP):- The IOPP certificate is issued after an initial or renewal survey to any oil tanker of ISO GT and above and other ships of 400 GT and above. The certificate is valid for 5 years and issued by the administration as per regulation 5. (ii) Oil discharging monitoring and control system of approved type to be fitted in tankers to provide a continuous record of the discharge in terms of quantity, oil content, rate etc as per regulation 15 which also regulates the retention quantity of oil on board. (iii) Oil filtering equipment or any ship of 10000 GT and above should be provided with arrangements for an alarm and automatic stopping device in case the effluent exceeds 15ppm (iv) Reception facilities to be provided at ports and terminals as per regulation 12. (v) Segregated clean ballast tanks (SBT) and crude oil washing system (COW) to be provided for oil tankers (vi) Improving the requirements for the design and construction of oil tankers to prevent oil pollution in the event of collision and stranding for new tankers and for existing ships. Which apply to crude carriers of 20000

DWT and above and product carriers more than 30000 DWT, which shall be subject to enhanced programme of inspections, during periodicals intermediate and annual surveys. (vii) Oil record book: Every oil tanker of 150 GT and above and all other ships of 400 GT and above shall have an oil record book for recording all oil transfers as well as recording all bilge and sludge transfers, oily water separator operations and incineration/disposal to shore regulam 20 (viii) Shipboard Oil pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) Reg 26 : Every tanker of 150 GT and above and all other ships of 400 GT and above shall carry on board an oil pollution emergency plan approved by the administration.

b] Annexe II: Defines regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substance in bulk. This involves entered into force on 6thn April 1987. (i) Categorization and control of discharge of noxious liquid substances in and outside special areas as per reg 3&5 (ii) Cargo record book which records loading unloading cleaning and ballasting facilities at terminals for discharge of residues and mixtures containing NLS-reg7 c] Annexe III: Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form entered into force on 1st July 1992. Important points in their annexe are (i) It contains general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on packing, marking, labeling, documentation, stowage, quantity limitations and exceptions and notifications for preventing pollution by harmful substances.

d] Annexe iv: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships entered into force 27th Sept 2003. The following are the important points in this annexe (i) An International Sewage pollution Prevention certificate is issued by the administration, after survey has been carried out in accordance with regulation 3 (ii) Ship must have in operation an administration approved sewage treatment plant to meet the operational requirements regulation 8 (iii) Reception facilities at ports and terminals for reception of sewage . Regulation 10 (iv) Standard discharge connections for discharge of sewage to terminals

e] Annexe v: Regulations for prevention of pollution by garbage from ships. Entered into force 31st Dec 1988 (i) It lays down requirements for disposal of garbage within and outside special areas. (ii) Reception facilities at terminals and ports to be provided for reception of garbage (iii)Placards to be displayed for every ship of 12m or more in length which notifies the crew of disposal regulations (iv) Every ship>400GT, certified to carry 15 persons or more shall have a garbage management plan, which provides written procedures for storing, collecting, processing and disposing of garbage.

(v) Garbage Record book required for ships>400GT and carrying more than 15 persons which shall be preserved for 2 years after the last entry is made.

Annexe vi: Regulations for prevention of air pollution from ships. Entered into force 19th May 2005 (i) Issue of International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) certificate by the administration after initial survey as per regulation which will be valid for 5 years (ii) Restriction on use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as HCFCs on board ship (iii) Control of emission of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from diesel engines and other modes of propulsion (Reg 13) (iv) Control of emission of Sulphur Oxides (Sox) by limiting Sulphur content of fuel to 4.5% m/m and 1.5% m/m for Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) (Reg 14) (v) Installation of approved incinerators for shipboard incineration of sludge and oil waste. The fuel gas outlet temperature and combustion chamber outlet temperatures are monitored (vi) Bunker delivery Note (BDN) must specify in detail the parameters of the fuel supplied and these are to be retained on board for a period of 3 years after the bunkers are received. (vii) F.O.Sample to be taken continuously by an approved sampling method and stored in a clearly marked designated place for a period of not less than 12 months from the time of delivery. (viii) ODCs should be clearly marked and stored in a designated place assigned for that purpose (ix) VOC system for tankers sailing to a VOC designated port.

2) International Convention relating to Intervention on the High seas in cases of Oil pollution causalities 1969. Entered into force on 6th May 1975. this convention affirms the right of coastal state to take such measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent mitigate or eliminate danger to its coastline. The 1973 protocol extends convention to even cover pollutants other than oil. 3) Convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter (LDC), 1972. Entered into force on 30th Aug 1975. This is also known as the LONDON Convention 1972. it prohibits dumping of certain hazardous materials, requires a prior special permit for the dumping of a number of other identified materials and a prior general permit for other wastes or matter. 4) International Convention on oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation (OPRC 1990) entered into force on 13th MAY 1995 The convention requires (a) Ships must carry an approved plan

(b) Provide for establishment of a stock of oil spill combating equipment. Holding of oil spill combating drills and development of detailed plans for dealing with pollution incidents (c) All parties must provide assistance to others in the event of an emergency

5) Protocol on preparedness response and cooperation to pollution incidents by hazardous and Noxious substances, 2000: Adoption 15 March 2000. Entry into force: twelve months after ratification by not less than fifteen states which are states party to the OPRC conventions. 6) International Convention on the control of Harmful anti fouling systems on ships (AFS), 2001 Adoption: 5th October 2001. Entry into force: the convention will enter into force 12 months after 25 states representing 25% the worlds merchant shipping tonnage have ratified it.This convention prohibits the use of harmful organisations (in antifouling paints) used on ships and establishes a procedure to prevent potential suture use of other harmful substances in anti fouling systems 7) International convention for the control and Management of ships ballast water and sediments, 2004 Adoption 13th February 2004. Entry into force 12 months after ratification by 30 states, representing 35 per cent of world Merchant Shipping tonnage.

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The June 1997 Amendments Adoption : 4th June 1997 Entry in to force : 1st July 1999 SOLAS Chapter II-I New Regulation 8.3 on special requirement for passenger ships, other than RO-RO passenger ships carrying 400 persons or more.

The November 1995 amendments Adopted 29th November 1995 Entry in to force 1st July 1997

SOLAS ro-ro passenger ship stability standards :Regulation 8-1 Of SOLAS Chapter II-I provides that ro-ro passenger ships built after 1st July 1997 must comply with regulation II- 1/8, (stability of passenger ships in damaged condition), as amended by Resolution MSC-12(56), not later than a date of compliance which is tabulated in the regulation according to the value of the ships A/Amax and which ranges from 1st OCT 1998(for ships with an A/Amax of less than 85%,) to 1st OCT 2005,(for ships with an A/Amax of 97.5% or more). In the case of a ro-ro passenger ship carrying 400 persons or more (including crew), Regulation 8-2 applies notwithstanding the provisions of regulation 8 and 8-1 and the compliance date is modified with the new standard until OCT 2010.

The Conference also adopted a new regulation 8-2, containing special requirements for ro-ro passenger ships carrying 400 passengers or more, this is intended to phase out ships built to a one compartment standard and ensure that they can survive without capsizing with two main compartments flooded following damage. Amendments to Chapter II, changes arrangements of life saving appliances and arrangements, including the public address system, information of passenger and the provision of a helicopter pick-up or landing area, other Chapter IV radio communication & chapter V Safety of navigation & working language.

The November 1997 SOLAS Conference : The November 1997 Conference adopted a new chapter XII to SOLAS Additional safety measures for bulk carriers, which entered in to force on 1st July 1999. The new requirements cover survivability and structural requirements to prevent bulk carriers from sinking if water enters the ship for any reason. Existing ships which do not comply with the appropriate requirements will have to be reinforced or they may have to limit either the loading pattern of the cargoes they carry or move to carrying lighter cargoes, such as grain or timber. The regulations state that all new bulk carriers 150 mts or more in length (built after 1st July 1999) carrying cargoes with a density of 1000kg/m3 and above should have sufficient strength to withstand flooding of any one cargo hold, taking in to account dynamic effects resulting from presence of water in the hold and taking in to account recommendations adopted by IMO. For existing ship (built before 1st July 1999) carrying bulk cargoes with a density of 1780 kg/m3 and above, the transverse watertight bulkhead between the two foremost cargo hold should have sufficient strength to withstand flooding and the related dynamic effects in the foremost cargo hold. Cargoes with a density of 1780 kg/m3 and above include iron ore, pig iron, steel bauxite and cement. Less denser cargoes, but with a density of more than 1000 kg/m3, include grains such as wheat and rice, and timber. Chapter XII allows surveyors to take in to account restrictions on the cargo carried when considering the need for, and the extent of, strengthening of the transverse watertight bulkhead or double bottom. When restrictions on cargoes are imposed, the bulk carrier should be permanently marked with a solid triangle on its side shell. The date of application of Chapter XII to existing bulk carriers depends on their age. Bulk carriers which are 20 yrs old and above on 1st July 1999 have to comply by the date of the first intermediate or periodical survey after that date, whichever is sooner. Bulk carriers aged 15-20 yrs must comply by the first periodical survey after 1st July 1999, but not later than 1st July 2002. Bulk carriers less than 15 yrs old must comply by the date of the first periodical survey after the ship reaches 15 yrs of age, but not later than the date on which the ship reaches 17 yrs of age. The criteria and formulae used to assess whether a ship currently meets the new requirements, for example in terms of the thickness of the steel used for bulkhead structures, or whether reinforcement is necessary, are laid out in IMO standards adopted by the Conference. Under the new Chapter XII, surveyors can take in to account restrictions on the cargo carried in considering the need for and the extent of strengthening of the transverse bulkhead or double bottom. The SOLAS Conference also adopted a number of Resolutions including:Recommendations on Compliance with SOLAS Regulation XII/5 (IACS) :The Resolution refers to the new requirement for bulk carriers built on or after 1 July 1999 and notes unified requirements issued by IACS regarding longitudinal strength, evaluation of scantlings and evaluation of allowable hold loading for single side-skin construction, whether or not they are classed with classification societies which are members of IACS, to comply with the IACS unified requirements.
st

Hull stress monitoring equipment on bulk carrier above 200 dwt or more :Standards for the evaluation of scantlings of the bulkhead between the two foremost cargo holds and standards for the evaluation of allowable hold loading of the foremost cargo hold. The Resolution sets out the standards, which are mandatory under Regulation 6 of the new Chapter XII. The technical standards provide formulae for calculating when steel renewal is necessary on scantlings, and for calculating the allowable hold for a bulk carrier, taking in to account load and the shear capacity of the double bottom.

Recommendation on loading instruments :The Resolution urges Governments to apply IACS Recommendation No. 48 on loading instruments when approving loading instruments as required by Regulation 11 of the new Chapter XII, and to ensure that loading instruments already fitted have been approved in accordance with the standards of recognized organization.

State the action taken by a survey society towards handling of an ISM certificate in case (I) When a major non-conformity is found (ii) When non-conformities are found (iii) When extension of the certificate is requested for (iv) When revision of an entry for a certificate is requested for. Under what circumstances may SMC and DOC be invalidated. Ans. As per ISM, a major non conformity is defined as an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety of personnel or to the ship or a serious risk to the environment and requires immediate corrective action & include the lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of the ISM code.
196.

A major non conformity can arise where there has been a serious breach of the SMS such as failure to under take management reviews or internal audits or perhaps a vital piece of machinery or technical system has been left out of SMS. If might also include a failure to implement properly the SMS. For example : where crew member make a tick mark of fill a form to show that maintenance is being carried out but without actually performing the maintenance or reporting defects i) When a major non conformity is found if can lead to either SMC or DOC or both being withdrawn or becoming invalid. ii) Any non-conformity from precious external audit for which corrective action has not been taken within specified time period shall be recorded a major non -conformity and a major non-conformity can lead to withdrawal or invalidation of both smc and doc. iii) Reasons for which a Doc may become invalid / withdrawn : a) Corrective action are not taken within the agreed time period. b) A periodical verification is not requested. c) A renewal assessment is not undertaken as required. d) Applicable amendments to the ISM code are not taken info account. e) There is an evidence of an unresolved existing major non conformity f) Cancellation is requested by the doc holder. g) Substantial modification to the sms is not notified to the administration and rectified by the auditor. iv) Reasons for which smc may become invalid / withdrawn include 1) Any condition as mentioned below are not met existence of a Doc (not interim doc) valid for that type of ship. maintenance of compliance with the requirement with national / and international regulatory requirements. Maintenance of valid statutory certificate. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Corrective action are not completed with the agreed time period A periodical verification is not carried out. A renewal assessment is not undertaken as required. There is an evidence of an existing major non-conformity. Cancellation is requested by the Doc holder. Substantial modification to the sms is not modified to the maritime Administration & verified by the Auditor. iv) INTERIM DOC : An interim Doc may be issued to facilitate initial implementation of the Ism code in cases where compliance with Ism code is a

new requirement or where changes to the company administration or its operations have rendered the existing certificate in appropriate for example when a company is newly establish or where new ship types are added to the existing Doc. An interim Doc valid for not more than 12 months may be issued to a company following a demonstration at the company premises that the company has a documented sms which address all elements of the ism code & that plans exists for its implementation throughout the organization and its fleet within the period of validity of the interim Doc. the purpose of such implementation may be reviewed and verified at regular intervals during the validity of the interim doc. It is required that the company demonstrates plans to implement a sms, meeting the full requirement of the Ism code within the period of validity of interim Doc.

202

List the objectives of an ISM Internal Audit of a ship. How an internal audit helps in External Audit of a vessel? Name the salient issues addressed in the Internal Audit and the persons responsible to carry out the same. Ans. Internal audit is carried out to verify whether the various elements of the Safety Management System of the organization are effective and suitable, in achieving the stated management objectives. The auditor should check: Plans / procedures are being followed Laws and regulations are being followed Records / Documentations are being maintained to provide adequate and accurate information Deficiencies are identified and corrective action taken Personnel are familiar with the use of SMS As per ISM Code Part A element 1.4, Functional Requirement for a Safety Management System are to be taken in consideration during the Internal Audit. If any deficiency is found can be corrected regards to:(a) Procedures (b) Personnel (c) Non-conformity (d) Corrective action How Internal Audit helps in External Audit: The Internal Audit is carried out as per the procedure laid down in companys SMS at regular interval(functional requirement of SMS as per ISM Code Part A 1.4) It is conducted by companys person who is other than the field of auditee Any deficiency found can be corrected as per procedure laid down in companys field If any deficiency found, concerned responsible person is informed By this all documents, displays, procedures, emergency equipments etc., are checked for proper order As it is only company matter so time is not the issue. By this it can be said that internal audit is helpful for external audit. Salient issues addressed in the internal audit are: About safety and environment protection policy Instruction and procedure to ensure safe operation of ships Level of authority and lines of communication between shore and shipboard personnel Procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities

Procedures to prepare for and respond to emergency situations Companys DOC validation Person who carry out the Internal Audit is Companys man and most probably from ISM cell. D.P. is the responsible person for carrying out / organizing the internal as well as the external audit The audit is carried out by a competent person belonging to the department other than the field being audited. He must have gone through the auditor courses and must be trained. He must be familiar with the company procedure with regards to:--- Conducting audit ---- Corrective action and procedure

203

The ISM Code Section 12 (company verification, review and evaluation) make it mandatory to maintain and control the shore and ship based safety management system. Objective Of Internal Audit:a) Internal Audit are conducted for self-evaluation of the safety management system on board. b) Whether companys safety and environmental policy is continually (still) in compliance with the requirement of this code. c) Any deficiencies as regards to the below can be corrected:i) Procedure:- Testing procedure for lifeboat engine, arrival/departure procedure etc. ii) Personnel:- Maintaining of training records, familiarisation with equipments and their duties etc. iii) Documents:- Update for any recent changes incorporated like deletion of concerned section from ORB as regards to discharge through 100 ppm equipment kept with concerned book; permit to work etc., iv) Corrective Action :- Reporting of near misses and SMS incorporated the change etc. v) Non-Conformity Reporting as per above. How Internal Audit helps in External Audit:1) The Internal Audit is carried out as per the laid procedure of the companys SMS at regular intervals by competent person/persons. 2) Any deficiency found can be corrected as per procedure laid down in SMS. The deficiency is generally conveyed to the responsible person, who in turn takes corrective action for the same. Internal Audit is conducted as the same strength and intensity as External Audit and off course before the occurrence of an External Audit. Any deficiency/non-conformity which would have been left un-attended or un-addressed till the time of External Audit, thus will be brought up and corrective action procedure laid down for, during the Internal Audits observation. Thus an Internal Audit helps a lot in conducting of External Audit; the effectiveness of the former will certainly affect the effectiveness of the latter.

As laid down, the dynamic elements of ISM Code which enable continuous improvements are :a) Personnel :- Master properly qualified and trained. Ship is manned with qualified, certificated, medically fit sea farers. New personnel are given proper familiarisation with their duties. Personnel involved in SMS should have adequate understanding of relevant rules, regulations, codes and guidelines. Training, safety drill, critical and emergency operation to be given. b) Procedure :-Procedure and instruction written in simple and clear language and understood by the personnel. Ship personnel are able to communicate effectively with passenger and other crews. c) Documentation :- Documentation control, validity of documents, change and amendment, obsolete documents and Safety Management Manual. Any non-compliance of the above with regards to applicable rules and regulations will incorporate a Non-Conformity Reporting to a responsible person, who will in turn be responsible for corrective actions as regards to the same. Last but not the least as the Company is responsible for maintaining the SMS up to date, it will also incorporate changes to the SMS as per the data received; through the Internal/External Audit and also being in constant touch with the latest amendments and legislations which may need to be addressed in SMS in the form of Corrective Action. Non-Conformance:- means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. This may be classed in to 2 categories:1) Minor Non-Conformity : In this case the threat to safety of ship, personnel or environment is very slight, like an omission of noting down the testing of steering gear before arrival in engine room log book or movement book. 2) Major Non-Conformity :- Any deviation which poses a serious threat to personnel, ship or environment and requires action. Like test showing that the tank vent for one tank not able to cope up with pressure rise caused by loading at full rate and SMS also omits the same, but plant manual has mention of the same. The same requires immediate rectification to both venting arrangement and the companys SMS, through a corrective action. Difference between Corrective Action and Preventive Action :Any procedure/measure or change incorporated in the SMS of the company, in response to the reporting of a Non-Conformity is classified as a corrective action. Like SMS incorporating the noting down of pre-arrival testing of steering gear in relevant sections of the log book and/or movement book. A preventive action on the other hand is any action which is generally performed in order to prevent occurrence of any accident. The preventive action list may be judiciously formulated by reading/understanding of a job and/or reading of code of safe working practices. The occurrence of preventive action may be helpful for ones safety.

