CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship LIFE SCIENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Molecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology Cellular Organization Fundamental Processes Cell Communication and Cell Signaling Developmental Biology System Physiology – Plant System Physiology – Animal Inheritance Biology Diversity of Life Forms Ecological Principles Evolution and Behavior Applied Biology Methods in Biology

E. heterochromatin. secondary structure. lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion. I. colligative properties). nucleus. mechanism of enzyme catalysis. fidelity of replication. etc. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot. endoplasmic reticulum. their regulation. t-RNA. electrostatic. hydrogen bonding. osmosis. Golgi bodies. transcription activator and repressor. micro-RNA). Metabolism of carbohydrates. RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery. coupled reaction.1. interrupted genes. A) FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES DNA replication. active transport. A) CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Membrane structure and function (Structure of model membrane. lysosomes. plastids.electrical properties of membranes). Microbial Physiology (Growth yield and characteristics. oxidative phosphorylation. B Composition.). Z). repair and recombination (Unit of replication. J. hydrophobic interaction. Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall. vacuoles. Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A. reaction kinetics. peroxisomes. enzymes and enzyme kinetics. lipids. molecules and chemical bonds. DNA damage and repair mechanisms. membrane pumps. ion channels. stress response) B) C) D) E) 3. structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility). steps in cell cycle. lipids. D Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH. C. 2. group transfer. euchromatin. RNA polymerases. structure of chromatin and chromosomes. Principles of catalysis. MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY A. F. extrachromosomal replicons. buffer. thermodynamics. replication origin and replication fork. B. isozymes G. Organization of genes and chromosomes (Operon. glycolysis. nucleic acids and vitamins). domains. H. formation of initiation complex. Bioenergetics. mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport. enzymes involved. Structure of atoms. unique and repetitive DNA. gene families. proteins. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals. amino acids nucleotides and vitamins. B) . enzyme regulation. Stability of proteins and nucleic acids. regulation and control of cell cycle). mitochondria. homologous and site-specific recombination). chloroplast. biological energy transducers. Cell division and cell cycle (Mitosis and meiosis. motif and folds). capping. strategies of cell division. transposons). structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates.

vaccines. alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens. pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants.translational modification of proteins). metastasis. cancer and the cell cycle. regulation of signaling pathways. extracellular matrix. generation of antibody diversity. tRNA-identity. RNA transport). virus-induced cancer. oncogenes. Toll-like receptors. cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells. MHC molecules. role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing). antigen processing and presentation. hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. activation and differentiation of B and T cells. C) and Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome. signaling through G-protein coupled receptors.elongation. monoclonal antibodies. elongation and elongation factors. aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. neurotransmission and its regulation. D) 4. apoptosis. cell surface receptor. antibody engineering. humoral and cellmediated immune responses. B) C) D) E) . structure and function of different types of RNA. initiation factors and their regulation. congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors. and translational proof-reading. the complement system. gap junctions. immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis). integrins. cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules. splicing. RNA processing. translational inhibitors. virus-induced cell transformation. antigens. and termination. B and T cell receptors. antigen-antibody interactions. genetic code. viruses into animal and plant host cells. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages. inflammation. bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing. primary and secondary immune modulation. parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections. light signaling in plants. Cell communication and cell signaling A) Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria. structure and function of antibody molecules. RNA editing. viruses. prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. cell-mediated effector functions. bacterial and plant twocomponent systems. aminoacylation of tRNA. interaction of cancer cells with normal cells. second messengers. general principles of cell communication. therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. B and T cell epitopes. Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Cancer Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells. signal transduction pathways. Post. polyadenylation. tumor suppressor genes. antigenicity and immunogenicity. formation of initiation complex. Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis. termination.

zygote formation. D. cryptochromes and phototropins. breakdown and transport. storage. photorespiratory pathway.5. establishment of symmetry in plants. C. alternate oxidase.Light harvesting complexes. differentiation of neurons. limb development and regeneration in vertebrates. amphibia and chick. cleavage. morphogenetic gradients. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes. Sensory photobiology . A. E. embryonic fields. Nitrogen metabolism . amino acid biosynthesis. cell fate and cell lineages. commitment. embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants. photoperiodism and biological clocks. genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants. blastula formation. D) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem. fertilization and early development: Production of gametes. competence. stomatal movement. shoot and root development. CO2 fixation-C3. induction. mutants and transgenics in analysis of development B) Gametogenesis. cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals. seed formation and germination. plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis. floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum E) Programmed cell death. axes and pattern formation in Drosophila. embryogenesis. leaf development and phyllotaxy. photoprotective mechanisms. physiological effects and mechanisms of action. organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. C) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals : Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium. specification.larval formation. aging and senescence 6.PLANT Photosynthesis . imprinting. determination and differentiation. C4 and CAM pathways. mechanisms of electron transport. . eye lens induction. sex determination. B. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY A) Basic concepts of development : Potency. transition to flowering. Respiration and photorespiration – Citric acid cycle. gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals. stem cells. post embryonic development. Plant hormones – Biosynthesis. environmental regulation of normal development.Nitrate and ammonium assimilation. metamorphosis.Structure.

