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08/11/2014

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in Civil Engineering Program

Assignment № 1 to

**Environmental Impact Assessment Analysis
**

(0401564)

Done By Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Submitted to Prof. Abdullah Shanableh

compression. torsion. etc) 2. flexure and torsion) and material properties available to deal with the applied loads. Define for each stress type (or combination of stresses) the relationship between the load and behavior/resistance of material. and then explain the process using risk analysis and explain how risk is managed in the design process. Analyze the structural design process in terms of applied loads. Environmental loads to be resisted by reinforcement framing (wind loads and seismic loads) In general the loads. generated stresses (tension. flexure.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Q. Solution: Loads can be classified (in terms of resistance into the following categories 1. Normal loads to be resisted by reinforcement or framing (gravitational loads. shear. shear.. . You can define the risk as the potential of failure under the load. the material and the capacity are given into this diagram 1 ..

steel structures.85 To magnify the loads To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure) 2 . Also. Risk analysis for inelastic bending (flexure) loads Parameter Value Comment Yield strength of reinforcement Material property fy Steel Area Material property As Base of concrete section Material property b Effective depth of concrete section Material property d Effective compression depth of the Material property A section Span of concrete section Material property l Compressive strength of concrete Material property fc’ Young’s modulus of elasticity of Material property Ec concrete Moment of inertia of the section Material Property I The given load (regardless of its type) Load L General capacity reduction factor ϕ Failure Criteria Reduction factor for the whole capacity (0.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 The interpretation of this triangle is the following statement on basis of load “for any given load to be sustained by a certain material.00 always. The capacity is the ability of the section of this material to resist the load”.85) fc’ a b UL Mu Comment To have equilibrium in the section The reduction factor for concrete is 0. Reinforced concrete design will be taken as an example to analyze its process against risk assessment and management. There are many types of load resisting structures such as reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. timber structures and stone structures. for any structure we have the ratio of load to capacity (or the L/C ratio) has to stay less than 1.9) Criterion Tension equals compression in the section Compression strength is reduced Load is magnified to the ultimate The ultimate moment is calculated by structural analysis from ultimate loads Value T=C C = (0.

00 always Also. l. 3 . It has been an axiom that concrete is very week in tension (about 10% of compressive strength). Miscalculation of capacity 3. designers have to choose between one of the following. deflection is of great concern δ = f (L. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) 2. either making the whole building in pure compression which is not all the time applicable or to provide some reinforcement (steel here) to take care of the tension loading in the flexural section. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads 2. Excess deflection of the member 1. Material degradation 4. Combination between safety and Economy Commentary: Concrete flexural sections are designed based on the fact that the moment is nothing but tension and compression acting simultaneously but each force dominates an area in the section where the other force has the opposite are. Ec. So. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3.00 This number HAS to be less than 1. from very long ages. I) The inputs of this function varies a lot between different cases of members whether it was loading or material properties Hazard Identification Hazard Quantification (Load) Section response (Capacity) Risk characterization Risk management Risk Assessment Loads on slabs or beams L=M 𝑎 𝐶 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 − 𝑦 2 Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 The magnified load over reduced capacity equation 𝑀𝐿 𝑀𝑢 = 𝑎 𝑅𝐶 𝜙𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 − 2 𝑦 < 1.

𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝐴𝑠. 4𝑓 𝑦 𝐴𝑠. The following figure explains some parameters Figure acquired from Reinforced Concrete Design Book by McCormac and Brown 8th ed.𝑚𝑖𝑛 = The same thing for maximum allowed steel area that designers use it to guarantee that the section will not undergoes a sudden failure mechanism. 𝑈. codes have developed an envelope that the reinforcement has to fall within its limits.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 For steel reinforcement. That means steel has a minimum area to guarantee the elastic behavior of the section under the given flexural loading which is 3 𝑓 ′ 𝑏𝑑 𝑐 = 𝐵𝑆. Now for columns and compression reinforced concrete members Risk analysis for compressive loads Value fy As Ag fc’ 4 Parameter Yield strength of reinforcement Steel Area Gross sectional area of the member Compressive strength of Comment Material property Material property Material property Material property . 𝑈. 𝑓 𝑦 𝑓 ′ 𝑏𝑑 𝑐 𝑆𝐼.

