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The main bottlenecks in the radio interface are the downlink power, uplink interference, radio bearers, common channels, and the channelization code tree.
The BTS controls the amount of HSDPA DL transmission power, after the powers for DCH, HSUPA control channels, and common channels have been set up. The BTS can measure the total power, NonHSDPA power, and HSDPA power.
1. Monitored capacity item
Transmitted Total Carrier Power The total transmitted power includes the downlink power allocated to the downlink DPCH, the common channels, and the E-RGCH, E-AGCH, E-HICH, HS-SCCH, and HS-PDSCH. The BTS reports the Transmitted Carrier Power in absolute units. The classification depends on the cell size setting (PRACHDelayRange parameter). A proactive KPI has been defined, based on the M1000C342 - M1000C353 classification counters.
2. Proactive monitoring
Marginal Transmitted Carrier Power Time Share DL [%]
Share of time when the Transmitted Carrier Power (TxCrPwr) is in classes 7-8. The mapping to power value depends on the PRACHDelayRange WCEL parameter settings.
unit Description RNC_5202a Overload Transmitted Carrier Power Time Share DL [%] Share of time when the Transmitted Carrier Power (TxCrPwr) is in classes 9-10. RNC_964a RRC Setup FR due to AC [%] RRC setup failure ratio caused by Admission Control. M1000C166 RB RELEASE DUE TO ENH OVERLOAD CONTROL USING RL RECONF [#] The number of radio bearer releases by the enhanced overload control using the radio link reconfiguration method. Reactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name. M1000C149 HS-DSCH RELEASE DUE TO DL OVERLOAD [#] The number of HS-DSCH allocation releases due to downlink overload. M1000C142 RB DOWNGRADE BY ENH OVERLOAD CONTROL USING TFC SUBSET [#] The number of radio bearer downgrades by the enhanced overload control using the TFC subset method. . M1000C155 RB RELEASE BY DYN LINK OPT DUE TO RL POWER CONGESTION [#] The number of radio bearers released by the dynamic link optimization for NRT traffic because of RL power congestion. This counter includes both interactive and background class connections. This counter is updated only when the HSDPA Static Resource Allocation is used. It is updated when the user's HS-DSCH allocation is released due to the PtxNonHSDPA >= PtxTargetHSDPA+PtxOffsetHSDPA condition.3. The mapping to power value depends on the PRACHDelayRange WCEL parameter settings.
M1002C602 DL DCH SELECTED FOR STREAMING DUE TO HSDPA POWER [#] This counter is updated when the HS-DSCH cannot be selected as a downlink transport channel due to PtxTotal>PtxTargetHSDPA or PtxNC>PtxTargetHSDPA conditions. M1000C142. If the downlink quality is bad. M1000C166. the capacity of a WCDMA system is proportional to the level of interference in the system. The estimated received wideband power value . 6. the maximum HSDPA power can increase to 45 dBm (also concerns the average power). Increase of failures. together with a low throughput. RNC_969b DL DCH Selected due to the HSDPA power [#] The number of times when the HS-DSCH downlink transport channel cannot be selected for an interactive or background class connection due to downlink power limits. and M1002C602 react in overload situation. Analysis 1. Marginal (Overload) Transmitted Carrier Power Time Share DL The primary indication for highly loaded sites is the percentage of time when these sites are in marginal and overload power classes. 2. The cell-specific load control in the RNC maintains the estimated received wideband power value for the resource allocation of the RNC.low throughput). due to excessive downlink power. RRC setup failure rate due to AC Admission control may reject setup. high power for HSDPA does not necessarily mean high throughput (or low power . Received Total Wideband Power The power control allows access to as many users as possible while minimizing the interference caused by these users. Improve the coverage by adding sites. 3. there is not enough power to serve the users. However. cell change. 4. RB releases and downgrades Counters M1000C155. Overload The system can downgrade or release a dedicated channel of a non-real-time RAB. High DL power levels. M1000C149. 5. or handover (excluding frozen BTS failure). Note that the average available power for HSDPA influences the CQI seen by the UE. At the same time. indicate low coverage for UEs. Upgrade With the 40 W LPAs. indicated by the RRC setup failure rate due to AC. means that the WBTS has used all available downlink power in order to maintain the connection for the users.
