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University Of Sharjah Collage of Higher Education and Scientific Research M.Sc.

in Civil Engineering Program

Assignment № 1 to

Environmental Impact Assessment Analysis
(0401564)

Done By Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Submitted to Prof. Abdullah Shanableh

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝐴𝑠. 4𝑓 𝑦 𝐴𝑠. The following figure explains some parameters Figure acquired from Reinforced Concrete Design Book by McCormac and Brown 8th ed.𝑚𝑖𝑛 = The same thing for maximum allowed steel area that designers use it to guarantee that the section will not undergoes a sudden failure mechanism. 𝑈. codes have developed an envelope that the reinforcement has to fall within its limits.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 For steel reinforcement. That means steel has a minimum area to guarantee the elastic behavior of the section under the given flexural loading which is 3 𝑓 ′ 𝑏𝑑 𝑐 = 𝐵𝑆. Now for columns and compression reinforced concrete members Risk analysis for compressive loads Value fy As Ag fc’ 4 Parameter Yield strength of reinforcement Steel Area Gross sectional area of the member Compressive strength of Comment Material property Material property Material property Material property . 𝑈. 𝑓 𝑦 𝑓 ′ 𝑏𝑑 𝑐 𝑆𝐼.

00 always This is only for shear 7 .00 The magnified load over reduced capacity equation This number HAS to be less than 1.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Parameter Yield strength of reinforcement Shear reinforcement Torsional reinforcment Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of concrete cross section Gross sectional area Perimeter of the studied cross section Cross sectional area enclosed withen the outside hoop Gross area enclosed by shear path (0.5 UL l Vu > 0.5 ϕ Vc Comment Magnify the load To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure) Since stirrups are repeated two times per section By statics Calculate Vs from the given equation in the previous line ϕ (Vs + Vc) = Vu 𝐴𝑣 𝑉 𝑠 = 𝑠 𝑓𝑦 𝑑 𝑀𝐿 = 𝑅𝐶 𝑉 𝑢 𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 𝑦 𝜙 𝑉 + 𝜙𝑠 𝑐 < 1.85 Aoh) Perimeter of torsion reinforcing Effective depth of concrete section base of concrete section Compressive strength of concrete Shear strength of concrete Cracking torque of concrete Spacing between stirrups The given load (regardless of its type) Factored axial load The ultimate shear applied The ultimate torsion applied General capacity reduction factor Crack angle System of units factor Risk analysis for torsional loads Value fy Av At Acp Ag pcp Aoh Ao ph d b fc’ Vc Tcr s L Nu Vu Tu Comment Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material Property Load Load Translation from loads into shear By direct structural analysis ϕ Reduction factor for the whole capacity (0. spacing is calculated θ ψn Failure Criteria Value UL Vu = 0.75) used to be taken as 45⁰ to distinguish between customary units and SI units Criterion The maximum load is calculated The Maximum moment is calculated Stirrups are needed if the ultimate shear is greater than half of the reduced capacity Shear is resisted by both steel and concrete After selecting desired steel diameter.

Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Torsional reinforcement is needed in normal section 𝑇𝑢 > 𝜙 𝜓1 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝐴𝑐𝑝 2 1 = 𝑇𝑐𝑟 𝑝𝑐𝑝 4 The ultimate torque applied exceeds 25% of cracking torque of concrete ψ1 = 1 in customary units ψ1 = 1/12 in SI units or in members subjected to axial tension or compression loading 𝑇𝑢 > 𝜙 𝜓1 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝐴𝑐𝑝 2 𝑝𝑐𝑝 1+ 𝜓2 𝑁𝑢 𝐴𝑔 𝑓 𝑐 ′ ψ2 = 1/4 for customary units ψ2 = 3 for SI units Checking the ability of the Solid section to take the given toesional loading 𝑉 𝑢 𝑏𝑑 2 + 𝑇𝑢 𝑝𝑕 1.7𝐴𝑜𝑕 2 2 ≤ 𝜙 𝑉 𝑐 + 𝜓3 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑 ψ3 = 8 for customary units ψ3 = 2/3 for SI units Here the magnified load has to be less than the reduced capacity for the section Checking the ability of the Hollow section to take the given toesional loading 𝑉 𝑇𝑢 𝑝𝑕 𝑉 𝑢 𝑐 ′ + 𝑐 2 ≤ 𝜙 𝑏𝑑 + 𝜓3 𝑓 𝑏𝑑 1.𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 5 𝑓 ′ 𝐴𝑐𝑝 𝐴𝑡 𝑝𝑕 𝑐 − 𝜓6 𝑓𝑦 𝑠 ψ6 = 1 for customary units ψ6 = 12 for SI units 8 . stirrups area must not be below the given limit 𝐴𝑣 + 2𝐴𝑡 = 𝜓4 𝑏𝑠 𝜓5 𝑏𝑠 𝑓 ′ ≥ 𝑐 𝑓 𝑓 𝑦 𝑦 ψ4 = 3/4 for customary units ψ4 = 1/16 for SI units ψ5 = 50 for customary units ψ5 = 1/3 for SI units Also.7𝐴𝑜𝑕 ML ≤ RC Calculate needed torsional reinforcement 𝐴𝑡 𝑇𝑛 = 𝑠 𝜙 2 𝐴𝑜 𝑓 cot 𝜃 𝑦 Calculates steel needed per unit spacing In any way. longitudinal torsional reinforcing has to be calculated 𝐴𝑙 = 𝐴𝑡 𝑝𝑕 cot 2 𝜃 𝑠 This area should not fall below a given limit Longitudinal torsional reinforcing must not fall below this limit 𝐴𝑙.