QAF011 Rev. 04 Jan.

12, 06
© 2006 Haward Technology Middle East
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Haward Technology Middle East
January 21-25, 2006
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Course Instructor(s)
To The Participant
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Disclaimer
The information contained in these course notes has been complied
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Haward Technology offers no warranty, guarantee, or representation
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Section 1 API 653 Summary
Section 2 API Standard 650 Summary
Section 3 API Recommended Practice 575 Summary
Section 4 API RP 651 Summary
Section 5 API RP 652 Summary
Section 6 API Recommended Practice 571 Summary
Section 7 API RP 577 Summary
Section 8 API 653 Nondestructive Examination
Summary
Section 9 API 653 ASME Section IX Summary
Section 10 Welding Metallurgy
Section 11 Technical Report Writing
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 1 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
COURSE OVERVIEW IE400
API 653: Tank Inspection Code: Inspection, repair, alteration, and
reconstruction of steel aboveground storage tanks used in the
petrochemical industry (Training only)
Course Title
API 653: Tank Inspection Code:
Inspection, repair, alteration, and
reconstruction of steel aboveground
storage tanks used in the
petrochemical industry (Training
only)
Course Date / Venue
Course Reference
IE400
Course Duration
Five days (40 hours as per API regulations)
Course Objectives
In order to meet the needs of today's fast changing inspection industry, Haward
Technology has developed the "Tank Inspection Course with API 653 Exam Prep.”.
The course textbook includes notes and summaries on the tank inspection standards
referenced in the API 653 Body of Knowledge.
This comprehensive 40 hour course consists of five 8-hour teaching days. It is
designed to accomplish a two-fold training agenda:
(1) To train those individuals who are interested in obtaining the API 653 Tank
Inspection Certification.
(2) Train those who require a working knowledge of the intricacies
encountered in the working environment.
Additionally, quizzes are given at the end of each section; homework is handed out
at the end of each class day, which consists of 25 questions per day and is reviewed
at the beginning of the following day, and a “practice” exam is administered at the
end of the course. Haward Technology is proud of the 90%+ pass rate attained
by its students who have sat for the API 653 certification exam.
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 2 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
Who Should Attend
The course is intended for Inspection Engineers who are seeking API-653
certification. Other engineers, managers or technical staffs who are dealing with
Steel Aboveground Storage Tanks used in the Petrochemical Industry will also
benefit.
Course Instructor
Mr. Ron VanArsdale, PE, USA, is the founder of Inspection Training and Consulting
Company (ITAC). His duties include conducting training courses for Haward
Technology and ITAC, creating new courses for inspection and other related
activities, creating course material, as well as developing custom training programs,
customized written practices and providing trouble-shooting consulting services. In
the past, Mr. VanArsdale was employed by SGS Industrial Services as the
Training Director and the American Welding Society (AWS) as the Curricula
and Course Development Manager. In this position he developed various training
courses dealing with the AWS Certified Welding Inspector program. He planned,
organized, and developed all phases of educational activities for AWS.
In addition to these functions, he is a member of the API 653 Questions
Committee which devised the API 653 Tank Inspector Certification
Examination; as well as a member of the API 570 Questions Committee which is
charged with developing the API 570 Piping Inspector Certification
Examination.
Ron attended San Jacinto College and Texas A&M University, and has a Lifetime
Teaching Certificate from the State of Texas.
He is an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI), ITAC Level III, an API Certified
Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector, and API Certified Piping Inspector, an
AWS Certified Welding Educator (CWE) and is an internationally recognized
Presenter/Instructor. Additionally, he received the AWS Distinguished Member
Award in March, 1989, the AWS CWI of the Year District Award in January,
1993, as well as the AWS District 18 Meritorious Award in September, 1993.
He has thirty-three years experience in the erection, maintenance and inspection
of buildings, petrochemical facilities, vessels, above-ground storage tanks, piping
systems, in addition to teaching welding/inspection education courses.
Mr. VanArsdale is professionally affiliated with the American Welding Society,
American Society for Nondestructive Testing, American Petroleum Institute,
Vocational Industrial Clubs of America, Haward Technology, American
Inspection Society, the National Job Core and has been appointed a Kentucky
Colonel by the Governor of Kentucky in recognition of his lifetime contribution
to his fellow man.
Course Fee
US $2,750 per Delegate. This rate includes Participant’s Pack (Folder, Manual,
Hand-outs, etc.), buffet lunch, coffee/tea on arrival, morning & afternoon of each day.
Accommodation
Accommodation is not included in course fees. However, any accommodation
required can be arranged by Haward Technology at the time of booking.
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 3 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
Course Certificate
Haward Technology certificate will be issued to all attendees completing minimum of
75% of the total tuition hours of the course.
Required Codes and Standards:
Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for the
st
API Recommended Practice 575,
API Standard 650,
API Recommended Practice 651,
API Recommended Practice 652,
API Standard 653,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code, 2004 edition with 2002 and 2003 Addenda.
ASME Section V,
ASME Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications(Section QW only)
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 4 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
Course Program
st
Introduction
Students Take Initial Math Quiz
Review Math Quiz Answers
Overview of Course Outline
Review of API 653 Body of Knowledge
API 653 - Section 1 – Scope:
API 653 - Section 2 – Referenced Publications
API 653 - Section 3 – Definitions
API 653 - Section 4 - Suitability For Service:
nd
API 653 - Section 6 - Inspection
API 653 - Section 7 - Materials
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 5 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
API 653 - Section 8 - Design Considerations for Reconstructed
Tanks
API 653 - Section 9 - Tank Repair And Alteration
API 653 - Section 10 - Dismantling And Reconstruction
API 653 - Section 11 - Welding
API 653 - Section 12 - Examination And Testing
API 653 - Section 13 - Marking And Recordkeeping
API 653 – Appendices A – G
API 650 - Section 1 - Scope
API 650 - Section 2 - Materials
API 650 - Section 3 - Design
API 650 - Section 4 - Fabrication
API 650 - Section 5 - Erection
rd
API 650 - Section 6 - Methods Of Inspecting Joints
API 650 -
Section 7 - Welding Procedure & Welder Qualifications
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 6 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
API 650 - Section 8 - Marking
API 650 - Appendices B - S
Slide Show – “Don’t Let This Happen To Your Tank”
Complete Slide Show -“Don’t Let This Happen To Your Tank”
API RP 575 - Section 1 – Scope
API RP 575 - Section 3 - Selected Nondestructive Examination
(NDE) Methods
API RP 575 - Section 4 - Types Of Storage Tanks
API RP 575 - Section 5 - Reasons For Inspection and Causes of
Deterioration
API RP 575 - Section 6 - Frequency Of Inspection
API RP 575 - Section 7 - Methods Of Inspection And
Inspection Scheduling
API RP 651 - Section 1 – Scope
API RP 651 - Section 3 – Definitions
API RP 651 - Section 4 - Corrosion of Aboveground Steel
Storage Tanks
API RP 651 - Section 5 - Determination of Need for Cathodic
Protection
API RP 651 - Section 6 - Methods of Cathodic Protection for
Corrosion Control
API RP 651 - Section 7 - Design Of Cathodic Protection
Systems
API RP 651 - Section 8 - Criteria For Cathodic Protection
API RP 651 - Section 9 - Installation Of Cathodic Protection
Systems
API RP 651 - Section 10 - Interference Currents
API RP 651 - Section 11 - Operation and Maintenance of
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 7 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
Cathodic Protection Systems
API RP 652 - Section 1 – Introduction
API RP 652 - Section 3 – Definitions
API RP 652 - Section 4 - Corrosion Mechanisms
API RP 652 - Section 5 - Determination of The Need for Tank
Bottom Lining
API RP 652 - Section 6 - Tank Bottomlining Selection
API RP 652 - Section 7 - Surface Preparation
API RP 652 - Section 9 – Inspection
API RP 652 - Section 10 - Repair Of Tank Bottom Linings
API RP 652 - Section 11 - Safety
API 2207 - Section 1 – Introduction
API 2207 - Section 3 – Precautions
API 2207 - Section 6 - Safe Work Procedures
th
API 2015 - Section 1 - General
API 2015 - Section 2 - Administrative Controls
API 2015 - Section 3 - Storage Tank Hazards
API 2015 - Section 4 - Preparing the Tank for Entry and
Cleaning
API 2015 - Section 5 - Testing The Tank Atmosphere
Break
API 2015 – Section 6 – Hazard Assessment for Entry Permits
API 2015 - Section 8 - Entering And Working Inside The Tank
API 2015 - Section 9 - Hot Work And Tank Repairs
API 2015 – Appendices A – F
Haward Technology Middle East
IE400 - Page 8 of 8 .
IE400-01-06 Rev. 06 07 January 2006
ASME Section V - Nondestructive Test Methods
ASME Section IX - WPS and PQR Requirements
Review Procedure Exercise
ASME Section IX - Welder Certification
th
Question and Answer Session
API 653 Sample Exam
Continue API 653 Sample Exam
Review API 653 Exam Answers
Course Coordinator
Ms. Maqsooda Ali Malvankari: Tel: +971-2-6277881, Fax: +971-2-6277883, Email:
maqsooda@haward.org
Section 1
API 653 Summary
API - 653
TANK I NSPECTI ON, REPAI R
ALTERATI ON AND RECONSTRUCTI ON
THI RD EDI TI ON - DECEMBER 2001
ADDENDUM 1 - SEPTEMBER 2003
SECTI ON 1 - I NTRODUCTI ON
1.1 General
1.1.1 This standard covers carbon and l ow al loy steel tanks built to API-650 and
12C standards. These standard provide mi ni mum requirements for
mai ntai ning the i ntegrity of welded or riveted, non-refri gerated,
atmospheri c pressure, above ground storage tanks af ter they have been
pl aced i n servi ce.
1.1.2 Scope coverage
Foundati on, bottom, shel l, structure, roof, attached appurtenances and
nozzles to the face of the first flange, first threaded joi nt or fi rst welded
end connection.
NOTES: 1. Many API-650 requirements apply that wil l satisfy
this new code.
2. In case of confl ict (for in-service tanks) between API-
12C; 650; and 653, thi s l atest Code governs.
1.1.6 API 653 now recogni zes API RP 579, Recommended Practice for Fitness-
for-Service. Under API 653 , the owner may use fi tness-for-service criteri a.
1.2 Compl i ance
The owner/ operator has ulti mate responsi bility for compl yi ng with API 653
provi sions.
1.3 Juri sdi cti on
Statutory Regul ation (i.e., local , state or federal ) shall govern, unl ess the
requirements of thi s standard are more stri ngent than Statutory Regulati on.
1.4 Saf e Worki ng Practi ces
Safety procedures according to guidelines given i n API publi cati ons 2015, 2016,
and 2217A are suggested for potential hazards involved when conducti ng
internal inspections, maki ng repairs or di smantli ng tanks.
NOTE: Procedures must compl y with any state or federal safety
regulation i nvolving "confined space" entry.
Page 1 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005 Page 1 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 3 - DEFI NI TIONS
3.1 al terati on: Any work on a
tank invol ving cutti ng, burning,
welding or heati ng operation that
changes the physi cal dimensions
and/ or configurati on of a tank.
Typi cal examples of alterations
include:
a. The addi tion of manways and
nozzl es greater than 12-inch
(NPS).
b. An increase or decrease in
tank shell height.
3.2 appl i cabl e standard: The
ori gi nal standard of construction,
such as API standards or
specifications or Underwriter
Laboratories (UL) standards,
unl ess the original standard of
construction has been superseded
or wi thdrawn from publication;
in this event, applicable standard
means the current edition of the
appropriate standard. See
Appendi x A for background on
edi tions of API welded storage
tank standards.
3.3 atmospheri c pressure:
Used to descri be tanks designed
to wi thstand an internal pressure
up to but not exceeding 2.5
lbs./ sq. in. gauge.
3.4 authori zed i nspecti on
agency: One of the foll owi ng
organizations that empl oy an
Aboveground Storage Tank
Inspector certified by API.
a. The inspection organizati on of
the juri sdicti on in which the
aboveground storage tank is
operated.
b. The inspecti on organi zation of
an insurance company which is
licensed or registered to and does
wri te aboveground storage tank
insurance.
c. An owner or operator of
one or more aboveground
storage
tank(s) who mai ntai ns an
inspecti on organi zation for
acti vities
relating only to i ts equipment,
and not for aboveground storage
tanks intended for sale or resal e.
d. An independent
organizati on or individual under
contract to and under the
direction of an owner or operator
and recogni zed or otherwi se not
prohi bi ted by the juri sdicti on in
whi ch the aboveground storage
tank is operated. The owner or
operator s i nspection program
shall provide the controls
necessary for use by Authori zed
Inspectors contracted to inspect
above ground storage tanks.
3.5 authori zed i nspector: An
employee of an authorized inspecti on
agency and i s certi fied as an
Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector
per Appendix D of thi s standard.
3.6 breakover poi nt: The area on a
tank bottom where settlement begins.
3.7 change i n servi ce: A change
from previous operating condi ti on
i nvolvi ng different properties of the
stored product such as specifi c gravity
or corrositi vi ty and/ or di fferent servi ce
condi tions of temperature and/ or
pressure.
3.8 corrosi on rate The total metal
l oss di vi ded by the period of time over
which the metal l oss occurred.
Page 2 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
3.9 cri ti cal zone: The portion of the
bottom or annular plate within 3 inches
of the insi de edge of the shell , measured
radiall y inward.
3.10 hot tap: Identifi es a procedure
for i nstall ing a nozzle in the shel l of a
tank that is in service.
3.11 i nspector: A representative of an
organization s mechani cal integrity
department who is responsi ble for
various quality control, and assurance
functions, such as wel di ng, contract
execution, etc.
3.12 owner/operator: The l egal entity
havi ng both control of and/ or
responsibil ity for the operati on and
mai ntenance of an existing storage tank.
3.13 reconstructi on: Any work
necessary to reassembl e a tank that has
been dismantled and relocated to a new
site.
3.14 reconstructi on organi zati on: The
organization having assi gned
responsibi li ty by the owner/ operator to
desi gn and/ or reconstruct a tank.
3.15 repai r: Any work necessary to
mai ntai n or restore a tank to a condition
sui tabl e for safe operati on. Typi cal
examples of repai rs includes:
a. Removal and replacement of material
(such as roof, shell , or bottom material ,
i ncluding wel d metal) to mai ntai n tank
i ntegrity.
b. Re-leveli ng and/ or jacki ng of a tank
shel l , bottom, or roof.
c. Addition of reinforci ng plates to
exi sti ng shell penetrations.
d. Repair of flaws, such as tears or
gouges, by grinding and/ or gouging
foll owed by weldi ng.
NOTE: Alteration/ Repair
items may be closely related and
could even be a matter of
personal description (See al so
Section 12).
3.16 repai r organi zati on: An
organizati on that meets any of the
foll owing:
a. An owner/ operator of aboveground
storage tanks who repairs or alters its
own equipment in accordance with thi s
standard.
b. A contractor whose qual ifications are
acceptabl e to the owner/ operator of
aboveground storage tanks and who
makes repai rs or alterations in
accordance wi th thi s standard.
c. One who is authorized by, acceptable
to, or otherwise not prohibi ted by the
jurisdi ction, and who makes repairs in
accordance wi th thi s standard.
3.17 storage tank engi neer: One or
more persons or organizati ons
acceptabl e to the owner/ operator who
are knowledgeabl e and experi enced in
the engineeri ng disci pl ines associ ated
wi th evaluating mechanical and materi al
characteri sti cs that affect the integri ty
and rel iabili ty of aboveground storage
tanks. The storage tank engi neer, by
consulting with appropriate specialists,
shoul d be regarded as a composi te of all
entiti es needed to properly assess the
technical requirements.
3.18 external i nspecti on: A formal
visual inspection, as supervised by an
authorized i nspector, to assess all
aspects of the tank as possi ble without
suspendi ng operations or requiring tank
shutdown (see 6.4.1).
Page 3 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
3.19 i nternal i nspecti on: A formal ,
complete i nspection, as supervised by
an authori zed inspector of al l accessible
i nternal tank surfaces (see6.4.1).
3.20 f i tness f or servi ce assessment: A
methodol ogy whereby fl aws contai ned
wi thi n a structure are assessed i n order
to determine the adequacy of the flawed
structure for conti nued service wi thout
i mmi nent fail ure.
Page 4 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 4 - SUI TABI LI TY FOR SERVI CE
4.1 General
4.1.1 When i nspection i ndicates a change from ori gi nal physical condition,
evaluate to determine suitabi l ity for conti nued service.
4.1.2 Thi s secti on covers:
a. Evaluation for continued service.
b. Decisi ons rel ative to repai rs, alterati ons, dismantling, relocati ng,
or reconstructi on.
4.1.3 Factors f or consi derati on: (plus engineering anal ysi s and judgment)
a. Internal corrosion (products or water bottom).
b. External corrosion (envi ronmental exposure).
c. All owabl e stress levels.
d. Stored product properti es (i.e., Specifi c Gravity, temperature,
corrosi ti vity).
e. Metal desi gn temperatures (at service l ocation).
f. External roof live load, wind and seismic loading.
g. Foundation, soil and settlement condi tions.
h. Chemical anal ysis/ mechanical properti es (construction. material).
i. Existing tank distorti ons.
j. Operati ng conditi ons (i .e., fil ling/ emptyi ng rates and frequency).
4.2 Tank Roof Eval uati on (General )
4.2.1.2 Roof plates corroded to an average "t" of l ess than 0.09" (in
any 100 sq. i n) Repai r or Repl ace.
4.2.2 Fi xed Roof s
Determine conditi on of roof support system (i.e., rafters, girders,
col umns, bases and out of pl umb col umns). Corrosi on and/ or damaged
members - Eval uate for repair or renewal .
NOTE: Pi pe columns requi re special attention. Severe internal
corrosion may not be evi denced by external visual
inspection.
4.2.3 Fl oati ng Roof s
4.2.3.1 Cracks/ punctures - Repai r or repl ace.
4.2.3.2 Pi tting/ corrosion - Eval uate for potential penetrati on before
the next scheduled internal inspecti on.
4.2.3.3 Roof support system, perimeter seal s, drain system, venti ng,
other appurtenances. Evaluate.
Page 5 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
4.2.3.4 See API-650 (Appendix C and H) for evaluati on guidance.
NOTE: Upgrading - Not mandatory to meet those
gui deli nes on fl oating roofs.
4.2.4 Change of Servi ce
4.2.4.1 Internal pressure: Refer to API-650 (Appendi x F) when
eval uati ng/ modifying roof or roof-to-shel l junction.
4.2.4.2 External pressure: Roof support structure and roof-to-shel l
juncti on. Eval uate for effect of desi gn partial vacuum. Refer
to API-620.
4.2.4.3 All requirements of API-650 (Appendix M) shal l apply before
a change of servi ce to operation at temperature above 200°F
is considered.
4.2.4.4 See API-650 (or appli cable standard) i f operati on is to be at
lower temperature than ori gi nal design.
4.2.4.5 Eval uate if change of servi ce wil l effect normal or
emergency venting.
4.3 Tank Shel l Eval uati on
4.3.1.1 Flaws, deteri oration, (greater than CA) must be evaluated
for conti nued use suitabil ity.
4.3.1.2 The shel l conditi on, analysis and evaluation shal l take i nto
consideration the anticipated loading condi tions and
combinati ons i ncluding:
a. Pressure due to fl uid stati c head.
b. Internal and external pressure.
c. Wind and sei smi c loads.
d. Roof live loads.
e. Nozzle, settlement and attachment l oads.
4.3.1.3 Shel l corrosion occurs i n many forms and varyi ng degrees
of severity resulting in a generally uniform loss of metal
over a large surface area or i n local i zed areas. Pi tting may
al so occur, but does not normall y represent a significant
threat to overall structural i ntegrity unless present i n a
severe form with pits in close proxi mity to one another.
4.3.1.4 Methods for determi ning the mini mum shell "t" suitabl e for
conti nued operation are gi ven i n 4.3.2, 4.3.3, and 4.3.4.
(see page 1-8 below for mi ni mum shel l t formula.)
Page 6 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
4.3.2 Actual Thi ckness Determi nati on
This section deals with the averagi ng of corroded areas. This is not an exact
science and shoul d be used onl y when an area i s questi onable for repai r. For exam
purposes, you wi ll be supplied with 't
2
" and the di ameter of the tank.
Page 7 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
Mi ni mum Thi ckness Cal cul ati on f or
Wel ded Tank Shel l
(API 653 Secti on 4.3.3.1)
t
min
= 2.6 (H-1)DG
SE
t
min
= the mi ni mum acceptable thi ckness, in i nches, for each course as
calculated from the above formula; however, t
min
shall not be less
than 0.1 inch for any tank course.
D = nomi nal di ameter of tank, in feet.
H = height from the bottom of the shel l course under considerati on to the
maximum li quid l evel when evaluati ng an enti re shell course, i n ft; or
height, from the bottom of the l ength L (see 4.3.2.1) from the l owest point
of the bottom of L of the locall y thinned area to the maxi mum li qui d level ,
i n ft; or
height from the l owest point wi thi n any l ocation of i nterest to the
maxi mum l iqui d level, in ft.
G = Hi ghest specifi c gravi ty of the contents.
S = Maximum all owabl e stress i n pounds per square inch; use the
small er of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the
smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. Allowable shell stresses
are shown in Tabl e 4-1 for material s l isted i n the current and previ ous
editi ons of API Std. 12C and Std. 650. Note: For reconstructed tanks,
S shall be per the current appli cable standard.
Y = Speci fied minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not
known.
T = The smal ler of the specified mi nimum tensile strength of the pl ate
or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not known.
E = Ori gi nal joint effici ency for the tank. Use Tabl e 4-2 if original E is
unknown. E=1.0 when evaluati ng the retirement thickness in a
corroded pl ate, when away from wel ds or joi nts by at least the
greater of one inch or twi ce the plate thickness.
Page 8 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
FOR UNKNOWN MATERI AL
Maxi mum Al l owabl e Stress (i n PSI) Use the smal l er of :
NOTE: The Third Editi on of API 653 has added a new table, Table 4-1,
Maxi mum All owabl e Shel l Stresses (not for use for reconstructed
tanks). This will make stress cal culations much easier.
Sampl e probl em f or mi ni mum thi ckness of a wel ded tank shel l .
An inspecti on of a welded, 138 foot diameter tank, 50 feet tall , 48 feet fi ll height shows
some scattered pitti ng i n the fi rst course. What is the minimum shel l thickness required
for this tank, if the specific gravi ty of the product is 0.9?
t
min
= 2.6 (H-1) DG
SE
t
min
= ?
D = 138'
H = 48'
G = .9
S = 23,600 (from Table 4-1)
E = 1
t
min
= 2.6 (48-1)((138)(.9)
23,600(1)
15,177.24
23,600
t
min
= .643"
Fi rst or Second Course
(Yiel d)
.80Y = .80 X 30,000 = 24,000
or
(Tensile)
.429T = .429 X 55,000 = 23,595
Ot her Courses
(Yield)
.88Y = .88 X 30,000 = 26,400
or
(Tensile)
.472T = .472 X 55,000 = 25,960
Page 9 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
Practi ce Probl em
t
min
= 2.6 (H-1) DG
SE
A 190' di ameter tank has a pi t that measures 5/ 16" deep in the first course, what i s the
mi n t, if the fi ll is 42 feet and the specific gravity i s 0.6? (The pi t i s not in a wel d seam or
HAZ.) The materi al is unknown.
S = Maxi mum al l owabl e stress in pounds per square i nch; use the
smal l er of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the
smal ler of 0.88Y or 0.472T for al l other courses.
Y = Specifi ed mini mum yi eld strength of the pl ate; use 30,000 psi i f not
known.
T = The smaller of the specifi ed mini mum tensi le strength of the pl ate or
80,000 psi ; use 55,000 psi if not known.
E = Original joi nt efficiency for the tank. Use Tabl e 4-2 if ori gi nal E i s unknown.
E = 1.0 when evaluati ng the reti rement thickness in a corroded plate, when away
from welds or joints by at least the greater of one i nch or twice the plate
thickness.
Expl anati on of Practi ce Probl em
t
min
= 2.6 (H-1) DG
SE
t
min
= ? D = 190 H = 42 G = .6
S = 23,600 E = 1
t
min
= 2.6 (42-1) (190) (.6)
23,600(1)
t
min
= 12,152.4
23,600
t
min
= .515 i nches
Page 10 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
The Exam recognizes a vari ati on of the mi nimum thickness formul a, even though the
formula does not appear directl y in the API 653 Standard. The calculati on is for
Maximum All owable Fi ll Hei ght based on a mi ni mum thickness and can be found in the
API 653 Body of Knowledge.
Not e: The + 1 was removed from this formul a because of a change in the base
formula in API 653, Second Edition, Second Addenda. The API Body of
Knowledge has not yet made the correction.
Maxi mum Al l owabl e Fi l l Hei ght
Cal cul ati on
(API 653 Body of Knowl edge)
H = S x E x t min
2.6 x D x G
t
min
= The mi ni mum acceptable thickness, in inches, as calculated
from the above formula; however, tmi n shal l not be less than 0.1
inch for any tank course.
D = Nomi nal di ameter of tank, in feet.
H = Height, i n feet, from the bottom of the l ength L for the most severely
corroded area i n each shel l course to the maxi mum desi gn li qui d
level.
G = Hi ghest speci fi c gravity of the contents.
S = Maximum al l owabl e stress in pounds per square i nch; use the
small er of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the
small er of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses.
Note: For reconstructed tanks, S shall be per the current appli cable
standard.
Y = Specified mi ni mum yield strength of the pl ate; use 30,000 psi if not
known.
T = The smaller of the specifi ed mi ni mum tensi le strength of the plate or
80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not known.
E = Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Table 4-2 i f original E is
unknown. E=1.0 when evaluating the reti rement thi ckness in a
corroded plate, when away from welds or joints by at least the
greater of one i nch or twi ce the pl ate thi ckness.
Page 11 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
Sampl e probl em f or maxi mum al l owabl e
f i l l hei ght of a wel ded tank shel l .
An inspecti on of a welded, 138 foot di ameter tank, 55 feet tall, shows some scattered
pitti ng in the first course, minimum remaining thickness is .72 . The product specifi c
gravity is 0.9 What is the maxi mum fil l hei ght required for thi s tank?
H = S x E x t min
2.6 x D x G
H = ?
S = 23,600
E = 1
t
min
= .72
D = 138'
G = .9
H = 23,600(1)x.72
2.6(138)(.9)
H = 16,992.0
322.92
H = 52.620 or 52 6
Sampl e probl em f or maxi mum al l owabl e
f i l l hei ght of a wel ded tank shel l .
H = S x E x t min
2.6xDxG
What i s the fil l hei ght of a welded tank 112 diameter, that has a
minimum thickness of .115 inches? The specifi c gravity of the product i s .5
H = 23,600 x .115
2.6 x 112 x .5
H = 2,714.0
145.6
H = 18.640 or 18 6-3/ 8
Page 12 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
3
The 3rd Edi tion of API 653 takes a two step approach for hydrostatic testing height H,
H
t
.
STEP A: Control ling Thickness
H
t
= S
t
Et
min
2.6D + 1
STEP B: Local ly Thinned Areas
H
t
= S
t
Et
min
2.6D
4.3.1.5 If the "t" requirements cannot be satisfi ed, the corroded or
damaged areas shal l be:
a. Repaired, or
b. All owabl e l iqui d level reduced, or
c. Tank retired.
NOTE: The maxi mum design li quid level shall not be
exceeded.
4.3.2 Actual "t" Determi nati on:
a. See Inspecti on of Corrosi on Areas (Fig. 4-1, Page 4-2).
b. The controlling thi ckness in each shel l course, where corroded
areas of consi derabl e size occur, must be determined.
4.3.2.2 Wi del y scattered pi ts may be i gnored i f :
a. No pi t resul ts in the remaini ng shell "t" bei ng less than
one-half (1/ 2) of the mi ni mum acceptabl e tank shell
"t" (excl usive of the CA);
And
b. The sum (total ) of their di mensions al ong any vertical
l inedoes not exceed two i nches (2") in an eight inch
(8") length. (See Fi g. 4-2).
EXAMPLE:
Three (3) pi ts i n close proximity. Di mension
(measure) vertical ly - each pi t. Add the sum (total
dimensions) together.
* d
1
+ d
2
+ d
3
--- 2"
NOTE: If the pit di mensi on total s (measured
vertically) exceed 2" in an 8" l ength, then
these pits must be considered as
strength factors.
Page 13 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
Speci al Note: Ol d method of eval uati ng pit probl em.
1. Draw or i magine an 8" diameter circle.
2. Wi thi n the circl e, measure all of the pit surface areas, individual ly.
3. Add all of the pit val ues together.
* Uni t of Measure = Sq. I n.
4. I f the sum total of al l the pi t surface areas exceed 7 sq. in. within that
8" di ameter ci rcle, then the pits must be consi dered as strength factors.
4.3.4 Mi ni mum "t" cal cul ati on f or Ri veted Tank Shel l
4.3.4.1 Use the same formula as 4.3.3.1, except that the foll owi ng
al lowable stress criteri a and joint effi ciency shal l be used:
a. S = 21,000 lbs./ sq./ in.
b. E - 1.0 for shell pl ate 6" or more away from rivets.
NOTE: See Table 4-3 for joi nt efficienci es for locations
within 6" of rivets.
4.3.4.3 Eval uate to what extent, i f any, ri veted joints have been
affected by corrosion. Rel ate "bul gi ng" condition between
internal butt-straps and shel l plates with stress placed on
ri vets.
I NTERNAL CORROSI ON - OBSERVATI ONS/COMMENTS
Based on experi ence and personal observations onl y, the foll owing i s presented for
fi eld data survey and evaluation.
A. Tank Bottoms
1. For tanks wi th potential sour water present, check cl osel y for accelerated
corrosive attack around outer peri phery. This i s usuall y found at the
l owest point and at the water collection poi nt. Also appl ies to lower 4" - 6"
of internal shell.
2. Some product services speci fical ly attack weld seams and the adjacent
HAZ
3. Not I nternal , but rel ated, corrosion often occurs to the underside of tank
bottoms. If bottom leak i s suspected as a result of undersi de corrosion, be
prepared for a slow, long durati on, expensive operation to verify and/ or
l ocate problem areas. * Later reference under Bottom Evaluation.
Page 14 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
B. Tank Shel l s
1. See prior comment on lower shell area wi th potential for sour water
attack. * Sour Crude tanks very suscepti ble to this type corrosion.
2. The theory that the hot si de (i.e., west si de thermal input) i s more
corrosive has not been justi fi ed or verifi ed.
3. Preferential attack on weld seams, HAZ, scaffol d lug removal areas, etc., is
not uncommon.
4. Extreme upper, non-wetted shell area often experi ences accel erated
corrosi on. Thi s is a very real possibili ty in sour crude or No. 6 fuel oi ls
due to high sulfur content in the vapor phase.
5. Watch for accelerated metal loss (usuall y smooth, perhaps even grooved)
at the normal product high li quid l evel in weak aci d service.
C. Tank Roof s/Support Structure
Shoul d corrosion be found in the upper shel l, the potential for a l ike loss shoul d
be suspected on the internal roof plates, the rafter/ structural members and the
roof support col umns. These speci fic areas are exposed to the same
environment as the upper, non-wetted shell surface.
If only the two (2) lower shel l rings show accel erated corrosi on, closel y check the
roof support col umns. Problems to the same degree and elevation may be
present.
4.3.5 Di storti ons
4.3.5.1 Includes out-of-roundness, buckled areas, flat spots, peaki ng
and bandi ng at welded joints.
4.3.5.2 Potenti al causes:
a. Foundati on settlement
b. Over or under-pressuri ng
c. High winds
d. Poor shell fabri cati on/ erecti on
e. Repai r Techni ques
4.3.6 Fl aws cracks and l ami nati ons
a. Exami ne/ eval uate to determi ne need, nature or extent of repair. If
repair i s requi red, develop procedure (with sketch as necessary).
Evaluate all issues on a case-by-case basis.
b. Cracks i n the shel l -to-bottom (corner) weld are cri tical. Removal ,
not weld-over, is required.
Page 15 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
4.3.9 Shel l Penetrati ons
Consideration detai ls incl ude:
a. Type and extent of reinforcement.
b. Weld spaci ng.
c. Proxi mity of rei nforcement to shell wel d seams.
d. Thickness of component parts.
e. Deteri oration (i nternal/ external ).
4.4 Tank Bottom Eval uati on
4.4.1 General
RBI i s now a basis of this paragraph. Al l aspects of corrosion phenomena,
al l potential leak or failure mechanisms must be examined. Assessment
period shal l be l ess than or equal to the appropriate internal inspecti on
i nterval.
NOTE: Excessive foundati on settl ement can have a seri ous i mpact
on the i ntegrity of shel l and bottoms. Refer to Appendix "B"
for tank bottom settlement techniques.
4.4.2 Causes of Bottom Leaks
Consider cause/ effect/ repair:
a. Internal pi tting.
b. Corrosion of weld seams and HAZ
c. Weld joint cracking.
d. Stresses (roof support l oads and settlement).
e. Undersi de corrosi on (i.e., normally pi tting).
f. Inadequate drainage.
g. Lack of an annular plate ring, when required.
h. Uneven settlement (wi th resultant high stress).
i. Roof support col umns (or other supports) wel ded to bottom
without al lowance for adequate movement.
j. Rock or gravel foundati on pads.
k. Non-homogeneous fi l l under bottom (i .e., shell , rock, clay,
wood stakes, etc.).
l. Inadequately supported sumps.
4.4.6 Bottom Measurements Methods (Appendix G may apply)
a. Spot U. T. measurement.
b. Vi sual, i nternal survey with hammer test.
c. UT "B" scan.
d. MFE or MFLT
e. Secti on removal (i .e., coupon).
f. Abrasive blast (scan for capill ary wicki ng).
Page 16 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
4.4.7 Mi ni mum "t" f or Tank Bottom Pl ate
Two (2) Methods:
a. Determi ni sti c (See 4.4.7.1) - A long, drawn out formula/ data
process. Not normal ly used.
b. Probabi l i sti c (See 4.4.7.2) - Normal process. Statistical
anal ysis based on thi ckness data resul ting from visual,
mechanical or UT survey.
4.4.7.3 If the mini mum bottom "t", at the end of the in-service
peri od of operation, are calcul ated to be l ess than the bottom
renewal thickness gi ven in Tabl e 6-1 (page 6-3), the bottom
shall be repai red as fol lows: Lined, repaired, replaced or the
interval to the next internal i nspection shortened. Unl ess an
RBI program is i n pl ace.
4.4.7.4 Cri ti cal zone thi ckness i s redefined i n thi s paragraph. Note
the plate thickness in the critical zone shall be the smaller of
1/ 2 the original bottom pl ate thi ckness or 50% of
t
min of the
lower shell course, but not less than 0.1 i nch.
4.4.7.7 The bottom extension shal l be no less than 0.1 inch thick and
must extend beyond the outsi de toe of the shell -to-bottom
wel d at least 3/ 8 inch.
4.4.8 Mi ni mum "t" - Annul ar Pl ate Ri ngs
1. See Vi sual Ai de of Table 4-4 (page 4 - 9).
2. With product SG l ess than 1.0 that requi re annul ar pl ates for
other than seismic loadi ng consideration -- Also see Table 4-4.
3. SG greater than 1.0: Refer to Tabl e 3-1 of the API-650 standard.
4.5 Tank Foundati on Eval uati on
4.5.1 General - (causes of f oundati on deteri orati on):
a. Settlement
b. Erosion
c. Cracki ng of concrete (i .e., calci ni ng, underground water,
frost, alkal ies and acids).
Page 17 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
4.5.1.2 Descri pti on - concrete deteri orati on mechani sms.
a. Cal cining - (loss of water of hydrati on).
Normall y occurs when concrete has been exposed to
hi gh temperature for a peri od of time. Duri ng
intermediate cooling peri ods, the concrete absorbs
moi sture, swel ls, l oses i ts strength and cracks.
b. Chemical attack: cyclic changes in temperature
and by freezing moi sture.
c. Expansion in porous concrete caused by
freezing moisture - Spal ling or serious structural
cracks.
d. Concrete bond deteri orati on - Attack by
sulfate-type al kal ies or even chlori des.
e. Temperature cracks (hai rl i ne wi th uniform
width). Not Normal l y serious.* Potential moi sture
entry poi nts wi th resulting corrosion of the
rei nforcing steel .
4.5.2 and 4.5.3 General
a. For repai r or renewal (See 10.5.6).
b. Prevent water entry.
c. Distorti on of anchor bolts and excessive cracki ng of
the concrete structure in which they are embedded
may indi cate:
(i) Serious foundati on settlement.
(ii) Tank over pressure upl ift conditi on.
Page 18 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 5 - BRI TTLE FRACTURE CONSI DERATI ONS
5.1 General
Provides a procedure to assess the risk of fai lure due to bri ttle fracture, plus
establ ishes general guidance for avoi ding this type fail ure.
5.2 Basi c Consi derati ons
See Fig. 5-1 "Decision Tree" as the assessment procedure to determine failure
potential. Prior i nci dent data whereby brittle fracture has occurred either shortly
after erection during hydrostatic testing or on the fi rst fi lli ng i n col d weather,
after a change to l ower temperature service, or after a repair/ alteration. Thi s
failure has pri mari ly occurred in welded tanks.
5.2.1 Reported conditi ons involving fail ures (pri maril y involvi ng welded tanks):
a. Hydro test at initi al erection.
b. Fi rst fill ing in cold weather.
c. After a change to l ower temperature servi ce.
d. After a repai r-al terati on.
5.2.2 Any change i n service must be evaluated to determine i f i t
increases the risk of fail ure due to bri ttl e fracture. For example, the
change to a more severe servi ce invol vi ng one of the foll owi ng:
a. Lower operati ng temperature (especi ally bel ow 60°F).
b. Product with a hi gher speci fic gravity.
* Consi der need for hydrostati c test when any repai r or alterati on
does not meet al l requi rements of the 653 standard or
deterioration of the tank has occurred si nce the origi nal hydrostatic
test.
General Comments:
1. Fracture assessment would most l i kely be conducted by a metallurgist or
desi gn specialist.
2. Several options exist based on the most severe combination of
temperature and l iquid level experi enced by the tank duri ng i ts life,
whereby an i ncreased potenti al for brittle fracture failure exi sts:
a. Restri ct the liqui d level.
b. Restrict the mi ni mum metal temperature
c. Change service to a lower Specifi c Gravity. product.
d. A combination of the three areas li sted above.
3. Remember: Reducing the storage temperature,- Increases the potential
for fai lure. Shell stresses are increased and potential for fail ure is greater
wi th a stored product change to a higher specific gravi ty.
Page 19 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 6 - I NSPECTI ON
46.1 General - I n-servi ce I nspecti on of Tanks
6.2 I nspecti on Frequency Consi derati ons
6.2.1 Some factors determining inspecti on frequency:
a. Nature of stored product.
b. Vi sual inspection/ maintenance results.
c. Corrosion rates and/ or all owances.
d. Corrosi on preventi on systems.
e. Previous i nspection resul ts.
f. Methods-materi al s of constructi on or repair.
g. Tank location (i.e., isolated, grouped, high risk areas).
h. Potential for air, water or soi l poll ution.
i. Leak detection systems.
j. Change i n operati ng mode.
k. Jurisdictional requirements.
l. Changes in service (i ncludi ng water bottoms).
m. The exi stence of a double bottom or a rel ease prevention
barrier.
6.2.2 The interval between inspections (i nternal/ external ) i s most
i nfl uenced by its servi ce hi story, unless special reasons indi cate an
earl ier i nspection i s required.
6.2.3 Local jurisdictional regulati ons (i .e., vapor l oss values, seal condition,
l eakage, proper di king and repair procedures) should be known by
i nspection personnel in their own locality, or should be f urni shed by
owner-user to i nspectors who functi on at remote l ocati ons.
6.3 External I nspecti on (Routi ne I n-Servi ce Type)
6.3.1.1 through 6.3.1.3
Routine external i n-service i nspecti on may be done by owner-user
operator personnel . Routi ne requirements incl ude:
a. Vi sual inspection from the ground.
b. Intervals shal l not exceed one month.
c. External check for l eaks, distortion, settlement, corrosion,
foundati on, paint, insulati on, etc.
Page 20 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
6.3.2 Schedul ed I nspecti ons (Al l tanks)
6.3.2.1 Formal vi sual external inspection at l east every fi ve (5) years
or RCA/ 4N years (where RCA is the di fference between the
measured shell thickness and the mini mum requi red
thickness in mil ls, and N is the shel l corrosion rate in mil ls
per year), whi chever is less, by an Authorized Inspector.
Tank may be i n operation.
6.3.2.2 Remove insulation to extent necessary to determi ne
condition of roof and shell .
6.3.2.3 Tank groundi ng system components, shunts, cable
connection, etc., shall be visual ly checked.
6.3.2.4 Visuall y check tank groundi ng components.
6.3.3 In-service UT "t" measurement of shel l.
6.3.3.1 Extent of UT survey - Determined by owner-user.
6.3.3.2 When UT is used as i nspection method, i ntervals shall not
exceed the following:
a. Five (5) years from commissi oning new tank.
b. At fi ve year intervals (existing tanks where corrosi on
rate i s not known.
c. When the corrosion rate IS known, the maxi mum
i nterval shall be the smal l er of RCA/ 2N years (where
RCA i s the di fference between the measured shel l
thickness and the minimum required thickness i n
mil s, and N is the shell corrosion rate in mi ls per year)
or fifteen (15) years.
6.3.3.3 Internal tank shel l inspecti on (out-of-service condition) can
be substi tuted for a program of external UT measurements
made during in-service condition.
6.3.4.1 Cathodic Protection System -- Survey i n accordance wi th
API RP 651.
Page 21 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
6.4 I nternal I nspecti on
6.4.1 General
Internal i nspection i s primaril y designed to:
a. Determine that bottom is not severel y corroded or leaki ng.
b. Gather data necessary to determi ne mini mum "t" of shel l
and bottom for proper evaluation.
NOTE: Pri or in-service UT data may be used as cri teria i n the
assessment process.
c. Identify/ eval uate any tank bottom settl ement.
6.4.1.2 New item. The Authorized Inspector who i s responsi bl e for
evaluation of a tank must vi sual ly exami ne each tank and
review the NDE results.
6.4.2 Inspection Intervals
6.4.2.1 Internal i nspection interval s are determined by:
a. Corrosion rates establ ished duri ng prior surveys.
b. Antici pated corrosi on rates based on experi ence wi th
tanks i n simi lar servi ce.
NOTES: 1. Normal ly, bottom corrosi on rates wi ll
control .
2. Set interval so that bottom pl ate
mi ni mum"t"(at the next i nspecti on) are
not l ess than the values listed i n Tbl 6-1.
3. In No case, shall the i nternal inspecti on
i nterval exceed twenty (20) years.
6.4.2.2 If corrosion rates are not known and simil ar servi ce data is
not availabl e (to determine bottom pl ate "t" at next
inspecti on), the actual bottom "t" shall be determined by
inspection(s), interval shall not exceed ten (10) years of
operati on to establi sh corrosion rates.
6.4.3 Alternative Internal Inspection Interval
For unique combinati ons of servi ce, environment and construction, the
owner/ operator may establish the interval usi ng an al ternati ve
procedure. Thi s method i ncludes:
a. Determining bottom plate "t".
b. Consi deration of envi ronmental risk.
c. Consi deration of inspecti on quality.
d. Analysis of corrosi on measurements.
Page 22 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
As an al ternative an RBI program may be used.
NOTE: Must be documented and made part of permanent record.
6.5 Al ternati ve to I nternal I nspecti on to Determi ne Bottom "t"
In cases where construction, si ze or other aspects all ow external access to
bottom, an external inspecti on (in li eu of internal) is al lowed to meet
requi rements of Table 6-1. Documentati on al so required.
6.7 I nspecti on Checkl i sts
Appendi x "C" provi des sampl e checkl ists of i tems for considerati on for i n or out-
of-service i nspections. A simil ar checkl ist al so exists in API RP 575.
NOTES: 1. Woul d be very expensive and time consuming.
2. Woul d require support personnel / equi pment.
3. Pl ant personnel coul d check a number of i tems.
4. Al l are not necessary, unless speci al conditi on exists.
6.8 Records
6.8.1 General
a. Records form the basis of any scheduled i nspection/ mai ntenance
program. If no records exi st, judgment may be based on tanks in
simi lar servi ce.
b. Owner/ operator must mai ntai n a complete record fil e on each tank
consi sting of three (3) types:
i. Constructi on Records
ii. Inspecti on Hi story
iii. Repair/ Alterati on Hi story
6.8.2 Constructi on Records
May incl ude the foll owing:
a. Nameplate informati on
b. Drawings
c. Specifi cations
d. Construction compl eti on report
e. NDE performed
f. Material analysi s
g. Hydro data
Page 23 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
6.8.3 Inspecti on History
a. Includes al l measurements taken, condi tion of all parts i nspected
and a record of all exami nati on and tests. Incl ude a compl ete
descri ption of any unusual condition wi th probabl e reason for
problem and recommendation for corrections.
b. Sketches and detai led repair procedure should be provided i f
so desi red by the customer.
c. Corrosion rate and i nspecti on i nterval cal cul ations should be
furni shed and made a part of the permanent fil e.
6.8.4 Repair/ Alterati on History
Incl udes all data accumulated from initial erection wi th regard to repai rs,
al terations, replacements, pl us data associated with servi ce changes (i.e.,
specifi c gravi ty and temperature). Include results of coating-li ning
experience.
6.9 Reports
6.9.1 Recommended repai rs shall incl ude:
a. Reason for the repai r.
b. Sketches showing locati on and extent.
6.9.2 General inspecti on reports shall i nclude:
a. Metal thickness measurements
b. Condi tions found
c. Repairs
d. Settlement data
e. Recommendations
6.10 Non-Destructi ve Exami nati ons
NDE personnel shall meet the qualifi cati ons identified in 12.1.1.2, but need
not be certified in accordance with Appendix D. However, the results
must be reviewed by an Authori zed Inspector.
Page 24 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 7 - MATERI ALS
7.1 General
This section provides general requirements for material s when tanks are
repaired, altered or reconstructed. (See Section 9 for speci fic data).
7.2 New Materi al s
Shal l conform to current appl icable tank standards.
7.3 Ori gi nal Materi al s f or Reconstructed Tanks
7.3.1 All shel l plates and bottom plates wel ded to the shell shall be identi fied.
Ori gi nal contract drawings, API nameplate or other suitabl e
documentation do not require further identification. Materials not
identifi ed must be tested.(See 7.3.1.2.).
7.3.1.2 If plates are not identified, subject plate to chemical analysis
and mechanical tests, as requi red in ASTM-A6 and A370
(incl uding Charpy V-Notch). API-650 impact values must be
satisfied.
7.3.1.3 For known material s, plate properties (at a mi nimum) must
meet chemical and mechanical API-650 requi rements wi th
regard to thickness and design metal temperature.
7.3.3 Fl anges, fasteners, structural, etc., must meet current
standards. Weldi ng consumables must conform to the AWS
classification that is appli cable.
Page 25 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 8 - DESI GN CONSI DERATI ONS
RECONSTRUCTED TANKS
8.2 New Wel d Joi nts
a. Must meet applicabl e standard.
b. Butt-weld joi nt with complete fusi on and penetration.
8.3 Exi sti ng Joi nts
Must meet ori gi nal constructi on standard.
8.4 Shel l Desi gn
8.4.1 When checking design cri teria, the "t" for each shell course shall be based
on measurements taken withi n 180 days prior to relocation.
8.4.2 Determining maximum design li quid level for product i s determined by:
a. Cal culate the maxi mum l iquid l evel (each course) based on
product speci fic gravi ty.
b. Actual "t" measured for each course.
c. Materi al al lowable stress for each course. (See Table 3-2 - API-650).
d. Selected desi gn method.
8.5 Shel l Penetrati ons
8.5.1 New/ replacement penetrations must be designed, detailed, wel ded
and examined to meet current appli cable standard.
8.5.2 Existi ng penetrations must be evaluated for compl iance with the
original construction standard.
Page 26 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 9 - TANK REPAI R AND ALTERATI ON
9.1 General
Basis for repair/ alteration shall be equivalent to API-650 standard.
9.1.3 All repairs must be authorized by the Authori zed Inspector or an
engineer. The Authori zed Inspector wi ll establish hol d points.
9.1.4 All proposed design, wel di ng procedures, testi ng methods, etc., must be
approved by the Authori zed Inspector or an engi neer.
9.1.5 Appendix F summarizes the requi rements by method of examination and
provides the acceptance standards, inspector qualifi cati ons, and procedure
requi rements. This i s a good summary of NDT requirements and i ncl udes
procedures from API 650, but it should not be used al one.
9.2 Removal and Repl acement - Shel l Pl ate
9.2.1 Thickness of the replacement shel l plate shal l not be less than the greatest
nomi nal "t" of any plate i n the same course adjoi ni ng the replacement
plateexcept thi ckened insert pl ate.
NOTE: When evaluati ng pl ate suitabili ty, any change from the
ori ginal design conditi on (i.e., speci fic gravity, pressure,
li quid level and shell height) must be considered.
9.2.2 Mi ni mum Di mensi ons of Repl acement Shel l Pl ate
9.2.2.1 Twelve i nches (12"), or 12 ti mes the "t" of the repl acement,
whichever i s greater.
NOTE: The replacement pl ate may be ci rcul ar, oblong,
square with rounded corners or rectangul ar
with rounded corners, except when an entire
pl ate i s repl aced. (See Fig. 9-1 for detail s).
9.2.2.2 When repl aci ng entire shell pl ates, it is permi ssible to cut and
reweld al ong the exi sting hori zontal wel d joints. Maintain
wel d spacing as per establ ished API-650 val ues.
NOTE: Pri or to welding the new verti cal joi nts, the
exi sting horizontal weld must be cut for a
mini mum distance of twelve i nches (12")
beyond the new verti cal joints. As normal,
weld verticals bef ore roundseams.
Page 27 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.2.3 Wel d Joi nt Desi gn
9.2.3.1 Replacement Shell Plates - Butt joi nts wi th compl ete
penetration and fusion. Fillet welded lapped patch plates are
permi tted.
9.2.3.2 Weld Joint Design
a. See API-650 (3.1.5.1 through 3.2.5.3).
b. Joi nts in exi sti ng l ap-weld shel ls may be repai red
accordi ng to ori ginal constructi on standard
c. Weld detai ls - See API-650(5.2) and API-653
(Secti on 11).
9.2.3.3 Refer to Figure 9-1 for Mi nimum wel d spacing di mensions.
NOTE: Special requi rements for shell pl ates of
unknown toughness, not meeting the
exemption curve for brittl e fracture: The new
vertical wel d must be at least 3 or 5T from
bottom joi nts.
9.3.1 Lapped patch shel l repairs are now an acceptable form of repair, API 653,
Second Edition, Addenda 1. Existing patch plates may be eval uated to this
Standard.
9.3.1.2 Lap patches may not be used on pl ate thicker than 1/ 2" or to
repl ace door sheets.
9.3.1.3 Lap patch plates are not to be thi cker than 1/ 2 or thinner
than 3/ 16 .
9.3.1.4 All lap patch plates may be ci rcular, obl ong, square,
rectangul ar or meet the nozzle reinforci ng pl ate shapes of
API 650.
9.3.1.5 Lap patch pl ates may cross welds. See figure 9-1 for weld
spacing details.
9.3.1.6 Lap patch pl ates may extend to and i ntersect with the
external shell -to-bottom joint. Internal lap patches shall
have 6 toe-to-toe wel d clearance between the patch and the
shel l-to-bottom weld.
9.3.1.7 Maximum si ze of lap patch plates is 48 x 72 , minimum 4 .
9.3.1.8 Shell openi ngs are not allowed within a lapped patch repai r.
9.3.1.9 UT required in the areas to be welded, searchi ng for plate
defects and remaining thickness.
Page 28 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.3.1.10 Repair plates shall not be lapped onto l ap-welded shell
seams, riveted shell seams, other lapped patch repair plates,
di storted areas, or unrepai red cracks or defects.
9.3.2 Lapped patch pl ates may be used to close holes.
9.3.2.1 The lap patch plate must be seal -welded, includi ng the inner
peri meter of the hole. The mi nimum hol e diameter is 2 .
9.3.2.2 Nozzl e necks and rei nforci ng plates shall be enti rely
removed pri or to i nstal lati on of a repai r plate.
9.3.2.3 The overlap of a repair plate shall not exceed 8 times the
shel l thickness, mi ni mum overlap is 1 . The minimum
repai r plate dimension shall be 4 inches.
9.3.2.4 The repair pl ate thickness shall not exceed the nomi nal
thickness of the shel l plate adjacent to the repai r.
9.3.3 Lapped patch pl ates may be used for thi nning shel l s, bel ow retirement
thickness.
9.3.3.1 Full fillet weld requi red on lap patch plates.
9.3.4 Lapped patch repai r pl ates may be used to repair small shel l l eaks or
minimize the potenti al from l eaks.
9.3.4.4 This repair method shall not be used if exposure of the fi llet
wel ds to the product will produce crevi ce corrosion or if a
corrosion cell between the shel l plate and repair pl ate i s
li kely to occur.
9.3.4.5 This repair method shall not be used to repair shell leaks if
the presence of product between the shel l pl ate and repair
pl ate wi ll prevent gas freei ng from the tank to perform hot
work.
9.6 Repai r of Def ecti ve Wel ds
9.6.1 Cracks, l ack of fusion and rejectabl e slag/ porosi ty require repair.
Complete removal by gouging-gri nding and the cavi ty properly prepared
for weldi ng.
9.6.2 General ly, it i s not necessary to remove existing weld reinforcement in
excess of that allowed i n API-650.
Page 29 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.6.3 Unacceptable weld undercut can be repai red by additional weld
metal (or grindi ng), as appropriate.
NOTE: Maximum all owable depth of undercut:
a. 1/ 64" on vertical seams
b. 1/ 32" on horizontal seams
9.6.4 Weld joints that have experi enced l oss of metal by corrosi on may be
repaired by welding.
9.6.5 Arc stri kes
Repair by grindi ng or welded. If welded, grind flush.
9.7 Repai r of Shel l Penetrati ons
9.7.2 Rei nforci ng plates may be added but they must meet API-650 for
dimensi ons and wel d spacing.
9.7.3 Rei nforcement pl ates can be i nstall ed to the inside wall , provi ded
that suffici ent nozzle projection exi sts for proper weld tie-i n.
9.8 Addi ti on/Repl acement of Shel l Penetrati ons
9.8.1 The December 1998 Addenda requires both API 653 and API 650
requirements be met for shell penetrations.
9.8.2 Penetrations l arger than 2" NPS shal l be installed wi th the use of an i nsert
platei f the shell "t" i s greater than 0.50" and the material does not meet
the current desi gn metal temperature criteri a. Addi ti onally, the mi ni mum
diameter of the insert pl ate shall be at least twice the di ameter of the
penetration or diameter pl us twel ve i nches (12"), whichever i s greater.
9.9 Al terati on of Exi sti ng Shel l Penetrati ons
9.9.1 Altered detail s must comply with API-650.
9.9.2 New bottom instal lation (above ol d bottom) and usi ng the "slotted"
method through the shel l may not now meet spacing requi rements.
Opti ons for alternate compl iance include the fol l owing three (3) items:
9.9.2.1 Existi ng rei nforcement plate may be "trimmed" to i ncrease
the spacing between the welds, provided the modification
still meets API-650.
9.9.2.2 Remove existi ng rei nforcement and i nstall a new pad.
"Tombstone" shapes are acceptable.
9.9.2.3 The existing penetrati on (nozzl e and pad) may be removed
and the enti re assembly rel ocated to the correct el evati on.
Page 30 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.10 Repai r of Tank Bottoms (Definition see paragraph 3.9)
9.10.1.1 See figure 9-5 for detai ls for wel ded-on patch pl ates
9.10.1.2.1 No welding or weld overl ays are permitted
within the critical zone, except for weldi ng of:
a. Widely scattered pi ts.
b. Pi nholes
c. Cracks i n the bottom plates.
d. Shel l-to-bottom weld.
e. Welded-on patch pl ates
d. Repl acement of bottom or annul ar
pl ate.
9.10.1.2.4 If more extensi ve repai rs are required withi n the
cri tical zone (than as li sted in 9.10.1.2.), the bottom
plate (under the shell ) shal l be cut out and a new plate
installed.
9.10.1.2.5 Thi s is a new paragraph that gives the requirements
for reinforcement pl ates.
REVI EW NOTE: Wel d Spaci ng requirements must meet
API-650 (3.1.5.4 and 3.1.5.5) requi rements. No 3 plate laps
cl oser than twel ve inches (12") from each other, from the
tank shell , from butt weld annular joi nts and from joi nts of
the annular ri ng to normal bottom plates.
9.10.2 Repl acement - Enti re Bottom
9.10.2.1.1 Non-corrosive materi al cushi on (i .e., sand, gravel or
concrete) 3"-4" thick shall be used between the old
and new bottoms.
9.10.2.1.2 The shell shall be "slotted" with a uniform cut made
parallel to the tank bottom.
9.10.2.1.3 Voids in the foundati on (bel ow the old bottom) shal l
be fi ll ed wi th sand, crushed li mestone, grout or
concrete.
9.10.2.1.4 Rai se elevati on of existing penetrations i f the new
bottom elevati on requi res a cut through the
rei nforcement.
9.10.2.1.5 On fl oati ng roof tanks, keep in mi nd that the floating
roof support legs may requi re revi si on to conform to
new bottom el evati on.
Page 31 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.10.2.1.6 New bearing pl ates are requi red for floati ng roof leg
supports and for fixed roof support columns.
Column length revi sions are also requi red on fi xed
roof tanks.
9.10.2.2 Consider removal of ol d bottom, or of providing protecti on
from potential galvanic corrosion.
NOTE: See API-RP 651. Al so see API-653
(4.4.5.) regarding bottom l eak detection.
9.10.2.3 New wel d joints i n the tank bottom or annular ri ng shal l be
spaced at l east the greater of 3 inches or 5t from existi ng
vertical weld joi nts i n the bottom shel l course.
9.10.3.1 Addi ti onal Wel ded-on Pl ates
New inspection requi rements, pl ates must be MT or PT if the wel d
spacing requirements can not be met.
9.11 Repai r of Fi xed Roof s
9.11.1.1 and 9.11.2.2
Same criteri a as previously noted/ discussed in API-650
relati ve to:
a. Plate "t"
b. Roof support structure
c. Loadi ng
d. Roof-to-shell junction
9.12 External and I nternal Fl oati ng. Roof s
a. Repair in accordance to original construction drawi ngs.
b. If no ori gi nal drawings avail able, use cri teri a from API-650,
Appendix C and H.
9.13 Repai r/Repl acement of Fl oati ng Roof Seal s
9.13.1 Ri m mounted seal s can be removed, repai red or replaced. Items for
considerati on are:
a. Minimize evaporati on/ personnel exposure by l imiting seal
segment removal to 1/ 4 of the seal at one ti me.
b. Use temporary spacers to keep roof centered.
c. In-servi ce repai r may be l imi ted to seal component parts or
hi gh positioned vapor seal s.
9.13.2 Secondary seal s can normal ly be "i n-servi ce" repai red or replaced.
Page 32 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.13.3 Seal -to-Shel l Gap
Corrective acti on i ncludes:
a. Adjusting hanger system or pri mary shoe seal types.
b. Adding foam fill er to toroidal seal s.
c. Increasing l ength of ri m mounted secondary seals.
d. Repl acement (al l or part) of the pri mary system.
e. Adding a ri m extension to i nstall secondary seal.
9.13.4 Mechanical Damage: Repai r or replace.
NOTE: Buckled parts require replacement, not straightening.
9.13.6 Minimum All owabl e roof ri m "t" = 0.10"
Minimum "t" of new rim plate = 0.1875"
9.14 Hot Taps
Install ation on existing i n-servi ce tanks with shel l material that does not requi re
post-wel d heat treatment.
NOTE: Connection size and shell "t" limi tations are:
a. Six inches (6 ) and small-minimum shel l t 0.1875
b. Ei ght inches (8") and small er-minimum shel l "t" 0.25"
c. Fourteen i nches (14") and smaller-minimum shel l "t" 0.375"
d. Ei ghteen inches (18") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0.50"
9.14.1.2 Use l ow hydrogen el ectrodes.
9.14.1.3 Hot taps are not permitted on:
a. Tank roof
b. Wi thi n the gas/ vapor space of a tank.
9.14.2 Hot Tap Procedure Requirements
a. Use customer/ owner developed-documented procedure.
b. If no documentation is avail abl e, API Pub. 2201 applies.
9.14.3 Preparatory Work
9.14.3.1 Mi ni mum spacing i n any directi on (toe-to-toe of welds)
between the hot tap and adjacent nozzl es shal l be equi val ent
to the square root of RT (where "R" i s tank shel l radius, in
inches, and "T" is the shel l plate "t", in i nches.
Page 33 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9.14.3.2 Shell plate "t" shal l be taken i n a minimum of four (4)
places al ong the ci rcumference of the proposed nozzl e
location.
9.14.5 I nstal l ati on Procedure
9.14.5.1 Pre-cut pipe nozzle to shel l contour and outside bevel for ful l
penetrati on weld. (See Fig. 9-6, page 9-12 for details).
9.14.5.2 After pipe nozzl e is welded, install the reinforcement (1 piece
or 2 pi eces). A two piece pad requires a horizontal weld).
NOTES: 1. Full penetrati on weld - pad to nozzle.
2. Limit weld heat input as practical.
9.14.5.3 Upon wel d completion:
a. Conduct NDE as required by procedure.
b. Pneumati call y test per API-650 procedure.
c. After val ve installati on, pressure test (at least 1.5
times the hydrostatic head) the nozzle pri or to
mounti ng the hot-tap machi ne.
9.14.5.4 Followi ng the hot-tap machine manufacturer's procedure,
onl y qual ifi ed operators can make the shell cut.
Page 34 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 10 - DI SMANTLI NG AND RECONSTRUCTI ON
10.1 General
10.1.1 Provi des for di smantling and reconstruction of existi ng wel ded tanks
relocated from thei r ori gi nal site.
10.1.2 See Section 12 for hydrostati c and wel d requirements.
10.3 Di smantl i ng Methods
Cut into any size pi eces that are readil y transportabl e to new si te.
10.3.2 Bottoms
10.3.2.1 Deseam lapwelds, or cut alongside existi ng seams (a
mini mum of 2" from exi sti ng welds), except where cuts cross
existing weld seams.
10.3.2.2 If most of the bottom i s to be reused, cut from shel l along
li ne A-A (Fig. 10-1), or if enti re bottom i s sal vaged i ntact, cut
shel l along li ne B-B.
10.3.3 Shel l s
10.3.3.1 Cut shel l by one, or a combination, of the following
methods:
a. Cuts made to remove exi sting wel ds and HAZ, the
minimum HAZ to be removed will be one-half of the
weld metal wi dth or 1/ 4 i nch, which ever i s less, on
both sides of the wel d seam.
b. Any shel l ring 1/ 2 inch thick or thinner may be
dismantled by cutti ng through the weld without
removi ng the HAZ.
c. Cuts made a mi nimum of 6" away from existi ng wel d
seams, except where cuts cross exi sti ng welds.
10.3.3.2 Shell sti ffeners, wind girders and top angles may be l eft
attached to shell or cut at attachment welds. If temporary
attachments are removed, gri nd area smooth.
10.3.3.3 Cut shell from bottom pl ate al ong l ine B-B (see Fig. 10-1).
The exi sting shel l-to-bottom wel d connecti on shal l not be
reused unl ess the entire bottom i s to be salvaged intact.
Page 35 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
