This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

« HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS »

Prof. Dr. Atıl BULU

Istanbul Technical University College of Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Department Hydraulics Division

Chapter 11

The Surge Tank The surge tank is located between the almost horizontal or slightly inclined conduit and steeply sloping penstock and is designed as a chamber excavated in the mountain.

Surge tanks serve as a threefold purpose; 1. Upon the rapid closure of the turbine, water masses moving in the pressure tunnel and in the penstock are suddenly decelerated. Owing to the inertia of moving masses, F = ma, high overpressures develop at the lower end of the penstock, which are propagating upwards in the penstock in the form of pressure wave. The magnitude of the so-called water hammer, caused by the moving masses by closure, will depend upon the dimensions and elastic properties of the conduit. The overpressure due to water hammer travels along the closed conduit and is not relieved until a free water surface is reached. An important function of the surge tank can be summarized like this. The turbines to the reservoir is practically interrupted by the surge tank to prevent the pressure wave due to the water hammer at the free water surface and to free the pressure tunnel from excessive pressures. 2. The surge provides protection to the penstock against damage of water hammer. The overpressure depends upon the length of the penstock (the closed conduit). The surge tank, by interrupting the closed system of the penstock and of the pressure tunnel, reduces the overpressure due to water hammer. 3. The third purpose of the surge tank is to provide water supply to the turbines in case of starting up. The amount of water required during these changes in operating conditions is supplied by the surge tank installed in the conduit. The capacity thereof should be selected to ensure the required water supply during the most unfavorable increase in demand, until the water mass in the tunnel 1

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu

1. A wide variety of types has been developed in practice for the surge tank.e. Upon the rapid and partial closure of the valve following a sudden load decrease. Simple surge tanks designed as basins. A. which may be provided with overfall. Double-chamber surge tank. i. the water surface will again start to rise from the low point. Surge tank with upper expansion chamber. the following groups can be distinguished. In case of rapid opening. 2 Prof. which may be provided with overfall. 3.has attained the necessary velocity. restricted-orifice surge tank. The height of the surge tank is governed by the highest possible water level that can be expected during operation. Dr. Air should be prevented from entering the penstock even in case of the deepest downsurge in the chamber. Double-chamber. and one part of the continuous supply from the tunnel fills the surge tank. The cycle is repeated all over again with amplitudes reduced by friction. To establish steady-flow conditions. 2. According to the hydraulic design. Variations in demand initiated by a rapid opening or closure of the valve or turbine are followed with a time lag by the water masses moving in the tunnel. The phenomenon described is the water surface oscillation. water masses in the penstock are suddenly decelerated. The water surface in the surge chamber will be raised to above static level. The maximum amplitude of water surface oscillation can be observed when the water demand is suddenly stopped. Differential (Johnson type) surge tank. The water surface in the chamber will start to drop to below of the steady-state level. the oscillation is damped. Special surge tanks: Surge tanks with expansion chambers. the flow in the tunnel is smaller than the turbine demand to supply water to the turbine. Bulu . Surge tank with lower expansion chamber. but owing to the inertia of moving water. Restricted-orifice type (throttled) surge tanks: Simple restricted-orifice surge tank. will again rise over the steady-level.

3 Prof. A. Dr. Bulu .

The upper manometer will indicate the low-frequency oscillations and will also show the water level fluctuations at the same cycle with the surge tank. Dr. Figure. Placing manometers at the upper and lower end of the penstock. The lower manometer will be the first to indicate the pressure wave starting from the lower end of the penstock. Waves are damped by roughness conditions. it will be seen that the two react differently to sudden changes in turbine discharges. Undamped oscillations in the surge tank if frictionless conditions are assumed in the pressure tunnel 4 Prof. Bulu .Water Surface Oscillations in Simple Surge Tank The oscillating movement starts as soon as the pressure wave due to a change in the turbine reaches the surge tank after traveling the length penstock. A.