204. With reference to ISM Code write short notes on (a) Role of company office (b) Advantage of drills and exercises (c ) Documented procedure (d) Management Review Ans. The purpose of ISM Code is to provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention The Assembly adopted Resolution A 443 (XI), by which it invited all governments to take the necessary steps to safeguard the ship master in the

proper discharge of his responsibilities with regard to maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment. The cornerstone of good safety management is commitment from the top in matters of safety and pollution prevention. It is the commitment, competence, attitudes and motivation of individuals at all levels that determine the end result. (a) Role of Company Office :- As per the ISM Code the company should establish a safety and environment protection policy and ensure that the policy is implemented and maintained at all levels of the organisation The Company should define & document the responsible authority and inter relationship of all personal related to and affecting safety and pollution prevention. The Company should designate a Designated person ashore (DPA) having direct access to the highest level of management The Company must define the masters authority & responsibility and ensure that the master and all other personnel are properly qualified for the job and fully conversant with the company safety management system. The Company should establish procedures, instructions and checklists for key shipboard operations. The Company should establish procedures to identify, describe and respond to potential emergency situations. The company should establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained in conformity with provisions of the relevant rules and regulations. The Company should establish and maintain procedures to control all documents and data which are relevant to the safety management system The Company should carry out internal safety audits to verify safety and pollution prevention activities comply with the safety management system.

(b) Advantages of drills and exercises :ISM Code element 8 deals with emergency preparedness and states that the Company should have an integrated ship and shore contingency plan comprising of Composition and duties of a person Procedure for mobilisation Procedures to follow in response to different types of accidents/hazardous occurrences Procedures for establishing and maintaining contact between ship and company office Availability of ship particulars, plans, stability information, safety and environment protection equipment on board. List of contact names & telecommunications details of all relevant parties who may need to be notified. Reporting methods for both ship and shore based management. Procedures for notifying and liaising with next of kin of persons on board Back up arrangements for companys initial response in the event of protected emergency Procedures for issuing info bulletins and answering queries from the media and public 1) Drills and exercises are important as they ensure all persons are well aware of their duties and responsibility in case of an actual emergency. 2) Drills develop confidence and competence of personnel who may be involved in actual emergencies.

3) Drills familiarise ship and shore personnel with companys documented procedures 4) And finally it is only by conducting drills and exercises that one can verify the suitability of the companys procedures; consequently shortcomings can be found out and rectified. (c) Documented Procedure :ISM Code element No. 7 Development of plans for shipboard operation :The Company should establish procedures for the preparation of plans and instructions, including checklists as appropriate, for key shipboard operations, concerning the safety of the ship and the prevention of pollution. The various tasks involved should be defined and assigned to qualified personnel (d) Management Review :ISM Code Element No.12 ( Company verification, Review and Evaluation ) 1) The Company should carry out internal safety audits to verify whether safety and pollution prevention activities comply with the safety management system. 2) The Company should periodically evaluate the efficiency of and, when needed, review the safety management system in accordance with procedures established by the Company 3) The audits and possible corrective actions should be carried out in accordance with documented procedures. 4) Personnel carrying out audits should be independent of the areas being audited unless this is impracticable due to the size and nature of the Company 5) The results of the audits and reviews should be brought to the attention of all personnel having responsibility in the area involved. 6) The management personnel responsible for the area involved should take timely corrective action on deficiencies found.

209.As a Chief Engineer you have joined a vessel which is about to undertake a six month round voyage. Underline and describe the key issues that you will inspect, check, prepare, establish and maintain towards proper Planned Maintenance of Engine Room and associated areas under ISM Codes. Ans. 1) Read the handing over notes of previous chief engineer thoroughly 2) Fuel oil, diesel oil, gas oil & lub oil soundings to confirm the actual figures match with the log book figures before taking over from outgoing C/E. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Voyage requirements to be ascertained Bunkers expected Consumption patterns; any special instructions for same Check oil record book Overdue certificates, surveys if any Status of main and auxiliary machinery 7) Since PMS is on the basis of running hours and time based, so record of running hours should be collected & checked from outgoing C/E 8) Spares: Check whether inventory is updated. There should be minimum no. of spares stock available on board at all times, for carrying out maintenance as per PMS. If no. of spares are not enough, then indent should be raised at the earliest. 9) Stores: Since the vessel is going on a long voyage, so required stock of stores should be available on board. Inventory should be updated. Requisition should be raised asap.

10) Pollution prevention equipment like OWS, Sewage Plant, Incinerator and associated pumping systems are in order 11) 12) board. 13) 14) 15) Be familiar with the vessels sailing program Check inventory of all important special and precision tools on Port State Control inspection records to be checked Readiness for Port State inspection Check all files and records

16) Check maintenance records carried out by the ship staff/workshops. 17) The maintenance carried out during each month shall be entered in the log abstract; & forwarded to the concerned superintendent at the end of every month. Renewal of major components, breakdown repair, detection of any cracks, other defects to be highlighted in the above abstract. 18) Complete set of drawings and instruction books/manuals as per the acceptance protocol shall be kept and indexed. In case of any structural change, modifications, renewal, retrofit or decommissioning of any equipment, the records shall be suitably amended with the concurrence of the concerned superintendent. 19) Random testing of alarms & critical safety devices should be carried out. Audio-visual alarms/cut-outs and auto starting of equipments, wherever provided shall be tested. Simulation test such as L.O. pressure, low cool water pressure, cut-outs, boiler water low alarm and low-low water cut-out should be checked regularly. Alarm devices should not be bypassed under normal running conditions; but if bypassed due to some reason, all concerned personnel should be informed. 20) Check the records of CSM(Continuous Survey of Machinery) & equipment certificates as well as original makers certificates as per the acceptance protocol. C/E should make sure that all the certificates under his charge are in order and valid. If any deficiency is found, it should be reported to the superintendent. 21) Check all engineer officers are familiar with PMS operations of all equipments & operations of all safety equipments, & Safety & Environmental Protection Policy of the company and they are strictly following it.

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Maintenance Plan : A maintenance plan should be such that it provides an efficient service at optimum cost. It is to be designed in a way to keep every machinery to an acceptable standard. Objectives of maintenance plan should be : a) b) c) Ensure ready availability of the equipment. To ensure adequate level of equipment efficiently (least Down Time) Above objectives should be achieved at an optimum cost. ISM code and planned Maintenance : ISM code element IO deals with the maintenance of ship and equipment. 10.1 10.2 Company procedures for maintenance. To meet above requirements company should ensure that. i) Inspections at appropriate intervals.

ii) iii) iv) 10.3

Nonconformities reported with possible causes. corrective action taken. Record of all above maintained.

Identification of critical equipment and its maintenance. A efficient and successful maintenance program can be designed and implemental on board by considering above mentioned guidelines mentioned in ISM code. Following key features should be considered when making & implementing PMS on board ship.

1.

Corrective Action Process : Identify The Problem Establish the clause Propose Solutions Evaluate solutions Accept One Implement solution Evaluate Effectiveness Effective In effective Reject All

Close 2) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) When developing and Improving maintenance procedures company should take into account the following. Maintenance recommendations and specifications of the equipment manufacturer. History of equipment including failures, defects and damages and the corresponding remedial action. The result of third party inspections. Age of the ship. Identified critical equipments and systems. The consequences of failure of equipment on the safe operation of ship. 3) A systematic Approach to maintenance : A systematic approach to maintenance will include. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Establishment of maintenance intervals. The definition of the methods and frequency of inspections. The specification of the type of inspection and measuring equipment to be used and accuracy required of it. Establishment of appropriate acceptance criteria (pass/fail). Assignment of responsibility for inspection activities to appropriately qualified personnel.

vi) vii)

Assignment of responsibility for maintenance activities to appropriately qualified personnel. Clear definition of reporting requirements and mechanisms. 4) Maintenance Interval : should be based on the following.

(i) (ii) iii)

Manufacturers recommendations and specifications. Predictive maintenance determination techniques (Lub oil analysis, vibration analysis) Practical experience in operation and maintenance of ship and its machinery, including historical trends in the results of the routine inspections and in nature and rate of failures. The use to which the equipment is put continuous, intermittent, stand by or emergency. Practical and operational restrictions e.g. inspection that can be only performed in d/dock. Intervals specified as part of class, convention, administration and company requirements. The need for regular testing of S/B arrangement. 5) Inspections : Procedure for planned inspection routines should be written to include the following.

iv) v) vi) vii)

i) ii) iii) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii)

Acceptance Criteria Use of suitable measuring and testing equipment. Calibration of measuring and testing equipment. Examples of inspection and test that may be employed. Visual Vibration Pressure Temperature Electrical Load Water Tightness Inspection methods :

Sometimes checklist should be developed to ensure that inspection, test and maintenance are performed according to the procedures, and at the specified intervals. These checklist can be developed from manufacturers recommendation or specifications.

223. With reference to project cost estimation towards a major ship repair with multiple activities, explain (i) Cost groups (ii) Cost parameters (iii) Work breakdown structure (WBS). How best in your opinion these modules assist towards an optimum ship repair cost estimation? Ans. Generally major ship repairs are carried out in dry-dock along with intermediate docking survey or 5-yearly docking survey or may be independently. a) Cost Groups:- With reference to major repairs cost estimation, cost groups are made for the jobs to be carried out to ascertain the time/cost quotation from repair yards. The cost groups are: 1) Deck: which includesi) Hull, tail shaft, rudder ii) Anchoring and deck machinery

iii) Cargo gear iv) Tanks cargo, fuel, ballast, slop v) Accommodation 2) Engine : i) Main & Propulsion machinery ii) Boilers (main & auxiliary) IGS Engine room tanks Engine room Auxiliary machinery 3) Electrical : which includes engine, deck, accommodation, bridge, galley, etc., related jobs. 4) Automation, Controls and Instrumentation related jobs. b) Cost Parameters : Cost parameters are those parameters which defines limits and scope of activity, such as :1) Breakdown maintenance or damage repair cost 2) General repair and maintenance cost 3) Spares procurement cost (only necessary spares) 4) Stores cost 5) Agency cost (i.e. agency fees) 6) Classification Surveyors fees 7) Repair yard cost (dry dock fee for dry-docking) c) Breakdown Structure : means break up of jobs and hence their cost for dry-docking repairs to obtain the time needed (which includes period of repair, dry-dock and lead time in weeks) as well as to obtain the repair cost and additional jobs quotations from the various yards. Then the best suited quotations are selected and the yard informed. A general work Breakdown Structure is as follows :Engine 1) Main engine / main turbine 2) Auxiliary machinery including generators, aux. condensers, steering, engine room pumps and pipes etc. 3) Aux. boiler work without re-tubing 4) Boiler survey, soot blowers and chemical cleaning. 5) Additional specifications boiler work 6) IGS 7) Electrical motors and switchboard 8) Electrical Additional specification 9) COP control and valves 10) Machinery controls, E/R instrumentation for M.E., Boiler, etc. 11) Additional specification for boiler controls. 12) Navigational equipment 13) Radio and equipment 14) Safety & equipment 15) Miscellaneous jobs if any Deck 1) General expenses 2) Anchor and chain 3) Hull anodes and sea chests

ii)

v)

v)

4) Tail shaft 5) Painting 6) Steel / shell 7) Ballast tanks internal inspection / survey & anodes 8) Accommodation 9) Cargo gear, deck machinery 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) COP and stripper pumps Tank washing machines and pipes Misc. as per additional dry dock specs. Hydraulic pipes and valves Steel damage

A repair plan which is made by taking into account of or with consideration of cost groups, cost parameters and especially work breakdown structure helps in achieving an optimum ship repair cost estimation, by making use of the spares, facilities and manpower on board in an efficient manner within the minimum time. By breaking up work / jobs in repair plan it can be decided by the chief engineer which jobs can be done by the ship staff effectively, efficiently and within the stipulated time, to save part of total repair cost and hence optimum cost estimation can be made on the basis of received quotations from various repair yards

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Dry docking is one of the most important activities that a vessel may come across. Hence good co-ordination & planning will be vital towards successful completion of dry dock. The dry docking is governed by various factors 1) 2) 3) Classification society requirements Statutory requirements Condition of the vessel The refit specifications for a vessel dermises all known work to be carried out & services to be supplied before a vessel arrives in a repair yard. 1) 2 3) 4) 1) Class, survey & statutory requirements. Essential repairs Projects or modification which show an economic benefit Services supplied to the vessel during refit The chief eng should inform the master. Scope of work in the dry dock categorizing especially time required shore gang required (as planned with superintendent) work that will require to be done by E/R & dock staff ROB of bunkers & lubes etc to the know & calculate turn & etc for entering dry dock & ship may be put us for survey (charter changes) most probably after the same. Any requirements for pumping of black water, oil sludge to reception facilities & its arrangement. Spare requirements as to what all spares as intended have arrived & what will be arriving Duration of intended dry dock with a flood time line of the activities that you intend to do the more precise the better. List of survey temp to be submitted to the master

2)

3) 4) 5) 6)

7) 8)

Any special requirements like covering of vents, openings of tanks when grit blasting is performed Co-ordinate with master as to reqd. list & trim required & put according necessary FO & FW tanks in use as advised by him. Regd. details of trim obtained from docking. Communicate with the master as to be in touch with the company / superintendent as to any new requirements which the ship will fulfill after her dry docking eg. Annex IV compliance may be headed & some steps in this regard.

9)

10) Any "rules" laid down by yard & to be followed. should informed to the ships personnel by master. 11) A pre docking tank cleaning & line washing plan to be informed by master to chief eng who it turn will co-ordinate with 2/E to mobilize the resources to carryout the operation. 12) All refit requirements to be submitted as stated with appropriate data e.g. pipe repair material, location, staging reqd. safety precautions etc. The more specific these requirements the better as negotiation & rates called prior to entry into dock to get best price. The higher the deviation from jobs specs the more dock will charge because once unable the dock the yard has an upper hand & masseuses its profit by exploring deviations. Delegation of responsibilities to E/R staff. Preparedness for the same will start well in advance of the dry dock. 1) C/E & 2/E who are management personnel of E/R dept to make a rough plan to delegate responsibility of various jobs to be carried out to personnel considering their ability. The preparedness will include brain storming sessions as to how to change over the m/c for ling lay up eg. changing over of M/E & Blr to Do. Changing over to shore power cooling SW for fridge & a/c plant. Method of sewage disposal. 3) 4) 5) C/E will delegate responsibility of arranging spares as they arrive. Personnel to prepare tags for various v/v with job no & fix them on the v/v's All safety aspects discussed & safety precautions to be followed. Ensure safety standards of dock workers & request them to stop when you feel something they are doing is unsafe correct them if they do not listen call chief Engg. A day to day work report to be mode & discussed to check weather all jobs proceeding as per schedule or there is some delay if so then look into the same. 2/E & C/E to co-ordinate & divide various surveys which they will oversee. Train Staff towards interpersonal conflicts among themselves shore staff at any time. Inspection & checking with dry dock Authorities 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Check about the plan of dry dock & ensure that task done there is done in a well planned manner without delay of the vessel. Before any job on ME is planned ensure that crank shaft deflection prior entry taken. The co-ordination & the availability of the surveyor to be properly coordinate. Any company requirement must be well informed to yard eg. lockout tag out systems, permit to work & inform them who the ship safety officer is. All work to be conducted with company specific guide lines as regards to PPE & as per company ISM policy

2)

6)

7) 8)

6)

Requirement for water in case some work to be under taken on forced fire fighting system. Also alternate press of fire fighting to be put in place prior to starting work. Day to day planning meetings its location time & attendees to be discussed. Any dock specific requirements & check lists which may be different from company checklist. A check of dry dock equipment & facilities to be done & all non conformities noted down & informed to guard.

7) 8) 9)

10) Any thing also not to the standards must be communicated to the authorities so that accidents may i.e. avoid eg. old damaged slug used for lifting heavy parts & equipments its use must immediately discontinued. 232. Illustrate the provision kept towards establishing procedures to identify and testing of critical equipments under ISM Codes. Enlist the shipboard items/ operations subjected to inspection and test under ISM codes. How the list of critical equipment and systems are made and on what factors they are dependent. Ans)Critical equipments are the equipments whose failure can cause an accident or result in a hazardous situation, . Causing injury to personnel or loss of life or damage to the marine environment or property.

As per element 10 of the ISM Code Maintenance of the ship and equipment, it is the responsibility of the company to establish procedures in the safety management system to identify such systems and/or equipments.

The safety Management System must with respect to critical systems/equipments: Have procedures to identify them Have procedures to ensure their tests and functional reliability. Have procedures to establish and use alternative arrangements on sudden failure. Have procedures to test standby equipment Have procedures to ensure that a single failure does not cause loss of critical ship function that could lead to an accident. Have procedures to ensure that any system/equipment inactive for some time is tested regularly and prior to conducting any critical operation. As per element 7 of the ISM Code the company must establish procedures for the preparation of plans and instructions including checklists if any for key shipboard operations related to the safety of the ship and prevention of pollution.

Hence in combination with Element 10 the following shipboard operations/equipments are subjected to inspection and test-

Securing water tight integrity Navigation safety, including corrections to chests and publications Oil transfer operations related to:Hull and superstructure steel work Safety, fire fighting, entire pollution, life saving equipment Navigation equipment Steering gear

Authoring and mooring gear Main engine and auxiliary engine Pipelines and valves Cargo handling equipment I.G. system Electrical installations Fire detection and alarm system Bunkering operations Navigation in restricted visibility/high density traffic area Operation in heavy weather Critical machinery system Handling of hazardous cargo and noxious substances Cargo operations on Gas/oil/Chemical tankers

Factors determining the list of critical equipments/systems:Since the onus of identifying the critical equipments rests with the company hence the list of items made can be ship specific and relevant to the particular ship type The possible consequences of failure of equipments; If the failure of a component, machinery or operation would lead to the possible risk of life or ship or the environment system not in continuous use, lent vital for use in an emergency situation e.g., LSA, FFA etc

233

The nature of ship operation is so unique that the general management principles as regards inventory which are in practice for land based industry can hardly be applicable to shipping. At the most, a ship can be termed as a floating and moving power plant, and apply some basic principles of inventory management to draw a plan to suit a particular ship. Efficient running of a ship depends on a quality inventory management plan as inventory carrying cost terms on important part of operating cost of the vessel. Some of the features which are unique to ship operations are as follows: a) b) Ships operate in international waters with very little time in port thus exposing it to the risk of isolation from land (land support). The efforts that go into land items onboard the ship, approvals, clearances, permits etc required by various countries before being allowed to land spares / stores in their countries port. Economic consideration, which means procuring these spares at the most economic price. Therefore the above mentioned points have an important bearing in formulating the inventory management plan. It will be essential to develop separate inventory management plan for stores & spares since the two are independent domain serving a common interest. Inventory management plan for stores. 1) List out stores required under various heads and subheads.

c)

ex. Deck Deck Stores Pantry Galley or saloon stores Medical Stores

Engine E/R Stores Deck m/c/ Cargo gear stores

to facilitate the requirements under various heads. 2) 3) 4) Decide the minimum stock levels, recording level etc. Decide the supply cycle monthly, quarterly, six monthly etc. depending upon consumption pattern & storage space. ISSA code book & such other books can serve an important reference while formulating the plan. Inventory management plan for spares : 1) 2) 3) Decide the maintenance system to be followed onboard. Take statutory and class requirement (as regards machinery spares that are required to be onboard) if any, into consideration Categories various machinery / systems based on their important / criticality and nature of operation & based on the above: work out i) the minimum stock level ii) the recording level. iii) Buffer stock level. iv) Procedure for ordering spares, reporting consumption etc. These days, many companies use a computer based inventory management plan for their ships. These programs cater to most of the ship types as they have be designed after a thorough study of maintenance system adopted onboard and detected input from ship builders and equipment suppliers. However, since the task given is to Formulate the inventory management plan for an old ship, I will adopt following procedure to accomplish the objective. I will find out which of the following maintenance systems breakdown maintenance, preventive planned maintenance condition based monitoring it is presently followed on board. In absence of any of these systems, I will formulate my plane based on preventive planned maintenance. It will address the following issues : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) List out all shipboard machinery and systems and fid out logistic requirement of each of item. Categories shipboard machinery / system into three or four board categories such as critical /essential, normal etc. Work out minimum stock level of each of the above machinery systems. Decide re-ordering level. Consider the storage facility space available onboard. Purpose method for implementing this plan and involvement / assistance of company office required in doing so The above will be divided by 1) 2) Consumption pattern. History of defects and breakdown of machinery & system.

