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Integral Abutments for Prestressed Beam Bridges
B A NICHOLSON
.:ll.
ISBN 0950034770 © Prestressed Concrete Association, 1998
Prestressed Concrete Association, 60 Charles Street, Leicester, LE 1 1FB.
Typeset by B. A. Nicholson. Printed by Uniskill Ltd.
III
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
2
DESIGN BASIS 2.1 General 2.2 Bridge loading 2.3 Shrinkage and creep 2.4 Soilstructure interaction RECOMMENDED FORMS OF INTEGRAL 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Types of prestressed bridge beam 3.3 Piled foundations 3.4 Spread footings 3.5 Full height abutments 3.6 Semiintegral bridges DESIGN PROCEDURE DESIGN EXAMPLE ABUTMENT
2
2 2 3 9 12 12 12 13 14 15 16
17
3
4 5
SEMIINTEGRAL BRIDGE 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Longitudinal capacity 5.3 Deck design 5.4 Abutment design loads 5.5 End diaphragm design 5.6 Sheet piles 5.7 Design of wing walls 5.8 Skew 5.9 Drainage
22 22 24 26 26 26 32 34 34 36 38 38
40
6
PILED ABUTMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE 6.1 In troducti on 6.2 Longitudinal capacity Deck analysis 6.3 6.4 Vertical pile capacity 6.5 Calculation of abutment movement and rotation 6.6 Pile design for bending 6.7 Pilccap design
42 42 42
50
54
3 Deck design 7.6 Stability of retaining wall REFERENCES 7 60 60 62 I ! 64 66 72 78 8 82 .1 Introduction 7.. ·l PORTAL FRAME BRIDGE DESIGN EXAMPLE 7.2 Longitudinal capacity 7.r·.4 Loads for abutment design 7.5 Abutment design 7.
Following North American practice. Section 3 contains recommendations for different forms of construction.1 INTRODUCTION For many centuries. Led by pressure from the Highways Agency. This guide only refers to construction using precast prestressed bridge beams. . but for bearings to be provided. many of the recommendations are also applicable to other forms of construction. Issues which are common to all the examples have not always been repeated in each example. the design of integral abutments for bridges built using prestressed concrete beams also requires a few special considerations which do not arise in integral bridges using other forms of construction. and the types of prestressed beam suitable in each case. it is possible for there to be no expansion joints at the abutments. there is an increasing tendency to eliminate those details which can give rise to maintenance problems during the lifetime of the bridge. The abutments must be designed to allow this movement to occur. this type of construction will be referred to as "semiintegral". The most important feature of integral bridges. The aim of this design guide is to set out a logical design philosophy for integral bridges. Section 2 of this guide explains the design requirements for all forms ofprcstresscd beam integral bridges in general terms. but still have bearings there. from the point of view of reducing future maintenance. at the same time as being able to resist longitudinal traffic loads. so lengthy reinforcement calculations have not been included. with particular discussion of shrinkage and creep. bridges were built without expansion joints or bearings. Section 4 sets out a suggested stepbystep design procedure for the different type of integral bridge. However. Finally. As both engineering analysis and construction became more sophisticated in thc 20th Century. The reader is assumed to be familiar with concrete bridge design. It has now become apparent that these details often lead to marc problems than they solve. Sections 5 to 7 comprise design examples of three different integral abutments with an extensive commentary which picks out and amplifies the relevant issues from Sections 2 to 4. Clearly the design of integral abutments involves different considerations from the design of conventional fixed abutments. and there is particular discussion of topics unique to this form of construction. and with increasing use of concrete and steel. and soil structure interaction. The term "integral" has been adopted to describe those bridges which do not have expansion joints and bearings. and so have to move horizontally in response to temperature fluctuations in the bridge. In the same way that bridge deeks can be continuous over intermediate supports. with emphasis on the abutments. Abutments of integral bridges are attached to the bridge. is the fact that there is no joint in the surfacing where water can penetrate through to the underside of the bridge. bridges came to be fitted with bearings and expansion joints as a matter of course. This type of construction is particularly suited to prestressed beam bridges. Similarly.
~ . and their associated load factors can all be taken from BS 5400: Part 2.! . The longitudinal braking and traction forces are particularly relevant in the design of the abutments of integral bridges. as the vertical and horizontal forces on the bridge must be transmitted to the foundations. . Temperature stresses and effect on the this loading. 2 DESIGN BASIS .1 GENERAL Integral bridges should basically be designed using the same limit state principles and design codes as any other bridge. superimposed dead load. as amended by BD 37/88(5). Temperature Loading Again. Small rotations at the end of the bridge will result from or bending moments in the case of portal structures. Normally this will mean using the appropriate parts ofBS 5400(1).. Guidance is given below on the interpretation of the design requirements for integral bridges.. Dead and Live Loads The magnitude of the dead load. calculation of temperature loading on the bridge deck should follow BS 5400: Part 2. and this has been assumed in this design guide. and the Highways Agency have published an advice note. various live loads (and wind load if appropriate). as these forces will cause overall longitudinal movement of the bridge. but are unlikely to have much abutment design. BS 5400 does not refer specificalIy to integral bridges. differences through the thickness of the deck can generate significant are important for the design of the deck. These loads apply just as much to the design of the abutments and intermediate supports as they do to the design of the bridge deck. on the specific extra requirements for integral bridges. 2. as amended by BD 37/88. as amended by BD 37/88.2 BRIDGE LOADING The loads to be applied to the bridge deck are specified in BS 5400: Part 2. 2. and in particular the application of these requirements to prestressed beam bridges. BA 42/96(4).
as some restraint will be generated by the foundations. or 420~£. similar to the way the shrinkage rate decreases. Thus the foundations should be designed to accommodate the above range of movement. 2. The maximum daily temperature variation in a concrete bridge has been shown"?' to be about 4. BA 42/96 speci fies a thermal strain to be assumed each side of the mean positi on 0f 0. This useful simplification allows for the fact that the bridge may be constructed 10° above or below its mean temperature.00042. leading to movement and changes in pressure in the earth or fill behind the abutment. In most normal situations. equivalent to an unrestrained range of movement of 54~£. and can therefore be ignored in this context. or 3mm for a 60m deck. Depending on the relative stiffness of the bridge deck and the foundations.5°C. Thermal expansion and contraction of the bridge causes the abutments to move.DCSIG:i BASIS 3 The response of the bridge abutments to the temperature variation is the most important difference between an integral bridge and a jointed bridge. and this effect must be included in the deck design. the restraint will not significantly reduce the range of movement. the actual range of movement will be less than this. As concrete ages it shrinks slightly. Creep in concrete is a response to long term stress.J SHRINKAGF /\ND CRFYP These two effects need to be considered together as they are interrelated.. Note that the axial force in the deck also varies with temperature. Almost every day the abutments will move both towards and away from the soil. If the bridge deck were unrestrained. This is about 10% of the 120 yearreturn period range of movement. because the daily fluctuations in temperature will be superimposed.1£ This is equivalent to a 33mm change oflength for a 60m long deck. and this same movement may be used as to calculate the earth pressures. . The rate at which the concrete shrinks decreases approximately exponentially with time. The full 120 year expansion will not take place in one large uniform movement. In much of the UK. The erccp strain rate decreases with time. and applies to bridges anywhere in the UK. Since the bridge may not be constructed exactly at its mean temperature. the concrete strain gradually increases to two or three times the clastic strain. with half of the total shrinkage normally occurring in the first three months or so after casting. the range of effective bridge temperature is about 46°C for concrete bridges. the total range of strain due to thermal expansion and contraction would be: 46°C x (12 x 10610e) = 550).
leading to less creep strain. .. so the amount of shortening which takes place in anyone day will be insignificant compared to the thermal movement on that day. '~'''. For shorter end spans in continuous bridges.~ . It is a single gradual movement.4 is typical for creep taking place after bridge construction (assuming that the beams are 100 days old at this point). It is concluded that the shortening of the deck will therefore not cause a gap to form between the soil and the back face of the abutment... Assuming that the bridge is completed about three months after the beams are cast.. _.  .' ... This has a double benefit in reducing the end rotation: less prestress will be required._ ~ .. In many cases this value can simply be used without performing special calculations. It is interesting to note that this shortening is of similar magnitude to the range of thermal movement. The daily thermal movements are about 10% of the magnitude of the overall shortening due to shrinkage and creep. ..~ i i Calculation of Unrestrained Shortening and Rotation The overall shortening of prestressed concrete bridges is often thought to be a problem for integral construction.. the other at the beam centroid. or a simple row of piles. ~~ .... and the long term forward movement of the abutment (due to shortening of the deck) represents only a tiny fraction of the total disturbance of the soil._i . Similarly.. the rotation at the ends due to shrinkage and creep is about 0. Adding together the shortening due to shrinkage and due to creep. ~.. __. in the case of a rotationally flexible abutment such as a bank seat. For a composite deck with a span:depth ratio of 20. it is useful to be able to estimate the maximum rotation that creep and shrinkage might cause. The permanent loads on the beam (prestress. it is clear that the beam wants to shorten more than the slab.003 radians. The soil is disturbed on a daily basis.~~ r.~.. as illustrated by the examples opposite. one applied at the slab centroid. Unrestrained shrinkage strains of the prestressed beams and of the deck slab can be estimated from the factors given in Appendix C ofBS5400: Part 4(6). The unrestrained creep strain of the beam can also be estimated in the same way. DL and SDL) often lead to fairly uniform compressive stresses in the precast beam of about I ON/mrn2• A creep factor of 1. The slab wilJ often have a larger shrinkage strain than the beam.__..__. the overall long term shortening of the bridge deck after construction is typically found to be approximately 400!1£. and the shorter length will also reduce rotation.. Typically it is found that the soffit of the beam shortens by 300xlO6 more than the top of the slab. '. the span:depth ratio is often significantly less than 20. _. . Overall shortening due to shrinkage and creep does not need to be considered in the design of integral bridges.. or 25mm for a 60m deck.   . These strains can be distributed through the composite section in the same way as two eccentric forces. It is therefore interesting to make an estimate of the total shortening that might be expected. .
with insitu infill concrete. Span = 20m End rotation = 0. Span = 9.0026 End rotation due to creep and shrinkage in a selection of typical decks .1 m End rotation = 0.2m centres. with 200mm insitu slab. Span = 26m End rotation = 0.0034 U 10 beams at 2. with 200mrn insitu slab.DESIGN BAS1S 5 T2 beams.0036 Y3 beams at 1m centres.
some of the creep will occur before the deck is cast. BS 5400: Part 4 adopts a value of2.4. . For this situation. the restraint moment at the supports will build up towards a factor of (Ief) times this moment.6 lNTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FOR PRESTRESSED BEAM BRIDGES:  Calculation of Restraint Moment The rotation of the beam ends due to creep and shrinkage has a significant effect on the design of the bridge deck and abutment when a full height wall abutment is being employed. Similarly the restraint moment at an integral abutment will build up to this same value. so that this is a reasonable approximation.75 (note that a reasonable variation in ¢ does not affect this factor significantly). as illustrated in the example opposite.0 for rp. In the case of a prestressed beam. the permanent moment along the length of the beam (which is due to the prestress. the restraint moment (or force) builds up to a factor of (le") of the moment (or force) that would exist if the structure had been cast and prestressed as a single monolithic whole. and the bridge and abutments are made continuous. The value of 4> applicable to creep after bridge construction will be more like 1. Therefore for a continuous bridge. the sagging restraint moment that builds up over continuous supports and at integral abutments can be approximated to 75% of the average permanent (hogging) moment in the composite section. for the prestressed beams. the factor (le~) can be taken to be 0. At midspan this moment can be calculated from: • the prestress moment based on eccentricity between tendons and the centroid of the composite section • the dead load of beam and slab • the superimposed dead load for surfacing If the bridge has been cast and prestressed as a monolithic structure. and therefore reduces towards the ends of the beams. which is within the range suggested by Mattock. The prestress is chosen to balance the DL. a sagging restraint moment equal to this "uniform" moment would appear at each support. If the integral abutment is rotationally stiff. In summary. dead load. However. and superimposed dead load) can be approximated to a uniform hogging moment. this moment will also appear at the connection to the abutment. Mattock' I 1) and Clark'!" both explain how if creep is restrained. as the abutment will try to restrain this rotation.
65 Total Permanent bending moments about the composite centroid for 19. Note that total bending moment approximates a uniform moment equal to the midspan moment.6m span Y3 beams.MNm) 1.DESIG>J BASIS 7 Bending moments (. based on Hambly & Nicholson'". .40 Prestress Dead load 0.
Similar issues can also arise at the abutments: • Bank seat abutments and semiintegral abutments (which have bearings) can be assumed to provide no restraint against rotation. so these are no problem. . • Portal frame bridges rely on the moment continuity between the deck and the wall abutment. In a simply supported bridge this does not cause any difficulties. • Piled abutments are designed to provide little restraint to horizontal movement or rotation. The creep rotation should be added to the rotations to live loads and temperature to which the piles must be designed.8 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FOR hEsTRESSED I3EAM:BRIDGES' . This can either be a small nominal amount of reinforcement. In continuous bridges. The PCA has already given advice as to how designers shou1ddeal with this problem'!". so it is worth trying to minimise this moment.  ~~. so the wall abutment must be designed for this extra moment at the top. it can lead to sagging moments over the supports.. a standard number of reinforcing bars in the bottom flange of the prestressed beams has been suggested. Creep of the beams can cause sagging moments at these connections. It seems logical to use the same continuity steel in the bottom flange of the beams as over the intermediate supports. "' Effect on Integral Abutments It is well known that creep causes each span of a prestressed beam bridge to hog progressively as time goes by.  . which will allow cracking to occur. The design of the wall to resist the high soil pressures will be difficult enough without a large bending moment applied at the top. . or the reinforcment can be designed to provide the restraint moment of75% of the permanent hogging moment in the deck.
However.0. The soil pressures are believed to increase with time in response to the many hundreds of strain cycles. when the results of further research become available.STRUCTURE I\iTLRACrIO~ Codes and Ci II idancc Documents The soil pressures on an integral abutment are more complicated than for a fixed abutment. The load and material factors to be used are also specified. One conservative provision ofBA 42/96 is worth mentioning specifically: The soil pressure is limited to a minimum ofKs/). BS 8004(_1) eals with the design of foundations. The reason for the ambiguity on this point is that earth pressures are often generated as a reaction to bridge loads. . The mechanisms of large numbers of cycles of small strains in the soil is at present not well understood. ULS earth pressures arc calculated based on worst credible parameters with a load factor of 1. BS 8002 is therefore not recommended for the design of integral bridges. It is not entirely clear in this document exactly when and how the partial factors should be applied.4 SOIL . The available codes of practice which might be considered relevant give conflicting advice: BS 8002(2)is intended for the design of earth retaining structures. it is unsatisfactory for moving integral abutments. Recommendations are given below. BA 42196(4) was written specifically because the other codes were not satisfactory for integral bridges. for which it was not intended. the partial factors given in BA 42/96 are perfectly sensible if used with care and common sense. The Highways Agency may issue a revision to this minimum pressure in the future. BD 42/94(6) covers the design of embedded retaining walls and bridge abutments. It is recommended that this document be used in preference to those listed above. and is based on recent specially commissioned research. and soilstructure interaction. so that it would seem inappropriate then to apply a further load factor. It does not cover the soilstructure interaction which is fundamental to the understanding of integral bridges. because the pressures change significantly when the abutment moves. Care is required as it is based on working stresses whereas the design for the bridge superstructure will use the load factor approach ofBS 5400. Whereas this method is adequate for the design of fixed abutments. and is based on very conservative "worst credible" soil parameters. A minimum pressure of Krl3 has been specified to allow for this increase in pressure.DESIGN BAS1S 9 2. which already include suitable load factors. This code can be used for both d spread foundations and piled foundations. It provides guidance on horizontal earth pressures.
the daily thermal movements will ensure that this does not occur.5 and Ym 1. • Thermal contraction Thermal contraction will lead to minimum earth pressures. the effect of including 1m in this way is to ensure that the calculated movement will in fact generate twice the longitudinal loads. based on realistic soil pressures. with the soil pressure distribution as defined in BA 42/96. for example. For shallow abutments it is simplest to use passive earth pressures. as explained previously. which will be a critical design condition for the abutment wall. • Shortening due to creep and shrinkage This can be ignored for the purposes of the abutment design. It is not necessary to worry about a gap forming behind the abutment. or from charts in. Full height abutments should also be designed using realistic soil parameters. as has been explained earlier. as specified in BA 42/96. Yft= 1. soilstructure interaction causes earth pressures to vary over a large range. This check should be carried out at SLS for the appropriate longitudinal highway loads. the CBDG report'!". The required earth pressure coefficient should be calculated for realistic soil parameters.5 should be applied to this coefficient. A computer analysis of the complete structure will usually be required to establish the distribution of moment between the wall and the deck. The following factors can have an effect on the earth pressures: • Braking and traction forces on the bridge deck For braking and traction forces it is necessary to ensure that the foundation resistance is adequate to prevent large longitudinal movement of the bridge. so benefit may be obtained by calculating the earth pressure coefficient based on the unrestrained expansion. The amount of movement required to generate this earth pressure coefficient can then be derived from the formula in BA 42/96. • Thermal expansion Thermal expansion of the deck leads to the maximum earth pressures. taking the soil .0 should be applied to these earth = pressures. For the ULS design of the abutment wall. If the soil parameters and behaviour are exactly as assumed. The actual pressures will be significantly lower than this for short bridges. A partial factor ofYm= 0.10 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FORfusmESSEDBEAM BlUOOES_' _ Earth Pressures For an integral bridge.