In the pure theoretical case when no friction is assumed to occur in the pressure tunnel. l = Pressure tunnel length. Dr. dy f 2π = − V0 Cos t dt F T (m/sec) 5 Prof. A. the expressions for the four basic cases are given without derivation. F = Surge tank cross-sectional area. 1. This highest value of the ymax surges occurring in the tank upon rejection of different loads will be distinguished by the notation Ymax. Instantaneous total closure from the maximum discharge of Q0 (so-called total load rejection). The penstock is supplied through a surge tank from the frictionless pressure tunnel. It is evident that the total closure at maximum turbine discharge results in the greatest possible surges. the water level in the surge tank is on the same elevation as the reservoir whatever the discharge of the system is. i. With the above fundamental assumptions. V = V0 Cos 2π t (m/sec) T At the time t = T/4 (quarter period). y = −Ymax Sin 2π t (m) T The varying velocity of water flowing in the pressure tunnel at any time t is. The velocity of the water level in the surge tank is. Therefore. The axis of the undamped oscillation is the hydrostatic (and at the same time hydrodynamic) equilibrium level. Bulu . The flow velocity in the Q pressure tunnel for the discharge Q0 is V0 = 0 . the velocity in the tunnel is V = 0. It will be assumed that the time of opening or closure turbine valves is zero (instantaneous). The reservoir level may be considered unchanged. the direction of the flow in the tunnel changes. Ymax = V0 lf gF (m) The departure of the water level from its initial position at any arbitrary time t (considering the downward branch of the axis y as positive).e. f The absolute value of the widest amplitude in case of the undamped mass oscillation. the so-called maximum surge is. f = Pressure tunnel cross-sectional area. hydrostatic and hydrodynamic levels are identical.

Bulu . Y = (V0 − V1 ) lf gF (m) Where. Dr. A. The surge amplitude in case of partial instantaneous closure. 2. In case of instantaneous closure. T 640 = = 160 sec 4 4 2π ⎞ ⎛ 360 V = V0 Cos t = 2 × Cos⎜ ×160 ⎟ = 0 T ⎝ 640 ⎠ t= U= dy 10 ⎛ 360 ⎞ =− × 2 × Cos⎜ × 160 ⎟ = 0 dt 100 ⎝ 640 ⎠ The water will stop at t = T/4 time for the maximum surge case and will begin to drop in the tank.20m gF 9. T = 2π lf 10000 × 10 = 2× = 20. i. the period of the mass oscillation is. V1 = Q1/f is the velocity for the reduced discharge. Solution: Maximum surge height.e. 6 Prof.81× 10 gf Velocities at the maximum surge height in the tunnel and the surge tank are. The position of the water level at any time t is given by the expression. T = 2π lF (sec) gf Example: The pressure tunnel length is l = 10 km with a cross-sectional area of f = 10 m2 and steady flow velocity V0 = 2 m/sec at a hydroelectric power plant. from the maximum discharge Q0 to an arbitrary Q1 value is. Ymax = V0 The period of mass oscillation. compute the maximum surge height and the period of the oscillation assuming the ideal fluid (frictionless).The time of the total cycle.81× 100 10000 × 100 lF = 2π ≅ 640 sec 9. Cylindrical surge tank cross-sectional area is F = 100 m2.

compute the maximum surge for the closure from maximum discharge Q0 to 0.81×100 gF The period of oscillation will not change. 3. Y = (V0 − V1 ) lf gF The momentary position of the water leveling the surge tank is given by the function. Solution: The discharge of the full load. Oscillations for the instantaneous partial opening from some discharge Q1 to the maximum Q0 (partial load demand) are given by. T = 2π lF gf 2π t T dy f 2π = − (V0 − V1 )Cos t dt F T (sec) Example: Using the values given in preceding example. y = YSin 2π t T 7 Prof. 2π t T V = V1 + (V0 − V1 )Cos Velocity in the surge tank is. A.5Q0.y = −YSin Velocity in the pressure tunnel is.10m 9. U= The period of oscillation is also. Q0 = V0 f = 2 × 10 = 20 m 3 sec Q1 = 0. Dr. Bulu .5Q0 = 10 m 3 sec V1 = 10 = 1m sec 10 10000 × 10 lf Y = (V0 − V1 ) = (2 − 1)× = 10.