as follows: If the HSUPA has not been configured in the cell. unit Target Red flag Description RNC_5203a Percentage of RTWP in marginal area [%] 10 - Share of time when the received total wideband power is in classes 13-16. which defines the maximum allowed increase in uplink noise in relation to the background noise floor. . which are allocated in the RNC (such as DCHs). Proactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name. the estimated received wideband power value represents the received total wideband power (PrxTotal).represents the received interference of transferred active bearers. which have an E-DCH established with the scheduled transmission. including HSDPA and Common Channels. A high RTWP level indicates an increase in interference in the cell. 2. It does not include the contribution of the bearers. If the HSUPA has been configured in the cell. unit Description M1000C147 RB DOWNGRADE BY PBS DUE TO INTERFERENCE CONGESTION [#] The number of RB downgrades by priority-based scheduling (PBS) due to interference congestion. The total uplink power (RTWP) measurement report samples the power values that are within a particular class range. This is measured by the BTS. Monitored capacity item Received Total Wideband Power The Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP) reflects the total noise level within the UMTS frequency band of one single cell. The RNC limits the uplink noise using the PrxTarget parameter. The KPI is based on the M1000C32041 counters. the estimated received wideband power value represents the received total non-E-DCH scheduled transmission wideband power (PrxNonEDCHST). The PrxTotal is not estimated in the HSUPA cell. Reactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name. 1. 3. measured and reported by the BTS. The counter takes into account the whole received power.
2. RNC_976a PS Data Service Reject Rate UL [%] The number of PS data call requests that have been rejected on the UL. 4. M1000C164 RB RELEASE BY PRE-EMPTION DUE TO INTERFERENCE CONGESTION [#] The number of radio bearers released by pre-emption due to interference congestion. RNC_661d HSDPA Access Failure Rate due to UL DCH [%] HSDPA access failure rate due to the associated UL DCH. Analysis 1.M1000C159 RB RELEASE BY PBS DUE TO INTERFERENCE CONGESTION [#] The number of radio bearers released by priority-based scheduling (PBS) due to interference congestion. M1000C152 RB DOWNGRADE BY PRE-EMPTION DUE TO INTERFERENCE CONGESTION [#] The number of RB downgrades by pre-emption due to interference congestion. RNC_970a SRB Reject Rate UL [%] The number of SRB requests that have been rejected on the UL. Total Interference in UL The primary indication for a highly loaded BTS. RNC_972a AMR Service Reject Rate UL [%] The number of voice call requests that have been rejected on the UL. Service Rejections . RNC_974a CS Data Service Reject Rate UL [%] The number of video call requests that have been rejected on the UL.
3. FACH and PCH are multiplexed into the same SCCPCH (see Figure 7 Common channels mapped to one SCCPCH). and their bit rates are not configurable by the user. The transmission powers of the downlink common physical channels are determined during radio network planning.Counters M1000C147. 3. The total load of the common channels is thus the sum of these loads. mapped to the BCH (Broadcast Channel) 2. the power control cannot mitigate failures due to non-controllable load. PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel). 5. Common channel load consists mainly of FACH. or releases. M1000C159. and FACH-c. There are no predefined thresholds for the frequency of rejections. There can be up to three SCCPCHs configured in the cell. M1000C152. Overload The system can downgrade or release a dedicated channel of a non-real-time RAB (controllable load). RACH and FACH load have separate control plane and user plane load: RACH-u. FACH. The system measures the loads indirectly. due to excessive uplink congestion situations. mapped to the PCH (Paging Channel) or FACH (Forward Access Channel). and RNC_976a react in overload situation. RNC_974a. M1000C164 and KPIs RNC_970a. it will carry FACH-c (containing DCCH/CCCH/BCCH). PCCPCH (Primary Common Control Physical Channel). Upgrade - Common Channel Capacity The air interface physical channels map to transport channels in UTRAN: 1. mapped to the RACH (Random Access Channel) These channels are not the subject of the dynamic power control. RACH-c. RNC_972a. RACH. downgrades. 6. and PCH loads on the SCCPCH channel(s). HSDPA Access FR due to the UL DCH An increase in the HSDPA Access FR due to the UL DCH indicates that there is no room for more UEs to be connected to that particular cell due to UL power congestion. There can be up to three SCCPCH channels configured in the cell. PCH. If only one SCCPCH is used in a cell. by measuring the loads on corresponding transport channels (RACH. When the load is still too high. and PCH. SCCPCH (Secondary Common Control Physical Channel). . FACH-u. and BCH). FACH-u (containing DTCH).
Proactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name. but the RACH load measurements are used by the RNC for load control. when the downlink channel type (common or dedicated) is selected. the user can monitor each common transport channel proactively. 1. Figure 8: Common channels mapped to two SCCPCHs The system measures the RACH load in the NBAP interface in terms of acknowledged PRACH preambles. calculated indirectly from the transport channels. the user can follow the load proactively. Monitored capacity item Common Channel Capacity The main proactive KPI for the common channel load is the average SCCPCH channel load. 2. Additionally. Assuming fixed transmit rates for each transport channel. which map to it. the primary CCPCH will always carry PCH only and the second SCCPCH will carry FACH-u and FACH-c (see Figure 8 Common channels mapped to two SCCPCHs). unit Target Red flag Description .Figure 7: Common channels mapped to one SCCPCH If the user configures two SCCPCHs in a cell. There is no overload control algorithm for RACH.
RNC_2033a RACH-c Load Ratio [%] - - RACH-c Load Ratio provides information about the RACH transport channel control plane data load (the RACH channel control data throughput is divided by the corresponding transport channel maximum bit rate to get the load ratio). FACH-u (containing DTCH). RNC_2032a RACH-u Load Ratio [%] - - RACH-u Load Ratio provides information about the RACH transport channel user plane data load (the RACH channel user data throughput is divided by the corresponding transport channel maximum bit rate to get the load ratio). RNC_2029a FACH-u Load Ratio [%] - - FACH-u Load Ratio provides information about the FACH transport channel user plane data load (the FACH channel throughput is divided by the corresponding transport channel maximum bit rate to get the load ratio).including the PCH in the measurement period. it will carry FACH-c (containing DCCH/CCCH/BCCH). Reactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name. and PCH. 3. Average PCCPCH load: if one SCCPCH is used in a cell.RNC_979a SCCPCH Average Load [%] - - Average SCCPCH channel load . unit Description - - - . RNC_2030a FACH-c Load Ratio [%] - - FACH-c Load Ratio provides information about the FACH transport channel control plane data load (the FACH channel control data throughput is divided by the corresponding transport channel maximum bit rate to get the load ratio).
Evaluating whether there is excessive user plane data transfer within the CELL_FACH. 4. are included in the KPI. When a user enables HSDPA. Evaluating whether there is a high level of signaling generated by cell. 6. location area. 1. Upgrade The SCCPCH load (PCH+FACH. the system gives PCH traffic a higher priority compared to the FACH. depending on the R99 usage of codes. it is likely that the FACH channel will suffer. consider adjusting the area boundaries or reducing the size of the location and routing areas. that block because of code tree congestion. 3. Overload If there is only one SCCPCH. Increasing the number of available SCCPCHs (for example. Channelization Code Tree The available codes in the Channelization Code Tree in the BTS can become a capacity bottleneck in the downlink direction. consider reducing the RLC buffer thresholds that trigger the transition to CELL_DCH. Upgrading the Node B configuration with an additional carrier 5. or 15 codes. the system can dynamically adjust the number of SF16 codes reserved for HSDPA. the code tree is arranged per each UE. If so.4. In uplink. or routing area updates. depending on the service bit rate. therefore no capacity bottleneck is expected. 10. Using the 24 kbps Paging Channel feature if the PCH is loaded. that the system uses or blocks. or PCH only) can be reduced by: 1. Channelization Code Blocking is the percentage of code allocation attempts. URA. by introducing a second SCCPCH) 2. HSDPA can reserve 5. Analysis You can use RNC_979a to see how loaded the physical channel (SCCPCH) is in this configuration. especially when HSDPA and HSUPA are enabled in the cell. 5. When the system notices congestion on this channel. Furthermore. There is a fixed number of codes reserved for Common Channels. REL99 services require a certain number of codes. there are also counters to monitor the maximum and minimum code occupancy. Monitored capacity item Channelization Code Tree Channelization Code Occupancy provides an indication of the percentage of codes. this will contain all other transport channels except PCH. When two SCCPCHs are used. This can be used to detect the cell’s busy and non-busy hours. The channelization codes. There are counters for monitoring the number of HSDPA channelization code downgrades due to congestion of the RT or NRT . If so. which the system assigns to both common and dedicated downlink channels.