Overestimating loads (magnification of load) Risk management 2. Combination between safety and Economy Commentary: In compressive loads the failure might be because of the previously discussed factors. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads Risk characterization 2. no risk is there regarding the deflection of columns unlike the deflection of beams where tension in the beam plays an important role in the falure of the beam because of deflection. the deflection here will not be that important as the deflection is resisted by compressive characteristics of concrete. 5 .85 fc’(Ag – As) + As fy] Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 concrete The given load (regardless of its type) General capacity reduction factor L Load For tied reinforcement (0.85 𝑓 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠 + 𝑓 𝐴𝑠 𝑐 𝑦 Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Loads on compression members Hazard Quantification (Load) L=P Section response (Capacity) C = [0.75) ϕ Failure Criteria Criterion Value Comment Compression is resisted by By statics C’ = Cc + Cs both concrete and steel The ultimate load is Magnify the load UL The capacity equation Reduce the capacity C = ϕ (0.8)[0. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3.00 always 𝑅𝐶 𝜙 0. Material degradation 1. Miscalculation of capacity 3. So.8 0.65) For Spiral reinforcement (0.00 This number HAS to be less ′ reduced capacity equation than 1.85 fc’(Ag – As) + As fy] 𝑀𝐿 𝑈𝐿 The magnified load over = < 1.

5 ϕ Vc Criterion The maximum load is calculated The Maximum moment is calculated Stirrups are needed if the ultimate shear is greater than half of the reduced capacity Shear is resisted by both steel and concrete After selecting desired steel diameter. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads 2.00 always Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Hazard Quantification (Load) Section response (Capacity) Risk characterization Risk management Shear loads L=V 𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 𝑦 𝐶 = 𝑉 + 𝑐 𝜙𝑠 Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. Combination between safety and Economy 6 . Miscalculation of capacity 3.00 The magnified load over reduced capacity equation 𝑉 𝑢 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 𝑑 𝜙 𝑉 + 𝜙𝑠 𝑐 This number HAS to be less than 1. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) 2.75) ϕ Failure Criteria Value UL Vu = 0. Material degradation 1.5 UL l Vu > 0. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Parameter Yield strength of reinforcement Steel Area Base of concrete section Effective depth of concrete section Span of concrete section Compressive strength of concrete Shear strength of concrete Spacing between stirrups The given load (regardless of its type) The ultimate shear applied General capacity reduction factor Risk analysis for shear loads Value fy As b d l fc’ Vc s L Vu Comment Material property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material Property Load Translation from loads into shear Reduction factor for the whole capacity (0. spacing is calculated Comment Magnify the load To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure) Since stirrups are repeated two times per section By statics Calculate Vs from the given equation in the previous line ϕ (Vs + Vc) = Vu 𝑠 = 𝑀𝐿 = 𝑅𝐶 𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 𝑦 𝑉 𝑠 < 1.

00 always This is only for shear 7 .00 The magnified load over reduced capacity equation This number HAS to be less than 1.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Parameter Yield strength of reinforcement Shear reinforcement Torsional reinforcment Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of concrete cross section Gross sectional area Perimeter of the studied cross section Cross sectional area enclosed withen the outside hoop Gross area enclosed by shear path (0.5 UL l Vu > 0.5 ϕ Vc Comment Magnify the load To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure) Since stirrups are repeated two times per section By statics Calculate Vs from the given equation in the previous line ϕ (Vs + Vc) = Vu 𝐴𝑣 𝑉 𝑠 = 𝑠 𝑓𝑦 𝑑 𝑀𝐿 = 𝑅𝐶 𝑉 𝑢 𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 𝑦 𝜙 𝑉 + 𝜙𝑠 𝑐 < 1.85 Aoh) Perimeter of torsion reinforcing Effective depth of concrete section base of concrete section Compressive strength of concrete Shear strength of concrete Cracking torque of concrete Spacing between stirrups The given load (regardless of its type) Factored axial load The ultimate shear applied The ultimate torsion applied General capacity reduction factor Crack angle System of units factor Risk analysis for torsional loads Value fy Av At Acp Ag pcp Aoh Ao ph d b fc’ Vc Tcr s L Nu Vu Tu Comment Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material Property Load Load Translation from loads into shear By direct structural analysis ϕ Reduction factor for the whole capacity (0. spacing is calculated θ ψn Failure Criteria Value UL Vu = 0.75) used to be taken as 45⁰ to distinguish between customary units and SI units Criterion The maximum load is calculated The Maximum moment is calculated Stirrups are needed if the ultimate shear is greater than half of the reduced capacity Shear is resisted by both steel and concrete After selecting desired steel diameter.

Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Torsional reinforcement is needed in normal section 𝑇𝑢 > 𝜙 𝜓1 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝐴𝑐𝑝 2 1 = 𝑇𝑐𝑟 𝑝𝑐𝑝 4 The ultimate torque applied exceeds 25% of cracking torque of concrete ψ1 = 1 in customary units ψ1 = 1/12 in SI units or in members subjected to axial tension or compression loading 𝑇𝑢 > 𝜙 𝜓1 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝐴𝑐𝑝 2 𝑝𝑐𝑝 1+ 𝜓2 𝑁𝑢 𝐴𝑔 𝑓 𝑐 ′ ψ2 = 1/4 for customary units ψ2 = 3 for SI units Checking the ability of the Solid section to take the given toesional loading 𝑉 𝑢 𝑏𝑑 2 + 𝑇𝑢 𝑝 1.7𝐴𝑜 2 2 ≤ 𝜙 𝑉 𝑐 + 𝜓3 𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑 ψ3 = 8 for customary units ψ3 = 2/3 for SI units Here the magnified load has to be less than the reduced capacity for the section Checking the ability of the Hollow section to take the given toesional loading 𝑉 𝑇𝑢 𝑝 𝑉 𝑢 𝑐 ′ + 𝑐 2 ≤ 𝜙 𝑏𝑑 + 𝜓3 𝑓 𝑏𝑑 1.𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 5 𝑓 ′ 𝐴𝑐𝑝 𝐴𝑡 𝑝 𝑐 − 𝜓6 𝑓𝑦 𝑠 ψ6 = 1 for customary units ψ6 = 12 for SI units 8 . stirrups area must not be below the given limit 𝐴𝑣 + 2𝐴𝑡 = 𝜓4 𝑏𝑠 𝜓5 𝑏𝑠 𝑓 ′ ≥ 𝑐 𝑓 𝑓 𝑦 𝑦 ψ4 = 3/4 for customary units ψ4 = 1/16 for SI units ψ5 = 50 for customary units ψ5 = 1/3 for SI units Also.7𝐴𝑜 ML ≤ RC Calculate needed torsional reinforcement 𝐴𝑡 𝑇𝑛 = 𝑠 𝜙 2 𝐴𝑜 𝑓 cot 𝜃 𝑦 Calculates steel needed per unit spacing In any way. longitudinal torsional reinforcing has to be calculated 𝐴𝑙 = 𝐴𝑡 𝑝 cot 2 𝜃 𝑠 This area should not fall below a given limit Longitudinal torsional reinforcing must not fall below this limit 𝐴𝑙.

For torsion loads. 9 . the failure in the section because of the principal tensile stresses that the section is to carry. designers shall now have concern of failure because of torsion. designers used to depend on the previous load resisting designs. They both care about principal tensile stresses that develop in the section because of various loads that are encountered by the structure. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) 2. but because of difficulties in framing. But now when safety factors have reduced relatively after 2005. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads 2. so.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Hazard Quantification (Load) Section response (Capacity) Risk characterization Risk management Shear loads L=V 𝐴𝑠 𝑓 𝑑 𝑦 𝐶 = 𝑉 + 𝑐 𝜙𝑠 Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. by default the reinforcement is to be inclined at that angle. Even though being lengthy. Miscalculation of capacity 3. the approach of torsion reinforcement design is like shear design approach in principal. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3. Combination between safety and Economy Commentary: For Shear loads. codes specify some equations (like the previously stated ones) to overcome this issue. Since the shear loads means a principal tensile stress that is inclined at 45⁰. Material degradation 1.