and length l. The instantaneous total opening from the rest (Q = 0) to the maximum discharging capacity of the turbines Q0 (total load demand) can be characterized by the following relations. The only case of damped mass oscillations for which an exact mathematical solution can be found is the total closure. For other circumstances only approximate mathematical and graphical methods are available. V = V0 − V0 Cos 2π t T 2π dy f U= = V0 Cos t dt F T 2π t T Water Surface Oscillations in the Surge Tank by Taking Headloss in the Pressure Tunnel (Damped Oscillations) The frictional resistance developing along the tunnel will be taken into account and its damping effect yielding damped oscillations will be dealt with. The hydrodynamic-equilibrium water level in the surge tank for this operating condition is below the hydrostatic level by. 4. 8 Prof. Bulu . y = Ymax Sin Velocities are obtained as. by a pressure tunnel of cross-sectional area f.Velocities can be computed from the following relations. The reservoir is connected with a surge tank of cross-sectional area F. For the examination of instantaneous closure consider the Figure below and notations used therein. 2π t T 2π dy f U= = (V0 − V1 )Cos t dt F T V = V0 − (V0 − V1 )Cos The oscillation period equation is the same. A. followed by a penstock conveying a discharge Q0. Dr. Ymax = V0 lf gF The movement of the water surface is. The maximum surge is equal to the value obtained for total closure.

1 1 ⎛ Δh ⎞ 1 V0 = R 2 3 S 0 2 = R 2 3 ⎜ ⎟ n n ⎝ l ⎠ Whence the friction headloss is. 12 β= l ⋅ n2 R4 3 9 Prof. V02 n 2 l Δh = 4 3 R The resistance factor of the tunnel is. Hence y0 is the hydraulic resistance of the tunnel at a flow velocity V0.Figure ln 2 y0 = V = βV02 43 R 2 0 Where the static level is equal to that in the reservoir. Dr. and V0 = Q0/ f. This is the headloss due to the friction in the tunnel computed by the Manning equation as. Bulu . A.

2 2 gFΔh0 = εΔh0 lfV02 (1 + ymax ) − Ln(1 + ymax ) = 1 + mΔh0 m dimensional variables are always negative since ε dimensionless variables are positive and y direction is taken positive for upward direction with Δh negative values. ε= z= x= V2 l f ⋅ ⋅ 0 2 g F (Δh0 ) V V0 y Δh0 Δh0 = Head loss for the steady flow case (will get negative values since y values are taken positive for upward direction). Vogt Dimensionless Variables Tables have been prepared to compute surge amplitudes and periods for the surge tanks using dimensionless variables. This water volume difference will be supplied by the surge tank initially so that the water level in the surge tank will drop. There should be minimum water height of 1. the discharge for the turbine cannot be supplied by the pressure tunnel because of the velocity differences among the pressure tunnel and penstock. In order to be on the safe side. Dr. 10 Prof. Bulu . 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜1 + xmax ⎟ − Ln⎜1 + xmax ⎟ = 1 + ε ⎝ ε ⎠ ⎝ ε ⎠ For m = Damping factor. Air entrance to the penstock should not be permitted in order not to cause bursting of the penstock. Forchhmeir equation is solved by using the Table. m= The equation takes the form of.In case of instantaneous opening of turbine valves. manning roughness coefficient n should be selected high for concrete lining as n = 0.50 m over the top of penstock in the surge tank for the minimum water level which is the case of instantaneous opening of turbines for full load. a) Instantaneous full closure case Forchhmeir has given for the first maximum surge height for steady flow of Q0 discharge with Δh0 headloss.015 to obtain a higher β resistance factor. A.

Bulu .11 Prof. A. Dr.

