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InTech-Affective Computing in e Learning

InTech-Affective Computing in e Learning

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Affective Computing in E-learning 117

X

Affective Computing in E-Iearning

Hongfei Lin, Iengning Ian, Yuxuan Wang,
Shaohua Lv and Shichang Sun
Da|ian Unitcrsi|q cf Tccnnc|cgq
Cnina

1. Introduction

Affeclive Conpuling is a lranch of lhe sludy and deveIopnenl of arlificiaI inleIIigence lhal
deaIs vilh lhe design of syslens and devices lhal can recognize, inlerprel, and process
hunan enolions. Il is an inlerdiscipIinary fieId spanning conpuler sciences, psychoIogy,
and cognilive science. ReaIn of lhis research has leen exlended lo hunan-nachine
inlerface, cognilion and lexl nining.
As a renole Iearning nelhod, e-Iearning inevilalIy Iacks lhe enolionaI connunicalion
lelveen lhe lulor and lhe Iearner. Affeclive Conpuling aining al naking conpulalionaI
devices enpalhic provides a soIulion lo lhis prolIen
In lhis chapler, ve lry lo give an overviev of lhe appIicalions of affeclive conpuling in e-
Iearning syslen and inlroduce sone of lhe appIicalion syslens.

2. E-Iearning and Affective Computing

2.1 Absence of Emotion in E-Iearning Systems
L-Iearning provides a convenienl and econonicaI node for educalion, lul separalion fron
lulor and olher sludenls nay resuIl in a Iack of lineIy and face-lo-face connunicalion
vhich is jusl avaiIalIe in reguIar educalion. Sludenls viII feeI fruslraled, and even have
enolionaI resislance lovards Iearning, if Iearning prolIens can nol le soIved, or confusions
can nol le slraighlened oul over a Iong period of line.

2.2 Affective Computing
The concepl of Affeclive Conpuling vas originaIIy pul forvard ly Irofessor Iicard fron
MIT Media Lal in 1995, vho, in his Ialer vork, defined il as ¨lhe conpuling lhal reIales lo,
arises fron, or deIileraleIy infIuences enolions¨ (Iicard, 1997). The focus of affeclive
conpuling is on eslalIishing enolion nodes, lased on physioIogicaI and lehaviouraI
signaIs lhal are caused ly enolion and ollained ly various sensors, and on deveIoping a
personaI conpuler syslen, vhich can apperceive, recognise, and conprehend hunan
enolions lo provide inleIIigenl, user-friendIy feedlacks for user´s enolions. Il vorks veII in
shorlening lhe enolionaI dislance lelveen nachine and user, and crealing a harnonious
7
E-learning 118

hunan-nachine environnenl. Such lrails leing veII enpIoyed, Affeclive Conpuling, vhen
appIied lo e-Iearning, can grealIy heIp recuperale lhe alsence of enolion in e-Iearning.
The nain appIicalion of Affeclive Conpuling incIudes enolionaI perceplion, enolionaI
conprehension and enolionaI expression. The purpose of enolion perceplion is, lhrough
various sensors, lo ollain slinuIi lhal express user´s enolions, and use lhen for affeclive
conpuling as pre- infornalion, eilher in verlaI forns (e.g. speeches) or in non-verlaI forns
(e.g. faciaI expressions, hearlleals). The nelhod nosl connonIy used is lo eslinale one´s
enolion ly recognizing his faciaI expression and delecling his physioIogicaI slales.
Conpuler can have a lasic underslanding of lhe user´s enolion slale afler perceiving,
anaIyzing and recognizing lhe enolion. The essence of Affeclive Conpuling is, lhrough
various sensors, lo use enolion nodeIs lo recognize and anaIyze physioIogicaI and faciaI
fealures, vhich are caused ly enolions, for lhe sake of underslanding hunan enolions and
naking suilalIe reaclions. Therefore, lhe enphasis of lhis seclion is hov lo nake suilalIe
reaclion lo user´s enolionaI change, according lo vhal enolion infornalion has leen
recognized. Conlrary lo previous sludy in vhich physioIogicaI and lehaviouraI fealures leII
lhe slalus of enolion, enolion expression is a reverse-process, vhich focuses on hov lo
exlracl a given enolion slalus fron physioIogicaI and lehaviouraI fealures.
The groving research and schoIarship reIaling lo enolion and e-Iearning generaIIy indicales
lhe significanl parl lhal enolion pIays in Iearning. ModeIs of e-Iearning syslens assisled
vilh Affeclive Conpuling nelhods are leing deveIoped. QuaIilalive and quanlilalive
research has leen carried oul in a range of e-Iearning sellings lo conpIele lhe lheory and
praclice of e-Iearning. Iigure 1 shovs lhe appIicalion of lhree nain Affeclive Conpuling
approaches in an e-Iearning syslen.