234. As a Chief Engineer describe the methodology you will practice during taking over/handing over of your ship in a foreign port towards inventory

management of lube oil / fuel oil on board. In case of dispute arising thereof, describe how it can be best solved? During the circumstances how you would ascertain amount of oil not fit for use? Ans. The normal practise during signing off and handing over, the out-going chief engineer prepares handing over notes. It is a standard format set by the individual company. C/Es handing over format is available on board and has to be filled up while signing off. The new C/E or incoming C/E has to sign on it and out-going C/E also has to sign on it. This handing over form is filed in C/Es handing over file. Handing over notes prepared by out-going C/E regarding fuel oil / lub oil inventory, the incoming C/E has to check the bunker delivery report file(bunker receipt of previous bunkers) for quality i.e. sulphur content, viscosity, water content etc., and quantity received. Check all the tank soundings and calculate the actual oil on board. Also make sure that approved sounding table book is available in C/Es office Confirm that fuel oil actually found and log book figure are matching(nearly) Check lub oil quantity on board and compare with log book figures Check for any letter of protest given by previous C/E , if any letter is there it must be signed by out-going C/E and bunker party Check per day consumption of fuel oil and lubes from other records under different conditions, i.e. ballast and loaded Check the oil ROB fulfils the voyage requirements and accordingly ask company for bunkers as necessary Check all entries in the oil record book are up to date. Check bunker sample laboratory test report file Check the bunker operation checklist file and updated Check MARPOL bunker file and bunker sample bottles and stickers for next bunkers and seals available

In case of any dispute arising over the quantity of lube oil / fuel oil delivered on board, the out-going C/E must report the discrepancy to the incoming C/E. if the out-going C/E is not able to show the cause for difference in the bunker quantity or lube oil quantity, then the matter has to be reported to the master who in turn will inform the company. For ascertaining the amount of fuel oil not fit for use, C/E has to check certain specifications of oil which is on board ship and compare with test results obtained from the laboratory or as specified in bunker delivery note. But C/E should not use the newly received bunker until the old bunker are finished and laboratory report received and confirmed that quality is OK. Fuel Oil Specification:- To comply with the standard fuel oil quality always use ISO 8217 standard fuel oil. The only way of monitoring the delivered fuel quality would be to test the fuel oil by standard fuel oil testing kit for immediate reference and to be tested by approved and authorised testing agencies and labs. The results obtained from the labs could be used in case:a. Disputes over quality supplied by supplier b. Highlights area where operational adjustments of the main engine may reduce damages Bunker sample should be obtained at the point of bunker manifold using continuous drip method. Sample should be representative of entire bunker oil so that oil should be taken during starting to completion of the bunker and sealed in sample bottles with sufficient or complete information required. Bunker delivery note to be retained on board for

minimum 3 years and bunker samples to be retained on board for minimum 12 months As per ANNEX VI of MARPOL 73/78 the sulphur content of fuel should not exceed 4.5% and the oil used for sulphur emission control areas should be less than 1.5%, which should be clearly specified on the bunker delivery note.

239

When accepting bunkers from a barge or terminal, the C/E should always check the local suppliers documents to make certain the bunker supply conforms to specs. The flash point, viscosity and other characteristics of fuel supplied should be checked to ensure that fuel is suitable for vessels. The C/E should always check that bunkers to be received do not contain unacceptable percentage of water. The C/E and barge master should check the security of the here couplings on the bunker barge and receivers vessel and should agree upon piping rate. Barge master to show valid . Testing certificate to C/E New bunkers to be segregated From old bunkers Duty engineer to check sampling flange is correctly fitted in place the sample must be representative of the total delivery and ideally taken by drip feed. Sample bottles should be sealed, dated and signed by both parties atleast and samples need to be taken. ENSURING CORRECT QUANTITY It is the ships staff responsibility to ensure that the actual quantity received is as per the ordered quantity. The 3/E must always check the barge soundings before and after pumping-quantity calculated from the tables check the table for proper authorization/stamp etc, case must be taken for test/trim and temp variations. If flow meters are fitted-initial and final reading to be noted Few record of the ships tank must be kept ready before bunkering. If the barge person wants to check the ship soundings. He must be allowed to do so. I o/ discrepancy in the quantity received can be .if the difference exceeds a letter of protection must be written by the master and independent surveyor called to investigate the findings. However if bunker fig are satisfactory the BDR should be checked to ensure the information is includes as per annexe V Name and IMO number of receiving ship Port Date and Time of commencement of delivery Name, address and telephone number of marine fuel oil supplies Product names Sulphur content should be < 45%, meeting ISO 8217 standards. In sensitive areas, sulphur content 21.5% Quantity in metric tines, according to ISO 3675 Density @ 15 deg, according to ISO 8754.

Declaration should be signed and certified by fuel oil suppliers rep that the fuel oil supplied conforms with reg 14(1)/4(9), reg 18(1) or annexe VI Bunker quantity disputes The disputes can arise due to

Measured volume of barge is diff to that recorded on BDR Measured volume of barge is diff to ships received volume Wt on bunkers delivery receipt calculated with incorrect density High water content Bunker quantity disputes In recent years there has been a general deterioration in the quantity of fuel supplied for bukers. The C/E should take care to ensure that bunker supplied material the specs required by the vessel as per ISO 8217. BDR should be maintained for 3 years. If poor quality fuel has been supplied, the C/E should record all relevant information that can lead to machinery damage with particular attention being given to the retention and preservation of oil samples. Oil samples should be sent for shore analysis. The matter should be promptly reported to owners. If there is any dispute with regard to quality and quantity following should be done Record of initial oil tank soundings must be kept oil transfer details to tanks must be correctly tested and final sounding noted. Location of tanks where suspected bunker have been used. Details of usages noted and copies of BDR must be preserved for 3 years All Notes of protests: engine and deck log book must be preserved. The sealed samples taken during bunkering opn must be retained A record of the following must be kept. The C/E and other crew members involved in bunkering operations The name of those present at the time when bunker samples were taken The crew members involved in correcting any problems associated with substandard bunkers Owner must be notified promptly.

242. Discuss the contribution of the following factors on ship in identification of proper training for a specific task performed (i) Internal Audits (ii) Emergency drills (iii) Previous training and experience (iv) Familiarization with new equipment. Ans. Internal Audits:- The ISM Code section 12, Company verification, review and evaluation makes it mandatory for the company to control the shore and shipbased safety management system, and pollution prevention activities by means of internal audits. Internal Audits would help to : Determine the level of conformity or non-conformity of the system with specified requirements Determine the effectiveness of implemented management system in meeting specific objectives Determine compliance with regulatory requirements

Internal Audit is a form of self verification. It will identify, where appropriate with regard to training :Procedures - Bunkering, use of machinery checks arrival, departure, etc; Documents - Oil Record Book, Log Book, Permits to Work, Safety Data Sheet etc; Personnel equipment. Training Records, familiarisation location and use of safety

Corrective Action Reports of Accidents, Near-miss Application. Equipment - Maintenance and Operation of OWS, LSA, FFA, etc; There are two methods for audits to find out above : observing & interviewing.

Observing :- It gives the visible flaws in documentation, machinery condition/operation. condition of ship, operation of ship. Interviewing :- When a safety management procedure exists, the personnel involved should be able to describe their understanding of the way it is carried out or in some cases, provide evidence for the same. The auditor should compare the participants statement against standard procedure. If it is not, it may lead to personal harm, damage to ship/cargo/environment. This will be a nonconformity. Thus this may indicate the requirement of on-board training of personnel. Emergency Drills:- Regulation 8 of ISM Code identifies the need for drills & exercises to prepare for emergency action. Musters and drills are required to be carried out regularly. These are exercises which have the objective to prepare a trained and organised response to potentially hazardous situations which may threaten life, property or environment. It is important to be carried out as realistically as possible. The initial response and action of personnel during these drills will bring out the need (if any) to further train the personnel on board for operation of safety equipments and safe procedures to be adopted in event of such a situation. Previous Training and Experience:- As per STCW 95 there are certain courses which have to be done for joining the ship e.g. people have to be trained at shore for various simulated emergencies. For fire, AFF(Advanced Fire Fighting) & BFF(Basic Fire Fighting) courses train the personnel how to deal with it and various technicalities of the same. For abandon ship & to rescue a person in distress at sea, the PSCRB(Proficiency in Survival Craft & Rescue Boat) course is there. To deal with medical emergencies, various methods of first aid are taught in MFA(Medical First Aid). Personal Safety and Social Responsibility (PSSR) deals with the said name. All above courses are mandatory as per STCW 95 convention code A Regulation VI. Apart from above courses, for joining the specialised vessels like Oil Tankers, LPG, Chemical Tankers, specialised courses are needed to be done. There are other courses which are not mandatory, but company encourages to do to improve the competency of the personnel, e.g. hydraulics, pneumatics, electronics etc. If required, on board training and drills should be carried out to train the crew who do not have adequate knowledge. Familiarisation with new Equipment:- While familiarising with new equipment following points should be observed: Operation of equipment Normal operating parameters All related safety alarms and cut-outs of equipment Maintenance schedule Operating procedure posted near equipment Spares of new equipment kept and marked All control places of equipment

243.The ship on which you are working as Chief Engineer has run aground and some of the double bottom tanks are suspected to be leaky with oil going out. Describe the methods employed by you in the situation for oil stock management and ascertaining the quantity of available oil. Ans. Since the vessel has run aground, vessels contingency plan as per safety management manual for the emergency situation will be followed. All tanks including E/R tanks will be sounded at regular intervals to identify the damaged tank. The same information will be conveyed to master, who will inform Designated Person Ashore, neighboring coastal agencies, flag state, classification society & P&I club. In the event of any double bottom tank damage it is unlikely that oil will find the way out. But if it is noticed that the oil is leaking out, this will be in following cases: 1) Just at the time of impact or damage to the tank 2) When the hydrostatic pressure exerted by oil level in the tank is more than the hydrostatic pressure by sea water outside the tank Assuming the db tank containing F.O. is damaged & F.O. is leaking, the quantity of oil in the tank before the accident can be ascertained from the daily /weekly sounding book. Quantity of oil in the other tanks will also be noted and quantity that can be transferred in them can be calculated considering the stability factor. Efforts will be made to prevent oil pollution along with efforts to salvage F.O. Following steps will be adopted to save oil & reduce oil pollution:1. Transfer oil by using the F.O. transfer p/p. this method is effective only if oil level in the tank exerts more hydrostatic pressure than the sea water outside. Sample of oil at pump discharge will be checked regularly to ascertain that only oil is being transferred to the other tank. Once sample at the transfer p/p discharge confirms water, p/p should be stopped 2. If the tank is in the E/R, then sounding pipe will be just above the db tank. Flexible hose can be connected on the sounding pipe just before the selfclosing cock and remaining oil can be transferred from the affected tank. 3. In case the affected tank is outside E/R, then the sounding pipe will extend above the upper deck. Flexible hose can be inserted from the sounding pipe or vent pipe up to the surface of the oil level & oil can be transferred using portable Walden p/p to stock tank. This method can be used for E/R db tank, also in case the vent pipe extends up to weather deck or above. 4. A check list must be filled and all precautions taken during and prior the oil transfers. Stability must be a prime concern. Once the quantity of oil remaining on board is ascertained, company must be informed about the status of ships hull and machinery, and whether ship can make to the port of call or port of refuge. In case the ship cannot make to either port of call or port of refuge due to hull/machinery damage or insufficient fuel quantity remain on board, tug assistance may be asked. Depending upon the condition if the ship is ordered to proceed to port of call or port of refuge, all possible measures will be taken to check fuel oil consumption. Following measures can be taken to reduce fuel oil consumption. o o o o o Check leakage from pumps, glands, pipelines, etc., M/E to be run at economical speed as far as possible. Low load running of A/E Ensure efficient running of purifiers without overflow. Reduce load on boiler as far as possible

244. Develop a training program for activities of a vessel, where you have joined recently as a Chief Engineer highlighting the specific training needs for engine room personnel in case of (i) use of life saving appliances (ii) fire in accommodation (iii) explosion in engine room, when the ship is in dry dock Ans) STANDARDS OF TRAINING AND CERTIFICATES OF WATCHKEEPING(STCW 95) Section A-1/6 deals with the training and assessments of seafarer onboard training.

Use of life saving appliances: C/E should ensure that the entire crew is trained on the use of personnel life saving appliances like donning of life jacket, use of lifebuoys and use of immersion suit and anti exposure (CTPA) suit clear instructions should given to the crew to understand the muster list and his duty in case of an emergency situation operating instructions of life craft, life boat and rescue boat should also be explained. Thus, the training in the use of life saving appliances and the importance of communication until more confidence in to crew. Crew is trained for emergencies like fire in accommodation training should include following type of action.

Immediate action on locating fire: Raise alarm and inform C/E and master. All personnel should be mustered and accounted for All concerned should be informed about location of fire Fire parties should be organized and equipped. Attack party should be ready with fire suit and B.A. Check and start emerging fire pump All appropriate valves on the system should be adjusted to maintain fire main pressure in required area. If required close water tight doors Stop all blowers, fans and close ventilation slaps and sky lights Arrange evaluation of injured person and render first Aid if needed Follow up action: Use appropriate fire extinguishing agent Incase of dangerous cargoes consult IMDG code Check effects on ships stability and maintain ship in upright position Ensure fire parties working in pairs/teams Try up limit the fire by spreading by shifting the combustible material in the vicinity. Make sure boundary cooling is provided Monitor the temperature of boundaries being cooled. Ensure sufficient protection to personnel is provided Confirm is there is need of using smoothening methods like CO2 etc.

Fire fighting measures: Make detailed record of items on fire fighting procedure used, progress made and damage caused by fire. If any medical assistance is required for victim injured crew member Vessel rescue equipment deployed. Explosion when ship is in Dry Dock The training programme should include following aspects:Prevention of occurrence is the most important object of training especially in this scenario. Need and use of permits w.r.t hot work, work on F.O, L.O. Tanks, procedures required by shore authorities and their checks and certification before carrying out operations. Such as above should be explained to all ship

staff. In the event of explosion the response has to be well organized and training for this will include:Need to muster and location and muster stations Need to establish proper head count and get information about missing persons if any Rescue procedures, first Aid for those injured The need to identify and check/Monitor adjacent crew spaces to give early warning of a secondary effect of explosion such as fire breaking out in adjacent compartment. Need to inform shore authorities and seek them assistance as required. Also, in case of fire in accommodation chief officer c/o is a incharge of fire team and second engineer will be in support team in charge and will assist the fire fighting team in boundary cooling, fireman outfit SCBA etc. In some ships C/E also acts as SSO Ship Security Officer/Ship Safety Officer for safe working practices to be continued on board ship in E/R as well as on Deck. So C/E should ensure that all the personnel involved in the designated work should be familiar in his field. He should know code of safe working practices.

245. You have joined a vessel as Chief Engineer recently. Outline a programme that you will implement in training of Engine Room staff for (i) Fire prevention and fire fighting (ii) Pollution prevention (iii) Safe working practices. Enlist the related STCW Codes for each of them. Ans. Upon joining a v/l as c/e, programs that can be implemented for training of E/R staff, shall be in accordance with chapter VI of STCW 95 Code; which deals with standards and minimum mandatory requirement regarding familiarising and basic safety training for emergency and occupational safety along with medical care and survival functions. The purpose of such a training should be to provide basic knowledge, increase their proficiency and at the same time enhancing their skills by subjecting them to simulated emergency situations, i.e. drills and exercises, so that the personnel identifies the potentially hazardous situation that may result in threat to life or the pollution of marine environment. These will not only reduce the response time but also increase the confidence level. Fire Prevention & Fire Fighting:- Training program for this should be complying with chapter VI Table A VI/1-2 , whereby specification of minimum standards of competence in fire prevention and fire fighting are laid down. Competence is in minimising the risk of fire and maintaining a state of readiness to respond to emergency situation involving fire. This should include the knowledge, understanding and proficiency in matters pertaining to:The elements of fire and explosion, reminding them of fire triangle, types and sources of ignition, flammable materials, fire hazards & spread of fire. All engine room personnel must be made well aware of Fire Plan on board ship, their duties should be explained & importance of the same w.r.t. emergency situation should be explained. Classification of fire and applicable extinguishers, location of FFA in engine room, emergency escape routes & internal communication should be explained. Fire & smoke detection system and automatic alarm system should be well conversed with. The donning of fire fighters outfit, use of SCBA, ventilation control, quick-closing valves, fire control station & places from where emergency fire pump can be started remotely. Instructions and knowledge regarding fixed installations and rescue procedures. Under what conditions engine room to be evacuated etc. should be explained.