= 1. This is also true for semiintegral bridges. it is not clear how the increase in pressures due to many hundreds of loading cycles can be taken into account. they arc not easy to usc in this context. For at t these reasons. . Considerable uncertainties arise due to the creep restraint moments. For more flexible walls. no additional computer analysis is required. Unfortunately. which makes it much harder for the designer to understand how the structure is working. Unfortunately. the use of special ist soi I mcc han ies programs is not normally considered to be justified.5 for earth pressures (as specified in BA 42/96). which have moment continuity between the deck and the abutment wall. It is possible to use specialist geotechnical software to model the soilstructure interaction to estimate the soil pressures in this case.DESIG:< BASIS 11 pressures as forces applied to the structure. which should include Yn. so this method cannot be recommended for general usc. whether they are integral or not. soil pressures may be lower. with horizontal linear clastic springs to represent the soil stiffness. so a marc rigorous analysis is not considered to be just ill ed. Computer Programs A computer analysis of the deck will normally be carried out for all bridges. For relatively short bridges of this type. the benefits of using these programs is limited. The recommended form of computer model therefore is a grillage for the deck. Thermal expansion causes axial force in the deck. supported on spread foundations or on piles. Since this design is carried out at SLS. The structural design of the wall at ULS can then be carried out based on the load effects from this computer analysis.0 and 1m = 1. Use of these programs adds considerably to the complexity of the calculations. for which any of the well known methods may be used. and at worst can lead to errors. the computer model needs to include both the deck and the abutment walls. These programs allow modelling of the nonlinear behaviour of the soil. For short bridges where the abutment movements are relatively small. extended into three dimensions by the addition of elements to represent the abutment walls. it is recommended that a simple linear elastic model of the soil stiffness will be adequate to give a reasonable distribution of moment between deck and abutment. For integral bridges with shallow abutments. because they cannot properly model the interaction between the abutment and the deck. Various more sophisticated programs (such as FREW and WALLAP) have been proposed for use in calculating the soil pressures which occur behind the abutment walls. partial factors of YIL = 1. A stability analysis for the retaining wall will also be required. but fuJI height integral abutments are not recommended for usc with precast beams for longer bridges. and this will effect the prestress design.0 should be used for the compressive stress due to earth pressure. These factors arc at best unhelpful. For full height abutments. such as sheet pile walls.
.. Integral bridges of two or more spans must have some form of continuity over the intermediate supports. The use ofM beams is therefore not recommended for integral construction. This CBDG report includes comments on the applicability of the different types of integral bridge._ ~~. _. 4.. but it is hoped that sticking to the guidelines on the next few pages will usually lead to the most straightforward and economic design....~r .. In each case.._ ......I' ~~~~. . this is difficult to achieve with the M beam range.". _ j 3 RECOMMENDED FORMS OF INTEGRAL ABUTMENT 3.~~._".\lJ.....LJ:...t"l. This will usually involve some reinforcement protruding from the ends of the beams near the bottom of the section.. _ 1 .oIJ. .1 I .. Depending on the type of integral abutment selected.. .. recommendations are made for the standard beam ranges considered to be suitable... _.....I.~'. .._9O'lT'\GES ...l.1 INTRODUCTION Highway Agency standard BA 42/96(4) contains diagrams of some suggested types of integral bridge.....~~Ttn=sSEDB..KI:1l.{T A nT1'ft""""'~QR_D.2 TYPES OF PRESTRESSED BRIDGE BEAM In principle.....__ . 3. __ ..__ .. _.. and so in this respect is both more useful and more uptodate than SA 42/96. all the forms of integral abutment can be used with any of the standard ranges of precast bridge beam._.. by considering the particular requirements of prestressed beams..J. ~. ~ . This design guide goes one step further.. The standard beam ranges that are recommended for use in integral bridges are: • • • • T and TY beams Ybeams SYbeams Ubeams Four main types of integral abutment are identified and discussed on the pages which follow..~ ......._ . The characteristics of prestressed beams that need special consideration when choosing a form of integral abutment are: • embedment of precast beams into end diaphragm or abutment • moment connection between precast beams and abutment. this continuity steel may also be required at the abutments. _. Due to the narrow bottom flange and web."_. . __ .. _ ..l.._ ~.... _.__ ~.Jo (". . __.". whereas there is much more space inside the mould of the alternative Y beam range..J:rr... .I"!1>"". if required • rotation of the beam ends due to creep of the prestressed beams.. _..r _~. . ~_ .. _ ~ ._"~ "_ .~~ .~.. ~.... . .U.DVIIV. ~.. I._. These suggestions have been expanded upon in the CBDO report of a study tour of North America'!".. .. _..• _ ".4__ 1J'Ilt"'~ ...
. .{\. They are most likely to be used in association with the Y.. and are beginning to be used in the same way in the UK. .. . firstly the pile cap.. The abutment is normally cast in two stages.' Piled foundations have found widespread application on integral bridges in North America over the last few decades... Steel piles have been found to stand up to repeated large rotations at the top better than concrete piles... "" ..\fS OF INTEGRAL ABtJfMENTS 13 3...~~ ~.. r ) n . : '.. ~ .~ . __ . The pile capacity should be checked to ensure that it can cope with live load rotations.RECOMMENDED FOR. bending about their weak axis. r_ _. .3 PILED FOUNDATIONS . Beams may have reinforcing bars protruding from the bottom flange. I \.. Steel H piles are recommended. or alternatively the beams may be tied to the abutments via an embedment length of about 600mrn and reinforcement passing through the web holes. and U beam ranges. . Piles can be used for bank seats (illustrated above left). . as well as the additional rotation due to creep of the prestressed beams. . and later the top half which forms an end diaphragm for the beams..'" . and orientating them about the weak axis minimises restraint to rotation and bending moments.'"F". . .. in a single row. as well as abutments behind concrete or reinforced soil retaining walls (above right). Piled foundations arc recommended for all types of precast beam. .. SY.. Piles provide solid resistance to vertical loads.. while still maintaining adequate load capacity. . ?~~'*~j ~ ..1': : :: . j . while being sufficiently flexible to allow practically unrestrained rotation. ~.:t :..
it is suggested that some reinforcing bars should protrude from the ends of the beams and be hooked around reinforcement in the abutment. Spread footings are recommended for use with Y beams. and possibly with U beams. The footing will be free to rotate. A design example is given in Hambly & Nicholson'".3. or behind a retaining wall (mostly likely to be of reinforced soil). It should be noted that spread footings should only be used for integral bridges where the risk of incremental settlement is minimal. the base of the footing is normally a significant distance below the beams. . Horizontal forces are resisted both by earth pressures on the back of the abutments and by friction on the base of the abutments. so some moment will be generated when the abutment is forced to move by thermal expansion or contraction of the deck. as indicated in the eBOO report. However. Spread footings have been used successfully on weaker ground by placing them on top of larger fixed support slabs. so moment continuity is not required. In order to tie the abutment and deck together effectively. and web holes will not he needed. This moment can easily be quantified.4 SPREAD FOOTINGS Spread footings may be used in a traditional bank seat situation. Steel in the insitu deck slab can obviously continue straight into the abutment. The beams do not require a long embedment if they have bars coming out of their ends to transfer the small amount ofload that is required. The footings can be cast very simply on the ends of any precast beam.
. This is true whatever type of deck is used. and erection. arc most suitable for single short spans. If an abutment with a full height wall is required in any situation other than a short single span.~ ~~/ / ! " ' ' . moment continuity between abutment wall and deck can be achieved with reinforcing steel in the concrete.~~ ~.RECOMME:\DED FORMS OF I:lTEGRAL AI3UTME~TS 15 3. It is recommended that this form of construction is used with the TY (and inverted T) range of beams. it is recommended that onc of the oth er forms of inte gral abutment be used. . due to the effects of creep and the difficulty of providing a moment connection between the deck and the wall. or undergoing large rotations. This form of abutment becomes increasingly difficult to design as the bridge length increases. ) " . 1~ \ . it can provide significant restraint to creep rotations without picking up impossibly high moments. whether they use a reinforced wall on a spread footing or a piled embedded wall.5 FLLL HElGHT ABLTMFNTS Full height frame abutments. When the wall is comparable in stiffness to the deck. If these beams are used with infill concrete to form a solid slab. " I I . " r i . transport.~. but it is particularly significant for prestressed beam decks. which simplifies manufacture." \ . No bars need to protrude from the ends of the beams. These have a span range of up to 17m.r \ 1 \ j .
this end diaphragm will have to cantilever down below the soffit level of the beams. in situations where a full height wall abutment must be provided. Semiintegral abutments are recommended for use with the Y beam range.6 SEMIINTEGRAL BRIDGES Semiintegral construction is considered to be particularly suitable for prestressed beam bridges. but does include bearings. and particularly with the SY and U beam ranges. to give an abutment wall of about 2m depth to transfer horizontal loads to the soil. If the beams are shallow.16 INTEGRAL ABU IMEN 1'5 f1lR PRES J'RESSEP BEAM BRIDGES ~~. ~. . Because bearings are required. semiintegral construction is more economic when there are fewer larger beams. An end diaphragm is cast on to the beams. Although this form of construction can be used with any prestressed beams. it is most likely to be useful for the larger beams. This form of construction has no expansion joints. A semiintegral abutment at the top ofa retaining wall is a much more satisfactory alternative to a long span portal frame bridge. The bearings eliminate the problems associated with moment continuity and rotation due to creep. 3. Wide spacing of beams also allows easier access to the bearings for inspection and maintenance.
For each step. The bridge deck loads. creep.DESIGN PROCEDURE 17 4 DESIGN PROCEDURE In an integral bridge. . More detailed guidance is given in the individual design examples in the remainder of this book. the application to the different types of integral bridge is briefly explained. In contrast. so that it is easy for design engineers to understand what they are doing. piers and abutments. The bridge behaves as one monolithic structure. the design of the superstructure and the substructure cannot be completely separated. the overriding philosophy of this design guide is to present a design process that is conservative but straightforward. and why. The main steps in this recommended simple design procedure are described on the next four pages. and soilstructure interaction are all significant factors in the design of the deck. It is all too easy to get bogged down in the detail of these complexities.
.. l I I FORM OF CONSTRUCTION Step I: LONGITUDINAL CAPACITY I ~ Calculate the earth pressure coefficient.. ..... to resist horizontal forces _... PILED FOUNDATION • Check horizontal movement =7• Check capacity of soil to resist horizontal forces SPREAD FOOTING • Check horizontal movement • Check capacity of soil. ...._'.. needed to resist braking & traction forces.. Check that sufficient horizontal capacity is available from the earth behind the abutment to resist the longitudinal forces.. PORTAL FRAME • Check horizontal movement (sway) • Check capacity of soil to resist horizontal forces . K.. including base friction.. ~... applying 1m'" 0. .5 to K.. and check the magnitude of the horizontal movement required to mobilise the required earth pressure.._..~ .." A K* SEMIINTEGRAL • Check horizontal movement • Check capacity of soil to resist horizontal forces I/UUL~ ~ K* ......
DESIGN PROCEDURE
19
Step 2:
DECK DESIGN
Model the whole structure, and apply a\1 bridge load combinations. Usc a linear elastic foundation model, based on realistic soil parameters. Include the creep restaint moment where relevant to the form of construction. This model is used for the prestress design of the deck.
Computer model includes deck, walls, and springs to represent the soil. Creep restraint moment treated as "fixedend moment" in deck; computer analysis includes release of this FEM. Alternatively creep can be modelled as initial curvature in the deck longitudinal members. • Deck design for maximum sagging moments at SLS.
..._Comb I & 3 loads "'"FEM .;;.,. .z: release
~V
'~
?rNr
~
Assume pinned ends at the piled abutments. The piles give negligible restraint to rotation. Hogging due to creep is therefore also unrestrained and can be ignored. • Deck design for maximum sagging moments at SLS_ • Vertical design load for piles.
Comb 1 & 3 bridge loads
Analyse as pinned al the abutments. Creep restaint moment is therefore ignored. The analysis is the same as for a simplysupported bridge. • Deek design for maximum sagging moments at SLS.
i······~
Comb 1 & :I bridge loads
Comb I & 3 bridge loads
Semiintegral bridges arc pinned at the abutments. This analysis is therefore the same as for a simplysupported bridge. • Deck design for maximum sagging moments at SLS.
20 IN I E< iRAt A HI J [MEN [S FOR PR ES J RESSED BEAM BRIIK iRS
FORM OF CONSTRUCTION
Step 3:
ABUTMENT DESIGN LOADCASES
Step 3 (a) Maximum thermal expansion, and combination 3 bridge loads. Maximum earth pressures are based on K* calculated as if expansion is unrestrained, Earth pressures are treated as loads. Creep is a relieving effect in this loadcase, and so is omitted. This is a ULS analysis.
PORTAL FRAME
No horizontal foundation springs. Soil pressure is applied as a load, with "fa = 1.5 at ULS. • Hogging at ends of beams. • Forward bending at top of wall. Apply combination 3 loads to deck, and passive earth pressures to abutment. Abutment movement and rotation are applied to pileheads, • Pile design for bending • Hogging moment at beam ends . • End diaphragm/pilecap design. Apply passive earth pressure to back of abutment, and friction under base. Deck loads are irrelevant as abutments are analysed as cantilevers off ends of deck. • Hogging moment at beam ends. • RC design of abutment.
Comb 3 loads
PILED FOUNDATION
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Comb 3 loads
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7
SPREAD FOOTING
SEMIINTEGRAL
Apply passive earth pressures to back of end diaphragm, with 'YfL
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• Design of end diaphragm for horizontal bending
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Step 3 (b) Maximum thermal contraction, together with minimum bridge loads. Active earth pressures arc applied as loads. TIle etfects of long term creep, and positive differential temperature loading should be included. This is a ULS analysis.
Step 3(c) Thermal expansion, together with minimum bridge loads. Earth pressures based on K* arc applied as loads. The effects of long term creep, and positive differential temperature loading should again be included. This is a ULS analysis. "'\ min. loads r ~~ V
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Active earth pressure, with Yll ~ 1.0. o Backward bending at top of wall. • Sagging at beam ends.
Maximum earth pressure, with Y«.  1.5. o Backward bending of wall.