10.3.4 Roof s
10.3.4.1 Cut roof by lapweld deseaming or alongside (a minimum of
2" from) the remai ni ng welds.
10.3.4.2 Roof structure
Remove bolts or deseami ng at structural wel ds.
10.3.5 Pi ece Marki ng
10.3.5.1 Shel l bottom and roof pl ates
Mark prior to dismantli ng for ready identi fication and
reconstruction placement.
10.3.5.2 Punch mark (minimum 2 sets) at matching centers l ocated
on top and bottom edges of each shell segment for future
proper alignment.
10.4 Reconstructi on
10.4.2.1 Wel ding notes as foll ows:
a. Verti cal wel d joints should not ali gned wi th joints
located i n bottom plates.
b. No wel ding over heat affected zones (from ori gi nal
tank welds), except where new joints cross original
joints.
c. Refer to Fi g. 9-1 for wel d spaci ng.
10.4.2.2 Tank and Structural Attachment Welding
Use processes specifi ed in API-650.
10.4.2.3 Speci fic wel di ng notes:
a. No wel ding is all owed when parts to be welded are
wet from rain, snow or ice or when rain or snow i s
falli ng, or during high wi nd condi tions (unless the
work i s shiel ded). Caution this i s a common practice
and should be avoided.
b. No wel ding i s permitted when the base metal is
bel ow 0°F.
c. If the base metal temperature i s between 0° and 32°F
or the metal "t" is in excess of 1", the base metal
wi thi n 3" of wel ding shal l be pre-heated to
approximatel y 140°F.
Page 36 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
10.4.2.4 As normal , each layer of wel d deposi t i s to be cleaned of slag
or other deposits.
10.4.2.5 As i n API-650, the maximum acceptable undercutting i s
1/ 64" for vertical butt joi nts and 1/ 32" for hori zontal butt
joi nts.
10.4.2.7 Same tack weld provisions as API-650, i.e.:
a. Vertical , manual tacks - Remove.
b. Verti cal, submerged tacks - If sound, clean only.
NOTE: Tack wel ds l eft i n pl ace must have been applied
by a qualifi ed wel der.
10.4.2.8 If weldabl e primer coatings exist, they must be included in
procedure qual ification tests.
NOTE: Al l other coating must be removed pri or to
wel ding.
10.4.2.9 Low-hydrogen electrodes requi red on manual metal-arc
wel ds, i ncluding the shell to bottom attachment or annul ar
pl ate ri ng.
10.4.3 Bottoms
10.4.3.2 Wel d shel l to bottom f i rst (except for door sheets) before
wel dout of bottom pl ates is started.
10.4.4 Shel l s
10.4.4.1 Same fit-up/ welding procedures and val ues as allowed i n
API-650 for verti cal joi nts:
a. Over 5/ 8" thick - misali gnment shall not exceed 10%
of "t" (maximum 0.125").
b. Under 0.625" thi ck - misalignment shall not exceed
0.06".
NOTE: Compl ete vertical wel ding before
roundseam below is welded.
10.4.4.2 Hori zontal j oi nts
Upper plate shal l not project over l ower by more than 20%
of upper plate "t"(with 0.125" maximum).
10.4.4.3 Materi al over 1.50" thick a mi ni mum pre-heat of 200°F i s
required.
Page 37 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
10.4.5 Roof s
There are no special sti pulations, except that structural members must be
reasonably true to li ne and surface.
10.5 Di mensi onal Tol erances
10.5.2.1 Allowable maximum out-of-pl umbness (top of shel l relative
to shell bottom) shall not exceed 1/ 100 of total tank hei ght,
wi th a maxi mum of 5" this di mension al so appl ies to roof
col umns.
10.5.3 Roundness
See values and measurement l ocati ons on Table 10-2.
10.5.4 Peaki ng
Shall not exceed 0.50".
10.5.5 Bandi ng
Shall not exceed 1.00".
NOTE: Somewhat more lax than API-650.
10.5.6 Foundati ons
Same specifications as l isted under API-650.
Page 38 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 11 - WELDI NG
11.1 Wel di ng Qual i f i cati ons
11.1.1 Weld procedure specifi cati ons (WPS), wel ders and operators shall
be qual ified in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code.
11.1.2 Weldabi l ity of steel from existing tanks must be verified. If the
materi al specifi cation i s unknown or obsolete, test coupons for the
procedure quali fication shal l be taken from the actual plate to be
used.
SECTI ON 12 - EXAMI NATI ON AND TESTI NG
12.1.1.1 NDE shall be performed in accordance with API 650, plus
API 653 supplemental requi rements.
12.1.1.2 Personnel performing NDE shall be qualifi ed in accordance
with API 650.
12.1.1.3 Acceptance cri teria shall be in accordance with API 650.
NOTE: Appendi x "F" is not menti oned.
12.1.1.5 Appendix G is mentioned fro quali fyi ng personnel and
procedures when usi ng MFL.
12.1.2 Shel l Penetrati ons
12.1.2.1 UT l ami nati on check required for:
a. Adding reinforcement pl ate to an unreinforced
penetrati on.
b. Installi ng a hot-tap connecti on.
12.1.2.2 Cavi ti es from gouging or grindi ng to remove rei nforcement
pad welds require either a magnetic particle or li quid
penetrant test.
12.1.2.3 Completed welds attaching nozzle to shel l or pad to shell
and nozzle neck shall be exami ned by a magneti c particl e or
li quid penetrate test. Consideration shoul d be given for
extra NDE on hot taps.
12.1.2.4 Compl ete wel ds in stress reli eved components requi re
magneti c particle or li qui d penetrate testing (after stress
relief, but before hydrostatic test).
Page 39 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
12.1.3 Repai red Wel d Fl aws
12.1.3.1 Cavities from gouging or grindi ng to remove wel d defects
shal l be either a magnetic parti cle or li quid penetrate tested.
12.1.3.2 Compl eted repair of butt wel ds shall be exami ned over their
f ul l l ength by UT or radiographic methods.
12.1.4 Temporary and Permanent Attachments to Shel l Pl ates
12.1.4.1 A ground area resulti ng from the removal of attachments
requi res a visual test.
12.1.4.2 Compl eted welds on permanent attachments shal l be
examined by MT or PT, groups IV-VI, excludi ng the shel l to
bottom wel d.
12.1.5 Shel l -to-Shel l Pl ate Wel ds
New welds attaching shell pl ate to shel l plate require visual and
radi ographic exami nation. Additional ly, pl ate greater than 1", the back-
gouged surface of root pass and fi nal pass (each si de) shal l be examined
over its full l ength by a magneti c particle or liqui d penetrate test.
12.1.5.2 New wel ds on new shell pl ate to new shell plate are to be
examined and radi ographed to API 650.
12.1.6 Shel l -to Bottom
12.1.6.1 Joints shall be inspected over its enti re length by a ri ght
angle vacuum box and a soluti on film, or by applyi ng light
diesel oil. ( Diesel test technique).
12.1.6.2 An air pressure test may be used to check the shell-to-
bottom wel d.
12.1.8.2 (New Paragraph) deals wi th lap welded shell patches.
12.2 Radi ographs
Number and location - Same as API-650, pl us the foll owing additional
requirements:
12.2.1.1 Verti cal Joi nts
a. New plate to new pl ate: Same as API 650.
b. New plate to existing plate: Same as API 650,
plus one (1) additi onal radi ograph.
c. Existing plate to existing pl ate: Same as API 650,
plus one (1) additi onal radi ograph.
Page 40 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
12.2.1.2 Hori zontal Joi nts
a. New plate to new pl ate: Same as API 650.
b. New plate to existing plate: Same as API 650, plus
one (1) additi onal radiograph for each 50 feet of
hori zontal weld.
c. Existing plate to existi ng pl ate: Same as API 650,
plus one (1) addi tional radiograph for each 50
of horizontal weld..
12.2.1.3 I ntersecti ons
a. New plate to new pl ate: Same as API 650.
b. New plate to existing pl ate: Shal l be radiographed.
c. Existing plate to existing plate: Shal l be radi ographed.
12.2.1.4 Each butt-weld annular plate joint - Per API-650.
12.2.1.5 For reconstructed tanks 25 percent of al l junctions shal l be
radi ographed.
12.2.1.6 New and replaced shell plate or door sheet wel ds:
12.2.1.6.1 Ci rcul ar - Minimum one (1) radi ograph
12.2.1.6.2 Square or Rectangul ar:
One (1) in vertical, one (1) in hori zontal , one (1) i n
each corner.
NOTE: All junctions between repair and exi sting weld
shall be radiographed. If defects are found,
100% is required on wel d repair area.
12.2.1.8 For penetrati ons installed usi ng insert plates as descri bed in
9.8.2, the compl eted butt welds between the insert plate and
the shell plate shall be ful ly radi ographed.
12.2.2 Cri teri a Acceptance
If a radi ograph of an intersection between new and old weld detects
unacceptable flaws (by current standards) the wel d may be eval uated
according to the ori ginal constructi on standard.
Page 41 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
12.3 Hydrostati c Testi ng
12.3.1.1 A full hydrostatic test, held for 24 hours, is requi red on:
a. A reconstructed tank.
b. Any tank that has had major repai rs or alterations
(See 12.3.1.2.) unl ess exempted by 12.3.2 for the
applicabl e combi nati on of materials, design and
constructi on features.
c. A tank where an engi neeri ng eval uati on indicates the
need for the hydrostati c test.
12.3.1.2 Major Repair/ Alterati on
Operations that require cutting, addi tion, removal and/ or
repl acement of annular pl ate ri ng, shell to bottom weld or a
sizabl e shell segment. Maj or would therefore incl ude:
a. The i nstallati on of any shel l penetration (beneath the
design liqui d level) larger than 12" or any bottom
penetration wi thi n 12" of the shel l.
b. Any shell plate (beneath desi gn liqui d level ) or any
annul ar pl ate where the l ongest dimension of pl ate
exceeds 12".
c. The compl ete or partial ( more than "1/ 2 t" of the
weld thickness) or more than 12" of verti cal seams, or
radial annular plate welds.
d. New bottom i nstal lation if the foundati on under the
new bottom i s not disturbed.
1. The Annular ri ng remai ns i ntact
2. The welding repai r does not result in wel ding
on the exi sti ng bottom wi thi n the criti cal zone.
e. Partial of complete jacking of a tank shel l.
12.3.2 Hydrostatic not Requi red Conditi ons
12.3.2.1 A full hydrostati c test of the tank is not requi red for major
repai rs and major al terations when:
a. The repair has been revi ewed and approved by an
engineer, i n wri ting.
b. The tank owner or operator has authori zed the
exempti on i n writi ng.
Page 42 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
12.3.2.2 Shel l Repai r
12.3.2.2.1 Weld procedures for shell repair must incl ude i mpact
testing.
12.3.2.2.3 New requi rements, new shel l materi als must API 650
7th editi on or l ater, must meet requirements for
brittl e fracture, stress must not be more than 7,000 psi
as calculated from the new formul a given i n thi s
paragraph.
S = 2.6 H D G
t
S = shel l stress i n pounds per square foot
H = tank fi ll height above the bottom of
repairs or al teration in feet
t = shel l thi ckness at area of interest in
inches
D = tank mean di ameter in feet
G = specifi c gravity of product
12.3.2.2.5 New radi ography requi rements, the finished weld in
the shel l plates shall be ful ly radiographed.
12.3.2.2.8 A big change in this section, door sheets shal l comply
wi th the requirements for shell pl ate instal lati on,
except they shal l not extend to or i ntersect the
bottom-to-shell joint.
12.3.2.3 Bottom Repai r Wi thi n the Cri ti cal Zone
12.3.2.3.1 Now all ows UT to be used on annular plate butt
welds
12.5 Measured Settl ement (Duri ng Hydro)
12.5.1.1 When settlement is antici pated, the tank bei ng hydro-
tested must have a settlement survey.
Page 43 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
12.5.1.2 I ni ti al Settl ement Survey:
Wi th tank empty, using the number of bottom pl ate
projecti ons as el evation measuri ng points (N), uniforml y
distri buted around the ci rcumference.
FORMULA: N=D/ 10
Where:
a. N = minimum number of measurement points (not
less than 8). The Maximum spaci ng between
measurement points shall be 32 feet.
b. D = tank di ameter (in feet).
NOTE: See Appendix B for evaluation and
acceptance.
12.5.2 Survey Duri ng Hydro
Measure at increments during fil ing and at 100% test level.
NOTE: Excessi ve settlement (per Appendi x B) shall be cause to
stop test, i nvestigate and/ or repai r.
Page 44 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
SECTI ON 13 - MARKI NG AND RECORD KEEPI NG
13.1.1 API-653 reconstructed tanks requi re namepl ate wi th letters and
numerals must be a mi ni mum of 5/ 32" high. The followi ng i nformation
is required
a. Reconstructed to API-653.
b. Edi tion/ revi si on number.
c. Year reconstruction compl eted.
d. If known, the ori gi nal appl i cable standard and ori ginal date.
e. Nomi nal di ameter
f. Nomi nal height.
g. Design specific gravi ty of product stored.
h. Maximum permi ssible operati ng liquid level .
i. Contractor's seri al and/ or contract number.
j. Owner/ operator identification number.
k. Material for each shell course.
l. Maximum operati ng temperature.
m. All owabl e stress used in calculations for each course.
13.1.2 New nameplate
Shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to existing nameplate.
13.2 Record keepi ng
Tanks eval uated, repai red, altered or reconstructed to API-653 require the
fol l owi ng owner/ operator records:
a. Component integri ty evaluation, i ncluding bri ttle fracture
consi derati ons.
b. Re-rati ng data (i ncluding l iqui d level).
c. Repair and alteration considerations.
Page 45 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
13.2.1.3 Additional support data i ncluding, but not limited to,
informati on pertaining to:
a. Inspections (incl udi ng "t" measurements).
b. Material test reports/ certi fi cati ons.
c. Tests.
d. Radiographs (to be retained for at l east one year).
e. Brittl e fracture considerations.
f. Original construction data.
g. Locati on and identi fication (owner/ operator number,
seri al number).
h. Descri ption of tank (diameter, height and service).
i. Design condi tions (i.e., liquid level, specifi c gravity,
stress and l oading).
j. Shel l materi al and thickness (by course).
k. Tank perimeter el evations.
l. Construction compl etion record.
m. Basis for hydrostatic test exemption
13.3 Certi f i cati on
Documentation of reconstructi on in accordance wi th API-653 is requi red. (See
Fig. 13-2).
APPENDI X B
EVALUATI ON OF TANK BOTTOM SETTLEMENT
B.1.1 Common methods to monitor potential problem:
a. Ini tial settlement survey, at erection and hydro.
b. Planned frequency, per soil settlement predicti ons
c. For exi sti ng tanks (with no settlement hi story), moni tori ng
should be based on vi sual observati ons and prior service history.
B.1.2 Excessi ve settlement requires eval uation/ i nterpretation of survey
data. Tank shoul d be emptied and releveli ng repair conducted.
B.1.3 Correcting shell and bottom settl ement probl ems include the
foll owing techniques:
a. Local ized bottom pl ate repair.
b. Partial rel evel ing of tank peri phery.
c. Major rel eveli ng of shell and bottom.
B.2 Types of Settl ement
Page 46 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
B.2.1 Elevation measurements around the circumference and across the tank
diameter are the best method for evaluati ng shell and bottom settl ement
problems. Local depressi ons may requi re other techni ques.
B.2.2 Shell Settlement Evaluation
Tank settlement resul ts from either one or a combi nati on of the foll owing
three (3) settl ement components:
B.2.2.1 Uniform settlement. May vary i n magni tude, depending on
soi l characteri sti cs. It is the l east severe or threatening
settlement probl em. It does not introduce stress i n tank
structure, but does present a potenti al problem for pipi ng,
nozzl es and attachments.
B.2.2.2 Pl anar Ti lt (ri gi d body til ting). Rotates the tank i n a tilted
pl ane. This tilt wil l cause an i ncrease in the l iqui d level and
an increase i n the shell hoop* stress. Can also cause bindi ng
of peripheral seals i n a floating roof and inhibit roof travel.
This may be vi sibl e in the form of elongation of top shel l
ring in floating roof tanks. Can affect tank nozzles that have
pi ping attached to them.
B.2.2.3 Di fferential Settl ement (out of pl ane). Due to a tank shel l
being a rather fl exible structure, non-planer configurati on
type settl ement often occurs.
Potential Problems:
a. Increased stress level s.
b. El ongati on of upper shel l.
c. Floati ng roof travel i nterference and potential seal
damage or roof "hang-up".
d. Development of shel l fl at spots.
e. Hi gh nozzl e/ piping stress level s.
B.2.2.4 Uniform and ri gi d body til t can cause problems as noted,
overal l i ntegrity of the shell and bottom are more l ikely to
be i mpacted by differential settl ement. Therefore, this type
probl em becomes very i mportant to determine severi ty and
eval uate properl y.
Common approach for settl ement survey:
a. Obtain transi t survey from the correct number of evenl y
spaced points.
b. Determi ne magnitude of uni form and rigid body til t from
each point on tank peri phery.
c. Devel op a graphic l ine point representati on of the
invol ved data.
Page 47 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
NOTE: Develop values (showing el evation di fferences)
by compari ng transi t measurement readings by
use of provi ded deci mal chart. A stress anal ysis
method is now included i n this paragraph.
B.2.2.5 Refer to B.3.2 for method of determi ni ng acceptable
settlement condition or values.
B.2.3 Edge settl ement
B.2.3.1 Occurs when tank shell settles sharply around the periphery,
resulti ng i n deformation of the bottom plate near the shell
juncti on. (See Fi g. B-4 for pi ctori al vi ew).
B.2.5 Local i zed Bottom Settl ement (Remote f rom Shel l )
B.2.5.1 Depressions/ bul ged that occur i n a random matter, remote
from shel l .
B.2.5.2 Acceptabil ity dependent upon:
a. Local i zed bottom plate stresses.
b. Design/ qual ity of lap welds.
c. Void severi ty bel ow the bottom pl ate.
NOTES: 1. Not normal ly seen as extreme problem.
2. When occurring, normal ly associated
wi th new tank where no or i nsuffi cient
l oad beari ng soi l test bori ngs have been
made.
B.3 Determi nati on of Acceptabl e Settl ement
B.3.1 General
Greater settl ement may be acceptable in tanks with a successful service
history than new construction standards all ow. Each condition must be
evaluated, based on servi ce conditions, construction material s, soil
characteri sti cs, foundation design and prior service history.
B.3.2 Shel l Settl ement
Determine the maxi mum out-of-pl ane deflection. The formul a for
calculati ng the maximum permi ssible defl ecti on is shown on page B-4.
Requires technical assistance.
Page 48 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
B.4 Repai rs
If condi tions beyond acceptable condi ti ons are found, a rigorous stress analysis
should be performed to eval uate the deformed profil e, or repai rs conducted.
Vari ous repai r techniques are acceptable. (See Secti on 9.10 for helpful details).
Several new fi gures have been added to Appendi x B, however the bases for the
new figures and requi rements have been challenged. There i s no bases for the
information in the fi gures.. The user is l eft to his own devi ces as how to use this
information.
APPENDI X C
CHECKLI STS FOR TANK I NSPECTI ON
Tabl es C-1 and C-2 are sampl e checklists il lustrating tank components and auxi liary
i tems that deserve considerati on duri ng internal / external i nspections. Use these as
gui dance items onl y. Numerous i tems need not be checked by the inspector, but rather
by plant personnel.
Tabl e C-1 (In Service Inspecti on checkli st) incl udes 111 separate items.
Tabl e C-2 (Out-of-Servi ce Inspection Checkl ist) incl udes 248 separate i tems.
APPENDI X D
AUTHORI ZED I NSPECTOR CERTI FI CATI ON
Thi s Appendi x was rewri tten i n the 4th Addenda to API 653.
D.1 Wri tten exam. based on the current API 653 Body of Knowl edge.
D.2 Educati onal requirements for the API 653 Authorized Inspector.
D.5 Recerti ficati on requirements for the API 653 Authorized Inspector.
D.5.3 The requirements for re-exami nati on are l isted, after two re-certificati ons,
6 years, each inspector shall demonstrate knowledge of revi sions to API
653.
APPENDI X E
TECHNICAL I NQUI RI ES
Thi s section is a li sti ng of how to contact the API 653 commi ttee. The Technical Inqui ry
Responses have also been li sted, but are not a part of the exam. Thi s i nformation i s
useful in actual appli cation of API 653.
Page 49 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
APPENDI X F
NDE REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY
Thi s section i s a summary of the requi rements for NDE personnel and procedures, API
650, ASME Secti on V and VIII, and ASNT are listed. Thi s is a very good secti on that will
be useful to the user.
APPENDI X G
QUALI FI CATI ON OF TANK BOTTOM EXAMI NATI ON PROCEDURES
AND PERSONNEL
Thi s appendi x was establi shed in the first addenda to edi tion three of API 653 and
outli nes procedure and quali fications for floor scanning,
G.2 Def i ni ti ons
G.2.1 essenti al vari abl es: Vari abl es in
the procedure that cannot be changed
wi thout the procedure and scanni ng
operators being re-quali fi ed.
G.2.2 exami ners: Scanning operators
and NDE technici ans who prove-up
bottom i ndi cati ons.
G.2.3 bottom scan: The use of
equi pment over large porti ons of the
tank bottom to detect corrosi on i n a
tank bottom. One common type of
bottom scanni ng equipment i s the
Magneti c Flux Leakage (MFL) scanner.
G 2.4 authori zed i nspecti on agency:
Organizati ons that employ an
aboveground storage tank i nspector
certified by API (see 3.4).
G.2.5 non-essenti al vari abl es:
Variables i n the procedure that can be
changed without having to re-qual ify
the procedure and/ or scanni ng
operators.
G.2.6 qual i f i cati on test: The
demonstration test that is used to prove
that a procedure or examiner can
successfull y find and prove-up tank
bottom metal l oss.
G.2.7 scanni ng operator (or operator):
The indi vi dual that operates bottom-
scanning equipment.
G.2.8 si zi ng (or prove-up): The activity
that is used to accurately determine the
remaining bottom thi ckness in areas
where indications are found by the
bottom scanni ng equipment. Thi s i s
often accomplished using the UT
method.
G.2.9 tank bottom exami nati on: The
exami nati on of a tank bottom usi ng
special equi pment to determine the
remai ning thi ckness of the tank bottom.
It incl udes both the detection and prove-
up of the indi cations. It does not include
the visual exami nation that i s incl uded in
the internal i nspection.
G.2.10tank bottom exami nati on
procedure (TBP): A quali fied wri tten
procedure that addresses the essential
and non-essential vari ables for the tank
bottom examination. The procedure
can incl ude multiple methods and tools,
i .e., bottom scanner, hand scanner, and
UT prove-up.
Page 50 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
G.2.11tank bottom exami ner
qual i f i cati on record (TBEQ): A record
of the qual ification test for a speci fic
scanni ng operator. This record must
contai n the data for all essential
variables and the results of the
qualificati on test.
G.2.12tank bottom procedure
qual i f i cati on record (TBPQ): A record
of the quali fication test for a tank
bottom examination procedure. This
record must contain the data for all
essenti al variables and the resul ts of the
qualificati on test.
G.2.13vari abl es or procedure
vari abl es: The specifi c data in a
procedure that provides di rection and
li mi tations to the scanning operator.
Exampl es incl ude; pl ate thickness,
overl ap of adjacent bottom scans,
scanni ng speed, equipment settings. ect.
G.3 An explanation of Tank Bottom Examinati on procedures
G.4 Requirements for Tank Bottom Examiners
G.5 Qualifi cati on Testing, incl uding test plates, standards and vari ables.
Page 51 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
API 653 CODE QUI Z
1. In case of confl i ct between API-12C, API-650 and API-653 standards
invol vi ng "i n-servi ce" AST's, whi ch of the three codes wi ll govern?
a. API-12C
b. API-650
c. API-653
2. Which of the foll owi ng have the ul timate responsi bi li ty for compl yi ng
wi th API-653 standard provisi ons?
a. On-site Inspector
b. Contractor Invol ved
c. Owner/ operator of equipment
d. Rel evant State or Federal Agency
3. Internal pressures i nside tanks may vary. Whi ch of the following
pressures represent the maximum amount and is sti ll considered to be
atmospheri c storage?
a. 3 oz. psi g
b. 1.0 lb. psig
c. 1.5 lb. psig
d. 2.5 lb. psig
4. What is the joi nt effi ciency of a l ap ri veted joint with one (1) row of
ri vets?
a. 45%
b. 60%
c. 75%
d. 80%
Page 52 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
5. All pri or reported brittle fracture tank fail ures have occurred under whi ch
of the fol lowing condi tions/ situations?
a. Atmospheri c temperature of 20°F or l ower.
b. Duri ng a hydro test where the test water was 50°F or colder.
c. Shortl y after erection, fol lowing a repair/ alteration, first cold
weather fi ll i ng or change to l ower temperature service.
d. Where a testing medium other than water was used.
6. When external UT "t" measurements are used to determine a rate of
general, uni form corrosi on (rel evant to shel l i ntegrity) which of the fol l owing
val ues cannot be exceeded?
a. 10 years maxi mum
b. 20 years maxi mum
c. 5 years (after commi ssioni ng), or at 5 year i nterval s (where
corrosion rate is not known).
d. Five years or RCA/ 4N, whichever is more.
7. What primary factor determi nes the interval between internal and
external inspections?
a. Jurisdictional regulati ons
b. Tank service history, unless special reasons indi cate an earl ier
inspection is required.
c. Known (or suspected) corrosion activity of product.
d. Change of service to a product wi th a specific gravi ty 10% hi gher
than prior stored product.
8. What is the mi ni mum dimension for a shel l ri ng replacement piece or
segment?
a. The actual area requiri ng renewal, plus 6" on all four surroundi ng
sides.
b. 12" or 12 ti mes the "t" of the repl acement plate, whi chever is
greater.
c. 10% of the individual ring segment involved.
d. 20% of the individual ring segment involved.
Page 53 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
9. Which of the areas descri bed below are consi dered to be the
"cri ti cal zone" involvi ng tank bottom repair?
a. Wi thin the annular ring, within 12" of shell, or within 12" of i nside
edge of annul ar pl ate ring.
b. Any area where 3 plate laps are l ocated
c. Wi thi n 36" (measured vertical ly) from any shel l penetration above.
d. Wi thi n 3" from the shel l on the bottom plates
10. Select the mi ni mum number of "t" measurements required (along the
ci rcumference of any proposed "hot-tap" nozzl e l ocation):
a. One (1) on hori zontal centerli ne (3" from edge) on each si de of
proposed shel l opening cut.
b. Four (4)
c. Eight (8)
d. Establi shment of both a minimum and average "t" over the entire
nozzle instal lati on area.
11. What type of contour cut (i f any) and what degree of bevel (i f any) i s
required on the nozzl e "barrel" end that is to be joi ned to shell during a "hot-tap".
a. No contour cut requi red, 30° outsi de bevel.
b. No contour cut requi red, 45° outside bevel .
c. Cut to shell contour and outside beveled for full penetration
attachment weld.
d. No contour cut required. 1/ 8" corner radius (minimum).
12. When reconstructing tank shells wi th a material "t" exceedi ng 1.50", what
minimum pre-heat is specified?
a. No preheat required, i f ai r temperature exceeds 70°F.
b. 200°F.
c. 225°F.
d. 300°F.
Page 54 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
13. In re-erecti ng a tank shel l , what length "sweep-board" and what are
maxi mum al lowable val ues for weld seam peaki ng?
a. 0.50" (1/ 2") wi th 36" hori zontal sweep board?
b. 0.25" (1/ 4") on verticals; 0.50" (1/ 2") on horizontal with 36" board
c. 0.75" (3/ 4") with 48" board.
d. 1.00" (1") with 48" board.
14. Welding procedure Specs (WPS) are establi shed in Section 11 of API-653.
Welders/ operators must be qual i f i ed i n accordance with which of the codes
listed.
a. AWS
b. Section V ASME
c. Section VIII ASME
d. Section IX ASME
15. API-653 (Section 12) requires greater radiographic examinati on of tank
shell wel ds than does API-650. Rel evant to new or repai red vertical joints in
exi sting shell plates, how many radiographs are required?
a. Twice those required by API-650.
b. API 650 requirements pl us one (1) i n every joi nt.
c. One (1) for each welder or operator i nvol ved on each ri ng.
d. Two (2) for each wel der or operator i nvolved on each ring for all
plate thicknesses.
The f ol l owi ng i nf ormati on appl i es f or questi ons 16 through 20 bel ow:
An internal inspecti on i s performed on an aboveground storage tank 44 feet tall, 40 foot
fi ll height, 112 feet diameter, light oil (specifi c gravity = 1) service, sand pad wi th a
reinforced concrete ri ng wal l foundati on. There i s one area of general corrosi on on the
north side of the shell 38 inches wide and 20 inches tall. (The tank was bui lt to API 650,
7th Edition).
16. Calculate the minimum thi ckness for the first course based on
product alone.
a. 7/ 8"
b. 3/ 4"
c. 5/ 8"
d. 1/ 2"
Page 55 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
17. Calculate the "L" length for an area of general corrosi on found ten feet
from the bottom on the north side of the shell , t
2
= .125 inches.
a. 3.7"
b. 10"
c. 13.84"
d. 40"
18. There are four pits l ined verti call y on the south si de of the tank in the first
course. The pits measure 1", 1.250", 1." and .500" in l ength along a vertical line 8"
long. The pi t depth is approximately 0.255" each.
a. A repair i s required.
b. Because of the verti cal pits, no repair i s required.
c. If the pit depth is only .130 i nches the pi ts may be ignored.
d. Scattered pits may be i gnored.
19. A bulge is found on the tank fl oor, the di ameter of the bulge is 30 i nches,
what is the maxi mum permissible height for the bulge?
a. 11.1"
b. .463"
c. .962
d. 1.11"
20. An area of edge settl ement in the tank bottom 6 feet from the tank shel l
has sloped down and settl ed. The settlement measures 2 inches at the deepest
point. The edge settlement area has bottom lap wel ds approxi mately paral lel to
the shell.
a. A more ri gorous stress anal ysi s must be performed.
b. The area must be repai red.
c. Sl oped edge settl ement i s usuall y no problem
d. The area should be documented and checked during the next
i nspection.
Page 56 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
API 653 CODE QUI Z
ANSWER KEY
1. c {Paragraph 1.1.2 page 1-1}
2. c {Paragraph 1.2 page 1-1}
3. d {Paragraph 3.3 page 3-1}
4. a {Tabl e 4-3 page 4-7}
5. c {Paragraph 5.2.1 page 5-1}
6. c {Paragraph 6.3.3.2 (b) page 6-1 and 6-2}
7. b {Paragraph 6.2.2 page 6-1}
8. b {Paragraph 9.2.2.1 page 9-1}
9. d {Paragraph 3.9 page 3-1}
10. b {Paragraph 9.14.3.2 page 9-11}
11. c {Paragraph 9.14.5.1 page 9-11}
12. b {Paragraph 10.4.4.3 page 10-3}
13. a {Paragraph 10.5.4 page 10-3}
14. d {Paragraph 11.1.1 page 11-1}
15. b {Paragraph 12.2.1.1 page 12-2}
16. d (1/ 2") {Paragraph 4.3.3 page 4-3}
t
min
= 2.6 (H-1) DG
SE
t
min
= ? D = 112 H = 40 G = 1
S = 23,600 E = 1
t
min
= 2.6 (40-1) (112) (1)
23,600
t
min
= 11,356.8
23,600
t
min
= .481 inches (rounded to 1/ 2 inch)
Page 57 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
17. c (13.84") (Paragraph 4.3.2.1 Page 4-2)
L = 3.7 Dt
2
L = 3.7 (112)(.125) L = 3.7 14 L - 3.7(3.74) L = 13.84 inches
18. a (A repair is required.) Paragraph4.3.2.2 Page 4-3)
Add the pi t diameters 1 + 1.25 + 1 + .500 = 3.75 (More than allowed i n an 8 area)
The pit depth exceeds one-half the minimum acceptabl e tank shell thickness.
19. b (.463") (Paragraph B.3.3 Page B7)
R = Di ameter divided by 2, in feet, 30 di vi ded by 2 - 15 divided by 12 = 1.25 feet.
B = .37R
B = .37 (1.25) B = .463 i nches
20. d (The area should be documented and checked during the next
i nspection.) Figure B-10
Usi ng figure B-10 the area is acceptable, i t should be documented.
Page 58 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005
Section 2
API Standard 650 Summary
API STANDARD 650
WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OI L STORAGE
Tenth Edi ti on, November, 1998
Addendum 1, January, 2000
Addendum 2, November, 2001
Addendum 3, September 2003
SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE
1.1 General
1.1.1 This standard covers material, design, fabrication, erection and testing
requi rements for vertical , cylindrical , aboveground, closed and open-top,
wel ded steel storage tanks i n vari ous sizes and capaci ties for i nternal
pressures approximati ng atmospheric pressure.
NOTE 1: This standard covers only tanks whose enti re bottom is uniformly
supported and only tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a
maxi mum operati ng temperature of 200° F.
NOTE 2: A bullet ( ) at the begi nning of a paragraph indi cates that there i s
an expressed deci si on or action requi red of the purchaser.
APPENDI XES: Li sted bel ow apply to specifics that most often apply to new
tank erections whereby Inspector knowledge must be
reasonabl y thorough.
1.1.3 The purchaser will specify SI dimensions or US customary dimensions.
1.1.6 Appendi x B: Desi gn and construction of foundations under flat bottom
oil storage tanks.
1.1.7 Appendi x C: Requirements for pan-type, pontoon-type and doubl e deck-
type external fl oating roofs.
1.1.12 Appendi x H: Requi rements for an i nternal roof i n a tank that has a fi xed
roof at the top of the tank shell .
1.1.14 Appendi x J: Requi rements coveri ng the complete shop assembl y of tanks
not more than 20 feet in di ameter.
1.1.15 Appendi x K: An exampl e of the application of the vari able-desi gn-point
method to determi ne shell -pl ate thickness.
NOTE: In larger tanks (over 200 feet in di ameter), use of higher
tensi le strength steel , plus increased NDE procedures
reduces pl ate "t".
1.1.17 Appendi x M: Requirements for elevated temperature product storage up
P Paagge e oof f 11 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
to 500° F.
NOTE: Appendixes A, D, E, F, L, N, O and P cover requi rements on
specifi cs that appl y much less frequently from an inspection
perspecti ve.
1.1.21 Appendi x S: Requirements for the construction of austeniti c stai nl ess steel
tanks.
1.1.22 Appendi x T: Requi rements for inspection (summary).
1.1.23 Appendi x U: Requirements for UT exami nation, i n lieu of radiography.
1.2 Li mi tati ons
a. API 650 stops at the face of the first fl ange.
b. API 650 stops at the first seali ng surface.
c. API 650 stops at the fi rst threaded connecti on.
d. API 650 stops at the first circumferenti al weld.
SECTI ON 2: MATERI ALS
2.1 General Materi al Requi rements
2.2.1.1 Refer to 2.2.2 ASTM Standards for acceptable tank steel pl ate
requirements.
2.2.1.2 Pl ate for shell s, roofs and bottoms may be on an edge-
thickness basis or on a wei ght (pounds per square foot)
basis. Example: 3/ 16" plate (0.1875" or 7.65 l bs.) or 1/ 4" plate
(0.250" or 10.4 lbs.), etc.
2.2.1.2.3 Whether an edge-thickness or a wei ght basi s i s used,
an underrun of not more than 0.01" from the
computed design thickness or the mi ni mum
permitted thi ckness is acceptable.
NOTE: Most common pl ates used:
1. ASTM A-283 Gr. C
2. ASTM A-36
3. Alternate Design Basis (ADB) tanks (See
Appendi x K) requi re hi gher tensil e
strength material.
2.2.2 New ASTM speci fication used.
2.2.8 Special plate requirement or testing:
Page of 2 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
a. Customer may requi re a set of charpy v-notch i mpact specimens.
b. Speci al toughness requirements may be specified.
2.2.9.3 Normal design metal temperature shal l be assumed to be
15°F above the lowest 1-day mean ambient temperature in
the l ocal ity where the tank i s to be install ed. (See Fig. 2-2).
2.2.9.4 Pl ate used to rei nforce shell openings shal l be of the same
material as the shell plate to whi ch it i s attached.
NOTE: Also must be at l east as thick as primary pl ate! Shel l
nozzles and manway materials shal l be equal or
greater yi eld and tensil e strength and shall be
compatible wi th the shell material.
2.2.10.4 The manufacturer must furni sh mi ll test data, i ncluding the
requi red toughness at desi gn metal temperature.
2.8 Wel di ng El ectrodes
For weldi ng materi als with a minimum tensi le strength less than 80 ki ps per
square inch, manual arc-wel ding el ectrodes shall conform to the E60 and E70
series, AWS 5.1.
SECTI ON 3: DESI GN
3.1 Joi nts (Tank Desi gn)
3.1.1-3.1.1.8 No detai led discussion. Be knowl edgeable about the ei ght (8) types
listed.
3.1.3.2 Tack wel ds are not considered as having any strength value
in the finished structure.
3.1.3.3 On plates 3/ 16" thick, a full fill et weld i s required. On plates
thicker than 3/ 16", the weld shal l not be l ess than one-third
the "t" of the thinner pl ate at the joint, with mini mum of
3/ 16".
3.1.3.4 Singl e l ap welds - bottom and roof pl ates only.
3.1.3.5 Lap-wel d joints shal l be l apped not less than "5t" of the
thinner plate, but need not exceed 1".
3.1.4 AWS wel d symbol s are required on drawi ngs.
3.1.5.2 Verti cal Shel l Joi nts
Page of 3 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
a. Verti cals shall be butt joints with complete
penetration and fusion that wi ll provide the same
quality of deposited metal on both outside and insi de
weld surfaces.
b. Verti cal joints (in adjacent shell courses) shal l not be in
al ignment. An off-set from each other of "5t"(where
"t" i s the thickest course at the point of offset).
3.1.5.3 Hori zontal shel l j oi nts
Same criteri a as for verti cal s above, except that top angles
may be doubl e-lap wel ded.
3.1.5.4 Lap-wel ded Bottom Joi nts
a. 3-plate l aps shal l not be cl oser than 12" from each
other, from the tank shel l , from butt-wel ded annular
plate joi nts and from joi nts between annular pl ate and
bottom.
b. Welded on top si de onl y (full fil let onl y).
c. On other than annul ar (doughnut) ri ngs the plate
under the shell must have the outer end of the joint
fi tted and welded to form a smooth beari ng for the
shell plate. Note: Call ed a "BREAK-OVER."
(Fi g 3.3.b)
NOTE: When annular plates are used or required, butt
weldi ng is required wi th a mi ni mum distance of
24" between shell and any bottom l ap seam.
3.1.5.5 Butt-wel d bottom j oi nts (i.e., normal l y annular ring)
a. Parallel edges - either square or v-grove beveled.
b. If square, root openi ng not l ess than 1/ 4".
c. Minimum 1/ 8" thick back-up strip required.
d. A 12" minimum space from each other or tank shell
also appl ies.
3.1.5.6 Annul ar ri ng j oi nts - compl ete penetration and fusi on
NOTE: A 2" minimum projection beyond outside edge
of shel l (i .e., bottom extensi on). See Par. 3.5.2).
3.1.5.7 Shel l -to-Bottom Fi l l et Wel ds
a. If shell is 1/ 2" thick or less - Fi ll ets not more than 1/ 2"
or less than the nominal "t" of the thi nner plate joined.
b. Two (2) wel d passes (mi ni mum) are required.
3.1.5.9 Roof and Top-Angl e Joi nts
Page of 4 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
a. Welded top si de only wi th continuous full-fi llet. Butt
welds are al so permi tted.
b. Top angle (horizontal leg) may extend either insi de or
outside.
Page of 5 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
3.2.5 Tank Capaci ty
Three new paragraphs that describe the requi rements for stati ng the
capacity for a new tank.
3.4 Bottom Pl ates
a. A minimum nomi nal "t" of 1/ 4" (10.2 l bs. per sq. ft.), excl usive of any
corrosion al l owance (CA).
b. A 1" mini mum wi dth to project beyond outsi de edge of shell, on l ap weld
bottoms (i .e., bottom extension).
3.5 Annul ar Bottom Pl ates
a. Annul ar bottom pl ates must be 24 i nches wide.
b. A 2 inch projecti on beyond the outside of the shell .
3.6 Shel l Desi gn
Shell designed on basis that tank is fi lled to a level "H" (fil l level ) wi th a speci fic
gravity (SG) product val ue furni shed by customer.
NOTE: Normall y designed to be fill ed with water (i .e., SG of 1.0).
3.6.1.7 Manufacturer must furnish drawing that lists:
a. Required shell "t" (including CA) for design product
and hydro test.
b. Nomi nal "t" used, (i.e.; shell "t" as constructed).
c. Materi al specification.
d. All owabl e stresses.
3.6.2 Allowable Stress - Be famili ar wi th Table 3-2 for plate specifications,
yield/ tensil e strength and stress i nvolved.
NOTE: ASTM A-283, A-285 (GR. C.) and A-36 are the most
common.
3.6.3 One Foot Method - Calcul ates the "t" required at desi gn points 1 foot
above the bottom of each shell course. *Not al l owed for shell s greater
than 200 feet in di ameter.
Formul a: t
d
= 2.6D(H-1)G + CA (Design Shell Thi ckness)
S
d
Formula: t
t
= 2.6D(H-1)
S
t
NOTE: See 3.6.3.2 for detai ls as to actual val ues or relationshi p of
items shown i n the formula above.
Page of 6 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
3.7 Shel l Openi ngs
3.7.1.6 Manway necks, nozzle necks and shell pl ate openings shall
be uni form and smooth, wi th the corners rounded, except
where the surfaces are fully covered by attachment wel ds.
NOTE: 1/ 8" corner radius for 2" and smal ler nozzle.
1/ 4" corner radius for l arger nozzle sizes.
3.7.2.1 No reinforcement requi red for nozzles 2" and smal ler.
3.7.2.2 By design, nozzle necks (i.e., outside extension, within the
shel l plate "t" and inside extensi on) may provide the
necessary rei nforcement.
NOTE: For manway and nozzle design
values/ fabri cation detai ls, be familiar with and
abl e to sel ect the proper val ues from the
following data sheets:
1. Fig. 3-4A, 3-4B, 3-5 and 3-6.
2. Tabl es 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 3-6, 3-7, 3-8, 3-9 and
3-10.
3.7.3 Spacing of Welds Around Connections
This paragraph and the next three paragraphs confuse the weld spaci ng
issue. A great deal of confusion has been relieved with the addi tion of
fi gure 3-22, mi nimum wel d requirements for openings i n shell s according
to section 3.7.3, see page 3-49.
3.7.4.2 Paragraphs on stress rel ief of materi als.
3.7.4.5 Hold ti mes for stress relievi ng temperatures.
3.8 Shel l Attachments (i.e., surface items such as angl es, cli ps and stair treads).
3.8.1.2 Permanent attachment welds shal l not be cl oser than 3" from
horizontal shell joi nt seams, nor closer than 6" from vertical
joi nts, insert-plate joi nts or rei nforcement-plate fil l et welds.
3.8.5 Roof Nozzl es - See Fig. 3-12, 3-13 and 3-14.
NOTE: Remember note on bottom of Fi g. 3-14. "When the roof
nozzl e i s used for venti ng, the neck shal l be trimmed flush
with the roof line".
3.9.6 Pri mary/ Secondary Wi nd Girders or Sti ffeners:
and
3.9.7 See Fig. 3-17 for typical sti ffening ri ng sections.
Page of 7 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
NOTE: Intermediate wi nd gi rders cannot be attached wi thi n 6" of a
hori zontal shel l joint.
3.10 Roof s
3.10.1 Refer to fixed roof types.
3.10.2.1 Roofs and structure designed to support dead l oad (i .e., roof
deck and appurtenances), plus a uni form live load of not l ess
than 25 l bs. per sq. ft. of projected area.
3.10.2.2 Roof plates - mi nimum nominal "t" of 3/ 16" (7.65 lbs. per sq.
ft., 0.180" pl ate or 7 gauge sheet).
NOTE: Self-supported roofs may requi re thi cker plate.
3.10.2.3 Supported cone roof pl ates shal l not be attached to the
supporti ng members.
3.10.2.4 Internal -External structural members must have a mini mum
nomi nal "t" (i n any component) of 0.17".
3.10.2.5 Roof plate weld attachment to top angle.
NOTE: Refer to Gl ossary, Frangibl e Joint, Items "a, b
and c" -See weld size restri cti ons/ condi tions.
(3/ 16")
3.10.2.6 Frangibl e roof general informati on.
3.10.2.7 Roof plates may be sti ffened by welded sections, but not
connected to girders-rafters.
3.10.4.1 Supported cone roofs sl ope 3/ 4" i n 12" (or greater).
3.10.4.4 Rafters shal l be spaced so that in the outer ring, their centers
are not more than 2 ft. (6.28 feet), measured al ong the
circumference. The maximum spaci ng for inner ring rafters
(i .e., "Jack" rafters) i s 5.5 feet.
NOTE: In earthquake zones, where speci fied, 3/ 4"
di ameter ti e rods (or equi val ent) shal l be
pl aced between the outer ri ng rafters (i .e.,
"Long" rafters). Not necessary if "I" or "H"
sections are used as rafters.
3.10.4.5 Roof Col umns
Structural shapes or steel pipe i s acceptabl e. If pipe, it must
be seal ed (or provisions for drai ni ng or venting made).
Page of 8 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
3.10.4.6 Raf ter and Col umn Base Cl i ps
a. Outer row rafter clips - welded to tank shel l.
b. Column-base cl ip guides - welded to tank bottom to
prevent lateral shift.
c. Other structural attachments - wel ded, bolted or
ri veted.
3.11 Wi nd Load on Tanks (Overturni ng Stabi l i ty)
3.11.1 Where speci fi ed, overturn stability values are and the wi nd load (or
pressure) shal l be assumed to be:
a. Verti cal pl ane surfaces - 30 l bs. per sq. foot.
b. Projected areas - Cyl i ndrical surfaces - 18 lbs.
c. Conical-doubl e curved surfaces - 15 lbs.
NOTE: Al l based on wind veloci ty of 100 m.p.h.
3.12.3 Anchor spacing - maxi mum of 10 feet apart.
SECTI ON 4 - FABRI CATI ON
4.1 Fabri cati on (General )
4.1.1.2 When material requires strai ghtening:
a. Pressing or non-injurious method required (prior to
any layout or shapi ng).
b. Heating or hammering not permi tted, unless heated
to a forgi ng temperature.
SECTI ON 5 - ERECTI ON
5.1 Erecti on (General )
5.1.1 Subgrade shal l be uniform and level (unl ess otherwise speci fied) i.e.,
sloped (1 way) bottoms.
5.1.5 Erection lugs shall be removed, noti ceabl e projecti ons or weld metal
removed, torn or gouge areas repai red.
Page of 9 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
5.2 Wel di ng (General )
5.2.1.1 Acceptabl e wel d processes
a. Shielded metal-arc
b. Gas metal -arc
c. Fl ux-cored arc
d. Submerged-arc
e. Electroslag
f. Electrogas
May be performed manuall y, automatical l y or semi-
automatical ly. Complete fusi on with base metal requi red.
NOTE: Procedures described i n ASME Secti on IX.
5.2.1.2 Wel di ng prohi bi ted when:
a. Surfaces are wet or moi sture fall ing on surfaces.
b. Duri ng hi gh winds (unless shielded).
c. When base metal temperature is less than 0° F.
d. Base metal temperature i s between 0° - 32° F and "t"
exceeds 1 1/ 4" pre-heat of metal wi thi n 3" of weld i s
requi red.
5.2.1.3 Multi l ayer wel ds requi re slag and other deposit removal
before next layer appl i ed.
5.2.1.4 All weld edges must merge with plate surface wi thout a
sharp angl e.
a. Maxi mum acceptable undercut - 1/ 64" (0.016") vertical
butt joints.
b. Maximum acceptable undercut - 1/ 32" (0.031")
hori zontal butt joi nts.
5.2.1.8 Tack welds, used i n vertical joints, shal l be removed and not
remain i n fini shed joint - when manual l y wel ded. If sound,
cl eaned and fused, tack welds can remain when the
submerged-arc process is used.
5.2.1.10 Low-hydrogen electrodes shall be used for manual metal -arc
wel ds, incl udi ng shell to bottom junction for al l shell courses
over 0.5" thick of Group I-III material.
5.2.1.11 Stud welding is recognized.
5.2.2 Bottoms
5.2.2.2 After l ayout/ tacki ng, weld out may proceed with some
shri nkage seams l eft open.
Page of 10of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
5.2.2.3 Shell to bottom weldi ng shall be practi call y compl eted,
before shrinkage openings (in 5.2.2.2. above) are welded.
5.2.3 Shel l s
5.2.3.1 Mi sal ignment in completed vertical joints over 5/ 8" thick,
shall not exceed 10% of plate "t", wi th a maxi mum of 0.125".
Mi sal ignment in completed verti cal joints 5/ 8" thick and l ess
thick shall not be greater than 0.06".
5.2.3.3 The reverse side of double-wel ded joi nts (pri or to the
appli cation of the first bead to the second side), must be
cl eaned by chipping, grindi ng or melti ng out.
5.2.3.4 Joints exceedi ng 1 1/ 2" base metal "t"
a. No pass over 3/ 4" thi ck i s permitted.
b. Mini mum preheat of 200°F is required.
5.2.3.5 New requirement for a procedure that mi nimizes the
potenti al for underbead cracki ng, in group IV through VI
material.
5.2.3.6 After any stress rel ief (but before hydro), welds attachi ng
nozzl es, manways and cl eanout openi ngs shal l be visuall y
and magneti c particle or die penetrant tested.
5.2.4.1 Shell-to-bottom wel ds, inside, may be checked by visual and
any of the fol lowing: magneti c parti cle, PT solvent, PT water
washable, diesel test or right angl e vacuum box.
5.2.4.2 New paragraph, a new procedure as an al ternative to
paragraph 5.2.4.1, all ows for pressure testi ng the volume
between the i nside and outside welds to 15 psi and appl yi ng
a soap sol uti on to the face of the fi l let wel ds.
5.3 INSPECTI ON, TESTI NG, AND REPAI RS
5.3.2.1 Butt welds, must be inspected visuall y, radiographic or
ul trasoni c method.
5.3.3 Examinati on and testing of the tank bottom:
a. Vacuum box
b. Tracer gas test
c. External "float" test
NOTE: Vacuum text procedure removed from this paragraph. The
procedure i s now i n paragraph 6.6, as well as a procedure for
tracer gas testing.
Page of 11of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
5.3.5 Rei nforci ng. pads tested by up to 15 PSIG pneumati c pressure between
tank shel l and reinforcement on each openi ng.
5.3.6 Shell Testing - Be famili ar with procedure.
5.4 Wel d Repai r
5.4.2 Pi nhol e or porosity bottom l eaks - weld over.
5.4.3 Al l defects i n shell or shell -to-bottom joi nts.
NOTE: See Speci fics - 6.1.7.
5.5 Di mensi onal Tol erances
The maximum out-of-plumbness of the top (relative to bottom of shel l)
may not exceed 1/ 200 of the total tank hei ght.
5.5.2 The 1/ 200 cri teria shall also appl y to fixed roof col umns.
5.5.4a Weld "peaki ng" - shall not exceed 1/ 2".
5.5.4b Weld "banding" - shall not exceed 1/ 2".
5.5.5 Foundati ons (General )
5.5.5.2a For concrete ring wall s - Top shall be level within ± 1/ 8" in
any 30 foot ci rcumference. and wi thi n ± 1/ 4" in the total
circumference (measured from average el evation).
NOTE: Non-concrete ring wall s the values change to ±
1/ 8" in any 10 feet and ± 1/ 2" i n total
ci rcumference.
5.5.5.3 Sloped foundati ons - Same criteria.
SECTI ON 6 - METHODS OF I NSPECTI NG JOI NTS
6.1 Radi ographi c (Number-Locati on)
6.1.2.2 Requi rements f or verti cal shel l wel ds
a. Butt-weld joints with the thinner pl ate 3/ 8" or l ess:
One spot in the fi rst 10 feet of each type and thickness
welded by each welder or operator. Thereafter, one
additional spot i n each additi onal 100 feet.
Page of 12of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
NOTE: At l east 25% of spots must be at
juncti ons of verticals and roundseam
joints - minimum 2 per tank.
Addi tionally, one random spot in each
bottom ri ng vertical .
b. Plates greater than 3/ 8" and through 1" thickness -
same as thinner plate above pl us al l junctions.
Addi tionally, two spots i n al l bottom ring verti cals
(one as near to bottom as practi cal , the other
random).
c. Plates thi cker than 1" - full radi ography of all verticals,
plus all junctions.
d. Butt weld around peri phery of i nsert nozzles and
manways complete radiography.
6.1.2.3 Requi rements f or hori zontal shel l wel ds
One spot in the first 10 feet (same type) thi ckness without
regard to wel der or operator. Thereafter, one spot in each
additi onal 200 feet.
6.1.2.4 Mul ti-tank erecti on (at same locati on) may use aggregate
footage val ues of same type and thickness.
NOTE: See Fig. 6-1 Radi ographic Layout.
6.1.2.8 Each radi ograph must cl early show 6" mi nimum wel d
length.
NOTE: Each film must show Identifier, pl us "t" gauge or
penetrometer.
6.1.2.9 Tank bottom annular ring (See 3.5.1), the radial joints shall
be radiographed as fol l ows:
a. Doubl e-butt-wel d joints - one spot on 10% of radial
joints.
b. Si ngle weld joints with back-up bar - one spot on 50%.
of radi al joi nts.
NOTE: Preferable spot - at the outer edge, near shel l.
6.1.3 Techni que - Radi ography
6.1.3.1 ASME method, Section V NDE, Article 2.
6.1.3.2 Radi ographers meet ASNT - SNT - TC - 1A requirements.
Page of 13of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
6.1.5 Radiography Standards - Acceptabili ty to be in accordance
wi th Section VIII, Div. 1, Par. UW-51(B), ASME.
6.1.6 Unacceptable radiographs (under 6.1.5), or the limits of the deficient
radi ograph are not defi ned, 2 adjacent shots are requi red.
NOTE: If adjacent spots are stil l unacceptabl e, additi onal spots are
exami ned until weld is acceptable.
6.1.7 Weld defects shal l be repaired by chippi ng or mel ting out from one or
both sides, and rewelded.
6.1.7.2 When al l welds are repai red, repeat origi nal inspection
procedure.
6.1.8.1 The manufacturer shal l prepare an as-built radi ograph map
showing the locati on of all radiographs taken along with the
fi lm i dentification marks.
6.2.1 Magnetic Parti cl e - ASME Section V, Arti cl e 7.
6.3 Ul trasoni c Exami nati on
6.3.1 Ultrasonic Method i n li eu of radiography see Appendix U.
6.3.2 UT not in l ieu of radiography - ASME Secti on V, Article 5
6.3.2.4 Must be ASNT-SNT-TC-1A requirements
6.3.2.5 Acceptance standards shall be agreed upon by the purchaser
and the manufacturer.
6.4 Li qui d Penetrant Exami nati on
6.4.1 ASME Section V, Arti cle 6 must be followed.
6.4.2 Must have wri tten procedure
6.4.3 Manufacturer determines quali fications
6.4.4 Acceptance standards, ASME Section VIII, Appendix 8, paragraphs 8-3, 8-4
and 8-5.
6.5.1 Vi sual acceptabi l i ty based on f ol l owi ng:
a. No visi ble crater or surface cracks or arc strikes.
b. Undercut does not exceed li mi ts given in 5.2.1.4 for vertical
and hori zontal butt joints.
Page of 14of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
NOTE: 1/ 64" maxi mum al lowable undercut on
attached nozzles, manways, cleanout openings
and permanent attachments.
c. Frequency of surface porosity does not exceed one "cluster"
in any 4" of length and the di ameter of each cluster does not
exceed 3/ 32" (0.094 ).
6.5.2 All welds faili ng to meet 6.5.1 requirements must be reworked
pri or to hydro-testi ng.
SECTI ON 7 - WELDI NG PROCEDURE/QUALI FI CATI ONS
* No specifics
SECTI ON 8 - MARKI NG (NAMEPLATE)
* No specifics
API - 650 (APPENDI X REVI EW)
Appendi x. A - Opti onal Desi gn Basi s For Smal l Tanks (Do not use Appendi x A on the
API 653 Exam).
A.1.4 The overturni ng effect of wind l oad should be considered.
A.1.5 Consi der Tables A-1 through A-4 for sizes, capaci ties, shell pl ate thickness, etc.
A.2.1 Shel l plate thi ckness l imited to 1/ 2".
A.5.1 Verti cal and horizontal joints, bottom, shel l-to-bottom, roof and top angl e - same
provisi ons as normal size.
A.5.2 Normal wel d spacing restri cti ons are rel axed.
A.5.3 Radiograph i nspection - sl ightly relaxed.
Appendi x B - Foundati on Constructi on
B.2.1 Requi res soil coring to determi ne sub-surface conditi ons.
Page of 15of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
B.2.3 Varyi ng condi ti ons that requi re speci al engi neeri ng consi derati ons
a. Sites on hil lsides.
b. Si tes on swampy or fi l led ground.
c. Si tes underl ain by l ayers of plastic cl ay.
d. Si tes adjacent to water courses or deep excavati ons.
e. Si tes immedi ately adjacent to heavy structures.
f. Sites exposed to floodwaters.
B.2.4 General methods to i mprove non-acceptabl e subsoi l
a. Removal and replacement with suitable, compacted subsoil .
b. Compacting with short pi l es - preloading wi th an overburden of
sui tabl y drai ned earth.
c. Removi ng water content then compacting.
d. Stabil izi ng by chemical methods or grout injection.
e. Dri vi ng beari ng pil es/ foundation pi ers.
f. Load distri buti on over a extra large area.
B.2.5 Fill material must be sound and durable (i.e., at least equivalent to fil l
used in good highway constructi on), free from vegetation, organi c matter
or other corrosi ve substances.
B.3.1 Suggested grade/surf ace el evati on - 1'.
B.3.2 Fi ni shed grade (i.e., surface next to bottom)
a. Top 3"-4" - Cl ean sand, gravel, crushed stone (maximum si ze 1"), or
other suitabl e inert materi al .
b. Equipment and material movement wil l cause damages. Correct
before bottom pl ates are installed.
c. Oiled/ stabi lized finished grade.
B.3.3 Fi ni shed tank grade
Crowned from outer edge to center - 1" i n 10'.
B.4.2.1 Concrete foundation ringwall advantages
a. Better distributi on of concentrated l oad.
b. Provi des a level, sol i d starti ng plane for erecti on.
c. Provides better means to level tank duri ng erecti on.
d. Retains subsoil fi ll and finished top surface.
e. Mi ni mi zes moi sture under tank bottom.
Fi g. B-1 - Foundati on with Concrete Ri ngwal l.
Fi g. B-2 - Foundati on with Crushed Stone Ringwall.
NOTE: Have famil i arity wi th above types.
Page of 16of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
B.4.3 Earth Foundati ons (wi thout concrete ringwall)
a. A 3' shoul der and berm - protected from weathering.
b. Smooth, level surface for bottom pl ates.
c. Adequate drai nage.
e. Surface true to specified plane (tolerances speci fied in 5.5.6).
Appendi x C - External Fl oati ng Roof s
C.3.1 General
If a windski rt or top-shell extensi on is used for the purpose of contai ning
roof seal at its hi ghest poi nt of travel, appropriate al arm devices are
required.
C.3.2 Joi nts
Same as required in 3.1 (i.e., si ngle lap, full fil let, 1" minimum lap, etc.).
C.3.3. On the bottom side, where flexure is antici pated adjacent to gi rders,
support legs, or other relati vely rigid members, full-fi llet wel ds (not
less than 2" long on 10" centers) shall be used on any plate l aps that
occur wi thin 12" of any such member.
C.3.3.4 Decks (double and diaphragm) designed for drainage, shal l have a
mi ni mum slope of 3/ 16" in 12".
C.3.4. Pontoon roofs shall have sufficient buoyancy to remai n afloat on a specifi c
gravity product of 0.7 and wi th primary drai ns i noperati ve for foll owing
conditi ons:
a. A 10" of rainfall in a 24 hour period wi th roof intact, except for double
deck fl oati ng roofs that have emergency drains.
b. Single-deck (i .e., di aphragm) and any 2 adjacent compartments punctured
in single-deck pontoon types and any 2 adjacent compartments punctured
in double-deck roofs -
Both types with no water or li ve l oad.
C.3.5 Pontoon Openi ngs
a. Each compartment provi ded wi th li quid tight manway.
b. Manway covers provided with suitable hol d-down fixture.
c. Compartments vented against i nternal/ external pressure.
Page of 17of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
C.3.8 Roof Drai ns
a. Pri mary drai ns may be hose, jointed or si phon type.
b. Check valve required (hose and joi nted pipe type) on pontoon and pan
type roofs.
c. Hose drai n types desi gned to permi t replacement without personnel
entering the tank (* Not Normal ).
d. Minimum roof drain si ze - 3" for a tank 120 i n diameter and l ess; 4" for a
tank greater than 120 feet in diameter.
C.3.9 Vents
Purchaser furnishes fi ll and withdrawal flow rates. Fabri cator sizes accordi ngly.
C.3.10.1 and 3.10.2 Roof support l eg requi rements
a. Pi pe l egs - notched or perforated at bottom.
b. Adjustabl e length from roof top si de.
c. Designed to support roof and a uniform li ve load of at least 25
lbs./ sq. ft.
d. Sl eeves, gussets, etc., required at deck entry points.
e. Load di stri buti on members requi red on tank bottom.
NOTE: If pads used, conti nuous wel d required.
C.3.11 Manways
Mini mum of 1 with 24" access, with gasket and bol ted cover.
C.3.12 Centeri ng/anti -rotati on devi ces requi red.
C.3.13 Seal s
a. The space (rim) between outer roof peri phery and shell - seal ed by flexi bl e
device providi ng a reasonable cl ose fit to shel l surfaces.
b. No pl ai n (i.e., bare) carbon steel shoes al l owed.
NOTE: Must be galvani zed or coated See API RP 2003.
c. Adequate expansi on joints (i .e., secondary seal stri ps) requi red.
d. Must be durable to environment and must not contami nate the product.
NOTE: Avi ation fuel restrictions.
C.4 Fabri cati on, Erecti on, Wel di ng, I nspecti on And Testi ng
C.4.2 Deck and other joint seams tested for l eaks wi th vacuum box, penetrating oi l,
etc.
Page of 18of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
C.4.3 Water fl otation test required at i ni ti al erection. Wel d repair can be seal -weld
type.
C.4.5 50 PSIG hydro test required on drai n system.
Appendi x D - Techni cal I nqui ri es
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x E - Sei smi c Desi gn of Storage Tanks
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x F - Desi gn of Tanks f or Smal l I nternal Pressures
F.1.3 Internal pressures that exceed the weight of the shell , roof and frami ng but do
not exceed 2 1/ 2 pounds per square inch gauge when the shell i s anchored to a
counterbalancing weight, such as a concrete ri ngwal l .
Appendi x G - Structural l y Supported Al umi num Dome Roof s
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x H - I nternal Fl oati ng Roof s
H.1 Scope
Subsection 3.10 of standard. is appli cable except as modified in this
appendix.
H.2.2 Types
a. Metallic pan i nternal - liqui d contact with two peripheral rims.
b. Metallic open top bul khead - li quid contact/ peripheral rim and
open top bulkheads.
c. Metal lic pontoon - liquid contact/ cl osed pontoons.
d. Metalli c doubl e deck.
e. Metallic on fl oats - deck above l iquid.
f. Metallic sandwi ch-panel - liqui d contact, surface-coated honeycomb
panels.
g. Hybrid i nternal fl oati ng roofs.
H.3 Materi al s
H.3.2 Steel
H.3.3 Alumi num
Page of 19of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
H.3.4 Stainl ess Steel
Same general provi sions as for open top floati ng roofs.
H.3.5.2/3.5.7 - Seal types
a. Flexibl e foam contai ned i n an envelope
b. Li quid fill (i n an envelope)
c. Wi per type (resil ient)
d. Metall ic Shoe
e. Other mutual ly agreeable types (fabricati on and customer)
H.4 General Requi rements and Desi gn
H.4.4 Peri pheral Seal s
H.4.5.1 through 4.5.3 - Desi gn Features
a. Accommodate ± 4" local deviation between roof and shel l .
b. Tank shel l free of internal projecti ons, burrs, etc.
c. Envelope seals to be l iquid tight. Field joi nts, minimum 3" l ap.
d. Mechanical shoe types - Gal vanized steel (16 ga.) - Stai nless Steel
(18 ga).
H.4.5 Roof Penetrati ons
Columns, ladders and other rigid vertical appurtenances that penetrate
the deck shall have a seal permitti ng a l ocal deviati on of ± 5".
NOTE: Appurtenances requi re a vertical pl umbness of 3".
H.4.6 Roof Supports
H.4.6.1 through H.4.6.8 - Speci f i c requi rements
a. Both fixed and adjustabl e supports are acceptable.
b. Supports/ attachments designed to support a uni form li ve load of
12.5 lbs./ sq. ft., unl ess roof is equi pped with drains to prevent
liquid accumulation.
c. Same underside tack-weld requi red on seams as on conventi onal
fl oating roofs. (See C.3.3.3.).
d. Same requirements on notchi ng pi pe l egs, wel ding support pads to
bottom, etc., as on conventional .
NOTE: Pads may be omitted wi th purchaser approval.
H.5 Openi ngs and Appurtenances
Page of 20of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
H.5.1 Ladder Speci f i cs
H.5.2 Vents
H.5.2.2 Ci rcul ati on Vents
a. Located on shell or fixed roof (above seal in full
tank).
b. Maxi mum spacing - 32". No fewer than 4 total.
c. Sized equal to or greater than 0.2 sq. ft. per ft.
of tank di ameter. Covered with corrosion
resistant screen and weathershield.
H.5.2.2.2 Open vent requi red at center of fixed roof mi nimum
area of 50 sq. in.
NOTE: Pressure-vacuum vents (rather than air
openings) requi red on gas bl anketed tanks.
H.5.3 Overf l ow Sl ots
H.5.4 Anti rotati on Devi ces
H.5.5 Manhol es and I nspecti on Hatches
H.6 Fabri cati on, Erecti on, Wel di ng, I nspecti on and Testi ng
Appendi x I - Undertank Leak Detecti on and Subgrade Protecti on
(No speci fic comments) Refer to API RP 652 and 651 for more guideli nes.
Appendi x J - Shop Assembl ed Storage Tanks
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x K - Engi neeri ng Data
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x L - Data Sheets
(No speci fic comments) In the real world use these sheets as a gui de only.
Appendi x M - Requi rements f or Tanks Operati ng at El evated Temperatures
(No speci fi c comments)
Page of 21of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
Appendi x N - Use of New Materi al s That are Not I denti f i ed
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x O - Recommendati ons f or Under-Bottom Connecti ons
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x P - Al l owabl e External Loads on Tank Shel l Openi ngs
(No speci fi c comments)
Appendi x S - Austeni ti c Stai nl ess Steel Storage Tanks
S.1.1 Thi s section covers tank construction of material grades 304, 304L, 316,
316L, 317, and 317L.
S.1.2 Ambi ent temperature tanks shall have a design temperature of 100
0
F
Appendi x T - NDE Requi rements Summary
Appendi x U - Ul trasoni c Exami nati on i n Li eu of Radi ography