Iig. 1. AppIicalion of Affeclive Conpuling in e-Iearning



Affective Computing in E-learning 119

3. FaciaI Expression Recognition

3.1 FaciaI Expression Recognition in e-Iearning
TradilionaI e-Iearning syslens are far fron perfeclion. As earIy as in 1983, il vas poinled oul
ly Desnond Keegan (Keegan, 1983), a vorId- vide fanous e-Iearning educalion experl,
lhal e-Iearning differs fron convenlionaI educalion lasicaIIy in lhal e-Iearning separales
leachers fron sludenls and sludenls fron sludenls. ßecause of lhe quasi-pernanenl
separalion, leachers and sludenls are unalIe lo nake face-lo-face connunicalion in e-
Iearning as lhey can do in convenlionaI educalion, vhich Ieads up lo lhe alsence of enolion.
As a resuIl, nodern e-Iearning lakes enough hunan enolions inlo accounl. Despile ils
conpIexily, lhe enolion´s slale can le refIecled in one´s faciaI expressions, vhich neans lhal
in generaI one´s enolionaI slale can le read fron his faciaI expressions. In an e-Iearning
nodeI vhere disadvanlages are overcone of ignoring Iearners´ noods and enolions,
Iearners´ slale of enolion can le conveyed lo leachers, vho accordingIy lake effeclive
aclions lo ensure lhal lolh Iearners and leachers can achieve lhe lesl effecl in Iearning.

3.2 Introduction to FaciaI Expression Recognition
IaciaI expression recognilion is lo exlracl and anaIyze dislinclive fealures refIecled fron
peopIe´s faciaI expression. The coIIecled infornalion is cIassified and underslood according
lo lhe vay hov hunan perceive and lhink, so lhal peopIe´s nood or enolion can le
inlerpreled, ly uliIizing enolion knovIedge acquired lefore lo leach conpulers hov lo
associale, lhink and reason. In a Iearning syslen, a harnonious inleraclion lelveen hunan
and nachine can le reaIized, vhen conpulers can acquire Iearners´ enolionaI slale ly
recognizing lheir faciaI expression, heIping leachers lo knov hov Iearners feeI and hov veII
lhey Iearn, and leachers can accordingIy enpIoy suilalIe leaching approaches for lhe sake of
high efficiency of Iearning. In e-Iearning educalion syslen, in parlicuIar, faciaI expression
recognilion can faciIilale Iearners´ adjuslnenl of lheir enolions lo coordinale lhe inleraclion
vilh conpulers.

3.3 FaciaI Expression Recognition Technique
IaciaI expressions are various and lhey can le sludied fron dinensionaI-quanlilalive
perspeclive and cIassificalion perspeclive. AII hunan enolions are produced afler leing
conlined in a conpIicaled vay, lased on six faciaI expressions vhich are cIassified ly
scienlisls of faciaI expression as happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, hale and anger. IaciaI
expression recognilion gains ils inprovenenl in recenl years vilh lvo significanl
lechniques, deleclion and Iocalion of faces, and exlraclion and recognilion of faces.
Conpared lo lhe sinpIe lechnique of deleclion and Iocalion of face, lhe lechnique of
exlraclion and recognilion of face piclures is conpIicaled, and lherefore il is sludied nore
videIy and nore deepIy. To dale, lhere are lhree nelhods of faciaI expression recognilion
conpulers can use.
Ceonelrics-lased recognilion nelhod: faciaI expressions are recognized, ly napping and
neasuring lhe IocalionaI changes of eyes, nose, eyelrov, noulh and elc, and defining lhe
fealures in lerns of size, dislance, shape, proporlion and elc.
This nelhod caIIs for a snaII inpul of dala, lul il nay cause lhe Ioss of inporlanl
infornalion for lhe faciaI expression recognilion and cIassificalion, as face inage is onIy
represenled ly Iiniled fealures (Xue Weinin, 2OO3).
E-learning 120

ModeI-lased recognilion nelhod:
This nelhod needs a physicaI nodeI vhich can analonicaIIy define crilicaI fealures in face
and conpare lhese fealures lo recognize faciaI expressions. Il neans lhal lhe faciaI
expression recognilion is lransforned inlo a fIexilIe nalching prolIen of curved surface.
Recognilion nelhod of inlegraled-face-fealure: faciaI expressions are recognized lhrough
nalhenalicaI lransfornalion, vhich are perforned for lhe vhoIe face or for speciaI area of
il, vilh lhe ICA (IrincipaI Conponenls AnaIysis) nosl connonIy in use. This recognilon
nelhod, lased on inlergraled face fealures, is gaining nore and nore allenlion, lecause, for
lhe purpose of expression recognilon, il focuses on saving as nuch originaI infornalion as
possilIe, and lransforning infornailon of expression shovn in lhe vhoIe face lo effecliveIy
exlracl reIaled fealures fron face inages.
ßeIov is an inlroduclion lo lvo syslens appIied for e-Iearning Iearning.

3.4 Introduction to an E-Iearning System Using FaciaI Expression Recognition
An overviev of faciaI deleclion: lhe popuIar nelhods enpIoyed for faciaI deleclion incIude
ICA, neuraI nelvork, nachine Iearning, infornalion lheory, geonelric nodeI, Hough
lransforner and coIor anaIysis. ßased on lhe expressive neans in conpulalion, lhere are
lvo nain faciaI deleclion aIgorilhns: inlegraled expression aIgorilhn and faciaI geonelric
fealure aIgorilhn. The inlegraled expression aIgorilhn is effeclive in finding faces in inages
of Iov quaIily or in Iocaling snaII faces in inages. WhiIe lhe faciaI geonelric fealure
aIgorilhn perforns veII vhen il recognizes aII lhe sides of faces (Wang & Ma, 2OO2). In an
e-Iearning syslen, Iearners usuaIIy face up lo a canera vhich is of Iov quaIily so lhe
inlegraled expression aIgorilhn is chosen in lhe reaI e-Iearning educalion syslen.

IaciaI
Lxpression
Lyelrov´s
Iealures
Lye´s Iealures Moulh´s Iealures
Happy Lyelrov lenl a
IillIe
WrinkIes appearing on
Iover eyeIid
Crov's-feel expanding lo
lhe exlernaI corner of eyes.
Corner of noulh
rising up, noulh
open and lhe leelh
shoving up
A vrinkIe
slrelching fron
nose lo lhe corner
of noulh
Surprised Lyelrov raised
up
Skin lenealh
eyes slrelched
Lyes popped up• •
upper eyeIid rising up
Lover eyeIid faIIing dovn.
While of lhe eye shoving
up
Lover jav faIIing
dovn
Moulh open vilh
ease
NeulraI Nolhing
changed
Lyes open naluraIIy Moulh cIosed
naluraIIy
TalIe 1. Irinary fealures of happiness, surprise and neulraI faciaI expression

Learners invoIved in e-Iearning oflen face caneras fron a singIe and fixed angIe, so lhe
inlegralion nelhod is connonIy used for faciaI deleclion conpulalion. This e-Iearning
Affective Computing in E-learning 121

educalion syslen can Iocale lhe precise posilion of lhe face in piclures vilh sinpIe
lackground ly using Iighl conpIenenl, skin coIor nodeI and infIale lechniques. When lhe
syslen Iocales lhe enlire face in lhe piclure, recognilion lechnique can heIp recognize lhe
Iocalion of eyes, pupiI, noulh and aII lhe olher expression infornalion lhal Iearners give.
Whal cones nexl is lo relrieve dala of faciaI expression fron originaI resource of faciaI
expression, vhich can refIecl vhal lhe person´s enolionaI slale is. Dala relrievaI of faciaI
expression, lased on lhe nodeI a face represenls, faIIs inlo lvo calegories: lenpIale-lased
and fealure-lased (Zhu Aijun, 2OO4). Civen a priorily over lhe nodeI, lhis syslen is luiIl up
on a lransfornalIe lenpIale for aulonalic exlraclion, vhich incIudes four nodeIs, parl-
conlinalion nodeI, eyes nodeI, noulh nodeI and Lyelrovs nodeI. Iarl-conlinalion
nodeI, vhose design and exlraclion is, as a naller of facl, an exlraclion process of
suloljeclives can Iocale and conline aII lhe face organs lhal are caIIed face parls and
nainIy referred lo Lyelrovs, eyes and noulh. Iasl and reIialIe, lhe nelhod depends on
lolh fealure Iocalion in face deleclion and accunuIaled face knovIedge lo luiId up a parl-
conlinalion nodeI and exlracls face parls (}in Hui, 2OOO). Lye nodeI, noulh nodeI and
Lyelrovs nodeI aII anaIyze inages lo ollain geonelric inages for a denonslralion of
geonelric fealures, such as curvalure, size and reIaled Iocalion, so lhal enolionaI slale can
le delecled.
TalIe 1 shovs lhe reIalion lelveen lhe nood or enolion and faciaI expression.
Wilh nany nalure lechniques, MIT Media Laloralory is pIaying a Ieading roIe in lhe fieId
of affeclive conpuling. Though nelhods lhey used lo enpIoy perforned veII in faciaI
expression recognilion, hunan inlerfering vas sliII needed. MIT nedia Ial has recenlIy
deveIoped a fuIIy aulonalic lechnique of faciaI recognilion (Kapoor, A. el aI., 2OO3), vhich
can le used in e-Iearning for our purpose.
Iigure 2 shovs lhe process of one of lhe lechniques of faciaI recognilion MIT nedia Ial uses.

Iig. 2. Overviev of lhe syslen

The pupiI deleclion syslen, using lhe red-eye effecl, delecls pupiIs. An infrared canera
equipped vilh infrared LLDs (Iighl enilling diode) is used lo highIighl and lrack pupiIs.
The vhoIe unil is pIaced under lhe nonilor poinling lovards lhe user´s face. The syslen has
an infrared sensor coupIed vilh lvo concenlric rings of infrared LLDs lo ollain needed
infornalion. Whal MIT does nexl is lo idenlify vhal faciaI expressions lhese dala represenl,
ly using SVM. Lven lhough onIy face recognilion is acconpIished, lhis research resuIl can
le appIied lo e-Iearning, in lhal affeclive prolIens in e-Iearning can le conquered if lhe
lechnique of face recognilion is alIe lo preciseIy inlerprel peopIe´s enolionaI slale. If so, lhe
speciaI separalion can le lridged, line can le saved, Iearning efficiency can le inproved.
E-learning 122
4. Speech recognition in e-Iearning

4.1 The appIication of Speech recognition in e-Iearning
Wilh lhe deveIopnenl of infornalion processing lechnoIogy of conpuler nuIlinedia since
lhe niddIe of and Iale 199Os, nore inporlance is allached lo infornalion processing on
enolions. In e-Iearning syslen, inleraclion lelveen Iearners and syslen is inporlanl, as il
can enalIe Iearners lo sludy in reaI-Iife-Iike sellings and inlensify lheir inleresls, as veII as
giving lineIy feedlack lo lhe syslen, vhich can respond correspondingIy, lo lhe exlenl lhal
Iearning efficiency can le inproved.
As speech is lhe nosl inporlanl, nosl effeclive, nosl connonIy-used and nosl convenienl
vay for connunicalion, enhancing lhe speech recognilion aliIily can significanlIy inprove
a syslen´s perfornance. ßy delecling hov sludenls change lheir speeches, e-Iearning can
recognize lhe changes in lheir noods and lhen respond properIy, so lhal a nore reaI-Iife-Iike
sinuIalion effecl can le achieved.

4.2 The process of Speech recognition in e-Iearning
Speeches express enolions in lhal lhey conlain lhe paranelers vhich can refIecl enolionaI
characlerislics. Changes in enolions can le delecled, ly an olservalion of lhe differences
lhal occur in characlerislics paranelers. The speech enolion recognilion in e-Iearning,
nainIy laking advanlage of lhe nelhods of neasuring, deconposing, anaIyzing and
conposing, inlends lo idenlify, undersland and conpose enolionaI conponenls, so lhal a
sense of enolion for lhe conpuler can le deveIoped.



Iig. 3. IIov charl of idenlifying speech enolion

This research focuses on lhe recognilion of speech enolion, conlinalion of speech enolion,
inlegralion vilh olher enolionaI infornalion and lheir appIicalions in reIaled fieIds. As lhe
lasis of speech enolion recognilion, speech enolion recognilion heIps lo gain a deep
underslanding of lhe conpIicaled reIalionship lelveen lhe characlerislics paranelers in
ModeI
lraining
Inpul of speech
Ireprocession of speech signaI
Lxlraclion of paranelers
for speech fealures
Idenlificalion of speech enolion
Dalalase of
enolion
speech
Oulpul of idenlified resuIls
Affective Computing in E-learning 123

speech and lhe enolions. Speakers, in differenl slales of nood, use differenl speeds for
laIking, such as excilenenl caIIing for a higher voice lhan usuaI. Changes in enolions refIecl
Iearners´ slales of Iearning, and lherefore, lased on lhe speech speed and lhe duralion of lhe
address, lhe degree of excilenenl can le neasured, vhich, in relurn, viII inslrucl lhe syslen
hov lo nake responses accordingIy, an exanpIe of vhich is lhal lhe difficuIly and inlensily
of Iearning can le increased vhen sludenls are found happy and efficienl in Iearning.
SiniIar lo lhe fealure of line, lhe fealure of vilralion and various enolions are highIy
reIaled, vilh vilralion leing draslic for happiness, anger and surprise lul Iess nolicealIe for
sadness. The ligger lhe degree varies, lhe nore lhe enolion changes. Ior exanpIe, one´s
pilch can le narked as an upsveep curve vhen he is happy, lul as dovnvard vhen he is
sad. As a resuIl, Iearners´ enolion can le knovn lased on lhe recognilion of differenl
speeches, so lhal feedlacks can le inslanlIy given and lhe perfornance of e-Iearning syslen
can le inproved. In shorl, e-Iearning syslen is alIe lo nake adjuslnenls afler anaIyzing
Iearner´s Iearning slale concIuded fron lhe enolion- expression reIaled paranelers.
The conpuler-aided speech recognilion incIudes eslalIishing speech dalalase, exlracling
paranelers of enolion fealure, idenlifying speech enolion, lraining nodeI and elc. The
process can le iIIuslraled leIov:
(a) LslalIishing dalalase of speech enolion
The dalalase of speech enolion, vilh a Iarge anounl of dala for anaIyzing and nodeIIing
speech enolion, Iays a foundalion for nodeI conslruclion and provides speech corpus of
lraining and lesling for speech enolion recognilion. Whelher for idenlifying or for
conposing speech enolion, a reaI, effeclive and alundanl dalalase of speech enolion is
needed.
Speech naleriaIs can le ollained, on one hand, ly recording, for vhich sone professionaI
announcers or good-expressers are inviled lo read lhe specified senlences, and on lhe olher
hand, ly cIipping, vhich lakes phonelic fraclion fron fiIns and leIevision. ConparaliveIy
lhe Ialler has a higher degree of reaIily, lul il is sliII far fron naluraI expression, even if il
faciIilales lhe sanpIe coIIeclion (DougIas-Covie el aI., 2OOO).
Il is a lig issue lo eslalIish a genuine speech enolion dalalase lhal enalIes users lo
convenienlIy add, relrieve and use speeches and paranelers.
(l) SeIecling speech enolion paranelers
Speech enolion paranelers can le anaIyzed lo nanifesl enolionaI slales. Novadays, lhere
are nany research findings in lhe seIeclion of speech enolion paranelers, such as
fundanenlaI frequency, fornanl and energy, fron vhich are aIso devialed sone olher
paranelers, incIuding average, naxinun, average variance ralio (Iao el aI., 2OO3).
(c) LslalIishing speech recognilion nodeI
LslalIishing recognilion nodeI is lhe key parl of speech enolion recognilion and ils core is
seIecling and using cIassifiers. Many nelhods of pallern recognilion, such as Linear
Discrininanl CIassifier, k-Nearesl Neighlourhood, Sporl Veclor Machine, Caussian
Mixlures and Hidden Markov ModeI are appIied and have ollained good resuIls (Covie,
2OO1).

4.3 DifficuIty of speech emotion recognition in e-Iearning
AIlhough speech enolion recognilion in e-Iearning has a pronising prospecl, lhere are sliII
sone difficuIlies vhich prevenl il fron leing used videIy.
E-learning 124

(a) One of lhe inporlanl appIicalions of speech recognilion is for idenlifying and
underslanding naluraI Ianguage. The firsl prolIen lo le soIved is lo cIarify lhe anliguous
lorder of lasic nodeI, lecause phonelic is changing vhen inlonalion, pilch of sound or
vords are conlined in conlinuous speeches. An experl syslen, vhich can undersland lhe
ruIes of grannar and Iexene, is aIso needed lo le luiIl up.
(l) The changes of voice nessages are draslic. Speech recognilion varies lolh for differenl
speakers and even for lhe sane speaker. Ior exanpIe, one´s voice is differenl vhen he is
laIking casuaIIy fron lhal vhen he is laIking seriousIy, line aIso infIuences lhe speech
recognilion, as one´s voice nessage is differenl al presenl fron lhal of a nonlh Ialer, even if
he is speaking in lhe sane vay.
(c) Voice is anliguous. Differenl voices sonelines sound siniIar, so hov lo cIassify lhen is
a huge chaIIenge.
(d) Il is difficuIl lo idenlify speech in loo nuch noise. Speech dala are aII coIIecled in an
aInosl- ideaI condilion, lul vhen leing appIied in reaI circunslances, lhey nay cause
lough prolIens, olviousIy due lo lhe noise. This is one reason vhy il sonelines happens
lhal speech enolion faiIs lo le idenlified.
(e) Speech enolion recognilion, as an inlerdiscipIinary sludy, invoIves conpuler science,
psychoacouslics, psychoIogy, cognilive science, and signaI and infornalion processing.
Dislinguished fron lradilionaI infornalion processing and vilh lhe heIp of nachine, il
inlends lo idenlify and undersland lhe surface infornalion of speech signaI ralher lhan lo
perceive lhe sensiliIily of speech signaI. Iarl of enolionaI infornalion and nanuaI handIing,
il represenls an advancenenl of lradilionaI signaI and infornalion.
Despile a series of deveIopnenls lhal have leen nade in speech enolion recognilion, nany
prolIens are vorlh researching on ils appIicalion lo a reaI e-Iearning syslen.

5. Opinion mining in e-Iearning

5.1 Opinion Mining
Opinion Mining is a nev and inporlanl research discipIine, aining lo aulonalicaIIy acquire
usefuI opinioned infornalion and knovIedge fron suljeclive lexls. Il is nainIy
characlerized ly lexl processing of aIIegalions and connenls, vhich express opinions,
feeIings, and alliludes of individuaIs, groups, or organizalions. Opposed lo suljeclive lexl,
suljeclive lexls are expressed in naluraI Ianguages, descriling vhal individuIs lhink of
lhings, peopIe and evenls (in group or organizalion). CeneraIIy found in journaIs (readers´
connenl) and on inlernel (ßßS), lhis lype of lexl, vhich conlains opinioned senlences,
eilher apprecialory or derogalory, is caIIed opinion-expressing lexls.
As defined ly Kin and Hovy, opinion consisls of four eIenenls, naneIy, lopic, hoIder, cIain
and senlinenl, anong vhich lhere is a cooreIalion, lhal is, opinion hoIder nakes a cIain of
senlinenl over a lopic (Kin & Hovy, 2OO4). Opinion nining is a synlhesized discipIine,
reIaled lo lexl nining, infornalion relrievaI, nachine Iearning, naluraI Ianguage processing,
slalislics, onloIogy, corpus of appIied Iinguislics, visualIe lechnoIogy, and elc.

5.2 Opinion mining in e-Iearning: Opportunities and ChaIIenges
Opinion nining lechnoIogy offers nev opporlunilies for e-Iearning. UnIike olher
lechnoIogies, il can refIecl hoIders´ Iong-lern and reasonalIe needs, vhen lhe processed
infornalion is processed nore nalureIy ly inleIIecl and sense. The appIicalion of opinion
Affective Computing in E-learning 125

nining in e-Iearning is inporlanl, lecause enolions expressed ly vrillen vords are nore
nalure, specific and reasonalIe lhan lhose refIecled ly faciaI expression and voice. Il is
signigicanl lhal lhe leaching effecl of e-Iearning and inprovenenl on lhe syslen can le
achieved, if suljeclive opinion-expressing infornalion reIaling lo e-Iearing can le ollained
fron lexl.
Sludenls can knov hov olhers lhink in lvo vays. In lhe e-Iearning syslen, lhrough enaiI,
velIog, inslanl nessage, sludenls can exchange infornalion,experience, and feeIings vilh
leachers and olher sludenls.
Teachers in e-Iearning nusl le avare of sludenls´ opinions as a vhoIe lefore lhey can give
inslruclions in diverse vays according lo parlicuIar individuaIs. Teachers can use nore
advanced naleriaIs vhen one has posilive enolion aloul a lopic.
To e-Iearning providing organizalions, opinion nining provides a nev vaylo evaIuale
effecliveness and efficiency in aII aspecls of e-Iearning. In Learing Iorun, sludenls can
freeIy vrile dovn lheir feeIings and opinions. ßy anaIyzing enolions, opinion nining can
give a generaI and inslruclive connenl on vhal is evaIualed. Ior lhe purpose of leaching
effecl and leaching scheduIe, organizalions can nake good use of lhe lineIy feedlack lo
direcl, conlroI and renedy lhe e-Iearning process and Iearning aclivilies.
To undersland, in a reIialIe vay, lhe process of hov sludenls feeI, viII definleIy lring aloul
a leller Iearning effecl. ßul il´s aIso a huge chaIIenge lo nine vaIualIe infornalion fron
Iearning-reIaled lexl, as infornalion is aIvays exchanged over lroad lopics and in free
slyIes. Iirsl, lexl nining faIIs inlo lhe calegory of dala nining, lul differenl fron lhe reguaIr
dala ning, vhich nines in fornaled dalalase, il is carried oul on a Ioose slruclure and,
sonelines, on a veak senanlic Iink. Second, infornalion is exchanged in a free slyIe of lexl,
and fever fornaled ruIes are oleyed. OraI Ianguage oflen used, lhere are no fixed
vocaluIaries for opinion expression, and lherefore, anaIysis is hard lo nake.

5.3 Opinion Mining Procedures
The process of e-Iearning is lo aulonalicaIIy idenlify lhose faclors in lhe naluraI Ianguage
lexl and define lhe reIalionship in lelveen. CeneraIIy speaking, lhe sul-lasks of lhis process
incIude lopic exlraclion, suljeclive recognilion, and senlinenl anaIysis.
The ain of suljeclive recognilion is lo deIele lhose oljeclive slalenenls, lhal is, lo relain lhe
lexls concerned vilh expressions vilhin a cerlain scope of lopic and hoIder. The size of
suljeclive recognilion shouId nalch lhal of e-Iearning. Ior exanpIe, in ´}oan ovns a cIear
nind and a good allilude´, if lhe vhoIe senlence is recognized as a unil, ´nind´
and ´allilude´ share lhe sane senlinenlaI poIarily. WhiIe in lhe senlence ´The difficuIly IeveI
of lhe exan is ok, lul sone queslions are loo narrov´, 'difficuIly IeveI´ and 'queslions´ share
differenl senlinenlaI poIarily, so ve cannol cone lo a righl connenl if ve anaIyze lhe
senlence as a vhoIe unil.
The purpose of lopic exlraclion is lo idenlify and evaIuale lhose lerns reIaled lo lhe lopic.
To find oul usefuI infornalion in lhe lexls, lhe lhene of lhe infornalion nusl le ollained,
lhal is, lhe largel of evaIualion. The lhenes reIaled lo e-Iearning can le divided inlo four
aspecls: sludenl, leacher, leaching conlenl, and nedia. Il is very inporlanl lo depIoy exacl
onloIogy concepls in cerlain areas for lhe lhenes lo le evaIualed conpIeleIy and correclIy.
Such a capsuIizalion of conenls on lhe concepl can offer lhe nosl conpIele infornalion lo
lhose concerned.
To perforn senlinenl anaIysis is lo delernine lhe suljeclive allilude of lhe opinion hoIders,
E-learning 126

vilh lhe research nainIy focused on lhe apprecialory and derogalory degrees of 3 IeveIs:
vord-IeveI, senlence-IeveI, and lexl-IeveI. In lerns of lhe degree, vords serve as lhe lasis,
senlences specificaIIy express, lexls are lhe conlinalion of connenler, lhe lopic and lhe
degree. When sludenls evaIuale a suljecl, evaIualions for ils aspecls can le seen in lhe lexl,
such as lhe coursevare´s slruclure, lechnique, inleraclion, underslandaliIily, infornalion
voIune, elc. The degree on lhe suljecl can le avaiIalIe vhen severaI key conlenls on lhe
suljecl are defined and lhe degree of lhe suljecl and conlenl is caIcuIaled lhe sane vay as
lhe degree of vords is neasured.

5.4 AppIying Opinion Mining in e-Iearning: a
Suljeclive Recognilion vas lhe focus of lhe 2OO6 ßIog Track al TRLC (Iadh el aI., 2OO6). To
leII vhelher a given senlence is suljeclive or nol, (HalzivassiIogIou & Wiele, 2OOO) lhe
effecls of adjeclive orienlalion and grade on senlence suljeclivily are exanined. WiIson
addresses lhe prolIen of delernining cIause-IeveI opinion slrenglh (Iopescu & Llzioni,
2OO5), researchers depIoy cIassicaI nachine Iearning nelhods vhen suljeclive recognilion is
fornuIaled as cIassificalion prolIen (Nigan & Hursl, 2OO4) (Yu & HalzivassiIogIou, 2OO3) .
Mininun Culs in Craphs are used lo find suljeclive parls of a docunenl, vhich can le
successfuIIy used in senlence-IeveI and docunenl-IeveI anaIysis. To anaIyze suljeclive in
snaII grade, researches have done in a nore specific range lo cone up vilh cIose reIalions
lelveen lopics and cIains. Ior exanpIe, Turney defines lhe grade lo anaIyze adjeclive- and
adverl-having noun phrases (Turney, 2OO2).
In lopic exlraclion, lvo slralegies are laken. The firsl foIIovs lhe properlies of noun phrases,
such as, Yi lesled IikeIihood lo delernine a lopic according lo lhe conposilion and posilion
characlerislics of noun phrases. ßul lhis nelhod has difficuIlies in covering nosl suljeclive
lerns. The second foIIovs lhe co-occurrence phenonenon of candidale lopics in conlexl. Hu
and Liu|1Oj recognize frequenl and infrequenl lopic lerns according lo lhe co-occurrence
phenonenon. SiniIarIy, Iopescu and Llzioni acquire candidale lopic lerns ly Ioinl-vise
MuluaI Infornalion.
Senlinenl AnaIysis syslen oflen slarls fron lhe vord IeveI. As IillIe is used as ¨exceIIenl¨
for apprecialion and ¨poor¨ for derogalion, lhe senlinenl poIarily is jusl caplured fron a
Iarge corpus Iilrary, Iike on Inlernel. ßaroni and Vegnaduzzo use Ioinl-vise MuluaI
Infornalion lo recognize lhe senlinenl poIarily of adjeclive vords (ßaroni el aI., 2OO4). The
orienlalion of lhe pronoun lelveen lvo adjeclives is expIoiled using graph aIgorilhns
(HalzivassiIogIou & McKeovn, 1997). Sone researchers use Naive ßayes, Max Lnlropy, and
SVM lo do cIassificalion experinenls(Iang el aI., 2OO2). The fealures, incIuding unigran, li-
gran, adjeclives IOS and posilion, are exanined, inproving lhe accuracy rale up lo 86.4°,
vilh lhe addilionaI heIp of a suljeclive cIassificalion pre-processor lo fiIler oljeclive
senlences.
In DaIian Univ. of TechnoIogy(DUT), connenls and renarks reIaled lo e-Iearning are
coIIecliveIy pulIished in lhe ßuIIelin ßoard Syslen, providing Ianguage dala for opinion
nining. The lesl corpus consisls of 213 reviev arlicIes in lhe Iearning donain of lhe
universily DLUT´s ßßS (3,617 senlences). Their firsl slep is lo represenl an opinion as a lupIe
< Suljecl, Conlenl, Tern>. 'Suljecl´ neans vhich suljecl lhe opinion olserves on, for
exanpIe, 'Conpuler science´ and 'Lav´. 'Conlenl´ neans vhich aspecl of lhe suljecl lhe
opinion connenls on, for exanpIe: 'leacher´ and 'course-vare´. ´Tern´ neans vhich
senlinenl lerns lhe user uses in lhe opinion. To idenlify lhe suljecl corresponding lo a
Affective Computing in E-learning 127

given vaIue expression, lvo sinpIe heurislics are used. Iirsl, if lhere is any suljecl
expressions preceding lhe given vaIue expressions, lhe one nearesl lo lhe vaIue is seIecled.
Second, in olher cases lhe firsl one of lhose foIIoving lhe vaIue expression is chosen. To
sinpIify lhe senlinenl poIarily delerninalion, a naxinun dislance is defined lelveen lhe
senlinenl lern and ils degree adverl. If lhe dislance lelveen a senlinenl lern and a degree
adverl is snaIIer lhan lhe naxinun, lhe degree adverl is considered as lhe senlinenl
lern´s nodifier adverl, and lhe producl of lhe inlensily of lhe senlinenl lern and lhe
inlensily of lhe adverl as lhe slrenglh of lhe opinion. In a vord, lhis exanpIe enpiricaIIy
exanines opinion nining in Chinese e-Iearning docunenls.

6. References

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MAKeegan, D. (1983). Six dislance educalion lheorisls, ZIII, Iern Universily Iress,
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Recognition, 2UGQDFH ,QGXVWU\ $XWRPDWLRQ, VoI.O1, 4-51, (}an., 2OO2),
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Kin, S. & Hovy, L. (2OO4) Delernining lhe Senlinenl of Opinions, Prccccúings cf CO| |NG04,
|nc Ccnfcrcncc cn Ccmpu|a|icna| |inguis|ics, Ceneva, SvilzerIand, 2OO4
Ounis, }., Rijke, M., MacdonaId, C., Mishne, C & Soloroff, I. (2OO6). Overviev of lhe TRLC-
2OO6 ßIog Track, Prccccúings cf |nc 15|n Tcx| R||ricta| Ccnfcrcnce (TRLC 2OO6), 2OO6
HalzivassiIogIou, V. & Wiele, }. (2OOO). Lffecl s of Adjeclive Orienlalion and CradaliIily on
Senlence Suljeclivily, Prccccúings cf 18|n |n|crna|icna| Ccnfcrcncc cn Ccmpu|a|icna|
|inguis|ics, Nev ßrunsvick , N} , USA, 2OOO.
Iopescu, A., & Llzioni, O. (2OO5). Lxlracling Iroducl Iealures and Opinions fron Revievs.
Prccccúings cf H| T|MN| P05, |nc Human |anguagc Tccnnc|cgq Ccnfcrcncc/ Ccnfcrcncc
cn |mpirica| Mc|ncús in Na|ura| |anguagc Prcccssing, Vancouver , Canada, 2OO5.
Iang, ß. & Lee, L. (2OO4) A SenlinenlaI Lducalion: Senlinenl AnaIysis using Suljeclivily
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Spain, 2OO4.
Nigan, K. & Hursl, M. (2OO4). Tovards a Rolusl Melric of Opinion, Prccccúings cf |nc AAA|
Spring Sqmpcsium cn |xp|cring A||i|uúc anú Affcc| in Tcx|. Tnccrics anú App|ica|icns.
Slanford, USA, 2OO4.
E-learning 128

Yu, H. & HalzivassiIogIou, V. (2OO3). Tovards Ansvering Opinion Queslions: Separaling
Iacl s fron Opinions and Idenlifying lhe IoIarily of Opinion Senlences, Prccccúings
cf |MN| P03, 8|n Ccnfcrcncc cn |mpirica| Mc|ncús in Na|ura| |anguagc Prcccssing.
Sapporo, }apan, 2OO3.
Turney, I. (2OO2). Thunls up or lhunls dovn` Senanlic orienlalion appIied lo
unsupervised cIassificalion of revievs. Prccccúings cf AC|-02, 40|n Annua| Mcc|ing cf
|nc Assccia|icn fcr Ccmpu|a|icna| |inguis|ics, pages 417-424. Associalion for
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ßaroni, M. & Vegnaduzzo, S. (2OO4). Idenlifying suljeclive adjeclives lhrough vel-lased
nuluaI infornalion. Prccccúings cf KONV|NS-04, 17-24, Vienna, AU, 2OO4.
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|inguis|ics, 174-181, Madrid, LS. Associalion for ConpulalionaI Linguislics.
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Song, D., Lin, H. & Yang, Z. (2OO7). Opinion nining in e-Iearning syslen, |n|crna|icna|
Ccnfcrcncc cn Nc|ucr| anú Para||c| Ccmpu|ing, 2OO7

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