A. Dr. Bulu .12 Prof.

13 Prof. Dr. A. Bulu .

A. Bulu . Dr.14 Prof.

1) ε dimensionless variable is calculated. length l = 5000 m.57m 2 15 Prof. Frank`s Table can be used to calculate the surge values for partial closure. It will be instantaneous full closure if (n = 0).014.In order to calculate the other extreme surge values after calculation the first ymax value. Example: An hydroelectric power plant with a design discharge Q = 30 m3/sec is fed by a pressure tunnel with a diameter D = 4 m. Bulu . and Manning coefficient n = 0. (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = (1 − mymax ) − Ln(1 − mymax ) (1 + my2 ) − Ln(1 + my2 ) = (1 + my1 ) − Ln(1 + my1 ) (1 − my3 ) − Ln(1 − my3 ) = (1 − my2 ) − Ln(1 − my2 ) (1 + my4 ) − Ln(1 + my4 ) = (1 + my3 ) − Ln(1 + my3 ) The following steps are taken for the solution of the aforementioned equations. 2) ymax value is computed by Forchhmeir equation by using the Table for (mΔh0) to get (mymax) value. the other y surge values are calculated by using above giving equations and the Table. Solution: a) Physical characteristics of the plant are. a) By using Forchhmeir method. 3) After calculation ymax. b) By the help of Frank`s table. A. Dr. The values in the Table can be defined as. Braun equations are used. ε= lV02 f 2 gF (Δh0 ) ymax Δh0 t 2π lF gf xmax = τ= t = T The Table has been prepared for circular simple surge tanks. f = πD 2 4 = π × 42 4 = 12. Compute the extreme surge heights for instantaneous full turbine closure in the surge tank with cross-sectional area F = 150 m2. b) Partial Closure of the Turbine Valve Q0 full load discharge may be reduced to nQ0 for (n < 1).

D = 1m 4 Q 30.11m − 0. − 0.57 R= V02 n 2l 2.39 2 × 12.392 ε= = = 7.399 mΔh0 = 0.60m R4 3 14 3 lfV02 5000 × 12.81× 150 × 5.78 2 9.405 = −8.557 = 12.443 = 1.26 → mymax = -0.114 From the Frank`s Table. Bulu .046 εΔh0 7.0 V0 = = = 2.551 mΔh0 =0.25 → mymax = -0.257 → mymax = -0.11 → mymax = -0.57 × 5000 = = 5. Dr.046 (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = (1 − mymax ) − Ln(1 − mymax ) (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = (1 + 0.60) = 0.557 ) (1 − my1 ) − Ln(1 − my1 ) = 1.60) mΔh0 = 0.257 From the Forchhmeir Table.046 16 Prof.57 × 2.78 × (− 5.114 → mymax = -0. mΔh0 = 0.114 1 + mΔh0 = 1. 2 2 = = −0. A.559 mΔh0 = 0.046)× (− 5.12 → mymax = -0.39 m sec f 12.80m 0.557 ) − Ln(1 + 0.413 mΔh0 = 0.60 2 gF (Δh0 ) Δh0 = m= mΔh0 = (− 0.557 ymax = The first minimum level.114 mΔh0 = 0.557 − 0.405 y1 = − 0.

405) 1 + mΔh0 = 1. (1 + my4 ) − Ln(1 + my4 ) = (1 − 0.065 → my4 = -0.046 (1 − my3 ) − Ln(1 − my3 ) = (1 − my2 ) − Ln(1 − my2 ) 1 + mΔh0 = (1 + 0.318 y3 = = −6.318) 1 + mΔh0 = 0.065 mΔh0 = 0.24 .405 = 8. 0.405) − Ln(1 + 0.318 = 6.17 .065 mΔh0 = 0. 1 = 0. A.36 7.91m 0.405) − Ln(1 − 0.Second maximum level.78 → 1 ε = 1 = 0.682 + 0.046 b) Franks Table will be used for surge calculations for instantaneous closure. τ = 0.300 = 0.294 ε 17 Prof.383 = 1. (1 + my2 ) − Ln(1 + my2 ) = (1 + my1 ) − Ln(1 + my1 ) 1 + mΔh0 = (1 − 0.114 → my2 = -0.293 ε 1 ε 1 = 0.046 Third maximum level.318 − 0.405 y2 = Second minimum level.88 .519 = 1.318) − Ln(1 − 0. τ = 0. Dr.40 → x = 1.114 The same mΔh0 value has been obtained coincidentally. τ = 0.35 → x = -2.36 → x = -2.405) 1 + mΔh0 = 0.595 + 0.80m 0. mΔh0 = 0.78 The first maximum level for n = 0. n = 0.065 → my3 = -0.114 mΔh0 = 0. Bulu .91m 0. ε = 7.318 y4 = 0.