4. differential settlement and shrinkagecompensating concrete 5. The magnification of loads can be done using magnification factors (based on the used code of design) for the loads as following: 1. L: live load 6. groundwater pressure or pressure of bulk materials 7. creep.0 L or 0. 7.6 (L + H) + 0.6 W + 1.2 (D + F + T) + 1. W: wind loads 11. 4.2 D + 1.0 E + 1. 2. These load magnification combination conforms to the IBC code and ASCE code requirements. 10 .5 (Lr or S or R) U = 1.6 W + 1. It is also important to mention that all types of loading that any reinforced concrete structure faces (dead.0 L + 0. For other types of structures the equations will be different but the concept will be the same.4 (D + F) U = 1. H: loads due to weight and lateral earth pressure of soils.9 D + 1.6 H ACI equation 9-1 ACI equation 9-2 ACI equation 9-3 ACI equation 9-4 ACI equation 9-5 ACI equation 9-6 ACI equation 9-7 Where the used abbreviations are as follows: 1. S: snow loads 9. hydraulic.2 S U = 0. Lr: roof live loads 8.9 D + 1. 3.0 L + 0. snow.6 H U = 0. compression and shear).2 D + 1. seismic … etc) will be translated into the ultimate magnified load (UL or U) that will have one of three possible effects on structure (flexure. live.5 (Lr or S or R) U = 1.0 E + 1.8 W) U = 1. U: the ultimate (magnified) design load D: dead load F: loads due to weight and pressure of fluids T: total effects of temperature. 3.6 (Lr or S or R) + (1. 6. U = 1.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 It is important to mention that this model of risk analysis is for reinforced concrete structures. E: earthquake or seismic loads.2 D + 1. R: rain loads 10. 5. 2.

Ea. Choice of non-corroding reinforcement 8. Underestimating of environmental conditions 3. on the final run. Underestimating or miscalculation of cover to reinforcement 2. corrosion of reinforcement that will make the capacity of the section to be reduced 11 . Ea. the severity of the environmental condition and water cement ratio (in some cases) Comment Material property Material property Material Property Load Value T = f (S. high concentrations of hard salts (such as.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 Risk analysis for service time of the structure Value Water Cement Ratio W/C Clear cover to reinforcement S Service life time T Environmental Condition Ea Parameter Failure Criteria Criterion Service life time is a function of clear cover to reinforcement. chlorides or carbonates) that will cause the concrete to degrade and therefore. (W/C)*) Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. such as humidity. Provide good quality -impermeable concrete 4. Use of suitable admixtures 5. (W/C)*) Comment This function is widely variable since we have three unknowns of which one of them (Environmental condition) is by itself a very complicated (unstable) function Hazard Identification Hazard Quantification (Load) Section response (Capacity) Risk characterization Risk management Risk Assessment Environmental conditions are unbearable enough by the structure L = Ea T = f (S. Underestimating Material Strength 3. Protection of reinforcement 6. Overestimating of environmental effects 2. Material degradation 1. Use of corrosion inhibitors 7. sulfurs. Combination between safety and Economy Commentary: Environmental impacts that are given here are not the normal loading that the structure is designed to carry. It is the environmental condition that the structure will face.

Mufid. Own work experience. John Wiley and sons. Design of Reinforced Concrete. University of Sharjah. Lecture notes for Advanced Concrete Technology course. and Brown.Hussain Osama Qasem U00028420 References 1. Lecture notes for Reinforced Concrete Design I course. 5. Russell H. McCormac. UAE. 4. Jack C. Al-Toubat. 12 . UAE. (2009) 2. eighth edition. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318M – 08) and Commentary. Spring semester 2010. Salah. University of Sharjah. Fall semester 2011.. American concrete institute (2008) 3. Al-Samarai.

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