3. M1000C266 HSDPA CH CODE DOWNGRADE DUE The number of HSDPA channelization code downgrades due to congestion of RT DCH requests. unit Target Red flag Description RNC_113a Average code tree occupancy [%] 70 80 Average code tree occupancy RNC_519b Min code tree occupancy [%] - - Minimum code tree occupancy RNC_520b Max code tree occupancy [%] 80 90 Maximum code tree occupancy RNC_949b Spreading code blocking rate in DL [%] 5 >5 Spreading Code Blocking rate of a cell over the reporting period. M5000). Proactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name. It is updated when the code downgrade is started due to a . using counters related to HSDPA code and radio bearer downgrades/releases. 2. unit Description M1000C248258 DURATION OF HSDPA xx(5-15) CODES RESERVATION It is possible to calculate the average number of reserved SF16 codes for HSDPA. where the code tree situation of a cell is measured. This measurement is based on Cell Resource Measurement. Reactive monitoring Counter/KPI Name.DCH. based on the duration counters for each code (original transmitted xy (5-15) codes with QPSK or 16QA. The user can monitor the impact of code tree congestion reactively.
Min code tree occupancy The minimum code occupancy is 3%. When HSDPA is active. M1000C165 RB RELEASE BY PRE-EMPTION DUE TO SPREADING CODE CONGESTION [#] The number of radio bearers released by pre-emption due to spreading code congestion. 4. when the common channels are active. M1000C148 RB DOWNGRADE BY PBS DUE TO SPREADING CODE CONGESTION [#] The number of RB downgrades by priority-based scheduling (PBS) due to spreading code congestion. 3. Analysis 1. Max code tree occupancy The user can use the Maximum code tree occupancy KPI as a triggering point to upgrade . but there are no users. the system reserves five codes. M1000C160 RB RELEASE BY PBS DUE TO SPREADING CODE CONGESTION [#] The number of radio bearers released by priority-based scheduling (PBS) due to spreading code congestion. M1000C267 HSDPA CH CODE DOWNGRADE DUE TO NRT DCH [#] The number of HSDPA channelization code downgrades due to congestion of NRT DCH requests. bringing the total occupancy to 35%. Average code tree occupancy At the average code occupancy of 70%.TO RT [#] RT-over-HSDPA prioritization. 2. At the level of 80%. code blocking can start to affect the QoS at the level of 70%. service blocking can start. M1000C153 RB DOWNGRADE BY PREEMPTION DUE TO SPREADING CODE CONGESTION [#] The number of RB downgrades by pre-emption due to spreading code congestion. It is updated when the code downgrade is started due to an NRT DCH-over-HSDPA prioritization.
Reduce the code usage Reduce the initial R99 bit rate from 128 kbps to 64 kbps or even 16 kbps. Add new codes with new carrier To obtain more codes. install an additional carrier. Because of congestion. HSDPA channelization code downgrades RT (NRT) This counter indicates the code tree congestion related to simultaneous REL99 and HSDPA traffic in the cell. when required by the RT/NRT DCH allocation. for example. so high voice traffic can keep the number of SF16 codes for HSDPA at the minimum of five codes. 6. The occupancy ranges from 35% to 100%. and there is no need for R99 codes. The RT traffic (normal voice) has the highest priority. 2. When the maximum code occupancy is less than 80%. It is not recommended to enable the high rate features if there are no 15-code UEs in the network. 4.(second carrier). Id: 0900d805807a3fd0 ©2010 Nokia Siemens Networks DN0972569 . allow two SF16 codes to be taken. If there is HSDPA traffic. Cells with HSDPA reserve a minimum of five SF16 codes for HSDPA at the start. Therefore. Allow R99 NRT to take codes from HSDPA. in the BTS or Iub). or if there are other limits (for example. the system frees the codes allocated to HSDPA. 5. the user can use the 85-90% limit. the code allocation failure rate still remains close to 0% and less than approximately 90% of maximum code occupancy means that the code allocation failure rate is <1%. the R99 traffic increase) the throughput per user decreases. the system will try to use up to fifteen SF16 codes for HSDPA. Upgrade Two basic solutions for avoiding the effect of code congestion are: 1. Overload With the increase of code occupancy (that is.
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