Fire drills must be conducted weekly and during briefing sessions, assessment of performance and improvement should be done. Personnel should be rotated in their duties in order that they are conversant with other emergency duties as well. Pollution Prevention:- This is dealt with in chapter VI Table A VI/1-4 whereby specification of minimum standards of competence in Pollution Prevention of Marine Environment is laid down. It includes the knowledge, understanding & proficiency in matters pertaining to:Effects of operational or accidental pollution of marine environment and basic environmental protection procedures. This will include imparting knowledge of SOPEP, which is a contingency plan to prevent pollution. Accidental pollution can occur during cargo loading/discharging, bunkering, oil spill may also result due to collision and grounding etc. Same should be explained along with location of SOPEP locker, equipments, their use and personnel duties during SOPEP operation. Remote stop of COPs, closing scuppers, testing & indication of high level alarms etc.for bunkering, the bunker system, location of tanks, sounding procedures to be explained. Bunker safety checklist to be followed. Communication means & mode settled between ship staff and barge personnel, importance of constant vigil should be explained. Knowledge, operation and maintenance of pollution prevention equipment like OWS, Incinerator and Sewage system should be explained. SOPEP drills should be carried out weekly and during briefing sessions the liability, compensation & fines that may result should be explained along with engine room personnel duties in each case. Safe Working Practices:- This is dealt with in chapter VI Table A VI/1-4 whereby specification for competence in safe working practice is laid down. Knowledge, understanding and proficiency for the following must be imparted;Knowledge of a safe attire is of prime importance, importance of safety while carrying out various ship board operations should be explained. This includes personal safety, safety of other men and m/c and safety of ship. For E/R operations use of gloves, goggles, chemical handling suit while working with hazardous chemicals, using gloves, goggles and shield while carrying out welding or cutting jobs and use of PPE when on lathe, grinding m/c etc. Enclosed space entry C/L and hot work permit C/L should be explained. Use of O2 analysis HC Detector should be explained. Procedure for ship board operation of critical equipments should be posted at conspicuous locations. Hazards of unsafe practices should be explained, as they result in fire, collision and grounding. Also occupational hazards to be explained. Drills for enclosed space entry such as rescue from P/P room etc. should be carried out weekly or fortnightly.

246. As a Chief Engineer on a ship, how would you conduct a training program for safe work practices in (i) Engine Room Workshop (ii) During Dry docking (iii) Pollution prevention Ans. Safe Working Practices followed on board ship is the requirement of ISM Code. The chief engineer should ensure that all persons involved in different type of work should follow safe working practices as deemed in Code of Safe Working Practices in shipboard Safety Manual. (1) Engine room Workshop:a) This is a designated hot work area, so all persons working in workshop should be aware of the work being done. Persons who are authorised to do hot work should be familiar with the welding equipment. And chief engineer will authorise only those persons, who are familiar with the use of the equipment. b) All individuals involved in welding, should be familiar with its correct use, importance of safety precautions and personal protective clothing to wear while carrying out work.

c) All persons involved in welding/hot work should be familiar with fire fighting equipment to be kept stby; & what to do in case of fire break out while carrying out work. d) No hot work to be carried out without permission of duty engineer. e) Workshop to be kept free of oily rags, etc. because of different types of jobs being carried out simultaneously. f) All personnel working in engine room workshop made familiar with correct use Personal Protective Equipment, such as goggles right goggles for right job. g) All personnel involved in machinery(in workshop) job should be familiar with the controls and emergency stop for that machinery h) All engine room personnel are given training for correct use of grinding m/c, lathe m/c, drilling m/c, etc. i) All tools should eb kept clean and stored in proper place. j) Welding machine should be switched off after use k) Oxygen and acetylene lines must be de-pressurised after use and hose to be coiled properly, anti back-flow valve should be in working condition. l) Work to be planned out before commencing. (2) Dry-Docking:1) Crew members to be explained about the dry-docking jobs to carry out. 2) No fuel oil, lub. oil and fresh water transfer to be carried out without permission from chief engineer to avoid unduly stresses on the hull. 3) No opening to be unflagged or unattended. 4) Crew members and other shore staff working in engine room is explained and briefed about what to do in case of fire situation. 5) All crew members are explained about correct use of PPE 6) Emergency exit to be properly designated in case of any work carried out in the way of emergency exit. Following points to be discussed for safe working practices in dry-dock d) Importance of safety in dry-dock e) Importance of ship familiarisation for shore workers f) Use and demonstration of LSA to shore workers g) List familiarisation with hazardous operations h) Handling of deck machineries such as crane, mooring winch i) Continuous fire watch j) Proper use of caution (3) Pollution Prevention:- Crew should be explained the different kinds of pollution oil, garbage, sewage, chemicals and exhaust. They should be made familiar with the company policy for the prevention of pollution of sea by ship board operation. a) Oil Pollution:- Crew members should be explained the legal consequences of oil pollution and why oil pollution to be avoided, what all precautions should be taken while doing internal transfers of fuel oil and lub oil. Procedures to be followed while taking bunkers, (which is normally discussed in pre-bunker meetings). The personnel and duty engineer should be familiar with correct operation of oily water separator, and importance of correct entries in the Oil Record Book, simultaneously being made aware of legal implications for wrong entries in the oil record book.

All crew members made familiar with SOPEP locker and how to act in case of oil pollution, by drills and trainings, of correct use of oil pollution containment equipments. b) Garbage:- Crew members should be given proper knowledge of segregation of garbage and garbage management plan, which is normally done through table-talk drill, and demonstration, specially galley crew is instructed to inform bridge, before throwing any food waste overboard. Garbage plan posted outside mess room. c) Sewage:- All engineers are made familiar with MARPOL Annexe IV requirements, about discharge of sewage overboard. d) Air Pollution:- All crew members and engineers involved made familiar with the operation of incinerator. The above information can be given through safety circulars, training videos, general meetings, and notice displayed at appropriate areas. Persons should be encouraged to avoid pollution and made well aware of penalties and punishments for pollution incidents.

247. Underline the general procedures followed for flow of information among ships personnel. As a Chief Engineer on a ship having multinational crew, how instructions received from shore office for engine management can be best utilized? Ans. General flow for instruction from owner manager office to ship & from ship is as follows.
Follows E mail TELEX FAX TELEPHONE

office

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

Exchange of information INFORMATION RECEIVED ON BOARD SORTED OUT BY MASTER & followed to various persons shown.
MASTER

CHIEF ENGINEER

CHIEF OFFICER

2nd ENGG.

ELECTRICAL OFFICER

2nd OFFICER

3rd ENGG. CREW 4th ENGG.

3rd OFFICER CREW

General flow of information is as shown in diagram. Master sort out information received from Head Office to Engg. & Deck department & pass it to respective persons as the case may be. Certain information not required involvement of all ship crew in such case master sets a meeting of departmental head & discuss the matter as the case may be. Information regarding safety pollution preventing can be best survey by conducting ship meetings.

In this meeting issues on safety & pollution prevention can best be discussed the company information's on such issues, what is recent development & requirement. New convention regarding safely pollution prevention, & security can be best way discussed, the crew difficulty in understanding on any matter must best way to resolved. Certain meeting must conduct before arrived of ports. Master must address the crew regarding the situation at port, port stay security level at port, behaviour of stevedore, on such ports, ships plan etc. From the office various circulars or send to ships regarding pollution prevention companion, safely issue, various incident report. Such circulars must kept available at common places, like smoke room all crew member must read understand & sign the same such circulars may repeat at safety meeting to know the feedback of crew on such circular or not. Information can pass through training videos. Such videos shown on weekend & following with feedback session. In case of multinational crew passing of information is little difficult but no difficult even though use of English made compulsory but still the problem is not completely solved. In such case proper meeting of engine room staff taken chief engineer has to explain the scope of information requirement from ship's personnel & most important is feedback after information to ascertain that the information require to communicate is understand or not he has to make sure at any cost the proper require information only must conveyed.

248.As per STCW convention 78 and Code of 95, state to which branch do the following sections refer to (a) Section A- III/1 (b) Section A- III/2 (c) Section A- III/3 (d) Section A- III/4 Ans)STCW refers to the international convention on standards of training, certification and watch keeping for seafarers, which was adopted on 7th July 1978 and was the first convention to establish mandatory minimum requirements on training, certification and watch-keeping for seafarers on an international level. It entered into force on 28th April 1984. Since then, a total of 3 amendments have been made: The 1991, 1994 and 1995 amendments.

1991 Amendment- Adoption date: 22nd May 1991 Entry into force: 1st December 1992 It was adopted by resolution MSC 22(59) which made it mandatory to implement the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) 1994 Amendment-Adoption date: 25th May 1992 Entry into force: 1st January 1996 It was adopted by resolution MSC 33(62) whereby special training was required for personal on tankers 1995 Amendment-Adoption date: 7th July 1995 Entry into force: 1st February 1997 The original 1978 convention was criticized on many accounts Parties to STCW 78 were interpreting if differently on many accounts. Convention was never uniformly applied and did not impose any strict obligations on parties regarding implementation. Also parties realized that after 17 years, the 1978 convention between 26th June to 7th July 1995 at IMOs headquarters in London and the 1995 Amendments were officially adopted by resolution 1 of the conference of parties to the international convention of STCW 78.

1995 amendment is a major revision. One of the major features of the revision is resolution 2 of the conference of the parties to international convention on STCW 78. The resolution is an attachment to the final act of the STCW conference, which is given in form of annexes, containing VIII chapters. Chapter I: Deals with general provisions and includes mandatory medical standards communication skills, simulator training, revalidation of certificates, companies responsibilities etc. Chapter II: Deals with master and deck department. It gives provisions for: Reg1: Mandatory minimum manning requirements for navigational watch-keepers incharge of ships of 500 GT and above Reg2: Mandatory minimum requirements for master and chief mates of ships of 500 GT and aleave Reg3: Mandatory minimum requirements for master and chief mates of ships between 500 3000 GT and also below 500 GT. Reg4: Mandatory minimum requirements for ratings forming part of navigational watch. Chapter III: Deals with engine department and gives provisions Reg1 : Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of OIC of an engineering watch in a manned engine room or for the designated duty engineer in a periodically unmanned engine room Reg2: Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of chief and second engineer officer of ships powered by main propulsion machinery of 3000 kw propulsive power or more Reg3: Mandatory minimum required for chief and 2nd engineer officers of ships powered by main propulsion engines of between 7508 3000 kw power Reg4: Mandatory minimum required for certification of ratings forming part of watch in a manned engine room or designated to perform duties in a periodically unmanned engine room. CHAPTER V: Deals with special training required for personnel on certain type of ships Personal should have DC (dangerous Cargo) endorsement at management level, operational level and support level as the case may be on the type of tanker to be served. CHAPTER VI: Deals with emergency occupational safety medical care and survival functions and includes Reg1: Familiarization with liasic safety training e.g., PST, Elementary first aid, Basic fire fighting etc. Reg2: PSCRB proficiency in survival craft and rescue boat Reg3: AFF Advanced fire fighting Reg4: Medical first aid and medical care CHAPTER VII: Deals Alternative certification This chapter allows a navigator meeting requirements of chapter 2 to undergo training as required by section A-II of STCW code and get his certificate Endorsed (after meeting its requirements satisfactorily). Similarly an engineer meeting requirements of chapter 3 can undergo training as required by section A-II of STCW code and get his certificate Endorsed Reg1-Fitness for duty, Reg2-Watchkeeping arrangement and principles to be observed. A proper and safe watch must always be maintained whether at sea in port or at anchorage. Rest hrs of watchkeeping should be taken into account. STCW code: was adopted by resolution 2 of the conference of the parties to the convention of 7th July 1995 Why go for a code? The convention only contains liasic requirements which are then enlarged upon and explained in codes for tacit acceptance.

STCW code is divided into 2 parts: Part A is mandatory and includes provisions for the standards required to be met or maintained by parties to the convention in order to give full and complete effect to the provisional of STCW convention. PART B are recommendations and give guidance to be followed by the parties to convention, o implement STCW convention in a full complete manner CHAPTER 3 of the STCW code part A SECTION A-III/1- Mandatory min requirements for certification of an OIC on anb engineering watch in a manned E/R or as designated duty engineer in a periodically unmanned E/R Provisions for onboard training: candidates must go through a structured training programme under the supervision of a competent engineer. A documentary evidence should be provided for said training standard of competence obtained from Table A-III/1: specification of the minimum standards required for the engineer OIC. Table has 4 columns Column 1: Competence Column2: knowledge, understanding and proficiency Column 3: Methods for demonstrating proficiency Column 4: Criteria for evaluating competence and divided into function Function 1 Marine Engineering at operational level Function 2 Electrical, electronic and control engineering and operational level Function 3 Maintenance and repair at operational level Function 4 Controlling the operation of ship and care for persons on board at operational level. A candidate must meet the requirement of all the columns under said functions SECTION A-III/2 Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of chief and 2/E officers on ships of propulsive powers 3000 kw or more Standard of competence is in table III/2, which is at management level A candidate should be able to carry act task, duty, responsibility as per specification given in table A-III/2 2/E officer should always be able to act as C/E officer wherever required SECTION A-III/3: Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of CEO and 2EO on ship of prop. Power between 750 kw and 3000kw. Standard of competence if given in table A-III/1 and AIII/2 is at management level Candidate should carry out task duty and responsibility same at table A-III/2 Minimum knowledge and understanding and propulsion required is listed in column 2 of table A-III/2. This incorporates, expands and extends in depth the subject listed in column 2 o table A-III/1. The level of knowledge of subjects listed in column 2 of table A-III/2 may be lowered but shall be sufficient to serve as CEO and 2EO 2EO should always be able to act as CEO wherever required SECTION A-III/4: Mandatory minimum requirement for the certification of ratings forming part of a watch in a manned E/R standard of competence Should have knowledge of marine engineer @ support level given in column 1 of table A-III/4 Minimum knowledge understanding and proficiency required is given in column-2 of table A-III/4 There should be documentary evidence of std of competence

258 . Develop an appropriate training programme for engine room personnel for successfully encountering machinery related emergency situations like (i) Main engine/ auxiliary engine failure (ii) automation failure of main engine in UMS vessels (iii) Steering failure (iv) electrical failure.

Ans. i) a) Main Engine failure : A training program to tackle this emergency situation must achieve the following objectives. 1. 2. Activation of Engineer's alarm, informing Bridge and following contingency plan Familiarization with changing over procedure from bridge control to ECR control or local control. (Local control should be tried out at least once in three months) Starting of st-by Auxiliary engines and taking on load. Starting of boiler Familiarization of change over procedures from HFO to do for M.E. (if required) Importance of anchoring of the vessel and assistance from the engine room for the same (if vessel is in restricted waters). Maintaining communication with the bridge. Investigating the cause of failure by allocating one team. Reporting status of all other auxiliary machinery to the bridge / master.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Making record of events of actions taken. 11. Report making and informing company. 12. Attending possible immediate repairs and keep bridge informed of process and anticipated time of completion. b) i) ii) Auxiliary engine failure : Auxiliary engine failure can lead to either Starting of standby Aux engine (if it is on auto standby) or Power failure (fault is common, fuel supply block) If there is a problem common to all auxiliary engines (for example fuel system) it leads to stoppage of all auxiliary engines and results in Black out or power failure. A training program can be developed by considering the following:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Calling other engineers by phone or by using engineers call alarm. Informing bridge about the incident. Starting other auxiliary engines (if not already started) and taking on load. Restore the power supply to critical machineries, as required, if it is a blackout situation as soon as possible Investigating the cause of the incident. Rectifying the fault. Informing the bridge for readiness. Making report and informing company / incident / accident report. Automation failure of main engine in UMS vessels The training program must address the following. Activation of engineers alarm & informing Bridge. Familiarization of changing over procedures from bridge control to ECR control or local control. Operation of "emergency maneuvering". Manning the engine room. Maintaining communication with the bridge. Standby generator to be started, extra vigilance to be maintained by E/R personnel. Allocation of a team to investigate the problem. Attending any repairs and inform bridge for readiness/ time of completion..

9. iii)

Record the incident as per the ISM code Steering failure : In the event of steering failure bridge will inform the engine room. A training program could include the following aspects:-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. iv)

Informing C/Engineer and Activating Engineers alarm. Stopping / slowing down main engine as per bridge instructions. Familiarization of change over procedures to emergency steering. Operation of emergency steering. Communication with the bridge. Investigation of the cause of failure Rectifying the problem. Reporting to the company / owner. Electrical power failure : In the event of loss of main electrical power, there would be an immediate shutdown of the main propulsion, which would lead to dangerous situation, if the vessel were to be maneuvering in narrow congested waters or near coastal line. Although the emergency generator would automatically start and come on load to restore emergency power it is not possible to re start the main engine till the ships main alternators are re started and taken on-load. Training program to encounter this situation could address the following.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Black out checklist as per ISM manual Knowledge of standby and manual operations of auxiliary engines. Importance of keeping Aux Engines on standby. Starting of auxiliary engines and taking on load. Starting various machineries sequentially Identifying various machineries which can only be started locally and starting of the same. Logging down of the incident. Communication with the bridge. Report to the company / owner.

All above training programs can be charted out using one or more of the following:1) Verbal lectures 2) Literature from company circulars 3) ISM manual guidelines 4) Safety videos on board.

260. Illustrate the salient factors for onboard training and standard of competence as laid out in STCW 95 Chapter III. Underline the specific roles a CE needs to perform toward satisfactory training of engine room personnel under the Regulation. What will be the criteria for evaluating competence for onboard training by a CE. Chapter III of STCW95 deals with standards required of E/R personnel under different capacities chapter III/1 deals with standards required for a watchkeeping Engineer Offices, III/2, III/3, deals with the standards required for C/E & 2/E officer for main propulsive powers more than 3000 KW & between 750 kw to 3000 kw respectively chapter II/3, deals with standards required for serving as Engine Room Ratin. On Board Training :

Every candidate shall follow an approved onboard training which : 1) Ensures that during the required period of sea going service, the candidate receives systematic practical training and experience in the tasks, duties and responsibilities of an officer in charge of engine room watch keeping aking into account the guidance given in section B-III/I, of the code. Is closely supervised by and monitored by qualified and certificated Engineer officer on board the ship in which the approved sea going service is performed. Is adequately documented in Training Record Book. Standards of competence : STCW95 has very clearly specified the standards required under the various capacities chapter III has devided competence function to four functions. Chapter III - I Every candidate required to demonstrate the ability to undertake at operational level tasks, duties and responsibilities in the following field. Marine Engineering : Should be able to operate hand tools, measuring equipments, electrical / electronic measuring and test equipment for repair and maintenance, fault finding, dismantling and reassembling of shipboard plant and equipment. Should be maintain a safe watch. Must use English in written and oral form associated controls. Must be able to operate pumps and pumping systems.

2)

3)

Electrical / Electronic and control Engineering : Should be able to operate alternator / Generators and control systems. Maintenance and Repair : Should be able to maintain marine and ontrol equipments. Controlling the operatin of ship and care for personnel onboard. By ensuring compliance with pollution prevention requirements. Maintain sea wothiness of ship. Knowledge of the LSA/FA equipment Should be able to give medical firt aid onboard Monitor compliance with legislative requirements

Chapter III/2 and chapter III/3 It gives standard to be followed at the management level with more importance given to planning o job, making sure all safety procedure are followed, trouble shooting, developing emicy and damage control plans, organising / managing crew. Chapter III/4 It gives basic standard of competency expected of engine room rating, their strength to understand orders, basic knowledge of common terms used in the engine room, E/R alarm systems specially fire alarms, knowledge of emergency duties, Emeergency routes etc. Role of C/E towards satisfactory training of E/R personnel : C/E Must establish a taining program onboard ship. He should breakdown various jobs into durites, takes, subtasks. Establish priorities of tasks Define performance standard for each task. Identify preferred mode of learning.