Dr. τ = 1.63 .218 .797 = 0.525 = 0.36 → x = 0.44 .36 → x = +1.45 .79m tmin1 = 490 × 0.Oscillation period. 1 = 0. τ = 1.037 = 0.57 .030 = 0. A. τ = 0.15m tmax = τ × T = 0.17 )× (− 5.60 ) = 2. τ = 0.799 = 392 sec ε 1 ε 1 ε Second inflection point.41 .799 ymin1 = 1.46m tinf1 = 490 × 0. τ = 1.35 → x = -0.35 → x = +1.521 yinf1 = (− 0.57 × (− 5.44 ) × (− 5.805 = 0. τ = 0. τ = 0.40 → x = -0.521 = 255 sec ε 1 ε 1 ε First minimum level.294 × 490 = 144 sec First inflection point.520 = 0. 1 = 0.60 ) = −8.40 → x = +1. 1 = 0.36 → x = 0.256 .031 ε 1 ε 1 ε 18 Prof.35 → x = 0. τ = 0.81× 12.60m ymax = xmax × Δh0 = (− 2. T = 2π 5000 × 150 lF = 2π = 490 sec 9. τ = 0.248 .34 .57 gf Δh0 = -5.40 → x = 0.60 ) = 12. Bulu .

A.274 )× (− 5.80 Frank 12.60 ) = 1.256 × (− 5.274 .40 → x = -1. 19 Prof.302 × 490 = 638 sec ε 1 ε 1 ε Placing the surge values to the table.35 → x = -1.60 ) = 7.025 .224 . τ = 1. Bulu .302 ymax2 = (− 1.11 -8.36 → x = -1.309 = 0.79 The values are close for the both methods. τ = 1.031 = 505 sec Second maximum level. Dr.300 = 0. τ = 1. y ymax y1 Forchheimer 12.yinf 2 = 0. 1 = 0.15 -8.43m tinf2 = 490 × 1.13m tmax 2 = 1.

Dr.Table 18. Discharge increase from nQ0 to Q0 20 Prof. A. Bulu .

Calculate the extreme surge levels by using Frank tables for.81× 12. Bulu .80 2 ⋅ ⋅ 0 2 = = 68. Since l. 21 Prof.014 is feeding the turbines.57 V02 n 2l 0.632 = 1 = 0. b) Instantaneous discharge increase from 10 m3/sec to 30 m3/sec.87 5000 × 150 lF = 2π = 490 sec 9.63m R 14 3 f = πD 2 = π × 42 = 12. Solution: a) Q0 = 10 m3/sec. this ε→∞ corresponds to Δh0 = S0l → 0 which is the ideal fluid case. A.87 g F (Δh0 ) 9. there will be no discharge feeding the penstock which is (n =0) case. The column with 1 = 0 value corresponds to ε→∞.81× 150 × 0.c) Instantaneous Opening of the Turbines The discharge increase to the turbines by instantaneous opening is done from nQ0 to Q0 (n < 1). Instantaneous partial opening case may be computed to find out the surge heights by using Frank`s Table 18. Dr. a) Instantaneous discharge increase from 0 m3/sec to 10 m3/sec. The crosssectional area of the cylindrical surge tank is F = 150 m2.57m 2 ε= 1 V2 l f 5000 × 12.014 2 × 5000 Δh0 = 4 3 = = 0. V02.57 gf ε T = 2π First minimum surge tank level for n = 0 by using Table 18.802 × 0. diameter D = 4 m.57 × 0.12 68. F are physical ε magnitudes. 4 4 D 4 R = = = 1m 4 4 Q 10 V0 = = = 0. Example: An hydroelectric power plant with a pressure tunnel of the length l = 5000 m. The x and τ values of this column can only be used for ideal fluids which is no friction losses would occur in the plant. and Manning coefficient n = 0. f.80 m sec f 12. If the turbines are not running.