(Thi s i s a new section, no specifi c comments)
Page of 22of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
NAME: DATE:
The first part of the exam is " Open Book.
API 650 Tenth Ed. CODE QUI Z
(Sel ect The Best Answer)
1. A peripheral seal, on an internal floating roof, shall be designed to accommodate
_____ of local deviation between the floating roof and the shell.
a. the manufacturer's standard
b. + 100 mm
c. + 1/8 inch
d. the inspector's experience
2. Welders shall be qualified in accordance with .
a. API 1104
b. ASME Section V
c. ASME Section IX
d. AWS D1.1
3. A new tank will hold a product with the specific gravity of 1.05. The corrosion
allowance is .10. The thickness of the first course is 1.25 inches; The hydrostatic
test stress is 25,000 PSI. What is the thickness required for the annular plate?
(Note: Include corrosion allowance).
a. 5/16"
b. 11/16"
c. 3/8"
d. 7/16"
4. In order to comply with API 650, the finished surface of a weld reinforcement on
plate 1/2" thick, horizontal butt joints, may have a reasonably uniform crown not to
exceed ________, for radiographic examination.
a. 1/4"
b. 3/16"
c. 1/8"
d. 1/16"
Page of 23of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
5. What is the design thickness for the first course of a new tank 60 tall, with a fill
height of 58 and a diameter of 80 4 ? The material of construction is A516M
485. Specific gravity of .6
a. .097
b. .416
c. 28.1
d. .281
6. What is the hydrostatic test shell thickness of the tank in question 5?
a. .416
b. .281
c. .117
d. .500
7. To what thickness should the tank in question 6 be constructed?
a. .281
b. .416
c. .500
d. 1.00
8. If the first course of a new tank is 12.5 mm and the design metal temperature is
-7
o
C, what is the material group?
a. Group I
b. Group II
c. Group III
d. Group IV
9. What is the maximum reinforcement on a vertical butt joint, if the plate is .625 in.
thick?
a. 3/32
b. 1/8
c. 3/16
d. 1/4
Page of 24of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
Please close all materials.
The remainder of the Quiz
is Closed Book.
Page of 25of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
The second part of the quiz i s " Closed Book."
10. According to API 650, which of the following types of connections shall be stress
relieved?
a. All nozzles
b. All Group I, II, III or IIIA opening connections less than 12 inches
c. All Group IV, IVA, V or VI opening connections requiring reinforcement
d. All connections requiring reinforcement
11. Upon completion, the roof of a tank designed to be gas tight shall be tested by
which one of the following methods?
a. Magnetic particle testing of all welds
b. Application of internal air pressure not exceeding the weight of the roof
plates and applying a solution suitable for the detection of leaks
c. Penetrant testing the weld joints
d. Visual inspection of the weld joints
12. Each welder making welds on a tank shall be certified by the _______.
a. erection/fabrication manufacturer
b. purchaser
c. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
d. certified inspector
13. Per API 650, external floating roof deck plates having support leg or other rigid
penetrations closer than ____ inches to lap weld seams must be full fillet welded
not less than 2 inches on 10 inch centers.
a. 6
b. 12
c. 14
d. 18
14. Upon completion of welding of the new tank bottom, the welds shall be
inspected by which one of the following methods?
a. Radiographs
b. Vacuum or air pressure
c. Penetrant testing
d. Hammer testing
Page of 26of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
15. The maximum reinforcement thickness for vertical butt joints, less than or equal to
1/2" thick is .
a. 1/16"
b. 1/8"
c. 3/32"
d. 3/16"
16. Annular bottom plates shall have a radial width that provides at least _____
inches between the inside of the shell and any lap-welded joint in the remainder
of the bottom.
a. 10
b. 30
c. 24
d. 18
17. The maximum acceptable undercutting of the base metal for vertical butt joints is
___ inch.
a. 3/32
b. 1/8
c. 1/64
d. 3/64
18. A double-welded butt weld is ______.
a. a joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane
b. a joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane
that is welded from both sides
c. a joint between two overlapping members in which the overlapping
edges of both members are welded with fillet welds
d. a fillet weld whose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner joined
member
19. Openings in tank shells larger than required to accommodate an NPS _____ inch
flanged or threaded nozzle shall be reinforced.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
20. The acceptability of welds examined by radiography shall be judged by the
standards in .
a. ASME Section V, Division 7
b. ASME Section IX, Paragraph QW-191
c. ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Paragraph UW-51(b)
d. API 1104
Page of 27of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
21. When bottom annular plates are required by paragraph 3.5.1 of API 650, the
radial joints shall be radiographed. For single welded butt joints using a backup
bar, one spot radiograph shall be taken on _____ percent of the radial joints.
a. 10
b. 30
c. 50
d. 100
22. Annular bottom plates must extend a minimum of _______ inches outside the
tank shell.
a. 1 1/2
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
23. The maximum operating temperature for tanks constructed to API 650 (not
including appendices) is _______.
a. 500° F
b. 500° C
c. 200° F
d. 200° C
24. Who is responsible for compliance with the API 650 standards?
a. Manufacturer
b. Purchaser
c. State Inspector
d. API 653 Inspector
25. A new tank is under construction. How many radiographs are required on the first
course vertical welds if the shell is 35 mm thick?
a. One radiograph shall be taken in every vertical joint
b. 100% of the vertical joint
c. Two radiographs shall be taken in the vertical joint
d. No radiographs required
26. All bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of _____ inch,
exclusive of any corrosion allowance specified by the purchaser for the bottom
plates.
a. 3/8
b. .250
c. .516
d. .325
Page of 28of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
27. Repairs of defects shall not be attempted on a tank that is filled with _____ or on
a tank that has contained ____ until the tank has been emptied, cleaned and gas
freed in a safe manner.
a. nitrogen
b. oil
c. water
d. grain
28. Misalignment in completed vertical joints over 5/8" shall not exceed what
percentage of the plate thickness?
a. 25% with a maximum of 1/16"
b. 2% with a maximum of 3/64"
c. 5% with a maximum of 3/8"
d. 10% with a maximum of 1/8"
29. Reinforcing plates of shell penetrations shall be given a(n) ________ test, in
accordance with API Standard 650.
a. diesel
b. air
c. stress
d. gas
30. Ultrasonic acceptance standards, in accordance with API 650, shall be ______.
a. ASME Section VIII
b. ASME Section V
c. ASME Section XI
d. Agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer
31. Column-based clip-guides shall be welded to the tank bottom to prevent
__________.
a. internal erosion
b. structural uplifting
c. lateral movement of column bases
d. lateral expansion and contraction
32. Who is responsible for specifying whether the dimensions of a tank will be given
in SI units or US customary units?
a. Industrial requirements
b. U.S. Government mandates
c. The purchaser
d. The manufacturer
Page of 29of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
33. When performing a vacuum test, the gauge should register a partial vacuum of at
least ?
a. 2 lbf/in.
2
b. 3 lbf/in.
2
c. 4 lbf/in.
2
d. 5 lbf/in.
2
34. When reviewing a radiograph of an intersection, 2 inches of weld length must be
shown on each side of the vertical intersection. How much of the vertical weld
must be shown?
a. 2 inches
b. 50 mm
c. 3 inches
d. No API 653 requirement
35. An appendix becomes a requirement only when .
a. the purchaser specifies the requirement.
b. API mandates the requirement
c. the manufacturer approves the requirement
d. required by jurisdictional requirements
36. Shell plates are limited to a maximum thickness of .
a. 1
b. 1 1/2
c. 1 3/4
d. 2
37. Which electrodes are in the AWS A5.1 specification?
a. E-9018
b. E-8518
c. E-8018
d. E-6010
38. What is the minimum size fillet weld that can be installed on a new tank?
a. 1/8
b. 3/16
c. 1/4
d. 5/16
Page of 30of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
39. Roof plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness, in addition to any required
corrosion allowance, of .
a. 3/16
b. 1/4
c. 7-Gauge
d both a and c
40. The slope of a supported cone roof shall be at least .
a. 1 m in 6 m
b. 19 mm in 300 mm
c. .75 mm in 12 mm
d. 7.5 mm in 1.2 mm
41. Misalignment in completed vertical joints for plates greater than 5/8 thick shall not
exceed .
a. 10%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 25%
42. Low hydrogen electrodes shall be used for weld on .
a. the floor only
b. the roof only
c. shell welds greater than 1/2
d. shell welds less than 1/2
43. Which of the following NDE methods is not acceptable for the inspection of new
shell-to-bottom welds.
a. Magnetic particle
b. Liquid Penetrant
c. Vacuum Box
d. Radiography
44. A tank construction crew is using a vacuum box constructed of clear plastic and
a sponge-rubber gasket.
a. This is an acceptable practice.
b. This is a good vacuum test.
c. This vacuum box is not recognized by API 650.
d. The crew can use any style vacuum box.
Page of 31of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
45. Floor plates may be tested by vacuum box testing or .
a. air pressure test
b. tracer gas and compatible detector
c. explosion-bulge test
d. acoustic emission test
46. What is the maximum out-of-plumbness of the top of the shell relative to the
bottom of the shell of a new tank that is 65 tall?
a. 6.5
b. 5.4
c. 3.9
d. 2.0
47. Banding at horizontal weld joints shall not exceed .
a. 1/4
b. 1/2
c. 3/4
d 1
48. Welds examined by radiography shall be judged as acceptable or
unacceptable by .
a. the contractor
b. API 1104
c. ASME Section IX
d. ASME Section VIII
49. A joint between two members that intersect at an angle between 0
o
(a butt joint)
and 90
o
(a corner joint) is called a(n) .
a. fillet joint
b. butt joint
c. angle joint
d. joint that requires backing
50. The client has requested the top course of a tank to be 1/2 thick. The maximum
thickness of all the other courses is 3/8 thick.
a. The client wants it, do it.
b. The top course is usually 1/2 thick.
c. No shell course shall be thinner than the course above it.
d. The thickness of each course is based on the design thickness of the tank
not including corrosion allowance.
Page of 32of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
API 650 Tenth Ed. CODE QUI Z
Answer Key
1. b (Page H-4, Par. H.4.4.3) API 650
2. c (Page 7-2, Par. 7.3.2) API 650
3. c (Page 3-6, Par. 3.5.3) API 650
4. d (Page 6-3, Par. 6.1.3.4) API 650
5. d (Page 3-7, Par. 3.6.3.2) API 650
Solution:
t
d
= 2.6D(H-1)G + CA
S
d
t
d
= 2.6(80)(58-1)(.6)
25,300
t
d
= 7113.6
25,300
t
d
= .281
6. a (Page 3-7, Par. 3.6.3.2) API 650
Solution:
t
t
= 2.6D(H-1)
S
t
t
t
= 2.6 (80) 58 - 1
28,500
t
t
= 11,856
28,500
t
t
= .416
7. b (Page 3-6, Par. 3.6.1.1) API 650
8. a (Page 2-2, Fig. 2-1) API 650
9. b (Page 5-1, Par. 5.2.1.5) API 650
10. c (Page 3-17, Par. 3.7.4.3) API 650
11. b (Page 5-4, Par. 5.3.6.1) API 650
12. a (Page 7-2, Par. 7.3.1) API 650
13. b (Page C-1, Par. C.3.3.3) API 650
14. b (Page 5-4, Par. 5.3.3) API 650
15. c (Page 5-1, Par. 5.2.1.5) API 650
16. c (Page 3-5, Par. 3.5.2) API 650
17. c (Page 5-1, Par. 5.2.1.4) API 650
Page of 33of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
18. b (Page 3-1, Par. 3.1.1.1) API 650
19. b (Page 3-11, Par. 3.7.2.1) API 650
20. c (Page 6-3, Par. 6.1.5) API 650
21. c (Page 6-3, Par. 6.1.2.9b) API 650
22. b (Page 3-5, Par. 3.5.2) API 650
23. c (Page 1-1, Par. 1.1.1) API 650
24. a (Page 1-2, Par. 1.3) API 650
25. b (Page 6-1, Par. 6.1.2.2c) API 650
26. b (Page 3-5, Par. 3.4.1) API 650
27. b (Page 5-4, Par. 5.4.4) API 650
28. d (Page 5-2, Par. 5.2.3.1) API 650
29. b (Page 5-4, Par. 5.3.4) API 650
30. d (Page 6-4, Par. 6.3.4) API 650
31. c (Page 3-48, Par. 3.10.4.6) API 650
32. c (Page 1-1, Par. 1.1.3) API 650
33. b (Page 6-5, Par. 6.6.3) API 650
34. c (Page 6-1, Par. 6.1.2.2b) API 650
35. a (Page 1-1, Par. 1.1.4) API 650
36. c (Page 2-1, Par. 2.2.1.4) API 650
37. d (Page 2-10, Par. 2.8.1) API 650
38. b (Page 3-1, Par. 3.1.3.3) API 650
39. d (Page 3-44, Par. 3.10.2.2) API 650
40. b (Page 3-48, Par. 3.10.4.1) API 650
41. a (Page 5-2, Par. 5.2.3.1) API 650
42. c (Page 5-2, Par. 5.2.1.10) API 650
43. d (Page 5-2, Par. 5.2.4.1) API 650
44. a (Page 6-4, Par. 6.6.1) API 650
45. b (Page 5-3, Par. 5.3.3) API 650
46. c (Page 5-5, Par. 5.5.2) API 650
47. b (Page 5-5, Par. 5.5.4(b) API 650
48. d (Page 6-3, Par. 6.1.5) API 650
49. c (Page 7-1, Par. 7.1.1) API 650
50. c (Page 3-6, Par. 3.6.1.5) API 650
Page of 34of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005
Section 3
API Recommended Practice 575 Summary
API RECOMMENDED PRACTI CE 575
I NSPECTI ON OF
ATMOSPHERI C AND LOW-PRESSURE STORAGE TANKS
First Edi tion, November, 1995
SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE
Atmospheri c and l ow-pressure storage tanks that have been in servi ce.
SECTI ON 3 - SELECTED NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMI NATI ON
(NDE) METHODS
3.1 Ul trasoni c Thi ckness Measurement
This section i s a discussion of thi ckness measurements and Dual -element verses
single-crystal transducers. The doubli ng phenomena i s menti oned.
3.4 Magneti c Fl oor Testi ng
RP 575 now recognizes magnetic floor scanni ng. MFLT (Magneti c Fl ux Leakage
Testing) i s one of the more common types of fl oor tests. It can be used on bare
floor or on some coatings. The principal is basi call y floodi ng the area with a
magneti c fiel d and measuri ng any changes i n the field. This di splay will appear
on a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube). One of the main li mitati ons of this type of testi ng
is the problem of di stingui shing between surface roughness and a through floor
pin hole. The process wil l not eval uate the welds or wel d areas. Even with those
probl ems, this is one of the fastest, best methods for i nspecting the bottom side
or soil si de of most tanks.
SECTI ON 4 - TYPES OF STORAGE TANKS
4.1 General
Storage tanks are used i n a wide vari ety of i ndustri es for a wide range of
products. Basi cal ly, our discussion wi ll deal primarily with those that store crude
oi l, intermediate and fini shed products, chemicals, water and a general
assortment of other products.
For our purposes, the i nspection, eval uati on and comments deal ing wi th future
servi ce condi tions and li mi tations can al l be generally categori zed together, since
conditi ons that would change the serviceabili ty or repai r needs for a tank are
basically identi cal, regardl ess of the product stored. Other than di ameter and
hei ght, the only other two (2) servi ce factors to be consi dered are the speci fic
gravi ty and temperature of the product.
4.1.1 Lini ngs as covered in API RP 652 and cathodic protection API RP 651.
P Paagge e 11 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
4.2 Atmospheri c Storage Tanks
Those that have been desi gned to operate in thei r gas and vapor spaces at
internal pressures which approximate atmospheric pressure.
4.2.2 Use of Tanks
Atmospheric storage tanks are used to store materi als havi ng a true
vapor pressure (at storage temperature) whi ch is substantial ly less than
atmospheri c pressure.
NOTE: Vapor Pressure is the pressure on the surface of the l i quid
caused by the vapors of the l iquid. Vapor pressure varies
wi th temperature, inasmuch as that more of the li quid
vapori zes as the temperature ri ses.
4.3 Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
4.3.1 Descri pti on and Design of Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
Low-pressure storage tanks are those desi gned to operate at pressures in
their gas or vapor spaces exceedi ng the 2.5 pounds per square inch gauge
pressure permissibl e i n API Standard 540, but not exceeding 15 pounds
per square i nch gauge. Low-pressure tanks are usually built to API
Standard 620.
SECTI ON 5 - REASONS FOR I NSPECTI ON
AND CAUSES OF DETERI ORATI ON
5.1 Reasons f or I nspecti on
a. Reduce the potential for fai lure and the release of stored products.
b. Maintain safe operating conditions.
c. Make repai rs or determi ne when repair or repl acement of a tank may be
necessary.
d. Determine whether any deteri oration has occurred and, i f so, prevent or
retard further deteri oration.
e. Keep ground water, nearby waterways and the ai r free of hydrocarbon
and chemi cal pollution.
5.2.1 External Corrosion
a. External (undersi de) tank bottom corrosion results from
contami nati on in the pad. Cinders contai n sulfur compounds that
become very corrosi ve when moi stened.
Page 2 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
b. Electrol yti c corrosion (pi tting type) results when cl ay, rocks, oyster
shell , wooden grade stakes, etc., come in contact with the underside
bottom, as they attract and hol d moi sture.
c. Poor drainage from faul ty pad preparation.
d. Lower external shel l corrosion due to:
i. Settl ement, wi th corrosion at soil grade l ine
ii. Casual water collection point
iii. Ins ulation moisture wicking .
e. Shel l appurtenances are subject to crevice corrosion at non-seal
welded joi nts (angles/ flats).
5.2.2 Internal Corrosion
a. Primaril y dependent on product stored.
b. Corrosi on resi stant li nings are most common preventati ve.
c. Normal locations and causes are:
i. Vapor space (above the liqui d). Most commonly caused by
H
2
S vapor, water vapor, oxygen or a combi nati on of the
three.
ii. Li quid area. Most commonly caused by acid sal ts, H
2
S or
other sulfur compounds.
d. Other forms of i nternal attack, considered as forms of corrosi on
are:
i. El ectrolytic corrosion.
ii. Hydrogen bl i stering.
iii. Caustic Embrittlement.
iv. Graphi tic corrosion (cast i ron parts).
v. Dezincifi cati on (brass parts).
In the areas covered by the stored liqui d, corrosi on is commonl y
caused by aci d sal ts, hydrogen sul fi de or bottom sediment and
water (BS&W).
5.3 Deteri orati on of Non-Steel Tanks
a. Both wooden and concrete tanks may requi re inspecti on.
b. Potential problem areas:
i. Wood - subject to rotting, attack by termi tes, subject to shrinkage,
corrosi on of the steel bands.
ii. Concrete - i nternal corrosi on, cracking due to settlement or
temperature change, spal l ing (exposes reinforcement and corrodes
due to atmosphere).
Page 3 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
c. Tanks constructed of other materials (i.e., al loy or aluminum) can present
special problems, but are subject to the same mechanical damage potential
as steel tanks.
d. Other nonmetall i c tanks (i .e., pl asti c, fi berglass or glass rei nforced epoxy)
may present speci al probl ems, but will not be discussed in this
presentation.
5.4 Leaks, Cracks and Mechani cal Deteri orati on
a. Leaks, whatever the cause, can cause serious economic l osses or
envi ronmental damage resulti ng i n fines or penal ties by governmental
agencies. These, however, pal e in comparison to the problems associated
wi th the i nstantaneous (catastrophic) fai lure of a shell with resul ting loss
of the entire tank, the product stored, plus perhaps all surrounding
structures.
b. Plate cracki ng i s always of prime importance when inspecting tanks.
Cracks can result from a wi de variety of causes. The more frequent
causes are:
i. Faulty welding.
ii Unrel ieved stress concentrations (i .e., stress raisers) around fittings
or appurtenances.
iii. Stress caused by settlement or earth movement, especial ly
differential settl ement
i v. Vi bration
v. Poorl y designed repai r or sl oppy craftsmanship.
The most li kely poi nts of occurrence are:
i. Shel l to bottom juncti on.
ii. Around nozzle and manway connecti ons.
iii .Around rivet holes.
i v. At welded brackets.
v. At welded seams.
NOTE: The l ower shel l to bottom sketch plate is especi ally critical in
rel atively larger or hot tanks. It can act as a pl asti c hinge wi th the
potential for cracking. See API 650 (Appendix M ).
c. Many other ki nds of mechani cal deteri orati on can devel op. In earthquake
areas, sl oshi ng damage may occur to roofs. Shell buckl ing (directly above
bottom) can occur in tanks having relatively large height to diameter
ratios.
d. Another form of mechani cal deteri orati on i s settl ement. Frequent causes
are:
i. Freezi ng/ thawi ng of the ground.
ii. Unusual ly high tides in tidal areas.
iii. Slow l ateral flowing of the soi l.
Page 4 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
5.5 Fai l ure of Auxi l i ary Equi pment
a. Frequent probl em areas are associated wi th pressure/ vacuum
conservation vents.
b. Most common problems are:
i. Coll ecti on of gummy resi due on pall ets.
ii. Movi ng parts, guide and seat corrosion.
iii. Foreign deposi ts (by bi rds or insects).
iv. Ice formation.
v. Tamperi ng.
vi. Adding extra weights to pallets (whi ch changes release point of
vapor).
vii. Lay-down of sand from abrasive bl asti ng.
NOTE: Quite often, vents are the onl y safety relief devi ce available
to prevent pressure or vacuum damage.
c. Other potential auxi liary problem areas:
i. Malfunction of gaugi ng system.
ii. Fl oating roof drai ns.
iii. Plugged drain sumps (debris or i ce).
SECTI ON 6 - FREQUENCY OF I NSPECTI ON
API Standard 653 provides requirements for inspecti on frequency, includi ng factors to
consider in determini ng inspecti on frequency.
SECTI ON 7 - METHODS OF I NSPECTI ON AND I NSPECTI ON SCHEDULI NG
The first part of this secti on deal s with safety aspects of entry. The next section i s a
current list of tools commonly used in tank i nspection and a suggested list of equipment
that mi ght be needed i n tank inspecti on.
7.2 External I nspecti on of I n-Servi ce Tank
See Appendix C, Table C-1 and C-2 of this RP.
7.2.3 Foundati on Inspection
Refer to API Standard 653 for l imitati on.
7.2.4 Anchor Bolt Inspection
The condi ti on of anchor bol ts can usuall y be determined by vi sual
inspection. The hammer and UT thickness methods are al so described in
this section.
Page 5 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
7.2.6 Grounding Connecti on Inspection
The total resistance from tank to earth should not exceed approximately
25 ohms.
7.2.8 Insulati on Inspecti on
Under insul ation corrosion i s now considered to be a more severe
probl em than previousl y thought.
a. A vi sual examination i s usual ly, but not always, sufficient to spot
problem areas.
b. Areas to be more cl osely checked incl ude:
i. Around al l nozzles and appurtenances, especiall y if the
caulking bond i s loose or points for casual water entry is
evident.
ii. Around saddles where movement or expansion may have
damaged i nsul ation or seal.
iii. Around open-bubbl es on polyurethane foam systems.
iv. Al ong bottom edge where moisture wi cking may have
occurred.
v. Al ong roof to shell juncti on, unless this area i s protected by
an overhand rat-guard type i nsul ation support brackets
(where bl ock insul ation is used).
7.2.9.1 Thickness Measurements
Ultrasonic-thi ckness measurements should be conducted
only by trained personnel using a properly calibrated
thickness measurement i nstrument and an appropri ate
thi ckness measurement procedure.
7.2.9.3 Caustic Cracking
If causti c or ami ne is stored in a tank, the tank should be
checked for evi dence of damage from causti c stress
corrosion cracki ng, someti mes referred to as caustic
embri ttl ement.
7.4.4 Tank Bottoms
Thi s secti on suggests inspecti on of the entire tank bottom by using
Magneti c Flux Leakage, l ooki ng for bottom si de corrosion. Other UT type
techni ques may also be used. A-scan or shear wave ultrasoni c testi ng
may be used under speci fic condi tions. Hammer-testing is also menti oned
as a testing technique.
Page 6 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
7.4.6 Testi ng for Leaks
The usual types of tests are mentioned, hydrostatic tests, vacuum box
tests, external water bottom tests and tracer gas tests. Another method
being used successfull y is the injection of inert gas with a tracer gas under
the tank. Instruments capabl e of detecti ng a few parts per mi l lion (PPM)
of the tracer gas are then used for sni ffing for leaks on the topsi de of
the tank floor. An advantage of such a method i s that wel ded repai rs can
be made i mmediately with the inert gas under the bottom and a re-check
can be made i mmedi atel y after repai rs.
7.5 Testi ng of Tanks
The word testing, as used in this subsection, appl ies only to the process of fill ing
the tank with a l iquid or gaseous fl uid, at the appropri ate level or pressure,
test the tank for strength or leaks.
7.6 I nspecti on Schedul i ng
The two main aspects to consider when inspecti ng a tank:
a. the rate at whi ch deterioration i s proceedi ng; and
b. the safe l imit of deterioration.
The fol lowi ng may be used for most common forms of deterioration, metal
corrosi on, the rate of metal l oss and the remaining l ife of a tank component.
t actual - t minimum
Remaining li fe = corrosi on rate
Where:
Remaining life = the remaini ng l i fe of a tank component, in years
t actual = the thi ckness measured at the ti me of the i nspection for a given
location or component used to determine the mi ni mum al lowable
thickness, in i nches.
t mi nimum = the mi nimum allowable thickness for a given location or
component, i n inches.
t previous -= t actual
Corrosion rate = i n years between
t actual and t previous
t previ ous =- thickness at the same locati on as t actual measured during a
previous i nspecti on, i n inches.
Page 7 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
7.7 I nspecti on Checkl i sts
Inspection checklists shoul d be used judici ously by the inspector as memory
joggers for issues and items to be checked duri ng i nspection, both i nternal and
external.
Page 8 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998
Section 4
API RP 651 Summary
API -RP-651
CATHODI C PROTECTI ON OF ABOVEGROUND
PETROLEUM STORAGE TANKS
SECOND EDI TI ON, DECEMBER 1997
SECTI ON 1 - GENERAL
1.1 Scope
Recommended practices covered by this presentati on i s to present procedures,
practi ces, informati on and guidance for achieving effective corrosi on control on
above ground hydrocarbon storage tank bottoms. It contains provisions for the
application of cathodic protection to exi sti ng and new storage tanks.
Corrosi on control methods based on chemi cal control of the environment and
the use of protecti ve coati ngs are not covered in detail. Certain recommended
practi ces may al so be appli cable to tanks in other than hydrocarbon service. Thi s
is intended to serve onl y as a guide. Specific cathodic protection design i s not
provi ded. Every tank conditi on is not covered. Standardi zation i s precl uded
because of the varied conditi ons for fi eld appl ication.
2.0 Ref erenced Publ i cati ons
3.0 Def i ni ti ons
Defi nitions i n thi s section reflect the common usage among practicing corrosion
control personnel. In many cases, in the interests of brevity and practicali ty, the
strict scienti fic defini ti ons have been abbreviated or
paraphrased.
3.1 aboveground storage tank: A stationary contai ner of greater than 500
barrel capacity, usuall y cyl indrical in shape, consi sti ng of a metall ic roof,
shel l, bottom, and support structure where more than 90 percent of the
tank vol ume is above surface grade.
3.2 anode: An el ectrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxi dati on
(corrosion) occurs. Antonym: cathode.
3.3 backf i l l : Materi al placed in a hole to fil l the space around anodes,
vent pipe, and buried components of a cathodi c protecti on system.
Anodes can be prepackaged with backfill material for ease of installati on.
3.4 breakout pi pi ng: All piping associ ated with the transfer of products in
and out of storage tanks.
3.5 cathode: An electrode of an electrochemi cal cel l at which a reduction
reacti on occurs. Antonym: anode.
3.6 cathodi c protecti on: A technique for preventing corrosi on by making the
Page 1 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998 Page 1 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
entire surface of the metal to be protected act as the cathode of an
el ectrochemical cell.
3.7 coke breeze: A carbonaceous backfill material .
3.8 conti nui ty bond: A metall ic connecti on that provides electrical continuity.
3.9 corrosi on: The deteri orati on of a materi al, usual ly a metal , that results
from a reaction with i ts environment.
3.10 current densi ty: The current per unit area fl owing to or from a metalli c
surface.
3.11 current requi rement test: Creates direct current flow from a temporary
ground bed to the structure to be protected to determi ne the amount of
current necessary to protect that structure.
3.12 deep anode groundbed: One or more anodes installed verti cally at a
nomi nal depth of 15m (50 ft) or more below the earth s surface in a single
dri lled hole for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection.
3.13 di f f erenti al aerati on cel l : An electrochemical cell the el ectromoti ve force
of whi ch is due to a di fference i n ai r (oxygen) concentration at one
el ectrode as compared with that at another electrode of the same material.
3.14 el ectri cal i sol ati on: The condition of bei ng electri cal l y separated from
other metall i c structures and the envi ronment.
3.15 el ectri cal i sol ati on cel l : An el ectrical circuit where el ectrical current flows
from certai n areas of a metal to other areas through a soluti on capabl e of
conducti ng electrici ty (el ectrolyte).
3.16 el ectrochemi cal cel l : An el ectrochemi cal system consisting of an anode
and a cathode i mmersed in an el ectrolyte so as to create an electri cal
circui t. The anode and cathode may be separate metals or di ssimi lar areas
on the same metal. The cel l includes the external circuit which permits the
fl ow of el ectrons from the anode toward the cathode.
3.17 el ectrode potenti al : The potential of an electrode as measured against a
reference electrode. (The el ectrode potenti al does not incl ude any
resistance l osses in potenti al in either the electrolyte or the external circuit.
It represents the reversible work requi red to move a uni t charge from the
el ectrode surface through the el ectrol yte to the reference electrode).
3.18 el ectrol yte: A chemical substance containi ng ions that mi grate i n an
el ectric fi eld. For the purposes of this recommended practice, electrolyte
refers to the soil or li quid adjacent to and i n contact with the bottom of an
aboveground petroleum storage tank, incl uding the moisture and other
chemi cals contained therei n.
3.19 envi ronmental cracki ng: The bri ttle fracture of a normall y ducti le
Page 2 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
material in which the corrosive effect of the envi ronment is a causati ve
factor.
3.20 external ci rcui t: Consist of the wi res, connectors, measuri ng devi ces,
current sources, etc., that are used to bri ng about or measure the desi red
el ectrical conditions within an electrochemi cal cell. It is this porti on of the
cell through which electrons travel .
3.21 f orei gn structure: Any metall ic structure that i s not an i ntended part of
the system in question.
3.22 gal vani c anode: A metal that, because of i ts rel ative posi ti on in the
galvanic seri es, provides sacri ficial protection to another metal that i s
more nobl e, when coupled i n an electrolyte. These anodes are the source
of current in one type of cathodic protection.
3.23 gal vani c seri es: A li st of metals and all oys arranged according to thei r
relati ve potenti als in a gi ven environment.
3.24 groundbed: Consi sts of one or more anodes i nstall ed bel ow the earth s
surface for the purpose of supplying cathodi c protecti on.
3.25 hol i day: A discontinuity in a protecti ve coating that exposes unprotected
surface to the envi ronment.
3.26 i mpressed current: An electric current supplied by a device employing a
power source that i s external to the el ectrode system. (An example i s
direct current for cathodic protection).
3.27 i nsul ati ng coati ng system: Al l components of the protective coating, the
sum of which provi des effecti ve el ectrical insul ation of the coated
structure.
3.28 i nterf erence bond: A metall ic connecti on designed to control electri cal
current i nterchange between metall i c systems.
3.29 I R drop: The vol tage generated across a resistance by an el ectrical
current in accordance with Ohm's Law: E=I X R. For the purpose of this
recommended practice, IR drop is the porti on of a structure-to-soil
potenti al caused by a high resistance el ectrolyte between the structure and
the reference electrode or by current flow from the anodes to the tank
bottom.
3.30 i sol ati on: El ectri cal isolation.
3.31 l i ner: A system or devi ce, such as a membrane, install ed beneath a
storage tank in or on the tank dike, to contain any acci dentally escaped
product.
3.32 membrane: A thin, continuous sheet of non conducti ve synthetic materi al
Page 3 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
used to contai n and/ or separate two di fferent envi ronments.
3.33 oxi dati on: The loss of el ectrons by a constituent of chemi cal reaction.
3.34 pol ari zati on: The change from the open ci rcuit potential of an electrode
resulti ng from the passage of current. (In this recommended practi ce, i t i s
consi dered to be the change of potential of a metal surface resulti ng from
the passage of current di rectly to or from an el ectrode).
3.35 recti f i er: A devi ce for converting alternating current to di rect current.
Usually includes a step-down AC transformer, a si licon or selenium stack
(rectifying elements) , meters and other accessori es when used for
cathodic protection purposes.
3.36 reducti on: The gai n of el ectrons by a constituent of a chemical reaction.
3.37 ref erence el ectrode: A device whose open ci rcuit potenti al i s constant
under simil ar conditions of measurement.
3.38 resi stor: A device used within an electrical circuit to control current fl ow.
3.39 sacri f i ci al anode: Another name commonl y used for a galvani c anode.
3.40 sacri f i ci al protecti on: The reducti on or prevention of corrosion of a
metal in an electrol yte by galvanically coupling it to a more anodic metal .
3.41 secondary contai nment: A device or system used to control the accidental
escape of a stored product so it may be properl y recovered or removed
from the envi ronment. For the purposes of the recommended practi ce,
secondary contai nment refers to an i mpermeabl e membrane.
3.42 shal l ow anode groundbed: A group of cathodi c protection anodes
i nstall ed indi vi dually, spaced uniforml y, and typically buried less than 20
feet below grade.
3.43 shunt: A conductor of a known electrical resistance through which
current flow may be determi ned by measurement of the voltage across
the conductor.
3.44 stati onary: Something that is permanently install ed on the ground or on
a foundati on.
3.45 stray current: Current fl owing through paths other than the intended
circuit.
3.46 stray current corrosi on: Corrosion resulti ng from di rect current fl ow
through paths other than the intended circuit.
3.47 stress corrosi on cracki ng: The fracture of a metal by the combined action
Page 4 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
of corrosi on and tensil e stress that may be wel l below the tensi le strength
or even the yiel d strength of the materi al.
3.48 structure-to-el ectrol yte vol tage (also structure-to-soil potential or pipe-
to-soi l potenti al): The vol tage difference between a metal l ic structure and
the electrolyte which i s measured with a reference el ectrode in contact
wi th the electrolyte.
3.49 structure-to-structure vol tage (also structure-to-structure potential): The
difference in voltage between a metall ic structures i n a common
el ectrolyte.
3.50 tank cushi on: The materi al i mmediately adjacent to the exteri or steel
bottom of an aboveground storage tank.
3.51 tank pad: Another name for a tank cushi on.
3.52 test l ead: An el ectri cally conductive cable attached to a structure and
leading to a conveni ent l ocation. It is used for the measurement of
structure-to-electrolyte potentials and other measurements.
3.53 test stati on: A small enclosed box-like housing and the usual termination
poi nt of one or more test leads.
3.54 vol tage: Refers to an electromotive force, or a difference in electrode
potenti als expressed in vol ts. Also known as a potenti al.
3.55 water bottom: A water layer i n the bottom of a tank caused by
separati on of water and product due to differences in sol ubili ty and
specifi c gravity.
Page 5 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
STEEL STORAGE TANKS
4.1.1 Corrosi on may be defi ned as the deteri oration of a metal due to a reacti on
to i ts envi ronment. Corrosi on of steel structures is an electrochemi cal
process. The corrosion process occurs when:
a. Areas wi th di fferent electrical potentials exi st on the metal surface.
b. These areas must be electrically connected.
c. Areas must be in contact wi th an el ectrolyte. Moi st soi l is the most
common el ectrolyte for external surfaces of the tank bottom.
Water and sl udge are, generall y, the electrol ytes for i nternal
surfaces.
NOTE: There are four (4) components in each corrosion cell :
1. An anode
2. A Cathode
3. A metall ic path connecting the anode and
cathode. (See Fig. 1)
4. An el ectrolyte
4.1.2 Many forms of corrosion exi st. The two (2) most common (relati ve to
tank bottoms) are general and pi tting corrosion.
a. General type: Thousands of microscopi c corrosi on cel ls occur on an
area of the metal surface resul ting in rel atively uni form metal l oss.
b. Pitting type: Indi vidual cel ls are larger and di sti nct anode and
cathode areas can be identified.
NOTE: Corrosion occurs at the Anode. Metal loss may be
concentrated within relatively small areas wi th
substantial surface areas unaffected.
4.1.3 through 4.1.5
Conditi ons that i nfluence which areas of a surface become anodic or
cathodic and/ or corrosi on cel l s are:
a. Composi tion of the metal .
b. Differences in electrochemical potential (i .e., uneven distri bution of
al loyi ng elements or contami nates wi thin the metal structure).
c. Differences between the wel d bead, the heat affected zone and the
parent metal .
d. Physical and chemi cal properti es of the electrol yte.
e. Differences in oxygen concentrati ons.
f. Soi l characteristics (i.e., dissolved salts, moisture content, pH, etc.).
g. Cl ay, wood or other debris i n bottom contact.
4.2 Corrosi on Mechani sms
SECTION 4- CORROSION OF ABOVEGROUND
Page 6 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
4.2.1 Stray current corrosi on occurs when stray currents (al so known as
interference currents) travel through the soil electrol yte and on to
structures for whi ch they are not i ntended.
NOTE: The most common, and potentiall y more damagi ng,
stray currents are di rect currents (i.e., grounded DC
electric power systems) such as electri c railroads, subways,
wel ding machines, impressed current cathodic protection
systems and thermoelectri c generators.
The severi ty of corrosi on resul ting from i nterference currents depend on
the fol lowing:
a. Separation and routi ng of the interferi ng and affected structures
and the l ocati on of the interferi ng current source.
b. Magni tude and density of the current.
c. Qual ity of or absence of a coating on the affected structure.
d. Presence and location of mechani cal joi nts having high electrical
resistance.
4.2.2 Bimetal l ic Corrosi on occurs when two (2) metals with different
compositi ons (thus different electrolyti c potentials) are connected i n an
el ectrolyte (usual ly soil). (See Fig. 4).
NOTE: Current fl ows from the more acti ve metal (anode) to the less
acti ve metal (cathode) with resulti ng accelerated attack at the
anode. Exampl es: Bronze check val ve to steel piping.
Stainless Steel or Copper pi pe to steel tank.
4.2.3 Internal Corrosi on may occur on the i nside surface of a tank bottom.
Factors influencing severity are:
a. Conducti vi ty (2 function of dissolved solids).
b. Suspended solids
c. pH level
d. Dissolved gases such as CO
2
, H
2
S or O
2
.
SECTI ON 5 - DETERMI NATI ON OF NEED FOR CATHODI C PROTECTI ON
Page 7 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
5.1.4 Limitations
Cathodic protection is an effecti ve means of corrosion control onl y if it i s
possible to pass el ectrical current between the anode and cathode (i .e.,
tank bottom). Many factors can either reduce or el iminate the flow of
el ectrical current, reduci ng protecti on effectiveness. Such factors incl ude:
a. Foundati ons such as concrete, asphalt or oi led sand.
b. An impervi ous lini ng between the tank bottom and anodes such as
in secondary contai nment systems.
c. Hi gh resistance soi l or rock foundations.
d. Old storage tank bottoms l eft in place when a new bottom i s
installed.
SECTI ON 6 - METHODS OF CATHODI C PROTECTI ON FOR CORROSI ON
CONTROL
6.1 I ntroducti on
Cathodic protecti on i s a technique for preventing corrosi on by making the entire
surface of the metal act as the cathode of an electrochemi cal cel l. The two (2)
methods of protecti on are:
a. Sacrificial anode
b. Impressed current.
6.2 Gal vani c Systems
6.2.1 Use of a metal more active than the structure to be protected to suppl y
the current required to stop corrosi on. See Tabl e 3 (Page 10 code) for a
partial galvanic series. The more active metal is called a sacrifi cial anode.
Exampl e: The anode i s electrically connected to the structure and buried
i n the soi l. A gal vanic corrosi on cell develops and the active metal anode
corrodes (i s sacri ficed) whi le the metal structure (cathode) is protected.
NOTE: Metals commonly used as sacrificial anodes i n soil are
magnesium and zi nc (in ei ther cast or ri bbon form). Usuall y
distributed around the perimeter of the tank or buried
beneath the bottom.
6.2.2 Advantages of Galvani c Systems
a. No external power suppl y is requi red.
b. Install ation i s easy.
c. Capital i nvestment is l ow.
d. Minimum maintenance costs.
e. Interference problems (stray currents) are rare.
f. Less frequent monitoring required.
6.2.3 Disadvantages of Galvani c Systems
Page 8 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
a. Driving potential is limited.
b. Current output i s low.
c. Method is l imited to use in l ow-resistivity soils.
d. Not practical for protecti on of l arge bare structures.
6.3 Impressed Current Systems
6.3.1 Uses DC usually provi ded by a recti fier (i .e., devi ce for changi ng AC i nto
DC). DC flows from the recti fied to the buried impressed current anode.
6.3.2 Advantages of Impressed Current Systems
a. Availabi lity of l arge driving potential.
b. Hi gh current output for protecting large structures.
c. Capabil i ty of vari able current output.
d. Appli cable to almost any soil resistivity.
6.3.3 Disadvantages of Impressed Current Systems
a. Interference probl ems (i .e., stray currents) on foreign structures.
b. Loss of AC power causes l oss of protection.
c. Hi gher costs (mai ntenance and operati ng).
d. Higher capital costs.
e. Safety aspects of rectifier locati on.
f. Safety aspects of negative l ead connections.
g. More frequent moni toring.
6.3.4 Rectifi ers - Two (2) major components:
a. Step-down transformer (reduces AC supply voltage).
b. Recti fyi ng elements to provide DC output.
NOTE: Sili con recti fiers are more efficient, but are troubl ed by
power surges, (i.e., l ightening prevention devices requi red).
Selenium rectifiers are used, but have decreased l ife span if
ambi ent temperature exceeds 130°F.
6.3.5 Impressed Current Anode materi als are graphite, steel, high si l icon cast
iron or mi xed metal oxides on titanium. Usually buri ed in a coke breeze
backfi l l (reduces ci rcuit resistance), i n remote groundbeds, di stributed
around or under the tank or instal l ed in deep groundbeds.
SECTI ON 7 - DESI GN OF CATHODI C PROTECTI ON SYSTEMS
Page 9 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
When deal i ng with your cli ent/ customer, be aware of certai n conditions that may
i nfl uence your job assessment/ eval uati on. These i tems include:
7.2.1 Anythi ng that acts as a barri er to the fl ow of current will prevent the
appl ication of cathodic protection.
7.2.2 Tank bottom repl acement has a si gnifi cant i mpact on protecti on
effecti veness. If cathodic systems exi st, or i nstall ation is planned for the
new bottom, the ol d bottom must be removed.
NOTE: If the old bottom remains i n pl ace, even wi th cathodi c
systems i nstalled between the ol d and new bottoms, future
problems may occur. If a conductive electrol yte exists
between the bottoms, the current fl ow and metal loss wil l be
from the new bottom.
7.2.5.1 Secondary containment systems between bottoms (i .e.,
impermeabl e membranes) have both good and bad features
relati ve to cathodic protecti on.
7.2.5.1.1 Advantages
a. Contai ns leaks and prevents ground
contamination.
b. El imi nates current fl ow between bottoms.
c. Prevents ground water wi cki ng i nto sand pad.
7.2.5.1.2 Disadvantages
a. Future additi on of cathodi c protection
impossi ble.
b. Membrane acts as a basin to contai n
electrol yte.
c. With l eak, traps hydrocarbon, becomes "hot-
work" issue.
SECTI ON 8 - CRI TERI A FOR CATHODI C PROTECTI ON:
Page 10 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
When has adequate protecti on been achieved and does it sti ll exi st?
8.2 Protecti on Cri teri a
Developed from l ab experi ments or from exi sting, successful systems.
Minimum requirements are li sted bel ow.
8.2.2.1 A negative (cathodic) potenti al of at least 850 mV wi th the cathodi c
protecti on current appl ied.
8.2.2.2 A negative polarized potenti al of at l east 850 mV relati ve to a CSE.
8.2.2.3 A mi ni mum of 100 mV of cathodic pol ari zation measured between
the tank bottom metall ic surface and a stabl e reference electrode
contacting the el ectrol yte.
8.3 Measurement Techni ques
8.3.1 The standard method of determi ning the effecti veness of cathodi c
protecti on on a tank bottom i s the tank-to soil potenti al measurement.
NOTE: 1. Measurement is performed using a hi gh-impedance
(i .e., resi stance) vol tmeter and a stabl e, reproduci ble
reference electrode contacti ng the el ectrol yte.
(See Fig. 10)
2. Peri meter measurement may not represent potenti al
at the center of the tank bottom.
SECTI ON 9 - I NSTALLATI ON OF CATHODI C PROTECTI ON SYSTEMS
(No speci fic notes)
SECTI ON 10 - I NTERFERENCE CURRENTS
(No speci fic notes)
SECTI ON 11 - OPERATI ON AND MAI NTENANCE OF CATHODI C PROTECTI ON
SYSTEMS
Page 11 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
11.1 I ntroducti on
Coupl ed with operation and mai ntenance, Fi eld inspecti on surveys (to determine
that cathodi c protection has been establ ished and that i t i s currently effecti ve)
shoul d be established. A few items that shoul d be consi dered i nclude:
a. Conditi ons that affect protection are subject to change wi th time.
b. Changes may be requi red to mai ntai n (or even establi sh) protection.
c. If tanks are empty, large areas of the bottom may not be i n contact
wi th underl ying soil. Potential surveys, may therefore, be misl eadi ng.
NOTE: Potential surveys should be made with suffi cient product gauge so
as to maximize bottom-cushion contact.
d. Initi al surveys (on new instal lati on) should not be conducted until
after adequate polarizati on (i.e., a posi ti ve or negati ve condi ti on) has
occurred. This is generally 6-18 months after system energized.
11.3.1 Surveys shoul d i nclude one or more of the followi ng:
a. Structure-to-soil potenti al.
b. Anode current.
c. Native structure-to-soil potential s.
d. Structure-to-structure potential .
e. Piping to tank i solation (if protected separately).
f. Effect an adjacent structures.
g. Continui ty of structures (if protected as si ngl e structure).
h. Recti fier DC volts, DC amps, efficiency and tap setti ngs.
11.4 Cathodi c Protecti on Records
Dependi ng on need, ci rcumstance and customer direction, the foll owing
should be considered as permanent record needs:
a. Design and l ocati on of insulating devices.
b. Resul ts of current requi rement tests, where made and procedures
used.
c. What was native structure-to-soil potenti al bef ore current was
applied.
d. Resul ts of soi l resistivity (resistance) test at the site, where made and
procedures used.
e Type of system (i .e., sacrificial anode, i mpressed current, etc. ).
f. Repair of recti fi ers, other DC power sources required.
g. Repai r/ renewal of anodes, connections or cable.
Page 12 of 12 API 651 Summary, 1998
Section 5
API RP 652 Summary
API RP - 652
LI NI NG OF ABOVEGROUND PETROLEUM STORAGE TANK BOTTOMS
SECOND EDI TI ON, DECEMBER 1997
SECTI ON 1 - GENERAL
1.1 Scope
This recommended practice descri bes the procedures and practices for achievi ng
effecti ve corrosion control in aboveground storage tanks by appli cati on of tank
bottom l i ni ngs to exi sti ng and to new storage tanks.
This recommended practice also provi des i nformation and speci fic gui dance for
tanks in hydrocarbon servi ce. Some of the practi ces may al so be appli cabl e for
other services.
NOTES:
1. This does not desi gnate specific bottom l inings for all si tuations
because of the wide variety of servi ce envi ronments.
2. This recommended practice i s a guide only.
3. Detailed lining specificati ons are not i ncluded.
2.0 Ref erenced Publ i cati ons
3.0 Def i ni ti ons
3.1 aboveground storage tank: A stationary container, usual ly cylindrical in
shape, consi sting of a metal lic roof, shel l, bottom and support structure
where more than 90% of the tank vol ume is above surface grade.
3.2 adduct: A curing agent, general ly an ami ne, that has been combi ned wi th
a portion of the resin, usual ly an epoxy.
3.3 ami ne: An organi c compound having amino functional groups which
provide chemi cal reacti vi ty and util ity as a curati ve for epoxy and other
resins.
3.4 anchor pattern: Surface profil e or roughness.
3.5 anode: The electrode of an electrochemi cal cell at whi ch oxidation
(corrosi on) occurs. El ectrons flow away from the anode in the external
circui t. Corrosion usual ly occurs and metal i ons enter the sol uti on at the
anode. * Antonym: cathode.
3.6 aromati cs: Strong hydrocarbon sol vents whose chemical structure has an
Page 1 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998 Page 1 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
to the environment.
3.22 i sophthal i c pol yester: A resi n polymeri zed from i sophthalic acid (or
anhydri de), ethylene or propylene gl ycol and malai c acid (or anhydride).
The sol id resi n is generally provi ded as a sol uti on in styrene, which acts as
a solvent and as a cross-l i nki ng agent for the resi n.
3.23 l i ni ng: A coati ng bonded to the i nternal surfaces of a tank to serve as a
barri er to corrosion by the contai ned fl uids.
3.24 mi l : One one-thousandth of an inch (0.001").
3.25 mi l l scal e: An oxide l ayer formed on steel duri ng hot formi ng
operati ons.
NOTE: Appearance: slick, smooth, shi ny surface area.
3.26 phenol i c: A resi n of the phenol-formal dehyde type.
3.27 pol yami de: A resin whose chemi cal structure contains adjacent carbonyl
and amino functi onal groups that i s often used as a curati ve for epoxy
resins. Commerci al ly avail abl e polyamides are reacti on products of
dimerized and trimerized fatty aci ds and pol yami nes.
3.28 pol yami doami ne: : A resin whose chemical structure contai ns adjacent
carbonyl and ami no functi onal groups that i s often used as a curati ve for
epoxy resi ns. Commerciall y availabl e pol yami des are reaction products
of dimerized and trimerized fatty acids and pol yami nes.
3.29 resi n: A natural or synthetic substance that may be used as a binder i n
coatings.
3.30 vi nyl -ester: A polyester that usual ly contains Bi sphenol-A i n the resi n
backbone and two vi nyl groups for reactivity. The sol i d resin i s generall y
provided as a sol ution in styrene, which acts as a solvent and as a cross-
li nking agent for the resin.
3.31 vi nyl group: A functi onal group on a resin molecule that contai ns a
carbon-to-carbon doubl e bond at the end of the mol ecul e.
Page 2 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
4.1 General
The common mechanisms of internal storage tank bottom corrosion
include:
a. Chemi cal corrosion
b. Concentrati on cel l corrosion
c. Galvanic cell corrosion
d. Corrosi on caused by sulfate-reducing bacteri a
e. Erosion corrosi on.
NOTES: 1. Carbon steel corrosi on rates in vari ous hydrocarbon
services have been establi shed. Refer to NACE 510700.
2. These appl y onl y if there are no accelerating mechani sms
present.
Exampl e: Water coll ection on tank bottoms may contai n salt and
sedi ment that "settl es out" on bottom plates. The chl ori des
and other sol uble salts may provide a strong el ectrolyte
which can promote corrosion.
4.2 Chemi cal Corrosi on
a. Normal ly seen in envi ronmental and product cl ean-up tanks.
Concentrated acids, added to water (wi th heat) to break emulsion of oi l
and water, becomes deluded. Diluted acid is much more corrosive than
stronger aci ds.
b. Chemical attack also occurs in caustic, sulfuric aci d, bal last water
and water neutrali zation services.
4.3 Concentrati on Cel l Corrosi on
Occurs i n lower oxygen concentration areas (i .e., surface deposit, mi ll scal e or
crevice).
NOTE: Recognized as pitti ng or in a si gnifi cant locali zed metal loss area.
4.4 Gal vani c Cel l Corrosi on
Formati on of a bi -metall ic corrosion couple due to the presence of an electrol yte
(i.e., dissol ved oxygen). The common locati ons for occurrence are:
a. Breaks in mill scale.
b. HAZ adjacent to wel ds
NOTE: Also noted by si gnificant local ized metal l oss.
4.5 Corrosi on Caused by Sul f ate-Reduci ng Bacteri a
SECTION 4 - CORROSION MECHANISMS
Page 3 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
a. Phenomenon recognized but not understood.
b. Usually negl igible, occasionally service.
c. Thought to be associ ated with concentrated cel l corrosion, due to deposits
formi ng a barrier to the diffusion of dissolvedoxygen.
4.6 Erosi on Corrosi on
Normall y occurs in mixing tanks where soi l particl es or smal l aggregate are
present and movement occurs (i .e., waste water treati ng or mi xing, adjacent to
mi xers i n crude tanks). The movement of aggregate causes abrasi ve attack.
Normall y seen as "well defi ned" l oss pattern.
SECTI ON 5 - DETERMI NATI ON OF NEED f or TANK BOTTOM LI NI NGS
5.1 General
Tank bottoms normal l y fabricated from carbon steel pl ate sections typical ly 1/ 4"
(6 mm) thick. Annular floor plate rings may be thicker (up to 1/ 2" (12 mm).
Sketch plates (under shel l) of 5/ 16" pl ate may often be found i n older tanks. The
need for an i nternal tank bottom li ni ng i s generally based upon one or more of
the followi ng:
a. Corrosion preventi on
b. Tank design
c. Tank history
d. Envi ronmental considerations
e. Flexi bi l ity for service change
f. Upset conditi ons
g. Federal , State or l ocal regulati ons.
5.2 Li ni ngs f or Corrosi on Preventi on
Proper selection and applicati on of bottom li ni ngs can prevent internal bottom
corrosi on.
NOTE: If the tank bottom measurements i ndicate that a "t" of 0.100"
exi sts, or wi l l be present pri or to the next schedul e turnaround,
then a recommendation for applyi ng a lining shoul d be strongl y
considered.
5.3 Desi gn Consi derati ons and Tank I nternal s
Desi gn or fabricati on detai ls that woul d jeopardi ze the integrity, or limi t the life
expectancy or effectiveness, may exist.
Exampl e: Steam coils l imit accessibil ity for surface preparati on. The resul ting
thermal effects effect may cause l ocali zed fail ure by bl i steri ng or
cracking.
5.4 Tank Hi story
Page 4 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
a. Consider corrosion hi story when determining need for l ini ng.
b. Consider history of other tanks i n si mi lar servi ce.
c. Some i mportant considerati ons are:
i. Where is corrosion problem occurring (product side, soil side, outer
peri phery, etc.)?
ii. How fast is corrosion proceedi ng?
iii. Has there been a signifi cant change in corrosion rate?
i v. What type of corrosion is occurri ng?
v. Has through-bottom penetration occurred?
5.4.1 Tank Foundati on
Inadequate foundation can cause tank settlement, bottom flexi ng may
occur, causi ng the internal l ining to fai l by cracki ng.
5.4.2 Methods of Constructi on
a. Irregul ar surfaces (i.e., rivets, butt straps and ski p welding) are
difficult to cover and protect with a li ni ng.
b. Older tank l ining appli cati on may be compli cated by chemical
contami nates.
c. Col umn bases and roof leg support pads may present application
problems.
5.4.2.1 If a pri or l iner i s present, and a portion is to be salvaged and
reused, the new liner appl icati on and materi al must be
compati ble.
5.4.2.2 Previ ous Repairs: Pri or mechani cal repai r/ additi ons must
be considered. Such as, are there odd-shaped patches to
cover, support-angl es to seal, no back-wel ded or hot-taps
that will requi re special crevi ce sealing soluti ons?
5.4.2.3 Pri or Storage: Speci al cleaning techni ques, or degree of
cleaning required must be consi dered when evaluating
which type of coati ng i s most effecti ve.
NOTE: Most major materi al suppliers have data and
technical expertise that can be requested. The
data should be free, the technical help wi ll add
to costs.
5.5 Envi ronmental Consi derati ons
Properl y appli ed internal li ni ngs reduce the chance of external
envi ronmental contamination. Cathodi c protection al so usuall y reduces
underside bottom loss.
5.5.1 Location
Page 5 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
When consideri ng the need for an internal l ining, al ways consider:
a. The potenti al for ground water contamination in hydrogeol ogicall y
sensi tive areas.
b. Proxi mity to populated areas or publ ic roads.
c. Proxi mi ty to rivers, l akes, parks or sceni c areas.
d. Presence/ locati on of contai nment dikes.
5.6 Fl exi bi l i ty f or Servi ce Change
a. Changes in servi ce may drasti cal ly affect the performance of existi ng
li ners.
b. If "swing-service" i s expected of the tank involved, then al l potential
servi ces and their compati bi lity with i nternal lining bei ng considered must
be carefully and full y evaluated.
c. Remember: Tank lini ngs do not offer uni versal resistance. Product make-
up varies. Therefore, properti es of the li ni ng must vary. Agai n, techni cal
assi stance from the l i ner suppl ier can be of great value.
5.7 Upset Condi ti ons
Don't forget the i mpact i nvolved. Consult customer as to potenti al for
occurrence.
SECTI ON 6 - TANK BOTTOM LI NI NG SELECTI ON
6.1 General :
Tank bottom linings can generall y be divided i nto two (2) cl asses:
a. Thin films (20 mil s or less).
b. Thick fil ms (greater than 20 mi ls).
NOTES: 1. Li ni ngs are installed at tank erecti on or after some peri od of
service.
2. General ly, thi n-fi lm i s appli ed when some mini mal corrosi on
has occurred.
3. Other liner discussion includes:
6.2 Thi n-f i l m types
Frequentl y based on epoxy or epoxy-copolymer resi ns. See Tabl e 1 (Li ni ng
Systems) for generi c types and thei r suitabil ity for various servi ces.
NOTE: Al l l ini ngs that are employed to protect tank bottoms must be
resi stant to water.
6.2.1 Advantages - Disadvantages (Thin Fil m Type)
Page 6 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
a. Advantages:
i. New pl ate provides a smooth surface that can easil y be
made ready for coati ng appl ication.
ii. Lower cost (due to ease of appl i cati on).
b. Disadvantage:
Corrosion creates a rough/ pitted surface that is di fficult to
completel y coat and protect.
6.3 Thi ck-Fi l m types
Commonl y reinforced wi th gl ass flake, chopped glass fi bers, gl ass mat, glass
cl oth or organi c fi bers.
a. Generi c types and where used. (See Tabl e 2)
NOTE: Additional data availabl e in NACE Publication 6A187.
b. Speci fic notes relative to thick-film types:
i. All appli ed over a white or near-white abrasive bl ast.
ii. Primer frequently requi red.
iii. Dependent upon thickness required - multi pl e coats needed.
i v. Resi n-rich topcoat requi red.
v. Polyesters require wax addition to ensure timel y cure.
vi Check with manufacturer for speci fics (chemi cal immersi on,
elevated temperature tolerance, li mitations i n speci fic products,
etc.).
6.3.1 Advantages (thick-fil m types):
Advantages:
a. Less suscepti ble to mechani cal damage.
b. Provides addi tional strength to bri dge over small bottom
perforati ons.
c. Not as sensi tive to pi tti ng and other surface i rregularities
during i nstall ation.
d. Less need for removal of sharp corners, edges, offsets and
wel d spatter.
6.3.2 Disadvantages (thi ck-fil m types):
Disadvantages:
a. Requi re more time and effort to appl y.
b. More expensi ve.
c. Makes future i nspections more di fficult.
6.4 Desi gn of Storage Tank Bottom Li ni ngs
Page 7 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
a. Normal data or knowledge requi red:
i. Linings shoul d extend 18-24 inches up the shell.
ii. Transition area (from bottom horiz. to shell vert.), is a common
failure area. Proper support, especiall y wi th thick-films are critical
in this area.
iii. With thi n-fil m types, desi red fi lm thickness normall y requires 2-3
coats.
iv. Thick-fi l ms range from 1-4 coats.
v. New tanks, or where onl y i nternal l oss has occurred may require
35-55 mi ls.
vi. Older bottoms, corroded on both sides may require 80-120 mi l s
(usuall y reinforced).
b. More specific data:
i. "Whi te" (SSPC-SP5/ NACE #1) or a "near-whi te" (SSPC-
SP10/ NACE #2) abrasi ve blast cleaner.
ii. Anchor pattern (surface roughness) requi red is generally between
1.5 and 4 mil s, depending on li ni ng sel ecti on.
6.5 Excepti onal Ci rcumstances Af f ecti ng Sel ecti on
Be sure to take into consi deration:
a. Corrosion history or corrosi on potenti al
b. El evated temperatures. Above 160°F i s criti cal.
c. Product purity. Thin-films may be suffi cient.
d. Li ner may contami nate product.
NOTE: NACE Publ. TMO174 or Mili tary Spec MIL-C-4556D may be of
assistance if manufacturer cannot furnish special data.
SECTI ON 7 - SURFACE PREPARATI ON
Page 8 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
7.1 General
a. Surface preparation i s a cri tical part of li ning operation. Surface
preparati on is performed to provide the appropri ate combi nati on of
surface cl eanliness/ surface profile (anchor profil e) required to establish
good chemical and mechani cal adhesion of the coating resin to the
substrate (i.e., steel). Inadequate surface preparati on i s a major cause of
l ini ng failure. However, a well prepared surface becomes meani ngl ess i f
al l of the abrasive material (i.e., sand, etc.) i s not removed prior to
pri mer/ li ner application. In such event, a lack of adhesion, future peel ing
or di sbonding fai lure can be expected.
b. Conti nuous immersion presents a sever exposure.
NOTE: SP5 #1 (white metal finish) or SP10 #2 (near-white) is
often specifi ed as the mi ni mum degree of surface cleanliness.
7.2 Precl eani ng
a. Before blasting, al l contami nants (i.e., oi l, tar, grease, sal t, etc.) must be
removed.
b. Solvent cleaning (SSPC-SP1), hi gh pressure water or steam cl eani ng
should be consi dered. Fresh water wash after solvent cl eaning, may be
requi red to remove soluble salts and cleaning chemicals.
7.3. Bottom Repai r - Wel d Preparati on
a. Most common repair of perforati ons i s wel ded steel patches.
Another repai r method is to epoxy a 12 gauge steel plate over the bottom
perforati on pri or to thick-fi lm (rei nforced) l inings bei ng i nstal l ed.
SAFETY NOTE: Weld repair may be di sal l owed if tank pad has been
contami nated with flammabl e materials.
b. Remove sharp edges, corners and protrusions. Chi pping or power
grindi ng most common removal method.
7.4 Abrasi ve Bl asti ng
Do Not Bl ast when steel temperature is less than 5°F(3°C) above the dew
point or if the relati ve humidity i s greater than 80%. In particul arl y humid areas,
such as coastal regions, potenti al solutions mi ght be selective timing, whi ch may
influence work schedul es, or perhaps the use of forced air i njection.
NOTE: Liner applications must be conducted when surface conditi on is
appropri ate. Delay (between blast and appl ication) wil l produce
poor results. When i n doubt, restore surface preparation to the
necessary degree.
7.5 Surf ace Prof i l e or Anchor Pattern
Page 9 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
a. Match profi l e to accommodate selected l iner.
b. Refer to materi al manufacturer's recommendati on.
c. Typical anchor pattern is 1.5 to 4 mils. This generally i ncreases with l iner
thickness.
7.6 Types and Qual i ty of Abrasi ves
SECTI ON 8 - LI NI NG APPLI CATI ON
8.1 General
a. Avoid disbonding or delaminati on by foll owi ng manufacturer's
recommendati ons.
b. Sti ck to ti me i nterval (between coats) recommended by owner's
speci fications or manufacturer.
c. SSPC-PA1 is a dependable procedure to fol low.
d. Establish and adhere to recommended drying (curing) peri od. Customers
often get impati ent.
8.2 Appl i cati on Gui del i nes
a. SSPC-PA1 and NACE 6F164 - Good pai nti ng practi ce.
b. Establi sh and adhere to proper mixi ng practices.
c. If confl icts ari se (between owner/ user; l iner appli cator or material
manufacturer) over any aspect of the job, resol ve them pri or to begi nning
the project.
d. Consider restraints imposed by steel temperature and relative humidity.
8.4 Li ni ng Thi ckness
a. Insuffici ent fi lm thickness will not provide adequate coverage or
protecti on.
b. Excessive thickness can compromise adhesi on and i ntegrity. Thi cker i s
not al ways better.
8.5 Li ni ng Curi ng
a. Lini ng fail ure is attributed to:
i. Improper preparati on.
ii. Improper appl ication.
iii. Inadequate curi ng.
NOTE: Adhesion and film integri ty depend upon above listed i tems.
b. Proper curi ng conditi ons may be aided by force-curing (i.e., circulating
warmed, dehumi dified air).
Notes
Page 10 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
API RP 652
(Rei nf orced Gl ass-epoxy I nternal Li ni ng 65 Mi l s Thi ck)
Cl ean and repair the tank bottom (i nstall lap weld steel pl ate patches 3/ 16" or 1/ 4" and
weld build-up).
Abrasive bl ast per API 652 speci fications, remove all resi due (air bl ow, broom sweep
and vacuum) remove all moisture.
Hand trowel epoxy in the corner area and radius all transi ti ons, and around patch
plates.
Consult a "Techni cal Representati ve" for the product being instal led, include a job site
visit.
If the foll owi ng conditi ons are correct:
Proper bl ast profile
Proper materi al mi xture
Appl ication equi pment properly functioning
Material speci fications correct
Proper thi ckness applied
Proper curing procedure followed
Weather restrai nts are observed
The l i ni ng wi l l be sati sf actory and l ast 10 - 20 years.
SECTI ON 9 - I NSPECTI ON
Items 7.1 (General ) through 7.3.2.4 (Disconti nuities) list some qual ifi cations, parameters
and procedures to assist or gui de in the area of Inspection. Without goi ng into detail or
expl anati on, some or al l of the followi ng should provide guidel ines or assistance.
9.2 Personnel NACE certi f i ed
9.3 Recommended Inspecti on Parameters
Refer to NACE RP-02-88
9.3.1.2 Cleanli ness and Profile: Refer to SSPC-VIS1 (reference
photos) and NACE TMO175 (sealed steel reference panel s
NACE RPO287 provides a method of measuring surface
profil e.
9.3.1.3 Fil m thickness
Page 11 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
a. Soon after application, wet f i l m "t" measurement
should be made. Refer to ASTM D4414.
b. After curing, dry f i l m "t". Refer to SSPC PA2.
9.3.1.4 Hardness: As appl i cabl e, refer to the fol lowing procedures:
a. ASTM D 2583
b. ASTM D 2240
c. ASTM D 3363
d. Solvent wipe test
9.3.1.5 Di scontinuities
a. Linings exceeding 20 mil s "t" shall be holiday tested
wi th a hi gh voltage detector (see NACE RPO188).
b. Linings l ess than 20 mil s shoul d be tested wi th a low
vol tage (67.5 volts) wet sponge detector.
SECTI ON 10 - REPAI R OF TANK BOTTOM LI NI NGS
10.1 General
a. Properl y selected/ appli ed li ners should provide a service l ife of 10-20
years.
b. Any bottom mechanical repair shoul d be compl ete prior to any li ner
installation or repai r.
10.2 Determi ne Cause of Fai l ure
Before decidi ng how to make a li ni ng failure repai r, the cause or extent shoul d be
establ ished by visual inspecti on and a revi ew of the operati ng history. Attempt
to determine if:
a. Failure was due to mechani cal damage.
b. Envi ronmental attack was responsi bl e.
c. Improperl y instal led.
10.3 Types of Repai r
a. Spot repai rs for locali zed fail ure (blisters, pinholes or mechani cal damage)
b. Topcoating for more extensi ve fai lure but where adhesi on and integrity is
still good. Make sure topcoat is compatible with existing li ner.
c. Complete repl acement when existi ng l iner i s beyond repair.
SECTI ON 11 - SAFETY
Page 12 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
11.2 Tank Entry
Permits for tank entry and hot work shoul d be issued and enforced.
Fol low gui del ines for issuing permits and preparing a tank or confi ned space for
entry, as detai led i n API Publ ication 2015.
11.3 Surf ace Preparati on and Li ni ng Appl i cati on
Use respi ratory equipment and protective clothing as found in:
a. OSHA Standard for Abrasi ve Blasting.
b. SSPC PA 3.
c. NACE 6D163.
d. Any rel evant federal or state regulati on.
e. As required on tank entry permit.
11.4 Manuf acturer's Materi al Saf ety Data Sheets
a. Indi cates the "chemi cal make-up" that can present health hazards to
personnel .
b. MSDS i nform about materials so that they can protect themsel ves and
how to respond properl y to emergency situations.
c. Purpose of MSDS is to inform personnel of:
i. A Material's physical properties whi ch make it hazardous to
handl e.
ii. The type of personal protecti ve equipment needed.
iii. Fi rst ai d treatment necessary ( if exposed).
i v. Safe handli ng under normal conditions and during emergencies
such as fires and spi lls.
v. Appropri ate response to acci dents.
Page 13 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
API -652 (LI NI NG TANK BOTTOMS)
"QUI Z"
1. Whi ch of the foll owi ng pertains to or establi shes the "dew poi nt"?
a. Di fference (in °F) between the relati ve humidi ty value and the
internal tank air temperature.
b. Di fference (i n °F) between the i nternal tank ai r temperature and
the substrate (steel) temperature
c. The temperature at whi ch moi sture condenses from the
atmosphere.
d. The moi sture content value at which adhesi on between the l iner
and the substrate cannot be achieved.
2. Indi cate the most correct definition for "a hol i day".
a. A lamination that develops between coating layers.
b. A di scontinuity i n a coating fil m that exposes the metal surface
to the environment.
c. Any thin liner area where an additional film "t" layer is required.
3. , and
are common examples of aromatic solvents.
4. A is an oxide layer formed on steel
during hot forming operati ons.
5. There are fi ve (5) common mechani sms normally associated wi th i nternal
tank bottom corrosion. Li st any three (3) of the fi ve (5) causes below.
a.
b.
c.
6. Match the foll owing SSPC surface preparation to the metal fi nish
speci fication, as speci fied in Secti on 5. Draw Arrow to Connect.
Whi te Metal Fi nish SSPC-SP5 NACE #1
Near-White Metal Fi ni sh SSPC-SP10 NACE #2
Page 14 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
7. Select the general rul e normall y followed relative to liner appli cati on vs.
temperature and humidi ty restri ctions.
a. 5°F (3°C) above dew point, with rel ati ve humidity below 80%
b. 10°F (5.5°C) above dew poi nt, wi th relative humidi ty below 80%
c. Stop appl ication when visuall y, adhesion and bondi ng i s not
bei ng achi eved.
d. Any substrate temperature when moisture i s visi bl e.
8. What is the typi cal range required on anchor pattern (i.e., depth profi le)
prior to liner instal lation.
Answer:
9. is a natural or syntheti c substance that may be
used as a bi nder in coatings.
10. When considering the need for an internal l i ning, make sel ecti ons from
below as some of the more i mportant.
A. a. Where is corrosion occurring?
b. How fast is it proceeding.
c. Have there been signi ficant corrosi on rates changes.
d. What type of corrosi on i s occurring.
e. Have bottom perforations occurred.
B. Sub-items "b", "c" and "d" only.
C. All of the above.
D. Pri mari l y cost and out-of service time frame i nvol ved.
Page 15 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
unsaturated ri ng with delocal ized pi electrons. Benzene, tol uene and
xyl ene are common examples of aromatic solvents.
3.7 bi sphenol -A pol yester: A polyester whose chemi cal structure
i ncorporates Bisphenol -A i nto the resin molecule in place of some or all of
the gl ycol . The solid resin is generall y provided a sol uti on i n styrene,
which acts as a sol vent and as a cross-l i nking agent for the resi n.
3.8 cathode: An electrode of an electrochemi cal cell as which a reduction
i s the princi pl e reaction. El ectrons fl ow toward the cathode i n the external
circui t. * Antonym: anode
3.9 cathodi c protecti on: A technique for to reduce corrosi on of a metal
surface by making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell .
3.10 coal tar: A black hydrocarbon resi due remaining after coal is distill ed.
3.11 coal tar epoxy: A coati ng in which the binder is a combi nati on of coal
tar and epoxy resin.
3.12 copol ymer: A large mol ecule whose chemi cal structure consi sts of at
l east two (2) di fferent monomers.
3.13 corrosi on: The deterioration of a materi al, usual ly a metal , because of a
reaction with i ts environment.
3.14 curi ng: The setting up, or hardening, generall y due to a polymeri zation
reaction between two (2) or more chemi cals (resi n and curati ve).
3.15 dew poi nt: Pertains to the temperature at which moi sture condenses
from the atmosphere.
3.16 di f f erenti al aerati on cel l : An electrochemi cal cel l , the el ectromotive
force of which i s due to a difference in ai r (oxygen) concentration at one
el ectrode as compared with that at another electrode of the same material.
3.17 el ectrochemi cal cel l : A system consisting of an anode and a cathode
i mmersed in an el ectrolyte so as to create an electri cal ci rcui t. The anode
and the cathode may be different metal s or di ssimil ar areas on the same
metal surface.
3.18 el ectrol yte: A chemical substance containi ng ions that mi grate i n an
electri c field.
3.19 epoxy: Resi n containing epoxi de (oxirane) functional groups that all ow
for curing by polymerization wi th a vari ety of curatives. Epoxy resins are
usually made from Bi sphenol-A and epichlorohydrin.
3.20 f orced-curi ng: Accel erati on of curi ng by increasing the temperature
above ambient, accompanied by forced air ci rculati on.
3.21 hol i day: A di scontinui ty in a coating film that exposes the metal surface
Page 16 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
API 652 CODE QUI Z
ANSWER KEY
1. "c" (Temperature at whi ch moisture condenses from atmosphere.
2. "b" (Disconti nuity exposi ng surface to environment).
3. Benzene, Toluene and Xylene.
4. Mill Scale
5. Any of the fol lowing:
Chemi cal Corrosi on
Concentrati on cell corrosion
Gal vani c Cell Corrosion
Erosi on Corrosion
Corrosi on caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria.
6. Whi te --------- SP5 #1
Near-Whi te ---- SP10 #2
7. "a" (5°F above dew point with relati ve humidity bel ow 80%).
8. 1.5 to 4 mi ls
9. Resin
10. A - All 5 considerations.
Page 17 of 17 API RP-652 Summary, 1998
Section 6
API Recommended Practice 571 Summary
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Page 1 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006 Page 1 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
(ThIs pagc IntcntInna!!y !cft b!ank)
Page 2 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
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Damagc McchanIsms AffcctIng FIxcd
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lTAC Genera| Note:
The entlre APl RP 571 document ls not a µart of the APl 653 lnsµector
Certlflcatlon Exam. On|µ the sectlons |lsted here are lnc|uded on the exam. Co|or
µhotograµhs of the corroslon damage are atal|ab|e on|µ uhen the entlre document
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5ECTION 1 - 5COPE
1.2. 5cnpc
CeneraI guidance as lo lhe nosl IikeIy danage nechanisns for connon
aIIoys used in lhe refining and pelrochenicaI induslry is provided in lhis
reconnended praclice.
5ECTION - 2 REFERENCE5
OulIines lhe slandards, codes and specificalions vhich are ciled in lhe
reconnended praclice. This seclion is NOTincIuded on lhe AII 653
Cerlificalion Lxan.
5ECTION - 3 DEFINITION OF TERM5 ANDABBREVIATION5
These lerns, synloIs and allrevialions are NOT incIuded on lhe AII 653
Cerlificalion Lxan, hovever, you are encouraged lo lecone faniIiar vilh
lhe lerninoIogy of lhe induslry in order lo effecliveIy inprove
connunicalion lelveen you and lhe nany peopIe invoIved in lhe inspeclion
process.
Page 3 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
5ECTION 4 - Gcncra! Damagc McchanIsms - A!! IndustrIcs
4.1 Gcncra!
Danage nechanisns lhal are connon lo a variely of induslries incIuding
refining and pelrochenicaI, puIp and paper, and fossiI uliIily are covered in
lhis seclion.
4.2 - McchanIca! and Mcta!!urgIca! FaI!urc McchanIsms
4.2.7 - BrItt!c Fracturc
4.2.7.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
ßrillIe fraclure is lhe sudden rapid fraclure under slress
(residuaI or appIied) vhere lhe naleriaI exhilils IillIe or no
evidence of ducliIily or pIaslic defornalion.
The fraclure lraveIs lhrough lhe parl al lhe speed of sound!
Tenperalure Consideralions: 6O
o
I (15
o
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o
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CeneraIIy, lhere is no advance nolice.
4.2.7.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
a. Carlon sleeIs andIov aIIoy sleeIs are of prine concern,
parlicuIarIy oIder sleeIs.
l. 4OO series slainIess sleeIs are aIso susceplilIe.
4.2.16 - McchanIca! FatIguc
4.2.16.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
a. Ialigue cracking is a nechanicaI forn of degradalion lhal
occurs vhen a conponenl is exposed lo cycIicaI slresses
for an exlended period, oflen resuIling in sudden,
unexpecled faiIure.
l. These slresses can arise fron eilher nechanicaI Ioading
or lhernaI cycIing and are lypicaIIy veII leIov lhe yieId
slrenglh of lhe naleriaI.
Page 4 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
4.2.16.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
AII engineering aIIoys are suljecl lo faligue cracking,
aIlhough lhe slress IeveIs and nunler of cycIes necessary lo
cause faiIure vary ly naleriaI.
4.3.2 - AtmnsphcrIc CnrrnsInn
4.3.2.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
A forn of corrosion lhal occurs fron noislure associaled vilh
alnospheric condilions. Marine environnenls and noisl
poIIuled induslriaI environnenls vilh airlorne conlaninanls
are nosl severe. Dry ruraI environnenls cause very IillIe
corrosion.
4.3.2.3 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
a. Carlon SleeI
l. Lov aIIoy sleeIs
c. Copper aIIoyed aIuninun
4.3.3 - CnrrnsInn Undcr Insu!atInn (CUI)
4.3.3.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
Corrosion of piping, pressure vesseIs and slrucluraI
conponenls resuIling fron valer lrapped under insuIalion or
fireproofing.
4.3.3.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
a. Carlon sleeI
l. Lov aIIoy sleeIs
c. 3OO series slainIess sleeI
d. DupIex slainIess sleeI
4.3.8 - MIcrnbIn!ngIca! Induccd CnrrnsInn (MIC)
4.3.8.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
A forn of corrosion caused ly Iiving organisns such as
lacleria, aIgae or fungi. Il is oflen associaled vilh lhe
presence of lulercIes or sIiny organic sulslances.
Page 5 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
4.3.8.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
Mosl connon naleriaIs of conslruclion, incIuding:
a. Carlon sleeI
l. Lov aIIov sleeI
c. 3OO series slainIess sleeI
d. 4OO series slainIess sleeI
e. AIuninun
f. Copper
g. Sone nickeI lased aIIoys
4.3.9 - 5nI! CnrrnsInn
4.3.9.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
The delerioralion of nelaIs exposed lo soiIs is referred lo as a
soiI corrosion.
4.3.9.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
a. Carlon sleeI
l. Casl iron
c. DucliIe iron
4.3.10 - CaustIc CnrrnsInn
4.3.10.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
LocaIized corrosion due lo lhe concenlralion of causlic or
AIkaIine saIls lhal usuaIIy occurs under evaporalive or high
Heal lransfer condilions. Hovever, generaI corrosion can
AIso occur depending on aIkaIi or causlic soIulion slrenglh.
4.3.10.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
IrinariIy carlon sleeI, Iov aIIoy sleeIs and 3OO Series SS
Page 6 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
4.5.1 - Ch!nrIdc 5trcss CnrrnsInn CrackIng (C! 5CC)
4.5.1.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
Surface inilialed cracks caused ly environnenlaI cracking of
3OO series slainIess sleeI and sone nickeI lase aIIoys under lhe
conlined aclion of lensiIe slress, lenperalure and an aqueous
chIoride environnenl. The presence of dissoIved oxygen
increases propensily for cracking.
4.5.1.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
a. AII 3OO series slainIess sleeIs are highIy susceplilIe
l. DupIex slainIess sleeIs are nore resislanl
c. NickeI lase aIIoys are highIy resislanl
4.5.3 - CaustIc 5trcss CnrrnsInn CrackIng (CaustIc EmbrItt!cmcnt)
4.5.3.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
Causlic enlrillIenenl is a forn of slress corrosion cracking
characlerized ly surface-inilialed cracks lhal occur in piping
and equipnenl exposed lo causlic, prinariIy adjacenl lo non-
IWHT´d veIds.
4.5.3.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
a. Carlon sleeI
l. Lov aIIoy sleeIs
c. 3OO series slainIess sleeI
NickeI lase aIIoys are nore resislanl.
Page 7 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
5ECTION 5 - REFINING INDU5TRY DAMAGE MECHANI5M5
Danage nechanisns found in lhe refining environnenl are discussed in lhis
seclion. OnIy Seclion 5.1.1.11 (SuIfuric Acid Corrosion) has leen nade a parl of lhe
AII 653 Cerlificalion Lxan, and lhe onIy ilen in lhis seclion vhich viII le covered in
lhis lexllook.
5.1.1.11 - 5u!furIc AcId CnrrnsInn
5.1.1.11.1 - DcscrIptInn nf Damagc
SuIfuric acid pronoles generaI and IocaIized corrosion of carlon
sleeI and olher aIIoys. Carlon sleeI heal affecled zones nay
experience severe corrosion
5.1.1.11.2 - Affcctcd MatcrIa!s
In order of increasing resislance:
a. Carlon sleeI
l. 316L SS
c. AIIoy 2O
d. High siIicon casl iron
e. High nickeI casl iron
f. AIIoy ß-2
g. AIIoy C276
Thc rcst nf thIs dncumcnt Is tab!cs and dIagrams nf prnccss f!nw dIagrams (PFD's),
whIch arc nnt cnvcrcd In thc API 653 CcrtIfIcatInn Exam.
Page 8 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright 2006
Section 7
API RP 577 Summary
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Page 1 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006 Page 1 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
(Thi s page i ntenti onal l y l ef t bl ank)
Page 2 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
API RP 577
Fi rst Edi ti on - October, 2004
Wel di ng I nspecti on and Metal l urgy
SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE
API RP 577 provides gui dance to the API authorized i nspector on welding
inspection, as encountered wi th fabri cation and repai r of refi nery and
chemical plant equipment and pi ping. Common weldi ng processes, wel ding
procedures, welder qualifications, metallurgi cal effects from wel di ng, and
inspecti on techni ques are described.
SECTI ON 2 - REFERENCES
SECTI ON 3 - DEFI NI TI ONS
(For the purposes of thi s standard, the foll owing defi ni tions apply.)
3.1 actual throat: The shortest
distance between the wel d root and
the face of a fi llet wel d.
3.2 ai r carbon arc cutti ng (CAC-A): A
carbon arc cutting process vari ation
that removes molten metal wi th a jet
of air.
3.3 arc bl ow: The deflection of an arc
from i ts normal path because of
magnetic forces.
3.4 arc l ength: The distance from the
ti p of the weldi ng el ectrode to the
adjacent surface of the weld pool .
3.5 arc stri ke: A di scontinuity
resul ting from an arc, consi sti ng of
any locali zed remel ted metal , heat-
affected metal, or change in the
surface profi le of any metal object.
3.6 arc wel di ng (AW): A group of
welding processes that produces
coalescence of work pi eces by heati ng
them with an arc. The processes are
used with or without the appli cati on of
pressure and with or wi thout fi ller
metal .
Page 3 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
3.7 autogenous wel d: A fusi on weld
made without fill er metal .
3.8 back-gougi ng: The removal of
weld metal and base metal from the
weld root si de of a welded joi nt to
facil itate complete fusi on and complete
joint penetration upon subsequent
welding from that side.
3.9 backi ng: A material or devi ce
placed against the backside of the
joint, or at both sides of a weld in
welding, to support and retai n mol ten
weld metal.
3.10 base metal : The metal or all oy
that is welded or cut.
3.11 bevel angl e: The angl e between
the bevel of a joint member and a
plane perpendicular to the surface of
the member.
3.12 burn-through: A non-standard
term for excessi ve vi si bl e root
rei nforcement in a joi nt wel ded from
one side or a hole through the root
bead. Also, a common term used to
reflect the act of penetrating a thi n
component with the wel ding arc while
hot tap wel ding or i n-servi ce wel ding.
3.13 constant current power suppl y:
An arc wel ding power source with a
volt-ampere rel ationshi p yiel ding a
small wel di ng current change from a
large arc voltage change.
3.14 constant vol tage power suppl y:
An arc wel ding power source with a
volt-ampere rel ationshi p yiel ding a
large wel ding current change from a
small voltage change.
3.15 crack: A fracture type
discontinui ty characteri zed by a sharp
tip and hi gh ratio of length and wi dth
to opening displacement.
3.16 def ect: A disconti nuity or
discontinuities that by nature or
accumul ated effect (for exampl e total
crack length) render a part or product
unable to meet mini mum applicable
acceptance standards or speci fications.
The term desi gnates rejectabi li ty.
3.17 di rect current el ectrode negati ve
(DCEN): The arrangement of direct
current arc welding leads in whi ch the
el ectrode is the negative pole and
workpiece is the positive pole of the
welding arc. Commonly known as
strai ght polarity.
3.18 di rect current el ectrode posi ti ve
(DCEP): The arrangement of di rect
current arc welding leads in whi ch the
electrode is the positive pole and the
workpiece is the negati ve pole of the
welding arc. Commonly known as
reverse pol ari ty.
3.19 di sconti nui ty: An i nterruption of
the typical structure of a materi al, such
as a l ack of homogenei ty in i ts
mechanical, metal lurgical or physi cal
characteri stics. A discontinui ty is not
necessaril y a defect.
3.20 di storti on: The change in shape
or dimensi ons, temporary or
permanent, of a part as a resul t of
heating or welding.
3.21 f i l l er metal : The metal or all oy
to be added in making a welded joint.
3.22 f i l l et wel d si ze: For equal leg
fil let welds, the leg l engths of the
largest i sosceles ri ght triangle that can
be i nscribed wi thin the fill et weld cross
section.
3.23 f usi on l i ne: A non-standard
term for wel d i nterface.
3.24 groove angl e: The total incl uded
angl e of the groove between
workpi eces.
Page 4 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
3.25 heat af f ected zone (HAZ): The
porti on of the base metal whose
mechanical properti es or
microstructure have been altered by
the heat of weldi ng or thermal cutti ng.
3.26 heat i nput: The energy suppl ied
by the weldi ng arc to the workpi ece.
Heat i nput is cal cul ated as follows:
heat input = (V x i)/ 60v, where V =
voltage, i = amperage, v = wel d travel
speed (in./ min.).
3.27 hot cracki ng: Cracking formed
at temperatures near the completi on
of solidification.
3.28 i ncl usi on: Entrapped forei gn
solid materi al, such as slag, fl ux,
tungsten or oxi de.
3.29 i ncompl ete f usi on: A weld
discontinuity in which complete
coal escence did not occur between
weld metal and fusion faces or
adjoi ning weld beads.
3.30 i ncompl ete j oi nt penetrati on: A
joint root condi ti on i n a groove weld
i n whi ch weld metal does not extend
through the joi nt thi ckness.
3.31 i nspector: An i ndividual who is
qual ified and certified to perform
i nspections under the proper
i nspection code or who holds a val id
and current National Board
Commi ssi on.
3.32 i nterpass temperature, wel di ng:
In mul tipass weld, the temperature of
the weld area between wel d passes.
3.33 I QI : Image quali ty indicator.
Penetrameter i s another common
term for IQI.
3.34 j oi nt penetrati on: The distance
the weld metal extends from the weld
face into a joint, exclusive of wel d
rei nforcement.
3.35 j oi nt type: A wel d joi nt
classification based on five basic joint
confi gurations such as a butt joint,
corner joint, edge joint, lap joi nt and t-
joi nt.
3.36 l ack of f usi on (LOF): A non-
standard term indicating a wel d
discontinuity i n which fusion did not
occur between weld metal and fusion
faces or adjoi ni ng weld beads.
3.37 l amel l ar tear: A subsurface
terrace and step-l i ke crack in the base
metal with a basi c orientation paral lel
to the wrought surface caused by
tensil e stresses in the through-
thi ckness di rection of the base metal
weakened by the presence of smal l
dispersed, pl anar shaped, nonmetallic
inclusi ons parallel to the metal surface.
3.38 l ami nati on: A type of
discontinui ty with separation or
weakness generally al igned paral lel to
the worked surface of a metal.
3.39 l i near di sconti nui ty: A
discontinui ty with a length that i s
substantial l y greater than i ts width.
3.40 l ongi tudi nal crack: A crack wi th
its major axi s orientati on
approximately parallel to the wel d
axis.
3.41 nondestructi ve exami nati on
(NDE): The act of determi ni ng the
suitabi li ty of some material or
component for its i ntended purpose
using techniques that do not affect its
serviceabili ty.
3.42 overl ap: The protrusi on of weld
metal beyond the wel d toe or weld
root.
3.43 oxyacetyl ene cutti ng (OFC-A):
An oxygen gas cutti ng process
variati on that uses acetylene as the
fuel gas.
Page 5 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
3.44 PMI (Posi ti ve Materi al s
I denti f i cati on): Any physical
eval uati on or test of a materi al
(electrode, wi re, flux, weld deposit,
base metal, etc.), which has been or
will be pl aced i nto service, to
demonstrate i t i s consistent wi th the
sel ected or speci fied al loy material
designated by the owner/ user. These
eval uati ons or tests may provi de
either qual i tati ve or quantitati ve
information that is sufficient to veri fy
the nomi nal al l oy composition.
3.45 peeni ng: The mechani cal
worki ng of metal s using impact bl ows.
3.46 penetrameter: Ol d terminol ogy
for IQI sti ll in use today but not
recogni zed by the codes and
standards.
3.47 porosi ty: Cavi ty-type
discontinuities formed by gas
entrapment during sol idi fication or in
thermal spray deposit.
3.48 preheat: Metal temperature
val ue achieved in a base metal or
substrate prior to i nitiating the
thermal operations.
3.49 recordabl e i ndi cati on:
Recordi ng on a data sheet of an
indication or condi tion that does not
necessaril y exceed the rejection cri teri a
but i n terms of code, contract or
procedure will be documented.
3.50 reportabl e i ndi cati on: Recording
on a data sheet of an indi cati on that
exceeds the reject fl aw size criteria and
needs not only documentati on, but
al so noti fication to the appropriate
authori ty to be corrected. Al l
reportabl e i ndi cati ons are recordabl e
indications but not vi ce-versa.
3.51 root f ace: The portion of the
groove face within the joint root.
3.52 root openi ng: A separati on at the
joi nt root between the workpieces.
3.53 shi el di ng gas: Protective gas
used to prevent or reduce atmospheric
contamination.
3.54 sl ag: A nonmetall ic product
resulting from the mutual dissoluti on
of fl ux and nonmetallic impuriti es in
some welding and brazing processes.
3.55 sl ag i ncl usi on: A di scontinui ty
consisting of sl ag entrapped in the
weld metal or at the weld i nterface.
3.56 spatter: The metal particles
expelled duri ng fusion wel ding that do
not form a part of the wel d.
3.57 tack wel d: A wel d made to hol d
the parts of a wel dment i n proper
ali gnment until the fi nal welds are
made.
3.58 throat theoreti cal : The distance
from the begi nning of the joi nt root
perpendicular to the hypotenuse of
the l argest right triangl e that can be
inscri bed within the cross-section of a
fil let wel d. This dimensi on is based on
the assumption that the root opening
is equal to zero.
3.59 transverse crack: A crack with i ts
major axi s oriented approxi matel y
perpendicul ar to the wel d axis.
3.60 travel angl e: The angl e less than
90 degrees between the el ectrode axis
and a line perpendi cular to the weld
axis, in a pl ane determi ned by the
electrode axis and the weld axi s.
3.61 tungsten i ncl usi on: A
di scontinui ty consisti ng of tungsten
entrapped in weld metal.
3.62 undercut: A groove melted i nto
the base metal adjacent to the weld toe
or wel d root and left unfi lled by weld
metal .
Page 6 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
3.63 underf i l l : A condi tion in which
the weld joint is incompletel y fi lled
when compared to the intended
desi gn.
3.64 wel der certi f i cati on: Wri tten
verification that a welder has
produced welds meeting a prescribed
standard of welder performance.
3.65 wel di ng: A joining process that
produces coalescence of base metals
by heati ng them to the welding
temperature, wi th or wi thout the
appl icati on of pressure or by the
appl icati on of pressure alone, and with
or wi thout the use of fi ller metal.
3.66 wel di ng engi neer: An i ndividual
who hol ds an engineering degree and
i s knowledgeable and experienced in
the engineeri ng disci pl ines associ ated
wi th wel di ng.
3.67 wel dment: An assembly whose
component parts are joined by
weldi ng.
3.68 wel d j oi nt: The junction of
members or the edges of members
which are to be joined or have been
joined by wel ding.
3.69 wel d rei nf orcement: Wel d metal
i n excess of the quantity required to fi l l
a joint.
3.70 wel d toe: The juncti on of the
weld face and the base metal.
Page 7 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
SECTI ON 4: WELDI NG I NSPECTI ON
4.1 GENERAL
This secti on focuses on the tasks that are not onl y consi dered the
responsibili ty of the inspection personnel , but also other concerned parties
who wil l design, exami ne or perform wel di ng.
4.2 TASKS PRI OR TO WELDI NG
These cruci al steps are necessary to avoid the many wel ding probl ems which
can occur duri ng or after the welding process.
4.2.1 Drawi ngs, Codes and Standards
Revi ew the drawi ngs, standards, codes and specificati ons to ensure the
requi rements for the weldment are understood, as well as to identify
any i nconsistencies.
4.2.2 Wel dment Requi rements
Revi ew requi rements for the wel dment wi th the personnel i nvolved
wi th executing the work
4.2.3 Procedures and Qual i f i cati on Records
Revi ew the WPS(s) and wel der performance qual ification record(s)
(WPQ) to assure they are acceptable for the work.
4.2.4 NDE I nf ormati on
Confirm the NDE examiner(s), NDE procedure(s) and NDE equipment
of the inspecti on organi zati on are acceptable for the work.
4.2.5 Wel di ng Equi pment and I nstruments
Confirm wel ding equi pment and instruments are cal ibrated and
operate properly.
4.2.6 Heat Treatment and Pressure Testi ng
Confirm heat treatment and pressure testing procedures and
associated equipment are acceptable.
4.2.7 Materi al s
Ensure al l fil ler metals, base materials and backing ri ng material s are
properly marked and identified and, i f requi red, perform PMI to verify
the materi al composi tion.
Page 8 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
4.2.8 Wel d Preparati on
Confi rm weld preparation, joi nt fit-up, and di mensi ons are acceptabl e
and correct.
4.2.9 Preheat
Confi rm the preheat equi pment and temperature.
4.2.10 Wel di ng Consumabl es
Confi rm electrode, fi l ler wire, fl uxes, and i nert gases are as speci fied
and acceptable.
4.3 TASKS DURING WELDI NG OPERATI ONS
Welding inspection during welding operati ons should include audit
parameters to veri fy the wel ding is performed to the procedures.
4.3.1 Qual i ty Assurance
Establi sh a qual ity assurance and qual ity control umbrella wi th the
wel ding organi zation.
4.3.2 Wel di ng Parameters and Techni ques
Confi rm wel di ng parameters and techniques are supported by the
WPS and WPQ.
4.3.3 Wel dment Exami nati on
Complete physical checks, vi sual examination and in-process NDE
4.4 TASKS UPON COMPLETION OF WELDI NG
Fi nal tasks upon compl eti on of the weldment and work should include those
that assure final wel d quality before placi ng the wel dment i n service.
4.4.1 Appearance and Fi ni sh
Verify post-weld acceptance, appearance and finishing of the wel ded
joints.
4.4.2 NDE Revi ew
Verify NDE i s performed at sel ected locations and revi ew examiner s
findings.
4.4.3 Post-wel d Heat Treatment
Verify post-wel d heat treatment is performed to the procedure and
produces acceptabl e resul ts.
Page 9 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
4.4.4 Pressure Testi ng
Verify pressure test is performed to the procedure.
4.4.5 Documentati on Audi t
Perform a fi nal audi t of the inspection dossi er to identi fy inaccuraci es
and incompl ete information.
4.5 NON-CONFORMANCES AND DEFECTS
At any time duri ng the wel ding inspecti on, i f defects or non-conformances to
the specifi cation are identi fied, they should be brought to the attention of
those responsible for the work or corrected before weldi ng proceeds further.
4.6 NDE EXAMI NER CERTI FI CATI ON
The referencing codes or standards may require the examiner to be qual i fied
in accordance wi th a specifi c code and certifi ed as meeti ng the requirements.
They al so require the empl oyer to develop and establi sh a written practice or
procedure that detai ls the empl oyer s requirements for certi fi cati on of
inspection personnel.
4.7 SAFETY PRECAUTI ONS
Inspectors should be aware of the hazards associated wi th welding and take
appropriate steps to prevent injury whi le performi ng i nspection tasks. At a
mini mum, the site s safety rul es and regul ations shoul d be revi ewed as
appli cable to welding operati ons.
Page 10 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
SECTI ON 5 WELDI NG PROCESSES
5.1 GENERAL
The i nspector shoul d understand the basi c arc wel ding processes most
frequently used i n the fabricati on and repair of refinery and chemical process
equipment. These processes include:
a. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
b. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
c. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
d. Flux cored arc wel di ng (FCAW)
e. Submerged arc welding (SAW)
f. Stud arc welding (SW)
5.2 SHI ELDED METAL ARC WELDI NG (SMAW)
a. Most wi del y used of the vari ous arc welding processes.
b. Uses an arc between a covered electrode and the weld pool.
c. Employs the heat of the arc coming from the ti p of a consumabl e
covered electrode, to melt the base metal .
d. Shieldi ng i s provi ded from the decomposi ti on of the el ectrode
covering, without the appl icati on of pressure and wi th fil l er metal
from the electrode
e. Ei ther alternating current (ac) or direct current (dc) may be employed.
5.2.1 El ectrode Coveri ng
Dependi ng on the type of electrode being used, the coveri ng performs
one or more of the foll owi ng functions:
a. Provides a gas to shiel d the arc and prevent excessive
atmospheric contamination of the molten fill er metal .
b. Provi des scavengers, deoxi dizers, and fluxi ng agents to cleanse
the weld and prevent excessive grai n growth in the wel d metal .
c. Establ ishes the el ectrical characteristics of the electrode.
d. Provides a slag blanket to protect the hot wel d metal from the
air and enhances the mechanical properti es, bead shape, and
surface cleanli ness of the wel d metal.
e. Provides a means of addi ng al loying elements to change the
mechanical properties of the weld metal.
5.2.2 Advantages of SMAW
a. Equipment i s relativel y si mple, inexpensive, and portabl e.
b. Can be used i n areas of li mited access.
c. Less sensi ti ve to wind and draft than other processes.
d. Used with most common metals and all oys
e. High qual ity welds.
Page 11 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
5.2.3 Li mi tati ons of SMAW
a. Deposi tion rates are lower than for other processes.
b. Sl ag usually must be removed at stops and starts, and before
deposi ting a weld bead adjacent to or onto a previ ousl y
deposi ted wel d bead.
c. El ectrode storage.
5.3 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDI NG (GTAW)
a. Uses an arc between a non-consumabl e tungsten el ectrode and the
weld pool .
b. Used with shielding gas and without the appl ication of pressure.
c. Used with or wi thout the addition of f i l l er metal (Autogenous).
d. The CC type power supply can be used with ei ther dc or ac.
Injecti on poi nts
Deadlegs
Corrosion under i nsul ati on (CUI)
Soil -to-air (S/ A) i nterfaces
Service speci fic and local ized corrosion
Erosion and corrosi on/ erosion
Environmental cracki ng
Corrosion beneath linings and deposi ts
Fati gue cracking
Creep cracki ng
Bri ttle fracture
Freeze damage
5.3.1 Advantages of GTAW
a. Produces high purity welds.
b. Li ttle post-wel d cl eaning is requi red.
c. Al lows for excell ent control of root pass weld penetration
d. Can be used for autogenous welds (no fi ll er metal).
e. Good for thi n metals
f. Good appearance
g. Mechani zation potential
5.3.2 Li mi tati ons of GTAW
a. Relatively sl ow depositi on rate
b. Low tol erance for contaminants
c. Di fficult to shi eld the weld zone i n drafty environments
d. Two-handed process
Page 12 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
5.4 GAS METAL ARC WELDI NG (GMAW)
a. Uses an arc between conti nuous f i l l er metal el ectrode and the wel d
pool.
b. Used wi th shielding from an externally suppli ed gas and without
appl icati on of pressure.
c. Can be operated in semi automati c, machi ne or automati c modes.
d. Employs a constant voltage (CV) power suppl y
e. Uses short-ci rcuiti ng, globular or spray methods to transfer metal
from the electrode to the workpi ece.
The type of transfer i s determined by these most i nfl uenti al factors:
i. Magnitude and type of wel ding current
i i. El ectrode di ameter
iii. El ectrode composition
iv. El ectrode extensi on
v. Shielding gas
5.4.1 Short Ci rcui ti ng Transf er (GMAW-S)
a. Encompasses the l owest range of wel di ng currents and
el ectrode di ameters.
b. Produces a fast freezing weld pool that is generally sui ted f or:
i. Joining thin secti ons
i i. Out-of-positi on
iii. Root pass
c. With fast-freezi ng nature of the process, comes the potential for
lack of sidewall fusion when welding thick-wal l equipment or a
nozzle attachment.
5.4.2 Gl obul ar Transf er
a. Encompasses relatively l ow current (below 250 A).
b. Characteri zed by a drop si ze wi th a di ameter greater than that
of the el ectrode
c. General ly l i mi ted to the f l at posi ti on.
d. Can produce spatter.
5.4.3 Spray Transf er
a. Hi ghl y di rected stream of di screte drops that are accel erated
by arc forces.
b. Spatter is negligibl e
c. May be di f f i cul t to appl y to thi n sheets. (Thi ckness limitations
of the spray arc have been overcome by the use of pulsed
GMAW, i n whi ch the current i s pulsed to obtain the advantage
of spray transfer).
Page 13 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
5.4.4 Advantages of GMAW
a. Onl y consumable electrode process that can weld most
commercial metal s and alloys.
b. High productivity deposi tion rates are si gnifi cantly higher.
c. No sl ag to remove.
d. Cl ean process
e. Continuous feed
f. Lowest hydrogen potential of al l processes
5.4.5 Li mi tati ons of GMAW
a. Equi pment i s more complex and more costly.
b. Equipment is less portabl e and usually limited to shop welding.
c. Unsuitabl e for windy conditions.
d. Weld i s more susceptible to lack of fusion.
e. Li ttle tolerance for contami nati on.
f. Consumabl es.
5.5 FLUX CORED ARC WELDI NG (FCAW)
a. Process uses an arc between continuous tubul ar fil l er metal el ectrode
and the weld pool .
b. Used with shi elding gas from a fl ux contained within the tubul ar
el ectrode.
c. Can be used wi th or wi thout addi ti onal shi el di ng from an external ly
supplied gas.
d. Normally a semi automati c process.
e. Use depends on:
i. type of el ectrodes avail able
i i. mechani cal property requi rements of the welded joi nts
iii. joint desi gns and fit-up
f. Recommended power source is the dc constant-vol tage type.
5.5.1 Advantages of FCAW
a. Metallurgi cal benefits from the fl ux.
b. Sl ag supports and forms the wel d bead.
c. High deposition of weld metal .
d. Sui table for field work since shiel ding i s produced at
the surface gi ving better protecti on agai nst drafts.
e. Tol erates contami nati on.
f. Deep penetrati on.
5.5.2 Li mi tati ons of FCAW
a. Equi pment is compl ex, costly and less portable.
b. Heavy fumes requi re exhaust equi pment.
c. Slag removal between passes.
d. Backi ng materi al is required for root pass weldi ng.
Page 14 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
5.6 SUBMERGED ARC WELDI NG (SAW)
a. Uses an arc or arcs between a f l ux covered bare metal el ectrode(s)
and the weld pool.
b. The arc and mol ten metal are shi el ded by a bl anket of granul ar f l ux,
suppli ed through the welding nozzle from a hopper.
c. Process is used wi thout pressure and fi ller metal from the electrode
and sometimes from a supplemental source (weldi ng rod, fl ux or
metal granules).
d. Can be appl i ed in three di fferent modes:
i. semiautomatic
ii . automatic
iii . machine
e. Can use either a CV or CC power supply
f. Used extensively in shi p pressure vessel fabrication and pipe
manufacturing.
5.6.1 Advantages of SAW
a. Very high deposi ti on rate.
b. Repeatabl e hi gh qual ity welds for large wel dments and
repetitive short wel ds.
c. Deep penetrati on.
d. Good for overlay.
e. Hand-held process.
f. Hi gh operator appeal.
5.6.2 Li mi tati ons of SAW
a. Requires hi gh amperage at 100% duty cycl e.
b. Arc not visible, making i t harder to control .
c. Fl at or hori zontal fi l lets only.
d. Extensi ve set up time.
e. Needs posi tioni ng equipment.
f. Sl ag removal .
5.7 STUD ARC WELDI NG (SW)
a. Uses an arc between a metal stud and the work pi ece.
b. Once the surfaces of the parts are properly heated, they are brought
into contact by pressure.
c. Shiel ding gas or flux may or may not be used.
d. Process may be full y automatic or semiautomati c.
e. Stud gun hol ds the ti p of the stud agai nst the work.
f. Di rect current i s normally used for SW, with the stud gun connected to
the negative termi nal (DCEN)
g. The power source is a CC type.
h. Predomi nantly li mi ted to weldi ng i nsul ation and refractory support
pins to tanks, pressure vessel s and heater casi ng.
Page 15 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
5.7.1 Advantages of SW
a. High productivity
b. Considered an al l-position process
c. Simple
d. Repetiti ve
e. Automatic stud feeding (option)
5.7.2 Li mi tati ons of SW
a. Pri maril y suitable for onl y carbon and l ow-alloy steel s.
b. Specialized to a few appli cations.
c. Needs cl ean surface.
d. Equi pment malfunctions.
SECTI ON 6 WELDI NG PROCEDURES
(See I TAC Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on)
This section wi ll be discussed during the ASME Secti on IX presentation.
Anyone who is not fami liar with weldi ng procedures shoul d review thi s
secti on at length.
SECTI ON 7 WELDI NG MATERI ALS
(See I TAC Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on)
This section wi ll be discussed during the ASME Secti on IX presentation.
Anyone who is not famil iar with weldi ng materials should review thi s section
at length.
SECTI ON 8 WELDER QUALI FI CATI ON
(See I TAC Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on)
This section wi ll be discussed during the ASME Secti on IX presentation.
Anyone who i s not famili ar with welder qual ifications shoul d revi ew this
secti on at length.
SECTI ON 9 NONDESTRUCTI VE EXAMI NATI ON
(See I TAC Chapter 8 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on)
This section wi ll be discussed during the ASME Section V presentation.
Anyone who is not fami liar with NDE methods should review this secti on at
length.
Page 16 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
SECTI ON 10 - METALLURGY
(See I TAC Chapter 10 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on)
This secti on contains a very basic di scussion of welding metal lurgy, and a
review of thi s section wil l give you a general overview of the subject. It wi ll
not, however, make you profi cient in metall urgy. Addi tional study is a must.
SECTI ON 11 REFI NERY AND PETROCHEMI CAL
PLANT WELDI NG I SSUES
11.1 GENERAL
This secti on provi des detai ls of specifi c welding issues encountered by the
inspector i n refineries and petrochemical pl ants.
11.2 HOT TAPPI NG AND I N-SERVI CE WELDI NG
Prior to performing this work, a detailed wri tten pl an shoul d be
developed and reviewed.
11.2.1 El ectrode Consi derati ons
1. Hot tap and in-service wel di ng operations should be carried out
only wi th l ow-hydrogen consumables and electrodes (e.g.,
E7016, E7018 and E7048).
2. Extra-low hydrogen consumabl es, such as Exxxx-H4, should be
used for weldi ng carbon steels with CE greater than 0.43% or
where there is potenti al for hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC)
such as col d worked pieces, high strength and highly
constrained areas.
3. Cellul osi c type electrodes (e.g., E6010, E6011 or E7010) may be
used for root and hot passes.
(a) Advantages of cellulosi c electrodes:
(i) easy to operate.
(ii) provide i mproved control over the wel ding arc.
(b) Li mitati ons of cel lul osic electrodes:
(i) i ncreased risk of HAC and burn-through.
(ii) Hi gher risk of hydrogen assisted cracki ng (HAC).
Page 17 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
11.2.2 Fl ow Rates
Under most condi tions, some product flow i nside the materi al
bei ng welded is advantageous.
11.2.3 Other Consi derati ons
Avoi d weave beads to reduce heat input.
11.2.4 I nspecti on
a. UT for lami nati ons shoul d be performed before welding.
b. VT, PT and/ or MT can be performed on completed welds.
Page 18 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
APPENDI X A TERMI NOLOGY AND SYMBOLS
A.1 WELD JOI NT TYPES
Fi ve basi c joints:
a. Butt: A joint between two members al igned approximatel y in the
same plane.
Applicable Welds:
b. Corner: A joint between two members l ocated approxi matel y at right
angles to each other in the form of an L.
Applicable Welds:
Page 19 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
c. Tee: A joi nt between two members l ocated approxi matel y at ri ght
angles to each other in the form of a T.
Applicabl e Welds:
d. Lap: A joi nt between two overl appi ng members in parall el planes.
Applicabl e Welds:
Fillet
Bevel-Groove
Flare-V-Groove
J-Groove
Square-Groove
Plug
Slot
Spot
Seam
Projection
*Braze
Page 20 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
e. Edge: A joint between two or more parall el or nearly parallel
members.
Applicable Welds:
Page 21 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
A.2 WELD SYMBOLS
Engineering and constructi on drawi ngs often use standard symbols to
represent weld details.
Fi gure A-2 Symbol s f or Vari ous Wel d Joi nts
Note: The reference line is shown dashed for ill ustrative purposes.
Fi gure A-3 Suppl ementary Symbol s f or Wel ds
Page 22 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
Fi gure A-4 Standard Wel d Symbol s
A.3 WELD JOI NT NOMENCLATURE
Standard termi nology applies to the various components of a weld joi nt.
Fi gure A-5 Groove Wel d Nomencl ature
Page 23 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
A.4 ELECTRODE I DENTI FI CATI ON
The AWS specification and classi fication system allows selection of an
el ectrode, whi ch will provide a wel d metal with speci fic mechanical properties
and alloy composi tion.
Fi gure A-6 SMAW Wel di ng El ectrode I denti fi cati on System
Fi gure A-7 GMAW/GTAW wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System
Fi gure A-8 FCAW Wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System
Page 24 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
Fi gure A-9 SAW Wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System
APPENDI X B ACTI ONS TO ADDRESS
I MPROPERLY MADE PRODUCTI ON WELDS
No comment
APPENDI X C WELDI NG PROCEDURE REVI EW
Thi s subject matter is covered in the revi ew of ASME Section IX, but is an excel lent
source of reference material for those who do not have experi ence with wel ding
procedures.
APPENDI X D GUI DE TO COMMON FI LLER METAL SELECTION
No comment
Page 25 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
(Thi s page i ntenti onal l y l ef t bl ank)
Page 26 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam, Copyright Spring, 2006
Section 8
API 653 Nondestructive Examination
Summary
API 653
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API Paragraph 12.1.1.1
Nondestructive Exami nati on procedures, qual ifications and acceptance criteri a
shall be prepared for vi sual, magnetic particl e, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, and
radiographic methods in accordance wi th API Standard 650 and the
suppl emental requi rements given herein.
API 653 Paragraph 12.1.1.2
Personnel performi ng nondestructi ve exami nations shall be quali fi ed in
accordance wi th API 650 and the supplemental requirements given herein.
API 653 Paragraph 12.1.1.3
Acceptance Criteri a is based on API 650 and supplemental requi rements of API
653.
API 653 Paragraph 12.1.1.5
New Appendi x G is i ntroduced. The requi rements for MFL, procedures,
operator qual ifications, trai ni ng and equipment cal ibration is listed in this
appendix.
API 653 uses API 650 requi rements for nondestructi ve testi ng procedures and
personnel certi f i cati on.
The American Society for Nondestructi ve Testi ng, Inc. Recommended Practi ce SNT-TC-
1A i s recogni zed for technician qualifi cati ons in some NDE techniques.
SNT-TC-1A is a document that outl ines requirements for Personnel Quali ficati on and
Certifi cati on i n Nondestructi ve Testi ng, the mai n items l isted are:
a. Work Experi ence
b. Trai ning
c. Education
d. Testi ng
In order to qual i fy as an ASNT Level II, Radiographers must have:
a. 12 Months Job Experi ence
b. 79 Hours Formal Traini ng
c. Hi gh School Graduati on
d. Level II Exam, General , Specific and Practical
Page 1 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005 Page 1 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
In order to qualify as an ASNT Level II, Ultrasonic Techni cians must have:
a. 12 Months Job Experience
b. 80 Hours Formal Training
c. Hi gh School Graduati on
d. Level II Exam, General, Speci fic and Practical
API 650 does not requi re MT or PT Techni ci ans to be certi f i ed to
ASNT-SNT-TC-1A.
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Magneti c Parti cl e Method
MT Pri nci pl es of Operati on
Basically, an object or l ocal ized area i s magnetized through the use of AC or DC
current. Once the area is magnetized l ines of flux are formed, see above. Dry
iron powder, or i ron powder hel d i n suspension i s added to the surface of the
test piece. Any interruption i n the l ines of flux wil l create an i ndication which can
be eval uated. The process may be used on any materi al that is ferromagnetic.
This method of NDE can be used i n visi bl e l ight or wi th speci al powders, under
black light. Surface discontinues are the most commonl y detected i ndi cations
using this process.
Page 2 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
API 653 requi rements
API 653 di rects the user to API 650 Paragraph 6.2.1 - 6.2.3
When magnetic particl e examinati on i s specified, the method of exami nation
shall be i n accordance wi th the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V,
Nondestructive Exami nati on, Articl e 7.
API 650 Paragraph 6.2.2
Magnetic parti cle exami nati on shall be performed i n accordance with a written
procedure that is certi fied by the manufacturer to be i n compl iance with the
applicabl e requi rements of Secti on V, of the ASME Code.
API 650 Paragraph 6.2.3
No ASNT Certi fi cation Requi red, Manufacturer Determi ned
Magneti c Parti cl e Method Acceptance Standards per API 650
API 650 Paragraph 6.2.4
Acceptance standards and removal and repai r of defects shall be per Secti on VIII,
Appendi x 6, Paragraphs 6-3 and 6-4, of the ASME Code.
ASME Secti on VI I I , Appendi x 6, Paragraph 6-3
Defi ni tion of i ndication. Must be larger than 1/ 16 .
ASME Secti on VI I I , Appendi x 6, Paragraph 6-4
Acceptance Standards
All surfaces to be examined shall be free of:
a. rel evant li near indi cati ons;
b. rel evant rounded indi cations greater than 3/ 16
c. four or more rel evant rounded i ndi cati ons in l ine separated by
1/ 16 or less, edge to edge.
API 650 Paragraph 6.2.4
Acceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shal l be per Secti on VIII,
Appendix 6, Paragraphs 6-3 and 6-4, of the ASME Code.
ASME Secti on VI I I , Appendi x 6, Paragraph 6-3
Defi ni tion of i ndication. Must be larger than 1/ 16 .
Page 3 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
ASME Secti on VI I I , Appendi x 6, Paragraph 6-4
Acceptance Standards
All surfaces to be examined shal l be free of:
a. relevant li near indi cati ons;
b. rel evant rounded indi cations greater than 3/ 16
c. four or more rel evant rounded i ndicati ons in l ine separated by
1/ 16 or less, edge to edge.
Study Notes: Page Number: Standard/Code
Know where to fi nd:
Cal i brati on requi rements _____________ ________________
Yoke wei ght requi rements,
both AC and DC _____________ ________________
General MT procedure
requi rements _____________ ________________
Page 4 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Li qui d Penetrant Method
PT Pri nci pl es of Operati on
Penetrant testi ng is a fami ly of testi ng that can be divided i n to two major groups,
vi sible light and fluorescent or Bl ack Light detectabl e groups. the basic steps of the
operati on can be seen above. Step 1 the test piece must be cleaned. Step two the
penetrant is appli ed, a dwell time or soaking ti me waited. Step three the excess
penetrant is removed. Step four the developer appli ed. Step five the part is i nspected,
any i ndication is eval uated. Step six the part is post cl eaned.
Thi s i nspecti on techni que relays on the penetrant being pull ed in to all surface
i rregul ari ties by capi llary action. When the devel oper i s applied the penetrant i s blotted
back to the surface making the i rregul ari ties visi ble. The irregularities are then
evaluated i nto three groups, false i ndicati ons, commonly call ed handl ing marks, non-
rel evant indications and defects. The defects are evaluated to a given standard for
acceptance.
Thi s process wi ll detect:
Surf ace def ects onl y!
Page 5 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Li qui d Penetrant Method
API 650 Paragraph 6.4.1
When li quid penetrant examination is specified, the method of examinati on shall
be i n accordance with the ASME Boi ler and Pressure Vessel Code, Secti on V,
"Nondestructi ve Exami nation, Article 6
API 650 Paragraph 6.4.2
Li quid Penetrant examination shal l be performed in accordance with a written
procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance with the
applicable requirements of Secti on V, of the ASME Code.
API 650 Paragraph 6.4.3
No ASNT Certifi cation Requi red, Manufacturer Determi ned
API 650 Paragraph 6.4.4
Acceptance standards and removal and repai r of defects shall be per Secti on VIII,
Di vi si on 1, Appendi x 8, Paragraphs 8-3 , 8-4 and 8-5, of the ASME Code
ASME Secti on VI I I Di vi si on 1
Li qui d Penetrant Exami nati on - Acceptabi l i ty
Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-3 Eval uati on of I ndi cati ons
An indication i s the evidence of a mechanical imperfection. Only i ndications with
major dimensi ons greater than 1/ 16 in. shall be considered relevant.
a. A linear i ndicati on i s one havi ng a length greater than three ti mes
the wi dth.
b. A rounded indi cation is one of ci rcul ar or el liptical shape wi th the
length equal to or less than three times the wi dth.
c, Any questionable or doubtful i ndicati ons shall be reexamined to
determi ne whether or not they are relevant.
Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-4 Acceptance Standards
Al l surfaces shal l be free of :
a. relevant l inear indications
b. relevant rounded indi cati ons greater than 3/ 16
c. four or more relevant rounded indi cations separated by 1/ 16
Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-5 Repai r Requi rements
Page 6 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Li qui d Penetrant Method
Study Notes
Read ASME Section V, Arti cl e 6
Study Notes: Page Number: Standard/Code
Know where to fi nd:
Test temperatures _____________ _______________
Surface temperatures _____________ _______________
General PT procedure
requirements _____________ _______________
Page 7 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Ul trasoni c Method
(Wel d Qual i ty)
API 650 Paragraph 6.3.1
Introducti on of the new Appendix U. This appendi x sets requirements for UT
inspecti on when performed i n l ieu of radiography.
API 650 Paragraph 6.3.2.2 (Ultrasonic requi rements not in l i eu of radi ography)
When ul trasonic examination i s speci fied, the method of exami nation shall be i n
accordance wi th the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Secti on V,
"Nondestructi ve Examination," Article 5.
API 650 Paragraph 6.3.2.3
Ul trasoni c exami nation shal l be performed in accordance with a written
procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance with the
applicable requirements of Secti on V, of the ASME Code.
API 650 Paragraph 6.3.2.4
Examiners performing ul trasoni c examinations under thi s section shal l be
quali fied and certifi ed by the manufacturers as meeting the requi rements of
certi ficati on as general ly outlined in Level II or Level III of ASNT Recommended
Practice SNT-TC-1A (incl uding applicable supplements).
Not e: " Accept ance st andards shal l be agreed upon by t he purchaser and
t he manufact urer." API 650 Paragraph 6.3.2.5
The API 653 Effectivity Sheet has l isted ASME Secti on V, Article 23 (Secti on SE-797 onl y).
Thi s secti on deal s with Standard Practi ce for Measuring Thickness by Manual
Ultrasonic Pul se-Echo Contact Method . The section incl udes the general procedure
requi rements for thickness readi ngs.
Page 8 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Radi ographi c Exami nati on
Radi ographi c Exami nati on
Acceptabi l i ty
API 650 Paragraph 6.1.5
The acceptabil ity of welds exami ned by radi ography shall be judged by the
standards in Section VIII, Divisi on I, Paragraph UW-51(b), of the ASME Code.
UW-51 Radi ographi c and Radi oscopi c Exami nati on of Wel ded Joi nts
(b) Thi s secti on requires i ndi cati ons shown on the radiographs to be repaired.
The repairs may be radiographed or optional ly, examined by ultrasonic
examination.
Indications that are unacceptabl e:
Any crack
Zone of incompl ete fusion
Zone of i ncomplete penetration
Any other elongated i ndication whi ch i s l onger than:
1/ 4 in for t up to 3/ 4 in
1/ 3 t for t from 3/ 4 in to 2 1/ 4 i n
3/ 4 in for t over 2 1/ 4 i n
UW-51 Radi ographi c and Radi oscopi c Exami nati on of Wel ded Joi nts
(subparagraph 3)
Any group of ali gned indicati ons that have an aggregate length between the
successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the l ength of the l ongest
imperfection in the group.
Rounded indications in excess of that specifi ed by the acceptance standards given
in Appendix 4.
Page 10 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Nondestructi ve Exami nati on
API 650
Radi ographi c Exami nati on Study Notes
Read ASME Section V, Article 2
Study Notes: Page Number: Standard/Code
Know where to fi nd:
Backscatter acceptabi l ity _____________ ________________
Geometri c Unsharpness _____________ ________________
IQI information _____________ ________________
Density _____________ ________________
Location Markers _____________ ________________
General RT procedure
requirements _____________ ________________
Page 11 of 11 NDE Summary, 2005
Section 9
API 653 ASME Section IX Summary
API 653
ASME Secti on I X
API 653 - Secti on 11 - Wel di ng
11.1.1 Welding procedure specifi cati ons (WPS) and welders and weldi ng
operators shall be qualified in accordance wi th Section IX of the ASME
Code. This includes wel di ng procedure quali fication records (PQR).
ASME Section IX is a document that outl ines the requirements for wel ding
procedures and welder qualificati ons. Other organizations that have the
requi rements for procedures are AWS (Ameri can Wel ding Soci ety) and API
(Ameri can Petrol eum Insti tute) (API 1104). Whil e both organizati ons have excellent
rul es, the onl y ori gi nation required by API 653 i s ASME Secti on IX.
A wel di ng procedure shows compatibi lity of:
a. Base metal s
b. Fill er metal s
c. Processes
d. Techni que
The general approaches to procedure qual ification i s usuall y in one of two forms:
a. Prequalifi ed procedures:
These are AWS weldi ng procedures used onl y for structural welding
and do not require testi ng. The user is l imited to specific weld joi nts
and specific weld processes (see AWS D 1.1).
b. Procedure qual ification testi ng:
These are API and ASME requirements. Both requi re actual weldi ng to
be performed and destructi vely tested.
ASME procedure qualifi cation testi ng uses a listing of essential variables i n the
creation of wel d procedures. Essential vari ables are those i n which a change is
considered to affect the mechanical properties of the weldment, and shall require
requal ification of the WPS, ASME IX Paragraph QW - 251.2.
Under ASME rules the wel di ng procedure begins with the creation of the WPS. This
i nformation i s taken from ASME IX and outl i nes the ranges of materi als, el ectrodes
and other general aspects. Then the PQR is created, performed and tested and used
as proof for the WPS. The WPS can have many supporting PQRs.
Locations of weld speci mens from plate procedure qual ification.
Page 1 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003 Page 1 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003
Locati ons of weld specimens from pi pe procedure qual ifi cation.
Page 2 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003
Page 3 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003
Weld procedure specimens, guided bends are al so used for wel der qualifi cati on
tests.
Square
Tensi le Speci mens
Round
Guided Bends
Face Root Si de
Page 4 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003
The tests commonly required by ASME Section IX are:
a. Tensil e
b. Bends
1. Face
2. Root
3. Side
Table QW -451 is the Procedure quali fication thickness limits and test specimens
requi rements. Each groove wel d must pass tension tests and transverse bend tests.
Thi s tabl e i s where the requi rements for testing are l isted..
After the procedure qualifi cati on testi ng the Wel ding Inspector must check
production welding to ensure welds are being made i n compl iance with the
approved and tested weld procedure. Remember the wel d procedure is proof that
the weld can be successful ly made.
The general sequence for procedure qual ificati on testing is as fol l ows:
Sel ect welding variables (wri te the WPS and PQR)
Check equipment and materials for suitabil ity
Monitor weld joint fi t-up as well as actual welding,
recordi ng al l i mportant vari abl es and observati ons
Select, i dentify and remove requi red test speci mens
Test and eval uate specimens
Review test results for compliance with appli cable
code requirements
Rel ease approved procedure for production
Quali fy i ndividual wel ders i n accordance with this procedure
Monitor production weldi ng for procedure compl iance
Page 5 of 13 ASME IX Summary, 2003

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Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8

API 653 Summary API Standard 650 Summary API Recommended Practice 575 Summary API RP 651 Summary API RP 652 Summary API Recommended Practice 571 Summary API RP 577 Summary API 653 Nondestructive Examination Summary API 653 ASME Section IX Summary Welding Metallurgy Technical Report Writing

Section 9 Section 10 Section 11

and a “practice” exam is administered at the end of the course. Haward Technology is proud of the 90%+ pass rate attained by its students who have sat for the API 653 certification exam. IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 1 of 8 . which consists of 25 questions per day and is reviewed at the beginning of the following day. 07 January 2006 Rev. repair.Haward Technology Middle East COURSE OVERVIEW IE400 API 653: Tank Inspection Code: Inspection. It is designed to accomplish a two-fold training agenda: (1) To train those individuals who are interested in obtaining the API 653 Tank Inspection Certification. and reconstruction of steel aboveground storage tanks used in the petrochemical industry (Training only) Course Date / Venue Course Reference IE400 Course Duration Five days (40 hours as per API regulations) Course Objectives In order to meet the needs of today's fast changing inspection industry. alteration. This comprehensive 40 hour course consists of five 8-hour teaching days. 06 . The course textbook includes notes and summaries on the tank inspection standards referenced in the API 653 Body of Knowledge. Additionally. quizzes are given at the end of each section. alteration. (2) Train those who require a working knowledge of the intricacies encountered in the working environment. and reconstruction of steel aboveground storage tanks used in the petrochemical industry (Training only) Course Title API 653: Tank Inspection Code: Inspection.”. repair. homework is handed out at the end of each class day. Haward Technology has developed the "Tank Inspection Course with API 653 Exam Prep.

Ron VanArsdale. etc. VanArsdale was employed by SGS Industrial Services as the Training Director and the American Welding Society (AWS) as the Curricula and Course Development Manager. is the founder of Inspection Training and Consulting Company (ITAC). organized. as well as the AWS District 18 Meritorious Award in September. an API Certified Aboveground Storage Tank Inspector. and developed all phases of educational activities for AWS. His duties include conducting training courses for Haward Technology and ITAC. This rate includes Participant’s Pack (Folder. buffet lunch. USA. 1993. vessels. In this position he developed various training courses dealing with the AWS Certified Welding Inspector program.Haward Technology Middle East Who Should Attend The course is intended for Inspection Engineers who are seeking API-653 certification. managers or technical staffs who are dealing with Steel Aboveground Storage Tanks used in the Petrochemical Industry will also benefit. American Petroleum Institute. customized written practices and providing trouble-shooting consulting services. IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 2 of 8 . 1989. He has thirty-three years experience in the erection. VanArsdale is professionally affiliated with the American Welding Society. Mr. maintenance and inspection of buildings. he received the AWS Distinguished Member Award in March. 1993. PE. Course Fee US $2. in addition to teaching welding/inspection education courses. the National Job Core and has been appointed a Kentucky Colonel by the Governor of Kentucky in recognition of his lifetime contribution to his fellow man. creating new courses for inspection and other related activities.750 per Delegate. Hand-outs. American Inspection Society. petrochemical facilities. Manual. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. In the past. an AWS Certified Welding Educator (CWE) and is an internationally recognized Presenter/Instructor. 06 . creating course material. Course Instructor Mr. Additionally. piping systems. coffee/tea on arrival. Accommodation Accommodation is not included in course fees. above-ground storage tanks. Mr. morning & afternoon of each day. any accommodation required can be arranged by Haward Technology at the time of booking. Ron attended San Jacinto College and Texas A&M University. and has a Lifetime Teaching Certificate from the State of Texas. In addition to these functions. He is an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI). Other engineers. as well as a member of the API 570 Questions Committee which is charged with developing the API 570 Piping Inspector Certification Examination. the AWS CWI of the Year District Award in January. However. as well as developing custom training programs. and API Certified Piping Inspector. 07 January 2006 Rev. Vocational Industrial Clubs of America. he is a member of the API 653 Questions Committee which devised the API 653 Tank Inspector Certification Examination. He planned. Haward Technology. ITAC Level III.).

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 2004 edition with 2002 and 2003 Addenda.Haward Technology Middle East Course Certificate Haward Technology certificate will be issued to all attendees completing minimum of 75% of the total tuition hours of the course. API Recommended Practice 651. API Recommended Practice 652. 07 January 2006 Rev. Welding and Brazing Qualifications(Section QW only) IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 3 of 8 . 06 . ASME Section IX. API Standard 653. Required Codes and Standards: Listed below are the effective editions of the publications required for the st API Recommended Practice 575. API Standard 650. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. ASME Section V.

Section 1 – Scope: API 653 . 06 .Inspection API 653 .Haward Technology Middle East Course Program st Introduction Students Take Initial Math Quiz Review Math Quiz Answers Overview of Course Outline Review of API 653 Body of Knowledge API 653 .Section 4 .Section 6 .Suitability For Service: nd API 653 . 07 January 2006 Rev.Materials IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 4 of 8 .Section 3 – Definitions API 653 .Section 7 .Section 2 – Referenced Publications API 653 .

Welding API 653 .Marking And Recordkeeping API 653 – Appendices A – G API 650 .Tank Repair And Alteration API 653 .Section 3 .Dismantling And Reconstruction API 653 .Section 6 .Fabrication API 650 .Section 5 .Scope API 650 .Haward Technology Middle East API 653 .Section 4 .Section 9 .Materials API 650 .Welding Procedure & Welder Qualifications IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 5 of 8 .Erection rd API 650 .Section 13 . 06 .Section 10 . 07 January 2006 Rev.Section 8 .Design Considerations for Reconstructed Tanks API 653 .Section 12 .Section 1 .Examination And Testing API 653 .Section 2 .Section 11 .Methods Of Inspecting Joints API 650 - Section 7 .Design API 650 .

Section 4 .Section 8 .Frequency Of Inspection API RP 575 .Methods Of Inspection And Inspection Scheduling API RP 651 .Determination of Need for Cathodic Protection API RP 651 .Marking API 650 . 07 January 2006 Rev.Section 11 .Section 4 .Installation Of Cathodic Protection Systems API RP 651 .Types Of Storage Tanks API RP 575 .S Slide Show – “Don’t Let This Happen To Your Tank” Complete Slide Show -“Don’t Let This Happen To Your Tank” API RP 575 .Criteria For Cathodic Protection API RP 651 .Section 3 – Definitions API RP 651 .Methods of Cathodic Protection for Corrosion Control API RP 651 .Reasons For Inspection and Causes of Deterioration API RP 575 .Section 7 .Appendices B .Section 1 – Scope API RP 651 .Section 3 .Section 6 .Operation and Maintenance of IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 6 of 8 .Haward Technology Middle East API 650 .Selected Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods API RP 575 .Corrosion of Aboveground Steel Storage Tanks API RP 651 .Section 1 – Scope API RP 575 .Section 6 .Section 10 . 06 .Section 8 .Section 9 .Design Of Cathodic Protection Systems API RP 651 .Section 5 .Interference Currents API RP 651 .Section 5 .Section 7 .

Haward Technology Middle East Cathodic Protection Systems API RP 652 .Hot Work And Tank Repairs API 2015 – Appendices A – F IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 7 of 8 .Section 6 .Section 10 .Section 5 .Safety API 2207 .Section 3 .Corrosion Mechanisms API RP 652 . 06 .General API 2015 .Section 4 .Section 4 .Section 9 – Inspection API RP 652 .Preparing the Tank for Entry and Cleaning API 2015 .Storage Tank Hazards API 2015 .Administrative Controls API 2015 .Section 2 . 07 January 2006 Rev.Section 7 .Testing The Tank Atmosphere Break API 2015 – Section 6 – Hazard Assessment for Entry Permits API 2015 .Surface Preparation API RP 652 .Section 3 – Precautions API 2207 .Safe Work Procedures th API 2015 .Determination of The Need for Tank Bottom Lining API RP 652 .Section 3 – Definitions API RP 652 .Repair Of Tank Bottom Linings API RP 652 .Section 11 .Entering And Working Inside The Tank API 2015 .Section 5 .Section 1 – Introduction API 2207 .Section 8 .Section 9 .Section 1 – Introduction API RP 652 .Section 1 .Section 6 .Tank Bottomlining Selection API RP 652 .

06 .org IE400 IE400-01-06 Page 8 of 8 . Email: maqsooda@haward.Welder Certification th Question and Answer Session API 653 Sample Exam Continue API 653 Sample Exam Review API 653 Exam Answers Course Coordinator Ms. 07 January 2006 Rev.WPS and PQR Requirements Review Procedure Exercise ASME Section IX . Maqsooda Ali Malvankari: Tel: +971-2-6277881.Haward Technology Middle East ASME Section V . Fax: +971-2-6277883.Nondestructive Test Methods ASME Section IX .

Section 1 API 653 Summary .

above ground storage tanks af ter they have been pl aced i n servi ce. and 653. Under API 653 . Page 1 of 58 API 653 Summary . local.2 Compl i ance The ow ner/ operator has ultimate responsibility for complying w ith A PI 653 provisions. non-refrigerated. first threaded joint or first w elded end connection. thi s l atest Code governs.1. attached appurtenances and nozzles to the face of the first flange.I N TROD UCTI ON 1.e.3 Juri sdi cti on Statutory Regulation (i. atmospheric pressure. REPA I R A LTERATI ON AN D RECONSTRUCTION TH I RD ED I TI ON . shell.D ECEM BER 2001 AD DENDUM 1 . unl ess the requirements of this standard are more stri ngent than Statutory Regulation. structure. 650. state or federal) shall govern.1 General 1. roof. 1. and 2217A are suggested for potential hazards involved when conducting internal inspections. Recommended Practice for Fitnessfor-Service. making repairs or dismantling tanks. 1.653 TA NK I N SPECTI ON. 2016. bottom. M any A PI-650 requirements apply that will satisfy this new code. In case of conflict (for in-service tanks) betw een A PI12C. 1. 2. the ow ner may use fitness-for-service criteria. These standard provide mi ni mum requirements for maintaining the integrity of w elded or riveted. NOTE: Procedures must comply w ith any state or federal safety regulation involving "confined space" entry.1. NOTES: 1..1 This standard covers carbon and low alloy steel tanks built to A PI-650 and 12C standards.SEPTEM BER 2003 SECTI ON 1 . 1.1.6 A PI 653 now recognizes API RP 579.2 Scope coverage Foundation. 2005 .A PI . 1.4 Saf e Worki ng Practi ces Safety procedures according to guidelines given in API publications 2015.

4 authori zed i nspecti on agency: One of the follow ing organizations that employ an A boveground Storage Tank Inspector certified by API. A n increase or decrease in tank shell height. Summary . a. A n ow ner or operator of one or more aboveground storage tank(s) w ho maintains an inspection organization for activities relating only to its equipment. 3.6 breakover poi nt: The area on a tank bottom w here settlement begins.2 appl i cabl e standard: The original standard of construction. Typical examples of alterations include: a. applicable standard means the current edition of the appropriate standard. A n independent organization or individual under contract to and under the direction of an ow ner or operator and recognized or otherwise not prohibited by the jurisdiction in w hich the aboveground storage tank is operated.3 atmospheric pressure: Used to describe tanks designed to withstand an internal pressure up to but not exceeding 2. 2005 Page 2 of 58 API 653 .D EFIN I TION S 3.1 al terati on: A ny w ork on a tank involving cutting. c. 3. in this event. in. 3. b. The inspection organization of the jurisdiction in which the aboveground storage tank is operated. gauge. b. burning. w elding or heating operation that changes the physical dimensions and/ or configuration of a tank.5 lbs.5 authori zed i nspector: An employee of an authorized inspection agency and is certified as an A boveground Storage Tank Inspector per Appendix D of this standard.7 change i n servi ce: A change from previous operating condition involving different properties of the stored product such as specific gravity or corrositivity and/ or different service conditions of temperature and/ or pressure.SECTI ON 3 . The addition of manw ays and nozzles greater than 12-inch (NPS). 3./ sq. d. 3.8 corrosi on rate The total metal loss divided by the period of time over w hich the metal loss occurred. 3. such as API standards or specifications or Underw riter Laboratories (UL) standards. 3. The inspection organization of an insurance company w hich is licensed or registered to and does w rite aboveground storage tank insurance. The ow ner or operator s inspection program shall provide the controls necessary for use by A uthorized Inspectors contracted to inspect above ground storage tanks. See A ppendix A for background on editions of A PI w elded storage tank standards. unless the original standard of construction has been superseded or withdraw n from publication. and not for aboveground storage tanks intended for sale or resale.

17 storage tank engi neer: One or more persons or organizations acceptable to the ow ner/ operator w ho are know ledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with evaluating mechanical and material characteristics that affect the integrity and reliability of aboveground storage tanks. 3. etc.1). shell. Re-leveling and/ or jacking of a tank shell. 2005 NOTE: A lteration/ Repair items may be closely related and could even be a matter of personal description (See also Section 12). Typical examples of repairs includes: a. c. The storage tank engineer. such as w elding. c. contract execution. such as tears or gouges. d. to assess all aspects of the tank as possible w ithout suspending operations or requiring tank shutdown (see 6. 3. b. b.4. 3. 3. A contractor w hose qualifications are acceptable to the ow ner/ operator of aboveground storage tanks and who makes repairs or alterations in accordance with this standard. by grinding and/ or gouging follow ed by welding. and who makes repairs in accordance with this standard. A n ow ner/ operator of aboveground storage tanks who repairs or alters its ow n equipment in accordance with this standard.14 reconstructi on organi zati on: The organization having assigned responsibility by the ow ner/ operator to design and/ or reconstruct a tank. 3.10 hot tap: Identifies a procedure for installing a nozzle in the shell of a tank that is in service. 3. should be regarded as a composite of all entities needed to properly assess the technical requirements. 3. Addition of reinforcing plates to existing shell penetrations.11 i nspector: A representative of an organization s mechanical integrity department w ho is responsible for various quality control.13 reconstructi on: A ny w ork necessary to reassemble a tank that has been dismantled and relocated to a new site. . Repair of flaw s. or roof. by consulting with appropriate specialists. and assurance functions.18 external i nspecti on: A formal visual inspection. as supervised by an authorized inspector. Removal and replacement of material (such as roof.12 owner/operator: The legal entity having both control of and/ or responsibility for the operation and maintenance of an existing storage tank. measured radially inward. 3. acceptable to. 3. or otherw ise not prohibited by the jurisdiction.15 repai r: A ny w ork necessary to maintain or restore a tank to a condition suitable for safe operation.3. One who is authorized by. Page 3 of 58 API 653 Summary .9 cri ti cal zone: The portion of the bottom or annular plate w ithin 3 inches of the inside edge of the shell.16 repai r organi zati on: A n organization that meets any of the follow ing: a. including weld metal) to maintain tank integrity. or bottom material. bottom.

Page 4 of 58 API 653 Summary .3. 3.4. as supervised by an authorized inspector of all accessible internal tank surfaces (see6. complete inspection.20 f i tness f or servi ce assessment: A methodology whereby flaw s contained w ithin a structure are assessed in order to determine the adequacy of the flawed structure for continued service w ithout imminent failure. 2005 .19 i nternal i nspecti on: A formal.1).

M etal design temperatures (at service location).Evaluate for repair or renew al.2 4.2. Tank Roof Eval uati on (General ) 4.3.3 Cracks/ punctures .SUI TA BI LI TY FOR SERV I CE 4. wind and seismic loading. Pitting/ corrosion . Evaluate.1 4. columns. g. NOTE: Pipe columns require special attention. temperature. other appurtenances. c. e.1. venting. 4.2 Fi xed Roof s Determine condition of roof support system (i. 4.2.2 Internal corrosion (products or water bottom). Decisions relative to repairs.2.3 Fl oati ng Roof s 4. dismantling. relocating. corrositivity). drain system.e.SECTI ON 4 .2. material). j.2 4.1. Roof support system. A llow able stress levels. i. rafters. Evaluation for continued service. Existing tank distortions. Operating conditions (i.2. evaluate to determine suitability for continued service.e.. perimeter seals. or reconstruction. b.Repair or replace.3 Factors f or consi derati on: (plus engineering analysis and judgment) a.3.1. b. alterations.2 Thi s secti on covers: a. Specific Gravity.e.1 When inspection indicates a change from original physical condition. 4. in) Repai r or Repl ace.09" (in any 100 sq.Evaluate for potential penetration before the next scheduled internal inspection. bases and out of plumb columns). Severe internal corrosion may not be evidenced by external visual inspection. filling/ emptying rates and frequency). f.2.. External roof live load.3. Summary .1 General 4. Roof plates corroded to an average "t" of less than 0. Foundation. Stored product properties (i. 4.. girders. Chemical analysis/ mechanical properties (construction. d. Corrosion and/ or damaged members . External corrosion (environmental exposure). 2005 Page 5 of 58 API 653 .1. soil and settlement conditions. h.

Wind and seismic loads. The shell condition.) 4. Nozzle.3. 2005 . settlement and attachment loads.2. Pitting may also occur.1.2. (see page 1-8 below for minimum shell t formula. Internal and external pressure. but does not normally represent a significant threat to overall structural integrity unless present in a severe form w ith pits in close proximity to one another. Evaluate for effect of design partial vacuum. See A PI-650 (or applicable standard) if operation is to be at lower temperature than original design. M ethods for determining the minimum shell "t" suitable for continued operation are given in 4.3.1.4.4. External pressure: Roof support structure and roof-to-shell junction. 4. A ll requirements of A PI-650 (Appendix M ) shall apply before a change of service to operation at temperature above 200°F is considered. c.4 4. (greater than CA) must be evaluated for continued use suitability.4 See API-650 (A ppendix C and H ) for evaluation guidance.4. d.2.2.2 Internal pressure: Refer to A PI-650 (Appendix F) w hen evaluating/ modifying roof or roof-to-shell junction. Roof live loads. e. NOTE: Upgrading .2. analysis and evaluation shall take into consideration the anticipated loading conditions and combinations including: a.4. 4.1 4.3 4.2 Flaws. Evaluate if change of service will effect normal or emergency venting. b.1 4.3.3. Refer to A PI-620.4 Page 6 of 58 API 653 Summary . 4.3.4. and 4.3.3 Pressure due to fluid static head.3. Shell corrosion occurs in many forms and varying degrees of severity resulting in a generally uniform loss of metal over a large surface area or in localized areas.N ot mandatory to meet those guidelines on floating roofs. 4.2.2.5 4.1.4. deterioration.3 Tank Shel l Eval uati on 4.3.2.4.1.4 Change of Servi ce 4.3.

4. Page 7 of 58 API 653 Summary .3. 2005 .2 Actual Thickness Determinati on This section deals w ith the averaging of corroded areas. For exam purposes. This is not an exact science and should be used only when an area is questionable for repair. you will be supplied w ith 't2" and the diameter of the tank.

M i ni mum Thi ckness Cal cul ati on f or Wel ded Tank Shel l (A PI 653 Secti on 4.3.3.1) t min = 2.6 (H -1)DG SE t min = the minimum acceptable thickness, in inches, for each course as calculated from the above formula; how ever, t min shall not be less than 0.1 inch for any tank course. D= nominal diameter of tank, in feet.

H = height from the bottom of the shell course under consideration to the maximum liquid level w hen evaluating an entire shell course, in ft; or height, from the bottom of the length L (see 4.3.2.1) from the lowest point of the bottom of L of the locally thinned area to the maximum liquid level, in ft; or height from the low est point within any location of interest to the maximum liquid level, in ft. G= S= Highest specific gravity of the contents. M aximum allowable stress in pounds per square inch; use the smaller of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. A llowable shell stresses are show n in Table 4-1 for materials listed in the current and previous editions of A PI Std. 12C and Std. 650. N ote: For reconstructed tanks, S shall be per the current applicable standard. Specified minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not know n. The smaller of the specified minimum tensile strength of the plate or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not know n. Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Tabl e 4-2 if original E is unknow n. E=1.0 when evaluating the retirement thickness in a corroded plate, when away from w elds or joints by at least the greater of one inch or twice the plate thickness.

Y= T= E=

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Summary , 2005

FOR UNK NOWN M A TERIA L M axi mum A ll owabl e Stress (in PSI) Fi rst or Second Course (Yield) .80Y = .80 X 30,000 = 24,000 or (Tensile) .429T = .429 X 55,000 = 23,595 Use the smal l er of : Ot her Courses (Yield) .88Y = .88 X 30,000 = 26,400 or (Tensile) .472T = .472 X 55,000 = 25,960

N OTE:

The Third Edition of A PI 653 has added a new table, Table 4-1, M aximum A llow able Shell Stresses (not for use for reconstructed tanks). This w ill make stress calculations much easier.

Sampl e probl em f or mi ni mum thickness of a w el ded tank shel l .
A n inspection of a welded, 138 foot diameter tank, 50 feet tall, 48 feet fill height shows some scattered pitting in the first course. What is the minimum shell thickness required for this tank, if the specific gravity of the product is 0.9? t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE t min = ? D = 138' H = 48' G = .9 S = 23,600 (from Table 4-1) E= 1 t min = 2.6 (48-1)((138)(.9) 23,600(1) 15,177.24 23,600 t min = .643"

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Summary , 2005

Practi ce Probl em
t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE A 190' diameter tank has a pit that measures 5/ 16" deep in the first course, w hat is the min t, if the fill is 42 feet and the specific gravity is 0.6? (The pit is not in a weld seam or H A Z.) The material is unknow n. S= M aximum allowable stress in pounds per square inch; use the smaller of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. Specified minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not know n. The smaller of the specified minimum tensile strength of the plate or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not known. Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Tabl e 4-2 if original E is unknown. E = 1.0 w hen evaluating the retirement thickness in a corroded plate, w hen aw ay from w elds or joints by at least the greater of one inch or tw ice the plate thickness.

Y= T= E=

Expl anati on of Practi ce Probl em
t min = 2.6 (H-1) DG SE

t min = ?

D = 190 S = 23,600 t min =

H = 42 E= 1

G = .6

2.6 (42-1) (190) (.6) 23,600(1) t min = 12,152.4 23,600

t min = .515 inches

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The Exam recognizes a variation of the minimum thickness formula, even though the formula does not appear directly in the A PI 653 Standard. The calculation is for M aximum A llow able Fill H eight based on a minimum thickness and can be found in the A PI 653 Body of Know ledge.

M aximum A l low abl e Fi l l Height Calcul ati on (A PI 653 Body of Know l edge)
H= S x E x t min 2.6 x D x G

tmin = The minimum acceptable thickness, in inches, as calculated from the above formula; how ever, tmin shall not be less than 0.1 inch for any tank course. D= H= Nominal diameter of tank, in feet. H eight, in feet, from the bottom of the length L for the most severely corroded area in each shell course to the maximum design liquid level. Highest specific gravity of the contents. M aximum allowable stress in pounds per square inch; use the smaller of 0.80Y or 0.429T for bottom and second course; use the smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses. Note: For reconstructed tanks, S shall be per the current applicable standard. Specified minimum yield strength of the plate; use 30,000 psi if not know n. The smaller of the specified minimum tensile strength of the plate or 80,000 psi; use 55,000 psi if not known. Original joint efficiency for the tank. Use Table 4-2 if original E is unknown. E=1.0 when evaluating the retirement thickness in a corroded plate, w hen aw ay from w elds or joints by at least the greater of one inch or tw ice the plate thickness.

G= S=

Y= T= E=

Not e: The + 1 was removed from this formula because of a change in the base formula in API 653, Second Edition, Second Addenda. The API Body of Knowledge has not yet made the correction.

Page 11 of 58 API 653

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115 2.92 S x E x t min 2. The product specific gravity is 0.992.600(1)x.72 . H= S x E x t min 2.0 322. A n inspection of a w elded.6(138)(.72 D = 138' G = .0 145.640 or 18 6-3/ 8 Page 12 of 58 API 653 Summary .5 H= H= 23. that has a minimum thickness of .5 2. minimum remaining thickness is .600 E= 1 t min = .6xDxG What is the fill height of a w elded tank 112 diameter. shows some scattered pitting in the first course.9) 16.Sampl e probl em f or maximum al l owabl e f i l l hei ght of a w el ded tank shel l . 2005 .9 What is the maximum fill height required for this tank? H= H=? S = 23.9 H= H= 23.115 inches? The specific gravity of the product is .6 x D x G H = 52.6 x 112 x .6 H = 18.620 or 52 6 Sampl e probl em f or maximum al l owabl e f i l l hei ght of a w el ded tank shel l .600 x .72 2. 138 foot diameter tank. 55 feet tall.714.

EXAM PLE: Three (3) pits in close proximity.2 See Inspection of Corrosion A reas (Fig.each pit.2. 4-1. or Allow able liquid level reduced.1.3.2" N OTE: If the pit dimension totals (measured vertically) exceed 2" in an 8" length. then these pits must be considered as strength factors. And The sum (total) of their dimensions along any vertical line does not exceed two inches (2") in an eight inch (8") length. 3 b. A dd the sum (total dimensions) together. must be determined.2 A ctual "t" Determi nati on: a. 4. N o pit results in the remaining shell "t" being less than one-half (1/ 2) of the minimum acceptabl e tank shell "t" (exclusive of the CA ). Wi del y scattered pi ts may be i gnored i f : a. 2005 . * d 1 + d 2 + d3 --.The 3rd Edition of A PI 653 takes a two step approach for hydrostatic testing height H. Repaired.3. The controlling thickness in each shel l course. Page 13 of 58 API 653 Summary . where corroded areas of considerable size occur. STEP A : Controlling Thickness H t = StEt min 2. (See Fig. NOTE: 4. Page 4-2).3. the corroded or damaged areas shall be: a. b. Dimension (measure) vertically .6D 4. b.6D + 1 STEP B: Locally Thinned A reas H t = StEt min 2.5 If the "t" requirements cannot be satisfied. 4-2). c. The maximum design liquid level shall not be exceeded. or Tank retired. H t.

I n. b.1. 3. * Later reference under Bottom Evaluation.1 Use the same formula as 4. 2. I N TERNA L CORROSI ON . Within the circle. * Uni t of M easure = Sq. A. Ol d method of evaluating pit problem. E .3.Speci al N ote: 1. 3.3. For tanks with potential sour water present. 2.3. 2005 . If bottom leak is suspected as a result of underside corrosion.3 Evaluate to w hat extent. measure all of the pit surface areas. the follow ing is presented for field data survey and evaluation. except that the following allowable stress criteria and joint efficiency shall be used: a.000 lbs. but related. riveted joints have been affected by corrosion.OBSERV A TIONS/COM M EN TS Based on experience and personal observations onl y. Tank Bottoms 1. See Table 4-3 for joint efficiencies for locations within 6" of rivets. expensive operation to verify and/ or locate problem areas.3. w ithin that 8" diameter circle.4 M i ni mum "t" cal cul ati on f or Ri veted Tank Shel l 4. A lso applies to lower 4" . Relate "bulging" condition between internal butt-straps and shell plates w ith stress placed on rivets. 4. long duration. if any. check closely for accelerated corrosive attack around outer periphery. individually. 4.4. Some product services specifically attack w eld seams and the adjacent HAZ N ot I nternal .3. S = 21.0 for shell plate 6" or more away from rivets./ sq. be prepared for a slow.4. corrosion often occurs to the underside of tank bottoms.1. This is usually found at the low est point and at the w ater collection point./ in. Draw or imagine an 8" diameter circle. NOTE: 4. A dd all of the pit values together.6" of internal shell. I f the sum total of all the pit surface areas exceed 7 sq. in. Page 14 of 58 API 653 Summary . then the pits must be considered as strength factors.

2005 . d. closely check the roof support columns. perhaps even grooved) at the normal product high liquid level in w eak acid service. 4. 3. is not uncommon. c. 5. Tank Roof s/Support Structure Should corrosion be found in the upper shell. Tank Shel l s 1. west side thermal input) is more corrosive has not been justified or verified. b. Page 15 of 58 API 653 Summary . non-w etted shell surface. Preferential attack on w eld seams. develop procedure (w ith sketch as necessary). is required. Removal . C.3. If repair is required. scaffold lug removal areas. the rafter/ structural members and the roof support columns. flat spots. Watch for accelerated metal loss (usually smooth. not w eld-over. non-w etted shell area often experiences accelerated corrosion.5. The theory that the hot side (i.3.3. * Sour Crude tanks very susceptible to this type corrosion. 6 fuel oils due to high sulfur content in the vapor phase. If only the tw o (2) lower shell rings show accelerated corrosion. This is a very real possibility in sour crude or No. H AZ.5 Di storti ons 4. Evaluate all issues on a case-by-case basis. etc. the potential for a like loss should be suspected on the internal roof plates. b. Cracks in the shell-to-bottom (corner) w eld are critical. e. Problems to the same degree and elevation may be present.6 Fl aw s crack s and l aminati ons a.2 Includes out-of-roundness. 4. Examine/ evaluate to determine need. peaking and banding at w elded joints.. These specific areas are exposed to the same environment as the upper.. 2. nature or extent of repair. Extreme upper.3. Foundation settlement Over or under-pressuring H igh winds Poor shell fabrication/ erection Repair Techniques 4. buckled areas.1 4.e. Potential causes: a.B. See prior comment on lower shell area w ith potential for sour w ater attack.5.

f. f. all potential leak or failure mechanisms must be examined.e. 4. j.e.4. 2005 . l. b. c. c. w hen required. Lack of an annular plate ring. rock. d. b.4. c.). Underside corrosion (i. Thickness of component parts. Inadequate drainage. Stresses (roof support loads and settlement). Weld spacing.. d. 4. e. Rock or gravel foundation pads. Inadequately supported sumps.9 Shel l Penetrati ons Consideration details include: a. 4.1 General RBI is now a basis of this paragraph. M FE or M FLT Section removal (i. Uneven settlement (w ith resultant high stress). Roof support columns (or other supports) w elded to bottom w ithout allowance for adequate movement. T. b. Tank Bottom Eval uati on 4. shell. g. etc. e.. i. coupon). k. measurement. Non-homogeneous fill under bottom (i. NOTE: Excessive foundation settlement can have a serious impact on the integrity of shell and bottoms. A ssessment period shal l be l ess than or equal to the appropriate internal inspection interval. e. Spot U. Deterioration (internal/ external). Page 16 of 58 API 653 Summary .e. UT "B" scan.. Refer to A ppendix "B" for tank bottom settlement techniques. h. normally pitting). Abrasive blast (scan for capillary wicking). Corrosion of w eld seams and HA Z Weld joint cracking. Internal pitting. Visual. All aspects of corrosion phenomena. w ood stakes. clay. Proximity of reinforcement to shell w eld seams. d. internal survey w ith hammer test.4.3.4.4 Type and extent of reinforcement.2 Causes of Bottom Leaks Consider cause/ effect/ repair: a.6 Bottom M easurements M ethods (Appendix G may apply) a.

replaced or the interval to the next internal inspection shortened.7.7. frost.4.7. Settlement Erosion Cracking of concrete (i.7 4. Note the plate thickness in the critical zone shall be the smaller of 1/ 2 the original bottom plate thickness or 50% of tmin of the lower shell course.4.Normal process. Determi ni sti c (See 4. Critical zone thickness is redefined in this paragraph.7. 4. at the end of the in-service period of operation. calcining.(causes of f oundati on deteri orati on): a. draw n out formula/ data process.1) . Probabi l i sti c (See 4. Page 17 of 58 API 653 Summary .A nnul ar Pl ate Rings 1.4. Unless an RBI program is in place.5. b. b. repaired. 2. the bottom shall be repaired as follow s: Lined. SG greater than 1.e.4 4.5 See Visual Aide of Table 4-4 (page 4 .3 4. Tank Foundati on Eval uati on 4. 4. 2005 .8 M i ni mum "t" .. N ot normally used. mechanical or UT survey. With product SG l ess than 1. alkalies and acids).4.4.4. but not less than 0. 3.1 General .9). c.1 inch.0 that require annular plates for other than seismic loading consideration -. The bottom extension shall be no less than 0.7 M i ni mum "t" for Tank Bottom Pl ate Two (2) M ethods: a.1 inch thick and must extend beyond the outside toe of the shell-to-bottom weld at least 3/ 8 inch.A long. are calculated to be less than the bottom renew al thickness given in Table 6-1 (page 6-3). underground w ater. Statistical analysis based on thickness data resulting from visual.2) .4.0: Refer to Table 3-1 of the A PI-650 standard.7.4.Also see Table 4-4. If the minimum bottom "t".

4.5.1.2

D escri ption - concrete deteri oration mechani sms. a. Calcining - (loss of water of hydration). N ormally occurs w hen concrete has been exposed to high temperature for a period of time. During intermediate cooling periods, the concrete absorbs moisture, swells, loses its strength and cracks. Chemical attack: cyclic changes in temperature and by freezing moisture. Expansion in porous concrete caused by freezing moisture - Spalling or serious structural cracks. Concrete bond deterioration - A ttack by sulfate-type alkalies or even chlorides. Temperature cracks (hairline w ith uniform w idth). N ot N ormal l y serious.* Potential moisture entry points w ith resulting corrosion of the reinforcing steel.

b. c.

d.

e.

4.5.2 and 4.5.3

General a. b. c. For repair or renewal (See 10.5.6). Prevent w ater entry. Distortion of anchor bolts and excessive cracking of the concrete structure in w hich they are embedded may indicate: (i) (ii) Serious foundation settlement. Tank over pressure uplift condition.

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Summary , 2005

SECTI ON 5 - BRI TTLE FRA CTURE CON SI D ERA TI ON S 5.1 General Provides a procedure to assess the risk of failure due to brittle fracture, plus establishes general guidance for avoiding this type failure. 5.2 Basi c Consi derati ons See Fig. 5-1 "Decision Tree" as the assessment procedure to determine failure potential. Prior incident data whereby brittle fracture has occurred either shortly after erection during hydrostatic testing or on the first filling in cold w eather, after a change to low er temperature service, or after a repair/ alteration. This failure has primarily occurred in w elded tanks. 5.2.1 Reported conditions involving failures (primarily involving welded tanks): a. b. c. d. Hydro test at initial erection. First filling in cold w eather. A fter a change to low er temperature service. A fter a repair-alteration.

5.2.2 A ny change in service must be evaluated to determine if it increases the risk of failure due to brittle fracture. For example, the change to a more severe service involving one of the follow ing: a. b. Low er operating temperature (especially below 60°F). Product w ith a higher specific gravity. * Consider need for hydrostati c test when any repair or alteration does not meet al l requirements of the 653 standard or deterioration of the tank has occurred since the original hydrostatic test.

General Comments: 1. 2. Fracture assessment w ould most likely be conducted by a metallurgist or design specialist. Several options exist based on the most severe combination of temperature and liquid level experienced by the tank during its life, w hereby an i ncreased potential for brittle fracture failure exists: a. b. c. d. 3. Restrict the liquid level. Restrict the minimum metal temperature Change service to a lower Specific Gravity. product. A combination of the three areas listed above.

Remember: Reducing the storage temperature,- Increases the potential for failure. Shell stresses are increased and potential for failure is greater w ith a stored product change to a higher specific gravity.
Page 19 of 58 API 653 Summary , 2005

SECTI ON 6 - I NSPECTI ON 46.1 6.2 General - I n-servi ce I nspecti on of Tank s Inspecti on Frequency Consi derati ons 6.2.1 Some factors determining inspection frequency: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. Nature of stored product. Visual inspection/ maintenance results. Corrosion rates and/ or allow ances. Corrosion prevention systems. Previous inspection results. M ethods-materials of construction or repair. Tank location (i.e., isolated, grouped, high risk areas). Potential for air, water or soil pollution. Leak detection systems. Change in operating mode. Jurisdictional requirements. Changes in service (including water bottoms). The existence of a double bottom or a release prevention barrier.

6.2.2 The interval betw een inspections (internal/ external) is most influenced by its service history, unless special reasons indicate an earlier inspection is required. 6.2.3 Local jurisdictional regulations (i.e., vapor loss values, seal condition, leakage, proper diking and repair procedures) should be known by inspection personnel in their own locality, or should be f urni shed by owner-user to inspectors w ho function at remote locations. 6.3 External I nspecti on (Routi ne I n-Servi ce Type) 6.3.1.1 through 6.3.1.3 Routine external in-service inspection may be done by owner-user operator personnel. Routine requirements include: a. b. c. Visual inspection from the ground. Intervals shall not exceed one month. External check for leaks, distortion, settlement, corrosion, foundation, paint, insulation, etc.

Page 20 of 58 API 653

Summary , 2005

6.3.2 Schedul ed Inspecti ons (A l l tanks) 6.3.2.1 Formal visual external inspection at least every five (5) years or RCA / 4N years (w here RCA is the difference betw een the measured shell thickness and the minimum required thickness in mills, and N is the shell corrosion rate in mills per year), w hichever is less, by an A uthorized Inspector. Tank may be in operation. Remove insulation to extent necessary to determine condition of roof and shell. Tank grounding system components, shunts, cable connection, etc., shall be visually checked. Visually check tank grounding components.

6.3.2.2 6.3.2.3 6.3.2.4

6.3.3 In-service UT "t" measurement of shell. 6.3.3.1 6.3.3.2 Extent of UT survey - Determined by ow ner-user. When UT is used as inspection method, intervals shall not exceed the following: a. b. c. Five (5) years from commissioning new tank. A t five year intervals (existing tanks w here corrosion rate is not know n. When the corrosion rate IS know n, the maximum interval shall be the smal l er of RCA / 2N years (w here RCA is the difference betw een the measured shell thickness and the minimum required thickness in mils, and N is the shell corrosion rate in mils per year) or fifteen (15) years.

6.3.3.3

Internal tank shell inspection (out-of-service condition) can be substituted for a program of external UT measurements made during in-service condition. Cathodic Protection System -- Survey in accordance w ith API RP 651.

6.3.4.1

Page 21 of 58 API 653

Summary , 2005

A nalysis of corrosion measurements. New item. Identify/ evaluate any tank bottom settlement. Page 22 of 58 API 653 Summary . b. 2.4. 6.2. Determine that bottom is not severely corroded or leaking.2 N ormally. bottom corrosion rates will control. 3. b. shall the internal inspection interval exceed tw enty (20) years. 6.1.1 General Internal inspection is primarily designed to: a. the actual bottom "t" shall be determined by inspection(s). d.4. Gather data necessary to determine minimum "t" of shell and bottom for proper evaluation.3 A lternative Internal Inspection Interval For unique combinations of service. The A uthorized Inspector w ho is responsible for evaluation of a tank must visually examine each tank and review the NDE results. This method includes: a.4. environment and construction.6. 6. 1.4 I nternal I nspecti on 6.4. Consideration of inspection quality.4.2 Prior in-service UT data may be used as criteria in the assessment process. c.1 Internal inspection intervals are determined by: a. NOTE: c. 6. A nticipated corrosion rates based on experience with tanks in similar service.2. In No case. Determining bottom plate "t". Consideration of environmental risk. 2005 . the owner/ operator may establish the interval using an alternative procedure.4. b. Set interval so that bottom plate minimum "t"(at the next inspecti on) are not less than the values listed in Tbl 6-1. Corrosion rates established during prior surveys. NOTES: If corrosion rates are not k now n and similar service data is not available (to determine bottom plate "t" at next inspection). interval shall not exceed ten (10) years of operation to establish corrosion rates.2 Inspection Intervals 6.

b. size or other aspects allow external access to bottom. 6. an external inspection (in lieu of internal) is allow ed to meet requirements of Table 6-1.1 General a.A s an alternative an RBI program may be used. 6. e.8. 2005 .7 I nspecti on Checkl i sts A ppendix "C" provides sample checklists of items for consideration for in or outof-service inspections. Ow ner/ operator must maintain a complete record file on each tank consisting of three (3) types: i. 3. c. iii. If no records exist. f. unless special condition exists.2 Construction Records M ay include the follow ing: a.8. 6. N ameplate information Drawings Specifications Construction completion report NDE performed Material analysis Hydro data Page 23 of 58 API 653 Summary . All are not necessary. Would require support personnel/ equipment. A similar checklist also exists in A PI RP 575. g. d. Documentation also required. Construction Records Inspection H istory Repair/ A lteration History 6. Would be very expensive and time consuming. NOTES: 1.5 A l ternati ve to I nternal I nspecti on to Determi ne Bottom "t" In cases w here construction. Plant personnel could check a number of items. Records form the basis of any scheduled inspection/ maintenance program. ii. 4. b. N OTE: M ust be documented and made part of permanent record.8 Records 6. 2. judgment may be based on tanks in similar service.

6. Sketches showing location and extent. 6. replacements. Includes all measurements taken. plus data associated w ith service changes (i.2 General inspection reports shall include: a. Reason for the repair. d.4 Repair/ A lteration H istory Includes all data accumulated from initial erection w ith regard to repairs. b. the results must be review ed by an A uthorized Inspector.1.10 M etal thickness measurements Conditions found Repairs Settlement data Recommendations N on-D estructi ve Exami nations NDE personnel shall meet the qualifications identified in 12. 2005 .9 Reports 6. specific gravity and temperature)..6.1 Recommended repairs shall include: a. 6. Page 24 of 58 API 653 Summary . alterations. b.1.9. but need not be certified in accordance with Appendix D. Include a complete description of any unusual condition w ith probable reason for problem and recommendation for corrections. condition of all parts inspected and a record of all examination and tests. c. c. 6. Sketches and detailed repair procedure should be provided if so desired by the customer.8.3 Inspection H istory a. b. e. Include results of coating-lining experience. Corrosion rate and inspection interval calculations should be furnished and made a part of the permanent file.8.e.2.9. However.

3 Ori gi nal M ateri al s f or Reconstructed Tank s 7.2. A PI nameplate or other suitable documentation do not require further identification.3.(See 7. altered or reconstructed.3 7. 7.1 A ll shell plates and bottom plates wel ded to the shell shall be identified. 7. (See Section 9 for specific data).3.2 N ew M ateri al s Shall conform to current applicable tank standards. For know n materials. 7. 7. must meet current standards.1. M aterials not identified must be tested. Flanges.1.1. 2005 . A PI-650 impact values must be satisfied. as required in A STM -A6 and A370 (including Charpy V-N otch).3.1 General This section provides general requirements for materials w hen tanks are repaired.M A TERI A LS 7. plate properties (at a minimum) must meet chemical and mechanical A PI-650 requirements w ith regard to thickness and design metal temperature. structural. Welding consumables must conform to the A WS classification that is applicable.3 Page 25 of 58 API 653 Summary . subject plate to chemical analysis and mechanical tests.3. Original contract drawings.).2 If plates are not identified.3..SECTI ON 7 . fasteners. etc.

w elded and examined to meet current applicable standard.4.5 Shel l Penetrati ons 8.5. (See Table 3-2 .5.D ESI GN CONSI DERA TI ON S RECONSTRUCTED TA N K S 8. c.3 Must meet applicable standard. Page 26 of 58 API 653 Summary . Calculate the maximum liquid level (each course) based on product specific gravity. detailed. 8. d. M aterial allow able stress for each course. 8. A ctual "t" measured for each course.4 Shel l D esi gn 8. 2005 . 8. Butt-w eld joint w ith complete fusion and penetration.2 N ew Wel d Joi nts a.1 New/ replacement penetrations must be designed.2 Existing penetrations must be evaluated for compliance w ith the original construction standard. Exi sti ng Joi nts M ust meet original construction standard.API-650). b.4. b.2 Determining maximum design liquid level for product is determined by: a.1 When checking design criteria. Selected design method. 8. the "t" for each shell course shall be based on measurements taken w ithin 180 days prior to relocation. 8.SECTI ON 8 .

M aintain weld spacing as per established A PI-650 values. (See Fig. the existing horizontal weld must be cut for a minimum distance of twelve inches (12") beyond the new vertical joints. w eld verticals bef ore roundseams. and procedure requirements.4 A ll proposed design.2. inspector qualifications.e. 9. except when an entire plate is replaced. pressure. 9. w elding procedures.2.2.2 Removal and Repl acement ..1 Twelve inches (12"). testing methods.Shel l Pl ate 9. but it should not be used alone. any change from the original design condition (i. 9. 9.1. or 12 times the "t" of the replacement. Page 27 of 58 API 653 Summary .2. w hichever is greater. A s normal.1 General Basis for repair/ alteration shall be equivalent to API-650 standard. 9. 2005 . specific gravity. must be approved by the A uthorized Inspector or an engineer. The A uthorized Inspector will establish hold points.2.SECTI ON 9 . etc.3 A ll repairs must be authorized by the A uthorized Inspector or an engineer. NOTE: Pri or to welding the new vertical joints.TA NK REPAI R A ND A LTERA TI ON 9.2 When replacing entire shell plates.2. liquid level and shell height) must be considered. it is permissible to cut and rew eld along the existing hori zontal w eld joints. square with rounded corners or rectangular w ith rounded corners. 9.1 Thickness of the replacement shell plate shall not be less than the greatest nominal "t" of any plate in the same course adjoining the replacement plate except thickened insert plate. NOTE: The replacement plate may be circular. 9-1 for details).. oblong.1. This is a good summary of N DT requirements and includes procedures from A PI 650.2 M i ni mum D i mensi ons of Replacement Shell Pl ate 9.1.5 A ppendix F summarizes the requirements by method of examination and provides the acceptance standards. NOTE: When evaluating plate suitability.

2) and API-653 (Section 11). 9. minimum 4 .1.3.3. square.1.2.1. A ddenda 1.1. Weld Joint Design a. UT required in the areas to be w elded. Joints in existing lap-w eld shells may be repaired according to original construction standard Weld details . 9. rectangular or meet the nozzle reinforcing plate shapes of API 650. Existing patch plates may be evaluated to this Standard.3 Wel d Joi nt Desi gn 9. A ll lap patch plates may be circular.3.1 Replacement Shell Plates . oblong.7 9.5. Second Edition. Fillet w elded lapped patch plates are permitted.3. See figure 9-1 for weld spacing details.8 9.3).2 Refer to Figure 9-1 for M inimum w eld spacing dimensions. 9. Lap patch plates may cross w elds. searching for plate defects and remaining thickness.1.9 Page 28 of 58 API 653 Summary . Lap patch plates are not to be thicker than 1/ 2 or thinner than 3/ 16 .3.3.3.2 9.3 See API-650 (3. b.Butt joints with complete penetration and fusion.3 9.5.1 through 3.See A PI-650(5.1. Lap patch plates may extend to and intersect with the external shell-to-bottom joint. NOTE: Special requirements for shell plates of unknow n toughness. Shell openings are not allow ed w ithin a lapped patch repair. API 653.2.3. not meeting the exemption curve for brittle fracture: The new vertical weld must be at least 3 or 5T from bottom joints.3. M aximum size of lap patch plates is 48 x 72 .4 Lap patches may not be used on plate thicker than 1/ 2" or to replace door sheets.2. 2005 .1.3.9. c.3.1 Lapped patch shell repairs are now an acceptable form of repair.5 9. Internal lap patches shall have 6 toe-to-toe w eld clearance between the patch and the shell-to-bottom w eld.2.1.6 9.3. 9.2. 9.1.

2 Generally.4 This repair method shall not be used if exposure of the fillet w elds to the product w ill produce crevice corrosion or if a corrosion cell betw een the shell plate and repair plate is likely to occur.4 Lapped patch repair plates may be used to repair small shell leaks or minimize the potential from leaks.3.3 Lapped patch plates may be used for thinning shells.1 9.1.4 9. 9.3. 9.3. other lapped patch repair plates. below retirement thickness.3 The lap patch plate must be seal-welded.3. it i s not necessary to remove existing w eld reinforcement in excess of that allow ed in A PI-650.9. The overlap of a repair plate shall not exceed 8 times the shell thickness. 9.2.1 Full fillet w eld required on lap patch plates.3.3. minimum overlap is 1 . Complete removal by gouging-grinding and the cavity properly prepared for w elding. or unrepaired cracks or defects.2 Lapped patch plates may be used to close holes. 9. Nozzle necks and reinforcing plates shall be entirely removed prior to installation of a repair plate.4.3.3.6 Repai r of Def ecti ve Wel ds 9.3. including the inner perimeter of the hole.5 9.6.1 Cracks.2. The repair plate thickness shall not exceed the nominal thickness of the shell plate adjacent to the repair. Page 29 of 58 API 653 Summary . 9.4.10 Repair plates shall not be lapped onto lap-w elded shell seams. This repair method shall not be used to repair shell leaks if the presence of product betw een the shell plate and repair plate will prevent gas freeing from the tank to perform hot w ork. 9.3.3.2.3. The minimum repair plate dimension shall be 4 inches. 2005 . distorted areas. lack of fusion and rejectable slag/ porosity require repair. 9. The minimum hole diameter is 2 . 9. riveted shell seams.6.2 9.2.

whichever is greater.8. provided the modification still meets A PI-650.2 Penetrations larger than 2" NPS shall be installed w ith the use of an i nsert plate i f the shell "t" is greater than 0.9.7. 9.4 Weld joints that have experienced loss of metal by corrosion may be repaired by w elding.9. Remove existing reinforcement and install a new pad. 9.2. as appropriate. b. If welded. 9. 9. Page 30 of 58 API 653 Summary .9. A dditionally.9. "Tombstone" shapes are acceptable. grind flush. 9. The existing penetration (nozzle and pad) may be removed and the entire assembly relocated to the correct elevation.9.3 Unacceptable weld undercut can be repaired by additional w eld metal (or grinding). NOTE: M aximum allowable depth of undercut: a.8.2 9.1 Existing reinforcement plate may be "trimmed" to increase the spacing betw een the w elds. 9. Options for alternate compliance include the follow ing three (3) items: 9.7 Repai r of Shel l Penetrati ons 9.50" and the material does not meet the current design metal temperature criteria.2 New bottom installation (above old bottom) and using the "slotted" method through the shell may not now meet spacing requirements. 1/ 64" on vertical seams 1/ 32" on horizontal seams 9.5 Arc stri kes Repair by grinding or w elded. the minimum diameter of the insert plate shall be at least twice the diameter of the penetration or diameter plus twelve inches (12").6. provided that sufficient nozzle projection exists for proper w eld tie-in. 9.3 .6.2.9.1 The December 1998 A ddenda requires both A PI 653 and A PI 650 requirements be met for shell penetrations.7. 2005 9.2 Reinforcing plates may be added but they must meet A PI-650 for dimensions and weld spacing.9 A l terati on of Exi sti ng Shel l Penetrati ons 9.1 A ltered details must comply w ith A PI-650.2.6.3 Reinforcement plates can be installed to the inside wall.8 A ddi ti on/Repl acement of Shel l Penetrati ons 9.

1. 9. Welded-on patch plates Replacement of bottom or annular plate.Enti re Bottom 9.5.1 N on-corrosive material cushion (i.9) 9. gravel or concrete) 3"-4" thick shall be used between the old and new bottoms.10.4 Widely scattered pits. grout or concrete.10. c.2. 9. Pinholes Cracks in the bottom plates. d.1. 2005 . from the tank shell.5 REV I EW N OTE: Weld Spacing requirements must meet A PI-650 (3. e.2.10. d.10.10.10.4 and 3. crushed limestone.e.2 Repl acement .4 9.5) requirements. sand.1.2. Raise elevation of existing penetrations if the new bottom elevation requires a cut through the reinforcement. the bottom plate (under the shell) shall be cut out and a new plate installed. from butt w eld annular joints and from joints of the annular ring to normal bottom plates.5 Page 31 of 58 API 653 Summary .10. except for w elding of: a.2. On floating roof tanks. keep in mind that the floating roof support legs may require revision to conform to new bottom elevation.1. This is a new paragraph that gives the requirements for reinforcement plates.1.10.5.9.2. No 3 plate laps closer than tw elve inches (12") from each other. The shell shall be "slotted" w ith a uniform cut made parallel to the tank bottom.1.2.2. 9.10 Repai r of Tank Bottoms (Definition see paragraph 3.1..10.1.1. b. Voids in the foundation (below the old bottom) shall be filled with sand.10.1 See figure 9-5 for details for w elded-on patch plates N o w elding or w eld overlays are permitted w ithin the critical zone.10.2. 9.3 9. Shell-to-bottom weld.1.1 If more extensive repairs are required w ithin the critical zone (than as listed in 9.).1.1.2. 9.2 9.

1. In-service repair may be limited to seal component parts or high positioned vapor seals. repaired or replaced. b.12 External and I nternal Fl oati ng.2 Consider removal of old bottom.3 New w eld joints in the tank bottom or annular ring shall be spaced at least the greater of 3 inches or 5t from existing vertical w eld joints in the bottom shell course.) regarding bottom leak detection.1 Rim mounted seals can be removed.1 A ddi ti onal Wel ded-on Pl ates New inspection requirements. b.10.2 Same criteria as previously noted/ discussed in A PI-650 relative to: a. b.10. Use temporary spacers to keep roof centered. Plate "t" Roof support structure Loading Roof-to-shell junction 9. 9.13 Repai r/Repl acement of Fl oati ng Roof Seal s 9.2 Secondary seals can normally be "in-service" repaired or replaced.6 N ew bearing plates are required for floating roof leg supports and for fixed roof support columns. c. Page 32 of 58 API 653 Summary . 2005 .11.2.13.2. d.9.1. c.5.2. plates must be M T or PT if the weld spacing requirements can not be met.2. If no original draw ings available. use criteria from A PI-650.11 Repai r of Fi xed Roof s 9.11.4.13. Roof s a. Column length revisions are also required on fixed roof tanks. Repair in accordance to original construction drawings.10. NOTE: See API-RP 651. 9. M inimize evaporation/ personnel exposure by limiting seal segment removal to 1/ 4 of the seal at one time. 9. Items for consideration are: a. 9. Also see API-653 (4.3. 9.10.1 and 9. 9. A ppendix C and H. or of providing protection from potential galvanic corrosion.

A dding foam filler to toroidal seals. 9. NOTE: Connection size and shell "t" limitations are: a.9.3 Six inches (6 ) and small-minimum shell t 0.375" Eighteen inches (18") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0.13.1875" 9. 9. Page 33 of 58 API 653 Summary . 9.3 Seal -to-Shel l Gap Corrective action includes: a. c. 2005 .1. c. Use customer/ owner developed-documented procedure.14. d. Replacement (all or part) of the primary system.2 9. 9.13.3 Preparatory Work 9. b. NOTE: Buckled parts require replacement.1875 Eight inches (8") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0. 9. Tank roof Within the gas/ vapor space of a tank.14 H ot Taps Installation on existing in-service tanks w ith shell material that does not require post-w eld heat treatment.3.1 M inimum spacing in any direction (toe-to-toe of w elds) betw een the hot tap and adjacent nozzles shall be equivalent to the square root of RT (where "R" is tank shell radius. b. d. H ot taps are not permitted on: a. If no documentation is available.1.14. 2201 applies.50" Use low hydrogen electrodes. A dding a rim extension to install secondary seal.25" Fourteen inches (14") and smaller-minimum shell "t" 0. in inches.14. and "T" is the shell plate "t". API Pub. b. not straightening. e. A djusting hanger system or primary shoe seal types.6 M inimum A llow able roof rim "t" = 0.13.2 H ot Tap Procedure Requirements a.10" M inimum "t" of new rim plate = 0.14. b.14.4 M echanical Damage: Repair or replace. Increasing length of rim mounted secondary seals. in inches.

Full penetration w eld .5 I nstal l ati on Procedure 9.5. NOTES: 9.4 Following the hot-tap machine manufacturer's procedure. 9. A tw o piece pad requires a horizontal w eld). Limit weld heat input as practical. Pneumatically test per API-650 procedure.9.14. Upon weld completion: a. A fter pipe nozzle is w elded.5. page 9-12 for details).5.3 1. 9-6.pad to nozzle.14. b.14. 2. (See Fig. onl y qualified operators can make the shell cut.14. 9. Conduct NDE as required by procedure. Page 34 of 58 API 653 Summary .2 Pre-cut pipe nozzle to shell contour and outside bevel for full penetration weld.5 times the hydrostatic head) the nozzle pri or to mounting the hot-tap machine.3. c.1 9.2 Shell plate "t" shall be taken in a minimum of four (4) places along the circumference of the proposed nozzle location. pressure test (at least 1. A fter valve installation.14.5. 2005 .14. install the reinforcement (1 piece or 2 pieces).

3 Page 35 of 58 API 653 Summary . Cut shell from bottom plate along line B-B (see Fig. 10.3.1 Provides for dismantling and reconstruction of existing welded tanks relocated from their original site.3. or if enti re bottom is salvaged i ntact.2 See Section 12 for hydrostatic and w eld requirements.3.3. A ny shell ring 1/ 2 inch thick or thinner may be dismantled by cutting through the w eld w ithout removing the H A Z.3.2. 10-1). b.1 Cut shell by one.2 Bottoms 10.3. w hich ever is less.3 Shel l s 10. 10. cut from shell along line A -A (Fig. of the follow ing methods: a.2 Shell stiffeners. except w here cuts cross existing w elds.3.3.1 Deseam lapw elds. Cuts made to remove existing w elds and H A Z.2 10.3. If temporary attachments are removed.1 General 10. w ind girders and top angles may be left attached to shell or cut at attachment w elds.1.D I SM A NTLI N G AN D RECONSTRUCTI ON 10. on both sides of the weld seam. If most of the bottom is to be reused.SECTI ON 10 .3 D i smantli ng M ethods Cut into any size pieces that are readily transportable to new site. grind area smooth. cut shell along line B-B. the minimum H A Z to be removed w ill be one-half of the w eld metal width or 1/ 4 inch.2. 10. 10. The existing shell-to-bottom w eld connection shal l not be reused unl ess the entire bottom is to be salvaged intact. 10. Cuts made a minimum of 6" aw ay from existing w eld seams.1. or cut alongside existing seams (a minimum of 2" from existing w elds). 10. 2005 . c.3. except w here cuts cross existing w eld seams. or a combination. 10-1).

2 Cut roof by lapw eld deseaming or alongside (a minimum of 2" from) the remaining w elds.2 Vertical w eld joints should not aligned w ith joints located in bottom plates.10. 10. 10.3. Caution this is a common practice and should be avoided. 9-1 for w eld spacing. b. N o w elding is allow ed when parts to be w elded are w et from rain.2.1 Welding notes as follows: a.4. Tank and Structural A ttachment Welding Use processes specified in API-650.1 Shell bottom and roof plates M ark prior to dismantling for ready identification and reconstruction placement.2.4 Reconstructi on 10.4.4 Roof s 10.5.5 Pi ece M arki ng 10. 10. N o w elding is permitted w hen the base metal is below 0°F. Page 36 of 58 API 653 Summary .3. 2005 .4. the base metal within 3" of welding shall be pre-heated to approximately 140°F.3. except w here new joints cross original joints. 10. or during high wind conditions (unless the work is shielded). 10. Roof structure Remove bolts or deseaming at structural w elds.2 Punch mark (minimum 2 sets) at matching centers located on top and bottom edges of each shell segment for future proper alignment. If the base metal temperature is betw een 0° and 32°F or the metal "t" is in excess of 1". snow or ice or w hen rain or snow is falling. Refer to Fig.4.4. b.2. c.5.3 Specific welding notes: a. No w elding over heat affected zones (from original tank w elds).1 10.3. c.3.3.

50" thick a minimum pre-heat of 200°F is required.3.06". NOTE: welding. 2005 .4.2.7 NOTE: 10.10. including the shell to bottom attachment or annular plate ring.4.2.4.5 A s normal. 10.: a. b.4.4 Shel l s 10.2 10.misalignment shall not exceed 10% of "t" (maximum 0.4.4. Under 0.e.4.3 Bottoms 10. Complete vertical w elding before roundseam below is w elded.125").Remove. A s in A PI-650.4. Weld shell to bottom f i rst (except for door sheets) before w eldout of bottom plates is started.4. the maximum acceptable undercutting is 1/ 64" for vertical butt joints and 1/ 32" for horizontal butt joints. each layer of w eld deposit is to be cleaned of slag or other deposits. 10.misalignment shall not exceed 0.2.125" maximum).4 10.625" thick . Tack welds left in place must have been applied by a qualified welder. Same tack w eld provisions as A PI-650.4. Over 5/ 8" thick .2. submerged tacks .4. b.2 H ori zontal j oi nts Upper plate shall not project over low er by more than 20% of upper plate "t"(with 0. 10.3 M aterial over 1. A l l other coating must be removed prior to 10.2.4.9 Low -hydrogen electrodes required on manual metal-arc w elds. Vertical .4. N OTE: 10. manual tacks .8 If w eldable primer coatings exist. Vertical.4.If sound. clean only. i. they must be included in procedure qualification tests. Page 37 of 58 API 653 Summary .1 Same fit-up/ welding procedures and values as allowed in A PI-650 for verti cal joints: a.

2005 . Page 38 of 58 API 653 Summary .4 Peaki ng Shall not exceed 0.4.00". 10. w ith a maximum of 5" this dimension also applies to roof columns. 10.2.5.5.10. 10.1 A llowable maximum out-of-plumbness (top of shell relative to shell bottom) shall not exceed 1/ 100 of total tank height.5. 10.5.5 Roof s There are no special stipulations.3 Roundness See values and measurement locations on Table 10-2. N OTE: Somew hat more lax than A PI-650. except that structural members must be reasonably true to line and surface.5.50".6 Foundati ons Same specifications as listed under A PI-650. 10.5 Bandi ng Shall not exceed 1.5 Di mensi onal Tol erances 10.

1.1 UT lamination check required for: a.1.1.1 Wel di ng Qual i f i cati ons 11. 12.SECTI ON 11 .1.2 Shel l Penetrati ons 12.2. Completed welds attaching nozzle to shell or pad to shell and nozzle neck shall be examined by a magnetic particle or liquid penetrate test. If the material specification is unknown or obsolete.2.1.1 12.4 Page 39 of 58 API 653 Summary . Weldability of steel from existing tanks must be verified. test coupons for the procedure qualification shall be taken from the actual plate to be used. A cceptance criteria shall be in accordance with A PI 650.2.3 12.1 11. 2005 .1. Installing a hot-tap connection. SECTION 12 . Complete w elds in stress relieved components require magnetic particle or liquid penetrate testing (after stress relief.1. 12. b.1. Cavities from gouging or grinding to remove reinforcement pad w elds require either a magnetic particle or liquid penetrant test.3 NDE shall be performed in accordance with A PI 650.1.2. welders and operators shall be qualified in accordance w ith Section IX of the A SM E Code.1. 12.WELD I NG 11. Personnel performing NDE shall be qualified in accordance with A PI 650.2 A dding reinforcement plate to an unreinforced penetration.2 Weld procedure specifications (WPS). Consideration should be given for extra NDE on hot taps.1. NOTE: A ppendix "F" is not mentioned.EXAM I NA TI ON AN D TESTI NG 12. 12.1.1.5 A ppendix G is mentioned fro qualifying personnel and procedures when using M FL.2 12.1.1. plus A PI 653 supplemental requirements. but before hydrostatic test).

12. plus one (1) additional radiograph. 2005 .3 Repai red Wel d Fl aws 12.1.2 12.2 New welds on new shell plate to new shell plate are to be examined and radiographed to A PI 650. 12.5 Shel l -to-Shel l Pl ate Wel ds New welds attaching shell plate to shell plate require visual and radiographic examination. groups IV-VI.3.12. Completed w elds on permanent attachments shall be examined by M T or PT.2 A ground area resulting from the removal of attachments requires a visual test.1.4. b.1.4.1 Joints shall be inspected over its entire length by a right angle vacuum box and a solution film.1 V erti cal Joi nts a.1.8.1. Page 40 of 58 API 653 Summary . or by applying light diesel oil. ( Diesel test technique). New plate to new plate: Same as A PI 650.1.6.1. 12.5. plus one (1) additional radiograph.Same as API-650. A dditionally.2. A n air pressure test may be used to check the shell-tobottom w eld.2 Cavities from gouging or grinding to remove w eld defects shall be either a magnetic particle or liquid penetrate tested.6. plate greater than 1".1. Completed repair of butt w el ds shall be examined over their f ul l l ength by UT or radiographic methods.1. excluding the shell to bottom w eld.4 Temporary and Permanent Attachments to Shell Pl ates 12.2 12.1. 12.1.1 12. (New Paragraph) deals with lap w elded shell patches.3. the backgouged surface of root pass and final pass (each side) shall be examined over its full length by a magnetic particle or liquid penetrate test. pl us the follow ing additional requirements: 12.1 12.1. c. New plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650. 12. Existing plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650.1.6 Shel l -to Bottom 12.2 Radi ographs Number and location .

NOTE: A ll junctions between repair and existing w eld shall be radiographed. N ew plate to new plate: Same as A PI 650.2.1 12.2.2. 12.1. b. one (1) in each corner.1. b.2.1. one (1) in horizontal.8 For penetrations installed using insert plates as described in 9.2 Circular .6. Page 41 of 58 API 653 Summary .1.2.2. 2005 . Existing plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650.Per A PI-650..6 Each butt-weld annular plate joint .2. 12.3 I ntersecti ons a.1.M inimum one (1) radiograph Square or Rectangular: One (1) in vertical. 12. plus one (1) additional radiograph for each 50 of horizontal w eld.1. c.12. If defects are found.1.2.4 12. Existing plate to existing plate: Shall be radiographed. N ew plate to existing plate: Same as A PI 650. N ew plate to existing plate: Shall be radiographed.2 Cri teri a A cceptance If a radiograph of an intersection between new and old w eld detects unacceptable flaw s (by current standards) the weld may be evaluated according to the original construction standard.2. the completed butt welds between the insert plate and the shell plate shall be fully radiographed. plus one (1) additional radiograph for each 50 feet of horizontal weld. c. For reconstructed tanks 25 percent of all junctions shall be radiographed.8. N ew plate to new plate: Same as A PI 650.6.5 12. 12.2 Hori zontal Joi nts a.1.2. 100% is required on weld repair area. New and replaced shell plate or door sheet welds: 12.

2005 .3. The Annular ring remains intact The welding repair does not result in w elding on the existing bottom w ithin the critical zone. A ny tank that has had major repairs or alterations (See 12. removal and/ or replacement of annular plate ring.12. New bottom installation if the foundation under the new bottom is not disturbed. The repair has been review ed and approved by an engineer. The installation of any shell penetration (beneath the design liquid level) larger than 12" or any bottom penetration within 12" of the shell. Partial of complete jacking of a tank shell. M aj or w ould therefore include: a. is required on: a.) unless exempted by 12. Page 42 of 58 API 653 Summary . 12. c.2 for the applicable combination of materials.1 A full hydrostatic test. A ny shell plate (beneath design liquid level) or any annular plate w here the l ongest dimension of plate exceeds 12".1. c. in w riting. addition. shell to bottom w eld or a sizable shell segment. The tank owner or operator has authorized the exemption in writing. design and construction features.2. e.2.1. The complete or partial ( more than "1/ 2 t" of the w eld thickness) or more than 12" of vertical seams. b. 2. 12. b.3.3. A tank w here an engineering evaluation indicates the need for the hydrostatic test.2 M ajor Repair/ A lteration Operations that require cutting. b.3. held for 24 hours.3 Hydrostati c Testi ng 12.3. 1.3.1 A full hydrostatic test of the tank is not required for major repairs and major alterations w hen: a.1. A reconstructed tank. d. or radial annular plate w elds.2 Hydrostatic not Required Conditions 12.

2. Page 43 of 58 API 653 Summary .2 Shel l Repai r Weld procedures for shell repair must include impact testing.1 12. stress must not be more than 7.3.3.3.3.1 When settlement is anticipated.5. new shell materials must A PI 650 7th edition or later.2. except they shall not extend to or intersect the bottom-to-shell joint. the finished weld in the shell plates shall be fully radiographed.3 Bottom Repai r Wi thi n the Cri ti cal Zone N ow allow s UT to be used on annular plate butt w elds 12.3. the tank being hydrotested must have a settlement survey.2. 12. must meet requirements for brittle fracture.2.2.1. door sheets shall comply w ith the requirements for shell plate installation.3.8 N ew radiography requirements.2.2.6 H D G t S= H= t= D= G= shell stress in pounds per square foot tank fill height above the bottom of repairs or alteration in feet shell thickness at area of interest in inches tank mean diameter in feet specific gravity of product 12.3.3 12.2.12.1 12.5 M easured Settl ement (D uri ng Hydro) 12.2. S = 2. A big change in this section. N ew requirements.3.2.000 psi as calculated from the new formula given in this paragraph.5 12. 2005 .2.

Page 44 of 58 API 653 Summary . using the number of bottom plate projections as elevation measuring points (N). b. FORM ULA: N=D/ 10 Where: a.1. N= D= minimum number of measurement points (not less than 8). NOTE: 12. See Appendix B for evaluation and acceptance. investigate and/ or repair. The M aximum spacing betw een measurement points shall be 32 feet.5.5. NOTE: Excessive settlement (per A ppendix B) shall be cause to stop test.2 Survey Duri ng H ydro M easure at increments during filing and at 100% test level. tank diameter (in feet). uniformly distributed around the circumference.2 I ni ti al Settl ement Survey: With tank empty. 2005 .12.

Nominal diameter Nominal height. altered or reconstructed to A PI-653 require the following ow ner/ operator records: a. b. 13. Design specific gravity of product stored. h. j. Repair and alteration considerations. 2005 . Ow ner/ operator identification number. A llow able stress used in calculations for each course.1.2 Record k eepi ng Tanks evaluated. M aterial for each shell course.SECTI ON 13 .M A RK I NG AN D RECORD K EEPI NG 13. e.2 N ew nameplate Shall be attached to the tank shell adjacent to existing nameplate. The following information is required a. the original applicable standard and original date. Reconstructed to A PI-653. c. m. f. Component integrity evaluation. g. Contractor's serial and/ or contract number. Edition/ revision number. repaired. Re-rating data (including liquid level). Maximum permissible operating liquid level. Page 45 of 58 API 653 Summary . M aximum operating temperature. d.1. Year reconstruction completed.1 A PI-653 reconstructed tanks require nameplate w ith letters and numerals must be a minimum of 5/ 32" high. i. 13. c. including brittle fracture considerations. k. If know n. l. b.

but not limited to.13. Partial releveling of tank periphery. Brittle fracture considerations. Location and identification (ow ner/ operator number. stress and loading).3 Correcting shell and bottom settlement problems include the follow ing techniques: a. Design conditions (i. e. Localized bottom plate repair.. Planned frequency. Inspections (including "t" measurements). i. APPEND IX B EV ALUATI ON OF TAN K BOTTOM SETTLEM ENT B. monitoring should be based on visual observations and prior service history. h. b.1 Common methods to monitor potential problem: a.3 Certi f i cati on Documentation of reconstruction in accordance with A PI-653 is required. Initial settlement survey. liquid level. serial number). M aterial test reports/ certifications. (See Fig. Shell material and thickness (by course). M ajor releveling of shell and bottom. k. Construction completion record.e. information pertaining to: a.1. l. m. b. c. 2005 . height and service). at erection and hydro. d. Tank should be emptied and releveling repair conducted. Tank perimeter elevations.2 Excessive settlement requires evaluation/ interpretation of survey data. Tests.1.1. Basis for hydrostatic test exemption 13. g.2.2 Types of Settl ement Page 46 of 58 API 653 Summary . Description of tank (diameter.1. per soil settlement predictions For existing tanks (w ith no settlement history). c. f. specific gravity. 13-2). B. Original construction data. b. B. c.3 A dditional support data including. j. B. Radiographs (to be retained for at least one year).

depending on soil characteristics.2. this type problem becomes very important to determine severity and evaluate properly. Therefore. Rotates the tank in a tilted plane.2.B.3 Uniform and rigid body tilt can cause problems as noted. Develop a graphic line point representation of the involved data. nozzles and attachments. Common approach for settlement survey: a. Can also cause binding of peripheral seals in a floating roof and inhibit roof travel. but does present a potenti al problem for piping. non-planer configuration type settlement often occurs.2.2.1 Elevation measurements around the circumference and across the tank diameter are the best method for evaluating shell and bottom settlement problems. e.2. d. M ay vary in magnitude. 2005 Page 47 of 58 API 653 . B. Local depressions may require other techniques.2 B. Due to a tank shell being a rather flexible structure. b.2 Shell Settlement Evaluation Tank settlement results from either one or a combination of the follow ing three (3) settlement components: B. It does not introduce stress in tank structure. Differential Settlement (out of plane). c. Elongation of upper shell.4 Increased stress levels. It is the l east severe or threatening settlement problem. Determine magnitude of uniform and rigid body tilt from each point on tank periphery. B. Summary .2. This tilt will cause an increase in the liquid level and an increase in the shell hoop* stress. B.1 Uniform settlement. b. Can affect tank nozzles that have piping attached to them. Development of shell flat spots. c.2.2. Potential Problems: a.2.2. Floating roof travel interference and potential seal damage or roof "hang-up". This may be visible in the form of elongation of top shell ring in floating roof tanks. Planar Tilt (rigid body tilting). overall integrity of the shell and bottom are more likely to be impacted by differential settlement. High nozzle/ piping stress levels. Obtain transit survey from the correct number of evenly spaced points.

NOTES: B. Requires technical assistance.5. 2. soil characteristics. based on service conditions. Void severity below the bottom plate.5.1 General Greater settlement may be acceptable in tanks w ith a successful service history than new construction standards allow . foundation design and prior service history.3.2. When occurring. A cceptability dependent upon: a. remote from shell. 2005 .3 Determi nation of Acceptabl e Settl ement B. construction materials.3. Design/ quality of lap welds.1 B.5 Refer to B. Page 48 of 58 API 653 Summary .2 Shel l Settl ement Determine the maximum out-of-plane deflection.2 for method of determining acceptable settlement condition or values. resulting in deformation of the bottom plate near the shell junction.2. Each condition must be evaluated. B-4 for pictorial view).2 Depressions/ bulged that occur in a random matter. B. A stress analysis method is now included in this paragraph. B. (See Fig.3.2. c.5 Local i zed Bottom Settl ement (Remote f rom Shel l ) B.3 Edge settl ement B.3.2. B. 1. b. Localized bottom plate stresses.1 Occurs w hen tank shell settles sharply around the periphery.2. N ot normally seen as extreme problem.2. The formula for calculating the maximum permissible deflection is shown on page B-4.NOTE: Develop values (show ing elevation differences) by comparing transit measurement readings by use of provided decimal chart. B.2. normally associated w ith new tank w here no or insufficient load bearing soil test borings have been made.

1 D . Various repair techniques are acceptable. Page 49 of 58 API 653 Summary . The Technical Inquiry Responses have also been listed. Several new figures have been added to A ppendix B. 2005 . The user is left to his ow n devices as how to use this information. D . Numerous items need not be checked by the inspector. Tabl e C-1 (In Service Inspection checklist) includes 111 separate items.5 Written exam. after two re-certifications. There is no bases for the information in the figures. Educational requirements for the A PI 653 A uthorized Inspector. Use these as guidance items only.2 D . APPEN DI X D A UTH ORI ZED I N SPECTOR CERTI FI CA TI ON This A ppendix was rewritten in the 4th A ddenda to API 653..5. based on the current A PI 653 Body of Knowledge.3 The requirements for re-examination are listed. each inspector shall demonstrate know ledge of revisions to A PI 653. Tabl e C-2 (Out-of-Service Inspection Checklist) includes 248 separate items. (See Section 9. APPEN DI X E TECH N ICA L I N QUI RI ES This section is a listing of how to contact the API 653 committee. This information is useful in actual application of API 653. but rather by plant personnel.B. D .10 for helpful details). a rigorous stress analysis should be performed to evaluate the deformed profile.4 Repai rs If conditions beyond acceptable conditions are found. Recertification requirements for the A PI 653 A uthorized Inspector. 6 years. A PPENDI X C CHECK LI STS FOR TAN K IN SPECTI ON Tables C-1 and C-2 are sample checklists illustrating tank components and auxiliary items that deserve consideration during internal/ external inspections. but are not a part of the exam. how ever the bases for the new figures and requirements have been challenged. or repairs conducted.

G. API 650.2. and UT prove-up. hand scanner. This is a very good section that w ill be useful to the user.. G. 2005 .2.2. Page 50 of 58 API 653 Summary .3 bottom scan: The use of equipment over large portions of the tank bottom to detect corrosion in a tank bottom. G.2 Def i ni ti ons G. G 2. G.8 si zi ng (or prove-up): The activity that is used to accurately determine the remaining bottom thickness in areas w here indications are found by the bottom scanning equipment. The procedure can include multiple methods and tools.2.2 exami ners: Scanning operators and NDE technicians w ho prove-up bottom indications. G. G. It does not include the visual examination that is included in the internal inspection.2.6 qual i f i cati on test: The demonstration test that is used to prove that a procedure or examiner can successfully find and prove-up tank bottom metal loss. A SM E Section V and VIII. and A SNT are listed.A PPENDI X F N DE REQUIREM EN TS SUM M ARY This section is a summary of the requirements for NDE personnel and procedures. i. One common type of bottom scanning equipment is the M agnetic Flux Leakage (M FL) scanner.2.2.4 authori zed i nspecti on agency: Organizations that employ an aboveground storage tank inspector certified by A PI (see 3.10 tank bottom exami nation procedure (TBP): A qualified w ritten procedure that addresses the essential and non-essential variables for the tank bottom examination. It includes both the detection and proveup of the indications. G.2.7 scanni ng operator (or operator): The individual that operates bottomscanning equipment. APPENDI X G QUA LIFI CA TI ON OF TA NK BOTTOM EXA M IN A TI ON PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL This appendix w as established in the first addenda to edition three of A PI 653 and outlines procedure and qualifications for floor scanning.e. bottom scanner.4). This is often accomplished using the UT method. G.9 tank bottom exami nati on: The examination of a tank bottom using special equipment to determine the remaining thickness of the tank bottom. G.5 non-essenti al vari abl es: Variables in the procedure that can be changed w ithout having to re-qualify the procedure and/ or scanning operators.2.1 essenti al vari abl es: Variables in the procedure that cannot be changed w ithout the procedure and scanning operators being re-qualified.

13 vari abl es or procedure vari abl es: The specific data in a procedure that provides direction and limitations to the scanning operator.2.2. Page 51 of 58 API 653 Summary . A n explanation of Tank Bottom Examination procedures Requirements for Tank Bottom Examiners Qualification Testing. overlap of adjacent bottom scans. scanning speed. plate thickness.4 G.5 record must contain the data for all essential variables and the results of the qualification test. ect. Examples include. G.12 tank bottom procedure qual i f i cati on record (TBPQ): A record of the qualification test for a tank bottom examination procedure. standards and variables. 2005 .11 tank bottom examiner qual i f i cati on record (TBEQ): A record of the qualification test for a specific scanning operator.3 G. This G. This record must contain the data for all essential variables and the results of the qualification test.2. including test plates. equipment settings.G. G.

d. d. b. Which of the following pressures represent the maximum amount and is still considered to be atmospheric storage? a. 2005 . A PI-650 and A PI-653 standards involving "in-service" A ST's. c. In case of conflict between API-12C. On-site Inspector Contractor Involved Ow ner/ operator of equipment Relevant State or Federal A gency 3.5 lb. 45% 60% 75% 80% Page 52 of 58 API 653 Summary . b. psig 2. b.A PI 653 COD E QUI Z 1.0 lb. c. w hich of the three codes w ill govern? a. d. psig 1. Which of the following have the ultimate responsibility for complying with API-653 standard provisions? a. b. Internal pressures inside tanks may vary. A PI-12C API-650 API-653 2.5 lb. What is the joint efficiency of a lap riveted joint w ith one (1) row of rivets? a. c. 3 oz. c. psig 4. psig 1.

c. w hichever is more. Jurisdictional regulations Tank service history. The actual area requiring renew al. Page 53 of 58 API 653 Summary . 10% of the individual ring segment involved. 6. Know n (or suspected) corrosion activity of product. Where a testing medium other than w ater was used. unless special reasons indicate an earlier inspection is required.5. Five years or RCA / 4N . b. When external UT "t" measurements are used to determine a rate of general. b. c. 10 years maximum 20 years maximum 5 years (after commissioning). uniform corrosion (relevant to shell integrity) w hich of the follow ing values cannot be exceeded? a. c. c. What primary factor determines the interval betw een internal and external inspections? a. plus 6" on all four surrounding sides. d. b. Change of service to a product w ith a specific gravity 10% higher than prior stored product. follow ing a repair/ alteration. 2005 . 8. During a hydro test w here the test w ater w as 50°F or colder. Shortly after erection. A tmospheric temperature of 20°F or low er. d. 12" or 12 times the "t" of the replacement plate. first cold w eather filling or change to low er temperature service. A ll prior reported brittle fracture tank failures have occurred under which of the follow ing conditions/ situations? a. d. b. d. w hichever is greater. What is the mi ni mum dimension for a shell ring replacement piece or segment? a. 20% of the individual ring segment involved. 7. or at 5 year intervals (w here corrosion rate is not know n).

What type of contour cut (if any) and w hat degree of bevel (if any) is required on the nozzle "barrel" end that is to be joined to shell during a "hot-tap". d. 200°F. b. No contour cut required. 12. c. 1/ 8" corner radius (minimum). c. d. Within the annular ring. 225°F. b. Cut to shell contour and outside beveled for full penetration attachment weld. When reconstructing tank shells w ith a material "t" exceeding 1. 45° outside bevel.9. a. d. d. Within 3" from the shell on the bottom plates 10. if air temperature exceeds 70°F. 2005 . b. Page 54 of 58 API 653 Summary . No contour cut required. Four (4) Eight (8) Establishment of both a minimum and average "t" over the entire nozzle installation area. w ithin 12" of shell. c. Which of the areas described below are considered to be the "cri ti cal zone" involving tank bottom repair? a. w hat minimum pre-heat is specified? a. or within 12" of inside edge of annular plate ring. No preheat required. Select the mi ni mum number of "t" measurements required (along the circumference of any proposed "hot-tap" nozzle location): a. One (1) on horizontal centerline (3" from edge) on each side of proposed shell opening cut.50". No contour cut required. b. c. 30° outside bevel. 11. A ny area where 3 plate laps are located Within 36" (measured vertically) from any shell penetration above. 300°F.

how many radiographs are required? a. Welders/ operators must be qual i f i ed in accordance w ith which of the codes listed. In re-erecting a tank shell. AWS Section V ASM E Section VIII A SM E Section IX ASME 15. The f ol l ow i ng i nf ormati on appl i es f or questi ons 16 through 20 bel ow : A n internal inspection is performed on an aboveground storage tank 44 feet tall. d. A PI 650 requirements plus one (1) in every joint. 7th Edition).75" (3/ 4") w ith 48" board. b.50" (1/ 2") on horizontal with 36" board 0. d. b. 0. c. b.00" (1") w ith 48" board. A PI-653 (Section 12) requires greater radiographic examination of tank shell w elds than does A PI-650. d. 7/ 3/ 5/ 1/ 8" 4" 8" 2" Page 55 of 58 API 653 Summary . Calculate the minimum thickness for the first course based on product alone.13. c.25" (1/ 4") on verticals. d. w hat length "sw eep-board" and w hat are maximum allow able values for weld seam peaking? a. 2005 . 40 foot fill height. Tw o (2) for each w elder or operator involved on each ring for all plate thicknesses. Welding procedure Specs (WPS) are established in Section 11 of A PI-653. One (1) for each w elder or operator involved on each ring. 112 feet diameter. b. 16. sand pad w ith a reinforced concrete ring w all foundation. a. c.50" (1/ 2") with 36" horizontal sweep board? 0. Relevant to new or repai red vertical joints in existing shell plates. 0. a. There is one area of general corrosion on the north side of the shell 38 inches w ide and 20 inches tall. (The tank was built to A PI 650. 1. c. 14. Tw ice those required by A PI-650. light oil (specific gravity = 1) service.

There are four pits lined vertically on the south side of the tank in the first course. b.11" 20. Because of the vertical pits. a. b. b." and . w hat is the maximum permissible height for the bulge? a. Calculate the "L" length for an area of general corrosion found ten feet from the bottom on the north side of the shell.255" each. no repair is required. a. the diameter of the bulge is 30 inches.84" 40" 18.125 inches. 2005 . The pit depth is approximately 0.17. t 2 = . 1. If the pit depth is only . A repair is required. c.962 1.130 inches the pits may be ignored. A n area of edge settlement in the tank bottom 6 feet from the tank shell has sloped down and settled.1" . d.7" 10" 13. d. b. The edge settlement area has bottom lap w elds approximately parallel to the shell. Page 56 of 58 API 653 Summary . The pits measure 1".463" . c. d. a. 11.500" in length along a vertical line 8" long. A bulge is found on the tank floor. 19. c. 3. 1. c. Sloped edge settlement is usually no problem The area should be documented and checked during the next inspection. d.250". The area must be repaired. Scattered pits may be ignored. A more rigorous stress analysis must be performed. The settlement measures 2 inches at the deepest point.

13.3. 15. 2. 5.2 (b) page 6-1 and 6-2} {Paragraph 6.1. 14. 8.2. 12.9 page 3-1} {Paragraph 9. 4.5.2.14. c c d a c c b b d b c b a d b d {Paragraph 1.600 t min = 11.356.4 page 10-3} {Paragraph 11.2 page 6-1} {Paragraph 9.1 page 12-2} (1/ 2") {Paragraph 4.14.3 page 10-3} {Paragraph 10.3 page 3-1} {Table 4-3 page 4-7} {Paragraph 5.3.1 page 9-1} {Paragraph 3.2 page 1-1} {Paragraph 1.3. 3.3 page 4-3} t min = 2.1 page 5-1} {Paragraph 6.3.2.1 page 9-11} {Paragraph 10. 9.5.2 page 9-11} {Paragraph 9.600 E= 1 t min = 2.4.6 (H-1) DG SE D = 112 H = 40 G=1 t min = ? S = 23.481 inches (rounded to 1/ 2 inch) Page 57 of 58 API 653 Summary .4. 2005 .1.2.2.8 23.A PI 653 CODE QUI Z ANSWER K EY 1. 10.1. 16.2 page 1-1} {Paragraph 3.6 (40-1) (112) (1) 23. 7.1 page 11-1} {Paragraph 12. 11. 6.600 t min = .

84") (Paragraph 4.84 inches L = 3.463 inches 20. 19.25) B = .) Figure B-10 Using figure B-10 the area is acceptable.25 + 1 + .7 14 L .500 = 3. 30 divided by 2 .7 (112)(.37 (1. B = .15 divided by 12 = 1. in feet.3. it should be documented.2. 2005 . (The area should be documented and checked during the next inspection.3.2.463") (Paragraph B.3.2 Page 4-3) A dd the pit diameters 1 + 1.7 18.3.7(3.3 Page B7) R = Diameter divided by 2. d Page 58 of 58 API 653 Summary .) Paragraph4.25 feet. a (A repair is required. c (13.37R B = . b (.17.74) L = 13.125) L = 3.75 (M ore than allow ed in an 8 area) The pit depth exceeds one-half the minimum acceptable tank shell thickness.1 Page 4-2) Dt2 L = 3.

Section 2 API Standard 650 Summary .

A PI STA NDA RD 650 WELDED STEEL TA NKS FOR OI L STORA GE Tenth Edi ti on, N ovember, 1998 Addendum 1, January, 2000 Addendum 2, November, 2001 Addendum 3, September 2003 SECTI ON 1 - SCOPE 1.1 General 1.1.1 This standard covers material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed and open-top, welded steel storage tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure. NOTE 1: This standard covers only tanks w hose entire bottom is uniformly supported and only tanks in non-refrigerated service that have a maximum operating temperature of 200° F. A bullet ( ) at the beginning of a paragraph indicates that there is an expressed decision or action required of the purchaser. Listed below apply to specifics that most often apply to new tank erections w hereby Inspector know ledge must be reasonably thorough.

NOTE 2:

APPENDIXES:

1.1.3 The purchaser will specify SI dimensions or US customary dimensions. 1.1.6 A ppendi x B: Design and construction of foundations under flat bottom oil storage tanks. 1.1.7 A ppendi x C: Requirements for pan-type, pontoon-type and double decktype external floating roofs. 1.1.12 A ppendi x H: Requirements for an internal roof in a tank that has a fixed roof at the top of the tank shell. 1.1.14 A ppendi x J: Requirements covering the complete shop assembly of tanks not more than 20 feet in diameter. 1.1.15 A ppendi x K: A n example of the application of the variable-design-point method to determine shell-plate thickness. In larger tanks (over 200 feet in diameter), use of higher tensile strength steel, plus increased N DE procedures reduces plate "t". 1.1.17 A ppendi x M : Requirements for elevated temperature product storage up NOTE:

Page of 1 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

to 500° F. NOTE: A ppendixes A , D, E, F, L, N, O and P cover requirements on specifics that apply much less frequently from an inspection perspective.

1.1.21 Appendi x S: Requirements for the construction of austenitic stainless steel tanks. 1.1.22 A ppendi x T: Requirements for inspection (summary). 1.1.23 Appendi x U: Requirements for UT examination, in lieu of radiography. 1.2 Limitati ons a. A PI 650 stops at the face of the first flange. b. A PI 650 stops at the first sealing surface. c. A PI 650 stops at the first threaded connection. d. API 650 stops at the first circumferential w eld. SECTI ON 2: M A TERI A LS 2.1 General M ateri al Requi rements 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 Refer to 2.2.2 A STM Standards for acceptable tank steel plate requirements. Plate for shells, roofs and bottoms may be on an edgethickness basis or on a w eight (pounds per square foot) basis. Example: 3/ 16" plate (0.1875" or 7.65 lbs.) or 1/ 4" plate (0.250" or 10.4 lbs.), etc. 2.2.1.2.3 Whether an edge-thickness or a weight basis is used, an underrun of not more than 0.01" from the computed design thickness or the minimum permitted thickness is acceptable. M ost common plates used: 1. 2. 3. ASTM A-283 Gr. C ASTM A-36 Alternate Design Basis (A DB) tanks (See Appendix K) require higher tensile strength material.

NOTE:

2.2.2 New ASTM specification used.

2.2.8 Special plate requirement or testing:

Page of 2 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

a. Customer may require a set of charpy v-notch impact specimens. b. Special toughness requirements may be specified. 2.2.9.3 Normal design metal temperature shall be assumed to be 15°F above the lowest 1-day mean ambient temperature in the locality w here the tank is to be installed. (See Fig. 2-2). 2.2.9.4 Plate used to reinforce shell openings shall be of the same material as the shell plate to which it is attached. NOTE: A lso must be at l east as thick as primary plate! Shell nozzles and manw ay materials shall be equal or greater yield and tensile strength and shall be compatible w ith the shell material.

2.2.10.4 2.8

The manufacturer must furnish mill test data, including the required toughness at design metal temperature.

Wel di ng El ectrodes For w elding materials w ith a minimum tensile strength less than 80 kips per square inch, manual arc-w elding electrodes shall conform to the E60 and E70 series, A WS 5.1. SECTI ON 3: DESI GN

3.1

Joi nts (Tank D esi gn) 3.1.1-3.1.1.8 No detailed discussion. Be know ledgeable about the eight (8) types listed. 3.1.3.2 3.1.3.3 Tack welds are not considered as having any strength value in the finished structure. On plates 3/ 16" thick, a full fillet weld is required. On plates thicker than 3/ 16", the weld shall not be l ess than one-third the "t" of the thinner plate at the joint, with minimum of 3/ 16". Single lap w elds - bottom and roof plates only. Lap-weld joints shall be lapped not less than "5t" of the thinner plate, but need not exceed 1".

3.1.3.4 3.1.3.5

3.1.4 A WS weld symbols are required on draw ings.

3.1.5.2

V erti cal Shel l Joi nts

Page of 3 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

a.

Verticals shall be butt joints w ith complete penetration and fusion that w ill provide the same quality of deposited metal on both outside and inside weld surfaces. Vertical joints (in adjacent shell courses) shall not be in alignment. A n off-set from each other of "5t"(w here "t" is the thickest course at the point of offset).

b.

3.1.5.3

H ori zontal shel l j oi nts Same criteria as for verticals above, except that top angles may be double-lap welded.

3.1.5.4

Lap-w el ded Bottom Joi nts a. 3-plate laps shall not be closer than 12" from each other, from the tank shell, from butt-w elded annular plate joints and from joints between annular plate and bottom. Welded on top side only (full fillet only). On other than annular (doughnut) rings the plate under the shell must have the outer end of the joint fitted and w elded to form a smooth bearing for the shell plate. Note: Called a "BREAK -OVER." (Fig 3.3.b) When annular plates are used or required, butt welding is required with a mi nimum distance of 24" betw een shell and any bottom lap seam.

b. c.

NOTE:

3.1.5.5

Butt-w el d bottom j oi nts (i.e., normally annular ring) a. b. c. d. Parallel edges - either square or v-grove beveled. If square, root opening not less than 1/ 4". M inimum 1/ 8" thick back-up strip required. A 12" minimum space from each other or tank shell also applies.

3.1.5.6

A nnul ar ri ng j oi nts - complete penetration and fusion NOTE: A 2" minimum projection beyond outside edge of shell (i.e., bottom extension). See Par. 3.5.2).

3.1.5.7

Shel l -to-Bottom Fi l l et Wel ds a. b. If shell is 1/ 2" thick or less - Fillets not more than 1/ 2" or less than the nominal "t" of the thi nner plate joined. Two (2) weld passes (minimum) are required.

3.1.5.9

Roof and Top-A ngl e Joi nts

Page of 4 of 34 API 650 Summary, 2005

a. Welded top side only with continuous full-fillet. Page of 5 of 34 API 650 Summary. b. Top angle (horizontal leg) may extend either inside or outside. Butt w elds are also permitted. 2005 .

4 Bottom Pl ates a. 3. exclusive of any corrosion allow ance (CA ). ft. 3.Calculates the "t" required at design points 1 foot above the bottom of each shell course. Required shell "t" (including CA) for design product and hydro test. NOTE: A STM A -283. Annul ar Bottom Pl ates a.6.6. A -285 (GR. 3.7 Normally designed to be filled w ith w ater (i.6D(H -1)G + CA (Design Shell Thickness) Sd Formula: t t = 2.6.5 Tank Capaci ty Three new paragraphs that describe the requirements for stating the capacity for a new tank. Nominal "t" used.2 A llowable Stress .3. NOTE: 3. C. A 1" minimum w idth to project beyond outside edge of shell. A nnular bottom plates must be 24 inches w ide.5 A minimum nominal "t" of 1/ 4" (10. (i.3. A llow able stresses.2 lbs. yield/ tensile strength and stress involved. Formul a: t d = 2.2.2 for details as to actual values or relationship of items show n in the formula above. c. Page of 6 of 34 API 650 Summary.3 One Foot M ethod . bottom extension). shell "t" as constructed). 3.e.6 Shel l D esi gn Shell designed on basis that tank is filled to a level "H" (fill level) with a specific gravity (SG) product value furnished by customer.e.1. SG of 1. Material specification..) and A-36 are the most common.). on lap w eld bottoms (i.6D(H-1) St NOTE: See 3.6. d. 3. per sq..0). M anufacturer must furnish drawing that lists: a.Be familiar with Table 3-2 for plate specifications. b. A 2 inch projection beyond the outside of the shell. 2005 .e. b. *N ot allow ed for shells greater than 200 feet in diameter.. b.

7.8 Paragraphs on stress relief of materials.7.4.2.. 2005 .2. Fig. 3-17 for typical stiffening ring sections. NOTE: Remember note on bottom of Fig.2 Permanent attachment w elds shall not be closer than 3" from horizontal shell joint seams.7. 1/ 4" corner radius for larger nozzle sizes. 3-5 and 3-6. 3-12.6 M anw ay necks. 3. nozzle necks and shell plate openings shall be uniform and smooth. 3-9 and 3-10. 3-4A .2 1/ 8" corner radius for 2" and smaller nozzle. NOTE: For manw ay and nozzle design values/ fabrication details. nozzle necks (i.6 Primary/ Secondary Wind Girders or Stiffeners: and 3. w ith the corners rounded. see page 3-49. except w here the surfaces are fully covered by attachment w elds. 3-4B.2 3. "When the roof nozzle is used for venti ng. the neck shall be trimmed flush w ith the roof line".4. 3. No reinforcement required for nozzles 2" and smaller.7 Shel l Openi ngs 3. By design. 3-4.7.5 3. 3. minimum weld requirements for openings in shells according to section 3. A great deal of confusion has been relieved w ith the addition of figure 3-22. NOTE: 3. 3-6.See Fig.3. 3-13 and 3-14.3 Spacing of Welds A round Connections This paragraph and the next three paragraphs confuse the w eld spacing issue. insert-plate joints or reinforcement-plate fillet w elds. 3-5.7. w ithin the shell plate "t" and inside extension) may provide the necessary reinforcement.5 Roof N ozzles .e. 3-14.8. outside extension.7 See Fig.3.9. 3. clips and stair treads).8.1. 3-7.9. 3-8.. nor closer than 6" from vertical joints.7. Shel l A ttachments (i.1 3. Page of 7 of 34 API 650 Summary.e. 3. Tables 3-3. H old times for stress relieving temperatures.1.7. surface items such as angles. 2. be familiar w ith and able to select the proper values from the following data sheets: 1.

Items "a.10 Roof s Intermediate wind girders cannot be attached w ithin 6" of a horizontal shell joint. Internal-External structural members must have a minimum nominal "t" (in any component) of 0.2.2.10. (3/ 16") 3. NOTE: In earthquake zones. Frangible Joint. w here specified.2.e. 3/ 4" diameter tie rods (or equivalent) shall be placed betw een the outer ring rafters (i. 3.28 feet). Rafters shall be spaced so that in the outer ring..1 Roofs and structure designed to support dead load (i. (6. per sq.2. measured along the circumference.5 feet. 3. Not necessary if "I" or "H " sections are used as rafters.e. ft.17".10.5 Roof Col umns Structural shapes or steel pipe is acceptable.2 Supported cone roof plates shal l not be attached to the supporting members.65 lbs.10.4 Frangible roof general information. Page of 8 of 34 API 650 Summary.4. 3. "Jack" rafters) is 5.1 3. 0.. their centers are not more than 2 ft. roof deck and appurtenances).10. NOTE: Refer to Glossary. NOTE: 3. Roof plates . of projected area.10.5 Self-supported roofs may require thicker plate.minimum nominal "t" of 3/ 16" (7.10.2. The maximum spacing for inner ring rafters (i. "Long" rafters).2. Roof plate weld attachment to top angle. per sq.. ft.3 3.180" plate or 7 gauge sheet)..4 3. b and c" -See weld size restrictions/ conditions.1 Refer to fixed roof types.NOTE: 3. 3.e. 2005 .10. plus a uniform live load of not less than 25 lbs.10. Supported cone roofs slope 3/ 4" in 12" (or greater). it must be sealed (or provisions for draining or venting made).4.10. but not connected to girders-rafters.6 3.7 3.2.10.10.4. If pipe. Roof plates may be stiffened by w elded sections.

1.w elded to tank shell.1.11 Wi nd Load on Tank s (Overturni ng Stabi l i ty) 3.5 Erection lugs shall be removed.p. c.6 Raf ter and Col umn Base Cl i ps a.welded to tank bottom to prevent lateral shift.Cylindrical surfaces .4. A ll based on w ind velocity of 100 m. Column-base clip guides . 5. overturn stability values are and the w ind load (or pressure) shall be assumed to be: a. torn or gouge areas repaired.15 lbs.1 Fabri cati on (General ) 4. Page of 9 of 34 API 650 Summary. bolted or riveted. c. foot. Conical-double curved surfaces .11. unless heated to a forging temperature. b. NOTE: 3. Outer row rafter clips . H eating or hammering not permitted.FA BRI CA TI ON 4.1. sloped (1 w ay) bottoms. b. per sq.12.30 lbs.3.2 When material requires straightening: a. 2005 . SECTI ON 5 . 3.1.10.e. SECTI ON 4 . Pressing or non-injurious method required (prior to any layout or shaping).welded. Other structural attachments .maximum of 10 feet apart. b.1 Erecti on (General ) 5.h. noticeable projections or weld metal removed.3 A nchor spacing .1 Subgrade shall be uniform and level (unless otherwise specified) i.18 lbs.. Vertical plane surfaces . Projected areas .ERECTI ON 5.1 Where specified.

1/ 64" (0.2. c. If sound. Maximum acceptable undercut .2.2. tack w elds can remain when the submerged-arc process is used.1.2.2 Procedures described in ASME Section IX.1 A cceptabl e wel d processes a.1.1. cleaned and fused.1.1/ 32" (0. automatically or semiautomatically.10 5.1.1. Complete fusion w ith base metal required. Stud w elding is recognized.5" thick of Group I-III material.8 Tack w elds. d. shal l be removed and not remain in finished joint . Low -hydrogen electrodes shall be used for manual metal-arc welds.031") horizontal butt joints. Base metal temperature is between 0° .3 5. used in vertical joints. 5. a.11 5. 5. e. b. Shielded metal-arc Gas metal-arc Flux-cored arc Submerged-arc Electroslag Electrogas M ay be performed manually. When base metal temperature is less than 0° F. including shell to bottom junction for all shell courses over 0. Surfaces are w et or moisture falling on surfaces.2. 5. Wel di ng prohi bi ted w hen: a. b.2. During high winds (unless shielded).2 Bottoms 5. NOTE: 5.2. M aximum acceptable undercut .when manual l y wel ded.2 A fter layout/ tacking.2. f. d. w eld out may proceed w ith some shrinkage seams left open.32° F and "t" exceeds 1 1/ 4" pre-heat of metal w ithin 3" of weld is required.2. b.2 Wel di ng (General ) 5.016") vertical butt joints.5. 2005 .4 M ultilayer welds require slag and other deposit removal before next layer applied. Page of 10of 34 API 650 Summary.1. A ll w eld edges must merge w ith plate surface without a sharp angle. c.2.

may be checked by visual and any of the follow ing: magnetic particle.2.3.6 5.1 5. b. grinding or melting out. Joints exceeding 1 1/ 2" base metal "t" a.4. PT w ater w ashable.3 IN SPECTI ON.2.125". 2005 .2.2. must be cleaned by chipping. PT solvent. above) are w elded. M isalignment in completed vertical joints 5/ 8" thick and less thick shall not be greater than 0. c. A N D REPAI RS 5. manw ays and cleanout openings shall be visually and magnetic particle or die penetrant tested.2 5. 5.2.2.06".3 Shel l s 5.2.3 5.3. Page of 11of 34 API 650 Summary.3. The reverse side of double-welded joints (pri or to the application of the first bead to the second side). N o pass over 3/ 4" thick is permitted.4 5. TESTI N G. allow s for pressure testing the volume between the inside and outside welds to 15 psi and applying a soap solution to the face of the fillet welds.1. Shell-to-bottom w elds. The procedure is now in paragraph 6. 5.2.4.2.2. before shrinkage openings (in 5. must be inspected visually. b.1 Shell to bottom w elding shall be practically completed. in group IV through VI material. M isalignment in completed vertical joints over 5/ 8" thick.2. as well as a procedure for tracer gas testing.3.2. radiographic or ultrasonic method.2.3 Examination and testing of the tank bottom: a.1 Butt welds.2. w elds attaching nozzles. M inimum preheat of 200°F is required.3. inside. w ith a maximum of 0.5.3.2. Vacuum box Tracer gas test External "float" test N OTE: Vacuum text procedure removed from this paragraph. New paragraph.4. diesel test or right angle vacuum box. shall not exceed 10% of plate "t". A fter any stress relief (but before hydro). 5.3 5.6. a new procedure as an alternative to paragraph 5.3.5 N ew requirement for a procedure that minimizes the potential for underbead cracking.

Be familiar with procedure. 5.3 Sloped foundations .5. 5.2 The 1/ 200 criteria shall also apply to fixed roof columns.7.5. 5. 5. pads tested by up to 15 PSIG pneumatic pressure betw een tank shell and reinforcement on each opening.2 Requi rements f or verti cal shel l w el ds a.Same criteria.5.2.6 Shell Testing .5.5.4 Wel d Repai r 5.5 See Specifics . Page of 12of 34 API 650 Summary. Butt-w eld joints with the thinner plate 3/ 8" or less: One spot in the first 10 feet of each type and thickness w elded by each welder or operator. 5. one additional spot in each additional 100 feet.shall not exceed 1/ 2". and w ithin ± 1/ 4" in the total circumference (measured from average elevation).1 Radi ographi c (Number-Locati on) 6.M ETH ODS OF I NSPECTI NG JOI N TS 6. Di mensi onal Tol erances The maximum out-of-plumbness of the top (relative to bottom of shell) may not exceed 1/ 200 of the total tank height. 5.3. SECTI ON 6 .5. NOTE: Non-concrete ring w alls the values change to ± 1/ 8" in any 10 feet and ± 1/ 2" in total circumference. 5. 2005 .5 Foundations (General) 5.2a For concrete ring walls .3. Thereafter.w eld over. NOTE: 5.4b Weld "banding" .5.Top shall be level within ± 1/ 8" in any 30 foot circumference.5.4.2 Pinhole or porosity bottom leaks .1.5 Reinforcing.1.4.5.6.3 A l l defects in shell or shell-to-bottom joints.shall not exceed 1/ 2". 5.4a Weld "peaking" .

1.1.one spot on 50%. of radial joints.2. A dditionally.2.3.TC .SNT .3. 2005 .9 Tank bottom annular ring (See 3. b.1. NOTE: See Fig. the other random). Butt weld around periphery of insert nozzles and manw ays complete radiography. Radiographers meet A SNT .1. Preferable spot .1. Thereafter.8 Each radiograph must clearly show 6" minimum weld length.3 Requi rements f or hori zontal shel l wel ds One spot in the first 10 feet (same type) thickness w ithout regard to w elder or operator.1).1.Radi ography 6. one random spot in each bottom ring vertical. 6.one spot on 10% of radial joints. Section V N DE.3 Techni que . Double-butt-weld joints . d.1. NOTE: Each film must show Identifier.5.full radiography of all verticals. NOTE: 6. 6. tw o spots in al l bottom ring verticals (one as near to bottom as practical.N OTE: A t least 25% of spots must be at junctions of verticals and roundseam joints . plus "t" gauge or penetrometer. the radial joints shall be radiographed as follow s: a. one spot in each additional 200 feet.minimum 2 per tank.2 A SM E method. 6.at the outer edge. 6-1 Radiographic Layout. c. 6. b. near shell. Plates thicker than 1" .1A requirements.4 M ulti-tank erection (at same location) may use aggregate footage values of same type and thickness. Single weld joints w ith back-up bar . Plates greater than 3/ 8" and through 1" thickness same as thinner plate above pl us al l junctions. A dditionally. plus all junctions. Page of 13of 34 API 650 Summary.2. Article 2.2.1 6.

1 A SM E Section V.5 6. Page of 14of 34 API 650 Summary.4.4 6. Par.5.2. Div. 1. Appendix 8. Article 7.1.1.7.A SM E Section V.6.1. No visible crater or surface cracks or arc strikes. 8-4 and 8-5. 2 adjacent shots are required. Undercut does not exceed limits given in 5.1.A SM E Section V. 2005 .1 Ultrasonic Method in lieu of radiography see A ppendix U.4 M ust be A SNT-SNT-TC-1A requirements A cceptance standards shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer. A rticle 6 must be follow ed.3 Ul trasonic Examinati on 6.3.1. 6.2 6.4.5).7 Weld defects shall be repaired by chipping or melting out from one or both sides. 6.4 A cceptance standards.2.1 M agnetic Particle .4. ASME.2. and rewelded.2 UT not in lieu of radiography . or the limits of the deficient radiograph are not defined.1 V i sual acceptabi l i ty based on f ol l owi ng: a.4 for vertical and horizontal butt joints. A SM E Section VIII.4. Liquid Penetrant Examination 6.3. UW-51(B). 6.3 M anufacturer determines qualifications 6. NOTE: If adjacent spots are still unacceptable. 6.5 Radiography Standards . 6.8.3.1.3.1. The manufacturer shall prepare an as-built radiograph map showing the location of all radiographs taken along with the film identification marks. additional spots are examined until weld is acceptable.2 M ust have written procedure 6. 6.2. b. paragraphs 8-3. repeat original inspection procedure.A cceptability to be in accordance with Section VIII. 6. 6.6 Unacceptable radiographs (under 6.1 When all w elds are repaired. Article 5 6.

6.1 Shell plate thickness limited to 1/ 2".1 requirements must be rew orked prior to hydro-testing. A ppendi x B . A. Page of 15of 34 API 650 Summary. roof and top angle . A. SECTI ON 7 . etc. manw ays.4 The overturning effect of w ind load should be considered.Foundati on Constructi on B.1 Vertical and horizontal joints.1.5.5.5 Consider Tables A -1 through A -4 for sizes.2 A ll w elds failing to meet 6.5. 2005 .Opti onal D esi gn Basi s For Smal l Tank s (Do not use Appendi x A on the API 653 Exam). A.5.3 Radiograph inspection . Frequency of surface porosity does not exceed one "cluster" in any 4" of length and the diameter of each cluster does not exceed 3/ 32" (0.WELDI N G PROCED URE/QUA LIFICATI ON S * N o specifics SECTI ON 8 .1.slightly relaxed.2 Normal w eld spacing restrictions are relaxed. bottom.094 ).5. A. A .2. shell-to-bottom.2. A. cleanout openings and permanent attachments.650 (A PPEN DI X REV IEW) A ppendix.M A RK I NG (N A M EPLATE) * N o specifics A PI . capacities. shell plate thickness. c. A.1 Requires soil coring to determine sub-surface conditions.same provisions as normal size.NOTE: 1/ 64" maximum allowable undercut on attached nozzles.

free from vegetation.2.3.2 Fi ni shed grade (i.Foundation w ith Concrete Ringw all. NOTE: H ave familiarity w ith above types. Better distribution of concentrated load. Sites underlain by layers of plastic clay.3 V aryi ng condi ti ons that requi re speci al engi neeri ng consi derati ons a. Retains subsoil fill and finished top surface.3 Fi ni shed tank grade Crowned from outer edge to center . gravel. compacted subsoil. B.preloading w ith an overburden of suitably drained earth. d. e.2. Provides better means to level tank during erection. e. Top 3"-4" .1'. organic matter or other corrosive substances. c. b. at least equivalent to fill used in good highway construction).1 Concrete foundation ringwall advantages a. c.2. 2005 . Sites on sw ampy or filled ground. Compacting w ith short piles . B. B. Sites adjacent to w ater courses or deep excavations. Driving bearing piles/ foundation piers. d. solid starting plane for erection. Sites on hillsides. b.Foundation w ith Crushed Stone Ringw all. B.1" in 10'. Correct before bottom plates are installed. Load distribution over a extra large area. crushed stone (maximum size 1"). M inimizes moisture under tank bottom. Stabilizing by chemical methods or grout injection. B. surface next to bottom) a. b.e.1 Suggested grade/surf ace el evati on . b. d. c. Page of 16of 34 API 650 Summary.3.e. c.Clean sand. Provides a level. f..4.B. e. or other suitable inert material. Removing w ater content then compacting. f. B. Oiled/ stabilized finished grade.4 General methods to i mprove non-acceptabl e subsoi l a..3. Sites immediately adjacent to heavy structures. Sites exposed to floodw aters. Equipment and material movement w ill cause damages. Removal and replacement w ith suitable. B-1 . Fig. Fig. B-2 .2.5 Fill material must be sound and durable (i.

w here flexure is anticipated adjacent to girders. full-fillet w elds (not less than 2" long on 10" centers) shall be used on any plate laps that occur within 12" of any such member.3. appropriate alarm devices are required. e. A 10" of rainfall in a 24 hour period w ith roof intact. b. C.3 Earth Foundati ons (w ithout concrete ringwall) a. Each compartment provided with liquid tight manw ay. Smooth. C.3. support legs.4.1 (i.6).5. M anw ay covers provided w ith suitable hold-dow n fixture.).3. or other relatively rigid members. Surface true to specified plane (tolerances specified in 5. Page of 17of 34 API 650 Summary. diaphragm) and any 2 adjacent compartments punctured in single-deck pontoon types and any 2 adjacent compartments punctured in double-deck roofs Both types w ith no w ater or live load.3. A ppendi x C . Compartments vented against internal/ external pressure. etc. 1" minimum lap. c.3. C.protected from w eathering.3. c.4. Single-deck (i. A dequate drainage.External Fl oati ng Roof s C.4 Decks (double and diaphragm) designed for drainage. b.7 and with primary drains i noperati ve for follow ing conditions: a.e.B. level surface for bottom plates.2 Joi nts Same as required in 3.1 General If a w indskirt or top-shell extension is used for the purpose of containing roof seal at its highest point of travel. C.e.3. C. single lap. full fillet. b. 2005 . shall have a minimum slope of 3/ 16" in 12".5 Pontoon Openi ngs a. except for double deck floating roofs that have emergency drains. On the bottom side... Pontoon roofs shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat on a specific gravity product of 0.3. A 3' shoulder and berm .

c.e. A dequate expansion joints (i. C. e. secondary seal strips) required. M ust be durable to environment and must not contaminate the product. Page of 18of 34 API 650 Summary. M ust be galvanized or coated See A PI RP 2003. d. 2005 .4 Fabri cati on.10.. jointed or siphon type.3. NOTE: If pads used.notched or perforated at bottom. Erecti on. Sleeves. ft.2 Roof support leg requirements a. A djustable length from roof top side. C. C. The space (rim) betw een outer roof periphery and shell . C. Hose drain types designed to permit replacement w ithout personnel entering the tank (* Not N ormal ). etc. b. I nspecti on A nd Testi ng C.2 Deck and other joint seams tested for leaks with vacuum box.4.3" for a tank 120 in diameter and less. Primary drains may be hose. b. NOTE: c.3.e. Pipe legs . d.3.1 and 3.3.13 Seal s a. b. d. Check valve required (hose and jointed pipe type) on pontoon and pan type roofs. with gasket and bolted cover. No pl ai n (i.C. etc. gussets. M inimum roof drain size . continuous w eld required.sealed by flexible device providing a reasonable close fit to shell surfaces.9 Vents Purchaser furnishes fill and w ithdrawal flow rates.3. 4" for a tank greater than 120 feet in diameter.8 Roof D rai ns a. bare) carbon steel shoes allow ed. penetrating oil..10. required at deck entry points.12 Centeri ng/anti -rotati on devi ces requi red. Wel di ng.3. Designed to support roof and a uniform live load of at least 25 lbs. Load distribution members required on tank bottom.11 M anways M inimum of 1 w ith 24" access./ sq. c. Fabricator sizes accordingly. NOTE: A viation fuel restrictions. C. C..

Structurall y Supported A l umi num Dome Roofs (N o specific comments) A ppendi x H .Techni cal I nqui ries (N o specific comments) Appendi x E . g.liquid contact.3 Aluminum M etallic pan internal . M etallic on floats .D esi gn of Tanks f or Smal l I nternal Pressures F.liquid contact/ closed pontoons. M etallic pontoon .4. H.3 Water flotation test required at initial erection.2. roof and framing but do not exceed 2 1/ 2 pounds per square inch gauge w hen the shell is anchored to a counterbalancing w eight. e.1.liquid contact with two peripheral rims. b.3 Internal pressures that exceed the w eight of the shell.3. H . f.Sei smi c Desi gn of Storage Tanks (N o specific comments) A ppendi x F .2 Steel H . M etallic open top bulkhead . surface-coated honeycomb panels.I nternal Fl oati ng Roof s H . is applicable except as modified in this appendix. Weld repair can be seal-w eld type. C.3.3 M ateri al s H . Hybrid internal floating roofs.10 of standard. d.5 50 PSIG hydro test required on drain system. M etallic double deck. Page of 19of 34 API 650 Summary. A ppendi x D .deck above liquid. such as a concrete ringwall.2 Types a. Metallic sandwich-panel .liquid contact/ peripheral rim and open top bulkheads.4. 2005 . Appendi x G .1 Scope Subsection 3.C. c.

H .7 . minimum 3" lap. H .4.4.3. c. Same underside tack-w eld required on seams as on conventional floating roofs.4 Flexible foam contained in an envelope Liquid fill (in an envelope) Wiper type (resilient) M etallic Shoe Other mutually agreeable types (fabrication and customer) General Requi rements and Desi gn H . Field joints.4.4. Tank shell free of internal projections. ft.6.3..) . NOTE: H . Supports/ attachments designed to support a uniform live load of 12. etc.4. Same requirements on notching pipe legs.. Openings and A ppurtenances Page of 20of 34 API 650 Summary.5.3. c. c.5 lbs. H . Envelope seals to be liquid tight.4 Stainless Steel Same general provisions as for open top floating roofs.4.1 through H.5.5 Roof Penetrati ons Columns. d. M echanical shoe types .6 Roof Supports H.).Seal types a. b. burrs.5.8 .1 through 4. d. d.H .Desi gn Features a. e.2/3.5.3 . NOTE: Appurtenances require a vertical plumbness of 3".3.5 Pads may be omitted w ith purchaser approval. b.Speci f ic requi rements a. 2005 .Galvanized steel (16 ga. Both fixed and adjustable supports are acceptable.Stainless Steel (18 ga). ladders and other rigid vertical appurtenances that penetrate the deck shall have a seal permitting a local deviation of ± 5".3. (See C. A ccommodate ± 4" local deviation betw een roof and shell. unl ess roof is equipped w ith drains to prevent liquid accumulation. H . etc. as on conventional. w elding support pads to bottom.4 Peri pheral Seal s H./ sq. b.6.

32". Appendi x J . of tank diameter. A ppendi x M .6 Fabri cati on.4 Anti rotati on D evi ces H. N o fewer than 4 total.5. Located on shell or fixed roof (above seal in full tank). 2005 .5.5.Engi neeri ng D ata (N o specific comments) Appendi x L .5.5. b.2.5 M anhol es and Inspection H atches H.5.2 Ci rcul ati on V ents a.H . per ft. in. I nspecti on and Testi ng A ppendi x I . M aximum spacing .2 sq.Shop Assembl ed Storage Tank s (N o specific comments) A ppendi x K .Requi rements f or Tank s Operati ng at El evated Temperatures (N o specific comments) Page of 21of 34 API 650 Summary.5.2. Erecti on.Undertank Leak Detecti on and Subgrade Protection (N o specific comments) Refer to A PI RP 652 and 651 for more guidelines. Covered w ith corrosion resistant screen and weathershield.2 Open vent required at center of fixed roof minimum area of 50 sq. c. NOTE: H . H . Pressure-vacuum vents (rather than air openings) required on gas blanketed tanks.Data Sheets (N o specific comments) In the real w orld use these sheets as a guide only.2 Vents H .1 Ladder Speci fi cs H . ft. Sized equal to or greater than 0.2. Wel di ng.3 Overf l ow Sl ots H.

and 317L. S.1.Use of New M ateri al s That are Not Identi f i ed (N o specific comments) Appendi x O .A ppendi x N .1.A usteni ti c Stai nl ess Steel Storage Tank s S. 316.Ul trasoni c Exami nati on in Li eu of Radi ography (This is a new section.2 A mbient temperature tanks shall have a design temperature of 1000F Appendix T .Recommendati ons f or Under-Bottom Connecti ons (N o specific comments) A ppendi x P . 304L. 316L. no specific comments) Page of 22of 34 API 650 Summary. 317.NDE Requi rements Summary A ppendi x U .A l l ow abl e External Loads on Tank Shel l Openi ngs (N o specific comments) A ppendi x S . 2005 .1 This section covers tank construction of material grades 304.

What is the thickness required for the annular plate? (Note: Include corrosion allowance). d. may have a reasonably uniform crown not to exceed ________.1 3. b. the manufacturer's standard + 100 mm + 1/8 inch the inspector's experience .25 inches. In order to comply with API 650. COD E QUI Z (Select The Best Answer) 1. The thickness of the first course is 1. c.10. API 1104 ASME Section V ASME Section IX AWS D1.000 PSI. d. The hydrostatic test stress is 25. d. A new tank will hold a product with the specific gravity of 1. a. 2. c. b. A peripheral seal. b. d. 2005 . on an internal floating roof. The corrosion allowance is .NAME: DATE: The first part of the exam is " Open Book. 5/16" 11/16" 3/8" 7/16" 4.05. a. the finished surface of a weld reinforcement on plate 1/2" thick. for radiographic examination. A PI 650 Tenth Ed. 1/4" 3/16" 1/8" 1/16" Page of 23of 34 API 650 Summary. c. Welders shall be qualified in accordance with a. b. horizontal butt joints. shall be designed to accommodate _____ of local deviation between the floating roof and the shell. a. c.

097 . . What is the design thickness for the first course of a new tank 60 tall. c.1 . with a fill height of 58 and a diameter of 80 4 ? The material of construction is A516M 485. Specific gravity of . To what thickness should the tank in question 6 be constructed? a. b. Group I Group II Group III Group IV 9. d.416 28. What is the maximum reinforcement on a vertical butt joint. 3/32 1/8 3/16 1/4 Page of 24of 34 API 650 Summary. d.281 . d. if the plate is . c. .281 . d. what is the material group? a.00 8. b.500 7. c.117 . b. What is the hydrostatic test shell thickness of the tank in question 5? a. c. d.500 1. .416 .6 a.5 mm and the design metal temperature is -7oC. thick? a. 2005 . b.281 6. b. If the first course of a new tank is 12.416 . c.5.625 in.

2005 . The remainder of the Quiz is Closed Book. Page of 25of 34 API 650 Summary.Please close all materials.

c. V or VI opening connections requiring reinforcement All connections requiring reinforcement Upon completion. a. a. IVA. 11. erection/fabrication manufacturer purchaser Nuclear Regulatory Commission certified inspector 13. c. b. According to API 650. c. d. c. Magnetic particle testing of all welds Application of internal air pressure not exceeding the weight of the roof plates and applying a solution suitable for the detection of leaks Penetrant testing the weld joints Visual inspection of the weld joints 12.The second part of the quiz is " Closed Book. b. b. the roof of a tank designed to be gas tight shall be tested by which one of the following methods? a. Per API 650. c. Radiographs Vacuum or air pressure Penetrant testing Hammer testing Page of 26of 34 API 650 Summary. d. d. III or IIIA opening connections less than 12 inches All Group IV. b. d. Each welder making welds on a tank shall be certified by the _______. Upon completion of welding of the new tank bottom. 6 12 14 18 14. which of the following types of connections shall be stress relieved? a. external floating roof deck plates having support leg or other rigid penetrations closer than ____ inches to lap weld seams must be full fillet welded not less than 2 inches on 10 inch centers. the welds shall be inspected by which one of the following methods? a. b. d." 10. II. 2005 . All nozzles All Group I.

a. b. The maximum reinforcement thickness for vertical butt joints. b. Paragraph UW-51(b) API 1104 Page of 27of 34 API 650 Summary. Paragraph QW-191 ASME Section VIII. b. d. The acceptability of welds examined by radiography shall be judged by the standards in . a. a. d. The maximum acceptable undercutting of the base metal for vertical butt joints is ___ inch. c. c. one two three four 20. A double-welded butt weld is ______. ASME Section V. less than or equal to 1/2" thick is . a. b. 2005 . c. d. b. 10 30 24 18 17. 3/32 1/8 1/64 3/64 18. c. Openings in tank shells larger than required to accommodate an NPS _____ inch flanged or threaded nozzle shall be reinforced. c. a. d. a joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane a joint between two abutting parts lying in approximately the same plane that is welded from both sides a joint between two overlapping members in which the overlapping edges of both members are welded with fillet welds a fillet weld whose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner joined member 19. b. Division 1. 1/16" 1/8" 3/32" 3/16" 16. d. a. d. Annular bottom plates shall have a radial width that provides at least _____ inches between the inside of the shell and any lap-welded joint in the remainder of the bottom. c.15. Division 7 ASME Section IX.

d. b. For single welded butt joints using a backup bar.250 . c. Who is responsible for compliance with the API 650 standards? a. One radiograph shall be taken in every vertical joint 100% of the vertical joint Two radiographs shall be taken in the vertical joint No radiographs required 26.21.1 of API 650. d. c. When bottom annular plates are required by paragraph 3. A new tank is under construction. a. c. c. b. d. b. d. c.325 Page of 28of 34 API 650 Summary. 3/8 . 1 1/2 2 3 4 23. Manufacturer Purchaser State Inspector API 653 Inspector 25. a. one spot radiograph shall be taken on _____ percent of the radial joints. All bottom plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of _____ inch. How many radiographs are required on the first course vertical welds if the shell is 35 mm thick? a. Annular bottom plates must extend a minimum of _______ inches outside the tank shell. 500° F 500° C 200° F 200° C 24. The maximum operating temperature for tanks constructed to API 650 (not including appendices) is _______. d. c. d. the radial joints shall be radiographed. exclusive of any corrosion allowance specified by the purchaser for the bottom plates. b. a. 2005 .516 . b.5. b. 10 30 50 100 22. a.

a. b. Column-based clip-guides shall be welded to the tank bottom to prevent __________. Industrial requirements U. in accordance with API 650. c. d. d. d.S. Who is responsible for specifying whether the dimensions of a tank will be given in SI units or US customary units? a. a. Government mandates The purchaser The manufacturer Page of 29of 34 API 650 Summary. ASME Section VIII ASME Section V ASME Section XI Agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer 31. d. c. Ultrasonic acceptance standards. 2005 . c. Misalignment in completed vertical joints over 5/8" shall not exceed what percentage of the plate thickness? a. b. shall be ______. c. nitrogen oil water grain 28. b. in accordance with API Standard 650. diesel air stress gas 30. d. cleaned and gas freed in a safe manner. c. b. internal erosion structural uplifting lateral movement of column bases lateral expansion and contraction 32.27. a. b. b. 25% with a maximum of 1/16" 2% with a maximum of 3/64" 5% with a maximum of 3/8" 10% with a maximum of 1/8" 29. Reinforcing plates of shell penetrations shall be given a(n) ________ test. c. d. Repairs of defects shall not be attempted on a tank that is filled with _____ or on a tank that has contained ____ until the tank has been emptied. a.

c. b. the gauge should register a partial vacuum of at least ? a. API mandates the requirement the manufacturer approves the requirement required by jurisdictional requirements 36.2 34. When performing a vacuum test. b.2 5 lbf/in.2 4 lbf/in. d.2 3 lbf/in. d. d. b. c. c. 2 lbf/in. 2 inches of weld length must be shown on each side of the vertical intersection. 1/8 3/16 1/4 5/16 Page of 30of 34 API 650 Summary. E-9018 E-8518 E-8018 E-6010 38. When reviewing a radiograph of an intersection. c. Which electrodes are in the AWS A5. 1 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 . Shell plates are limited to a maximum thickness of a. b. An appendix becomes a requirement only when a. What is the minimum size fillet weld that can be installed on a new tank? a. b. the purchaser specifies the requirement. 2005 . 37. d. c.1 specification? a. c. d. 35.33. 2 inches 50 mm 3 inches No API 653 requirement . How much of the vertical weld must be shown? a. d. b.

2005 . b. Misalignment in completed vertical joints for plates greater than 5/8 thick shall not exceed . c. This is a good vacuum test. 42. This vacuum box is not recognized by API 650. Low hydrogen electrodes shall be used for weld on a. This is an acceptable practice. b. b. a. The slope of a supported cone roof shall be at least a. d 3/16 1/4 7-Gauge both a and c . b. Page of 31of 34 API 650 Summary. 10% 15% 20% 25% .75 mm in 12 mm 7. d. Roof plates shall have a minimum nominal thickness. 40.2 mm 41. c. c. a. 1 m in 6 m 19 mm in 300 mm . in addition to any required corrosion allowance.5 mm in 1. b. d. c. c. d. A tank construction crew is using a vacuum box constructed of clear plastic and a sponge-rubber gasket. of . c. the floor only the roof only shell welds greater than 1/2 shell welds less than 1/2 43. d. d. a.39. b. The crew can use any style vacuum box. a. Which of the following NDE methods is not acceptable for the inspection of new shell-to-bottom welds. Magnetic particle Liquid Penetrant Vacuum Box Radiography 44.

6. a.45. c. c.5 5. a. the contractor API 1104 ASME Section IX ASME Section VIII 49. air pressure test tracer gas and compatible detector explosion-bulge test acoustic emission test . 2005 . do it. Page of 32of 34 API 650 Summary. b. What is the maximum out-of-plumbness of the top of the shell relative to the bottom of the shell of a new tank that is 65 tall? a. The maximum thickness of all the other courses is 3/8 thick. d.0 . b. Floor plates may be tested by vacuum box testing or a. The client has requested the top course of a tank to be 1/2 thick. Banding at horizontal weld joints shall not exceed a. A joint between two members that intersect at an angle between 0o (a butt joint) . c. 46. and 90o (a corner joint) is called a(n) a.4 3. d. c. d. Welds examined by radiography shall be judged as acceptable or unacceptable by .9 2. fillet joint butt joint angle joint joint that requires backing 50. d 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 48. The thickness of each course is based on the design thickness of the tank not including corrosion allowance. b. b. No shell course shall be thinner than the course above it. c. c. 47. b. d. The client wants it. The top course is usually 1/2 thick. d. b.

a Solution: t d = . 2-1) API 650 (Page 5-1.2.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-3. Par. 3.3. 10. c 4. Par. 5.3.6.1) A PI 650 (Page C-1.3. Par. 14. c 3.500 t t = 11.416 (Page 3-6. d 5.3. Fig.6) 25.1.6 (80) 58 . 5.3) A PI 650 (Page 7-2. 11.4) API 650 Page of 33of 34 API 650 Summary.2. 15.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-1.5) API 650 (Page 3-17.6D(H-1) St t t = 2. 7.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-4.6(80)(58-1)(. Par.1.6D(H-1)G + CA Sd t d = 2.1.2) A PI 650 (Page 3-6. Par. 5.3. 3.500 7. 3. Par. 3.2) API 650 t t = 2. b a b c b a b b c c c t t = .3.7.4) A PI 650 (Page 3-7. 9. Par.3. 3.6 25. Par. 2005 .1) API 650 (Page 7-2.1 28. 5.2. 7. Par. b 2.3. Par.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-4.6.281 (Page 3-7.4.3. d Solution: (Page H-4.1. C. Par.2) A PI 650 (Page 5-1.5. Par.856 28.300 6.4. 12. 8. H . 16.300 t d = 7113. 17. 6.2) A PI 650 t d = 2. Par. Par.4. 13.1) API 650 (Page 2-2. Par.5) API 650 (Page 3-5. COD E QUI Z A nsw er K ey 1. 5.6.5.1.6. 3.A PI 650 Tenth Ed. Par.

Par.1) API 650 (Page 6-4.5.7. 38.4.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-1. 5. Par.1. 5. 25. 20. Par. Par. 30. Par.4(b) A PI 650 (Page 6-3. Par. 48.1. Par. 42.2c) A PI 650 (Page 3-5.1) A PI 650 (Page 5-2.5) A PI 650 (Page 7-1. 5. Par. Par. 46. 6.3.4. 3. 5. 1. 31.3. 6.10.4.4.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-1. Par. 1. Par.3) A PI 650 (Page 5-5.1.3.5.1.4) A PI 650 (Page 3-48.6. Par.3) API 650 (Page 3-44. 3.1) A PI 650 (Page 5-3. b b c c b c a b b b d b d c c b c a c d b d b a c d a b c b d c c (Page 3-1. 23.1.1) A PI 650 (Page 3-11.1.2. 24.5) API 650 Page of 34of 34 API 650 Summary. Par. 32.2.1.2. 5.4) API 650 (Page 2-10. 3. 5. 3. 6. Par. Par. 2.1.1. 39. 3. Par.1) A PI 650 (Page 1-2. Par.4) A PI 650 (Page 2-1. 26.1. Par.1.10) A PI 650 (Page 5-2. Par.2b) A PI 650 (Page 1-1.5) A PI 650 (Page 6-3. Par. 5.2) A PI 650 (Page 3-48. Par. Par.3. 28. Par. 1.2.1. 44. 29.6) A PI 650 (Page 1-1. Par.4. 50.1) A PI 650 (Page 5-4.1) A PI 650 (Page 3-6.4) A PI 650 (Page 5-2.2. 3.5. Par. Par.2. Par.8. 35. 1.9b) A PI 650 (Page 3-5.1) A PI 650 (Page 6-3. Par. 21.2) A PI 650 (Page 5-5.3. 6. 34. 6.2. 5.2. Par. 43. 19.3) A PI 650 (Page 6-5.3. Par. 45.1) API 650 (Page 5-2. 6. 2. 3. 7. 22. Par.10.1) API 650 (Page 3-1.6. 37. 6. 6.1. 3. 3. 41.2.1) API 650 (Page 5-4.18.1.10.6. Par.2. 36. 2005 . 49.4) A PI 650 (Page 6-4.2) A PI 650 (Page 1-1.1. 5. 47. 40. 33. Par. 27.

Section 3 API Recommended Practice 575 Summary .

It can be used on bare floor or on some coatings. our discussion will deal primarily with those that store crude oil. This display will appear on a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube). SECTI ON 3 .A PI RECOM M ENDED PRA CTI CE 575 I N SPECTI ON OF ATM OSPH ERIC AND LOW-PRESSURE STORAGE TANK S First Edition. Other than diameter and height. 4. The principal is basically flooding the area w ith a magnetic field and measuring any changes in the field. best methods for inspecting the bottom side or soil side of most tanks. One of the main limitations of this type of testing is the problem of distinguishing between surface roughness and a through floor pin hole. since conditions that w ould change the serviceability or repair needs for a tank are basically identical.1 Linings as covered in A PI RP 652 and cathodic protection A PI RP 651. Even w ith those problems. the inspection. Basically.SELECTED N OND ESTRUCTIV E EXA M I NA TI ON (NDE) M ETHOD S 3. Page 1 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998 . chemicals. The process w ill not evaluate the w elds or w eld areas.1 Ul trasonic Thi ckness M easurement This section is a discussion of thickness measurements and Dual-element verses single-crystal transducers. SECTION 4 . intermediate and finished products. w ater and a general assortment of other products. the only other tw o (2) service factors to be considered are the specific gravity and temperature of the product. this is one of the fastest. N ovember. For our purposes. The doubling phenomena is mentioned.1 General Storage tanks are used in a w ide variety of industries for a w ide range of products. 1995 SECTI ON 1 . M FLT (M agnetic Flux Leakage Testing) is one of the more common types of floor tests.4 M agneti c Fl oor Testi ng RP 575 now recognizes magnetic floor scanning.TYPES OF STORA GE TANK S 4. regardless of the product stored.SCOPE A tmospheric and low -pressure storage tanks that have been in service.1. evaluation and comments dealing with future service conditions and limitations can all be generally categorized together. 3.

if so. Page 2 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998 . prevent or retard further deterioration.REA SON S FOR I NSPECTI ON A ND CA USES OF DETERI ORA TI ON 5. 4. M aintain safe operating conditions.2. d. inasmuch as that more of the liquid vaporizes as the temperature rises.2 Atmospheri c Storage Tanks Those that have been designed to operate in their gas and vapor spaces at internal pressures which approximate atmospheric pressure. b. nearby w aterw ays and the air free of hydrocarbon and chemical pollution. Determine w hether any deterioration has occurred and.5 pounds per square inch gauge pressure permissible in A PI Standard 540.1 Description and Design of Low-Pressure Storage Tanks Low -pressure storage tanks are those designed to operate at pressures in their gas or vapor spaces exceeding the 2.3 Low-Pressure Storage Tank s 4. 4. Vapor pressure varies w ith temperature.4. SECTI ON 5 . M ake repairs or determine when repair or replacement of a tank may be necessary. 5. but not exceeding 15 pounds per square inch gauge. Keep ground w ater. e. Reduce the potential for failure and the release of stored products.3.1 Reasons f or I nspecti on a. External (underside) tank bottom corrosion results from contamination in the pad. Cinders contain sulfur compounds that become very corrosive when moistened.2.2 Use of Tanks A tmospheric storage tanks are used to store materials having a true vapor pressure (at storage temperature) w hich is substantially less than atmospheric pressure. Low -pressure tanks are usually built to A PI Standard 620. c. NOTE: Vapor Pressure is the pressure on the surface of the liquid caused by the vapors of the liquid.1 External Corrosion a.

b.

Electrolytic corrosion (pitting type) results when clay, rocks, oyster shell, w ooden grade stakes, etc., come in contact w ith the underside bottom, as they attract and hold moisture. Poor drainage from faulty pad preparation. Low er external shell corrosion due to: i. ii. iii. Settlement, w ith corrosion at soil grade line Casual w ater collection point Insulation moisture w icking .

c. d.

e.

Shell appurtenances are subject to crevice corrosion at non-seal welded joints (angles/ flats).

5.2.2 Internal Corrosion a. b. c. Primarily dependent on product stored. Corrosion resistant linings are most common preventative. Normal locations and causes are: i. ii. d. Vapor space (above the liquid). M ost commonly caused by H 2S vapor, w ater vapor, oxygen or a combination of the three. Liquid area. M ost commonly caused by acid salts, H 2S or other sulfur compounds.

Other forms of internal attack, considered as forms of corrosion are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Electrolytic corrosion. Hydrogen blistering. Caustic Embrittlement. Graphitic corrosion (cast iron parts). Dezincification (brass parts).

In the areas covered by the stored liquid, corrosion is commonly caused by acid salts, hydrogen sulfide or bottom sediment and water (BS&W). 5.3 D eteri orati on of N on-Steel Tank s a. b. Both wooden and concrete tanks may require inspection. Potential problem areas: i. ii. Wood - subject to rotting, attack by termites, subject to shrinkage, corrosion of the steel bands. Concrete - internal corrosion, cracking due to settlement or temperature change, spalling (exposes reinforcement and corrodes due to atmosphere).
Page 3 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

c.

Tanks constructed of other materials (i.e., alloy or aluminum) can present special problems, but are subject to the same mechanical damage potential as steel tanks. Other nonmetallic tanks (i.e., plastic, fiberglass or glass reinforced epoxy) may present special problems, but w ill not be discussed in this presentation.

d.

5.4

Leaks, Crack s and M echani cal D eteri orati on a. Leaks, w hatever the cause, can cause serious economic losses or environmental damage resulting in fines or penalties by governmental agencies. These, how ever, pale in comparison to the problems associated with the instantaneous (catastrophic) failure of a shell w ith resulting loss of the entire tank, the product stored, plus perhaps all surrounding structures. Plate cracking is alw ays of prime importance w hen inspecting tanks. Cracks can result from a wide variety of causes. The more frequent causes are: i. ii iii. iv. v. Faulty w elding. Unrelieved stress concentrations (i.e., stress raisers) around fittings or appurtenances. Stress caused by settlement or earth movement, especially differential settlement Vibration Poorly designed repair or sloppy craftsmanship.

b.

The most likely points of occurrence are: i. ii. iii iv. v. NOTE: Shell to bottom junction. A round nozzle and manw ay connections. .A round rivet holes. A t welded brackets. A t w elded seams. The low er shell to bottom sketch plate is especially critical in relatively larger or hot tanks. It can act as a plastic hinge with the potential for cracking. See A PI 650 (Appendix M ).

c.

M any other kinds of mechanical deterioration can develop. In earthquake areas, sloshing damage may occur to roofs. Shell buckling (directly above bottom) can occur in tanks having relatively large height to diameter ratios. A nother form of mechanical deterioration is settlement. Frequent causes are: i. ii. iii. Freezing/ thaw ing of the ground. Unusually high tides in tidal areas. Slow lateral flowing of the soil.
Page 4 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

d.

5.5

Fai l ure of A uxi l i ary Equi pment a. b. Frequent problem areas are associated w ith pressure/ vacuum conservation vents. M ost common problems are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Collection of gummy residue on pallets. M oving parts, guide and seat corrosion. Foreign deposits (by birds or insects). Ice formation. Tampering. A dding extra weights to pallets (w hich changes release point of vapor). Lay-dow n of sand from abrasive blasting. Quite often, vents are the only safety relief device available to prevent pressure or vacuum damage.

NOTE: c.

Other potential auxiliary problem areas: i. ii. iii. M alfunction of gauging system. Floating roof drains. Plugged drain sumps (debris or ice). SECTI ON 6 - FREQUENCY OF I N SPECTI ON

A PI Standard 653 provides requirements for inspection frequency, including factors to consider in determining inspection frequency. SECTION 7 - M ETH OD S OF I NSPECTI ON A N D IN SPECTI ON SCH ED ULI N G The first part of this section deals with safety aspects of entry. The next section is a current list of tools commonly used in tank inspection and a suggested list of equipment that might be needed in tank inspection. 7.2 External I nspecti on of I n-Servi ce Tank See A ppendix C, Table C-1 and C-2 of this RP. 7.2.3 Foundation Inspection Refer to A PI Standard 653 for limitation. 7.2.4 A nchor Bolt Inspection The condition of anchor bolts can usually be determined by visual inspection. The hammer and UT thickness methods are also described in this section.
Page 5 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

7.2.6 Grounding Connection Inspection The total resistance from tank to earth should not exceed approximately 25 ohms. 7.2.8 Insulation Inspection Under insulation corrosion is now considered to be a more severe problem than previously thought. a. b. A visual examination is usually, but not always, sufficient to spot problem areas. A reas to be more closely checked include: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Around all nozzles and appurtenances, especially if the caulking bond is loose or points for casual water entry is evident. A round saddles w here movement or expansion may have damaged insulation or seal. A round open-bubbles on polyurethane foam systems. A long bottom edge w here moisture wicking may have occurred. A long roof to shell junction, unless this area is protected by an overhand rat-guard type insulation support brackets (where block insulation is used). Thickness M easurements Ultrasonic-thickness measurements should be conducted only by trained personnel using a properly calibrated thickness measurement instrument and an appropriate thickness measurement procedure. 7.2.9.3 Caustic Cracking If caustic or amine is stored in a tank, the tank should be checked for evidence of damage from caustic stress corrosion cracking, sometimes referred to as caustic embrittlement. 7.4.4 Tank Bottoms This section suggests inspection of the entire tank bottom by using M agnetic Flux Leakage, looking for bottom side corrosion. Other UT type techniques may also be used. A -scan or shear wave ultrasonic testing may be used under specific conditions. H ammer-testing is also mentioned as a testing technique.

7.2.9.1

Page 6 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998

4.6 I nspecti on Schedul i ng The tw o main aspects to consider when inspecting a tank: a. 7.5 Testi ng of Tanks The w ord testing. in inches. the rate at w hich deterioration is proceeding. A nother method being used successfully is the injection of inert gas with a tracer gas under the tank. b. vacuum box tests. Instruments capable of detecting a few parts per million (PPM ) of the tracer gas are then used for sniffing for leaks on the topside of the tank floor. Page 7 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998 . at the appropriate level or pressure. in inches.thickness at the same location as t actual measured during a previous inspection. A n advantage of such a method is that w elded repairs can be made immediately w ith the inert gas under the bottom and a re-check can be made immediately after repairs. external water bottom tests and tracer gas tests. The following may be used for most common forms of deterioration. in years t actual = the thickness measured at the time of the inspection for a given location or component used to determine the minimum allow able thickness. metal corrosion.t minimum corrosion rate t minimum = the minimum allow able thickness for a given location or component. Remaining life = Where: Remaining life = the remaining life of a tank component. t actual . test the tank for strength or leaks. as used in this subsection.7. 7. and the safe limit of deterioration.6 Testing for Leaks The usual types of tests are mentioned. hydrostatic tests. Corrosion rate = t previous -= t actual in years betw een t actual and t previous t previous =. applies only to the process of filling the tank w ith a liquid or gaseous fluid. the rate of metal loss and the remaining life of a tank component. in inches.

both internal and external. Page 8 of 8 API RP 575 Summary 1998 .7 I nspecti on Checkl i sts Inspection checklists should be used judiciously by the inspector as memory joggers for issues and items to be checked during inspection.7.

Section 4 API RP 651 Summary .

back f i l l : M aterial placed in a hole to fill the space around anodes.0 Ref erenced Publ i cati ons Def i ni ti ons Definitions in this section reflect the common usage among practicing corrosion control personnel. cathodi c protecti on: A technique for preventing corrosion by making the Page 1 of 12 API 651 Summary. vent pipe. break out pi pi ng: A ll piping associated w ith the transfer of products in and out of storage tanks. in the interests of brevity and practicality. A ntonym: cathode.0 3. and support structure w here more than 90 percent of the tank volume is above surface grade. practices. anode: A n electrode of an electrochemical cell at w hich oxidation (corrosion) occurs. the strict scientific definitions have been abbreviated or paraphrased. D ECEM BER 1997 SECTI ON 1 .2 3. Every tank condition is not covered. Standardization is precluded because of the varied conditions for field application. bottom. In many cases. 3.A PI -RP-651 CA TH ODI C PROTECTI ON OF A BOV EGROUND PETROLEUM STORAGE TAN KS SECOND EDI TI ON . Certain recommended practices may also be applicable to tanks in other than hydrocarbon service. and buried components of a cathodic protection system. A ntonym: anode.1 Scope Recommended practices covered by this presentation is to present procedures. information and guidance for achieving effective corrosion control on above ground hydrocarbon storage tank bottoms. shell. Corrosion control methods based on chemical control of the environment and the use of protective coatings are not covered in detail.1 aboveground storage tank : A stationary container of greater than 500 barrel capacity. This is intended to serve only as a guide.GENERAL 1. Specific cathodic protection design is not provided. 2. 1998 3. consisting of a metallic roof.6 . usually cylindrical in shape.4 3. cathode: A n electrode of an electrochemical cell at w hich a reduction reaction occurs. A nodes can be prepackaged with backfill material for ease of installation. It contains provisions for the application of cathodic protection to existing and new storage tanks.5 3.3 3.

electrolyte refers to the soil or liquid adjacent to and in contact w ith the bottom of an aboveground petroleum storage tank.10 3.17 3. di f f erenti al aerati on cel l : A n electrochemical cell the electromotive force of w hich is due to a difference in air (oxygen) concentration at one electrode as compared w ith that at another electrode of the same material. usually a metal.9 3.12 3.7 3.8 3. conti nui ty bond: A metallic connection that provides electrical continuity.18 3. deep anode groundbed: One or more anodes installed vertically at a nominal depth of 15m (50 ft) or more below the earth s surface in a single drilled hole for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection. including the moisture and other chemicals contained therein. envi ronmental crack i ng: The brittle fracture of a normally ductile Page 2 of 12 API 651 Summary. el ectrode potenti al : The potential of an electrode as measured against a reference electrode. 1998 3.19 . (The electrode potential does not include any resistance losses in potential in either the electrolyte or the external circuit.15 3. that results from a reaction w ith its environment. The cell includes the external circuit which permits the flow of electrons from the anode toward the cathode.14 3. el ectri cal i sol ati on cel l : A n electrical circuit w here electrical current flows from certain areas of a metal to other areas through a solution capable of conducting electricity (electrolyte). el ectri cal i sol ati on: The condition of being electrically separated from other metallic structures and the environment. For the purposes of this recommended practice. The anode and cathode may be separate metals or dissimilar areas on the same metal.13 3.11 cok e breeze: A carbonaceous backfill material. It represents the reversible work required to move a unit charge from the electrode surface through the electrolyte to the reference electrode). el ectrol yte: A chemical substance containing ions that migrate in an electric field. corrosi on: The deterioration of a material. el ectrochemi cal cel l : A n electrochemical system consisting of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte so as to create an electrical circuit. current requi rement test: Creates direct current flow from a temporary ground bed to the structure to be protected to determine the amount of current necessary to protect that structure. current densi ty: The current per unit area flow ing to or from a metallic surface. 3.16 3.entire surface of the metal to be protected act as the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

30 3.29 3. gal vani c seri es: A list of metals and alloys arranged according to their relative potentials in a given environment. IR drop is the portion of a structure-to-soil potential caused by a high resistance electrolyte betw een the structure and the reference electrode or by current flow from the anodes to the tank bottom. such as a membrane. These anodes are the source of current in one type of cathodic protection. i nsul ati ng coati ng system: A ll components of the protective coating. It is this portion of the cell through w hich electrons travel. measuring devices. 3.27 3.28 3.32 . 1998 3. that are used to bring about or measure the desired electrical conditions w ithin an electrochemical cell. the sum of w hich provides effective electrical insulation of the coated structure.24 3.23 3. provides sacrificial protection to another metal that is more noble. because of its relative position in the galvanic series. to contain any accidentally escaped product. l i ner: A system or device. For the purpose of this recommended practice. I R drop: The voltage generated across a resistance by an electrical current in accordance w ith Ohm's Law : E=I X R. etc. impressed current: A n electric current supplied by a device employing a pow er source that is external to the electrode system. i nterf erence bond: A metallic connection designed to control electrical current interchange betw een metallic systems.21 3.25 3.31 3. groundbed: Consists of one or more anodes installed below the earth s surface for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection.20 external ci rcui t: Consist of the w ires. when coupled in an electrolyte. continuous sheet of non conductive synthetic material Page 3 of 12 API 651 Summary. hol i day: A discontinuity in a protective coating that exposes unprotected surface to the environment. membrane: A thin. gal vani c anode: A metal that. connectors. i sol ati on: Electrical isolation. (A n example is direct current for cathodic protection). current sources.26 3. installed beneath a storage tank in or on the tank dike. f orei gn structure: A ny metallic structure that is not an intended part of the system in question.22 3.material in w hich the corrosive effect of the environment is a causative factor..

44 3. 3. stati onary: Something that is permanently installed on the ground or on a foundation.35 3. (In this recommended practice. 1998 . stray current: Current flow ing through paths other than the intended circuit.38 3.41 3.40 3.46 3. a silicon or selenium stack (rectifying elements) .42 3. resi stor: A device used w ithin an electrical circuit to control current flow . secondary containment refers to an impermeable membrane. pol ari zati on: The change from the open circuit potential of an electrode resulting from the passage of current. Usually includes a step-down AC transformer. shal l ow anode groundbed: A group of cathodic protection anodes installed individually.36 3.43 3. sacri f i ci al protecti on: The reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal in an electrolyte by galvanically coupling it to a more anodic metal.used to contain and/ or separate tw o different environments. recti f i er: A device for converting alternating current to direct current.34 oxi dati on: The loss of electrons by a constituent of chemical reaction.45 3. sacri f i ci al anode: A nother name commonly used for a galvanic anode.47 stress corrosi on cracki ng: The fracture of a metal by the combined action Page 4 of 12 API 651 Summary. it is considered to be the change of potential of a metal surface resulting from the passage of current directly to or from an electrode).33 3. For the purposes of the recommended practice. secondary contai nment: A device or system used to control the accidental escape of a stored product so it may be properly recovered or removed from the environment.37 3. reducti on: The gain of electrons by a constituent of a chemical reaction. shunt: A conductor of a known electrical resistance through which current flow may be determined by measurement of the voltage across the conductor. stray current corrosi on: Corrosion resulting from direct current flow through paths other than the intended circuit. 3. ref erence el ectrode: A device w hose open circuit potential is constant under similar conditions of measurement. and typically buried less than 20 feet below grade. spaced uniformly.39 3. meters and other accessories w hen used for cathodic protection purposes.

51 3. It is used for the measurement of structure-to-electrolyte potentials and other measurements. structure-to-structure vol tage (also structure-to-structure potential): The difference in voltage betw een a metallic structures in a common electrolyte. 1998 . tank cushi on: The material immediately adjacent to the exterior steel bottom of an aboveground storage tank.53 3. test l ead: A n electrically conductive cable attached to a structure and leading to a convenient location. vol tage: Refers to an electromotive force. or a difference in electrode potentials expressed in volts.48 structure-to-el ectrol yte vol tage (also structure-to-soil potential or pipeto-soil potential): The voltage difference between a metallic structure and the electrolyte w hich is measured w ith a reference electrode in contact w ith the electrolyte. w ater bottom: A water layer in the bottom of a tank caused by separation of water and product due to differences in solubility and specific gravity.55 Page 5 of 12 API 651 Summary. test stati on: A small enclosed box-like housing and the usual termination point of one or more test leads. tank pad: A nother name for a tank cushion. 3.of corrosion and tensile stress that may be w ell below the tensile strength or even the yield strength of the material. 3.50 3. A lso know n as a potential.52 3.54 3.49 3.

Composition of the metal. STEEL STORAGE TAN KS 4..1. A n anode A Cathode A metallic path connecting the anode and cathode. the heat affected zone and the parent metal.2 M any forms of corrosion exist. the electrolytes for internal surfaces.5 Conditions that influence w hich areas of a surface become anodic or cathodic and/ or corrosion cells are: a. 2. 3.2 Corrosi on M echani sms Page 6 of 12 API 651 Summary. Water and sludge are. The corrosion process occurs w hen: a. 1) A n electrolyte 4.. d. c. Differences in electrochemical potential (i. generally. Physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte. 4. The tw o (2) most common (relative to tank bottoms) are general and pitting corrosion. 1998 . f. NOTE: Corrosion occurs at the A node. Clay. Soil characteristics (i. b. Differences betw een the w eld bead. dissolved salts. M etal loss may be concentrated within relatively small areas w ith substantial surface areas unaffected. 4. b. c.1. b.).1 Corrosion may be defined as the deterioration of a metal due to a reaction to its environment. (See Fig. General type: Thousands of microscopic corrosion cells occur on an area of the metal surface resulting in relatively uniform metal loss. Pitting type: Individual cells are larger and distinct anode and cathode areas can be identified. These areas must be electrically connected. moisture content.1. Differences in oxygen concentrations. w ood or other debris in bottom contact.e. uneven distribution of alloying elements or contaminates within the metal structure). etc. 4.e. A reas with different electrical potentials exist on the metal surface.1. A reas must be in contact with an electrolyte. M oist soil is the most common electrolyte for external surfaces of the tank bottom. pH. a. e. g.3 through 4. Corrosion of steel structures is an electrochemical process. NOTE: There are four (4) components in each corrosion cell: 1.

subw ays. grounded DC electric pow er systems) such as electric railroads. b. Exampl es: Bronze check valve to steel piping. 4. M agnitude and density of the current. 1998 . c. Suspended solids pH level Dissolved gases such as CO2.e. Factors influencing severity are: a. d.1 Stray current corrosion occurs when stray currents (also know n as interference currents) travel through the soil electrolyte and on to structures for which they are not intended. Conductivity (2 function of dissolved solids). c. welding machines.2. impressed current cathodic protection systems and thermoelectric generators. and potentially more damaging. Separation and routing of the interfering and affected structures and the location of the interfering current source. H 2S or O2. (See Fig. 4. Stainless Steel or Copper pipe to steel tank.2. 4).2.2 Bimetallic Corrosion occurs when tw o (2) metals w ith different compositions (thus different electrolytic potentials) are connected in an electrolyte (usually soil). d.DETERM I NA TI ON OF NEED FOR CA THODI C PROTECTI ON Page 7 of 12 API 651 Summary.3 Internal Corrosion may occur on the inside surface of a tank bottom. SECTI ON 5 . The severity of corrosion resulting from interference currents depend on the following: a. NOTE: The most common.4. Presence and location of mechanical joints having high electrical resistance. stray currents are direct currents (i. b. NOTE: Current flow s from the more active metal (anode) to the less active metal (cathode) w ith resulting accelerated attack at the anode.. Quality of or absence of a coating on the affected structure.

b. High resistance soil or rock foundations.4 Limitations Cathodic protection is an effective means of corrosion control onl y if it is possible to pass electrical current between the anode and cathode (i.2 Sacrificial anode Impressed current. 6. The two (2) methods of protection are: a. The more active metal is called a sacrificial anode. Such factors include: a.2 A dvantages of Galvanic Systems a.3 Disadvantages of Galvanic Systems Page 8 of 12 API 651 Summary.e. 6. c. Installation is easy. f. tank bottom). Gal vani c Systems 6. Old storage tank bottoms left in place w hen a new bottom is installed. Capital investment is low .2..5. 1998 .2. M any factors can either reduce or eliminate the flow of electrical current. See Table 3 (Page 10 code) for a partial galvanic series.1 Use of a metal more active than the structure to be protected to supply the current required to stop corrosion. d. NOTE: M etals commonly used as sacrificial anodes in soil are magnesium and zinc (in either cast or ribbon form). reducing protection effectiveness. c.M ETHOD S OF CA THODI C PROTECTI ON FOR CORROSI ON CON TROL 6. b.2. M inimum maintenance costs. b. 6. Exampl e: The anode is electrically connected to the structure and buried in the soil. d. Foundations such as concrete.1. Less frequent monitoring required. SECTI ON 6 . A galvanic corrosion cell develops and the active metal anode corrodes (is sacrificed) while the metal structure (cathode) is protected. asphalt or oiled sand.1 I ntroducti on Cathodic protection is a technique for preventing corrosion by making the entire surface of the metal act as the cathode of an electrochemical cell. No external power supply is required. Usually distributed around the perimeter of the tank or buried beneath the bottom. e. A n impervious lining between the tank bottom and anodes such as in secondary containment systems. Interference problems (stray currents) are rare.

NOTE: 6.. d.Tw o (2) major components: a. 6.4 Rectifiers .5 Impressed Current A node materials are graphite. Availability of large driving potential.3. High current output for protecting large structures. Safety aspects of negative lead connections.3 Disadvantages of Impressed Current Systems a.e. 1998 . b.3 Driving potential is limited. c. e. f. (i.3. device for changing A C into DC).1 Uses DC usually provided by a rectifier (i. Step-dow n transformer (reduces A C supply voltage). b.3. 6.DESI GN OF CA TH OD I C PROTECTI ON SYSTEM S Page 9 of 12 API 651 Summary. Rectifying elements to provide DC output. A pplicable to almost any soil resistivity. high silicon cast iron or mixed metal oxides on titanium. b.3. in remote groundbeds.e. Silicon rectifiers are more efficient. Selenium rectifiers are used. d. lightening prevention devices required). c.3.. Impressed Current Systems 6. d. c. 6. Higher costs (maintenance and operating). Safety aspects of rectifier location. Current output is low . Loss of A C pow er causes loss of protection. Usually buried in a coke breeze backfill (reduces circuit resistance). but are troubled by power surges. stray currents) on foreign structures. 6. distributed around or under the tank or installed in deep groundbeds.2 A dvantages of Impressed Current Systems a. steel. Not practical for protection of l arge bare structures. M ethod is limited to use in low-resistivity soils.e.a. Higher capital costs. but have decreased life span if ambient temperature exceeds 130°F. SECTI ON 7 . g. DC flow s from the rectified to the buried impressed current anode. Capability of variable current output. b. Interference problems (i.. M ore frequent monitoring.

be aw are of certain conditions that may influence your job assessment/ evaluation.2. Future addition of cathodic protection impossible. impermeable membranes) have both good and bad features relative to cathodic protection.5. c.2 Contains leaks and prevents ground contamination.2 Tank bottom replacement has a significant impact on protection effectiveness. traps hydrocarbon..1 Disadvantages a.5.1 A dvantages a. or installation is planned for the new bottom. If a conductive electrolyte exists betw een the bottoms.When dealing w ith your client/ customer. 7. the current flow and metal loss w ill be from the new bottom.e. SECTI ON 8 . With leak.1 A nything that acts as a barri er to the flow of current w ill prevent the application of cathodic protection. M embrane acts as a basin to contain electrolyte.2. These items include: 7. becomes "hotw ork" issue. Prevents ground w ater wicking into sand pad. 1998 .CRI TERI A FOR CA TH ODI C PROTECTI ON : Page 10 of 12 API 651 Summary. future problems may occur.1. NOTE: If the old bottom remains in place.5. b.2. 7. the ol d bottom must be removed. Eliminates current flow betw een bottoms. 7.1. even with cathodic systems installed betw een the old and new bottoms. If cathodic systems exist. b. c. 7.2.2. Secondary containment systems between bottoms (i.

M inimum requirements are listed below . SECTI ON 9 . 2. M easurement is performed using a high-impedance (i.2.2.3 A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization measured between the tank bottom metallic surface and a stable reference electrode contacting the electrolyte. NOTE: 1.2 Protecti on Cri teri a Developed from lab experiments or from existing.2. 10) Perimeter measurement may not represent potential at the center of the tank bottom.2. 1998 . reproducible reference electrode contacting the electrolyte.3.2.1 The standard method of determining the effectiveness of cathodic protection on a tank bottom is the tank-to soil potential measurement.. 8.I N TERFERENCE CURREN TS (No specific notes) SECTI ON 11 . successful systems.I NSTA LLA TI ON OF CA THODI C PROTECTION SYSTEM S (No specific notes) SECTI ON 10 .1 A negative (cathodic) potential of at least 850 mV w ith the cathodic protection current applied.When has adequate protection been achieved and does it still exist? 8.3 M easurement Techniques 8.e. 8.OPERA TION AN D M A I N TENA N CE OF CA THODI C PROTECTI ON SYSTEM S Page 11 of 12 API 651 Summary. resistance) voltmeter and a stable.2. (See Fig. 8.2 A negative polarized potential of at least 850 mV relative to a CSE. 8.

c. g. h. impressed current. DC amps. a positive or negative condition) has occurred. Cathodi c Protecti on Records Depending on need. Potential surveys should be made w ith sufficient product gauge so as to maximize bottom-cushion contact. Page 12 of 12 API 651 Summary. b. If tanks are empty. connections or cable. 11. Repair of rectifiers.3. d. g. Design and location of insulating devices. etc. This is generally 6-18 months after system energized. 1998 . f. A few items that should be considered include: a. large areas of the bottom may not be in contact w ith underlying soil.1 Introducti on Coupled w ith operation and maintenance. Native structure-to-soil potentials. other DC power sources required.e. Type of system (i. What w as native structure-to-soil potential bef ore current w as applied.11. e. be misleading. c. Rectifier DC volts. may therefore. Potential surveys. 11. the follow ing should be considered as permanent record needs: a. Initial surveys (on new installation) should not be conducted until after adequate polarization (i. w here made and procedures used. b. Changes may be required to maintain (or even establish) protection. Conditions that affect protection are subject to change w ith time. efficiency and tap settings.. sacrificial anode. Results of current requirement tests. NOTE: d. Structure-to-structure potential. Results of soil resistivity (resistance) test at the site.4 Structure-to-soil potential. Continuity of structures (if protected as single structure). A node current.. c. Repair/ renewal of anodes. e f. d. circumstance and customer direction. Field inspection surveys (to determine that cathodic protection has been established and that it is currently effective) should be established.1 Surveys should include one or more of the following: a.e. b. w here made and procedures used. ). Effect an adjacent structures. Piping to tank isolation (if protected separately).

Section 5 API RP 652 Summary .

3.4 3. usually cylindrical in shape.GENERAL 1.0 3. 1998 . This recommended practice also provides information and specific guidance for tanks in hydrocarbon service. 2. 3. NOTES: 1. usually an epoxy. * A ntonym: cathode. bottom and support structure w here more than 90% of the tank volume is above surface grade. anchor pattern: Surface profile or roughness.1 Scope This recommended practice describes the procedures and practices for achieving effective corrosion control in aboveground storage tanks by application of tank bottom linings to existing and to new storage tanks.1 aboveground storage tank : A stationary container.6 aromati cs: Strong hydrocarbon solvents w hose chemical structure has an Page 1 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. 2. Electrons flow aw ay from the anode in the external circuit. This recommended practice is a guide only.0 This does not designate specific bottom linings for all situations because of the wide variety of service environments. anode: The electrode of an electrochemical cell at w hich oxidation (corrosion) occurs. that has been combined w ith a portion of the resin.5 3. Corrosion usually occurs and metal ions enter the solution at the anode. Ref erenced Publ i cati ons Def i ni ti ons 3. Detailed lining specifications are not included. consisting of a metallic roof.A PI RP . D ECEM BER 1997 SECTI ON 1 . Some of the practices may also be applicable for other services. ami ne: A n organic compound having amino functional groups w hich provide chemical reactivity and utility as a curative for epoxy and other resins. adduct: A curing agent. shell. generally an amine.652 LI NI NG OF A BOV EGROUND PETROLEUM STORA GE TAN K BOTTOM S SECOND EDI TI ON .3 3.2 3.

23 3. 1998 .25 3.to the environment. shiny surface area. The solid resin is generally provided as a solution in styrene. 3. ethylene or propylene glycol and malaic acid (or anhydride). mi l : One one-thousandth of an inch (0. mi l l scal e: A n oxide layer formed on steel during hot forming operations.26 3. pol yami de: A resin w hose chemical structure contains adjacent carbonyl and amino functional groups that is often used as a curative for epoxy resins. The solid resin is generally provided as a solution in styrene. vi nyl -ester: A polyester that usually contains Bisphenol-A in the resin backbone and tw o vinyl groups for reactivity. pol yami doami ne: : A resin whose chemical structure contains adjacent carbonyl and amino functional groups that is often used as a curative for epoxy resins.001"). 3. vi nyl group: A functional group on a resin molecule that contains a carbon-to-carbon double bond at the end of the molecule.22 i sophthal i c pol yester: A resin polymerized from isophthalic acid (or anhydride). N OTE: A ppearance: slick. 3.30 3.27 phenol i c: A resin of the phenol-formaldehyde type.24 3.29 3. resi n: A natural or synthetic substance that may be used as a binder in coatings.28 3. l i ni ng: A coating bonded to the internal surfaces of a tank to serve as a barrier to corrosion by the contained fluids. Commercially available polyamides are reaction products of dimerized and trimerized fatty acids and polyamines. which acts as a solvent and as a cross-linking agent for the resin. w hich acts as a solvent and as a crosslinking agent for the resin. Commercially available polyamides are reaction products of dimerized and trimerized fatty acids and polyamines. smooth.31 Page 2 of 17 API RP-652 Summary.

c.2 Chemi cal Corrosi on a. e.4 Gal vani c Cel l Corrosi on Formation of a bi-metallic corrosion couple due to the presence of an electrolyte (i.CORROSION MECHANISMS 4. Normally seen in environmental and product clean-up tanks.3 Concentrati on Cel l Corrosi on Occurs in lower oxygen concentration areas (i. surface deposit.e. These apply onl y if there are no accelerating mechanisms present. NOTES: 4.. 4. 1. Chemical corrosion Concentration cell corrosion Galvanic cell corrosion Corrosion caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria Erosion corrosion. dissolved oxygen). sulfuric acid. 4. added to water (w ith heat) to break emulsion of oil and w ater. Water collection on tank bottoms may contain salt and sediment that "settles out" on bottom plates.1 General The common mechanisms of internal storage tank bottom corrosion include: a. becomes deluded.e. Diluted acid is much more corrosive than stronger acids. 2. Concentrated acids. HA Z adjacent to w elds NOTE: A lso noted by significant localized metal loss. The chlorides and other soluble salts may provide a strong electrolyte w hich can promote corrosion. 4. Breaks in mill scale. b. mill scale or crevice). 1998 . Example: Carbon steel corrosion rates in various hydrocarbon services have been established. Chemical attack also occurs in caustic. ballast water and w ater neutralization services. Refer to NA CE 510700. b.5 Corrosi on Caused by Sul f ate-Reduci ng Bacteri a Page 3 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. d. NOTE: Recognized as pitting or in a significant localized metal loss area.. The common locations for occurrence are: a. b.SECTION 4 .

4. A nnular floor plate rings may be thicker (up to 1/ 2" (12 mm). Thought to be associated with concentrated cell corrosion. Usually negligible. waste water treating or mixing.. g. or will be present pri or to the next schedule turnaround. occasionally service. b. Steam coils limit accessibility for surface preparation. State or local regulations. may exist. d. Corrosion prevention Tank design Tank history Environmental considerations Flexibility for service change Upset conditions Federal. 1998 Exampl e: 5.3 Desi gn Consi derati ons and Tank I nternal s Design or fabrication details that w ould jeopardize the integrity. adjacent to mixers in crude tanks). 5.4 . c.e. or limit the life expectancy or effectiveness. The resulting thermal effects effect may cause localized failure by blistering or cracking. f. SECTI ON 5 . 5. NOTE: If the tank bottom measurements indicate that a "t" of 0. Normally seen as "well defined" loss pattern. Sketch plates (under shell) of 5/ 16" plate may often be found in older tanks.a. c. b. then a recommendation for applying a lining should be strongly considered.2 Li ni ngs f or Corrosi on Preventi on Proper selection and application of bottom linings can prevent internal bottom corrosion. The need for an internal tank bottom lining is generally based upon one or more of the following: a.1 General Tank bottoms normally fabricated from carbon steel plate sections typically 1/ 4" (6 mm) thick. Tank H i story Page 4 of 17 API RP-652 Summary.DETERM I NA TI ON OF N EED f or TAN K BOTTOM LI NI N GS 5. The movement of aggregate causes abrasive attack. e.100" exists. Erosi on Corrosi on Normally occurs in mixing tanks where soil particles or small aggregate are present and movement occurs (i.6 Phenomenon recognized but not understood. due to deposits forming a barrier to the diffusion of dissolvedoxygen.

1 Location Page 5 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. b.1 Tank Foundati on Inadequate foundation can cause tank settlement. The data should be free.4. iii.3 5.2. 5.. the new liner application and material must be compatible.2 5. 5. and a portion is to be salvaged and reused. Previous Repairs: Prior mechanical repair/ additions must be considered.a. Older tank lining application may be complicated by chemical contaminates.5. butt straps and skip w elding) are difficult to cover and protect w ith a lining. bottom flexing may occur.2 M ethods of Constructi on a. or degree of cleaning required must be considered w hen evaluating w hich type of coating is most effective. Consider corrosion history when determining need for lining. Such as.4. are there odd-shaped patches to cover.e. NOTE: M ost major material suppliers have data and technical expertise that can be requested. c. If a prior liner is present.1 Irregular surfaces (i. b. Cathodic protection also usually reduces underside bottom loss. causing the internal lining to fail by cracking. 1998 . 5. c. 5.4.2. iv. Where is corrosion problem occurring (product side.)? How fast is corrosion proceeding? Has there been a significant change in corrosion rate? What type of corrosion is occurring? H as through-bottom penetration occurred? 5.5 Envi ronmental Consi derati ons Properly applied internal linings reduce the chance of external environmental contamination. Consider history of other tanks in similar service. Some important considerations are: i.4. no back-welded or hot-taps that will require special crevice sealing solutions? Prior Storage: Special cleaning techniques. etc. v. soil side.4. outer periphery. support-angles to seal. Column bases and roof leg support pads may present application problems.2. rivets. ii. the technical help will add to costs.

SECTI ON 6 .TA N K BOTTOM LI N I NG SELECTI ON 6. Fl exi bi l i ty f or Servi ce Change a. Remember: Tank linings do not offer universal resistance. 3. b. Therefore. then all potential services and their compatibility w ith internal lining being considered must be carefully and fully evaluated. properties of the lining must vary. c. technical assistance from the liner supplier can be of great value. A gain. thin-film is applied w hen some minimal corrosion has occurred. Linings are installed at tank erection or after some period of service.6 The potential for ground w ater contamination in hydrogeologically sensitive areas. Thick films (greater than 20 mils).1 A dvantages . c. 1998 . parks or scenic areas.When considering the need for an internal lining.1 General : Tank bottom linings can generally be divided into two (2) classes: a. d. lakes. b. 5. Thin films (20 mils or less). Proximity to populated areas or public roads. 6. Consult customer as to potential for occurrence. Other liner discussion includes: NOTES: 6. 5. 2.Disadvantages (Thin Film Type) Page 6 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. Generally. always consider: a. NOTE: A l l linings that are employed to protect tank bottoms must be resi stant to water. 1. Product makeup varies.7 Upset Condi ti ons Don't forget the impact involved. Changes in service may drastically affect the performance of existing liners. Proximity to rivers.2 Thi n-f i lm types Frequently based on epoxy or epoxy-copolymer resins. b. Presence/ location of containment dikes. If "swing-service" is expected of the tank involved.2. See Table 1 (Lining Systems) for generic types and their suitability for various services.

multiple coats needed. offsets and weld spatter. Provides additional strength to bridge over small bottom perforations. M akes future inspections more difficult. limitations in specific products. 6. Disadvantage: Corrosion creates a rough/ pitted surface that is difficult to completely coat and protect. NOTE: b. iii. Resin-rich topcoat required. (See Table 2) Additional data available in NA CE Publication 6A187. 6.1 A dvantages (thick-film types): A dvantages: a. 1998 6. Primer frequently required. ii. a. glass mat.). b. d. Less susceptible to mechanical damage. M ore expensive. etc. v. b. elevated temperature tolerance. A dvantages: i.3. Check with manufacturer for specifics (chemical immersion. edges. iv. c.4 . glass cloth or organic fibers. Generic types and w here used. Dependent upon thickness required . vi A ll applied over a w hite or near-w hite abrasive blast.2 Disadvantages (thick-film types): Disadvantages: a.3 Thi ck-Fil m types Commonly reinforced with glass flake. Less need for removal of sharp corners.a. 6. ii. b. chopped glass fibers. c. Specific notes relative to thick-film types: i. Low er cost (due to ease of application). Require more time and effort to apply.3. New plate provides a smooth surface that can easily be made ready for coating application. Polyesters require w ax addition to ensure timely cure. Desi gn of Storage Tank Bottom Li ni ngs Page 7 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. Not as sensitive to pitting and other surface irregularities during installation.

M ore specific data: i. 1998 . Older bottoms. v.5 Excepti onal Ci rcumstances A f fecti ng Sel ecti on Be sure to take into consideration: a. Thick-films range from 1-4 coats. N ormal data or know ledge required: i. Transition area (from bottom horiz. c. Linings should extend 18-24 inches up the shell. b. desired film thickness normally requires 2-3 coats. especially with thick-films are critical in this area. vi. A nchor pattern (surface roughness) required is generally betw een 1. TM O174 or M ilitary Spec M IL-C-4556D may be of assistance if manufacturer cannot furnish special data.a. New tanks. iv. With thin-film types. iii. to shell vert. Corrosion history or corrosion potential Elevated temperatures. is a common failure area.). NA CE Publ. or where onl y internal loss has occurred may require 35-55 mils. Thin-films may be sufficient. Product purity. b.SURFACE PREPARA TI ON Page 8 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. depending on lining selection. A bove 160°F is critical. ii. ii. Liner may contaminate product. Proper support. corroded on both sides may require 80-120 mils (usually reinforced). NOTE: SECTI ON 7 . "Whi te" (SSPC-SP5/ NACE #1) or a "near-whi te" (SSPCSP10/ N A CE #2) abrasive blast cleaner. 6.5 and 4 mils. d.

e.Wel d Preparati on a. steel). Surface preparation is a critical part of lining operation. A nother repair method is to epoxy a 12 gauge steel plate over the bottom perforation pri or to thick-film (reinforced) linings being installed. M ost common repair of perforations is w elded steel patches. may be required to remove soluble salts and cleaning chemicals. Fresh w ater wash after solvent cleaning. Bottom Repai r . In particularly humid areas. tar. 7. etc. In such event. Continuous immersion presents a sever exposure. SA FETY NOTE: b. al l contaminants (i. a well prepared surface becomes meaningless if all of the abrasive material (i. a lack of adhesion. Before blasting. SP5 #1 (w hite metal finish) or SP10 #2 (near-white) is often specified as the mini mum degree of surface cleanliness. Delay (betw een blast and application) w ill produce poor results. NOTE: 7.) is not removed prior to primer/ liner application. Weld repair may be di sal l ow ed if tank pad has been contaminated w ith flammable materials. corners and protrusions. future peeling or disbonding failure can be expected.3.e. or perhaps the use of forced air injection. w hich may influence w ork schedules. oil. 7.4 A brasi ve Bl asti ng D o N ot Bl ast w hen steel temperature is less than 5°F(3°C) above the dew point or if the relative humidity is greater than 80%. Surface preparation is performed to provide the appropriate combination of surface cleanliness/ surface profile (anchor profile) required to establish good chemical and mechanical adhesion of the coating resin to the substrate (i. restore surface preparation to the necessary degree. H ow ever.1 General a.. When i n doubt. Remove sharp edges. NOTE: Liner applications must be conducted when surface condition is appropriate. such as coastal regions. 1998 . high pressure w ater or steam cleaning should be considered. b.5 Surf ace Prof i l e or A nchor Pattern Page 9 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. sand. salt. potential solutions might be selective timing.) must be removed. grease.7. Inadequate surface preparation is a major cause of lining failure..2 Precl eani ng a. 7. etc.. Chipping or pow er grinding most common removal method. b. Solvent cleaning (SSPC-SP1).e.

Improper preparation. ii. This generally increases w ith liner thickness. dehumidified air). Types and Qual i ty of A brasi ves SECTI ON 8 . Thi cker i s not al w ays better. circulating warmed. 1998 . N otes Page 10 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. SSPC-PA 1 is a dependable procedure to follow .5 Li ni ng Curi ng a.5 to 4 mils. Consider restraints imposed by steel temperature and relative humidity. d. Typical anchor pattern is 1. Improper application. resol ve them pri or to beginning the project. SSPC-PA 1 and NA CE 6F164 . Stick to ti me i nterval (betw een coats) recommended by owner's specifications or manufacturer. b. Proper curing conditions may be aided by force-curing (i. NOTE: b. 8.6 M atch profile to accommodate selected liner. A dhesion and film integrity depend upon above listed items.2 Appl i cati on Gui del i nes a. Lining failure is attributed to: i. d..LI N I NG APPLI CA TION 8. Customers often get impatient. Establish and adhere to recommended drying (curing) period. If conflicts arise (betw een ow ner/ user.1 General a. c. Inadequate curing. 8.a. Establish and adhere to proper mixing practices.4 Lini ng Thi ckness a. iii.e. liner applicator or material manufacturer) over any aspect of the job.Good painting practice. 7. A void disbonding or delamination by following manufacturer's recommendations. Refer to material manufacturer's recommendation. 8. b. b. c. b. Insufficient film thickness w ill not provide adequate coverage or protection. c. Excessive thickness can compromise adhesion and integrity.

Without going into detail or explanation. some or all of the follow ing should provide guidelines or assistance.3 Film thickness Page 11 of 17 API RP-652 Summary.I N SPECTI ON Items 7. A brasive blast per API 652 specifications. H and trow el epoxy in the corner area and radius all transitions. parameters and procedures to assist or guide in the area of Inspection. broom sw eep and vacuum) remove all moisture.1 (General) through 7. and around patch plates.2 9.1. 9.2 Cleanliness and Profile: Refer to SSPC-VIS1 (reference photos) and N A CE TMO175 (sealed steel reference panels NA CE RPO287 provides a method of measuring surface profile.4 (Discontinuities) list some qualifications. 1998 . Consult a "Technical Representative" for the product being installed. If the following conditions are correct: Proper blast profile Proper material mixture A pplication equipment properly functioning M aterial specifications correct Proper thickness applied Proper curing procedure follow ed Weather restraints are observed The l i ni ng w i l l be sati sf actory and l ast 10 .3.2.1. SECTI ON 9 . include a job site visit.A PI RP 652 (Rei nf orced Gl ass-epoxy I nternal Li ni ng 65 M i l s Thi ck ) Clean and repair the tank bottom (install lap weld steel plate patches 3/ 16" or 1/ 4" and w eld build-up). remove all residue (air blow . 9.3.3 Personnel NA CE certi f i ed Recommended Inspecti on Parameters Refer to N A CE RP-02-88 9.3.20 years.

Hardness: A s applicable. w et f i l m "t" measurement should be made. dry fi l m "t". A fter curing. A ttempt to determine if: a.4 Soon after application. refer to the follow ing procedures: a. 9.1. Failure w as due to mechanical damage. b.2 Properly selected/ applied liners should provide a service life of 10-20 years. M ake sure topcoat is compatible w ith existing liner. b. pinholes or mechanical damage) Topcoating for more extensive failure but w here adhesion and integrity is still good.1 General a. Environmental attack w as responsible. b. the cause or extent should be established by visual inspection and a review of the operating history.5 volts) wet sponge detector. SECTI ON 10 . c. b. ASTM D 2583 ASTM D 2240 ASTM D 3363 Solvent w ipe test 9.3.REPA I R OF TA NK BOTTOM LI NI N GS 10. Improperly installed. b. 10. 1998 . A ny bottom mechanical repair should be complete prior to any liner installation or repair.3. Linings exceeding 20 mils "t" shall be holiday tested w ith a high voltage detector (see NA CE RPO188).3 Types of Repai r a. 10. d.a. b. Refer to A STM D4414. Complete replacement w hen existing liner is beyond repair. Determi ne Cause of Fai l ure Before deciding how to make a lining failure repair.1. Linings less than 20 mils should be tested w ith a low voltage (67. Spot repairs for localized failure (blisters. Refer to SSPC PA 2. SECTI ON 11 . c. c.5 Discontinuities a.SAFETY Page 12 of 17 API RP-652 Summary.

iv. c.2 Tank Entry Permits for tank entry and hot w ork should be issued and enforced. M SDS inform about materials so that they can protect themselves and how to respond properly to emergency situations. ii. A ny relevant federal or state regulation. Follow guidelines for issuing permits and preparing a tank or confined space for entry. c. Indicates the "chemi cal make-up" that can present health hazards to personnel. A s required on tank entry permit.4 M anuf acturer's M ateri al Saf ety Data Sheets a. OSHA Standard for Abrasive Blasting. A ppropriate response to accidents. A M aterial's physical properties w hich make it hazardous to handle. NA CE 6D163.11. 1998 . b. Purpose of M SDS is to inform personnel of: i. b. iii. 11. 11. d.3 Surf ace Preparati on and Li ni ng Appl i cati on Use respiratory equipment and protective clothing as found in: a. Page 13 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. SSPC PA 3. as detailed in API Publication 2015. First aid treatment necessary ( if exposed). v. Safe handling under normal conditions and during emergencies such as fires and spills. The type of personal protective equipment needed. e.

c. and 3. Difference (in °F) betw een the internal tank air temperature and the substrate (steel) temperature The temperature at w hich moisture condenses from the atmosphere. M atch the follow ing SSPC surface preparation to the metal finish specification. c. b. List any three (3) of the five (5) causes below. . c. 6. a. d. are common examples of aromatic solvents. A discontinuity in a coating film that exposes the metal surface to the environment. Which of the follow ing pertains to or establishes the "dew poi nt"? a. A during hot forming operations. White M etal Finish Near-White M etal Finish SSPC-SP5 NACE #1 SSPC-SP10 NA CE #2 Page 14 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. Indicate the most correct definition for "a hol i day". 4. A ny thin liner area w here an additional film "t" layer is required. is an oxide layer formed on steel There are five (5) common mechanisms normally associated with internal tank bottom corrosion. 2. The moisture content value at which adhesion betw een the liner and the substrate cannot be achieved. Difference (in °F) between the relative humidity value and the internal tank air temperature.A PI -652 (LI N I N G TA N K BOTTOM S) "QUI Z" 1. a. b. D raw A rrow to Connect. 5. b. as specified in Section 5. 1998 . A lamination that develops betw een coating layers.

with relative humidity below 80% Stop application when visually.e. adhesion and bonding is not being achieved. a. b. Where is corrosion occurring? b. Primarily cost and out-of service time frame involved. When considering the need for an internal lining. c. Page 15 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. C. is a natural or synthetic substance that may be used as a bi nder in coatings. 1998 . c. d. w ith relative humidity below 80% 10°F (5. "c" and "d" only. depth profile) prior to liner installation. What is the typi cal range required on anchor pattern (i. Sub-items "b". A ny substrate temperature w hen moisture is visible. Have there been significant corrosion rates changes. How fast is it proceeding. A.. H ave bottom perforations occurred. A ll of the above. Answer: 9.5°C) above dew point. d. D. a. temperature and humidity restrictions. 5°F (3°C) above dew point.7. B. What type of corrosion is occurring. make selections from below as some of the more important. 8. e. Select the general rul e normally followed relative to liner application vs. 10.

toluene and xylene are common examples of aromatic solvents. the electromotive force of which is due to a difference in air (oxygen) concentration at one electrode as compared w ith that at another electrode of the same material. epoxy: Resin containing epoxide (oxirane) functional groups that allow for curing by polymerization w ith a variety of curatives. The solid resin is generally provided a solution in styrene. Benzene. hol i day: A discontinuity in a coating film that exposes the metal surface Page 16 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. * A ntonym: anode cathodi c protecti on: A technique for to reduce corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an electrochemical cell.21 .19 3. Epoxy resins are usually made from Bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin. f orced-curi ng: A cceleration of curing by increasing the temperature above ambient.15 3. The anode and the cathode may be different metals or dissimilar areas on the same metal surface. because of a reaction with its environment. Electrons flow tow ard the cathode in the external circuit. corrosi on: The deterioration of a material. copol ymer: A large molecule w hose chemical structure consists of at least two (2) different monomers.16 3. dew poi nt: Pertains to the temperature at w hich moisture condenses from the atmosphere. usually a metal. or hardening.17 3. 1998 3.10 3. el ectrochemi cal cel l : A system consisting of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte so as to create an electrical circuit. 3. generally due to a polymerization reaction between tw o (2) or more chemicals (resin and curative). curi ng: The setting up.9 3.18 3. cathode: A n electrode of an electrochemical cell as which a reduction is the principle reaction.8 3.12 3. el ectrol yte: A chemical substance containing ions that migrate in an electric field.20 3. di f f erenti al aerati on cel l : A n electrochemical cell . coal tar epoxy: A coating in w hich the binder is a combination of coal tar and epoxy resin.unsaturated ring w ith delocalized pi electrons.14 3. accompanied by forced air circulation. coal tar: A black hydrocarbon residue remaining after coal is distilled. w hich acts as a solvent and as a cross-linking agent for the resin.11 3.7 bi sphenol -A pol yester: A polyester w hose chemical structure incorporates Bisphenol-A into the resin molecule in place of some or all of the glycol.13 3.

"b" (Discontinuity exposing surface to environment). 5.A PI 652 COD E QUI Z A N SWER K EY 1. Toluene and Xylene. "a" (5°F above dew point w ith relative humidity below 80%).All 5 considerations. 10.SP10 #2 7. 1998 . 3. 4.SP5 #1 Near-White ---.5 to 4 mils Resin A . 2. 6. Page 17 of 17 API RP-652 Summary. 9. Benzene. "c" (Temperature at w hich moisture condenses from atmosphere. Mill Scale A ny of the follow ing: Chemical Corrosion Concentration cell corrosion Galvanic Cell Corrosion Erosion Corrosion Corrosion caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria. 1. 8. White --------.

Section 6 API Recommended Practice 571 Summary .

Copyright 2006 .                          Page 1 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam.

Copyright 2006 .     Page 2 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam.

Copyright 2006 .                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 3 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Page 4 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam. Copyright 2006 .

Copyright 2006 .                                                                                                                                                                        Page 5 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam.

                                                                                                                                 Page 6 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam. Copyright 2006 .

                                                                                                                                              Page 7 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam. Copyright 2006 .

                                                                                                                                            Page 8 of 8 API RP 571 Summary for API 653 Exam. Copyright 2006 .

Section 7 API RP 577 Summary .

Copyright Spring. 2006 . Ron VanA rsdale Ow ner Page 1 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.W el d i n g I n sp ect i on an d M et al l u r g y A PI RP 577 P 5 7 Fi r st Ed i t i on O ct ob er . 2004 r d c e 0 4 Su m m ar y an d N ot es For A PI 653 Exam Prepared by.

Copyright Spring. 2006 .(Thi s page i ntenti onal l y l ef t bl ank ) Page 2 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.

3 arc bl ow: The deflection of an arc from its normal path because of magnetic forces.A PI RP 577 Fi rst Edi tion .4 arc l ength: The distance from the tip of the w elding electrode to the adjacent surface of the weld pool. as encountered w ith fabrication and repair of refinery and chemical plant equipment and piping. 3.5 arc stri ke: A discontinuity resulting from an arc. 3. the follow ing definitions apply.2 ai r carbon arc cutti ng (CA C-A ): A carbon arc cutting process variation that removes molten metal with a jet of air. The processes are used with or w ithout the application of pressure and w ith or without filler metal.1 actual throat: The shortest distance betw een the weld root and the face of a fillet weld. Page 3 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.) 3. Copyright Spring.D EFI N I TI ON S (For the purposes of this standard. welder qualifications.October. heataffected metal. Common w elding processes. 3. and inspection techniques are described. 3. welding procedures. 2004 Welding I nspecti on and M etal lurgy SECTI ON 1 .SCOPE A PI RP 577 provides guidance to the A PI authorized inspector on welding inspection.REFEREN CES SECTI ON 3 . SECTI ON 2 . consisting of any localized remelted metal. metallurgical effects from welding.6 arc w el di ng (A W): A group of w elding processes that produces coalescence of w ork pieces by heating them w ith an arc. or change in the surface profile of any metal object. 2006 . 3.

The term designates rejectability.10 base metal : The metal or alloy that is w elded or cut. such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical. Commonly known as straight polarity. to support and retain molten weld metal.20 di storti on: The change in shape or dimensions. 3. 3. A lso. 3. 2006 .17 di rect current el ectrode negati ve (D CEN): The arrangement of direct current arc w elding leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and w orkpiece is the positive pole of the w elding arc. temporary or permanent. the leg lengths of the largest isosceles right triangle that can be inscribed w ithin the fillet w eld cross section. 3.16 def ect: A discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or accumulated effect (for example total crack length) render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. of a part as a result of heating or w elding. 3. 3.13 constant current pow er suppl y: A n arc w elding pow er source w ith a volt-ampere relationship yielding a small welding current change from a large arc voltage change.14 constant vol tage pow er suppl y: A n arc w elding pow er source w ith a volt-ampere relationship yielding a large w elding current change from a small voltage change.24 groove angl e: The total included angle of the groove betw een w orkpieces. 3. 3. Page 4 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. 3.21 f i l l er metal : The metal or alloy to be added in making a w elded joint. Copyright Spring. 3. 3.7 autogenous w el d: A fusion w eld made w ithout filler metal.23 f usi on l i ne: A non-standard term for w eld interface.22 f i l l et w el d si ze: For equal leg fillet welds. metallurgical or physical characteristics.3. Commonly known as reverse polarity.19 di sconti nui ty: A n interruption of the typical structure of a material.8 back -gougi ng: The removal of w eld metal and base metal from the w eld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and complete joint penetration upon subsequent w elding from that side.15 crack: A fracture type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of length and w idth to opening displacement. 3. 3. 3. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect. or at both sides of a w eld in w elding. 3.11 bevel angl e: The angle betw een the bevel of a joint member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member.9 backi ng: A material or device placed against the backside of the joint. 3.12 burn-through: A non-standard term for excessive visible root reinforcement in a joint w elded from one side or a hole through the root bead. 3.18 di rect current el ectrode posi ti ve (D CEP): The arrangement of direct current arc w elding leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the w orkpiece is the negative pole of the w elding arc. a common term used to reflect the act of penetrating a thin component w ith the w elding arc w hile hot tap welding or in-service welding.

3. 3.33 IQI : Image quality indicator. edge joint. 3. nonmetallic inclusions parallel to the metal surface. 3.30 i ncompl ete j oi nt penetrati on: A joint root condition in a groove w eld in w hich weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness.39 l i near di sconti nui ty: A discontinuity w ith a length that is substantially greater than its w idth. 3. 3.35 j oi nt type: A w eld joint classification based on five basic joint configurations such as a butt joint.41 nondestructi ve exami nati on (N DE): The act of determining the suitability of some material or component for its intended purpose using techniques that do not affect its serviceability.40 l ongi tudi nal crack : A crack with its major axis orientation approximately parallel to the weld axis.36 l ack of f usi on (LOF): A nonstandard term indicating a weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur betw een w eld metal and fusion faces or adjoining w eld beads.42 overl ap: The protrusion of w eld metal beyond the w eld toe or weld root.27 hot crack i ng: Cracking formed at temperatures near the completion of solidification. Page 5 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. 3.29 i ncompl ete fusi on: A weld discontinuity in w hich complete coalescence did not occur betw een weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads. 3. 3.37 l amel l ar tear: A subsurface terrace and step-like crack in the base metal with a basic orientation parallel to the w rought surface caused by tensile stresses in the throughthickness direction of the base metal w eakened by the presence of small dispersed. the temperature of the w eld area betw een w eld passes.38 l ami nati on: A type of discontinuity w ith separation or w eakness generally aligned parallel to the w orked surface of a metal. 3.34 j oi nt penetrati on: The distance the w eld metal extends from the w eld face into a joint. 3. planar shaped./ min.). corner joint. 3. i = amperage.26 heat i nput: The energy supplied by the w elding arc to the w orkpiece. 3. such as slag. v = weld travel speed (in. 3. 3.31 i nspector: An individual w ho is qualified and certified to perform inspections under the proper inspection code or who holds a valid and current National Board Commission.43 oxyacetyl ene cutti ng (OFC-A ): A n oxygen gas cutting process variation that uses acetylene as the fuel gas.32 i nterpass temperature.28 i ncl usi on: Entrapped foreign solid material. 3. w el di ng: In multipass w eld. 2006 .25 heat af f ected zone (H AZ): The portion of the base metal w hose mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by the heat of w elding or thermal cutting. flux. Penetrameter is another common term for IQI. 3. Heat input is calculated as follows: heat input = (V x i)/ 60v. w here V = voltage.3. tungsten or oxide. 3. Copyright Spring. lap joint and tjoint. exclusive of weld reinforcement.

48 preheat: M etal temperature value achieved in a base metal or substrate prior to initiating the thermal operations. 2006 . Copyright Spring.61 tungsten i ncl usi on: A discontinuity consisting of tungsten entrapped in weld metal.44 PM I (Posi ti ve M ateri al s I denti f i cati on): A ny physical evaluation or test of a material (electrode.51 root f ace: The portion of the groove face w ithin the joint root. flux. 3. 3. 3. 3. wire. 3. 3.45 peeni ng: The mechanical w orking of metals using impact blow s.).59 transverse crack: A crack w ith its major axis oriented approximately perpendicular to the w eld axis. 3.50 reportabl e i ndi cati on: Recording on a data sheet of an indication that exceeds the reject flaw size criteria and needs not only documentation. 3. A ll reportable indications are recordable indications but not vice-versa.3. w eld deposit.53 shi el di ng gas: Protective gas used to prevent or reduce atmospheric contamination. but also notification to the appropriate authority to be corrected. 3. 3. base metal. 3. contract or procedure w ill be documented.55 sl ag i ncl usi on: A discontinuity consisting of slag entrapped in the w eld metal or at the w eld interface. 3.57 tack wel d: A w eld made to hold the parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made.56 spatter: The metal particles expelled during fusion welding that do not form a part of the w eld. which has been or will be placed into service.58 throat theoreti cal : The distance from the beginning of the joint root perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed w ithin the cross-section of a fillet weld. This dimension is based on the assumption that the root opening is equal to zero.46 penetrameter: Old terminology for IQI still in use today but not recognized by the codes and standards. Page 6 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. 3.62 undercut: A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld root and left unfilled by weld metal. etc. These evaluations or tests may provide either qualitative or quantitative information that is sufficient to verify the nominal alloy composition.54 sl ag: A nonmetallic product resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in some w elding and brazing processes. 3. 3. 3.49 recordabl e i ndi cati on: Recording on a data sheet of an indication or condition that does not necessarily exceed the rejection criteria but in terms of code.52 root openi ng: A separation at the joint root betw een the w orkpieces. to demonstrate it is consistent w ith the selected or specified alloy material designated by the ow ner/ user. 3.60 travel angl e: The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the w eld axis. 3.47 porosi ty: Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification or in thermal spray deposit. in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis.

with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone. and w ith or w ithout the use of filler metal.68 wel d j oi nt: The junction of members or the edges of members w hich are to be joined or have been joined by welding. 2006 . Page 7 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.65 w el di ng: A joining process that produces coalescence of base metals by heating them to the w elding temperature. 3.64 w el der certi f i cati on: Written verification that a w elder has produced w elds meeting a prescribed standard of w elder performance. 3. 3.66 wel di ng engi neer: An individual w ho holds an engineering degree and is know ledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with welding.63 underf i l l : A condition in w hich the weld joint is incompletely filled w hen compared to the intended design.67 w el dment: A n assembly w hose component parts are joined by welding. 3. 3. 3. 3.70 w el d toe: The junction of the w eld face and the base metal.3.69 wel d rei nf orcement: Weld metal in excess of the quantity required to fill a joint. Copyright Spring.

5 Wel ding Equipment and Instruments Confirm w elding equipment and instruments are calibrated and operate properly. base materials and backing ring materials are properly marked and identified and.2. N DE procedure(s) and NDE equipment of the inspection organization are acceptable for the w ork.2.SECTI ON 4: 4.1 GENERAL WELD I NG I N SPECTI ON This section focuses on the tasks that are not only considered the responsibility of the inspection personnel. standards. Copyright Spring. 4. 4. Codes and Standards Review the draw ings. 4.1 Draw i ngs. 4. but also other concerned parties w ho will design.2 TASK S PRIOR TO WELDI NG These crucial steps are necessary to avoid the many w elding problems which can occur during or after the w elding process.2.2. 4. examine or perform welding. 4.2. 4.2. if required. codes and specifications to ensure the requirements for the w eldment are understood. as well as to identify any inconsistencies. perform PM I to verify the material composition.3 Procedures and Qual i f i cati on Records Review the WPS(s) and welder performance qualification record(s) (WPQ) to assure they are acceptable for the w ork. 2006 .6 H eat Treatment and Pressure Testi ng Confirm heat treatment and pressure testing procedures and associated equipment are acceptable.4 N DE I nf ormati on Confirm the N DE examiner(s).2.2 Wel dment Requirements Review requirements for the weldment w ith the personnel involved w ith executing the w ork 4. Page 8 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.7 M ateri al s Ensure all filler metals.

4. and inert gases are as specified and acceptable. 4. 4. 4. fluxes.2 N DE Revi ew Verify N DE is performed at selected locations and review examiner s findings.3.4.2.2. and dimensions are acceptable and correct.10 Wel di ng Consumabl es Confirm electrode.3.3 TA SK S DURIN G WELDI NG OPERA TI ONS Welding inspection during welding operations should include audit parameters to verify the welding is performed to the procedures.4. Copyright Spring.8 Wel d Preparati on Confirm weld preparation. joint fit-up. 2006 .4.9 Preheat Confirm the preheat equipment and temperature. 4.2. 4. 4. Page 9 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.1 Appearance and Fi ni sh Verify post-w eld acceptance.3.4.2 Wel di ng Parameters and Techni ques Confirm w elding parameters and techniques are supported by the WPS and WPQ.3 Wel dment Examinati on Complete physical checks.4 TA SKS UPON COM PLETION OF WELDIN G Final tasks upon completion of the w eldment and w ork should include those that assure final weld quality before placing the weldment in service. 4.1 Qual i ty Assurance Establish a quality assurance and quality control umbrella with the w elding organization. filler w ire.3 Post-wel d Heat Treatment Verify post-weld heat treatment is performed to the procedure and produces acceptable results. visual examination and in-process NDE 4. 4. appearance and finishing of the welded joints.

4.4. 4. 4.7 SA FETY PRECA UTI ONS Inspectors should be aw are of the hazards associated with welding and take appropriate steps to prevent injury w hile performing inspection tasks.4 Pressure Testi ng Verify pressure test is performed to the procedure.5 NON-CON FORM A N CES A N D D EFECTS A t any time during the w elding inspection.4. A t a minimum. Page 10 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. Copyright Spring. 4. if defects or non-conformances to the specification are identified.5 D ocumentati on Audit Perform a final audit of the inspection dossier to identify inaccuracies and incomplete information. 4.6 N DE EXA M I N ER CERTI FI CA TI ON The referencing codes or standards may require the examiner to be qualified in accordance w ith a specific code and certified as meeting the requirements. they should be brought to the attention of those responsible for the w ork or corrected before welding proceeds further. the site s safety rules and regulations should be review ed as applicable to w elding operations. 2006 . They also require the employer to develop and establish a w ritten practice or procedure that details the employer s requirements for certification of inspection personnel.

Page 11 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. d. Employs the heat of the arc coming from the tip of a consumable covered electrode.1 El ectrode Coveri ng Depending on the type of electrode being used. and fluxing agents to cleanse the w eld and prevent excessive grain grow th in the w eld metal. Used w ith most common metals and alloys High quality w elds. b. Provides a gas to shield the arc and prevent excessive atmospheric contamination of the molten filler metal. Provides a slag blanket to protect the hot w eld metal from the air and enhances the mechanical properties. and portable. c. Equipment is relatively simple. the covering performs one or more of the follow ing functions: a. Can be used in areas of limited access. to melt the base metal.SECTI ON 5 WELD I N G PROCESSES 5. Establishes the electrical characteristics of the electrode. c. Uses an arc betw een a covered electrode and the w eld pool. e.2. d. 5.1 GENERAL The inspector should understand the basic arc w elding processes most frequently used in the fabrication and repair of refinery and chemical process equipment.2 A dvantages of SM A W a. d. d.2. 5. Less sensitive to wind and draft than other processes. inexpensive. f. b. bead shape. e. e. Shielding is provided from the decomposition of the electrode covering. c. e. w ithout the application of pressure and with filler metal from the electrode Either alternating current (ac) or direct current (dc) may be employed. b. M ost w idely used of the various arc welding processes. 2006 . These processes include: a. deoxidizers. c. Provides a means of adding alloying elements to change the mechanical properties of the w eld metal. 5. and surface cleanliness of the weld metal. Provides scavengers. b.2 Shielded metal arc w elding (SM AW) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTA W) Gas metal arc welding (GM AW) Flux cored arc w elding (FCA W) Submerged arc welding (SA W) Stud arc w elding (SW) SHI ELDED M ETA L ARC WELDI NG (SM A W) a. Copyright Spring.

3 Li mi tations of SM AW a. Relatively slow deposition rate Low tolerance for contaminants Difficult to shield the weld zone in drafty environments Two-handed process Page 12 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. Used w ith or w i thout the addition of f i l l er metal (A utogenous).1 Advantages of GTA W a. b. 2006 . c. A llows for excellent control of root pass weld penetration Can be used for autogenous w elds (no filler metal). GA S TUNGSTEN A RC WELDI NG (GTA W) a. b. b.3.3 Deposition rates are lower than for other processes. 5. d. Produces high purity w elds. c. Used with shielding gas and without the application of pressure. g. Uses an arc betw een a non-consumabl e tungsten el ectrode and the w eld pool. d. The CC type power supply can be used w ith either dc or ac. Copyright Spring.5. d. Slag usually must be removed at stops and starts.2 Li mi tati ons of GTA W a. Good for thin metals Good appearance M echanization potential 5. c. c. f. Injection points Deadlegs Corrosion under insulation (CUI) Soil-to-air (S/ A ) interfaces Service specific and localized corrosion Erosion and corrosion/ erosion Environmental cracking Corrosion beneath linings and deposits Fatigue cracking Creep cracking Brittle fracture Freeze damage 5. and before depositing a w eld bead adjacent to or onto a previously deposited weld bead. Electrode storage.3. Little post-weld cleaning is required. e.2. b.

d. c.4. iv.5. 5. Copyright Spring. c. b. iii. iii. globular or spray methods to transfer metal from the electrode to the workpiece. b. b. Can produce spatter. Employs a constant voltage (CV) pow er supply Uses short-circuiting. The type of transfer is determined by these most influential factors: i.3 Spray Transf er a. Page 13 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. M agnitude and type of welding current Electrode diameter Electrode composition Electrode extension Shielding gas 5. Spatter is negligible M ay be di f f i cul t to appl y to thi n sheets.4. H i ghl y di rected stream of di screte drops that are accelerated by arc forces. Characterized by a drop si ze w i th a di ameter greater than that of the el ectrode Generally l i mi ted to the f l at posi ti on. Joining thin sections Out-of-position Root pass With fast-freezing nature of the process. Used w ith shielding from an externally supplied gas and w ithout application of pressure. (Thickness limitations of the spray arc have been overcome by the use of pulsed GM A W. ii. 2006 . Uses an arc betw een conti nuous f i l l er metal el ectrode and the weld pool. in which the current is pulsed to obtain the advantage of spray transfer).1 Short Ci rcui ti ng Transf er (GM A W-S) a. ii. v. e. Encompasses relatively l ow current (below 250 A ). b. 5.4. d. c.4 GA S M ETAL ARC WELDI NG (GM A W) a. Encompasses the l ow est range of wel di ng currents and electrode diameters.2 Gl obul ar Transf er a. Can be operated in semiautomatic. Produces a fast freezing w eld pool that is generally sui ted f or: i. c. machine or automatic modes. comes the potential for lack of sidewall fusion w hen welding thick-wall equipment or a nozzle attachment.

5 Equipment is more complex and more costly. e. type of electrodes available mechanical property requirements of the w elded joints joint designs and fit-up Recommended power source is the dc constant-vol tage type. 2006 .5. Process uses an arc between continuous tubular filler metal electrode and the w eld pool. b. Tolerates contamination. c. 5. FLUX CORED A RC WELD I NG (FCA W) a. Page 14 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. f. d. Equipment is complex. Only consumable electrode process that can w eld most commercial metals and alloys. Little tolerance for contamination. Equipment is less portable and usually limited to shop welding. f. Used with shielding gas from a flux contained within the tubul ar el ectrode.1 A dvantages of FCAW a.2 Li mi tati ons of FCAW a. f.5. Clean process Continuous feed Low est hydrogen potential of all processes 5. d. Consumables. iii. High deposition of w eld metal. Unsuitable for windy conditions. M etallurgical benefits from the flux. c. Can be used w i th or wi thout addi ti onal shi el di ng from an externally supplied gas.4. e. Copyright Spring. Suitable for field work since shielding is produced at the surface giving better protection against drafts. High productivity deposition rates are significantly higher. 5.5. Slag supports and forms the weld bead. d. e. costly and less portable. Weld is more susceptible to lack of fusion.4. ii. b. f. N o slag to remove. c. e. d.5 Li mi tati ons of GM AW a. c. Slag removal betw een passes. 5. Heavy fumes require exhaust equipment. d. N ormally a semiautomatic process.4 Advantages of GM A W a. Backing material is required for root pass w elding. b. b. b. Use depends on: i. Deep penetration. c.

d. Slag removal.6 SUBM ERGED ARC WELDI NG (SAW) a. A rc not visible. e. Once the surfaces of the parts are properly heated. STUD A RC WELD IN G (SW) a.5. flux or metal granules). iii. 5. making it harder to control. Very high deposition rate. Direct current is normally used for SW. c. semiautomatic automatic machine Can use either a CV or CC pow er supply Used extensively in ship pressure vessel fabrication and pipe manufacturing. f. Process is used without pressure and filler metal from the electrode and sometimes from a supplemental source (w elding rod.2 Li mi tations of SA W a. e. 2006 . Uses an arc or arcs betw een a f l ux covered bare metal el ectrode(s) and the w eld pool. f. Process may be fully automatic or semiautomatic. Uses an arc between a metal stud and the w ork piece. f. d. Stud gun holds the tip of the stud against the work.6. with the stud gun connected to the negative terminal (DCEN) The power source is a CC type. Extensive set up time. Repeatable high quality w elds for large w eldments and repetitive short welds. d. b. Deep penetration. High operator appeal. d.1 A dvantages of SA W a. Shielding gas or flux may or may not be used. 5.6. g. Copyright Spring. b. f. e. Page 15 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. Needs positioning equipment. The arc and molten metal are shi el ded by a bl ank et of granul ar f l ux. Can be applied in three different modes: i. ii. h. Predominantly limited to welding insulation and refractory support pins to tanks. b. b. c. 5. c. Good for overlay. they are brought into contact by pressure. supplied through the w elding nozzle from a hopper. c. Flat or horizontal fillets only. e.7 Requires high amperage at 100% duty cycle. pressure vessels and heater casing. Hand-held process.

A nyone w ho is not familiar w ith N DE methods should review this section at length. SECTI ON 8 WELD ER QUA LI FI CA TI ON (See I TA C Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section IX presentation. Needs clean surface. d. Specialized to a few applications.7.7. SECTI ON 9 N ON D ESTRUCTI V E EXA M I N A TI ON (See I TA C Chapter 8 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section V presentation. High productivity Considered an all-position process Simple Repetitive A utomatic stud feeding (option) 5. c. e. Copyright Spring. A nyone w ho is not familiar w ith welder qualifications should review this section at length. Primarily suitable for only carbon and low -alloy steels. d. SECTI ON 6 WELD I N G PROCED URES (See I TA C Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section IX presentation. SECTI ON 7 WELD I N G M A TERI A LS (See I TA C Chapter 9 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section will be discussed during the ASM E Section IX presentation.5. A nyone who is not familiar w ith welding materials should review this section at length. b.1 Advantages of SW a.2 Li mi tati ons of SW a. 2006 . b. A nyone who is not familiar with w elding procedures should review this section at length. Equipment malfunctions. Page 16 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. c.

high strength and highly constrained areas. E6011 or E7010) may be used for root and hot passes.g. 3. make you proficient in metallurgy. 2. H igher risk of hydrogen assisted cracking (H AC).43% or w here there is potential for hydrogen assisted cracking (H A C) such as cold w orked pieces.2 H OT TAPPIN G A ND IN -SERV ICE WELD I NG Prior to performing this work. Copyright Spring. Page 17 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.. such as Exxxx-H 4. provide improved control over the welding arc. A dditional study is a must.. Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out only w ith low -hydrogen consumables and electrodes (e. 2006 . E7016. how ever.g. Limitations of cellulosic electrodes: (i) (ii) increased risk of H A C and burn-through. Extra-low hydrogen consumables. SECTI ON 11 REFI N ERY A N D PETROCH EM I CA L PLA N T WELD I N G I SSUES 11.2. and a review of this section w ill give you a general overview of the subject. should be used for welding carbon steels w ith CE greater than 0. 11. It w ill not. E7018 and E7048).M ETA LLURGY (See I TA C Chapter 10 f or addi ti onal i nf ormati on) This section contains a very basic discussion of w elding metallurgy. 11. E6010. Cellulosic type electrodes (e.1 GENERAL This section provides details of specific welding issues encountered by the inspector in refineries and petrochemical plants. (a) Advantages of cellulosic electrodes: (i) (ii) (b) easy to operate.1 El ectrode Consi derati ons 1.SECTI ON 10 . a detailed w ritten plan should be developed and review ed.

11.2. Copyright Spring. VT.4 Inspecti on a. PT and/ or M T can be performed on completed welds.2.3 Other Consi derati ons A void w eave beads to reduce heat input. Page 18 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. 2006 . b. UT for laminations should be performed before w elding. 11.2. 11. some product flow inside the material being w elded is advantageous.2 Fl ow Rates Under most conditions.

Applicable Welds: Page 19 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. TERM I N OLOGY A N D SYM BOLS WELD JOI NT TYPES Butt: A joint betw een two members aligned approximately in the same plane. 2006 .A PPEN D I X A A. Applicable Welds: b. Corner: A joint betw een tw o members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of an L.1 Five basic joints: a. Copyright Spring.

Lap: A joint betw een tw o overlapping members in parallel planes. Tee: A joint betw een tw o members located approximately at right angles to each other in the form of a T. Applicable Welds: Fillet Bevel-Groove Flare-V-Groove J-Groove Square-Groove Plug Slot Spot Seam Projection *Braze Page 20 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.c. 2006 . Copyright Spring. Applicable Welds: d.

2006 . Copyright Spring.e. Applicable Welds: Page 21 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. Edge: A joint between tw o or more parallel or nearly parallel members.

Fi gure A-3 Suppl ementary Symbol s f or Wel ds Page 22 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. Fi gure A -2 Symbol s for V ari ous Wel d Joi nts N ote: The reference line is show n dashed for illustrative purposes. Copyright Spring.2 WELD SYM BOLS Engineering and construction drawings often use standard symbols to represent w eld details. 2006 .A.

3 WELD JOIN T NOM ENCLA TURE Standard terminology applies to the various components of a w eld joint.Fi gure A-4 Standard Wel d Symbol s A. 2006 . Copyright Spring. Fi gure A -5 Groove Wel d N omencl ature Page 23 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.

2006 . Fi gure A-6 SM A W Wel di ng El ectrode I denti fi cati on System Fi gure A -7 GM AW/GTA W w el di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System Fi gure A -8 FCA W Wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System Page 24 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.A. which w ill provide a weld metal with specific mechanical properties and alloy composition. Copyright Spring.4 ELECTRODE I D ENTI FI CA TI ON The AWS specification and classification system allows selection of an electrode.

Fi gure A-9 SAW Wel di ng El ectrode I denti f i cati on System A PPEND I X B A CTIONS TO A DD RESS I M PROPERLY M AD E PRODUCTI ON WELD S N o comment A PPEN DI X C WELD IN G PROCED URE REV I EW This subject matter is covered in the review of A SM E Section IX. A PPEND IX D N o comment GUI D E TO COM M ON FI LLER M ETA L SELECTION Page 25 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam. 2006 . but is an excellent source of reference material for those who do not have experience w ith welding procedures. Copyright Spring.

2006 . Copyright Spring.(Thi s page i ntenti onal l y l ef t bl ank ) Page 26 of 26 API RP 577 Summary for API 653 Exam.

Section 8 API 653 Nondestructive Examination Summary .

1. A PI 653 uses A PI 650 requi rements for nondestructi ve testi ng procedures and personnel certi f i cati on.5 New A ppendix G is introduced. General.2 Personnel performing nondestructive examinations shall be qualified in accordance with A PI 650 and the supplemental requirements given herein. d. Recommended Practice SNT-TC1A is recognized for technician qualifications in some NDE techniques.A PI 653 N ondestructi ve Exami nati on A PI Paragraph 12.1. A PI 653 Paragraph 12.1. qualifications and acceptance criteria shall be prepared for visual.1. b. ultrasonic.3 A cceptance Criteria is based on A PI 650 and supplemental requirements of A PI 653. Radiographers must have: a. Work Experience Training Education Testing In order to qualify as an ASNT Level II.1.1. c. d. 12 M onths Job Experience 79 H ours Formal Training High School Graduation Level II Exam. training and equipment calibration is listed in this appendix. A PI 653 Paragraph 12.1 Nondestructive Examination procedures. The American Society for N ondestructive Testing. operator qualifications. procedures. c. Inc. the main items listed are: a. The requirements for M FL.1.1. SN T-TC-1A is a document that outlines requirements for Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing. b. Specific and Practical Page 1 of 11 NDE Summary. A PI 653 Paragraph 12. 2005 . liquid penetrant. and radiographic methods in accordance with A PI Standard 650 and the supplemental requirements given herein. magnetic particle.

This method of NDE can be used in visible light or with special pow ders. General. c. Once the area is magnetized lines of flux are formed. an object or localized area is magnetized through the use of A C or DC current. 2005 . Ultrasonic Technicians must have: a. b. Dry iron pow der. Page 2 of 11 NDE Summary. 12 M onths Job Experience 80 H ours Formal Training High School Graduation Level II Exam. Surface discontinues are the most commonly detected indications using this process. or iron pow der held in suspension is added to the surface of the test piece. d. Any interruption in the lines of flux will create an indication which can be evaluated. see above. under black light. The process may be used on any material that is ferromagnetic. Specific and Practical A PI 650 does not requi re M T or PT Techni ci ans to be certi fi ed to A SNT-SNT-TC-1A.In order to qualify as an A SN T Level II. Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 M agneti c Parti cl e M ethod M T Pri nci pl es of Operati on Basically.

Nondestructive Examination. A ppendi x 6. Paragraph 6-4 Acceptance Standards A ll surfaces to be examined shall be free of: a. M anufacturer Determined M agneti c Parti cl e M ethod A cceptance Standards per A PI 650 A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2. b.2 M agnetic particle examination shall be performed in accordance w ith a w ritten procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance w ith the applicable requirements of Section V. Section V.API 653 requirements A PI 653 di rects the user to API 650 Paragraph 6. Page 3 of 11 NDE Summary. relevant rounded indications greater than 3/ 16 four or more relevant rounded indications in line separated by 1/ 16 or less. M ust be larger than 1/ 16 .2. Paragraphs 6-3 and 6-4.4 A cceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shall be per Section VIII. M ust be larger than 1/ 16 . A rticle 7.2.2. A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2.6. c. A ppendi x 6.4 A cceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shall be per Section VIII. Paragraphs 6-3 and 6-4. A ppendi x 6. of the ASM E Code.1 . relevant linear indications. A SM E Secti on VI I I. A PI 650 Paragraph 6. the method of examination shall be in accordance with the A SM E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. of the A SM E Code. of the A SM E Code.3 No A SN T Certification Required.3 When magnetic particle examination is specified.2. A PI 650 Paragraph 6. A ppendix 6. A SM E Secti on VI I I. 2005 . edge to edge. A SM E Secti on VI I I. Paragraph 6-3 Definition of indication. A ppendix 6. Paragraph 6-3 Definition of indication.

A ppendi x 6. both A C and DC General M T procedure requirements Page N umber: _____________ _____________ _____________ Standard/Code ________________ ________________ ________________ Page 4 of 11 NDE Summary. 2005 . c. relevant linear indications. edge to edge. Study N otes: Know w here to find: Calibration requirements Yoke w eight requirements. Paragraph 6-4 Acceptance Standards A ll surfaces to be examined shall be free of: a.A SM E Secti on VI I I. relevant rounded indications greater than 3/ 16 four or more relevant rounded indications in line separated by 1/ 16 or less. b.

Step four the developer applied. Step two the penetrant is applied. commonly called handling marks. visible light and fluorescent or Black Light detectable groups. This process will detect: Surf ace def ects onl y! Page 5 of 11 NDE Summary. a dw ell time or soaking time waited. 2005 . When the developer is applied the penetrant is blotted back to the surface making the irregularities visible. Step three the excess penetrant is removed. Step five the part is inspected. The irregularities are then evaluated into three groups. Step 1 the test piece must be cleaned. This inspection technique relays on the penetrant being pulled in to all surface irregularities by capillary action. any indication is evaluated. nonrelevant indications and defects. The defects are evaluated to a given standard for acceptance. the basic steps of the operation can be seen above.Nondestructi ve Exami nati on A PI 650 Li qui d Penetrant M ethod PT Pri nci pl es of Operati on Penetrant testing is a family of testing that can be divided in to tw o major groups. false indications. Step six the part is post cleaned.

A linear indication is one having a length greater than three times the width. A PI 650 Paragraph 6.4. Division 1. b. relevant linear indications relevant rounded indications greater than 3/ 16 four or more relevant rounded indications separated by 1/ 16 Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-5 Repai r Requirements Page 6 of 11 NDE Summary. of the ASM E Code A SM E Secti on V I II Di vi si on 1 Li quid Penetrant Exami nati on .4 A cceptance standards and removal and repair of defects shall be per Section VIII.4. Section V. a. 2005 . A rounded indication is one of circular or elliptical shape with the length equal to or less than three times the width. c. Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1/ 16 in.3 No A SN T Certification Required. Paragraphs 8-3 . shall be considered relevant. A rticle 6 A PI 650 Paragraph 6. c. the method of examination shall be in accordance w ith the A SM E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. of the ASM E Code.4. M anufacturer Determined A PI 650 Paragraph 6. 8-4 and 8-5.2 Liquid Penetrant examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance w ith the applicable requirements of Section V. "Nondestructive Examination.Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Li quid Penetrant M ethod A PI 650 Paragraph 6. Appendi x 8 paragraph 8-4 Acceptance Standards A ll surfaces shall be free of : a. A ny questionable or doubtful indications shall be reexamined to determine w hether or not they are relevant. b.4.Acceptabi li ty A ppendi x 8 paragraph 8-3 Eval uati on of I ndi cati ons A n indication is the evidence of a mechanical imperfection.1 When liquid penetrant examination is specified. A ppendix 8.

2005 . Article 6 Study N otes: Know w here to find: Test temperatures Surface temperatures General PT procedure requirements Page N umber: _____________ _____________ _____________ Standard/Code _______________ _______________ _______________ Page 7 of 11 NDE Summary.Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Li quid Penetrant M ethod Study Notes Read A SM E Section V.

1 Introduction of the new A ppendix U. Not e: " Accept ance st andards shal l be agreed upon by t he purchaser and t he manufact urer. Article 23 (Section SE-797 only).Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Ul trasoni c M ethod (Wel d Qual i ty) A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2. The section includes the general procedure requirements for thickness readings. 2005 . A PI 650 Paragraph 6.3. This appendix sets requirements for UT inspection when performed in lieu of radiography.3.4 Examiners performing ultrasonic examinations under this section shall be qualified and certified by the manufacturers as meeting the requirements of certification as generally outlined in Level II or Level III of A SNT Recommended Practice SN T-TC-1A (including applicable supplements). Section V. "Nondestructive Examination.2.2. This section deals with Standard Practice for M easuring Thickness by Manual Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Contact M ethod . Page 8 of 11 NDE Summary.3 Ultrasonic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure that is certified by the manufacturer to be in compliance w ith the applicable requirements of Section V.3." Article 5. A PI 650 Paragraph 6.2. A PI 650 Paragraph 6." API 650 Paragraph 6. the method of examination shall be in accordance w ith the A SM E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.2 (Ultrasonic requirements not in lieu of radiography) When ultrasonic examination is specified.5 The API 653 Effectivity Sheet has listed A SM E Section V. of the ASM E Code.3.3.

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Radi ographi c Examinati on .

Page 10 of 11 NDE Summary.1. Division I. Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards given in Appendix 4. UW-51 Radi ographi c and Radi oscopi c Exami nati on of Wel ded Joi nts (b) This section requires indications show n on the radiographs to be repaired. examined by ultrasonic examination.Radi ographi c Examinati on A cceptabi l i ty A PI 650 Paragraph 6.5 The acceptability of w elds examined by radiography shall be judged by the standards in Section VIII. of the A SM E Code. 2005 . The repairs may be radiographed or optionally. Paragraph UW-51(b). Indications that are unacceptable: A ny crack Zone of incomplete fusion Zone of incomplete penetration A ny other elongated indication which is longer than: 1/ 4 in for t up to 3/ 4 in 1/ 3 t for t from 3/ 4 in to 2 1/ 4 in 3/ 4 in for t over 2 1/ 4 in UW-51 Radi ographi c and Radi oscopi c Exami nati on of Wel ded Joi nts (subparagraph 3) A ny group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length betw een the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group.

Nondestructi ve Examinati on A PI 650 Radi ographic Exami nati on Study Notes Read A SM E Section V. Article 2 Study N otes: Know w here to find: Backscatter acceptability Geometric Unsharpness IQI information Density Location M arkers General RT procedure requirements Page N umber: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Standard/Code ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ Page 11 of 11 NDE Summary. 2005 .

Section 9 API 653 ASME Section IX Summary .

1 Welding procedure specifications (WPS) and w elders and welding operators shall be qualified in accordance w ith Section IX of the A SM E Code. Page 1 of 13 ASME IX Summary. the only origination required by A PI 653 is A SM E Section IX. electrodes and other general aspects. The WPS can have many supporting PQRs. Other organizations that have the requirements for procedures are AWS (A merican Welding Society) and API (A merican Petroleum Institute) (API 1104). c. and shall require requalification of the WPS. This includes welding procedure qualification records (PQR). A welding procedure shows compatibility of: a. Prequalified procedures: These are AWS w elding procedures used only for structural w elding and do not require testing.Wel di ng 11. performed and tested and used as proof for the WPS. While both organizations have excellent rules. The user is limited to specific w eld joints and specific w eld processes (see AWS D 1. A SM E procedure qualification testing uses a listing of essential variables in the creation of weld procedures. Then the PQR is created. Both require actual w elding to be performed and destructively tested. This information is taken from ASM E IX and outlines the ranges of materials.A PI 653 ASM E Secti on I X A PI 653 . d. b. ASM E IX Paragraph QW .1. 2003 . Essential variables are those in w hich a change is considered to affect the mechanical properties of the weldment.2. Locations of weld specimens from plate procedure qualification. A SM E Section IX is a document that outlines the requirements for welding procedures and welder qualifications. Procedure qualification testing: These are A PI and A SM E requirements.Secti on 11 . b. Base metals Filler metals Processes Technique The general approaches to procedure qualification is usually in one of two forms: a. Under A SM E rules the w elding procedure begins w ith the creation of the WPS.251.1).

Page 2 of 13 ASME IX Summary.Locations of w eld specimens from pipe procedure qualification. 2003 .

Page 3 of 13 ASME IX Summary. 2003 .

guided bends are also used for welder qualification tests. 2003 . Square Tensile Specimens Round Guided Bends Face Root Si de Page 4 of 13 ASME IX Summary.Weld procedure specimens.

Tensile Bends 1. recording all important variables and observations Select. This table is w here the requirements for testing are listed. Each groove w eld must pass tension tests and transverse bend tests. A fter the procedure qualification testing the Welding Inspector must check production w elding to ensure welds are being made in compliance with the approved and tested weld procedure. 3..The tests commonly required by A SM E Section IX are: a. 2. b. 2003 . Remember the w eld procedure is proof that the weld can be successfully made. Face Root Side Table QW -451 is the Procedure qualification thickness limits and test specimens requirements. The general sequence for procedure qualification testing is as follow s: Select w elding variables (write the WPS and PQR) Check equipment and materials for suitability M onitor w eld joint fit-up as w ell as actual w elding. identify and remove required test specimens Test and evaluate specimens Review test results for compliance w ith applicable code requirements Release approved procedure for production Qualify individual welders in accordance with this procedure M onitor production welding for procedure compliance Page 5 of 13 ASME IX Summary.

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