Thermal movement, creep rotation, and rotation due to differential temperature loads applied to pileheads • Reverse bending in piles. • Reverse bending in end diaphragm/pilccap.
Thermal contraction causes friction under the base of the abutment. • Tension in front of abutment. • Continuity steel in beam ends.
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5.
SEMIINTEGRAL BRIDGE DESIGN EXAMPLE
i
5.1 INTRODUCTION
This design example is for a single span semiintegral bridge with a 33m clear span. The design calculations are presented on the righthand pages, with commentary and additional explanation on the lefthand pages. The design follows the stepbystep design process described in Section 4, and these steps are numbered on the calculation pages.
Initial design This bridge carries a single two lane carriageway 7 .3m wide, with a 2m footpath each side. Initial design is based on peA span charts for the various beam ranges, Leading to the selection of SY 4 beams. A beam spacing of 1.Sm has been chosen to fit the overall width of the deck. A 200mm deck slab is used, and the 1800mm deep SY 4 beams penetrate the bottom of the slab, which leads to the overall deck depth of 1.97m. 30mm into
The essential feature of a semiintegral bridge is that although the ends of the bridge react horizontally directly against the soil, fixed foundations provide vertical support to the abutments. In this case, the bridge is supported on anchored sheet pile retaining walls, each with a row of elastomeric bearings on a reinforced concrete capping beam. These retaining walls are not affected by horizontal movements of the bridge deck. The end diaphragms on the SY beams interact directly with the backfill, providing resistance to horizontal forces, and moving with the thermal expansion and contraction of the hridge deck.
I
'
Ground conditions
It is assumed that the sheet piles are driven into the existing ground, which is very
stiff overconsolidated clay. However, the soil immediately behind the end diaphragms will have to be removed to allow construction to take place, and so granular backfill will be specified for placement against the back of the moving part of the abutment, above the level of the sheet pile capping beam.
i
8ectlon Q{deck 1:100 l k 05111 11 DltlteHSiOltt!1 dettlils 23ll1gle cledr sl'dn Overdll8Xftlndil1glength Overdll dec!. =.N / 11ty.t'pllfg PetJl11 Vertlcdl c/(Jdrdllce CI1J$$. sear tire $f{/face.eoHt$ : / 33111 = 6111 Siteet pile retd/lfllfg wdll Wlt!t COHcrete CtI.NT ~ '~~~~~~. = 150!.3t1t 1.N/ I1tL dt tlte bottom of tHeslteet files ¢' = 400 for grtJlfultlr fill beHindenddidfHrtlgtlt Bt!ckji/I: .wldtlf Overdl!dec!. ilfcretlsilfg to c.9rl1t bjgtilfg grolll1d: c.200 !.SEMIINTEGRAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 23 SEMIINTEgRAL BRiDgE.del'tlt = 33. ABklTNi£.0tlt = 350tlt = = 12.~ C/Cdr 8f'dH = : S'f4f.
depth must be measured from the top of the surfacing. . O. The effect is that the calculated movement of2. so any errors in the calculation of pressures in the top layer are negligible. The use of this partial factor is illustrated in the calculation opposite. The soil pressure is assumed only to act on the vertical back face of the abutment (or end diaphragm in this case). such as the resistance of braking and traction effects. BA 42/96 does not contain any reference to a limit on the horizontal movement under braking and traction forces. but this complexity is also ignored.2 LONGITUDINAL CAPACITY In calculating the soil pressure. The area assumed to resist horizontal forces is shaded on the diagram below. Clearly the pressure coefficient is likely to be different. The abutment therefore has adequate capacity to resist longitudinal forces. because short. The pressure close to the surface is much less than the pressure at the bottom of the abutment 2m lower. turnedback wingwalls are attached to each side.24 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FORrN:ESIRESSEDBEAM_BRIDGES_ 5. The width between these wingwalls is 11.5 to be applied to the soil pressure coefficient in the case of advantageous forces. For simplicity the weight of the road construction is taken as the same as the bulk density of the backfill. but it is clear that the 2.5rnm calculated here will be acceptable.4m thick wing wall BA 42/96 specifies a material factor Ym of 0. This vertical face is narrower than the full width of the abutment. so the depth of the end diaphragm including surfacing is used in the calculations opposite. The end diaphragm drops about lOOmm below the soffit of the beams.1m.5mrn should in reality be sufficient to generate twice the required horizontal reaction of 526kN.
25m . 4m tltlck wIHgwtfll eacltsl4e W!'dth of pack ftfee ?reZStffe OlfdPutmtlft TorceOlfaPlltHtelft = Kyz = )It Kyltzp = = Kx510kN 1b X K X 19kN/m 3 X (2. 05H) 0. Thematerial beltiHddre this eHddiaphragm (aPJttl11eHt) 8s/lecif/ed as grtlHultlr(tll w/tlt ¢' = 400 tlHd/s exrected to have a 1 3 follik deHsit'f of 19kN/m • TheIOHgltlldlHalload Is calculated Ilf accortitllfce with 8D 31/88: Ckiust 6101 NOI11/lfal load = 8I. 4 X 9 d/H = 0. = 526kN = 450kN 8tfHc/(rt Height of enddlt1/lhrtl{jm = 2. 06 = (d/o. = 0.102 NOMlflalHB load = 25% X 45ulflts X (4x 10kN) TlteHA load Is clear/If cnt/cal for tltls pridge.2m Ilfc!/(dlfl! depth of sulfaclHg Wldtlt of endd/afhragm = 11.X510kN = 526kNx YfiX 'Yr3 KxO. 9m allowllf{j 0.2111 KI' = 9 = 0.5111111 the dPlltmel1t8.0xIO :.. 1m (or tlte COlfcrete = 2.5111 + 250kN HA Citfuu6.SEMIhTEGRAL BRIDGE EXA\1PLE 25 HonmHfal mOVel11eHt LolfgltudlHal foniigeloadsl11Hst foeresisted fo'1the $oll/lressure foeltiltdthe eHddkl/lhrtlgl11. .2/96glveE 1(* = 2. 2m fartlret overhalf{j(or eaclt wilfg wtlll = 11. 8A 4.5x510kN = 526kNx1.00.1111 allowing (or a 0.2)2X 11. LOlfgltHdllfalforces olfllf callEe movements of aPout 2. which 18 at tt181/1f acceptaNt.'. R. 06 rorback(!Jlwltlt¢' = 40°. Tlfemovement retfjllred to 1110biliSe 8(JJ1 /lressure 1$calclliated here.tlred K* = 2.0013x.1111 Affl'fIHg 't.5 to I( (d8 Sfecifled Ilf l3A 42/96 (or rfJ8lstlflg fomklng(orcfJ8) tll1detfflatlHg thiS to the SLS lton'ztJlftalforce: KY".0013H = 0.0013 d = o.N/Ht X 34.eq.
Although this might seem unnecessarily conservative. .0074m / 2.05)°.75m here. The pressure in the backfill could reasonably be calculated from the 7. ". it will be seen from the calculations for the design of the end diaphragm that passive pressure is not an onerous load.3 DECK DESIGN The design calculations for the deck of a semiintegral bridge have very little effect on the abutment design. = 3.0035/0._. In this respect a semiintegral bridge is more like a nonintegral bridge than an integral bridge. should be used for shallow abutments such as this one. __ J .~.4mm movement using the formula given in BA 42/96: dJH = 0.0035 K* = (0. 5. full passive pressure is used for the design of the end diaphragm. so there is no significant benefit in departing from this requirement. there is no need to consider maximum and minimum deck loads in combination with thermal expansion and contraction.5 END DIAPHRAGM DESIGN Bending and shear of the end diaphragm will not be significant behind the bottom flanges of the beams._. ___ . The bearing reactions are needed for the design of the fixed foundation. 5. This simplysupported bridge deck can be designed using peA guide "Simple Bridge Design using Prestressed Beams'v". and can be carried out independently at any stage.4 ABUTMENT DESIGN LOADS Since deck loading does not affect the abutment.345 K. The worst case is about O.1 for soil with iP' = 40° However.6m below ground level (including surfacing).5m above the soffit of the beams.1m = 0. as the span between the beams is only O.00042 forthennal expansion or contraction. BA 42/96 actual1 y specifies that K. which is based on the temperature range for a typical UK location. in this case a sheet pile wall. BA 42/96 specifies a strain of 0. which is free to rotate and move horizontally at the bearings. 1. ! 5.'1 .. and allows the movement from the initial position to be about 70% of the total range. In line with this. Step 3 in the design procedure reduces to simply considering the effects of thermal expansion.___ _ _ .4 ~ = 0. The deck design is not really one of the steps in designing the abutment.
Tlte WOnE'tesse for bending and shetlr in tlte end tiltl/ltmgl1f 18 between the Ifarrowest /ltlrt attlte webs. 19kN/m3 = = x: 1.311f = KJ' Y Z = 9 X.tmm tottl/ = 7.5111. 4 JlfHt tlt ettch tlbutl11ent = Tlte end dltlfJltrtlgm8 tire designed to resist: ftl88lve &O/I/lressure. about: 1.1111 d/tlfltmgm deptlt Span between webs ?reszllre 011 dltlphragl1f = 1.0. 611f be/ow ground /evel.274 MN/m2 . (ll1d18 /fot affected I?lf. tlte (lPJrtl11fntand 1m (aundtltloff. 00042 Movement = Q 00042 X. Tltedeck 18 tieEigneti tl8 sll11fltfsllfforted Deck deE/g1fca/cu/tltlon8 tire Hotfresented here.2111 = 1. .SEMlhTEGRAL BRIDGE EXA\IPLE 27 gtff 2: Deck design Tltls does 110taffect..2. Tltf(!fftli txftlffs/on BA 42/96 &fJec/f!eEtl tltel'l1ftl/ eXj7tln810n8tmln Of 0. 35m 14.6111 2 2r4 kN/111 0.
A tota1 of 2000mm1lm is required to prevent cracking due to the restraint.28 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FOR"PRESTRESSED BEAMBRIDGE5: The moment is sufficiently small that a very conservative calculation is all that is required. Clause 5.3.8. because the unit of stress MN/m2 is identical to the unit Nzmm" often quoted in the code. v. in accordance with Clause 5. to which the clause numbers quoted below refer.2 (for beams) would require nominal shear links. justifying the conservative assumptions made in calculating the bending moment.4. The relevant clause is therefore Clause 5.1. however.9.4. and some twoway spanning effects. These structural calculations are in accordance with BS5400: Part 4. is less than ~ ve' . Clearly the actual moment will be less than the simplysupported value based on wU/8. Soil pressure calculations up to this point have used units afkN and metres. The reinforcement must be spaced at no more than 150mm. Rigorous calculation of the moment and shear is not justified here. which states that no shear reinforcement is required if the stress. and vertically by the precast beams. will be carried out using MN and metres. The diaphragm is restrained horizontally by the deck slab.3. due to the continuity behind the ends of the beams. Reinforcement must therefore be provided to prevent cracking. If this is provided as 1OOOmm21m front and back. but in fact the end diaphragm behaves more like a solid slab in resisting horizontal forces. The structural calculations. this reinforcement exceeds that required to resist the passive pressure.
9 X.X if3 = 0.9 d = 0.311f = 0.5./(o.4. 64 N/mm2 > = 0.SEMIINTEGRAJ.2 X.t x.rl1f X 0. = 1.. Loadedlengtlt = 1.t/8 = 0'2?4MN/m2 X. 4m tltlck.8rt. .t /8. 000806111 /m 2 = 806 111111 /111 / (400MN/1112 x. = wL.53 N/1111112 :.f.2r4MN/m2 X YfI. BRIDGE EXAMPLE 29 COlfgervaFlVdljpaging ilLS pending 1110menF wL.5 x L 1 X1.(L3111).rm V . o.4..3111) ~ = 0.56 = 0. 3m . 1 for slaps)' 3teeiftIrcentage = 100 X. so d will foe at leagF 0.08rMNI1f/I1f) 2 = 0. 1\eilfforcement of T16 @ 150 provldeg ddeqpdte sltfJdr reslNtiHce.5% v = 0.sr») Mlnlmtfl11 relltforccl1fent FO treveHt 8ftrllfkage and teHftel'tlture crt/cklng (clause. 3m. 0.. 8r MNm/11I 0 Tor $/tear.69/8 = O.IHg.158MN/111 V= V/pd = (0. 0. 00134011f2/111)/(0. (0.t/8 l = 0. 3/rfJdr reslsFallce (clause 5. Use T16 @ 150 (134011111f2/m) /n potlt dlreefion&.3m . :. 4.15 frOI11 TaNe 9 S. 158MN/I1f) / (0. 9): As = O. 30m) = 0.56 N/m11f2 frOI11ToNe8 ~ = 1. Tltls reinforcement mU8t pe 8faced tit no more tltalf 150ml1f... YfLX.2d = 1. 8. (rOlft (7IfdpocK. 0.41112/Hf = 0.53 N/l1fm2 8endlng gfeel mgt/red to reglsf tti$8lVC /re88ure (c/tiuse 5.005Ac 0..005 x 0.3): z = 0. 1 00011f111/111 rcqplred front and back to jJrevent cmd.' on M".3m = O.2rl11 (Initial a$8uml'f/on) As = M". o..0020001112/111 = 20001111112/111 2 .f3X.2r4 x 1. Tltedlafltragm Is algo 1$ reztrall1ed verticoilif /1'1 tlte peol1f8.2. v. No SHearreilt{orccl1Icnf /s fetfJIlred..15 X.z)= (o. FakecntlCdI gectlon d (mm gllt/ort: Dkl/Itrtlgl1l Is 0.3. 80 slHflldr relnforcel1fent Is reqplred vertlcdilif.
with the ends of the strands spread to give a good anchorage. . as the soil pressure on the back of the diaphragm will always keep it in compression. and so four T 16 bars protruding from each beam should be sufficient. or 4 prestressing strands protruding from the end of each beam Some reinforcement should be provided across the construction joint between the beams and the end diaphragm. and allows inspection of the back of the bearing. Alternatively. Access to the elastomeric bearings is from the front of the sheet pile wall. Only a nominal amount of reinforcement is therefore needed. One important feature to notice is the short embedment length of only SOmm of the beams into the diaphragm. Note also that the bearings are in a position where they are automatically protected from water and deicing salt penetration down the back of the diaphragm. four prestressing strands can he left long instead of being cut off flush with the end of the beam. This joint will never be in tension. The use of bearing plinths provides enough space to allow access from three sides of the bearings. This avoids the beams interrupting the diaphragm reinforcement. The standard of access to the bearings is similar to that available on many bridge piers. This alternative will simplify manufacture of the beams. in the same way that the deck reinforcement continues over the tops of the beam which protrude a short distance into the soffit of the slab.30 INTEGRAL ABUTM:ENTS FOR PRESTRESSED BEAM BRIDGES Reinforcement details for the end diaphragms are shown opposite. 50mm embedment of beam into diaphragm 4 T16 L bars. and along the capping beam from each side of the SY beams.
2'14 foeaHt8 @ 1500 celftres 1\eilf(orcel11ent is T16@150 vertical6( HorizlJllta/ footftfacts r.!\L BRIDGE EXAMPLE 31 Detdi/s fl(mddit?.20 200t!tICI. de~shfo ~~~~~~~r~~ad diap!tragHt .2100 /righ X 400 t!tief:.p/rragm 1:.SEMIhTEGR. .
