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High Quality Assessment

High Quality Assessment

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Published by: Alma De Leon Padilla on Mar 22, 2012
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High quality assessment should have these characteristics: 1. Purposeful 2. Clear/Appropriate Targets 3. Appropriate Methods 4. Validity 5.

Reliability 6. Fairness 7. Positive consequences 8. Practicality and Efficiency

Principles of High Quality Assessment
1. Clarity of Learning Targets Assessment can be made precise, accurate and dependable only if what are to be achieved are clearly stated and feasible. The learning targets, involving knowledge, reasoning, skills, products and effects, need to be stated in behavioral terms which denote something which can be observed through the behavior of the students. a. Cognitive Targets Benjamin Bloom (1954) proposed a hierarchy of educational objectives at the cognitive level. These are: - Knowledge – acquisition of facts, concepts and theories - Comprehension - understanding, involves cognition or awareness of the interrelationships - Application – transfer of knowledge from one field of study to another of from one concept to another concept in the same discipline - Analysis – breaking down of a concept or idea into its components and explaining g the concept as a composition of these concepts - Synthesis – opposite of analysis, entails putting together the components in order to summarize the concept - Evaluation and Reasoning – valuing and judgment or putting the “worth” of a concept or principle. b. Skills, Competencies and Abilities Targets - Skills – specific activities or tasks that a student can proficiently do - Competencies – cluster of skills - Abilities – made up of relate competencies categorized as: i. Cognitive ii. Affective iii. Psychomotor c. Products, Outputs and Project Targets - tangible and concrete evidence of a student’s ability - need to clearly specify the level of workmanship of projects i. expert ii. skilled iii. novice 2. Appropriateness of Assessment Methods a. Written-Response Instruments - Objective tests – appropriate for assessing the various levels of hierarchy of educational objectives - Essays – can test the students’ grasp of the higher level cognitive skills - Checklists – list of several characteristics or activities presented to the subjects of a study, where they will analyze and place a mark opposite to the characteristics. b. Product Rating Scales - Used to rate products like book reports, maps, charts, diagrams, notebooks, creative endeavors - Need to be developed to assess various products over the years c. Performance Tests - Performance checklist

Confidentiality. Oral Questioning – appropriate assessment method when the objectives are to: . Temptation to assist students.Content validity – content and format of the instrument i.Used to determine whether or not an individual behaves in a certain way when asked to complete a particular task d. the lowest form of test validity . Correlating the two test results c.Calculated using the i. Validity – appropriateness. .Useful supplementary methods when used in conjunction with oral questioning and performance tests 3. Properties of Assessment Methods a.Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group .Determine the students’ ability to communicate ideas in coherent verbal sentences. Reliability – consistency. Coverage of sufficient material iii. which means: . correctness.Ethical issues that may be raised i.implementable e.Consistency of test results when the same test is administered at two different time periods i. . Spearman-Brown prophecy formula ii. ii. Practicality and Efficiency .Teachers should be familiar with the test. Possible harm to the participants. e.Freedom from teacher-stereotyping d. Presence of concealment or deception. Fairness – assessment procedure needs to be fair. iv.Assess the students’ stock knowledge and/or .Criterion-related validity – the test is judge against a specific criterion .Students need to know exactly what the learning targets are and wat method of assessment will be used . Test-retest method ii.Construct validity – the test is loaded on a “construct” or factor b. dependability. . stability which can be estimated by .Assessment has to be viewed as an opportunity to learn rather than an opportunity to weed out poor and slow learners . Reflect the degree of emphasis . Kuder-Richardson – KR 20 and KR21 .does not require too much time .Face validity – outward appearance of the test. meaningfulness and usefulness of the specific conclusions that a teacher reaches regarding the teaching-learning situation..Split-half method . Students’ adequate experience ii. Observation and Self Reports . iii. Ethics in Assessment – “right and wrong” .Consists of a list of behaviors that make up a certain type of performance .

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