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Adao Sebastiao Ricardo joao Thuto Mahole

giving rise to the calculation of the solubility of the benzoic acid as well as the enthalpy of dissolution. Tthe heat of reaction was determined by plotting a graph of log(S/°S) vs 1/T. This operation was performed at 40 °C.7J/kg. Results show that there is a linear relationship between solubility and temperature.015M NaOH solution and phenolphthalein indicator. initial and final mass as well as the initial and final volumes of the solution before and after titration. indicating that the dissolution of benzoic acid is an exothermic process. Variables such as temperatures. 30 °C and 25 °C by transferring the 250 ml conical flask to each respective water bath and conducting the titration upon equilibrium. The energy of hydration is much larger than the energies associated with the breakage of bonds of water molecules and benzoic acid molecules. The solubility of benzoic acid increases as the temperature increase. 35 °C. It was found that H is -243. Throughout the experiment the initial volume was kept constant at 50 ml.SUMMARY This experiment was done in order to determine the solubility of the benzoic acid over a range of temperatures and consequently calculate its heat of solution. Since H has a negative value. The experiment was conducted by using a solution of saturated benzoic acid together with the titration method using 0. Table of contents .

................................ 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................................... 10 APPENDIX A .................................................................................................................................. 8 NOMENCLATURE ......................................................... DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................................... 11 ..................................... 5 PROCEDURE AND APPARATUS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 THEORY .................... 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................... 6 RESULTS.........................SUMMARY ........................................

of a system cannot be measured directly. biological. the solution gets colder and the reaction is endothermic. The change ΔH is positive in endothermic reactions. Solubility is the amount of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent. . In order for any reaction to occur there must be a change in energy. being endothermic or exothermic. Solutions are very common in nature. Generally. the solution gets warmer and the reaction is exothermic.INTRODUCTION The enthalpy of solution. or heat of solution is the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a substance in a solvent at constant pressure resulting in infinite dilution. For a given solute. The total enthalpy. The ease of dissolution is dependent on the temperature of the system and type of solution. the entropy of the system increases. it is usually given in mol/Kg. Enthalpy is a thermodynamic potential. when dissolution occurs. and physical measurements. change in enthalpy (ΔH). because it simplifies certain descriptions of energy transfer. If solutes absorb energy from the solvent as they dissolve. the heat of solution is the change in energy that occurs as one mole of the solute dissolves in a solvent. enthalpy of dissolution. H. If solutes release energy to the solvent as they dissolve. The enthalpy is the preferred expression of system energy changes in many chemical. It is important to determine the heat of solution (enthalpy change) this is because a change in enthalpy takes account of energy transferred to the environment through the expansion of the system under study. is a more useful quantity than its absolute value. By using a titration method to determine the solubility and measuring the change in the temperature of the solution during the dissolving process. and negative in exothermic processes. Thus. we calculated the heat of solution. The enthalpy of solution is one of the three dimensions of solubility analysis. During the dissolving process. solutes either absorb or release energy. It is a state function and an extensive quantity.