. The choice of pile section is governed by driveability into the very stiff clay.. _. No special considerations are therefore needed in its design. . as well as the vertical bearing reaction._ .. which is a very stiff overconsolidated clay. and elastomeric bearings are bedded onto these plinths. This wall is static. Design calculations were then provided by British Steel's Piling Technical Services.6 SHEET PILES This bridge has been designed to be supported on bearings on top of a sheet pile retaining wall.~ .._. which makes reference to both CIRIA report 104(16) and BS 5400: Part 3_ Finally..__·__·__·1 5. . . in the sense that it does not move with the expansion and contraction of the bridge deck. Eight bearings are required at each end of the bridge. the design was verified using the wellknown computer program WALLAP.. The sheet pites will be driven into the existing ground...__.  ... Bearing plinths are cast onto this beam. The following undrained shear strengths have been assumed: I cu = 150 kN/m2 cu = 200 kN/rn2 near the surface at the bottom of the sheet piles Initial design of the sheet pile wall was based on the charts included in the British Steel "Piling Handbook'v'". The bending capacity of the LX25 piles selected is well in excess of the design moment. except that there will be small horizontal loads from the bearings that must be taken into account.. Their calculations followed the requirements of BD 42/94 "Design of embedded retaining walls and bridge abutments'P'. ' . A concrete capping beam is cast on top of the sheet piles. one for each SY beam. and a 12m pile length was recommended..  ..
. NlttX/#!1f11f/OIfgitlfdlfttl/l1foVCI1fCllt = T#!11f(tlterl1ftll) + 5111#!(creet &.  WtJtel' ttlP/c (I$&iImed PileI't'lfetrdtlolf Is 6m below exCdVtJtiOl! gM"'g ovel'tJlllelfgtll 2ctJle 1:100 of 1.2Ii!.?JS of tlPOJlt 4J..N/11f11f . ' . IIsllfg ftorl1fdll11ctltods.Z 5 $/teet pl/e$. NlttX/11f1f111 812horlzOffttJI forcc fCr P8t1rlllg Fro#! decKdlltlllfslS_ #!tlX/#!1I11f 812 vertlmllOtld tcr htlrlllg = 50 KN = 900 kN Thc$/tcet fllc wtlll Ctlll pe desigllcd to rcsiSt thesc forceg_ (18 well tl8 tlte 8011 frc8&lfre. Dcs/gft Cti/clI/tltfoIl8 (lrc ftot fre8eftted Itere. llfe/udiflg cap?lflg PM/1f.55 qP driVclf ilfto exj&tllfg vcq &titf e/ellj 20ffit of Mdge .211111f All eI(l8tol11erlcpetlr!ftg Wltlt tldet{ffdtc CtlttlCltlf will Hdvetl ghetlr Et/j'flfe. DeftJflz oftltc desigll tlre showlI pelow: I RMd COlfMrHctlOI! :0 1 ComptJctetigralflllar(l/l ¢' =40 0 Gl Tle rods: $lIeet pile wall Is alfcllorM 1m foe/owtile top 6m dMrtmCt: hlow LX. grade $3. sltnHKtlge) = 1.SEMIINTEGRAL BRJ[)GE EXAMPLE 33 8/teetjll!erett'lilflffg wtlll 80tlt vertlcdl dlld ItOr/zolfttl/ forces (rOI1fthe pednngs ftccd to PCtdKCftIllto tlecolllft III tlte des/gft of Flterddlftllfg wtll!.
and are beyond the scope of this design guide. A full depth wing wall must be provided. in this case pressure against the end diaphragm. such as the design example. Full passive pressure is used for the design of the end diaphragm. In classical soil mechanics. designed for passive pressure. and pressure against the wing walls.8 SKEW For bridges with no skew. thus represents a virtual orthogonal abutment. This plane.34 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FOR PREsTREsSEO BEAM BRIDGES' 5. is the largest possible ratio of soil pressures in two orthogonal directions. the end diaphragm is designed for passive pressure. . K. 5. For skews up to about 30° one design method is to visualise an orthogonal vertical plane in the soil behind the end diaphragm and assume that all horizontal pressures within the block of soil between this plane and the end diaphragm are passive. and must be designed to resist the outward soil pressure. In order for the design to be consistent. nonnall y vertical and horizontaL This also applies to two orthogonal horizontal directions. to contain the soil on one side.7 DESIGN OF WING WALLS The wing walls cantilever horizontally from the back of the end diaphragm. and the wing walls for K = 1. therefore. the wing walls should be designed for soil pressures based on K= 1. Larger skews may require special treatment. and this cannot exist without a pressure coefficient of at least one against the wing walls. It is important that skew bridges do not rotate in plan due to the soil pressures on the skew abutments. shown with dashed lines in the diagrams to the left.
Tire Wing wtliis are de&/glfed to Ctllft/lever Iror/zontdllij frO#! tlte Pdd.. However.8ign. oftlte elfd ditlplrragm Wilf(}wtlll ctllttl/ever moment ~ I't/ ) ifI I "II I K=1 250/1 prfJE$l(re Offwing walls I E PMIt Olf elfd dk1pltm(}111 tlffd wing wall.PLE 35 Detdlfed CtllCHldtlomi$for tlte wing wtliis tire Itot pr(!. << t. ?tI&8iVe pre&.8eltted Irere.. tiS tlt/8 /& tI simple piece of rellt/Orceti coltcrete d(!. tlte soil prfJ$$HrfJ$ to foeHsed in tlris de3/g1f tire Indicated be/ow.SErvoINTEGRAL BRIDGE EXAY1.8Jfre 011 (!Ifd dlajJltmgHf I .
5. If an approach slab is used. additional drainage may be needed below the end of this slab. Adequate drainage must be provided to deal with any water penetration through such cracks. as this water penetration will be at the back of the abutment where drainage is routinely provided. I ____ . Cracks are likely to appear in the surfacing between the approach carriageway and the abutment. . or at the end of the approach slab if this is provided.__ .9 DRAINAGE. This is easier to achieve when there is no approach slab._~ o  ~·~··l Drainage behind the abutment is important for all types of integral bridge.__ o ~ 0 __ • J .
e4 IIf hi tlte drain at tfte poffOM of tfte enddlapltragM.SEMIINTEGRAL BRrDGE EXAMPLE 37 Tftepn't/ge decl( wdktproof!lIg Is colltillued dOWIItire PdCI(of tire elld dlrJ/lftmgM8. Astftaltlc tlllgjoillt . No d/ltrOdclt slap will be IIsed for #is Prldge.. 1411'1 water tcnetratloll througft cracl(lng PctwC8l1thc imi:lge and tfte a/l/lroacft roa4 will tftcrefore pe/lld. I I I I Set/Ie 1:20 . RJJa4constructloll .J I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ?Oroll& folockdraillage la'ler Drain r. dlld tt rorous Nocl( dmilldge Id'fer /s /lldced dgdln8t this.
47m.6m carriageway.1 INTRODUCTION This design example is for a three span integral bridge of60m total length with piled abutments.:. This means that the pile positions correspond to the positions of the precast beams.. with a 200mm deck slab.. which indicate that Y7 beams at one metre centres are suitable for the 29m central span. .. giving an overall construction depth of 1. :'__  . Bridge crosssection 1:50 For the outer beams. and this was not considered to be justified for this bridge.. Six Y7 beams are used for each span.. However.... at 1m centres. with commentary and additional explanation on the lefthand pages. Initial design This bridge carries a single lane 3. Initial design is based on the peA span charts for the various beam ranges.. The central span is 29m. 6 PILED ABUTMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE 6. The pile spacing can be selected independently from the beam spacing. lNTEGRAlAIHITMENISFORhEsTREsSED13EAMBruoGEZ ~. Abutments Each abutment is supported on six steel H piles.38 . transport and erection. with lrn footpath each side. . although it should be noted that this is a coincidence rather that a necessity. some designers would prefer to use YE7 edge beams.:. The design calculations are presented on the righthand pages. i . the substantial extra weight of these edge beams leads to extra cost in manufacture. with 15m and 16m side spans. The design follows the stepbystep design process described in Section 4. and these steps are nwnbered on the calculation pages...
/.8011 foe/owthe aPlrtl11ellts (g firm cia. 0 and dellsltlf 20kN/m3 will be . II . Increasing to 100 kN/m2 at a dej/th of 20m.4rm WOllnd cOttdlflons 8ackfill of COl11pacted gralfl/far flll with <P' = 35 use beltlnd Me aputlftelrt&.IDgE ABtlTA1tNT flev4tlol( Q{pnf&e 1:500 Safetlf parrlers not SHownfor ck/dtlj 16m Steel IijJll8$ DI&enslonqldetqlfg Ovemll bridge lengtlr Overall deckwidth Overall deckdeptH = 60m = 66m = 1.with a C Of 50 kN/m2 !fear tlte sUlface.PILED ABUTME:JT EXAMPLE 39 ?/LfJ) INTt/i&1L BR.8jJecifledfor The.
see page 24 for further discussion. but the 21nun calculated here is considered acceptable. the depth is measured from the top of the surfacing. and acceptably small longitudinal movements. . For the same mobilised earth pressure.II T020b41 0000174 ~bl II 40 "INTEGRALAaU1MENTSYDR.3m thick turnedback wingwalls are attached to each side.RIDGES . This will be reduced slightly by pile and pier resistance. the movement of an abutment moving horizontally is roughly equivalent to the movement at midheight of a wall abutment rotating about its base. It is clear from the literature that smaller movements are required (at the top of the abutment) when the whole structure moves horizontally. This vertical face is narrower than the full width of the abutment. The movement of a shallow abutment can therefore be taken as half of that calculated according to the formula in BA 42/96. as is the case for shallow abutments. This design example gives the worst case for SLS horizontal movement. PREsTRESSEDBEA~fB. The soil pressure is assumed to act only on the vertical back face of the abutment. however. This formula. The width between these wingwalls available to resist the longitudinal loads is 5.. Note also that expected actual movement (with Ym = 1. Most realistic integral bridge designs will therefore have adequate resistance to horizontal forces. The movement to mobilise the required horizontal resistance is calculated using the formula in BA 42/96. Rotational movement of wall abutment Horizontal movement of shallow abutment BA 42/96 does not contain any reference to a limit on the horizontal movement under braking and traction forces. as maximum traction and braking forces have to be resisted by a very narrow end diaphragm.6m.2 LONGITUDINAL CAPACITY In calculating the soil pressure. 6. because short O.0) is about 4mm. relates specifically to full height wall abutments which are assumed to rotate about their base.
. 31$ Hor/zQl1ttlllOddll1g = = = . Ol1llflta/ftlte 1110VeHfeltt retfJlired to gel1emte tlte $elmetorce for Is ahltmelft& wltlelt move ltonLol1tdl/lf d8ltere.N/1113X. dffllflng YIII = 0. 0. 0.0165 = (d/O.85 r30kN For fac/::f!!1 wltlt ¢' = 350 BA 42/96 glVe2 Kp = 6 K* = 3. .6111.1" 0kN 3 = 300kN r 3OkN X Yr1. 4 x6 x. K X.etfJllredK* = 3. X V3 i"30X1.10. Pf !IIIS tfte !llecClf pelow dl1dtlte SlIr(elClltgdPove. 4m .0X1. H = 1111 (P1!eCdp) 1. Tottll Itelgltt..2 X.6m = 5.2111(/drf1fet ovemtll1g) . 3i"9 = R.2 NOl11lHell lOI1ri =. BA 42/96 formula relatlirg K* to d/H /s dff!lcelNe Stec/ficaillf to a wdll elPtrtl11el1t rotating apotrt Its base.250kN HA CidllSC6.2/96.6m Aplltl11eHt wldtft. 20 tlte actllal 1110vel11elft 2/$ will be 21111JH_ elt wltlclt 18jllSt con8/tiered elccel'ttlbie.8..5 dS $feclfled P'I BA 4.3i"91(N &prdtlng to 31$ltorlzolftdl 10CId.6111 = Kx. 60111 + .043m = 0.0 = i"30kN TlteItelgltt of tfte dPlltl11eltt Is l11ade frOI11 tlte eltd rildpltrdg/1f to tlte I'recdst peell118. 0165 However.2 X.6 = 0.5 d/H d = 0. 3m (Wll1g wal/$) = 6.lm(slIt'/dclltg) + = 2.PILED ABUH1ENT EXA:'1PLE 41 HorlzPltt«1 Jftovel11ellt Tlte/oHgltpdll1e11 IOddIs calepit1ted111leCorridl1Ce BD 3. = K* X. 3r9kN :.0. (.6)2 X.10.0.2.5 X. 61ft Soil reg/smltce = !RKyH2j.0165H = 0. 5. 0. dltd tlte retfjllred $O/Ifre8&lIre coeff/elel1t /$ obtdllfed: K* X.20I:.25 % X 3011111ts X.1"/&5: e wltlt ClelP& 6. 05H) 0.1 NOI11/ltell lOI1d = 8kN//1f X.2. P = Wldtlt of deck . . (4 X 10kN) HB Clearilf HA Is c!eelrilfcritical for tltlg fridge. YIII X. 47m(dec{) + o. = 1) x.
The magnitudes of thermal expansion and contraction are taken from BD 42/96. Alternatively. and so it is safest to ignore this part of the pile in calculating the vertical capacity. and the rotation (see the bottom of the opposite page). and a few results from this analysis are required for the abutment design: the reactions at the abutment for the vertical pile capacity opposite.3 DECKANALYSIS The three spans of this bridge can be designed using the methods set out in the PCA guide "Simple Bridge Design using Prestressed Beams"?'. with separate simple supports for the beam ends. The maximum rotation occurs when an HB vehicle has one of its pairs of axles at midspan. On the next few pages. and is not presented here. The critical load combinations for the piles are thermal expansion coupled with loads causing downward rotation of the abutment.5 CALCULATION OF ABUTMENT MOVEMENT AND ROTATION The obj ect of this section of the calculations is to obtain the design cri teria for the piles. the various loads that cause expansion. so the piles must be able to cope with any horizontal motion and rotation of the abutments. It will be seen later in the calculations that the top 4m or so of the piles are subject to repeated horizontal movements.42 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTSEQKPRESTRESSEDBEAMBRIDGES::: 6. the deck slab could be continuous over the piers. The deck analysis assumes pinned supports at the abutment. The deck design is based on a grillage analysis. Rotation of the abutment due to live load is obtainedfrom. 6. These are both Combination 3 load combinations. the deck design is basically independent of the abutment design. The choice of pile section size is governed by driveability considerations. Being simplysupported at the abutments. The piles are assumed to be much more flexible than the bridge deck. which allows for movements from the mean position of about 70% of the total temperature range. . in the terminology of BD 37/88.4 VERTICAL PILE CAPACITY Guidance on the design of steel H piles is given in the SCI "Steel bearing pile guide"!". and then combined. 6. so that the beams may be taken as simplysupported on the piers as well as at the abutments. It will be seen later in the calculations that there is a benefit in keeping the section size as small as possible.the grillage analysis ofthe deck. and thermal contraction coupled with upward rotations. It is also assumed that only a small amount of bottom flange reinforcement will be used over the intermediate supports. contraction and rotation are analysed in turn.
60hf = O.N/M' fused all tire wltolelerlmeter 0/ a steel 25 4x.3l1fhf at eticlt end as (iIi) COl11hittitJon live 10dd . wltlclt $1If?jectto rel'Mted Ironzollkll movement..5 c = (6 x.025/11 = 13mm a"t eaclt enel.PJLED AnUT\1ENT EXA:vIPLE 43 Tiremax/mllm rMct/OIf at tire abutment Is mplred for tire dfJ8ignof tlte Illes.!/actor of 2. wltlclt Is acceptable 2tejJ3: Horizontal JIfOVtfmenfS roMi/on at . = 0.N/11f = 960kN Il = 500kN Tltlg gives a stl(ef. Avemge c" = 80/:. 00038rt1dkln8 (U!1factom:l.3 TlteHfdXil1111m rotation tit tlte ahrtHfent due to live load 18 (ound (rom tire gnlk1gedntil'!sls to be: Ahftl11entrotatlon = 0..2.N/lw~ between 4m and 20m below grollng level. EOtltiS rfJ8l1lt needEto be eX/meted (rom tlte dec/:. Ctifacit'l = (2D + 4B) X 0.4111) X. 60/:..anal.enas tlte $()l11e tlte tltermdl expansion = l. due to HB veltlcle) .5 x 80kN/M' = 40/:.$ reaction on wlrole ablltment = 23 OOkN Max 812 redction on one of s/XllleE Design etf1llfJ8(or vert/cdllMd Tlte!JIles wt11be designed ignonitg tlte vertical Cd/MClt'! of tlte to/4m. 00042 Total e><fdnglol1 = 0 00042 X.PIleIrMd and lion'zontal movel11ent&and rotations dlle to variolls IMriE need to be Cdlculateti to OPk:t/ittire critleal cases: (i) Tltel111al expdnglon Tltermal eX. 0.(rom l11ean fogltlon (Ii) TltermdlCOt/trtlctlon Tltis is td/:.fdllslolf Is /laud 011BA 42/96 gtrdln 0/0.!sls.2 54 Ii/'lIe.' J1I1aX $l. Adlresion = 0.5 c.5m) X 40kN/Hi = 60kN/m CtildCI'ttj 0/ d 20m longfile = (20/11.
