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Final Ece Term Paper

Final Ece Term Paper

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Basic electrical and electronics ECE 131


DOA: 17 September 2010 DOS: 18 November 2010

Submitted to: Ms Cherry Bhargava Deptt. Of ECE

Submitted by: Name:- Sagar Dua Roll. No:- A21 Reg.No:- 11008259 Section:- K6003


Table of Content Introduction • Brushless DC electric motor • Brushless versus brushed DC motors • Controller implementations • Variations in construction • AC and DC power supplies • Kv rating • Applications *Consumer electronics *Transport *Heating and ventilation *Model engineering *Laser printer *Hard disk drive • Refrences .

maintenance-free motors were realised. In a motor that is brushless. Brushless DC motors provide high power density and long life for applications requiring speed control. which creates the rotational torque needed for the motor to work. These motors use the brushes to move the commutator. as the torque is a function of the electronic action of the brushless motor on the commutator. NMB’s BLDC motors are available in 0. the commutation is done electronically.INTRODUCTION Conventional dc motors are highly efficient and their characteristics make them suitable for use as servomotors. many motor needs have been met using brushed DC motors. These motors are now known as brushless dc motors Traditionally. .1W up to 1kW. When the functions of commutator and brushes were implemented by solid-state switches. their only drawback is that they need a commutator and brushes which are subject to wear and require maintenance. There is no need for brushes. However.

however have only been commercially possible since 1962. However. the term stepper motor tends to be used for motors that are designed specifically to be operated in a mode where they are frequently stopped with the rotor in a defined angular position. BLDC motors may be described as Stepper motors. Limitations of brushed DC motors overcome by BLDC motors include lower efficiency and susceptibility of the commutator assembly to mechanical wear and consequent need for .Brushless DC electric motor Brushless DC motors (BLDC motors. though there is overlap. just poles that are induced on the rotor then pulled into alignment by timed stator windings. with fixed permanent magnets and possibly more poles on the stator than the rotor. The latter may be without permanent magnets. this page describes more general BLDC motor principles. EC motors) are synchronous electric motors powered by direct-current (DC) electricity and having electronic commutation systems. or Reluctance motors. BL motors) also known as electronically commutated motors (ECMs. BLDC motors. Brushless versus brushed DC motors Brushed DC motors have been in commercial use since 1886. rather than mechanical commutators and brushes. The current-to-torque and voltage-to-speed relationships of BLDC motors are linear.

reliability. The circuit compensates for the induction of the windings. limited almost exclusively by heat. The maximum power that can be applied to a BLDC motor is exceptionally high. they are not subjected to centrifugal forces. The interface circuitry between a digital controller and motor. which continually switches the phase to the windings to keep the motor turning. reduced noise.servicing. and because the windings are supported by the housing. longer lifetime (no brush and commutator erosion). they can be cooled by conduction. The controller performs similar timed power distribution by using a solid-state circuit rather than the brush/commutator system. A BLDC motor's main disadvantage is higher cost. at the cost of potentially less rugged and more complex and expensive control electronics. The waveforms show multiple transitions between high and low voltage levels. First. more power. Brushed DC motors can be regulated by a comparatively . elimination of ionizing sparks from the commutator. approximations to a trapezoid or sinusoid which reduce harmonic losses. and overall reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI). A BLDC motor has permanent magnets which rotate and a fixed armature. requiring no airflow inside the motor for cooling. This in turn means that the motor's internals can be entirely enclosed and protected from dirt or other foreign matter. With no windings on the rotor. including more torque per weight and efficiency[citation needed]. An electronic controller replaces the brush/commutator assembly of the brushed DC motor. regulates power and monitors temperature. BLDC motors offer several advantages over brushed DC motors. BLDC motors require complex electronic speed controllers to run. which can weaken the magnets (Neodymium-iron-boron magnets typically demagnetize at temperatures lower than that of boiling water). which arises from two issues. eliminating the problems of connecting current to the moving armature.

The phase difference requires greater current and current losses to achieve power. . Simple controllers employ comparators to determine when the output phase should be advanced. meaning Electronic Speed Controller. In general. However. some practical uses have not been well developed in the commercial sector. Most ESCs do not boost the battery voltage.simple controller. This is usually accomplished by beginning rotation from an arbitrary phase. eliminating the need for separate Hall effect sensors.) BLDC motors are often more efficient at converting electricity into mechanical power than brushed DC motors. Other sensorless controllers are capable of measuring winding saturation caused by the position of the magnets to infer the rotor position. the voltage on the undriven coils is sinusoidal. Controller implementations Because the controller must direct the rotor rotation. This improvement is largely due to the absence of electrical and friction losses due to brushes. requiring less current for the same effect and therefore resulting in greater efficiency. but over an entire commutation the output appears trapezoidal because of the DC output of the controller. This can cause the motor to run briefly backwards. AC induction motors require induction of magnetic field in the rotor by the rotating field of the stator. below. Others measure the back EMF in the undriven coils to infer the rotor position. and then skipping to the correct phase if it is found to be wrong. high speeds. ECMs are microprocessorcontrolled to keep the stator current in phase with the permanent magnets of the rotor. and therefore are often called sensorless controllers. the controller needs some means of determining the rotor's orientation/position (relative to the stator coils.) Some designs use Hall effect sensors or a rotary encoder to directly measure the rotor's position. while more advanced controllers employ a microcontroller to manage acceleration. and operation in explosive environments where sparking could be hazardous. this reduces efficiency because power is wasted in the rheostat. control speed and fine-tune efficiency. this results in the magnetic and electric fields being out of phase. The controller unit is often referred to as an "ESC". Second. The controller contains 3 bi-directional drivers to drive high-current DC power. Controllers that sense rotor position based on back-EMF have extra challenges in initiating motion because no back-EMF is produced when the rotor is stationary. (Nevertheless. see "Applications". such as a rheostat (variable resistor). BLDC motors and highquality brushed motors are comparable in efficiency. The enhanced efficiency is greatest in the no-load and low-load region of the motor's performance curve. adding even more complexity to the startup sequence. For example. even commercial brushless motors are often hand-wound while brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound. Like an AC motor. in the Radio Control (RC) hobby. manufacturers use brush-type DC motors when low system cost is a priority but brushless motors to fulfill requirements such as maintenance-free operation. Under high mechanical loads. which are controlled by a logic circuit.

the stator coils form the center (core) of the motor.Variations in construction The four poles on the stator of a two-phase BLDC motor. In the 'outrunner' (or external-rotor) configuration. Schematic for delta and wye winding styles. the permanent magnets are part of the rotor. This is part of a computer cooling fan. the rotor has been removed. while the permanent magnets spin within an overhanging . the radial-relationship between the coils and magnets is reversed. Three stator windings surround the rotor. (This image does not illustrate the motor's inductive and generator-like properties) BLDC motors can be constructed in several different physical configurations: In the 'conventional' (also known as 'inrunner') configuration.

The wye ("Y"-shaped) configuration. but not as high top rpm. mounted face to face. A motor with windings in delta configuration gives low torque at low rpm. In all BLDC motors. The rotor (upper right) has been removed and turned upside-down. increasing resistive losses. but can give higher top rpm. Although efficiency is greatly affected by the motor's construction. The coils are copper wire coated with green film insulation. In delta-connected windings. used where there are space or shape limitations. The flat type. half voltage is applied across the windings adjacent to the undriven lead (compared to the winding directly between the driven leads). Outrunners typically have more poles.rotor which surrounds the core. The gray ring just inside its cup is a multi-pole permanent magnet AC and DC power supplies It's helpful to consider three types of motors: . although some less expensive controllers are intended to read voltage from the common center of the wye winding.5" floppy disk drive. windings can allow high-frequency parasitic electrical currents to circulate entirely within the motor. A wye-connected winding does not contain a closed loop in which parasitic currents can flow. the two styles of windings are treated exactly the same. Wye configuration gives high torque at low rpm. Spindle motor from a 3. and power is applied at each of the connections. sometimes called a star winding. connects all of the windings to a central point (parallel circuits) and power is applied to the remaining end of each winding. In addition. the coils are stationary. and have a higher torque at low RPMs. From a controller standpoint. There are also two electrical configurations having to do with how the wires from the windings are connected to each other (not their physical shape or location). the wye winding is normally more efficient. uses stator and rotor plates. set up in triplets to maintain the three groups of windings. preventing such losses. The delta configuration connects the three windings to each other (series circuits) in a triangle-like circuit.

while using a 100 A inverter.000 rpm. or the unusual battery-powered quartz-timed micropower clock that has a continuous-motion sweep second hand. Kv rating The Kv rating of a design of brushless motor is the constant relating the motor's unloaded RPM to the peak (not RMS) voltage on the wires connected to the coils (the "back-EMF"). When running at low speeds and under load.. 40 kW) from 3. • Induction motor (AC): AC in both stator and rotor (mentioned for completeness).e. it is much like a BLDC motor. By Lenz's law. Stepping motors can also operate as AC synchronous motors (for instance.e.000 rpm to 12. The DC-to-AC conversion circuitry is usually expensive and less efficient. vector control) or it can be optimized for DC (i. DC in the other (i. Motors used with a vector drive are typically called AC motors. will run at a nominal 63. If it has a permanent-magnet rotor. In addition. While AC motors feed sinusoidal current simultaneously to each of the legs (with an equal phase distribution). The major advantage of this is that both the logic controllers and battery power sources also operate on DC. A BLDC motor has switched DC fed to the stator. • Synchronous (or stepping) motor (AC): AC in one. Although BLDC motors are practically identical to permanent magnet AC motors. the approximated sine wave leaves one leg undriven at all times. A motor with low CPSR would need a 400 A inverter in order to do the same. but these have the advantage of being able to run smoothly at very low speeds or completely stop (and provide torque) in a position not directly aligned with a pole. Another very important issue. Vector drives are DC controllers that take the extra step of converting back to AC for the motor. For example. A motor which is optimized for block commutation will typically generate trapezoidal EMF. DC controllers only approximate this by feeding full positive and negative current to two of the legs at a time. block commutation).270 rpm.• Direct current (DC) motor: DC applied to both the stator and the rotor (via brushes and commutator).700 Kv motor. the controller implementation is what makes them DC. and a permanent magnet rotor. is the constant power speed ratio of a motor. One can easily observe the shape of the EMF by connecting the motor wires (at least two of them) to an oscilloscope and then hand-cranking/spinning the shaft. A motor can be optimized for AC (i. allowing for back-EMF-based sensorless feedback. supplied with 11. a running motor will create a back-EMF proportional to the RPM. Example: A motor with a high CPSR in a vehicle can deliver the desired power (e. rotor or stator). The CPSR has direct impact on needed size of the inverter. or else a permanent magnet stator. . they are sophisticated inverters. temperature rise has to be allowed for.1 V. the Slo-Syn by Superior Electric). they don't cool themselves significantly.e. at least for some applications like automotive vehicles. a 5.g. such as in computers and electric cars.

while high power brushless motors can be used for electric vehicles and industrial machinery.Once a motor is spinning so fast that the back-EMF is at the battery voltage (also called DC line voltage). but cost and control complexity prevents BLDC motors from replacing brushed motors completely in lowest cost areas. Small cooling fans in electronic equipment are powered exclusively by BLDC motors. capital V). subscript v). not to be confused with the kilovolt. Low speed. For some applications (e. The bicycle wheel hub is the motor. Nevertheless. you can usually easily replace it with a brushless motor. Applications Brushless motors can be used in a wide variety of applications. . They can be found in cordless power tools where the increased efficiency of the motor leads to longer periods of use before the battery needs to be charged. sprockets. the use of the motor as need arises. Kv is the voltage constant (capital-K. A number of electric bicycles use BLDC motors that are sometimes built into the wheel hub itself. Consumer electronics BLDC motors fulfill many functions originally performed by brushed DC motors.g. BLDC motors have come to dominate many applications particularly devices such as computer hard drives and CD/DVD players. The Segway Scooter and Vectrix Maxi-Scooter use BLDC technology. If you are already using a brush motor for a given application. It is impossible for the ESCs to "speed up" that motor. automotive traction and high speed spindle motors) it is normal to exceed the base speed with a factor of 200 to 600%. or without. and chain that can be pedaled along with. providing you use the same wattage and size as your original motor. These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors. Use the convenient search bar provided to find exactly the brushless DC motor you need. This type of electric bicycle also has a standard bicycle transmission with pedals. Other common applications for these motors include computer parts such as CD-ROM players and PC cooling fans. with the stator fixed solidly to the axle and the magnets attached to and rotating with the wheel. Transport High power BLDC motors are found in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. even with no load. Low power brushless motors can be used to power turntables or radio controlled model airplanes. beyond the base speed without resorting to "field weakening". low power BLDC motors are used in direct-drive turntables for "analog" audio discs. whose symbol is kV (lower-case k. then the motor has reached its "base speed".

such as sintered neodymium-iron-boron (rare earth magnets). high running reliability and power efficiency (most Sensored motors have an efficiency rating of 80% or greater). from under 5 grams to large motors rated at thousands of watts. the motor's built-in microprocessor allows for programmability. Several RC Car Brushless motors. since 2006. Legal restrictions for the use of combustion engine driven model aircraft in some countries have also supported the shift to high-power electric systems. displacing virtually all brushed electric motors. Their introduction has redefined performance in electric model aircraft and helicopters. for their low maintenance. Brushless motors have been legal in RC Car Racing in accordance to ROAR (the American governing body for RC Car Racing). Their popularity has also risen in the Radio Controlled Car. Some fans use EC motors also in order to increase overall system efficiency. In addition to the BLDC's higher efficiency. Their favorable power to weight ratios and large range of available sizes. and serial communication. Laser printer . where sensor-type (motors with an extra six wires. rather than climb gradually. and replaceable motor timing assemblies. These motors as a result are quickly rising to be the preferred motor type for electric on and off-road RC racers and recreational drivers alike. The most significant reason to switch to an EC motor is the dramatic reduction in power required to operate them versus a typical AC motor. especially those featuring variable-speed and/or load modulation. many fans are now run using an EC motor. better control over airflow. use ECM motors (electronically-commutated BLDC). The silence and lack of mess compared to small glow fuel internal combustion engines that were used is another reason for their popularity. have revolutionized the market for electric-powered model flight. Buggy. The large power to weight ratio of modern batteries and brushless motors allows models to ascend vertically. and Truck scene. ceramic bearings. Model engineering BLDC motors are currently the most popular motor choice for model aircraft including helicopters. Certain HVAC systems.Heating and ventilation There is a trend in the HVAC and refrigeration industries to use EC (BLDC) motors instead of various types of AC motors. While shaded-pole and permanent split capacitor motors once dominated as the fan motor of choice. feature replaceable and upgradeable parts. connected to Hall effect sensors allow the position of the rotor magnet to be detected).

The latent image of the information to be printed formed on the drum surface by the laser and then developed by the attracted toner. Therefore. (3) The latent image is eliminated. (2) The developed image is then transferred to normal paper and fixed using heat and pressure.000 rpm. with photosensitivity of the layer being tuned to the wavelength of the laser. the reflected beam travels in different direction according to the position of the rotor at that moment. . using Figure and the following statements: (1) The drum has a photoconductive layer (e. Cds) on its surface. A recent brushless dc motor designed for a laser printer is shown in Figure.Role of motors for laser printers. Figure:.In a laser printer. this reflected beam can be used for scanning as shown in Figure below. a polygon mirror is coupled directly to the motor shaft and its speed is controlled very accurately in the range from 5000 to 40. How an image is produced is explained.g. When an intensitymodulated laser beam strikes the revolving polygon mirror.

ac synchronous motors were used as the spindle motor in floppy or hard disk drives. Formerly.[1] p83 Fig. However. .5 Hard disk drive As the main secondary memory device of the computer. the brushless dc motor is far superior to the ac synchronous motor. As is obvious from the table.5. the merits of the brushless dc motor far outweigh the drawbacks. brushless dc motors which are smaller and more efficient have been developed for this application and have contributed to miniaturization and increase in memory capacity in computer systems. Table 3 compares a typical ac synchronous motor with a brushless dc motor when they are used as the spindle motor in an 8-inch hard disk drive. hard disks provide a far greater information storage capacity and shorter access time than either a magnetic tape or floppy disk.16 Brushless dc motor for a laser printer (from Ref. and its circuit costs. Although the brushless dc motor is a little complicated structurally because of the Hall elements or ICs mounted on the stator.Fig.

J. Miller.Fig:. Oxford. Oxford. 1985  T.E. Kenjo.A brushless dc motor used for 8-inch hard disk drives REFERENCES  T. "Permanent magnet and brushless dc motors". 1989  Hughes electrical and electronics  Alexander saidku Electrical Circuit . "Brushless permanent magnet and reluctance motor drive".

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