PROPOSAL AND RESEARCH PAPER FORMAT All papers must be typed double-spaced on one side of 8.5" x 11" paper.

All margins should be 1.5 inches and types in Arial or Times New Roman 12-pt. font. PROPOSAL The proposal, due at the end of the first week at UNDERC, should be 2-4 typed pages. Students introduce their topic, provide a concise review of literature, and propose a hypothesis to test. The methods and materials section describes in detail how the hypothesis will be tested. Figures and tables, if necessary, are encouraged. Sections of the proposal should be arranged in the following order: title, introduction and hypotheses, methods, references cited. FINAL PAPER The final paper represents the culmination of the student’s independent research project. The scientific paper fully elaborates on that which is discussed in the proposal, and presents results and a thorough discussion. Sections of the research paper should be arranged in the following order: title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references cited, tables, figures, and appendices. Title Page. In the center of the title page type the title of the paper. If the title is more than one line, double-space between lines. The title should be brief and informative. "The," "A," "Results," "Study of," or "Effect of" provide little useful information. A few lines beneath the title type (centered): BIOS 569: Practicum in Field Biology (Your name) Advisor: (UNDERC advisor's name) Year

1. Table 1. the format should follow that of a nationallyrecognized journal (i. The number of tables should be kept to a minimum. Tables should appear on separate sheets following the text pages. however.The material on the Title Page should be centered vertically (i. These include Introduction.e. Journal of Wildlife Management. All segments of the table. the body. Table 2). Fig. Multiple figures may be placed on the same page. The Bernard J.. Results. Acknowledgements. 1. Figures. Text Pages. They should carry a short title and be numbered with Arabic numerals (i. In general. is appropriate in this section. including the title. and the footnotes.5 inch margins must be maintained. The abstract should not exceed 250 words. Methods. Captions need not be complete sentences.e. Journal of Mammalogy. An acknowledgement of the source of funds for the course.5 inch margins must be maintained. same space at the top as at the bottom) and 1.) for the specific topic. A table can be typed on more than one sheet of paper. Do not present the same data in a table and a figure. Tables. Do not explain information already described in the text.e. Abstract. Fig. the headings. however. It should be an informative digest of the significant contents and of the main conclusions of the research.e. but should identify the components of the illustration and explain abbreviations that appear in the figure. Hank Family Endowment. The second page of the paper should begin with the abstract.. Figure captions (included on the same page as the figure) should briefly interpret the figure and be numbered with Arabic numerals (i.. and Discussion sections. Figures should appear on separate sheets from the text and should immediately follow the tables. This section is intended for use to thank individuals or groups of individuals for field assistance or other support. should be double-spaced..5 inch margins must be maintained. etc. 2). 1. . Multiple tables may be placed on the same page.

R. More than two authors: Ford. I. J. 1978a. C. 2000.e. J.. Sorex 1978b.References Cited. use both last names (i. 1978). Sorex et al.e. . Budd. Try to avoid using web pages as sources of literature. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 6:221-245. where the senior author and the year are the same and the other authors are different. If more than two authors.g. Cite as "unpublished data" any manuscript in preparation or submitted (but not yet accepted) for publication. 1978b). Laerm.. The small letter should also accompany the year in the References Cited section. McCay.. as they are not peer-reviewed and are not always accurate. 1999. and T. Annual and seasonal variation and the effects of hydroperiod on benthic macroinvertebrates of seasonal forest (“vernal”) ponds in central Massachusetts. USA. McGill. If unpublished data are of another source. M. A.e. Single author: Brooks. Cite published works by one author by giving the author's last name and the year the work was published (i. W. Two authors: Conroy. When citing more than one work by Sorex published in a single year. Sorex 1978a.e." (i. Sorex 1978). Wetlands 20:707-715.e. and J. b).. Sorex et al. Cook. M. Sorex 1978a. personal communication). If two authors. Forest Ecology and Management 114:233-243. Effects of a community restoration fire on small mammals and herpetofauna in southern Appalachians.M. list the first author's last name and follow it with "et al... In cases of multiple authorship. Include first initials. cite them as "personal communication" (e. Sorex and Palustris 1978). MtDNA evidence for repeated pulses of speciation within arvicoline and murid rodents. Sorex et al. Menzel. S. Do not cite unpublished data and personal communication in References Cited. W. D.. T. a small letter should follow the year (i. a small letter should follow the year (i. 1999. A.

2002. Donnely. A. 1998. M. Chapters in a book: Fellers. Carter. Heyer.2. B. F. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States.Books: Messina. and E. R. Computer programs: Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). and W. W. H. Boca Raton. L. California. D. M. A. 1979. L. Conner (Eds. and C. Washington D. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. McDiarmid. J. V. M. Government publications: Cowardin. Sampling with artificial cover. 1994. C. LaRoe. Theses and dissertations: Johnson. Morgantown. University of West Virginia. Foster. Smithsonian Institution Press. C. thesis. M.S. S. FWS/OBS-79/31. C. Eds. Hayek. Redlands. In Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for amphibians. and M. Washington. Florida. .. 1999. G. M. G.. ArcView® Geographic Information Systems 3. Drost. Inc. CRC Press LLC. Southern forested wetlands: ecology and management. T. Golet. R. Spatial and predictive foraging models for gray bats in northwest Georgia and a comparison of two acoustical bat survey techniques.).C. W.

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