In this bridge. so that the calculation of the abutment rotation is straightforward. Strictly speaking. the rotation will be reduced. this also needs to be calculated. to obtain the stresses that would occur in a fully restrained deck. . In the calculation opposite. and by the Young's modulus for concrete (here assumed to be a uniform 34000 Nzmm).6). the abutments provide little axial restraint or moment restraint. Negative temperature differences cause a small amount of sagging in the deck.44 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FORPREsTRESSED BEAM BRlIXiES. The axial and moment components of each part of the stress distribution are calculated and added together to give the total axial restraint force. A more rigorous calculation of the rotation could be used. These are multiplied by the coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete (assumed as usual to be 12x 10. Both the axial and moment components of the stress distribution with therefore be relieved by expansion and curvature of the deck respectively. In the interests of brevity. and the total restraint moment. the deck is assumed to be simplysupported at the piers. calculations are not presented here. If a large amount of continuity reinforcement is provided in the bottom of the beams over the piers. The temperature gradient diagrams for both positive and negative temperature distribution are shown on Figure 9 in BD 37/88. although the effect is very small. although the simple calculation presented here will always be conservative and therefore safe.
186ht4) = 46 X.1.15 =0.OxQ15 =Q15 0.604 0.379 0. 0.34000MN/I1f.OxO.42x. 66MN MOl1ffJHtto pe relfJ/J8fJd = LAcr 7' = 0.05 05 0.292 Tlte aX/al force to pe released = Mcr = 0.028 Q016 0.2 = 0..t X.0. The telffperature dlstn'PIltI(Jlf througlt tlte (kck crosssection Is gIVen III 3D 3r/&5. CIINatllre caused Pljl1fOl1fellt reeese: DeckcuNature.3 4 5 1.10 0.0.75x.724 o 1.2 =0. c::=====::::= 15. J( = M/.055 0.. Figure 9Tlte ssresses tlttJt wOllld occsr III tJ(lflllj restra/lled deck tJreshoWII 011 the nght htJlld Side oftlte dlagra/11Pe/ow.2. 106 1111 /?JJtt1tlonat end {!( spal1 (U2) X. 292MN (a$$Ulffll1g onlljnol1f/lltJl restra/llt to ramt/oll tJt IlItel'l11ed/ateSIl(J(Jort2.49 Q51 Q102 0. so tltat end Sj?tJnstJre ef/ectlVei7' s/l1ftllj$I(tl'orted).15 0. 10"'" 1 11f .292MNI1f / (.PILED ABUTMENT EXAMPLE 45 (Iv) TeHftCrature difference PositIVe temperature difference will gIVehogging tJt tlte ends of the Image. = 0. Thestress dlstr/iJutloll Itas peell diVIdedInto five NOCKsfor the (J#rposes {!( ctJlcultJtlng tHe aX/al alld I1fOHfentrestraint.t:I = O.664 A Ij 1 .15 Acrr 1.504 1. Orr 0. J( = o.15 0.5"& 5_O'G  CrO$8 section TeI11fflmtJIre dlstrlhrtlolf Stresses III (lfillf restrailled deck = Eo:T Acr Q168 0. 1 It: «oss« 2  It~~025". 46 X.3.2 .629 LOxo.081 0.203 0.2 .055 Q041 0.23 0.0003r = = 811f X.
The value of 1.6 E <~ = 90 X 10.3 used here for creep after the slab is cast is therefore consistent with this. and the resulting strains approximate to the actual strains that will occur. = 0. values for the coefficients were used as given in the appendix to Hambly and Nicholson "Prestressed Beam Integral Bridges"?'. but this applies to the whole life of the beam. Slab shrinkage kL = 275 X 10.7N/mm' at the bottom. . These are summarised below. and may be taken as typical for most beam and slab bridges.7N/mm2 at the top to 7.6 k.6 k.6 Beam creep factor kL = 2. BS 5400: Part 4 suggests a value of2 for the creep factor.37 effective thickness 250rnm from three months to infinity In these calculations.6 Beam shrinkage kL = 275 X 10.37 effective thickness 250mm from three months to infinity for normal air exposure transfer after three days at 20"C cement content 40 a kg/m' ._. ~ Ecs = 0655 =1 120 X for normal air exposure cement content 350kglm3. and show a variation from 5. This is only a small variation.INTEGRAL ABu'rMENTSFOR:PREs'rnEsSEPj'lEANLBRIDGES •• •• _. = 0. _. The permanent stresses in the precast beam (due to dead load and prestress) are calculated. = 0. Values have to be estimated for the various coefficients.3 for normal air exposure cement content 400kglm3. water/cement ratio 0. water/cement ratio 0.8 k. The sophistication of this analysis could easily be increased by dividing the beam up into several elements. instead of using a single element and assuming uniform stress as here. The composite nature of the beams and the slab mean that each cannot shrink and creep independently.6 ¢ = 1. One way of visualising this process is to calculate the imaginary forces that would be required in the beam and slab individually to overcome their creep and shrinkage strains.8 ls = 0. and justifies the assumption of uniform stress in the precast beam for the purposes of calculating the creep strain.46. and this is used here. and this is not always easy. The individual strains are distributed over the composite section in the calculations opposite. _or ~. These forces can then be released onto the composite section. water/cement ratio 0.42 effective thickness 400mm whole life 10. only creep occurring after the beams are made composite is included.6 k. = 0.75 k.75 Is = 0.3 lsn = 1.~ Creep and shrinkage are difficult to quantify with any degree of accuracy. To obtain the results quoted opposite. A method is given in BS 5400: Part 4 in Appendix C.75 k. = 0.
8 N/1111112 :.021 MN/ht perbe(J111 Dedd/Oddl11ol11elft wF/8 = = 0.3 =260x106 Now tJl'pl'l tltese creel'dltd zltnit/.£cc= (a/f2sJx¢ = (68/34000)X1.dge = 90 X 106 tt(ter g/dP /8 Cd8t.rMNHf Fre.8 .stre88 deslglt /(8e8 litit/dl tellzloll of 565MN dt till eccelttrlelt'l of 0.3 t1{ter 81dbi8 Cd8t Stre88ff8 lit tlte frecd8t be(J/1f to foecd/cultlted: Iteed D&ld/otld = 0..5 I.. Stress lit preCd8t be(J111 dueto /'f1rHfdllelttIOddgig reds(Jlttlbi'lulf/forl1f.0.65 X 0 .021 X 16J'/8 = 0.106 6.39 7:.991 ij=0..5r6 £ e =120X106 fA = 34000 = 6800MN X 0.816 12Ox.?N/11f11f2 a" = 6.8 +0.1 = 5.21.9 = 7:?N/I11Hf2 .dge Ecs Creel'fddor ifJ = 120x10·6 = 150 X 10.22 411f Frestre.224 = = 0.l06 35Ox.6.2 90x106 +260 X 106 = 3.3?0 ij= O. at = ..8 of 6. 053? = 18260MN 'I 0.5r9 0.dgeztrtll1t8 to tire cOl11poslte sectlolt dltd dl8trlbtfte: ij= 1.50 X 106 = fA = 34000 x.65/0.53.374 .PILED ABlJTMENT EXAI .6 tOttllIM! term :iJlt11t/. 81...Creepstrd/It.:: fA 6800 18260 25060 LAE 0.P/A +M/2t = 3.'.dlfd Cdltbe dpproX/mdtedto tlte ceHtroidd/SFrff8.8Sl11ol1fent 3.dge EC>l' Bedm slrnit/.2 1MN 1.902 MNHf ..r+(O 6r081?)/O 128 = 6.1.r MNI11 $tres8dtt(Jf'. fPLE 47 $/db 8lrrllt/. = 1.
the end spans have been assumed to be simplysupported at the piers.003 suggested in Section 2.026m (I?) Dcck cOHtroctloHf/lIsllfWdrd OPtr#HfCHt rottltlOH . For these reasons.RESTRESSED_BEAM BRIDGES The combined long term effects of creep and shrinkage are found to be a rotation of 0.003.OI7m i i ! I 1 1 ! 1 (0) Deck exptIHzloH 1'/118 cfowlfWordoplltHtcHt rotdt/OH 0. The piles are designed to BS 5400: Part3.6mm at each abutment. in which 'Yois applied to the strength rather than the load. so the ULS combination here include 1tL but not 'YoTwo combinations need to be considered as illustrated below: 0. ULS Load Combination 3 for the piles Design criteria for the piles are obtained from combinations of the loads calculated above. and the span is about double leading to a proportionate increase in rotation at the ends. for which the prestress is greater (in the same depth of beam) leading to greater curvature.3. so this calculation is conservative. instead of using a standard value of 0. This rotation would be appropriate to the long central span of this bridge. the rotation has been calculated specifically for this end span. Any continuity over the pier will reduce the rotation. In calculating the rotation.00049 ~o._ INTEGRAl ABUTMENTSFOR~P. Note that this rotation is sigificantly less than the average figure of 0.00114 radians and a horizontal displacement of 8.48.00151 ~  O.
EI RpttJt/OIltJtelld ofS/ltJlI = 0. 1. 106 = (60m/2) = 0.902 1(34000 XO.97) X 106 = 190x106 E" = FlEA + M/ilp = = (7.902/(34000 X 0.9021(34000x0. 013 (tflerHtal expan$lolf) X Yfl a = 0. 0086 (long terl1f .0 =0.FlEA +M/ilt = (r.000. 00114 + 0.0086111 X 288 X 106 C0I11P(nedlton?Q!t4lmovem81ft8 rotert/oils at UL2 alld (a) THerHftJl8XpanslOlf tJnddownward rotation Nlax florlzolfttll mOV8ment t /lile Hetld = 0. = 0.2112.271) = (288. 106 0.shorten/llg) a + 0.00151 = 0.02611f At1tIX ujlWard rotat/M at /lile fletld (creef &c sht1I1Kage) +0.186) = = 143 X 1061111 = (L/2) X =0.21 1250(0)400 X.37 X.013X1.5060)0.00114 .00049 (b) ContractionandujlWardrotatlOIl Max ltonzolfk11mOV8ment t file Heerd= 0.0086+0.00114 1( (16/2)x 143 X 1061111 Ovef'tJ1/ gifott8n/lfg dueto shrinKagetJndcree/l = 2&3 X 106 Movel11entateacHend = (L/2) X 288 X.013 (thermal cMtractlOll) X Yfl = 0.lrLE 49 :Affllf total "(orc8"alld "11101118I1t" to COl11fOslte sect/OIl: $tra/IIB at tof alld bottol11of zect/Oll are £1 = .PILED ABUTl\·1ENT EXAJI. 00038 = 000038xL3 (due to LL) X Yfl.3 = a017Hf Alktxdowl1Wardrotation atf/le fletld = 0. 235) =(2&5+113)xl06 Curvature I( = M/.3 = 0.013x1.00037~~ffMkl1ffffammdUem&~x~ = 0.
The main difficulty with this analysis is in estimating the coefficient of subgrade reaction. _ _____::. . INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS:EOR fRES!RESBED~B. as explained on page 42. CIRlA report 103 gives some guidance. with a Cu of 50kN/m2(in fact.6 PILE DESIGN FOR BENDING The choice of pile section is governed by driveability considerations._~~~_..justifying the assumption of designing the spans as simplysupported at the abutments.. :::_. as quoted in CIRIA report 103(16). CIRIA report 103 also quotes nondimensionalised equations relating the displacement and rotation of the pilehead to horizontal force and moment... The soil at the top of the piles is finn clay. so the fact that the stiffness increases with depth does not much affect this calculation).BtuoGES . and this has been used in this example.~:. which are based on the assumption that the soil is a Winkler medium (a series of independent horizontal springs) which does not vary with depth.. __ " ~ . The equations are rewritten opposite in matrix form. so fortunately the design is not too sensitive to the choice of soil parameters.EAM. CIRlA report 103 suggests a coefficient of subgrade reaction of K = 3 MN/m2 for this clay. The horizontal force and bending moment that the bridge must apply to the pile heads is found by substituting the ULS displacements and rotations previously calculated into these equations. The simplest method of checking the piles for bending is to use the equations of Matlock & Reese.~ .50 _.. only the top few metres are significant. and inverted to find the force and moment for the applied displacement and rotation. Values may also be provided by the soil investigation._ ~ :~=_=___ ~ "" _ 6._. A variation of l Ofold in K only results in a variation in pile moment by a factor of 3. and these equations are used here. Note that the pile bending capacity is substantially smaller than the moments in the bridge beams. = : '"_:::_:_::.
/I. 9.IA report 103: CoeffiCient of supgmde reactlolf.Mo I I I I Ho :\ IltVert/I1(j: = (5. = 205000MN/fflL I = 3451 CHl4 er = 7. 1. Cltdrtlcterlstlc/engt/t.o.__ ~ ~ r. (eU) (HO) Mo = (0.l) == 0.109 MNffI Tltecoef(i'c/elft Of$IIPgmde react/Off(or tlte cld'f n&1r tlte tot ot Me tile is est/l1tated IIS1lfdCm. TItC$e I'il(f$ Itave tfte (ollowlng trotert/es: f.60 ..41 + (MoTL/E!) X.380 021r (Ho) Mo 1~/Je.24ff1 R.21rHo . Tltetiles Cn08ellI1re254 X254 X r 1 kg/HI steel H til(f$ or/elltl1ted to Pelld I1Pollt tlte fflilfor 11X/8.248Mo Cftanglltg Me sign ot e to fit tI cons/stelft Q21r) 0.20xl.1. K = 3MN/Hf2 T = (E//Kj1i4 = i.51 X 106 Hl4 tlPollttltemilfOrl1xjs = 268 X106 Hf3 tor Hfilfor I1X/S pelfdilfg = 405 X.248 sign conventloll.41 == o.' Mil == $ (J'j/Yilf Y(3 =405x.26 I 4. 1.ffStolfSeto Itorizolftal jbrce and fflol1tent tit tlte g1'Olllfdline Is: II = (HoT3/Ei)X 1. _ PTLED ABliTMENT EXAYfPLE 51 Pile dC$ljtf .1 Cffl3 S == 2TBL/4 = 34.00 = 0.10·6X355/(1.00 + (MoT/E!)X. Or MNm2 Z = 268.2) (or tltis cOffltdct sect/Olf.for keudiug TnetIles IIOWlIeed to pe desiglled for tltfJ8e Hlovefflellm I1tfdromtiOIl$. 106 ffl3 (dl1stlc ffloduills) 8fJ11d/1f1res/stalfce (dccordllfd to 835400: Fart 3 cMuse 9.38010 + Q21rMo e = (HoT2/fl)x1.