1 ε 1 = 0.272 = 0. Dr. τ = 1.12 → x = 8.10 → x = 5.39 m sec V0 = 12.265 = 620 sec b) Instantaneous discharge increase from Q = 10 m3/sec to Q0 = 30 m3/sec. A.15 → x = 3.00 .57 V 2 n 2 l 2.12 → x = -3.76 .763 = 374 sec Second minimum level. τ = 0. τ = 0.39 2 × 0.768 = 0.80 . τ = 0. τ = 1.256 = 125 sec First maximum level.1 ε 1 = 0.763 ε 1 ε y max1 = (− 3.014 2 × 5000 Δh0 = 0 4 3 = = 5. Bulu .85 .52m ε 1 ε τ = 490 × 0.15 → x = -2.255 = 0.78m g F (Δh0 )2 9.13 . τ = 0.63) ≅ −3.39 2 ε= ⋅ ⋅ = = 7.75 .15 → x = 6.43m τ = 490 × 0.63) = 2.10 → x = 10.74 × (− 0. Q0 = 30 m3/sec .60m R 14 3 V02 l f 5000 ×12.265 y min 2 = 4.00m ε 1 ε τ = 490 ×1.258 = 0.15 .57 × 2. τ = 1. τ = 0.57 m2 . 1 ε 1 = 0. f = 12.10 . τ = 0.261 = 0.85)× (− 0.12 → x = 4.74 . 30 = 2.760 = 0.256 y min1 = 8.81× 150 × 5.76 × (− 0.63) = −5.60 2 22 Prof. R = 1 m.10 → x = -5.

297 n = 0.89 .272 ε n=0 → n=0 → n = 0.5 → n = 0.55 .853 = 0.820 = 0.35 → x = 1.273 ε 1 = 0.5 → n = 0. τ = 0.35 → x = 0.40 → x = 2. Bulu .35 → x = 2.817 = 0.1 ε = 1 = 0. τ = 0.333 30 Interpolation will be done for the required ε . τ = 0.5 → 1 ε = 0.36 → x = 0. Dr.832 23 Prof.833 = 0.333.06 .15m t min1 = 0. τ = 0.276 1 ε 1 = 0. and n values using Table 18.36 → x = 2.60 ) = −12.36 → x = 2. τ = 0.17 × (− 5.834 = 0.838 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 ε = 0.96 .36 → x = 0.40 → x = 0. Minimum surge tank level for n = 0.5 → n = 0.68 .80 . τ = 0.61 .5 → ε 1 = 0.71 .36 .40 → x = 0.79 .40 → x = 1.299 ε = 0. τ = 0.36 → x = 1.85 . 1 n=0 → = 0. τ = 0.17 . A. n=0 → n=0 → n=0 → n = 0.78 . τ = 0. → τ = 0.333 → 1 = 0. τ = 0. τ = 0.78 1 n= 10 = 0.35 → x = 0.29 × 490 = 142 sec First maximum surge tank level. τ = 0.5 → n = 0.306 n = 0.36 → x = 0. τ = 0.333 → ε 1 = 0. 7.83 .52 .290 y min1 = 2.

