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History Presentation Filarete

History Presentation Filarete

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Published by Bhrigu Kalia

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Published by: Bhrigu Kalia on Mar 22, 2012
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1400 . also "Averulino". sculp tor and architectural theorist from Florence. 469). He is perhaps best remembered for his design of the ideal city of Sforzinda.INTRODUCTION Antonio di Pietro Averlino (c. the first ideal city plan of the . known as Filarete (Greek for "lover of excellence") was an Italian Renaissance architect.c.

• Sources suggest that he worked in Florence under the Italian painter.Life History . • There he became a ducal engineer and worked on a variety of architectural projects for the next fifteen years.Early Influence • Antonio di Pietro Averlino was born c. • In the mid 15th century. 1400 in Florence Italy where he probably trained as a craftsman. and biographer Lorenzo Ghiberti. architect.Biography . who gave him his more famous name “Filarete” which means “a lover of excellence”. . Filarete was expelled from Rome after being accused of attempting to steal the head of John the Baptist and he moved to Venice and then eventually to Milan.

Peter's Basilica •Filarete's Treatise on Architecture •Design of the ideal city of Sforzinda .Filarete’s Works •Bronze Doors of Old St.

Peter's Basilica .Bronze Doors of Old St.I.

Filarete is thought to have been trained under Lorenzo Ghiberti in Florence. Bronze door (detail)-1433-45 Basilica di San Pietro. Peter's in 1619). Vatican . From 1433 to 1445 he was employed by Pope Eugenius IV to execute the bronze central doors of Old St. By comparison with the contemporary bronze doors of Ghiberti and Donatello in Florence. Filarete's door is less accomplished in composition and technique but is important for its hieratic classicizing style. Peter's in Rome (installed in the new St.

although one. (III) Smaller animal scenes. and in the borders of such manuscripts as Queen Mary's Psalter and the Gorleston Psalter. there arc at least seven very different groups of beings in them: (I) Animals rendered with great beauty and observation of nature. although they are smaller than the animals and birds and seem to have been drawn from antique gems and reliefs. pastoral in character (VII)A few figures more like mediaeval drolleries. These would make a fascinating study. and although he is unable to bring conclusive evidence. which cannot be considered in this note. (II) Bacchanalian figures belonging to no particular story which.Sauer's list is the most accurate in description and thoughtful in interpretation. obviously from Aesop. Livy and Valerius as well as Ovid and Aesop. (IV) Scenes from Greek mythology in which most of the men are nude. apart from the portrait medallions. reminiscent of those in bestiaries. lurk among the foliage not unlike mediaeval drolleries. . the Death of Hercules. The first thing that becomes apparent to anyone studying these borders is that. where the male figures wear short tunics. Roman armour and close-fitting helmets (VI) Slightly larger figures. or clad in Creek armour with crested helmets. is classical in subject. (V) More prosaic scenes from Roman history. he suggests that Filarete might have used Virgil. but cannot be dealt with here.

Vatican .Bronze door (detail) 1433-45 Bronze Basilica di San Pietro.

g. The most well known and best preserved copy of the Libro is a profusely illustrated manuscript known as the Codex Magliabechiano (probably drafted c. construction methods. which Filarete calls the "barbarous modern style. site and material selection. now held in the archives of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze). which he referred to as his Libroarchitettonico ("Architectonic book"). Filarete's Treatise on Architecture Filarete completed his substantial book on architecture some around 1464. drawing. consists principally of a detailed account of the technical aspects of architecture (e. The book.II.. enjoyed a fairly wide circulation in manuscript form during the Renaissance. 1465. which comprises twenty-five volumes. which is written as a fictional narrative. The Libro. and so on) and a sustained polemic against the Gothic style of Northern Italy." .

created by overlaying two squares so that all the corners were equidistant. The basic layout of the city is an eight point star. while the inner angles had gates. . Although Sforzinda was never built. In terms of planning. This shape is iconographic and probably ties to Filarete’s interest in magic and astrology. an ideal city named after Francesco Sforza.III. Each of the gates was an outlet of radial avenues that each passed through a market square. dedicated to certain goods. each of the outer points of the star had towers. Design of the ideal city of Sforzinda The most famous part of his book is his plan for Sforzinda. This shape is then inscribed within a perfect circular moat. then Duke of Milan. certain aspects of its design are described in considerable detail.

The design of Sforzinda may have been in part a direct response to the cities of the Medieval period. for the import and export of goods. The town contained three squares – one for the prince’s palace. one for the cathredal. including parishes and separate schools for boys and girls. in Filarete's Sforzinda every other street had a canal for cargo transport. The city also contained many buildings. which meant they could be difficult to navigate. whose growth did not necessarily depend on city planning as such. An example of a building that appears in the treatise is Filarete’s House of Vice and Virtue. . and thus the outside world. a ten-story structure with a brothel on the bottom and an academy of learning on the higher levels. and one for the market.All the avenues finally converged in a large square which was centrally located. The canal system also connected with the river. Because the Renaissance was much taken with the idea of the canal town.

Renaissance military engineers and architects combined Filarete's ideal city schemes with defensive fortifications deriving from a more sociopolitical agenda. . Sforzinda served as an inspiration for many future city plans. in the 16th century. The treatise gained interest from many important leaders such as Giangaleazzo Sforza and Piero de' Medici and later when Francesco di Giorgio and Leonardo da Vinci began to plan their ideal cities they borrowed ideas from Filarete. For example. Although it was never built. This notion of combining the ideal and the fortified city became widely disseminated throughout Europe and beyond.Influence on Architecture and Urbanism Filarete's plan of Sforzinda was the first ideal city plan of the Renaissance and his thorough organization of its layout embodied a greater level of conscious city planning than anyone before him.

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