chemical. acid-base balance. waste elimination. heart as a pump. J. through cells. gametogenesis. cardiac cycle.Neurons. mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates. G. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure. blood pressure. E. neural and chemical regulation of all above. Nervous system . haemostasis.Comparative physiology of excretion.Endocrine glands. ovulation. H. temperature and salt) stresses. neuroendocrine regulation B. plasma function. regulation of water balance. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake. F. haemopoiesis and formed elements. action potential. transport of gases. BMR. myogenic heart. ECG – its principle and significance. across membranes. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . neural and chemical regulation of respiration. exchange of gases. A.ANIMAL Blood and circulation . C. Excretory system . urine formation. blood groups.Blood corpuscles. gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord. 7. electrolyte balance. specialized tissue. blood volume regulation. urine concentration.Comfort zone. absorption. G. hearing and tactile response. phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles. basic mechanism of hormone action. blood pressure. H. acclimatization.Biosynthesis of terpenes.Vision. I. . body temperature – physical. hormones and diseases. waste elimination. blood volume. Thermoregulation . immunity. haemoglobin.Comparison of respiration in different species. energy balance. Respiratory system .Digestion. central and peripheral nervous system. transport and translocation of water. Sense organs . Secondary metabolites . anatomical considerations. Stress and adaptation Digestive system . kidney. transpiration.F. reproductive processes. D. neural control of muscle tone and posture. blood volume. neural regulation. micturition. solutes and macromolecules from soil. ions. Endocrinology and reproduction . through xylem and phloem. Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water.

adaptive modifications. biochemical. linkage and crossing over. conjugation. causes and detection. J) Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes : Deletion. gene interactions. lod score for linkage testing. QTL mapping. mutant types – lethal. development of mapping population in plants. B. conditional. ploidy and their genetic implications. INHERITANCE BIOLOGY A) Mendelian principles : Dominance. segregation. maternal inheritance. classical & quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants. transduction and sex-duction. E) Extra chromosomal inheritance : Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes. heritability and its measurements. genomic imprinting. sex linkage. duplication. incomplete dominance. inversion. Comparative anatomy. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular. insertional mutagenesis. mapping genes by interrupted mating. D) Gene mapping methods : Linkage maps. DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS: Principles & methods of taxonomy: Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa. F) Microbial genetics : Methods of genetic transfers – transformation. translocation. colonial and multicellular forms. K) Recombination : Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition. karyotypes. mapping by using somatic cell hybrids. biological nomenclature. fine structure analysis of genes. sex limited and sex influenced characters. loss of function. tetrad analysis. gain of function. H) Quantitative genetics : Polygenic inheritance. . I) Mutation : Types. phenocopy. organs & systems. penetrance and expressivity. pleiotropy. multiple alleles. pseudoallele.8. independent assortment. B) Concept of gene : Allele. Levels of organization of tissues. A. animals and microorganisms. adaptive radiation. 9. genetic disorders. mapping with molecular markers. G) Human genetics : Pedigree analysis. complementation tests C) Extensions of Mendelian principles : Codominance. germinal verses somatic mutants.

endangered species. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent. F. energy flow and mineral cycling (C. Organisms of health & agricultural importance: Common parasites and pathogens of humans. resource partitioning. Evolutionary relationships among taxa. population growth curves. community structure and attributes. Classification of plants. geographic origins and migrations of species. domestic animals and crops. ecosystem function. Ecological Succession: Types. primary production and decomposition. Organisms of conservation concern: Rare. animals and microorganisms. concept of climax. Comman Indian mammals. Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population. birds. age structured populations. herbivory. biotic environment. symbiosis. animals & microorganisms: Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. carnivory. Conservation strategies. structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest. theory of island biogeography.N. D. edges and ecotones. eustarine). Biogeography: Major terrestrial biogeographical zones of India. marine. interdemic extinctions. Species Interactions: Types of interactions. concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent. population regulation. niche width and overlap. . biomes. levels of species diversity and its measurement. fundamental and realized niche. pollination. Habitat and Niche: Concept of habitat and niche. Community Ecology: Nature of communities. Outline classification of plants. character displacement.C. changes involved in succession. mechanisms. 10.P). interspecific competition. biotic and abiotic interactions. E. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES The Environment: Physical environment. life history strategies (r and K selection). Ecosystem Ecology: Ecosystem structure. grassland) and aquatic (fresh water.

Biosphere reserves). Concept of Oparin and Haldane. Origins of unicellular and multi cellular organisms. Evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. Paleontology and Evolutionary History: The evolutionary time scale. Experiement of Miller (1953). origin of new genes and proteins.Applied Ecology: Environmental pollution. Conservation Biology: Principles of conservation. concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection. D. Sexual selection. Evolution of prokaryotes. monitoring and documentation. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Reciprocal altruism. biodiversity management approaches. Altruism and evolution-Group selection. classification and identification. Adaptive radiation. fitness and natural selection. Convergent evolution. Allopatricity and Sympatricity. B. Co-evolution. major drivers of biodiversity change. Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis. Origin of eukaryotic cells. Spontaneity of mutations. Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of behavior. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules. The first cell. Speciation. 11. Eras. Gene frequency. C. F. major approaches to management. periods and epoch. photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution. Darwin–concepts of variation. global environmental change. Major groups of plants and animals. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR Emergence of evolutionary thoughts Lamarck. Neural basis . Isolating mechanisms. Anaerobic metabolism. Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger. Mendelism. Brain. adaptation. migration and random genetic drift. Proximate and ultimate causation. Gene pool. E. biodiversity: status. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – Populations. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers. Stages in primate evolution including Homo. The evolutionary synthesis. Kin selection. A. molecular divergence and molecular clocks. Gene duplication and divergence. Molecular tools in phylogeny. Major events in the evolutionary time scale. struggle.

Transgenic animals and plants.of learning. G. vaccines. sleep and arousal. Migration. Breeding in plants and animals. Social dominance. Social communication. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules. Biological clocks. including marker – assisted selection Bioremediation and phytoremediation Biosensors C. orientation and navigation. Habitat selection and optimality in foraging. Domestication and behavioral changes. cognition. Use of space and territoriality. D. memory. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity. Aggressive behavior. Development of behavior. E. including gene therapy. B. molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification. Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals. diagnostics. Parental care. Mating systems. H. Application of immunological principles. F. 12. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture. Parental investment and Reproductive success. APPLIED BIOLOGY: A. .

METHODS IN BIOLOGY Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA . Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial. animal and plant vectors. DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. detection of post translation modification of proteins. D Statisitcal Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal. Errors. Detection of molecules using ELISA. t-test. in situ localization by techniques such as and GISH. . Molecular analysis using light scattering. A. different separation methods. Analysis of variance. Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics. RIA. separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules RFLP. DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins. etc. gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. Levels of significance. western blot. Basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics. Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level. cosmid.13. large scale expression. fluorescence. detection of molecules in living cells. circular dichroism. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques. Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Confidence Interval. fluocytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. immunoprecipitation. DNA sequencing methods. Analysis of RNA. different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods. NMR and ESR spectroscopy Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR. X2 test. BAC and YAC vectors. phage.. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid. Poisson and normal). Isoelectric focusing gels. Biophysical Method: FISH C Molecular analysis using UV/visible. such as micro array based techniques Isolation. Histochemical and Immunotechniques Antibody generation. probability distributions (Binomial. Regression and Correlation. strategies for genome sequencing. Protein sequencing methods. Sampling distribution. RAPD and AFLP techniques B.

CAT . Radiolabeling techniques: Detection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology. Brain activity recording. incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells. ranging patterns through direct. fMRI. freeze-etch and freezefracture methods for EM. indirect and remote observations. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy. lesion H. G. image processing methods in microscopy. safety guidelines.E. resolving powers of different microscopes. molecular imaging of radioactive material. habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods. F. . microscopy of living cells. PET. sampling methods in the study of behavior. patch-clamp recording. and stimulation of brain. Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants. MRI. pharmacological testing. scanning and transmission microscopes. different fixation and staining techniques for EM. ECG. Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording.

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