Collect data on profile of trained personnel. Give trainee independance of doin job and at the same time supervise his job and at the same time supervise his job constantly. Identify constraints like language lack of training etc. If a Trainee is lacking in knowledge in some areas, then C/E must disuss the weakness with him and must give him a chance to improve upon. If the trainee needs formal training in certain areas then C/F must equest for shore based training of the person concerned. Evaluating competence for onboard training. The criterias for above are given in column IV of tables A-III/1, III/3 and III-4. Identification of important parameters & sections of material is appropriate. Use of machine tool is appropriate and safe. Selection of tools and spares is appropriate. Dismantling, inspection, repairing and reassembling is in accordance with manuals & good watch keeping practice. The conduct, handover and relieving of watch confirms with accepted priniple and procedures. Proper record is maintained o movement and activities relating to the ships engineering systems. Communications are clear and well understood according to established rules and procedures to ensure safety of operations and to avoid environment pollution. Causes of machinery malfunctions are properly identified and actions are designed to ensure overall safety of the ship and plant. Procedures for monitoring shipboard operations and compliance with MARPOL requirements are fully observed. ensuring

The type and scale of emergency is properly identified and emergency procedures are followed as per plan. Actions in responding to abandon ship situation & survival situations are appropriate. Legislative requirements, relating to safety of life at sea and protection of environment are correctly identified. On basis of these guidelines and evaluation criteria, competency of onboard training can be evaluated.

268. Explain Port State Control (PSC) Inspection. Underline its authority for exercising and the basis of such inspections. Enumerate the relevant regulations article and annexes of SOLAS 74, LOADLINES 66, MARPOL 73/78, STCW 78 and TONNAGE 69, which forms the provisions for PSC. Ans. Port State Control is an inspection programme under which all countries work together, to ensure that all vessels entering there waters are in complaints with strict international safety and antipollution standards. All countries involved in inspecting ships will share their findings with each other. Ship that are found to be in violation of laid down standard, are detained in port, until there deficiencies are rectified. The objective of PSC is to detect sub standard ship, that endanger not only the ships crew and the port, but also environment. This minimises the threat to life, property and the environment. The key element of PSC are Ensuring compliances with internal rules regarding safety, marine pollution and a threat to the working environment. Determining sub standard vessels, until all deficiencies are rectified. Implementing a mutally agreed upon figure, of annually inspecting the minimum numbers (normally 25% of all visiting vessels).

Applying a targeting system, when determining the selection of vessel for checking, so that well run vessels are not unnecessarily harassed, while black listed vessels will not to be allowed to operate. Harmonising and strengthening, to the greatest extent, port state controls authority to carry out better surveillance. Provide technical assistances and training, where the need is identified.

Authorities of PSC Port state can be applied not only to those countries, who are party to the conventions but also to ships that fly the flag of a state, that has not ratified a convention. No ship is exempted from PSC. The relevant regulations article and Annex which forms the provision for PSC are as follows. (a) SOLAS Reg. I/ 19 : General provision / control Reg. IX / 6 Management of safe operation of ship / verification Reg. XI / 4 : Special measures to enhance maritime safety PSC on operational requirement Chapter XI - 2 : Special measures to enhance maritime securities (ISPS Code) MARPOL 73/78 Article 5 - Certificate and special rules on inspection of ships. Article 6 : Detection of violation and enforcement of the convention. Regulation 8A of Annex I - PSC on operational requirement Regulation 15 of Annex II : PSC on operational requirement Regulation 18 of Annex III : PSC on operational requirement Regulation 8 of Annex XIV : PSC on operational requirement Load Lines Article 21 : Check ILLC (international load line certificate) Limitation of the draught, to which a ship on its international voyage to be loaded Ensure adequate stability (1930) Provision to determines freeboard of tanker (1966)

STCW -78 Article X - Control regulation (Rights of PSCO to ensure that all seafarers have appropriate certificate) Regulation I/4 : Control procedures. Tonnage 1969 Article 12 : Verification of tonnage certificate Port state control inspection may be undertaken on the basis of the initiative of the party. The request of, or on the basis of, information regarding a ship provided by another party. Information regarding a ship provided by a member of the crew, a professional body, an association, a trade union or any other individual with an interest in the safety of the ship, its crew, and passenger, or the protection of marine environment

Definition of P.S.C. P.S.C. is the control through inspection of foreign ships by coastal state in its port. This control is ensured for the purpose verifying 1) The condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of certain international maritime conventions 2) The ship is manned and operated in compliance with

applicable national law. By the provision of UNCLOS, the flag state has been given the primary responsibility for ensuring that a ship is equipped, operated, maintained and manned in accordance with international maritime convention. P.S.C. is an international initiative for reduction of substandard ship. On boarding and introduction to the master or responsible ship offices the PSCO should examine the vessels relevant certificates and documents If the certificate are valid and the PSCOs general impression and visual observation onboard confirm a good standard of maintenance, the PSCOs should generally confine the inspection to reported or observed deficiencies. If however the PSCO from general impression or observation on board has clear ground for believing that the ship, its equipment or its crew do not substantially meet requirement, the PSCO should conduct more detailed inspection.

Clear grounds : The absence of principal equipment or arrangement required by the convention. Evidence from a review of the ships certificate that a certificates or certificates are clearly invalid. Document required by convention are not on board, incomplete, or are not maintained or are falsely maintained. PSCOs general impressions and observations that serious hull or structural deficiencies or deficiencies that may place at risk the structural water tight and weather light integrity of ship. Deficiencies exist in the safety, pollution prevention or navigational equipment. Master or crew not familiar with essential ship board operation. Indication that its key crew members may not be able to communicate with each other. The emission of false distress alerts not followed by proper cancellation procedures. Receipt of a report or complaint containing information that the ship appears to be substandard.

269.If Flag State Implementation is carried out effectively; Port State Control may not be required. Give your comments on the above statement. Ans. All ships engaged on commercial trading need to be registered in a country, which identifies its owners. The country of registration is known as "FLAG STATE". It is the duty of flag state to ensure that a vessel entitled to fly its flag is safely constructed, equipped and subsequently properly maintained and manned as per relevant regulation based on international conventions developed by International maritime organisation (IMO) and International labor organisation (ILO) for this purpose the flag state carriers out surveys and inspections on the vessels under its registry for issue of various statutory certificates. Ships trade internationally and how to call at various parts all over the world. Many ships may not call at their home ports for a considerable period and it is possible that during a certain period and it is possible that during a certain period of time ships certificates may not have been renewed or maintenance in general has suffered due to various reasons. Therefore it is imperative that ships must be inspected at various ports to ensure compliance with rule requirements as regards safety, environment protection maintenance manning etc. This control is termed as port state control. The fundamental aim of port state control is to supplement the inspections by flag state and eliminate sub-standard ships in order to ensure safer ships and cleaner oceans.

As per International convention for the safety of life at sea (SOLAS) chapter I, part B, Regulation 19, Every ship when in port of another contracting government is subject to control by officers duly authorized by such governments so far as this control is directed towards verifying that the certificates issued under regulation are valid. Also as per SOLAS chapter XI-1, special measures to enhance maritime safety - Regulation 4- port state control on operational requirements. A ship in a port of another contracting government is subject to control by officers duly authorized by such government concerning operation requirements in respect of the safety of the ship when there are clear grounds for believing that master or crew are not familiar with essential shipboard operations / procedures relating to safety of ship. Ships of the countries which are not party to the various international inspections to ensure commensurate level of safety such inspections may be under taken on the basis of. 1) 2) 3) Initiative of the party The request of or on the basis of information regarding a ship provided by another party. Information regarding a ship providing by a member of the crew, a professional body, an association, a trade union or any other individual with an interest in the safety of ship, its crew and passengers or the protection of the marine environment.

Some time ago, ship owners started registering their ships under flags of convenience(FOC). The main interest of the ship owners was to pay lesser taxes, lesser registration fees, low statutory survey fees and above all the rules and regulations were not so stringent. These so called flags of convenience were not party to some or more international conventions. So in a nutshell, ship owners had to spend comparatively a lot less money to get their ships registered in flags of convenience. Since these flag states were not party to some conventions due to nonavailability of resources or manpower. The ships registered with them had great chances to have standards below the international standards. To maintain universal identical standards, certain minimum standards were set by IMO and ILO and even if a flag of convenience does not comply with the conventions, Port State Control has been given authority by various IMO conventions to maintain minimum standards. Had all the conventions been ratified by all states and subsequently implemented on ships there would have been no need for Port State Control. So if flag state implementation is carried out effectively there is no need for Port State Control

270. During a port State control inspection, the PSCO desired to carry out detailed inspection of the vessel. (a) What are clear grounds for a PSCO to conduct a more detailed inspection? State your answer with examples. (b) What is the difference between corrective action and preventive action Ans)(a)If the PSCO has clear grounds for carrying out a more detailed inspection, the master should be immediately informed of these grounds and advised that, if so desired, the master should be immediately informed of these grounds and advised that, if so desired, the master may contact the Administration or, as appropriate, the recognized organization responsible for issuing the relevant certificate and invite their presence on board. The following are the clear grounds for a PSCO to conduct a more detailed inspection:1) Evidence from PSCOs general impressions and observations that serious hull or structural deterioration or deficiencies exist that may place at risk the structural

watertight or weather tight integrity of the ship e.g., damaged guard-rails, rusted ladder ways, rusted or patched up pipelines on deck. Significant areas of damage or corrosion or pitting of plating and associated stiffening in decks and hull affecting seaworthiness or strength to take loads may justify detention. It may be necessary to check the underwater portion of the ship. In reaching a decision, the PSCO should have regard to the seaworthiness and not the age of the ship making an allowance for fair wear and tear over the minimum acceptable scantling. Damage not affecting seaworthiness or damage that has been temporarily but effectively repaired for a voyage to a port for permanent repairs wont constitute grounds for judging that a ship be detained. In assessment of effect of damage, the PSCO should have regard o the location of crew accommodation and whether damage affects its habitability. The PSCO should pay particular attention to the structural integrity and seaworthiness of bulk carriers and oil tankers and note that these ships must undergo the enhanced programme of inspection during surveys under the provision of regulation X1/2 of SOLAS 74. The PSCOs assessment of the safety of the structure of those ships should be based on the survey Report File carried on board. This file contains reports of structural surveys, condition evaluation reports, thickness measurement reports and a survey planning document. If theres a doubt that the required survey has taken place, the PSCO should confirm with there organised organization. If survey report File necessitates a more detailed inspection of the structure of the ship or if no such report is carried, special attention should be given by PSCO, as appropriate to hull structure, piping systems in way of cargo tanks or holds, pump-rooms, cofferdams, pipe tunnels, avoid spaces within the cargo area and ballast tanks for bulk carriers the main structure of holds should be inspected for any obvious unauthorized repairs. Machinery Spaces: the PSCO should assess the condition of the machinery of the electrical installations to make sure that they are capable of providing sufficient continuous power for propulsion and for auxiliary services. During inspection of machinery spaces, PSCO should see the standard of maintenance. Defective quick losing valves, disconnected or in operative extended control rods or machinery trip mechanisms, missing valve hand wheels, evidence of chronic steam, water and oil leaks, dirty tank steps and bilges or extensive corrosion of machinery foundations are pointers to an unsatisfactory organization of the systems maintenance. A large number of pipe clips or content boxes, will indicate reluctant to make permanent repairs. General deficiencies like leaking pump glands, dirty water gauge glasses, rusted relief valves, inoperative pressure gauges, inoperative or disconnected safety or control devices, evidence of repeated operation of diesel engine scavenge belt or crankcase relief valves, malfunctioning or inoperative automatic equipment and alarm systems and leaking boiler casings or uptakes would warrant inspection of engine room log book and investigation into the record of machinery failures and accidents and a request for running tests of machinery. Evidence from PSCOs general impression or observations that serious deficiencies exist in the safety, pollution prevention or navigational equipment. a) safety equipment: the effectiveness of life-saving appliances depends on good maintence by the crew and their regular use in drills. A part from obvious defects like heled life boat, PSCO should look for signs of disuse of obstructions to survival craft launching equipment which may include paint accumulation seizure of pivot points, absence of greasing condition of blocks and falls. b) Fire fighting equipment: poor condition of fire line, fire extinguish deck foam lines, fire hydrants etc may be a guide for detailed examination of all fire safety equipment PSCO should also look for evidence of a higher than normal fire risk, which may be brought about by a poor standard of cleanliness in the machines space which together with significant deficiencies of the fixed or portable fireextinguishing equipment could lead to a judgement of a ship being substandard. The PSCO should inspect for operability and securing arrangements of those doors in the main zone bulkheads and stairways enclosures and in boundaries of high fire risk spaces like machinery rooms and galleys. Spot checks may be made on dampers smoke flaps to ascertain the standard of operability. These flaps will preview spread of smoke through ventilation systems. PSCO should also ensure that ventilation fans can be stopped from the master controls and that means are available for closing main inlets and outlets of ventilation systems. Attention should be given to the effectiveness of escape routes by ensuring that vital doors are kept open and that alleyways and stairways are not obstructed . Now equipment e.g., one of the auto radar plotting aids plotting devices is not working.

Absence of principal equipment or arrangements required by conventions. e.g., (a) Marpol Annex I requires that ships of 400 gross tons and above must have an oil filtering equipment provided with arrangements to ensure that any discharge of oily moistures is automatically stopped when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15 ppm. Absence of this principle equipment may lead to more detailed examination and possible detention. SOLAS convention 1974 requires presence of a life raft capable of carrying 6 persons near forecastle deck. Absence of this may lead to more detailed examination and possibly detention. 5) Evidence from a review of ships certificates that a certificate or certificates are clarly invalid e.g. safety Equipment certificate may be invalid since no renewal survey was carried out during stipulated time. 6) Evidence that documentation required by the conventions are not on board, incomplete, are not maintained or are falsely maintained. e.g. up. a) oil record book for machinery spaces may be absent or not properly filled b) Fire control plans may be absent c) Garbage management plan may be absent and or garbage record incomplete d) Stability booklet may be absent

7) Information or evidence that the master or crew is not familiar with essential shipboard operations relating to the safety of the ships or the prevention of pollution or that such operations have not been carried out. e.g. (a) Life boat have not been lowered for past 4 months

(b) Chief Engineers does not know how to release CO2 into the engine room in case of fire in the en gine room Master does not know how to do emergency steering (d ) Chief Officer doesnt know how to operate deck foam system. 8) Indication that key crew members may not be able to communicate with each other or with other persons on board. The PSCO may ask the master which languages are used as working languages. For E.g. on Indian flag ships, English is the working language. PSCO may ensure that key crew members are able to understand each other during inspection or drills. Crew members assigned to assist passengers should be able to give necessary information to passengers in case of an emergency 9) Conditions of assignment of load lines. If a PSCO has concluded that a hull inspection is unnecessary but is dissatisfied, on the basis of observation on deck with items like defective hatch closing arrangements, corroded air pipes and vent coamings the PSCO should examine to closing appliances, means of freeing water from the deck and arrangements concerned with the protection of the crew. Receipt of a report or complaint containing information that a ship appears to be substandard. E.g. third engineer has complained to port state control that life boat davit structure is badly corroded and it may not be able to support the life boat. Then PSCO should conduct detailed examination PSCO should not disclose the source of information. 10) Emission of false distress alerts not followed by proper cancellation procedures. E.g. If EPIRB is accidentally actuated then it should be set right and nearest coastal authority informed about the accident. (b) Corrective action is taken to remedy a defect while preventive action is the action taken to prevent a breakdown from occurring. e.g. Fire main line burst due to excess pressure and failure of relief valve damaged portion of the line is renewed to the satisfaction of PSCO. This is corrective action. Preventive action would have been to test the relief valve periodically and overhaul it if required. Preventive action would also include

opening at least two fire hydrants on deck before starting the fire pump and monitoring fire pump pressure so as to prevent excessive build up of pressure.

272

Regulation 4, chapter XI of SOLAS 1974 makes it possible for pre officer inspecting foreign ships to check their operational requirements especially when there are Clear Grounds for believing that Master or crew are not familiar with essential ship board procedures relating to ships safety, pollution prevention ships visiting any foreign port, are to be inspected by PSC on behalf of the contracting Govt. to ensure that the visiting vessel is not a threat o the port with regards to the safety of personnel & cargo & also not a navigational hazard to its surroundings. (a) The Clear Grounds referred, leading to detailed inspection include such factors as operational short coming, cargo operation not being conducted in a proper manner or absence of an updated muster list. These indicate that the crew members may not be able to communicate with each other. PSC inspections are normally limited to checking certificates becomes questionable, if there are Clear Grounds for believing that the condition of the ship or its equipments are not substantially meeting requirements of relevant instrument then a more detailed inspection may be carried out. In accordance with the following provisions of IMO & ILO conventions, a PSC officer may conduct inspection of foreign ships coming in their parts : 1) 2) 3) SOLAS - 74 Reg. 1/19, leg. IX/6 & leg. XI/4 Load lines 66, article 21. MARPOL 73/78 article 5 & 6 1) 2) 4) 5) reg. S/A o annex I Reg. 18 of Annex II, III, V & VI

STCW 78 - article x & reg. TONNAGE 69 - article 4

The IMO has adopted assembly resolution A 787 (19) as guideline her PSC Assembly resolution A 882 (21) has amended & updated a 787 (19) A PS officer proceeding to the ship can form an impression of the standard of its maintenance from items such as condition of paint works, corrosion/pitting. If the PSC office from general impressions formed or from his observations has clear grounds to believe that the ship or its equipment or its crew do not substantially meet the requirement, PSC should do more detailed inspections. Clear grounds to conduct detailed inspection include : 1) The absence of principle equipment or arrangement required by conventions. 2) 3) Evidence, that a ships certificate or certificates are clearing invalid. Evidence,that the documents required by the convention & listed in appendix 4 is not onboard, incomplete, not maintained or falsely maintained. Evidence from PSCOs general impression & observation that serious hull or structural deterioration / deficiencies exist that may place a risk to the water tight integrity of the ship. Evidence, from the PSCOs general impression or observations that serious deficiencies exists in safety, pollution prevention or navigational equipment. Information or evidence that master/crew is not familiar with essential shipboard operations relating to the safety of the ship or prevention of pollution.

4)

5)

6)

7) 8) 9)

Indication that key crew members are may not be able to communicate with each other. The emission of false distress alert not followed by proper cancellation procedures. Receipt of a report regarding complaints that ship appears to be substandard.

IF PSCOs has clear grounds for carrying out more detailed inspection, the master should be immediately informed & advised Master may / then contact the Admin. authority or appropriate RO responsible for issuing cert. & invite their presence onboard. (b) Detainable deficiencies & corrective action : 1) Insufficient cleanliness of E/R, excess amount of oily water mixture in bilges, insulation of piping including exhaust pipes in E/R contaminated by oil, & improper operation of Bilge pumping arrangements. Absence, insufficient capacity or serious deteriorating of personal LSAs survival craft & launching arrangements. Number, composition or cert. of crew not corresponding with safe manning document. Exceeding of maximum allowable cargo quantity per tank. Annex I : unauthorised discharge bypass, fitted for pumping oily water overboard.