as the computer model merely approximates the analytical solution. the piles are driven through oversize prebored sleeves. For this bridge. A further computer analysis of the piles was carried out using a standard soil mechanics program. Below this depth (approx 3T). A loose fill with uniform particle size is therefore used. 4m long.52 INTEGRAL ABuTMENTS EOR PREsTREssED BEAM BRIDGES. and they will simply attract less moment. even if fatigue cracks appear in the pile flanges. they will still be able to carry the vertical load. and so will always be sufficiently small. in this case WALLAP. Otherwise no further useful results were obtained by this analysis. and that steel piles perform adequately even when yielded in bending many times. Furthermore. Leaving a void inside the sleeves is another option. Again. D_ The piles have also been analysed by computer by using a series of horizontal Winkler springs on a (vertical) beam model. pile deflections and moments are only 10% of those at the pile head. a softer soil can be substituted for the top 4m or so of the length of the pile. . which are later filled with a loose material. but only a few times during the lifetime of the bridge.· This calculation indicates that the ultimate bending resistance of the piles is exceeded during maximum thermal contraction. although this adds significantly to the cost of construction. Recent US research has also shown that fatigue damage is not an issue. and demonstrates that the soil stiffness below about 4m has very little effect. similar results were obtained. It should he noted that this will not happen every year. This allows the spring stiffness to be varied with depth. This could quite reasonably be accepted. It is important to ensure that repeated movements do not compact and stiffen this fill. and there seems little to be gained using either of these computer methods in this context. If it is not thought desirable to allow the piles to yield.
ceededhf dPOIlt . 144MN dltd () = 000151 Mo = 0.0.1PLE S3 TIt~rl1ft11xjldH&lon e givlHg (fo) Tlterl1fdlcolttrdctlOH gIVIHg If = 0. IHdlcdtlve dett1lls t1resltown foe/ow: rTl In I I II I 600 dltJl1feter steel tllfoes. 08MN. To! /eveljH8t foe/ow/Jilect1p. 4I1f 1000g. Tltef'OSElfoIllt'( of !ileg 'fIelding will pe e/ll1finttt~d hf 811fo8titlltlng ti softer $OIl for tlte to!4m Tlrls wil/ foedclrlev~tf hf drlVlHg tlte files tlrrollgft !r~!lored s!eevez. 01rl1f emf 8 = 0. wltlclt Cdlt Idter foefilled Wltlt dloou Hltttend/' Refettting tire dfoove t1n(j/'p~/8 wltlt t1lower vallie of K gives al?/Ol1fentjllzt foe/owM.00049 Mo = 0.PILED ABUTMENT EXAfl.2611f Ho = 0. 08.2MN u = 0. .20% during I1fdYjl1flfHltltenndl conMlctlolt. 15. lit COlt/llnctloff wltft tt ftoriZiJfftdl force Of dPOllt 0. tllPes dre to foefilled wltlt t1 cOl1ffreggl/.09 . After drIVing 1'1/8$ through eHlj7t'f tllfoes./e l1ft1teri'd/' No contt1ct between tllfoes tind fi/ecdP.2MNI1f Ho = 0.2MNI1f Tlteu figures IndlCtlte tlrdt tlte IIltll1fdte pendlHg re&lztdnce of tire !lles wOHlafoeex.
with the piles in sleeves as discussed on the previous page. Note that the web in fact provides extra moment capacity by providing a bearing surface against the concrete.54  INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS_FOR. SA 42/96 specifies the use of passive pressure. so that there is adequate capacity for the vertical load as well as the moment. The design moment for the pilecap is therefore taken as the plastic moment. Six shear studs are actually provided on each flange. As this is close to the plastic capacity of the pile. so calculations are not presented in detail. The loads on the pilecap are: • The vertical load to be carried by the piles. .2. it is simple and there is no great penalty in terms of extra reinforcement. • Soil pressure. • The horizontal load at the top of the piles. This is taken as O. PRE$TRESSED BEAMBRJDGES 6. multiplied by a load factor of 1.08MN per pile. Four shear studs on each flange are sufficient to transfer the moment between pile and pilecap.7 PILECAP DESIGN The pilecaps are a straightforward exercise in reinforced concrete design. it is important to make sure that the pile yields before the pilecap. and may sometimes actually be the plastic moment. • Moment at the top of the pile. and although this is very conservative.
Ctllcultite . t1g $()lll'r(f$$nre MUg! be tldded to tlte Moment frOHf tlfe I'lle...51f! Tfl( 4 gltfftlr Btlldg (.2 = 0.296MN/fFf2 NOHflnt11 oment tit Pfft1msofITt t1t 1.l. p " rr(f$$Ure t1t .019MN/1f!3 x.5JH = 0.6m del'tlt m = 0. rlf! Take1f!0lf!el1t011 lever arlf! a = o.8011 preB8llre: BA 42/96 sl'eclf/e& tHat &ftallow afoutments sltou/d foedeglgl1edfor 1't1g. Tlte cntlctll/Wltlon 1& tHe con. tit tI deptlt of 1.PILED ABeTMENT EXAMPLE 55 TlteINk to Ilkctll' cOlll1edlolf... 100 1000g)Wltlt nomllttll Ctll'dclt'f of 0. I = = I( =6 Kyz 6x.35MN .5MN r a• 35MN o.4.0. . = 0. 1.8t wIll foeIf tHe/ll/(f$ 'fIeld dnrlng tHerJHal ffXfanslolf. 6m 4eptft...tel1dsdown to 2. 144 X.611f.o..8trnctlonJolnt.2 = Lr3MMm rIle elf!/ledlf!el1t lengtH 1111'.26/1. tlI1411kctll' to fondgefoeaJf1Ol1l1ectlol1 ill foe4(f$lgl1edto gel1erate tlte c w I'hstlc momel1t lit tlte 1'11(f$./ectll'= 0.5 o.144MNm Dezlgl1molf!el1t M" X.glVe rff88nre. 1.22¢ X.3. For reinforcement deglgn of tlfe I'llecafJ. =4x.12 6MN etlclt (fr01f! &55400: rtlrt 5).126/ "(. tlte womt CCl.6m.2. TlteII/ect11'ex. Hor/zolfttll rfftlctlollz rttfjllred = 0.2 w M" = $0'1 = 405 = = X.11.2. "((t. Ultlmtlte cal'tlClt'f = 4 x O. ltlt tllOtId ftlctor of 1. so (our BHfftlr Btnd8 tire gHf/lclel1t. 106 X. 35.28 MNm/m wldtlt .2 MN Tlt1818greater tlttln tlte rff4jflred ctl/lac/t'f.6m = 0..1 1 II I e e I II I lo.5JH :.1.. 1 3MNIf! /o.
.._.. and reinforcement is provided down the back of the abutment accordingly.C\J._~.I~ll\...JI\.LVUd~I. . . Moment in the opposite direction._.o.... This is calculated opposite..~ r . ABTT'n . .... n".. for simplicity.56:"...r'tlC\.C~~JJ .J.... but in this case vertical links have been provided designed using a simple truss analogy: \~ .._'T<"n~.._ .....J~ J n ._.... ....xvl'5... the lever arm to the reinforcement is also lower..Iol."":. ~ . as no passive pressure is involved... However. the same reinforcement is used front and back of the abutment. This may be designed in various ways. 0" _ The maximum ULS moment will be level with the soffit of the beams... Shear reinforcement is required below the level of the precast beams. causing tension at the front of the abutment.lXlJ...rtl'"'UT\... . JC.~ ~ __ __ . 1"!D AT  n:.. as the reinforcing bars have to be positioned to allow for the embedment of the beams into the abutment. is significantly lower.I...D... So.......r... V... ..
sllftk:/el1t gfl&1r cataclt'! Is trov/Jed btl tlte (ront al1dbaCK face vertlCdIrcll1{orccmtlft.005(0.8.I/eeat al1del1ddli:JpltrtlgHtag tftlS Is cast Ilf stages.28 X. tftus restrall1lng sftnltJ::ageof a/I put tfte flmt stage (tfte '1leCtlt) Frofll clause 5.3 d til = 0. 1111 (141$ file &/teat) = (0.' As = 0. 128MNI11 X. alfd algo Ilf tlte (rOlft (dce (evelf tltouglt momelft Ig gl11allertlrere) gltedr occum 111tl!eCdI betweel1r&1ct/ol1/iJrom tOf al1dbottO#1getg Ofgltear gtudg. dlatltragfll al1dplkCdf. 9. trovlde tltlg rell1(orcefllel1tfor tlte {II/I 2. 1.6111 for 0.55f11 attrox.0111 30 N/I11f112 Z = O.PILED ABUTMENT EXAII1PLE 57 For 1m wldtlt of tlleeat (alfd ose file) t{ltlma~c fIIOl11ent level wltlt gOfflt of focal11 MIIL3 = 0..08 = 0.ellfforcel11elft deg/glffollow.65#10.5Acor) = 0.45MNfII/fII refIJIlred A" = MII/(08rfrz)= 045/(400 = Part 4: clau& 5. Y(f. Mil = 0. For glfllt!lcltlf. 0.Sure) + 0.1r3 + 0..5f11 Itelgltt. Vertlca//IIfKs betweelf tire plleg Will pe used 111 tltls case.55)= o.. Ilfcludllfg Y(L) + 0.15f11) 2/111 = 0.1 3MNm (pIle momelft. ( 2ltedr acrogg tlte construct/olfjo/lft betweelf tlte tlleca.5) + 0. 0.20501112/fII = 2050 f11fII2/111 t{ge 120 @ 150 (provldJ'I1g2090 fIIm2/fII) vertical rell1forcefllel1tI'll paCKface Of tlte el1d . 14& 116 @ 150 Itorlzontal steel In eacltface to control cmcKlngdue to sltrlnKage tind tHem1a/fIIovement.0. MdX/I1fItHf gltear rell1{orceHfelft/s rtflJflred Ilf tlte fllecaf. 1. .00.00288m toml = 1440 111f112/m eacltfdce :.65f11 tltlcKtlleCdI' al1del1ddldtltmgfll X. alfd tlte el1ddldtltrtlgfll fIIust also foe cltecked. (goll pr&$. 08MN X.45 MNm/111 wldtlt r R. gltrll1/(tlge cOl1tro/rell1{orcemelft ts rttfjllred alol1gtlte /el1gtltOf tlte .5 X.005(Ac.B 8$5400' p = 1. At tlte COlfgtructlol1jolnt.
which should make placement of the beams. .2T._. The whole abutment is wider.ilecrJ. The precast beams are embedded 200mm into the end diaphragm. and this allows a much longer beam embedment.5 900t/(lck elfd dlIJ. The difficulty during construction of this abutment will be the placement of the beams with this projecting reinforcement between the starter bars coming up from the pilecap.BRIOOE~ Reinforcement details are shown on the opposite page for the abutment in this design example. Continuity is provided by threading bars through web holes in the beams. throJlgh we. Some continuity reinforcement is required at the bottom of the beams for when the abutment rotates upward.  58  INTEGRAL ABUTMENTs FORPREsTRESSED"BEAM. An alternative arrangement is shown below. which allows a generous area to seat the beams onto the pilecap. much simpler.hrIJdHf &.2. This avoids the use of projecting reinforcement. .b holes II II II II II . as well as manufacture. This is provided by four T20 bars projecting from each beam.
254 x...l EXAMPLE 59 Reitt(orccl1tent detrJijg 1:.20@150 6 sHear stllds 011 eaCHflange verticalreil1forcel11ent .2¢ X. I• I I• I T.2500 HigH I• I• I T16@150 Honzontalreil!(orce/1fent 4T. 100 II II II II II . 71 H pil88 .2.20@150 petvveelf #&lI11S «: eHddldpHmglff &.20trpjectll1g (ro111 peal1t el1ds e::" COHstrllctiol1joll1t T.254 x. .ti!ecap 650 t/tlck X.20 .PILED ADtJT\1Et.
17m parapet overhang each side of the deck. and this defines the bridge crosssection. Concrete infiU is placed between the beams. the design calculations are presented on the righthand pages.. it is clear that TY 5 beams are suitable. but the solid slab leads to a shallower deck and simpler connection details at the ends. They are 11. with commentary and additional explanation on the lefthand pages. fifteen TY5 beams are needed to produce the required deck width. . and has a clear span of 12m. allowing O. together with a 75mm topping.: .60 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FOR PREsTREsSEoBEAM BIDDDES:~:.3m carriageway. Alternatively. forming a 675mrn thick solid slab.1 INTRODUCTION This design example is for a single span integral bridge with full height wall abutments.75m footpaths each side. Abutments Abutments are full height reinforced concrete retaining walls on spread footings. The design follows the stepbystep design process described in Section 4. These beams are placed at 0. Referring to the peA span charts for TY beams. and these steps are numbered on the calculation pages. the TY5 beams could have been used in a beam and slab configuration.= ~. As for the other design examples. Initial design This bridge carries a single 7.:::: 7 PORTAL FRAME BRIDGE DESIGN EXAMPLE 7.46m wide.overall form of the structure is a portal frame. and provide a 6m vertical clearance below the soffit of the bridge. with 1.765m centres.~_:. a solid slab deck has been chosen. Because of the short span. the same as the soffit of the deck slab. The .
Om vertical cleartlltce 11.2. 0111 Deo. 4.. Om at bottol1l Dll1Ielfs/olfs Single dear 8fdlt = 1. 0111 Pdse wldtlt 0111 bc/se tlticf\ness Wal! thlc/. 0111 tOf tit 2.etailleti soil Is grallHldrf/11 With ¢' = 35° tllld Hllit weight y = 20kN/1113• Tireexlst/llg groulld below tire Pdse of the dblltmeltt wdlls Is till tlilowtlb/e Petlnltg fRfSSllre of 250kN/I1f. width = 11. rj 6.t!t$$/s 1..PORTAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 61 PORTAL f/SM1t INlEgML 13RIDqt A13tfTJv1t. Om Overall lelfgth of structure tit decl: !et/e/ = 14m R.811! Verticd! c/etlrtllfce = 6.0m t 1. wltlr .NT tieVtltlOlf Q{Prltfge 1:125 Note: Ptlrafet tllfd sct(etlf bdmer IfOt sltown.2. lffeJllIlH dense 8t1l1ddlld grtlVe/.
i ! _. and so are included in the calculation... 7. _ _.~~.. The movement required to mobilise this soil pressure is calculated here. whereas HA is critical in the other design examples. . Active forces on the other abutment are of similar magnitude to the longitudinal traffic force on this type of bridge.. _ _I . This reduction will be seen to be advantageous in the calculations for bending moment in the wall.~.. so the passive pressure coefficient is slightly reduced from the value of 6 which would apply to a vertical abutment.. to check that the abutment has adequate capaci ty to resist the longitudinal loads without excessive movements.~ ~~ ~. BA 42/96 gives values to be used for ~ for inclined as well as vertical abutments. BA 42/96 gives the following pressure distribution on the back of a wall abutment: In order to calculate the movement needed to generate the required horizontal load._ . Note that HB loading is critical for this short bridge.. .. This bridge has an inclined back face to the abutment. ~. .2 LONGITUDINAL CAPACITY Longitudinal bridge loads are resisted by the soil pressure behind the abutment wall.. the top half of this diagram will be assumed to be available to resist longitudinal forces at deck level.
X 1 r40kN = 450kN + fL K.PORTAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 63 2tep 1: HonZO!ftal lttovel11etlt Tlte10!fgitudi!ftllItigitwtl'l lotlds to pe resisted 17'1 tlputment are Ctllcultlterilit accordaltcewitlt tlte 8D3?/88: Clause 6.* 't. .00103x7.10.1 0.s).5 to K (tlg gpecif/edil18A 4.05H)04 X5 d/H = Q00103 4 = 0. wit/cit /& of c cOII&ItiemfacceptaNt.0 = 450kN TorsJl1fp/icltlj.008111 :.2 = 3.2 NOl11ilfal load H8 = 25 % x 45uHits X(4 X 10kN) = 450 kN l!f tlti& case. tlte tOt Italf oftlte wall Itas aHetlrtlt tre&&ure coefficient of K~ H = 8Ht apovetlte ba&e 80 10llgitudlHtliforcf2 wilipe tl8&umeti to be reg/ued hI tlte top H/. Tor btlckfill witlt 1" = 350 BA 42/96 gives K.* X 0. H8 i& critlca! $/. tI$$I(l11e pres&ure from top htllf of wall resists tlte 10lfgltudlnalload Takingtire treS3lfre diagram from 8A 42/96.* = 1.a yh~fo K. 9m)~ X 11. 9111)2 )(11.46111 K* X.* X 12 X .9111 r.00103H = 0.8Ht = 0. 870kN = 450kN + 470kN K..27 x20kN/11f3 X (3.20kN/m3 x (3.5 X 1r40kN = 450kN + fL X 0 . tlnti ttffltlt/lfg to tlte 2L..1 NOl11ilfal load HA = 8I{N/1tt X 14111 + 250kN = 362 kN Clause 6.06 = (d/o. 46#1 Atpll(/lfg Ym= 0.210!fgitudlHtllload = 450kNXYfL = 450)(1.*Xl?40kN = K.2/96 for resistilfg brak/llg force. iongltutilnalltlgitwa'f lotldlng CtltlSIJS 1110Vemellm about 8Ht111rt tlte tlhrtments. H/2 20/1prl!$$ure = I(*yz $ol! re&l&ttlHCeforce = Yt I(*ylt~ b = K. 06 1$re1Jfire4to re&/st longitudinal loads. = 5 for tin tlbutment witlt 100 fOfWtlr4 lne/lnatlon K* = 1.$lton'zoIftt/1 force plu8 tlte tlctlVe $Oilpre&&ure 011 otlter abut#lellt: tlte K.