as heat.THEORY The heat of solution or enthalpy of solution is one of the three dimensions of solubility analysis. In the process. into the surroundings in an exothermic reaction. (Wikipedia enthalpy change of solution. Dissolving a gas in liquid solvent releases energy. H: . (Bookrags. The temperature of the solution decreases as energy leaves the system. it increases with temperature in an endothermic reaction and decreasing with increase in temperature in exothermic reactions. there is expansion against the atmosphere and work is done. therefore solubility of a gas increases with a decrease in temperature of solution. (University. A negative enthalpy indicates that a solute is easily dissolved in the solvent. When completely dissolved. A constant temperature can be maintained if the solute is dissolved slowly. to the enthalpy change of that reaction. energy can either be absorbed or released. The well-known van’t Hoff equation relates the equilibrium constant of a reaction. Dissolution of a solute can occur in three steps: 1. It is the change in enthalpy associated with the dissolution of a solvent at constant pressure resulting in infinite dilution. commonly a salt is dissolved in water. the heat of solution is at its maximum. Solubility depends on temperature. The enthalpy of solution is only valid for dissolution of a pure substance into another pure substance. thus as one mole of the solute dissolves in the solvent. it is expressed in kJ/mol at constant temperature. when the solution is heated. Enthalpy of hydration is one of the most common types of heat of solution. Enthalpies of solution of most substances can be measured directly when the resulting solution is liquid. it dissolves until saturation is reached at a certain temperature. On the other hand. Breaking of solute-solute attraction (endothermic) 2. It is necessary to determine the amount of solute dissolved and the nature of solid phase in equilibrium with the solution when performing solubility measurements. as mentioned before. with positive values indicating endothermic values and negative values indicating energy released or exothermic energy. Breaking of solvent-solvent attractions (endothermic) 3. the reverse reaction occurs and gas evolves. the pressure remains constant. Stronger bonds are formed in solutions with negative enthalpy changes and these solutions tend to have a lower vapour pressure. 2005)) Three conditions are fulfilled in the process. 2006) When a solid is dissolved in a solvent in which it is soluble. Forming solvent-solute bonds (exothermic) The sum of the individual enthalpy changes of each step is the overall value of the enthalpy change. and the temperature remains constant. K. A substance.

18g exactly. A 250ml saturated solution of benzoic acid. (Department of Chemical Engineering. while stirring the solution continuously. 300ml of water were heated to 80˚C in a 400ml beaker on a separate plate. one 1000ml-beaker. phenolphthalein indicator and water.A similar equation can be derived relating the solubility of a solid to its enthalpy of solution: Where S is the solubility in moles per kilogram. 150ml of the solution were measured in a measuring cylinder and transferred into a 250ml conical flask. 500ml of water were heated to 50˚C in a 1L beaker on a hotplate. one 10ml-pipette. T is the temperature in degrees Kelvin and H is the standard enthalpy of solution. More solid benzoic acid was added to keep the solution saturated. A solution of 0. one 250mlconical flask. the temperature was recorded and found to be 40. Once equilibrium was reached. A pipette was used to withdraw 10ml of the benzoic acid solution and drain it into a 100ml conical flask. The chemicals used to for the experimental work were: solid benzoic acid. S= 1 mol/kg. 10. the flask was transferred to the 40˚C water-bath. The flask was placed in the 1L beaker with water at 50˚C. four 100ml-conical flask. 2011) Procedure and apparatus Apparatus The apparatus used during the experimental work were: two 400ml-beakers. Three drops of the phenolphthalein indicator were added to the solution and the weight of the flask with the solution was recorded. containing excess acid. .1 ˚C. was prepared at 80˚C in a 400ml beaker. two water-baths. When the temperature reached 50˚C. one 100ml-measuring cylinder and two hotplates. two burettes.015M of sodium hydroxide (0. sodium hydroxide pellets. Procedure          The thermostats on the two water-baths were set to 40˚C and 35˚C. two mercury thermometers.3g/500ml) was prepared in a 500ml beaker.

then 10ml were transferred to the 100ml conical flask each and titration was performed. the volume of sodium hydroxide used and the mass of the flask after titration were recorded. as well as the temperature values and the volume of sodium hydroxide solution in the burette before and after titration.  The benzoic acid solution was titrated using the sodium hydroxide solution. The same operation is repeated by transferring the 250ml conical flask to the 30 ˚C water-bath. Once the colour of the solution changed to light pink. then to the 25 ˚C water-bath and conduct titration upon equilibrium The volume of benzoic acid solution used for titration was kept constant (10ml).77g respectively. the temperature was varied during the experiment.5ml and 36. . The mass of flask with solution before and after titration was recorded. 28. The 250ml conical flask was transferred to the 35˚C water-bath.