2) 3) 4) 5)

Appropriate training to be provided to crew members regarding operations, proper house keeping & cleanliness of E/R, planned maintenance schedule must be prepared to check LSAs & other survival arrangements. Manning must be managed as per safe manning Cert. Appropriate loading of cargo in task as specified in cargo loading & considering stress on ships HK & hull. In no case unauthorised discharge from ship be made which is considered as criminal offence.

273. Explain the jurisdiction of application of PSC and its control regulations. State the salient clauses from different International Conventions that forms the basis and focus area of PSC. Ans. Port State Control authorities undertake inspections of ships in their territorial limits, to ensure that they meet the requirements of international standards laid in the Conventions. It is possible that during a certain period the ship may not have called its home port, certificate may not have been renewed or maintenance has suffered due to various reasons. Therefore the ship must be inspected at various ports to ensure compliance with rules/requirements as regards safety, maintenance and manning. These inspections are done by Port State Control authorities. The fundamental aim of the PSC is to supplement the inspection done by flag state and to eliminate sub standard ships in order to have safer ships and cleaner oceans. In accordance with provisions IMO and ILO conventions, parties may conduct inspection of the foreign ships in their port with Port State Control Officer (PSCO) :1) SOLAS 74, Regulation 1/19, regulations IX/6 and regulation XI/4 2) Load Lines 66, article 21 3) Marpol 73/78, Article 5&6, regulation 8A of annex 1, regulation 15 of annex II, regulation 8 of annex V 4) STCW 78, article X and regulation 5) Tonnage 69 Article 12 6) International Labour Organisation (ILO) convention no. 147, article 4 IMO has adopted assembly resolution A 787 (19) as a guideline for unified procedure for PSC. Assembly resolution A 882 (21), has amended and updated A 787 (19). Clauses from different conventions

(i) Part C chapter VI pf SOLAS 1974 and international code of safe carriage of grain in bulk. The PSCO may determine whether the operations and loading manuals include the relevant information for safe loading and unloading operation in port as well as in transit conditions. (ii) Operation of machinery : PSCO may determine if responsible ship officers are familiar with duties related to operating essential machinery such as: a) Emergency Generator and st-by source of electrical supply b) Auxiliary steering gear c) Any other equipment essential in emergency situation d) Emergency steering gear operation e) Manoeuvring from secondary position Inspection of fire fighting equipment and systems and proficiency of personnel demonstrating the operation and maintenance of the same. -- MARPOL 73/78, Annex I Regulation 26 and 8 shipboard oil pollution emergency plan, stability book, associated with stability plans and stability information. -- Oil and oily mixture from machinery spaces taking in to account:1) The quantity of oil residue generated 2) The capacity of sludge and bilge water holding tank 3) Capacity of oily water separator. An inspection of oil record book should be made. The PSCO may determine if reception facility has been used and any inadequacy of such facilities. PSCO may verify if all operational requirements of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 are met. (iii) Control under the provisions of STCW 78 1) Verification of seafarers serving on board, who are required to be certified and hold appropriate certificate or a valid dispensation or provide documentary proof that applications for same have been made. 2) Verification of number of certificate and details of seafarers serving on board. 3) Assessment of seafarers ability to carry out watch keeping, maintenance and record keeping capability to act, in case of any emergency which may take place in port or at sea. (iv) Port State Control related to ISM Code PSCO can examine the copy of the Document of Compliance (DOC), issued to company, safety management certificate (SMC) issued to ship. A SMC is not valid unless the company holds a valid DOC for that type of ship. A more detailed inspection of safety management system may be carried out. In relation to ISM PSCO may check:1) Company safety and environment policies 2) Relevant documents to SMS in working language 3) Emergency preparedness 4) Non conformity analysis record and reports. (v) Water Ballast Management PSCO may check compliance with water ballast management system and records maintained. (vi) ISPS Code as per SOLAS Chapter XI.

276

The oil pollution during bunkering operation could occur due to various reasons such as a leakage at the manifold connections, tank overflowing, hose fracture caused due to excessive pressurization. To elaborate on the emergency preparation plan, we shall assume that a hose fracture has lead to a substantial amount of spillage in water. A major oil spill requires a prompt and diligent action wherein the master & Chief Engineer need to work in close co-ordination A vessel having well drawn and rehearsed (in the form of oil spill drills) Emergency preparedness plan can be effectively and efficiently tackle an oil spill causing minimum damage to the marine environment. The plan should be prepared such that duties and responsibilities of every crew member are well defined and understood. It should address the very important aspects as regards the oil spill. (i) ii) Effective communication with local authorities, P& I club and office (DPA) Measures to stop / contain oil spill, clean -up action and prevention of one emergency leading to another such as outbreak of ferric) Both the above mentioned measures should be taken up concurrently. A sample draft of an emergency preparedness plan is as follows : Emergency preparedness Plan (Board outline) i) a) Effective communication : Master, with the assistance of Chief Engineer and one watch keeping officer shall and as follows : Immediately consult local P & I club representative. The representative will advice on the steps which should be taken to inform the local authorities and will have arrangements for legal representations and attendance of surveyors if necessary. The representative will also assist master / C/E, in dealing with local authorities. If the authorities request permission to board the vessel the master / Chief Engineer should attempt to obtain the advice of a legal representative, before granting permissions. If this is not possible, and the authorities insist on boarding the vessel, the master shall allow them access to the vessel. However, their names, the department they represent & their activities on board shall be noted. Master shall contact DPS and appraise him from time to time about the progress of events. In order to ensure activities (a) & (b). Master shall ensure that an updated date of contact numbers of all concerned authorities is maintained onboard. ii) Measures to a) b) c) Stop / contain oil spill. Clean -up the spilled oil. Prevent one emergency leading to another.

b)

c)

Chief Engineers shall be the in charge of the above operation and he shall co-ordinate, instruct and supervise the teams under him to ensure following : a) b) c) d) e) f) Immediately stop the bunkering operation with communication with the bunker barge /shore terminal. Raise an emergency alarm. Prevent oil from spilling overboard and collect / transfer oil accumulated on the deck to the tank as appropriate. Clean-up the entire affected area on-board Inspect are adjoining the affected area to take appropriate measures for prevention of fire. Use rope or floating boom around the boundary of the affected area around the vessel to restrict spread of oil. an effective

g) h)

Use dispersant / detergent (available onboard) only after local authorities permit there use. Record program of all activities to master who shall record them to defined claims of oil pollutions etc. Salient advantages of Emergency Preparedness Plan. The plan identifies all the activities which may cause oil spillage leading to environmental pollutions. It defines clearly, the duties & responsibilities of the master and crew thereby eliminating confusion and chaos. An effective implementation is ensured through specialist teams comprising crew members. These teams are trained on-board through realistic drills carried and on a regular basis thus improving their skill & effectiveness. Plan assess the state / condition of tools (cleaning gear) and consumables (cleaning material) provided to clean-up spillage. Thus a well prepared EPP will go a long way in dealing with an incidence of oil spill effectively.

1) 2) 3)

4)

277.List the methods and aids to prevent pollution of the seas under IMO Conventions and steps you can take for its successful implementation on a ship prior its voyage where you have joined as Chief Engineer. Ans. Various IMO convention have been developed to deal with the prevention of pollution by ships. Various IMO instruments are listed below.: 1) MARPOL - 73/78 : International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships 1973, as modified by the protocol of 1978. The various annexes to this conventions are as follows : Annex - I : Deals with regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil. Entry into force on 2nd October 1983. Methods and aids to prevents pollution includes following : a) International oil pollution prevention certificate (IOPP) - (Reg.5) This certificate is mandatory / statutory certificate to be issued in initial or renewal survey, to any takes of 150GT and other ships 400 GT. Valid for 5 years issued by administration. Oil Discharge monitoring and control system (ODMCS) shall be provided for tankers to control oil in shops (Reg.-15) Oil filtering equipment, OWS, for any ship 10,000 GT, should be provided with alarm and automatic stopping device, in case the effluent exceeds 15 ppm, for E/R bilges. Bilge water, sludge and dirty oil reception facilities to be provided at all ports or terminals (Reg.-12) Segregated clean ballast tanks (SBT) and crude it working system (COW) to be provided for oil tankers. Imploding the requirements for the design & construction of oil tankers to prevent oil pollution in the Event of collision and standing. Reg. 13F for new tankers & Reg. 13G for hinting tankers which apply to crude carriers 20,000 DWT and product carriers 30,000. Introduction of Enhanced survey programs during periodical almost & intermediate surveys. (phasing out of single hull tankers) g) h) Oil record book : Every tanker 180 GT & other ships 400 GT shall have an oil record book. Reg. 20 Shipboard oil pollution Emergency plan (SOPEP) Reg.26 Every tanker 150 GT and others 400 GT shall carry supplied SOPEP plan by Administration. Sufficient sludge and bilge water holding tanks stop should be provided to all ships.

b) c)

d) e) f)

i)

j) k) l)

Double hull and double bottom requirements for oil tanks delivered after 6 July 1996 & before 6 July 1996. (reg.19) Pump room (cargo) bottom protection (Reg.22) Limitation of size & arrangement of cargo tanks. Annex - II Defines regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk. Methods and aids to prevent pollution includes :

a) b)

Categorization and control of noxious liquid substances in and outside special areas Reg. 3 & 5 Cargo record book : To record loading, unloading cleaning and ballasting facilities at terminals for discharge of residues and mixtures containing NLS Reg.7. To have shipboard marine pollution prevention Emergency plan (SMPEP) along with SOPEP or a combined plan. Annex - III Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form E/F = 1st July 1992

c)

a) b) c)

Marking and labelling - Reg 3. Storage shall be properly stored and secured so as to minimize hazards Reg.5. Document correct technical names to be used and further identified by the words marine pollutant. International maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) Code : defines the harmful substances, which are identified as marine pollutants. Annex IV : Defines regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships forced on 27th Sept. 2003. Methods and aids :

a) b) c) d)

An International sewage pollution prevention certificate is issued by the administration after survey has been carried out in accordance with reg.3. Ship must have in operation an administration approved sewage treatment plant Reg.8 Reception facilities at ports & terminals Reg.10. Standard discharge connection. Annex V - Regulation for prevention of pollution by garbage from ships E/F 31st dec. 1988. Methods and Aids

a) b) c) d) e)

Requirements for disposal of garbage with in & outside sp. areas. Reception facilities in parts & terminals. Placards shall be displayed for every 12 m ship for the crew. Every ship 400 GT to carry garbage management plan. Garbage record book required for ship > 400 GT and preserved for 2 years after last entry. Annex VI : Regulation for prevention of air pollution from ships enforced 19th May 2005 Methods and Aids :

a) b) c)

Ships must have an International Air Pollution prevention (IAPP) certificate by administration, after initial survey. valid for 5 years. Restriction of use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as HCFCs. phasing out of existing ODSs by 1st January 2020. (i.e. R-22) Control of emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) by limiting sulphur contest of fuel oil to 4.5% m/m and 1.5% for sulphur emission control areas (SECAs) Reg.13

e) f) g) h) i)

Installation of approved incinerators with monitoring devices for fuel gas outlet and combustion chamber temperatures. Reception facilities for exh. gas cleaning residues, oil etc. Bunker delivery notes must specify parameters of fuel supplied, F.O. samples must be taken in continuous drip method, stored for not less than 12 months. VOC system for tankers sailing to VOC designated port. As a Chief Engineer on board ship, one must ensure the following, for successful implementation of methods and aids to prevent pollution to the Environment.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Familiarization of personnel's responsible for operating pollution preventing equipment, with the operation & maintenance of equipment Familiarization of personnel with MARPOL regulations. Regular testing of parts / million equipment, (15ppm), alarms and stops. Must ensure minimum recommended spares always onboard for pollution prevention equipment. Eg. spare set of filter cartridge. Proper documentation via IOPP, LAPP, ISPP certificate and their validity. Surveys due for pollution prevention equipment. Bunker checklist bunker transfer procedures are clearly posted. To properly keep bunker samples & delivery notes. Operating procedures for pollution prevention equipments must be clearly posted.

10) Regular testing of pollution prevention equipments. 11) Entries in oil record book. 12) Ensure sounding records updated. 13) Good E/R house keeping minimum leakages.

278. The protection of the Marine environment is of utmost importance today. Discuss. (a) How would you as a C/E of a tanker ensure protection of the environment by compliance with the various Regulation of MARPOL 73/78 Annex 1 for prevention and control of pollution at sea? (b) State requirement for compliance under Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78. Ans. Annex 1 Regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil which entered into force on 2nd October 1983 and, as between the parties to MARPOL 73/78 supersedes the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the sea by oil, 1954, as amended 1962 and 1969 which was then in force.

Prevention of pollution methods & aids involved are:-

1. IOPP Certificate International oil pollution preventions certificate is issued after initial survey before the ship put in service or renewal survey in accordance with the provisions of regulation 6 of this annex, to any oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and any other ships 400 gross tonnage and above which are engaged in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other parties to the present on. Such certificate shall be issued or endorsed as appropriate either by the Adm or by any persons or organization duly authorized by it. In every case Adm. Assumer full responsibility for the certificate & valid for maximum 5 years.

2. Tanks for oil residues (sludge) Reg. 12 Every ship of 400 GT & above shall be provided with a tank or tanks of adequate capacity having regard to type of machinery and length of voyage. Piping to and from the sludge the shall have no direct connection overboard other than standard discharge connection.

3. Standard discharge connection Reg. 13. To enable the pipes of reception facility to be connected with the ships discharge pipeline for residues from M of bilges and from sludge tanks must have standard discharge connection.

OD 215 mm, ID According to pipe OD, thickness 20 mm.

PCD 183 mm, Flange

4. Oil filtering equipment Reg. 14 / Reg. 31. Any ship above 400 GT & less than 10,000 GT shall be fitted with 15 PPM oil filtering equipment which must be Adm. Approved.

Any ship above 10,000 GT must have 15 PPM equipment with oil discharge monitoring system with alarm when it exceeds level and automatically stops discharging O/B by either P/P stop or 3 way v/v. Equipment must be Adm. Approved oil discharge and control system.

No discharge in Antarctic Area is allowed.

5. Oil record book part I Reg. 17 (machinery spares) Reg 34 part II Cargo / Ballast operations every oil tanker 150 GT & above and every ship of 400 GT & above other than oil tanker must have ORB Part - I which must indicate transfers tanker to the, bunkering LO & FO, collection & disposal of residue, discharging O/B through approved equipment or to reception facilities must be recorded.

Part II must be kept updated for ballast / cargo operation on each occasions on the case loading oil cargo, internal transfers, unloading oil cargo, ballasting cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing, deballasting excluding SB tanks, discharge from slop tanks through ODMCS, disposal of residues for reception facility must be recorded.

6. Segregated Ballast tanks Reg. 18 Every crude oil tanker of 20,000 tonns DW 7 above and every product carrier 30,000 tonns DW & above delivered after 1st July 1982 must have segregated ballast tanks.

7. Double Hull & Double Bottom Requirements for oil tankers delivered on or

after 6th July 1996 Reg. 19 Oil tanker 600 tonnes DW 7 above delivered on or after 6th July 1996.

Every oil tanker 5000 tonnes DW & above must have protective location of segregated ballast spaces & should be protected against progressive flooding.

Entire cargo tank length shall be protected by ballast tanks or space other than tanks that carry oil .

i) Wing the or spaces

DW w = 0.5 + 20,000 Whichever less. ii) Double bottom the or spaces Min w = 1m (m) or w = 20m

h = B\ 15(m) 01 h = 2.0 m whichever less min h = 1.0m.

8. Double hull & DB requirements for oil tankers delivered before 6th July

1996 Reg. 20 Cat 1 tanker to be phased out with single hull by 1 st April 2005 which built before 6th July 1996.

Single Hull tankers cannot carry HGO Reg. 21 Prevention of pollution from oil tankers carrying HGO.

9. Pump room bottom protection Reg. 22 This regulation for oil tankers 500 tonnes DW & above constructed on or after 1st Jan 2007

h = B/15 or h = 2.0 m whichever less mini h = 1.0m

10.

Accidental oil out flow performance Reg. 23

To be dealt with oil flow discharge oil tankers delivered after 1st Jan 2010.

11. Oil tankers of 150 tonnes & above shall be provided with slop tanks except for tankers having voyage less than 72 hrs. & with is 50 nautical miles. 12. Crude oil wasting requirements Reg. 33

Oil tankers 20,000 DW 7 above delivered after 1st June 1982 must have cow system class approved and RO.

13.

Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan Reg. 37

Administration approved 50 per plan should be there for tankers 150 GT 7 above and others 400 G & above.

14.

Reception Facility Reg. 38

The Government of each party to the convention to ensure provisions at loading terminals, repair ports, in other parts where ship have oily residue to discharge must have reception facility without delaying ship.

b) Annex VI Prevention of air pollution form ships. An International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate shall be issued for the ships of 400 GT & above and every fixed and floating drilling rigs and other performs by the Administration, which shall not exceed 5 years.

In initial survey before the ship is put into service or before the certificate required under reg. 6 of this Annex is issued for the first time. This survey shall be such as to ensure that the equipment, system, fittings, arrangements and material fully comply with the applicable requirements f their Annex.

2. Ozone depleting substances Reg. 12 Deliberate emission of ozone depleting substances shall be prohibited unless saving life at sea or due to accident or breakdown of equipment. Deliberate emissions include emissions occurring in the course of maintaining, servicing, repairing or disposing of system or equipment.

New installation which certain ozone depleting substances shall be prohibited on all ships, except that new installations containing hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are permitted until 1st Jan 2020.

These substances should be collected properly and delivered to the reception facility ashore.
3. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Reg. 16.

This regulation applier to each engine 130 kw & above O/P installed on ship constructed after 1st Jan 2000. or the diesel engine goes major conversion after 1st Jan 2000 . Major conversion means 10% change in MCR.

His regulations will not apply to emergency generator lifeboat engines and any device or equipment which to be used solely in case emergency or costal voyage vessels which must have alternative Nox control provision set by Administration.

Nox Limits from the engines should be following:

i)
ii)

iii)

17.0 g/kwh the engines should be following: 45.0 x n-0.2 G/kwh when n >130rpm n<2000rpm. 9.8 g/kwh when rpm n h 2000 & above. Provisions 6/ NOx technical code should be applied to all ship i.e. alternative provisions gives by Administration.

4. Sulphur Oxide (SOX) Reg. 14. The sulphur content of any fuel used on board ships shall not exceed 4.5% m/m. The fuel supplied on board shall be mentioned under the guide times developed by MEPC 82(43).

SECA Sox Emission Control Area

1. Baltic sea & North sea.

under SECA either the fuel should not contain sulphur more than 1.5% m/m or emission from engine should not exceed 6.0 g SOx / KWh or any approved method by Administration to control six can be used.

5. Volatile Organic Compounds Reg. 15 The emission of volatile organic compound (VOCs) from tankers are to be regulated in ports or terminals under jurisdiction of a party to protocol 1997.

6. Shipboard Incineration Reg. 16 Shipboard incineration in allowed except for oil sludge & sewage sludge in Port harbour & estuaries.

Shipboard incineration is prohibited for following

i) ii) iii) iv)

Annex I, II and III cargo residues of the present convention and related contaminated packing material. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Garbage containing more than trace of heavy metals i.e. batteries, mercury, lead etc. Polyvinyl Chloride (PUCS) exception in IMO type approved incinerator.

Monitoring of combustions flue gas outlet temperature shall be required at all times & waste shall not be fed in continuous feed shipboard incinerator when temperature is below 850oC & unit shall be so designed to reach combustion temperature to 600oC within five minutes after start up. 7. Reception Facility Reg. 17 The Government of each party to protocol 1997 undertakes to ensure the provisions of facilities adequate to meet reception of ozone depleting substances, exhaust cleaning residues without causing undue delay to ships.

8. Fuel Oil Quality Reg. 18 Fuel oil onboard for combustion purpose should meet ISO 8217 standards with following requirements.

ii)

Fuel oil shall be blend of HC derived from petroleum refining & small amounts of additives are permitted to improve performance aspects. Free from inorganic acids Fuel Oil should not have added chemical base which can jeopardize the ship, be harmful to persons, and contribute to additional air pollutions. Sulphur content must not exceed 4.5% m/m & SECA area 1.5% m/m. BDN must be retained board for minimum 3 years readily available for inspection. Fuel Oil samples sealed and signed by supplier or supplier representative or master or officer in-charge of bunker operations. Samples to be retained on board for minimum 12 months.

iii) iv)

v) vi)

vii)

279

Emergency preparedness procedures are provided in the section 8 of companys safety management system. Manual under the heading Contingency plan these are as follows for given scenarios:

(1)

Search and Rescue

Search:

(1) Contract Port which sent distress and nearest coast station or MRCC and request advice (2) Give information about your own vessel i.e., position course speed type of ship etc and confirm that you are heading for search area (3) If this is the case also inform to your company and charterer and keep log to all events (4) Establish continuous radio watch and on all frequencies as advised by MRCC (5) Before reaching to search area post additional look out to continuously monitor search area (6) equipments such as net ladder etc to aid rescue make ready first aid equipments and hospital (7) Co-ordinate search pattern with other ship/MRCC cost radio station (8) Monitor X band radar for locating survival craft transformer (SART) signal with 600 12NM range scale.

Rescue: (1) Contact surviors if possible o establish local conditions and situation (2) Rescue may be effect from the deck or by use of survival craft or from sea (3) If survival craft is set adrift after rescue

Notify nearest RCC advising position type of craft and weather any radio equipment left on board that transmit distress signal automatically.

(2)

Evacuation of critically injured personnel

(1) If it is decided to evacuate the critically injured personnel the decision for deviation has to be made (2) Inform office and P&I correspondent for deviation in order to land sick scaman (3) Inform port health authorities and the local agents to take care of legal matters and responsibilities (4) Keep monitoring the person and provide first aid and treatment advised by Radio medical advice. (5) Keep the persons documents (pass port, CDC, health book) ready (6) Prepare the casualty carefully and secure him in a stretcher (7) Keep O2 or EEBD on his mount to assist in his breathing if required.

(3) Helicopter Operation: Prior to helicopter operation following contingency plan to be followed (1) Inert gas pressure should be reduced 30 min before the helicopter operation (2) Vessel with IGS in the tanks should be ventilated to reduce the LEL in the tanks below 4% (3) Prior to helicopter operation all cargo and ballast tank opening pump rooms closed and secured

(4) Lose object from the area should be removed (5) Has a pendant or wind sock has been hoisted at point conspicuous to helicopter pilot to indicate wind direction (6) Fire pump should be running with adequate pressure (7) A competent person should be stand by at foam system (8) Foam monitors portable foam nozzles and foam liquid supply should be ready (9) Deck fire fighting and rescue team should be ready with wearing all protective year Following equipment should be kept at hand (a) 2 Life boys (b) Portable DCP (c) 1 Portable CO2 extinguisher (d) a large axe (e) crow bar (f) wire cutter (g) Read emergency signal/ torch (h) first aid kit (i) Rope managers for securing helicopter (only on pilots instruction) (10)Rescue boat ready for lowering (11) Ship should be displaying signal as per rules of road (12) Deck party aware of hand signals (13) Communication with helicopter pilot and radio channel set

(4)

Rescue from enclosed space 1. Sound alarm inform master 2. Mobilize emergency squad with SCBA and spare bottles 3. Mobilize stretcher party with first aid equipments to stand by at the scene at incident 4. Ensure or improve ventilation at space 5. Rig harness and rescue lines 6. Two persons wearing SCBA enter space with harness and EEBD 7. Remove the casualty from space and transfer it to hospital for treatment 8. A test office team 9. Take radio medical advice 10. consider for deviation to land the person if situation demands

(5)

Abandoning ship

Decision at abandoning ship will be taken by master either himself or in consultation with company. (1) Emergency alarm will be sounded allowed by captain announcement on P.A. system (2) Prior to abandoning (a) Inform company (b) Inform ship in vicinity Advice MRCC (d) Transmit distress signal (3) Muster all persons on board and taken head count search for missing person if any (4) Select survival craft/raft and prepare for launching (5) People will perform their assigned duty as per muster list with regard to (a) Collect official log book (Deck and Engine)

(b) Collect passport/CDC etc Collect extra water and ration (d) Collect VHF SART EPIRB (6) Launch the boat go away from ship but stay in the vicinity (7) Activate Epirb and sart (8) In the case of ship sinking stay in the vicinity at the ship (9) Be calm and together execute the survival techniques and try t keep your self busy and wait for rescue (10) Keep look out and use pyrotechniques when required to attract the attention of others

280. The vessel where you are posted as Chief Engineer is undergoing dry-docking and a serious fire occurs on the deck because of welding work. Illustrate the documented procedures to deal with such emergency and its advantage over non-documented actions? Explain the different ship related contingencies against which document procedures are maintained under emergency preparedness of ISM Codes. In case of a major pollution of oil from a ship how best the contingency plans in emergency preparedness help over other actions. Ans)According to the ISM code the company should make documented procedures to identify describe and respond to potential emergency shipboard situations. The company should establish programmes for drills and exercises to prepare for emergency actions. The safety Management System (SMS) should provide for measures ensuring that the companys organization can respond at any time to hazards accidents and emergency situations involving its ships.

Due to the nature of dry dock repair activities (that means it involves numerable jobs of vastly varied and diverse nature) it is challenging task to device a fire fighting plan that will satisfactorily operate under all conditions. Thus, necessarily in such a situation a suitable fire fighting plan should be open to frequent changes and thus should be highly flexible in nature. Due consideration to be given to following peculiar situational hurdles.

As the fire fighting is to carried out on the deck of a ship in dry dock there are several hurdles to fire fighting:

Major jobs are being carried out, thus most primary muster stations may not be suitable for muster log. Also, some repairs may be in progress on the vessels general emergency alarm system and thus alarm may not be available there is a possibility that some ships crew have availed of shore leave. Also, several shore gangs are working at different locations ships fire fighting appliances may have gone ashore for pr. Testing/recharging. Hence above points to be taken into account whilst devising a suitable plan.

It is also stated in SMS manuals documentation that the master make it clear to the ship repairer that its his responsibility for taking suitable precautions against fire, testing and certification of spaces prior to any hot work. There has to be in place a clear written agreement to the effect and an acknowledgement of the acceptance of their responsibility to be provided to the ship owner/master.

To ensure proper safety against fire and fire fighting to be effective the vessel management must also familiarize/acquaint with the Dock employers fire safety plan, equipment and abilities which must include the following information. Identification of significant fire hazards Procedures for recognizing and reporting unsafe conditions (fire patrols, designated and non-designated areas for hot work checklist etc). Alarm procedures Procedures for notifying employees of a fire emergency Procedure for notifying fire response department of a fire emergency Procedure for evacuation Procedure to account for employees after evacuation Fire response policy-Information Whether (i) Initial fire response (ii) Outside fire response (iii) A combination of both above required during a particular type of fire. Rescue and Emergency response. And also following points o be considered while developing a contingency plan to fight fire on board. Suitable muster station for all teams to be declared made aware at the beginning of day along with planning and allocation of other jobs. Status of general emergency alarm to be checked and declared/made aware/ familiarize to ship staff and shore employees Equipment for communication with dock (telephone) to be conspicuously marked and numbers for emergency services and fire department to be highlighted. Officers at management level to be familiar with dock evacuation procedure, shore fighting abilities, fire fighting plan equipment and dock emergency alarm Logs of attendance 1 each for vessel and yard employees to be maintained specifying names of employees with jobs, location and in out times to avoid chaos during head count. Considering the above underlying concepts a suitable fire fighting plan would be as follows: Personnel witnessing the fire to shout fire, fire and raise general alarm and inform and relay to command team of nature and location of fire and whatever information available. If possible also inform/alert clock fire department personnel muster at suitable muster station command team/Technical team to inform Dock fire department. (if not already informed) Take head count, check logs (Attendance) stop all work. In case of fire on Deck Emergency team I (headed by C/officer) to lead fire fighting and in case of E/R fire Emergency Team II to lead fire fighting Emergency Team II to lead fire fighting while other emergency team will back up. Emergency Team I to lead fire fighting to check fire line pressure, contain extinguish fire. To evacuate casualties if any To liase with Dock fire fighting department if already present and to assist them in fire fighting with logistics and shipboard plans etc. asses damage and possibility of secondary fire. Back up team: To provide boundary cooling where required. Provide equipment back up Restrict flame by removing flammable item. Evacuate casualties and shore personnel

Support team: To evacuate personnel and to provide first aid to injured. Assist as directed Technical team: To cut of necessary electrical supplies to cut of shore pneumatic lines. Stop vents oils valves drain oil lines etc. The advantages of documented procedures over the non-documented procedures for fire fighting The plans are ship specific and devised by experts hence they are readily executable and effective All personnel are accounted and resources can be mobilized in a very short time. Absence of key person may not affect fire fighting as jobs/duties and deputy leader are assigned and well defined. New joining crew can easily familiarize with procedure. Documentation and availability of shipboard plans enable shore expertise to access situation and give proper assistance. avoids duplication of effort, confusion/chaos simplified instructions/complexity reduction Documented procedure have been devised with an aim to quickly regains control and restore Considerable damage to property loss of life and injury can be avoided. Proper reporting and documentation helps in insurance claims. Documentation enables to analyse effectiveness of procedures employed and thus enable improvisation Human error due to poor decision making is minimized. Responsible persons with help of well documented procedures and clear definition of duties and regular exercise drills can quickly arrive at correct decision under stressful and life threatening environment. Contingencies against which documented procedures are required to be maintained as per ISM Code are: Structural failure Main Engine failure Steering failure Electrical power failure Collision Grounding / Stranding Shifting of cargo Cargo spillage and contamination Fire Cargo Jettisoning Flooding Machinery Room Casualty Abandon Ship Drill Man over board/Search and Rescue Permit to work systems Serious injury Helicopter operation

Terrorism and piracy Heavy Weather Damage Sopep

MARPOL Annex I requires oil tankers of ISO gross tones and above every other ship other than oil tanker of 400 GRT and above must have a Sopep Plan (Shipboard oil pollution and emergency plan) SOPEP plan is a well documented plan devised by experts and is exhaustive and ship specific in nature such that there is no chance of oversight It is complete with all information so that master will feel no need o refer to any other document for reference. It is structures logically that will reduce decision making time and error It is so designed that master of vessel can interact with company in real time and shore experts can assess the situation of the vessel and offer advice, assistance as to action to take, stress calculation and other help. The plan also has list of all contact nos of third parties that are helpful in the emergency and are need to be contacted The plan has appended to it V/L tank and pipeline plans capacity chart of tanks general arrangement of hull and decks for ready reference. The plan employees flow charts and checklists that guide master through various actions and decisions. Following a contingency plan saves lots of time and panic situation and help to control the situation at an early stage. Everybody knows what he has to do in this emergency and acts promptly and effectively and no time is wasted. All personnel on board well aware with this plan and regularly exercise drills for their optimum performance in case of major/minor oil pollution.

281

Communication is of utmost importance in any emergency preparedness it should be clear concise and quick for effective response any emergency, it may be oral or written via any communication media or between two persons on board the ship, it may be between ships to shore and vice versa or between master effective communication helps each and every member is a emergency team to understand his instruction clear and enable him to act according during emergency it also enable every member to participate in drills and understand his duties, communication between office and ship during and emergency may be in the four of initial report, a detailed situation report and a report giving remedial suggestion to prevent further occurrences.

A contingency plan for the office involving contact between ship and office may include the following.

Appoint a shore based contingency team composition and duties of persons acting within the contingency plan.

Procedures to follow in response to different type of accidents or harbour accident.

Procedures for mobilization of an appropriate company response.

Procedures for establishing and maintaining contact between ship and ms ashore

The availability of ship particulars plans stability information safety aid environment protection equipment carried on board, photographs of the ship, crew list, ship insurance condition .

Check list appropriate to the type of emergency which may exist in the systematical questionnaire of the ship during response.

List to contact name and telecommunication details of all relevant parties who may need to be notified and consulted.

Procedures for issuing information bulletins to announce queries from media and public.

Backup arrangements for the co initial response in the event of protracted emergency.

The restoring of co personnel and specialties dedicated to support the response and adequate relief for maintenance of their routine duties.

Informing local authorities and local Agents. Informing classification society, P.S.T.

Contingency plan for office for communication equipment may include.

Identifying the list of contacts on the ship and shore in case of emergencies.

Typing out communication between ship which may include the following Fax, telex or any emergency communication that is to be used in emergency.

The designated person ashore on contingency teams leaders 24hrs contact is to be displayed and mock call to be drills.

Contingency room communication equipment to be tried out

Contingency plan for office for deal with media.

In event of an emergency the office should inform the media and acknowledge occurrence of such as emergency. It should provide sufficient information to media

and information which may hamper emergency response and subsequent insurance claims should be with held from media after consulting legal advises.

The following information may be given to The position / place of accidents and type of emergency The extent of emergency The no of people involved. Type of ship and cargo Rescues and search operation time when state and authorities involved. Weather conditions. Information about contingency team Dealing with relevant next of kin

Obtain a list of crew team ship Obtain information about any person duly missing and inquired. Establish contact between relevant next to kin and notify them about the emergency. Inform the relevant next of kin in event of death , missing or injured and the subsequent step to be taken. Arrange the dead body to be brought to next of kin, information authorities and engages search for missing person , transport injured pees inform medical attentions. Company should assume the next of kin and take part in the less and complete satisfactory.

282. State the requirement and responsibility of the office in enforcing emergency preparedness procedures for a ship and its personnel, as required under ISM Codes? Describe the duties of the office in: (i) Formation of the emergency team (ii) During emergency situations (iii) Maintaining contact between ship and office. Ans. The office should be prepared at all times to efficiently handle an emergency situation which might occur on any of the companys vessels. This will be achieved by developing and maintaining contingency, emergency and marine pollution prevention plans and by training and drills of the personnel involved both on board and also when a vessel is in, or reports an emergency situation. The contingency team shall as soon as possible, assist the master to initiate, engage, command and co-ordinate the appropriate action as the situation may require in order to primarily, mitigate injuries or damage to:1) The people 2) The environment 3) The cargo 4) The vessel The contingency team consists of the following persons: Leader of contingency team Technical Operation Manning

Insurance Legal Administration

The company has to set up above mentioned persons such that everybody is prepared & know their duties in case an emergency is called. The company has to lay down a policy in which the contingency team shall be ready at any time. This must be assembled within 2hr notice. Vacations must be planned in accordance with the requirement & persons with operational knowledge should be available at all times. Also the contingency team shall be tested & drilled twice a year; provided the team has not been actually mobilised during that period. The drill plan shall be as realistic as possible; starting with a drill message released from one of the vessels and followed up by messages of the accident development. The exercise plan of the company audit system shall be worked out. The actions of the contingency team shall be monitored and written records maintained. When the drill is finished, a briefing shall take place. The company has the duties as per the policy during every instance such as :(i) Formation of Emergency Team:- The company has to form a contingency or emergency team which has the level and leadership, also have the planned and well known duties of each person. The Emergency team consists of members which have the duties in them. The situation is divided in two levels; Red Level Mobilisation & Green Level Mobilisation. The Red Mobilisation is incidents of catastrophic nature such as explosions, major fire, collision, grounding, major oil or NLS spill and missing vessel. The Green Mobilisations are serious breakdowns, loading/discharging problems, heavy weather problems, minor oil or NLS substance spill etc. Where necessary assistance to the ship can be arranged by the ships technical superintendent or member of the relevant company department. Also the team consists of following persons:Level of Mobilisation Red 1. Leader of the Emergency team 2. Maritime/Safety 3. Technical 4. Operation 5. Manning 6. Insurance 7. Legal 8. Administration X X X X X X X X X X Green

The head of the technical and marine division will normally serve as leader of the team, & in his absence the leadership is passed down in the order of hierarchy. The actions taken are on behalf of the company as they deem necessary in an emergency situation. The leader has power to contact Board of Management after a red mobilisation & keep managing director duly informed of the occurrence & development. 1. During Emergency Situation:- Whenever there is an emergency situation, the vessel calls the company & the one who gets the message first is responsible for contacting the head of the Technical & Marine division and they will agree on the level of Mobilisation, & if the head is not available, the one who gets the message first shall use his own judgement 7 decide the level of mobilisation, & he shall then inform the Emergency team members. Company should know the development of the situation and master may seek advice from the Emergency team & discuss further action to be taken

During action, each member of the team shall evaluate the condition under his responsibility The team leader shall be kept fully informed about any action suggested or executed by the member of the team. Also during action the person in-charge and his assistant is appointed for the following job:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Appoint the Emergency team Keep the Emergency room equipped and in good order Keep the relevant charts available Keep track of members Receive the alarm report / mobilise the team Call the Tech superintendents & fleet manager Notify the owner, charterer, cargo owner, Class and D.G.Shipping Hire of Salvage Inform the relatives