The derivation of temperature difference loading and the creep restraint moment are explained over the next few pages. The computer model would thus become a 3D frame model rather than a grillage.7. For this analysis. it is suggested that a standard grillage model for the deck be extended to include the abutment wall and an elastic representation of the soil stiffness. An alternative method of approach would be to assess the stiffness of the retaining wall and its retained soil by using a soil mechanics program. Values for horizontal and rotational stiffness at the top of the wan could be obtained and springs with these stiffnesses could be included at the ends of a standard grillage model of the deck. For guidance on appropriate values of spring stiffnesses for this type of model. Detailed deck design calculations are not included in this example. However. a midrange value of 80MN/m2 has been used. It is clear that the moment restraint provided by the abutments at the ends of the span will be important in the deck design. see (for example) Hambly: "Bridge Deck Behaviour"?". A simple two dimensional version of a possible model is illustrated opposite as an example. As well as live loads. The horizontal stiffness of the soil is modelled by linear elastic (Winkler) springs. as they are also required for the abutment design. This suggests a range of Young's modulus of 40 to 120MN/m2 for material with <p' = 35° at 10m depth. The walls are thicker than the deck. The main difficulty is in the assessment of the combined stiffness of the wall and the retained soil. and are therefore significantly stiffer. It is worth noting that the worst case for sagging moment at midspan will always include the creep restraint moment. to give a sufficiently realistic representation of the soil stiffness to estimate the effect of the abutment on the span moments. . both temperature and creep restraint loads have to be applied to the computer model.3 DECK DESIGN The bridge deck is rigidly connected to the top of the wall abutments in this bridge.
vdf1jlllg linetlrir wltlt dejJ'th k = fA/L = (80MN/m2 = 1._ ~ r _ PORTAL BRIDGE EXA\1PLE 65 Stet 2: Deck deEidtt Tor #fe deck deglgl!. tI sttlttdtlrd grllMge model IttiS PeenexPelldedInto tltree dlmellslollE to Ittclude tlte tlPlrtmettt wtlll tlnd till eklztlc retrfJ8enttltlon oftlte $011.#1tof ( 10m.#h X. 8tif/J1e&3eS Ittlve peffHdllocdted to etlelt 8tnng Ptlud 011 NOc/(8 0(80. . A slltIfle two dlhfenslol1t11 version of tltiS 1110de/ (retresentll1g a 1m widtlt of forldgetlnd dfoutl11ettt)/E sltOWI1foe/ow.23111 tlfoove80fflt. de.! 1111md'e. z/10m) X.6MN/m2 x. put!s not pr(fSfJllted lIere./O""g $ Modulus Of 80 MN /m 2 IttiB peen tI£&umed tor the SOil tit a de. Tlte Itor/zonttll Etif/HfJ$8 oftlte sOil Is hfodel/ed hi flve //nedr eidEtic (\IVJnk!elj Stril1gs.1001H foe/owcentroid a. H = 7: 8#t. Tlte(ollow!lIg re&u/ts (rom FIfedeck des!gll and retfJflredItlter III tlte tlfolltmffttt de8igll etllcu/tlt/olls" Tor edclt T'15 foedl11.033MNm 2.08 MN after trtlns(er /0&&8& 0. fievtltloll of COhf/'11ler fode/ h of deck tllld tlPtrtltlenfg Tor tire tlfoKtl11enmwith height.stlff!te88. (1m X. 1.' DL momMt gDL moment Prestre8$/ng force at eeeMtrleltif = = = = = 0223MNIH o. 1. 1.56m)/ 7: 8m Deck deslgll Ctll1110W troceed In tlte lIorhfdl Wtlf.561111t1gh(H/5 = 8trlllg sttlcil1g used 011 tlfls 1H0del) tllld 7:&1 1000gH) A .
the walls of this bridge have been made very thick... .. .. = 5. The inclined back of the abutment wall allows the use of K. which gives similar results to published charts. a version of the diagram relating soil pressure coefficient to movement published in the CBDG report is reproduced overleaf.. a compressible filler can be placed against most of the back of the wall. BA 42/96 gives information on how ~ varies with wall inclination._. .. The increase in soil pressure behind the abutment can be estimated using the formula in BA 42/96. .71 calculated according to BA 42/96 on the opposite page.__. _ ._.. However.. would require a sophisticated analysis of the soil pressure. Pending further research. In this case this gives a value ofK* over twice what would be appropriate for a single movement. In order to be able to resist these high pressures.. . but this should not have serious cost implications.. .. and it is possible that it may be revised in the future... the mechanisms involved in repeated small strains in the soil are not well understood... however. this design example is intended to demonstrate that it is possible to produce a simple and economic portal frame integral bridge design strictly in accordance with BA42/96._... _ .. It is believed that pressures can increase after many hundreds of cycles.. redrawn for K... = 5. _ . and the effect ofmany hundreds ofloading cycles may be impossible to predict. A single movement of 3mm at the top of an abutment would lead to a soil pressure coefficient K* = 0... This solution. There are various methods available to reduce the soil pressure on the back of the wall._ . This minimum value may be conservative... __ ... It will be seen that the calculated movement for this short bridge is very near the lefthand edge of the diagram. To illustrate this point.... the Highways Agency have specified a lower limit on K * of one third of~.just allowing the soil to act directly against the top 2m.7.. so that the pressure is relieved by flexure of the wall. I 7. rather than the value of~ = 6 which would be appropriate to a vertical wall._. For instance. Unfortunately. This is very similar to the value of 0. I i I i . Another alternative is to design the wall to be flexible. Soil pressures based on ~/3 are much higher than would be used for a standard retaining wall of similar height.._ .4 LOADS FOR ABUTMENT DESIGN Thermal expansion Thermal expansion causes outward movement of 3mm at the top of each abutment...
TiresolllreSSllre for wit/cit #te aPlrtl11ent wall 111118t foedes/glted /8 denved tlccord/ltg to BA 42/96: Movel11eltt at to!. Of l ( lJacltalwtftfellt.0. wltlclt sleclflesd 8trtlilt / Totdl exptlltSlolt forwltole leltgtlt = 0.5H)o.50. 0.0. altd IIItJforl11trlJ$$lIre over tlte foottoftt Ittl/f..0. = 5 for ¢' = 35 tlud 1G° fOIW4rd /1te/lltatlOIl 0 1(* = (d/o. 8#r ?4.111 Tltef11fdlflX/ltlItSIOI1callslJ8 tll11aX/HfIlI11Of 511f11f1fovel1flJl1tr0111tfte Hfetllt !.0.B8/ve/lrlJ88l1re c0efficlel1t.42 = = 0. Wltlt 1(* = 1.50. 0.67 tor #terl11al expanSion load cOHlfoinatlolt&. H = . K.5 will foedlliled.osltlol1 tit tfte to!.0.0.4 KI' = 0.0. dgtl/It tl$ gleclfled 111 BA 42/96. Note tltat f'rlJ$$ure I1lJVereduclJ8 dS ftlr tiS 1(0' ror #te tlLf3 IUdd COfttfoltl4tlOIl8. (i) Tel11/'flrtltllreflX/ltlltslOIl Tltls 1000dlltds Mllelt (rom l3A 42/96..PORTAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 67 Tlterl11t1lfXIJtlltsltJHdudcotrtr4CFI0!! IOddcofttPitlt/tIO!!s VdrlOIl$ lotlds tlefJdto foeC4/cllhtfJd to foellud lit #tese IOddC0l11fo1l14tlOlts. tlte $OI!f'regzllre dltlgml11glvelt III BA 42/96 wl!1foe 1I$etf.111 AfollFl11enFltelgJrt.0. d = 0.59111 of 0.42 x 14111 Honzolttdl htovehteltt dt e4cH IJHd = #)( 0.6 r for tlte tOt Italf of tlte wdll.67 /(0= 0.z.5 . K*= 1. of wall. o.. TIt/s 1110Vel11IJltt causes alt IltcrlJ(jse lit 8()1!/lrlJ88l1re. 0.1Idrtldl 104d r fdctorYfL of 1.143)(/(1' =0. 0.00..71 But BA 42/96 s/'flcif!1J8 al111itlHlIIHlvalne for tlte trlJ$$#re cotltle/eltt: 111/II/HlIII11 = KI' /3 K* = 1.59111 0.
010 0.._.I.. and displacement of the abutment (d).015 0.~ ~.19MNm on the width of one TY5 beam.025 0. _. ~...020 0. ". Based on the diagram in the CBDG report on Integral Bridges''!'..0002 dIH Relationship between K*. Creep restraint moment The permanent moment at midspan is due to prestress...y. The total effect of these components is calculated opposite to be a hogging moment ofO. which itself can be approximated to a uniform moment equal to the midspan moment..{"\.{. dead load and superimposed dead load.. ".. As explained in Section 2. _.a~_I~ . .~._ ~ ._.\.I. the eccentricity of the prestress has to be recalculated for the composite centroid. . the creep restraint moment can be approximated to 75% of the overall permanent moment in the deck... ._ .u. the creep restraint moment can be estimated very simply yet with reasonable accuracy. . __ !) . . ._ ~ ~.._.  ! K* ~=5 4 3 2 K/3 1 HJ2 I I d H . ~~ ~~. . .ulU\...~'l'T'<''FORDn'''S'l"1l'1::'t'<'LT'Ia.7 0..M.005 dJH = 0.~1a. __ £8 'h~GRAL·A"'''lTl.T~·''B!'D~·_· 1r11~ . ~. retained height (H)..~~~... .. In order to find the moment on the composite section. .D......>Id I I I I K* = 0.... . °r _ _  .&dJ_. ~.LJ.. In this way. For prestress design the eccentricity of the prestress is measured from the centroid of the precast beam alone.
27.. 8dgglllg) = 0.215/11.446 ~ 0.223 ~0. for a widtlt Of 0.123 = 0.223 MNm (DL mOflffJlft. 08MN X 0..8l1metito caee« the &011 fre$$ure to fall to the actlvefresslfre. $011pr(f$$ure dlagrtlHffor the a/?fItfltelft wal/' /(tJ =0. &: 1 ?el'l11dllentIfoggingmOl1felft = 2. !toggilfg) ~ 0.14 MNm fer bedl11 = 0. Tltecreeprestm/l1t mOflfelftz at Me el1e/sof tlte e/eckw. r65m = 0.19 MNm/m widtltofdeck . 190MNm R.033 MNm (3DL momell#. Thecalclliatiolf /e pased Olftlte mOl1felft8at l1fid~sf1alf. 08MN.27 (iii) ComPillat/oll 3 deckIMda TlrelMd case wIt/ch giv8$ the max/l1flfm HLS hogg/lldI1fOl1fellf8at the elldB of the Bpall has peell selected (rom the deckallallfsl&.2.BtlggllIg) ~ 0. Thefrestregg in eachbeal1fat Hfld8j7alfIs . afflied O. ThlfB Mel'l11alCOlltract/OIlal80 Ca1f88$a max/mUHf of 3mm movemellt from the mean1'08/tloll at the tOf of Mclt aputmelft.2 3m abovetlfe soffit. r. 14MNHf / 0.. with /(tJ = 0.8$tmlllt omellt = 75 % X 0.1..033 = 0.190MNm m = 0. 215m (presFrfJ$$. Tlfeeccelftricittt(rom the comfosite celltrold Is (0'6r5/ 2)~ 0. Tlfef8!1Halfent moment at midsl'd#. Thermalcontmctiolf 18a&. Th/BIHVoivesHA load with the kll/feedgeload at mldBpall.PORTAL BRIDGE EXA'vIPLE 69 (Ii) Tltermal colltmctiOll Tltemagllitude of tlte thermal contract/oil /B the Btlme aB that of therHfal 8XjJaffs/on.r6511t or OlfeT'f5 beal11.!1pe CcI/clllated011 tlte d88l1mptl0I1tltat Melf wi/I grddllaillf PII/le/llf to 5 % of tlte ferHfalfent moment ilf tlte deck.
_. .. . although the effect is very small..~l .. IL~. '" .. .._. The axial and moment components of each block are calculated and added together to give the total axial restraint force.II ! _._. To obtain the righthand diagram.. these are multiplied by the coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete. . and are not presented. .. J . . ". . __ .. . For convenient calculation.. ... and the Young's modulus for concrete (here assumed to be a uniform 34000 Nzmm/). .... .._ . __ '''~'''~". . ~..  __ ._. ._.~~."~ . to obtain the stresses that would occur in a fully restrained deck. . ~._  ~~. .. Calculations use the same method as for positive temperature difference. which gives diagrams for temperature distribution throught the thickness of the deck for both positive and negative temperature differences. and the total restraint moment Negative temperature differences cause a small amount of sagging in the deck._." __  Temperature differences The lefthand diagram is taken from Figure 9 ofBD 37/88. the stress distribution has been divided into four blocks.
090r 0.2 3 4 A 0. ThemomeHt retjJflretito restrtlill the ded. = La T = 34000 X.r05MN/m Arcr o.20 asri tj 0.262 0. 7'05 MN/m 1$re/i~ed fotjlengthening Of the deck.~ .15 0.1PLE 71 (~ Temperaturedif!ef'fJIfce& FogitlVe Pemperaturedifferellce wifl Ctlll8C#fe deck to trtj to hog..2 2.0244 0.20Jif 8tregseg ill folllj rf!8tmilled decK a k~02(){M... Both Of th8&e e(fectz tire tredted in the httlnner of rix. 12x.r05 Load$ to COHffutermode/.21 a 1.' .6 Aa 018 0315 01.++..288 01.04r2 0.2 0. 128MNm/m 045 Tottlls: ThetlX/til force of 0.alld ctilculaPeif(ectg Oil 1m width of $Iap: 0.2".28 MNHf/ m width Ofded. 00. i1fQIH(flftefeti2e = 0. Divide ditlgrtlHf illto four PlocK$. Therestraint moment is 0. TheteHffertltllre distn'Plltioll tJrrollgh the $olld ziti" decKis ttlKM (rom 8D 3r/88..edend htoment8 ~ Theforce tllld mOlHent tire flrstltj considered tiS intenttll effects In tire deck onlr..10·6T 1 .0145 0.1 0. tire results (rom tlrege two stages oft/re tlHaIJj$I$are tldded. 128MNlHillf r ~ !lX/tll re!etlu = MN/IH o. lIeedz to foectllcllltited.09 Q.  PORTAL BRIDGE EXAJ\. .1.15 0. tlnd tlren e.20 0.tJftlltlnd OJ7fost'teorces and f l1fOHlentstire til/lied to the cOHffuter Hfode! filltillr.