The graph shows an increasing trend. The energy of hydration is much larger than the energies associated with the breakage of bonds of water molecules and benzoic acid molecules. Since H has a negative value. . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION There is a linear relationship between solubility and temperature. The slope of the line of best fit (straight line) was found to be -12.5*10-3 mol/kg as the values of temperature increase from 25˚C to 40˚C.73 and the heat of reaction was determined from it. Between 30C and 35C there is a change in slope as it decreases then increases from 35C to 40C. The solubility of benzoic acid increases from 274. it indicates that the dissolution of benzoic acid is an exothermic process. It was found that H is -243. this indicates change in the nature of the solid phase.RESULTS.7J/kg.5*10-3 mol/kg to 427.

mol/kg of solvent Standard solubility. K Universal gas constant Temperature of water-bath Equilibrium temperature of solution Mass of solution before titration Mass of solution after titration Volume of sodium hydroxide in burette before titration Volume of sodium hydroxide in burette after titration . 1 mol/kg Standard enthalpy of solution. kJ/kg Temperature.NOMENCLATURE K S S H T R TWB TE MI MF VI VF - Equilibrium constant Solubility.

S. S. KZN. K. Taylor and Francis Group.Kroemer In Thermal Physics. C. R. & S.arizona. S. University. V. & Zumdahl.com/research/heat-of-solution-woc Department of Chemical Engineering. Zumdahl.Hill. Retrieved August 16. J. (2006). Urbana: Houghton Mifflin. South Africa: Durban University of Technology. A. Ness. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. V.. W. from http://www. Durban. (2006). A. New York: McGraw . Oxford University Press: Oxford.Bibliography Bookrags. Smith. H. Chemistry. New York.. The World of Physical Chemistry. from BookRags: http://www. 1971. Jost. S.pdf Zumdahl. M. & Abbott. p 110. p246 DeHoff.432).bookrags.R Furphy and Company.edu/resources/heatofsolution. (2005)... p 29. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics (pp. In J. S... & M. 489 . heat of solution. Retrieved August 14. New York. Heat of Solution. Ed. Laidler. Haase. 1980. In S. Zumdahl. 2011. R. H. 2011.Kittel. 1995.492). A. S. H. (2011). . Thermodynamics in Materials Science: 2nd ed. 426 . Academic: New York.pharmacy. 2006. Practical Manual S4. In Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise. Abbott.pulse. M. (2003). Ness. Chemistry (pp.

when equilibrium is reached the number of moles of benzoic acid and sodium hydroxide are equal. the number of moles of sodium hydroxide was: And the solubility was found to be:  At temperature of 35˚C. it becomes: Solubility is expressed as the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Thus: The number of moles of sodium hydroxide can be determined from the definition of molarity: Where: M=molar concentration.APPENDIX A: Sample calculation During the titration process. It can be expressed as: Solubility of benzoic acid was determined at different temperatures and the results are the following:  At temperature of 40˚C. the number of moles of sodium hydroxide was: And the solubility was found to be: . Expressing the number of moles in terms of molar concentration and volume. V= volume. n = number of moles.

1 35 30 25 MI(g) 10.55 34.5 22.14 MF(g) 36. At temperature of 30˚C.3 18.5 24.77 34.05 10. mass and volume.01 28. TWB(˚C) 40 35 30 25 TE(˚C) 40. the number of moles of sodium hydroxide was: And the solubility was found to be: Table of results: Solubility at different temperatures Solubility (mol solute/kg solvent) Temperature (˚C) 40 35 30 25 Table of raw data: recorded values for temperature.13 10.18 10.35 VI (mL) 50 50 50 50 VF (mL) 28. the number of moles of sodium hydroxide was: And the solubility was found to be:  At temperature of 25˚C.3 Where: TWB = Temperature of water-bath TE = Equilibrium temperature of solution MI = Mass of solution before titration .

Thus.0400 The slope of the line of best fit (straight line) was found to be -12. The universal gas constant has a value of 8.0333 0. the heat of reaction becomes: .56 1/T 0.73 and the heat of reaction was determined from it.0285 0.314J/mol*˚C.43 -3.MF = Mass of solution after titration VI = Volume of sodium hydroxide in burette before titration VF = Volume of sodium hydroxide in burette after titration The heat of reaction was determined from the equation: Where: S S˚ = ∆H˚= R T = = = Plotting log(S/S˚) versus 1/T.37 -3.48 -3. the heat of reaction was calculated: Log(S/S˚) -3.0250 0.

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