10. Call press conference & inform the media 11. Set up communication 12. Logging & secretarial duties The team has to go through the situation & evaluate a most probably and worst case development scenario, and during the situation analysis, priorities should be life-safety-environment & property, when decisions are made. The team evaluating the situation & making the action plan which are based on a worst case development scenario. The action plan shall be updated continuously as soon as new information is received. Also the team shall not diminish the masters over riding responsibility and discretion to take whatever action he considers to be in the best interest of the crew, vessel and environment Also the team has to decide to have an assistance from the specialists who may be able to provide information, contribution to solve the actual problem. Also the information to media & relatives of the crew must be given when things are confirmed & only a spokesman should speak to media & fleet personnel to the relatives & both should be updated as the news gets confirmed Maintaining Contact between Ship & Office:- As described earlier, the contact between ship and office is to be maintained through out the action so that the advice is given to the master or person-in-charge on board, what is to be done, & what may be the further action. Also the company knows the latest developments & cam plan accordingly

283. Explain the different machinery related emergency situations that are dealt as documented /procedures under emergency preparedness? Underline the salient actions that are documented in dealing with (i) Main Engine Failure (ii) steering failure (in) electrical failure (iv) automation failure. (v) Boiler automation failure (vi) Scavenge fire Ans. The international management code for the safe operation of ships and for pollution prevention (ISM code) gives the guide lines for "emergency preparedness" under chapter 8. According to this. a) b) the company should establish procedures to identify, describe and respond to potential emergency ship board situations. The company should establish programmes for drills and exercises to prepare for emergency actions.

c)

The SMS should provide for measures ensuring that the companies organisation can respond at any time to hazards, accidents and emergency situation involving its ship. Thus the different machinery related emergency situations that are dealt as documented procedures mainly are :-

a)

Main Engine failure b) Aux. Engine failure c) Steering failure d) Electrical failure / Black out. e) Automation failure. Further the M/E failure can have various sub-categories which form emergencies such as.

a) a)

Scavenge fire b) Exh. gas economizer fire c) Various safeties failure such as L.O. trip. F.W. temp trip. FW. temp trip OMD high, over speed etc. Main Engine Failure : This is a very dangerous situation as it result in immediate immobilization of the vessel. The danger is further augmented if the vessel is under manoeuvring or in restricted areas or facing a rough weather. Persons specially the E/R staff has to be very alert and reactive to such situation. Communication and that to continuous between wheel house and E/R is of utmost importance. Depending on the situation the damage to the machinery should be avoided but giving safety of ship the most importance. Steering Failure : This is a situation which endangers the manoeuvrability of the vessel which can be a very dangerous situation during manoeuvring, river passage, shallow water passage, restricted and heavy traffic zones and bad weather. This situation is best tackled by proper emergency preparedness and response through proper training and drills. Again the comm. with bridge is very important. Electrical Failure : This is by for the most dangerous situation if the stand by auxiliaries do not supply power fast. This situation not only causes immobilization of vessel and lost manoeuvrability but also safety concerns to people on board which may lead to injury. The procedure to deal with such situation is conspicuously documented and described in relevant check list. Again the persons on board must be trained before hand through trainings and drills to deal with this emergency. Automation failure : The emergency can be of many types from failures of parameters monitoring and control to the M/E control failure from bridge and / or ECR and the failure of auto- pilot or remote steering. The procedures are to be documented depending on the situation and people trained through training & drills. Salient Action In dealing with :

b)

c)

d)

A)

Main Engine Failure : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Inform bridge and take controls to ECR. Raise Engineers Alarm & inform C/E. Man E/R (if UMS ship during might). Start Aux. Engine which is stand by. Assess the situation and if the repair / restart needs considerable time then a) Raise the vessel not under command (NUC) signal /flag. b) Prepare for anchorage if depth permits. 6) 7) 8) 9) Start repair and inform bridge of the progress and expected time of completion. Inform company the technical department. After rectifying the fault -start M/E and try out in Ahead and astern direction. Make report of the failure and damage. Communicate with bridge to assess the possibility and need for stopping the M/E.

B)

Steering Failure : 1)

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) C) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Raise emergency alarm and exhibit the vessel "not under control" signal, if in restricted area or heavy traffic or under maneuvering. Change over to manual steering if auto pilot fails. Change over to NFU. if manual steering also fails, change over to emergency steering. If emergency steering also does not respond then the M/E must be stopped. Prepare for anchoring if in anchor able depth. Inform Technical Dept. Inform Port Authorities and coast guard for assistance if V/L is in danger. Assess the damage and make report. Communicate with bridge and if vessel is under maneuvering in high traffic zone the exhibit the "NUC" signal. Raise engineers call alarm. All engineers to proceed to E/R. If stand by generator has not started, start same and take on load. Confirm sequential start of all essential M/C or start same. Change over M/E control to ECR & reset trips. Restart the plant and confirming all in order, restart M/E after confirming from bridge. Make report of failure and log in E/R log book. Check continuously for the running generators parameters. Inform C/E and if failure relating to M/E automation then inform bridge. Man the E/R if UMS ship. If M/E automation failure from bridge, change over control to ECR. If total automation failure of M/E change over to emergency man. If automation failure is to parameters monitoring and control, man the E/R till fault is rectified, monitoring the parameters locally and logging same in log book every watch. Carryout necessary repairs in case of M/E automation failure and then only change over controls to bridge. M/E must be tried out in Ahead & Astern from ECR & bridge.

Electrical Failure :

D) AUTOMATION FAILURE :

6)

287. In case of a major fire onboard, explain the salient advantages of documentation under emergency preparedness over normal fire fighting procedures. Before implementation of the said code the fire fighting operations onboard have successfully carried out in numerous cases- with the context of the statement give your recent opinion for requirement of documented plans under emergency preparedness. Ans) As per ISM code company need to have in place adequate procedure for dealing quickly and efficiently with all identified emergency situations. The procedures cover the requirements that all drills and training be analysed and recorded. Also as per SOLAS CH II deals with the carriage of following: Maintenance plan for the free protection system Fire training manuals Fire control plan Fire safety operational booklet

The ship is provided with various safety measure dealing with fire prevention and detection The document under emergency preparedness for mayor fire on board reflect that the company as well as shipboard management, identifies the potential emergencies that may arise due to fire on board and contingency plan and response by the ship staff for the same is in readiness. In case event of major fire a proper layout of action is drawn to regain control and restore normally Composition and allocation of duties of person acting within contingency plan is laid out this removes any cause of ambiguity during fire fighting All crew members are trained as per the documented fire central plan and muster list duties to fight fire All drills should be carried out in a realistic manner in this regards In case if there is fire at the primary muster station; crew member should assemble at the secondary muster station in case emergency team leader is unavailable to carry out his responsibilities the deputy will take case of his duties that should be clearly mentioned in the muster list. Documentation is laid out and procedure is drawn for the requirement of assistance from third party Documentation has laid to development of proper reporting method with list of contact names and tel nos. this helps in mobilization of appropriate company emergency response to restore normally in time. Documentation also ensures that all loopholes are attended to and thus last minute panic situation can be avoided Ships particulars, plan and stability information are documented both on board as well as at company office. This will help to arrest any damage to ship, property and consequently to any loss of life at sea. All items related to safety dealing with fire prevention, should be regularly maintained, inspected and tested so that all equipments are in effective and good working condition in case of emergency Fire training manuals explain in details the following. General fire safety practice General instruction of location and use of shipboard fire fighting equipment Before implementation of the said code, the fire fighting operation on board have been successfully carried out in numerous cases In context of the above statement any opinion regarding the documented plans under emergency prepared nets is that they are important and no matter what documented plan for emergency preparedness should be followed because it produce full proof method and that to document each and every individual is made assure of his duties and his role in case of contingency major fire. Documentation also ensure every member is accounted for Fire has been fought successfully before implementation of said code but may be due to some officers (or crew) member who kept there presence of mind and avoided mistake. In case of key person becoming available the situation would turn out into a panic, the documentation only helps in making the fire fighting system more effective, fail safe and helps in producing all individual to develop confidence and competence. The person who has ought fire on his last vessel may not do it .. his next vessel if he is signed on a different type of vessel. To familiar his with the ship, specific safety measures a document plan checklist would help. It is much easier to explain the duties to joining person by safety officer. Documentation not only ensure that all safety aspects have been looked into but also an optimal solution for fire fighting and prevention.

The safety drill should be carried out as soon as new persons join the vessel or next opportunity. Evaluation meeting is held after drill in order o learn lesson. This checklist helps to know exactly what happen in drill and how to improve A fire checklist can also be made to ensure that all points are covered for fires This checklists contains: Immediate Action Follow up action Fast fire fighting measures Report to owners Re-entry to the place

Now it is very obvious that with the help of ISM code, each and everything is preplanned well expressed so that action are quick and correct in case of emergency. Though it is said that before implementing ISM code the fire was fought successfully i.e., true but if you see the less which could be very-very small if it is followed as per ISM code. Before implementing ISM code no one knew there duties and every time the duties need to be assigned at the time of emergency. After implementation of ISM code the fire fighting operation on board have been successfully carried out.

291

A need for security was felt after the attack on USA - 11th September 2001. This resulted in the introduction of additional chapter in SOLAS- chapter XI, Part 2, Enhanced security of ships as given in ISPS code. (International ship and port facility security code.) Chief Engineers role: A chief engineer / Master in consultation with crewmembers, prepare the ship security assessments which are sent to the company. Assessment is done after taking care of all the aspects of security, like assess control, identification of restricted areas, duties of crew under different security levels, etc. On the basis of ship security assessment a ship security plan is prepared. SSP is approved by administration after surveying the ship for implementation of security. Normally this is done after companys internal verification of ship security system. The emergency preparedness plan should give the duties of all shipboard personnel under different security levels to combat piracy and act of terrorism. Security level of the ship must be either same or higher than the port of call. The contracting government declares security level of port. At Port: Security level 1 (Normal) Checking the identity of all persons onboard ship. Access points should be attended to or secured to prevent unauthorized entry. Search should be carried out randomly to all those seeking to board the ship. Restricted areas should be clearly marked and sealed / locked to prevent unauthorized access. Check to ensure that cargo being loaded matches the cargo documentation. Off site checking, sealing, scheduling and documentation can be agreed upon. Checking all stores match the order. Any unaccompanied bag should be screened or searched.

Security measures should be established - lighting, watchkeepers, security guards or use of security and surveillance equipment to assist ships personnel. Security level 2 (heightened) These measures should be applied to protect against a heightened risk of a security incident, ensuring higher vigilance and tighter control by: Assigning additional patrol and limiting the number of access points to the ship. Deterring waterside access to ship. Increasing the frequency and details to search persons, personal effects, and of vehicles being embarked or loaded. Dedicating extra personnel to guard and patrol restricted areas. Increased frequency and details to check seals, ensuring tampering is prevented. Additional security measures to be applied when handling unaccompanied baggage, which should include 100% X-ray screening. Increasing the coverage and intensity of lighting and ensuring co-ordination with waterside boat patrol (if provided). Security level 3 (imminent danger) The plan should detail the security measures, which could be taken by the ship in close co-operation with port facility when there is an imminent danger of security breach. This may include: Limiting access to a single controlled access point. Granting access only to those responding to the security incident or threat thereof. Directing persons onboard. Suspension of embarkation or disembarkation. Suspension of cargo handling operation, delivering, etc. Evacuation of the ship. Movement of the ship. Preparing for full or partial search of the ship. Searching of restricted area as part of a search of ship. Suspending the loading or unloading of cargo. Preparation for restriction or suspension of handling of ships stores. Switching on all lighting or illuminating the vicinity of the ship. Preparation for underwater inspection of the hull of the ship. Initiation of measures including the slow revolution of propeller, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the ship. At SeaA thorough search for bomb, explosives, stowaways should be carried out prior departure. When passing through extra sensitive areas, a special exercise should be carried out with a charged fire hose. The main aim at sea should be to prevent pirates or terrorist from boarding the ship. In case of such circumstances, the ship security alert system can be activated. Training and drills-

Regular drills should be conducted so that all personnel onboard are aware of what actions to be taken under different situations. Various contingency plan include: Action on bomb threat. Action on finding a suspicious device or package. Action of searching of ship. Establishing a search plan. Action on weapons / explosives discovered onboard. Action on hijacking or hostile boarding. Action on a suspect boat approaching the vessel. Action on a breach of security.

292. What are the essential features of the ISPS Code? What are the duties and responsibilities of a Chief Engineer with respect to the Code. State action you will take to familiarize newly inducted crew of different nationality employed on board Ship. Ans. Essential features of ISPS The international ship and port facility security code (ISPS) is implemented through chapter IX - 2 special measures to enhance machine security) of solas convention. This code had two parts part A of the code is mandatory and part B contains guidelines as to how best to comply with the mandatory requirements. The purpose of the code is to provide a standardized classified framework for evaluating security risk, enabling girt local administration shipping and port agencies offset changes in threat with changes in vulnerability for ship and port facility through determination and appropriate security levels and corresponding security measures. All ships except warships on international voyages need to follow ISPS code and have international ship security certificate (ISSC) Failure to implement ISPS code sailing through the navigable waters of and calling the ports of can tracing government of solas. The certificate is issued after initial verification and is valid for 5 years with at least one intermediate verification. The ISPS code database has a section lashing ports including weather or not they have an approved port facility security plant (PESP) The company shall provide support and ensure that ship security plan certain a clear statement emphasizing CSO, Sso and masters authority to make decision w.r.t safety and security of ship. DUTIES
OF CHIEF

ENGINEER

W.R.T.

ISPS

CODE.

As such the ISPS code does not define the duties and responsibility of Chief Engineer. But being the head of Engine Room department he has to play a big role in. 1) Ship security Assessment Developing and up grading the ship security plan. 2) Training the E/R personnel and assessing their performance with regard to their understanding of the various security levels and their duties under these security levels. 3) Assigning the engine room personnel's for gangway duties when the vessel is in port as per the requirement of ship security officer. 4) Keeping the record of the indents of spare ports and stores of engine room ready to ascertain that the spares and store being received are there as per the indents, when receiving spares on ports. In some company's it may be there that Chief Engineer Officer is ship security officer then he has to perform the duties of ship security officer which includes. i)Implementation of the security plan. ii) Carrying out the drills and training program for the crew.

Drill : Every 3 months or when 25% of crew changes iii) Maintain the contact with the company security officer and port facility security officer in the event of security throat.

Familiarization of newly inducted crew of multinational employed on ship : 1) At the earliest on arrival at the ship the crew should be given the safety familiarization crew should be asked to get familiar with the different passenger and exits on the ships at each deck. the location of emergency exits in E/Room on each deck and where it leads to they should be made to go through the emergency exit from the bottom platform and come out at the top in the safe location. they should be informed about their master station for different emergency conditions. they should be informed about the different means of fire-fighting available on board and in different location. they should be shown the location of fire control station and different fire fighting system starting and stopping points their. they should be informed about the personnel protective appliances available in their cabin type of five extinguisher fire alarm activation point and fire has nearest to their cabin. they should be informed about the location of SOPEP locker and the different equipment in the SOPEP LOCKER they should be informed about the location of shipboard garbage plan and the location of incinerator. they should be informed about the ship security plan there duties under different security levels.

they should be given a time period to get familiar with their area of work. A responsible officer should be made in charge for their familiarization and they should be encouraged to clear their doubts with him. As soon as possible abandon ship drill and fire drill should be arranged to make them used to ships normal routine.

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As there is very close business competition in the market each and every company keeps a very good eye on their quality/ A part of daily expenses of ship running cost it takes about 40% cost of overall expenses for bunker and related operations.

Hence savings in fuel is as very important part for shipping companies and also part of machinery genuine malfunction. Few savings in bunker expenses becomes surprisingly a significant amount in a life time period of the ship

1) SHIPS HULL CONDITION Resistance as most of us avoid in our daily life is also true for a ship. In general ships frictional resistance R x fssw Where f is a factor which depends upon density, hull where f is a factor which depends upon density, hull roughness and length of the ship

Other resistance is residual resistance which due to wake foaming tendency, caused due to the movement in water and shape of the ship Thus total resistance equals FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE + RESIDUAL RESISTANCE So as far as ships hull condition is concerned frictional resistance plays a very important role. It could be upto 70% of total resistance in a badly fouled ship. Thus importance of a good clean hull can be seen unfortunately there can be several methods developed but most of them are effective over a long time. Hence regular dry docking is the best solution.

It is found that ship fouling pattern is not very regular. As shown in (speed/power) graph, it may be very slow in initial stages or may be very standardized in the initial years but in over a period of time it becomes very stiff are very fast. In order to meet the very strick charter party alarm a ship must have a very good and smooth hull surface Factors responsible for fouling of the hull are as follows: Use of improper techniques in applying points Poor quality of applied paint Long port stays/or at rest Damaged hull surface Poor maintenance of hull protecting system such as ICCF Poor ship design increasing resistance in water

Thus appropriate measures should be taken for the above mentioned points and a good surface should be prepared prior applying the approved quality of Speed and power graph also indicates that the engine may be thermally overloaded with a badly fouled hull resulting in a decrease of the operating life of machinery parts causing frequent breakdown and coating very heavily on shipping companies Antifouling points of approved type and a well maintained antifouling system plays an important role in ships regular operating period between dry docks Weather Condition Ships are designed and constructed to withstand the forces of nature upto a certain extent for a certain time depending upon the area of trading weather conditions keep changing and also the condition of the sea. Seasons such as summer, winter or monsoons of extreme nature are very common in the trade of shipping. If climatic conditions/weather conditions are favourable it may result in a +ve ship and vice versa with a bad or heavy weather condition it may result in a ve ship resulting in a extra fuel consumption due to higher power demands and overloading of engines. Thus good judgement can be the key element in tackling bad weather conditions, avoiding transitting from and low pressure areas for a few days. It is the responsibility of the master to take be safest route to avoid the harshness of weather for a few extra sailing hours The cost of extra fuel consumption in negligible than the consideration of the safety of the vessel Engine manufacturer guidelines should be strictly followed in severe weather conditions. Governor load index, hunting, R.P.M, scavenging air limit torque limits must be taken into account to avoid thermal and mechanical overloading of the engine. Thus these guidelines can be kept in mind for keeping fuel consumption within limit. Also effect of plugs a .. role and is also important as it reduces the Nox limit humidity effects the density of charge air, development of power heat release more temperature in a unit and exhaust temperature. Climatic conditions play an important role in the optimum performance of the engine. MAINTENANCE OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN FUEL OIL SYSTEM Although the condition of the hull and weather play a significant role in regulating fuel consumption, elements which directly control fuel have a proportional relation to the consumption of fuel. It is meant that if parts or equipments used are in good condition than lots of fuel can be for example 1) d\fuel injectors, fuel pipes, fuel pump and VIT RACK shock absorber if maintained in a good way in regular inspection and overhaul problems of fuel leakages can be minimized. Similarly pipe joints, V/V glands booster pump section or any fuel oil leakage in fuel oil system if attended immediately also improve the safety of the ship. Proper temperature of fuel supplied to the engine should be maintained for optimum efficiency. Operation of purifier and performance should be regularly checked resulting in less over flow of oil V.I.T. mechanism and fuel control burr and its connection with governor must be lubricated periodically to eliminate sluggishness and wear and tear.