51 MNmlm I 0. Bending moment diagrams for the three conditions analysed are shown below: 0. so the horizontal soil springs have been removed from the computer modeL Thus the model is supported only by pins at the wall bases..·. which represents 1m width of deck and abutment.47 MNmim / (a) (c) . In order to keep this design example simple.72 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS FOR PRESTRESSED BEAM BRIDGES· 7.21 MNmlm I c 1/ (b) \ 1. so appropriate partial factors are included in the analysis. results are presented here from a two dimensional portal frame model.5 ABUTMENT DESIGN The soil pressure is treated as an applied force in these load cases. The design of these walls is carried out at ULS. Elevation of computer model used for this part of the analysis Three conditions have been analysed to find the maximum moments and shears in the abutment walls.
li Yf'1.PORTAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 73 ThreePt/s/c ca$lJ$ are allal1jsed' a) LOt/d HA gPL $oIIK* Thermal expal1Sl011 NegaFlve Fel11fdlff Thef111al evaltglolt altd cOmPlltaFlolI3 loadg K.1 1.*= 1.50 1.~=0. 13MNI1f/11f tem!. t Max.50 1.1 1. alit! wall.25 Yp __fttI__ •• ~__ ••••• 1.1 1.67 1.8F &1ggllfg momeHt at tftejlllletioll of tire deck and wall.00 1.47 MNHf/m . This mOJ+teltt a glv8$ telt&iOlf aF #Ie pack of#le wall.1 1.00 Tlt18glve8 tfte lHaX/I11Um PClfd/lfgmoment III tfte wall. Tft/s moment gives telfsiolf at tlte (mitt oftfte wall.1 1.1 1.. 1. wit/cit ocao» at aPollt l11idhe/glrt..30 1.00 1.00 1.1 K. ClW/. MOl11entat tOf of wall = 0. 21 MN/1f/m c) Load gPL 3M K* Tlterm(l/ expansion Posit/ve tel11l'dlff Creel' ('e8tm/ltt Tltermal evalls/oll al1dminimum pni:lge 1000tig YtL Yf3 0. Mom8l!t at tOf of wpll = 0.51 MNm/ m p) Load $PL SoIIK" Tftermp/ contracFioH CreeprestrallfF Ther!HalcOlltmetloll Plld !HllIll11umlOt/ds "if'1.50 1.2? Tftese/oCld&give tfte WO!'.67 ThIS Cdse glve£ #Ie mtiX/l11tf!Hftoggll1g!HOl11eltFt tltejllnct/on of the Jed.+ +.1 .75 1.1 1..1 K* = 1. Tlr18 pelld/ltg 1110IHettt gives tell:!JIOII111he front face of the wall..1 1.00 1.30 1.00 Yf3 1.o 19MNm/m 1. mOlHent aF a('('rox. anti III #e PoffOl11of the tied.1 1. mid Ite/glft = 1.1 1.00 1.1 K.
__ .. Note that there is overall compression in the wall. The reinforcement in the wall must be detailed so that the starter bars coming through the construction joint do not get in the way of the precast beam erection process. so they should be reasonably easy to position on top of the walls: I ' j c=) __________ I I I I ../ Construction joint Position of TY5 beam Seating length on wall = 400mm Note web hole for transverse steel T20 @J50 T25@ 150 front/ace T20@150 backface .J I . due to the dead load of the deck and the self weight of the wall._ _. and a real design will need a more extensive set of calculations.. the reinforcement indicated here is sufficient to satisfy these criteria as well as the ultimate moment capacity.... ULS shear and SLS crack widths should be checked. This fact can be used to reduce the reinforcement requirement slightly.> I I I II I ____________ .'~l . In particular.~ J I ._ The design of the reinforced concrete wall follows the requirements of BS 5400: Part 4. However.. The beams on this bridge do not have projecting bars at the ends.... Indicative calculations only are given here...
8.0111 d = O.2.87'frz) = 1.2..51/(400xO. ProVide T25@1.." In front face ofwtll/ Forreinforcel11entill Ptlck of wtlll.8S of 1..' (/t fo = 1.e1nforcel11lJnt Infront ftlce M" = 1.5001112/111 = 1.25111 InititJIestil11t1te of lever tlfl11 R.PORTAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 75 Wall dWOIf Tirereilfforcel11entdesign for tlte wtlllE folloWE tlte ret{fflrel11entsof 8$5400: Design for ULS bending IE In accordance wltlt cMIIEe5. Part 4. 0111at top tIt = 30 N/1111112 Z = 0. The cn'tictll(Joint for the reinforcement In the front oftlte WtllllE tlt aPollt I11ldlteigltt: P = LOI11 d = L 4111 tltfroxfor wall tltid. 85/1f ill/tid/ (JBtll11tltlJf lever arl11 o M" =Q51MN/1f/111 A" = M. l11ol11ent tlte tot IE critictli.4r/(400 X 1.87'frz)= o.001.3.ne./(0.47MNI11/111 A" = M#/(0.5)= 0.5001111112/111 ..5/1f at l11idltelgitt "' = 30 N/1111112 Z = 1.5)= 0.. 94m for wtlll tltlcknt$$ of 1.50 = 327'01111112/. Provide T20@150 = 2090/1f/1f2/111 IHPtlckofWtl// .0029401112/111 = 29401111112/111 .
and sagging reinforcement in the infill between the beams. Details are shown on the sketches below: T20@150 '""1 I I I 3T25 between beams Note transverse steel through web holes Part crosssection through end of deck.76 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTs FQRPREsTREssED BEAM BRIDGES Continuity for both hogging and sagging moments must be provided at the connection between the deck and the wall. . This can be achieved without using any reinforcement projecting from the ends of the beams. Hogging moment reinforcement can be placed in the topping. showing position of continuity reinforcement.
0.25 (14r0I11m.. r65m.tilf{orCel1fellt tlte to!' oftlte deck CdI1 pe prot/gnt dowl1to lap wiM Me Ptlck reit!(orcemel1t:il1Me 111 wall to reslzt tne nogglitg lfIomelft Tor tne Bteef in tlte deck: P = 1.f"6511t wide deckgect:iOlf: k d = o.55)= M.3T. = o. Om d = 0.8jJtlcil1gz P i 0.51/(400 0.21 MNIfI/m R. 40)= :..r65111 = 0. z) = 0.0 .16/(400 x 0. eo ctllcltftlte ztcef retfllired (or eelclt0.002320 m2/111 2/m = 2320111#f (2090 I1/m2/m) tit tlte elldz Wdfl reit!(orcemel1t i& tit 150lflm cel1t:res.40m Ht2/111 = 1000111m2/m Mil = 0. 8rt.eo provide T20@150 of tlte deck lit tldditiolf to Hfe81tlit tlte toffil1(j..51 MNIfI/11f S:!(j(jil1(j = 0. S:!gging rei!1forc8m8nt will foe frovided PIf btlrs in Me il1f!!1cOIfcretepetween tile T'15 ketlm~ to dvoid Me lIec(f$$it'l of ItdVil1fJ tlrg frotrtldlitfJ from t:lte elldg of tlte PfJtll118 Betll11.55m (il1ititll est:imdte) X.51MNIfI/11f 7'4 2 = Mg/(o' 8f"~ z) = 0. Provide .t ) betweelf &Iclt betllff 0.6m (ctlfcnftlti0lf8 tire Ptl8ed 011 tl 1m widtlt of decl(tll1d wtlff) til Z = = 40 N/1fI1fI2 0.II T020641 0000211 669 II PORTAL BRIDGE EXAMPLE 77 ConnectionpetweClt waff qntltleck Tlti8 comer cOl1l1ection I1fn8t pe designedfor II li3 molflel1t8 of Hoggil1(j = 0. 001000 .f"65111X.. 45111 deptlt Jf btlm be/ow zltr(tlce of deck t" = 40 N/I11Ht2 Z = 0./(o....21MNm/1fI = 016MNm As = M.
A freestanding retaining wall has to be checked for various possible types of failure. and under what loading conditions.2).2. The main design parameters are: • Minimum surcharge of lOkN/m2 will be applied at ground level behind the abutment (clause 3. including overturning. • Drainage will be installed behind the base of the wall. the soil pressures behind the wall increase. M.6m will be assumed in front of the wall (clause 3. it is necessary to consider carefully which of these checks are required. the base of the retaining wall has been considered to be pinned. Note however that the propping force will cause extra compression in the deck that should be allowed for in its design. as these pressures only occur as a reaction to the wall moving towards the soil. • Additional unplanned excavation ofO.2. the fact that the wall is moving away from the soil allows the use of active soil pressures for the analysis. Forces are calculated for the area inside the dotted lines. However. by checking the stability of the retaining wall. It is now time to confirm that this assumption is justified. 7. and overall slip circle instability. of 1. as the top ofthe retaining wall is propped by the deck slab. 7S "INTEGRALABUTMENTS_IUR hESTRESSEPBEAM B_RIOOEL_ . the possibility ofsliding occurs when the wall moves away from the soil (for instance under thermal contraction). the base does not have to be checked for resistance to sliding under these soil pressures.2. . sliding. For this bridge abutment. Overturning Overturning is impossible in this situation._. Sliding Sliding of the base is the governing criterion for the design of the wall.2).6 STABILITY OF RETAINING WALL Until this point in the calculations. bearing capacity. which go vertically upwards from the front and back of the base. so water pressures will not figure in the calculations.2 (clause 3. Under thermal expansion of the bridge.2. Deformations in service are limited by using a mobilisation factor. • Sliding is an ultimate limit state failure condition.2. The forces on the retaining wall are summarised on the diagram opposite. As for standard retaining walls. to which the clause numbers below and opposite refer.5). In contrast. Retaining wall sliding stability should be checked in accordance with BS8002(2).
sin tfJ')/(1 + SiH tfJ') 1y KF = 1II\~ Base friction (ciaHu = 0.3.3 K~ = (1 .1PLE 79 31idiffd stahlltlj Q(reMil1ll@ wall 1984. 5 x desigll Mil rtl Degign 3 = .6) D(J8ign Fan 0 = 0.2111/2) x 0.2* .2 = 0.2) =3..8m overall heig/tt 0.8#1 x: 24kN/m3 = 1151(N/m width 115kN / 111eckWeiglrt d Q 8111 r deck.0 3.2.1'00/ 1..2: wall T\q'Jreseffftltlve MH cp' :.8#1 thick (inc/Hdingsurfacing) W = (1.584 o'rOO/M 0 = 30.Inc/HdingSUrfaCing 1111 8.33 (clatlse 3.4* 11111 ' . 438 Pemltllfent weight of decl(acting on walliE weiglrt Of half the 1.etaiHing staNlitlj will be checkediHaccordaHcewith 83800. DfJ$igl1 tall tfJ' De$igH tall tfJ' = tall 35° = = = o.23.rOO 0.3. 6111ulfflal1l1edffX. R.2111 sfan of a $I(lp 0.PORTAL BRIDGE EXN.6 ° r = 0.CfJvatioll 0.
Slip circle failure is not considered further here. The vertical and horizontal forces on a Im wide section of deck are calculated opposite. which is not the case in this example.. Passi ve resistance from the shallow depth of soil in front of the abutment has also been ignored.. as it can for retaining walls. as overturning is prevented. . so the base has adequate sliding resistance. although in reality a significant forward movement of the abutment would be required to mobilise this force. The beneficial effects of soil friction on the back of the abutment have conservativel y been ignored... and this check is therefore straightforward... This again is conservative. However. The failure mode envisaged is rotation of the wall about the top. Bearing pressure Bearing capacity under the base of the wall needs to be checked. It is normally only a significant consideration when there is an underlying weaker soil layer._... Overall slip circle failure Overall slip circle failure could occur in integral bridge abutments. Moments are therefore taken about the point of rotation. where it is propped by the deck.··~~~l . a uniform bearing pressure can be assumed. ~. The resistance moment from base friction is found to be well in excess of the active moment.
.eslstllltceIs well III ex.33)( 20 X(8.4#{ X 20kN/1113 = r54kN/1H tottll AdlVe Horlzolltalforces: (.5kN/1I1 + 1.500 + 130 = 1630kNm/1I1 MOIl1C11t ofslklllfg re&/sttlltce M~ = VttllIolt = 643kN/mx = 2480 kNm/1H for 0.8)2 + 0.0111)( 10kN/m2 + r. = 1j: /(" y h2 + Ka tth = = = 1fi)( 0.50 kN/m~ tlHd18 therefore stltl$ftlctorlf. .&t x 1.5kN/1I1 (PtI&) 96kN/1I1 (SOl!011 toe) 8)::N/1I1 Vertictllforces: V = 2.ce&& slMllf! force. 0111 24kN/1113 X + IO#{)( o. 80 take momt'lftz tlPout tlte to!.5111 20kN/1113 X + r.0 = 189kN/m2 Tltls 181e&&t/ttllf tire tlllowllNe Pearilfdrressllre of 2. of Belln'trgCtltllcltlf Tottll vert/CtJI force Olttire IlPutmellt Willifootlllift V = r..'..8111)( 1.54kN/m WIdth of Pase = 4.0111)( 4.8 2.5111)(241(N/m3 + 11..PORTAL BRIDGE EXA"'fl'LE 81 Calcultlteforces 011 wltitft 1m of wtlll: (sllrchtlrge) 20kN/m (soil) 234kN/1H (willI) 281kN/1I1 (tied:) 11. 33 Xl 0 X 8.81# . Bellrilfdrressllre = r54/4. Om .: MOll1efft of tld/ve forces IlPoutlolltt of rottltloll Ma = 256kN)( 2h/3 + 29kN xh/2 = 1. of Me wtlll (wltlclt ISlrolped P tlte dect).56 + 29 285kN/m Assume tlttlt slldlhg falillre w01l1d CPIf rotatlolt IlPout tlte to!.438)(8. 80 de&lgltIs tldetfJftlte. R.
 . HIGHWAYS AGENCY BD 37/88.8runGER _ . BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION BS 8002: 1994: Code of practice for earth retaining structures BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION BS 8004: 1984: Code of practice for foundations HIGHWAYS AGENCY BA 42/96. concrete and composite bridges 2: 1978: Specification of loads 3: 1982: Code of practice for design of steel bridges 4: 1990: Code of practice for design of concrete bridges 2. HIGHWAYS AGENCY BD 42/94. BRITISH BS 5400: Part Part Part STANDARDS INSTITUTION Steel. HAlvlBLY. 1997. . Design of integral bridges The Stationery Office.. CLARK. 1989. 4. 1991. 9. 1994. NICHOLSON. EMERSON.1997. TRRL Laboratory Report 696. L A and SUGIE. Design of embedded retaining walls and bridge abutments (unpropped or propped at the top) The Stationery Office.82 INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS_FDKPRESTRESSED: BEAM. 5. 1996. 10. l Serviceability limit state aspects of continuous bridges using precast concrete beams peA. Transport Research Laboratory. 1976. E C and NlCHOLSON. Crowthome. ~ 8 REFERENCES 1. __ .. B A Simple bridge design using prestressed beams PCA. Loads for highway bridges The Stationery Office. 6. 3. 7. M Bridge temperatures estimated from the shade temperature Department of Transport. 8. B A Prestressed beam integral bridges peA.
15. A R Steel Bearing Piles Guide The Steel Construction Institute. PADFIELD. B A. 1997. 16. 1984. J 7. 1983. Creep and shrinkage studies Portland Cement Association. . 13. JONES. 14. Illinois. 1961. LA Concrete bridge design to BS 5400 Cons truction Press. 5. ELSON. J M. R S. 1997. 1984. C J F P and TAYLOR. IITCKMAN. BIDDLE. BRITISH STEEL Piling I Iandbook Seventh Edition. NICHOLSON. BARR. MATTOCK. 1997.83 II. C J and MAIR. 1985. HPJ J ntegral Bridges: Report of a study tour of North America Concrete Bridge Development Group. COOKE. Skokie. 12. R P. W K Report 103: Design of laterallyloaded piles ClRIA. R J Report 104: Design of retaining walls in stiff clays CIRIA. CLARK. wi th supplement. A H Precast prestressed concrete bridges.
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