H0 = H – βV02 = H – Δh0 = net head (by neglecting the headloss in the penstock) (m).345 = 0.71× (− 5. According to the Thoma equation suggested in small oscillations. m= 2 gFβ lf The minimum value of head succeeding surge stability in case of a given cross-sectional area F of the surge tank is.36 = 666 sec Stability Conditions of the Surge Tanks ε Stability conditions of the surge tanks were first established by D.36 ε 1 ε 1 y min 2 = 1.10 .y max1 = 0.36 → x = 1. Dr. τ = 1. to the power output to be succeeded after opening (m/sec).333 → 1 = 0. A. τ = 1.393 = 0. τ = 1. l = Length of the tunnel (m).40 → x = 1.35 = 0.364 = 0.60) = −3.36 → x = 1.16m t = 490 ×1.370 ε 1 ε 1 ε 1 = 0. F > Fthm = k lf 2 gβH 0 (m2) k = Factor of safety. Bulu . Vogt. i. τ = 1. V0 = Pressure tunnel velocity for the new dynamic equilibrium level.04 .5 → n = 0.10 × (− 5.832 = 408 sec Second minimum surge tank level.e. τ = 1.40 → x = 1.08.5 → n = 0.35 → x = 1.98m t = 490 × 0.15 . β = Resistance factor of the pressure tunnel (sec2/m).35 → x = 1. n=0 → n=0 → n=0 → n = 0.60) = −6. 24 Prof. They stated that in order to prevent the development of unstable oscillations the crosssection of the surge tank should exceed a critical value. τ = 1. the limit crosssectional area of the surge tank is.16 . Thoma and F.09 . Substituting the damping factor m.

014 as well as k = 1. f = πD2/4 cross sectional are.62 × H 0 n 2 F =k D10 3 160 H 0 n 2 A safety factor k of 1. F1 = F2 = D10 3 D10 3 1.5. we obtain. 25 Prof. D 4 3πD 2 F =k 43 4 × 4 × 19. to the form of.0106. Limit values of F are thus obtained by simultaneous assumption of the highest safety factor k and lowest Manning coefficient n.0106 2 H 0 F2 =2 F1 In case of a concrete lined pressure tunnel. the larger the crosssectional area of the surge tank. the lower the friction factor β.0133 may be applied. Bulu . the mean value n = 0.5 to 1. is considerable between extreme F2/F1 = 2. n = 0.0143 – 0. β= Fthm n 2l R4 3 R4 3 f lfR 4 3 =k =k 2 gH 0 n 2 l 2 gH 0 n 2 Is obtained. As can be seen from the equation. and with the substitution. which can be simplified in case of a circular pressure tunnel cross-section. Substituting the pairs of values k = 1. A. For a lining carried out with steel. the deviation depending on the choice of the friction coefficient n.F= klf mlf = 2 gβH 0 2 gβ k m H0 = Assuming local headlosses can be neglected with respect to friction losses. as well as on the safety factor k.8 × ≅ 100 H0 160 × 0. Dr.014 2 H 0 D10 3 D10 3 1.5 × ≅ 50 H0 160 × 0. n = 0.8.8 may be adopted. R = D/4 as hydraulic radius.

Bulu . 26 Prof. demonstrating that the safety factor can n0 longer be considered constant. Dr. Jaeger.For great amplitudes the Thoma equation was modified by Ch. k ∗ = 1 + 0. D10 3 F =k 160n 2 H 0 ∗ R4 3 f lf = k∗ 2 gβH 0 2 gn 2 H 0 The safety factor is. A. According to Jaeger. the cross-sectional area necessary for stability should not be less than. F = k∗ For a circular cross-section.482 y max H0 ymax is the amplitude of the undamped (frictionless) surge.

- On Writing
- The Shell Collector
- I Am Having So Much Fun Here Without You
- The Rosie Project
- The Blazing World
- Hyperbole and a Half
- Quiet Dell
- After Visiting Friends
- Missing
- Birds in Fall
- The Great Bridge
- Who Owns the Future?
- The Wife
- On Looking
- Catch-22
- A Farewell to Arms
- Goat Song
- Birth of the Cool
- Girl Reading
- Galveston
- Telex from Cuba
- Rin Tin Tin
- The White Tiger
- The Serialist
- No One Belongs Here More Than You
- Love Today
- Sail of Stone
- All My Puny Sorrows
- Fourth of July Creek
- The Walls Around Us

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd