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- Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (Solutions Manual)
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Find: Identify ve examples of an unsteady ow explain what features classify them as unsteady? SOLUTION 1. Gust of wind blowing past a pole. 2. Flow next to a rock in a natural river. 3. Flow past the lips due to inhaling and exhaling. 4. The motion of water at the center of a boiling pot. 5. At the outlet hose of a manual tire pump.

4.2: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Pouring a heavy syrup on pancakes. Find: Would the thin lm of syrup be a laminar or turbulent ow? SOLUTION The velocity is very low, the viscosity is high and the thickness of the layer is thin. These conditions favor laminar ow.

4.3: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Breathing through your mouth. Find: Sense the air ow patterns near your face. Discuss the type of ow associated with these ow processes. Why is it easier to blow out a candle by exhaling than by inhaling? SOLUTION The main point to this question is that while inhaling, the air is drawn into your mouth without any separation occurring in the ow that is approaching your mouth. Thus there is no concentrated ow; all air velocities in the vicinity of your face are relatively low. However, when exhaling as the air passes by your lips separation occurs thereby concentrating the ow of air which allows you to easily blow out a candle.

4.4: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: The valve in a system is gradually opened to have a constant rate of increase in discharge. Find: Describe the ow at points A and B. SOLUTION A: Unsteady, uniform. B: Non-uniform, unsteady.

4.5: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water ows in a passage with ow rate decreasing with time. Find: Describe the ow. SOLUTION (b) Unsteady and (d) non-uniform.

4.6: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A ow pattern has converging streamlines. Find: Classify the ow. SOLUTION Non-uniform; steady or unsteady.

4.7: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A uid ows in a straight conduit. The conduit has a section with constant diameter, followed by a section with changing diameter. Find: Match the given ow labels with the mathematical descriptions. SOLUTION Steady ow corresponds to Vs /t = 0. Unsteady ow corresponds to Vs /t 6= 0. Uniform ow corresponds to Vs /s = 0. Non-uniform ow corresponds to Vs /s 6= 0.

4.8: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A series of ows are either one, two or three dimensional. Find: Classify the ows as one, two or three dimensional. (a) Water ow over the crest of a long spillway of a dam. (b) Flow in a straight horizontal pipe. (c) Flow in a constant-diameter pipeline that follows the contour of the ground in hilly country. (d) Airow from a slit in a plate at the end of a large rectangular duct. (e) Airow past an automobile. (f) Air ow past a house. (g) Water ow past a pipe that is laid normal to the ow across the bottom of a wide rectangular channel. SOLUTION a. Two dimensional b. One dimensional c. One dimensional d. Two dimensional e. f. g. Three dimensional Three dimensional Two dimensional

4.9: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Path of a uid particle. Find: If a light was attached to a uid particle and take a time exposure, would the image you photographed be a pathline or streakline? SOLUTION The pathline is dened as the path taken by a uid particle moving through a eld. The photograph would yield this line.

4.10: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Smoke rising from a chimney. Find: The pattern produced by smoke rising from a chimney on a windy day is analogous to a pathline or streakline? SOLUTION The streakline is dened as a line generated by a tracer injected into ow at starting point. The tracer is the smoke and the starting point is the chimney so smokes pattern is analogous to a streakline. The diusion of the smoke prevents achieving a ne line.

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4.11: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Dye is injected into a ow eld and produces a streakline. Pathline starts at t = 4 s, ends at t = 10 s. Flow speed is constant. Find: Draw a pathline of the particle. SOLUTION The streakline shows that the velocity eld was originally in the horizontal direction to the right and then the ow eld changed upward to the left. The pathline starts o to the right and then continues upward to the left.

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4.12: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A dye streak was started, and a particle was released. For 0 t 5 s, u = 2 m/ s, v = 0. For 5 < t 10 s, u = 3 m/ s, v = 4 m/ s. Find: For t = 10 s, draw to scale the streakline, pathline of the particle, and streamlines. SOLUTION From 0<t<5, the dye in the streakline moved to the right for a distance of 10 m. At the same time a particle is released from the origin and travels 10 m to the right. Then from 5<t<10, the original line of dye is transported in whole downward to the right while more dye is released from the origin. The pathline of the particle proceeds from its location at t=5 sec downward to the right. At 10 sec, the streamlines are downward to the right.

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4.13: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A dye streak is produced in a ow that has a constant speed. Find: Sketch a streamline at t = 8 s. Sketch a particle pathline at t = 10 s for a particle that was released from point A at time t = 2 s. Sketch:

SOLUTION At 8 seconds (near 10 sec) the streamlines of the ow are horizontal to the right.

Streamlines at t = 8 s Initially the ow is downward to the right and then switches to the horizontal direction to the right. Thus one has the following pathline.

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4.14: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Acceleration. Find: Is the acceleration vector always aligned with the velocity vector? SOLUTION No. For ow along a curved path, there is a centripetal acceleration which is normal to the velocity vector.

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4.15: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Rotating bodies. Find: Is the acceleration toward the center of rotation a centripetal or centrifugal acceleration? SOLUTION The acceleration toward the center of rotation is centripetal acceleration. "Petal" comes from Latin word"petere" which means to move toward so "centripetal" means moving toward center. "Fugal" comes from Latin "fugere" which means to ee so "centrifugal" means moving from center.

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4.16: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow past a circular cylinder with constant approach velocity. Find: Describe the ow as: (a) Steady or unsteady. (b) One dimensional, two dimensional, or three dimensional. (c) Locally accelerating or not, and is so, where. (d) Convectively accelerating or not, and if so, where. SOLUTION (a) Steady. (b) Two-dimensional. (c) No. (d) Convective acceleration is present at each where a uid particles changes speed as it moves along the streamline. Centripetal acceleration, which is also a form of convective acceleration occurs where there is stfreamline curvature.

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4.17: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A path line is given with velocity as a function of distance and time. V = s2 t1/2 , r = 0.5 m. s = 2 m, t = 0.5 s. Find: Acceleration along and normal to pathline (m/s2 ). PLAN Apply Eq. 4.5 for acceleration along pathline. SOLUTION Equation 4.5 V V a = (V + )et + s t V2 r en

Evaluation of velocity and derivatives at s = 2 m and t = 0.5 sec. V V s V t = s2 t1/2 = 22 0.51/2 = 2.83 m/s = 2st1/2 = 2 2 0.51/2 = 2.83 1/s = 1 2 1/2 1 = 22 0.51/2 = 2.83 m/s2 st 2 2 2.832 0.5

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4.18: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Air is owing around a sphere in a wind tunnel. 3 u = Uo (1 ro /x3 ). Find: An expression for the acceleration of a uid particle on the x-axis. The form of the answer should be ax = ax (x, ro , Uo ). PLAN Use Eq. 4.5 along x-axis which is a pathline. Replace V with u and s with x. SOLUTION ax = u u u + x t

3 3 3 r0 r0 r0 + U0 1 3 U0 1 3 = U0 1 3 x x x t x 3 3 r r 2 3 0 + 0 = U0 1 0 3 x x4

2 ax = (3 U0 3 r0 r3 )(1 0 ) x4 x3

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4.19: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow occurs in a tapered passage. The velocity is given as V = 5 m/ s 2.25 tto m/ s, V /s = +2 s1 , t0 = 0.5 s. Find: (a) local acceleration at section AA ( m/ s2 ). (b) Convective acceleration at section AA ( m/ s2 ). SOLUTION a) Local acceleration al = 2.25 V = t t0 2.25 = 0.5 al = 4.5 m/s2

b) Convective acceleration ac = V V s

= (5 2.25

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4.20: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: One-dimensional ow occurs in a nozzle. Vtip = 4 ft/ s, Vbase = 1 ft/ s, L = 1.5 ft. Find: Convective acceleration ( ft/ s2 ). SOLUTION Velocity gradient. dV ds Vtip Vbase L (4 1) ft/ s = 1.5 ft 1 = 2s =

ac

ac = 5 ft/ s2

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4.21: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: One-dimensional ow occurs in a nozzle and the velocity varies linearly with distance along the nozzle. Vtip = 4t ft/ s, Vbase = 1t ft/ s, t = 2 s. Find: Local acceleration midway in the nozzle ( ft/ s2 ). SOLUTION a V V t t + 4t = 2 = 2.5t (ft/s) =

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4.22: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow in a two-dimensional slot. V = 2 qbo tto , x = 2B, y = 0 in. SOLUTION V V al qo t but b = B/2 = 2 b to 4qo t = B to V = t 4qo al = Bto

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4.23: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow in a two-dimensional slot and velocity varies as V = 2 qbo tto , x = 2B, y = 0 in. SOLUTION ac = The width varies as b=B V V x x 8

V V x ac At x = 2B ac

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4.24: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water ow in a nozzle. V = 2t/(1 0.5x/l)2 , L = 4 ft, x = 0.5L, t = 3 s. Find: Local acceleration ( ft/ s2 ). Convective acceleration ( ft/ s2 ). SOLUTION a V t 2t = t (1 0.5x/L)2 2 = (1 0.5x/L)2 2 = (1 0.5L/L)2 =

ac = = = =

a = 3.56 ft/s2 V V x 2t 2t (1 0.5x/L)2 x (1 0.5x/L)2 4t2 ((1 0.5x/L)5 L 4 (3)2 ((1 0.5 0.5L/L)5 4) ac = 37.9 ft/s2

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4.25: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: State Newtons second law of motion. Find: Are there any limitations on the use of Newtons second law? SOLUTION Newtons second law states F = ma where m is the mass of the system. The velocity (and acceleration) must be measured with respect to an inertial reference frame and the mass must be constant.

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4.26: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Force weight and force pressure. Find: What is the dierence between a force due to weight and a force due to pressure? SOLUTION The force due to weight is the gravitational attraction on the mass and the magnitude of the force depends on the mass. The force due to pressure is the force acting on a surface and depends on the magnitude of the pressure and the area of the surface.

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4.27: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow through an inclined pipe at 30o from horizontal. a = 0.3g. Find: Pressure gradient in ow direction. PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION

l

30

o

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4.28: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Kerosene is accelerated upward in vertical pipe. S = 0.80, az = 0.3g. Find: Pressure gradient required to accelerate ow ( lbf/ ft3 ). Properties: = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Applying Eulers equation in the z direction. (p + z) = az = 0.30g z g p + = 0.30 z p = (1 0.30) z = 0.81 62.4 lbf/ ft3 (1.30) p = 65.7 lbf/ft3 z

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4.29: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A hypothetical liquid ows through a vertical tube. v = 0. Find: Direction of acceleration. Properties: = 10 kN/ m3 , pB pA = 12 kPa. PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation a a (p + z) 1 p z = =

Let be positive upward. Then z/ = +1 and p/ = (pA pB )/1 = 12, 000 Pa/m. Thus a a a g (12, 000 ) 12, 000 1 = g =

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4.30: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A piston and water accelerating upward at 0.5g. a = 0.5g, z = 2 ft. Find: Pressure in water column (psfg). Properties: = 62.4 lbm/ ft3 , = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation a = Let be positive upward. z p p ( )(0.5g) = (1) g p = (0.5 + 1) = 1.5 (0.5g) = Thus the pressure decreases upward at a rate of 1.5. The pressure at the top is atmospheric. At a depth of 2 ft.: p2 = (1.5)(2) = 3 = 3 ft. 62.4 lbf/ft3 p2 = 187 psfg (p + z)

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4.31: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water stands with depth of 10 ft in a vertical pipe open at top and supported by piston at the bottom. z = 0 ft, z2 = 10 ft. Find: Acceleration of piston ( ft/ s2 ). Properties: = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 , = 1.94 slug/ ft3 . p1 = 8 psig, p2 = 0 psig. PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation (p + z) = as s Take s as vertically upward with point 1 at piston surface and point 2 at water surface. (p + z) = as s (p2 p1 ) (z2 z1 ) = as s (0 8 psig 144 in2 / ft2 ) 62.4 lbf/ ft3 10 ft = 1.94 slug/ ft3 10as (8 psig 144 in2 / ft2 62.4 lbf/ ft3 10 ft) as = 19.4 slug/ ft3 as = 27.2 ft/s2

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4.32: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water accelerates in a horizontal pipe. as = 6 m/ s2 , = 1000 kg/ m3 . Find: Pressure gradient ( N/ m3 ). PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation with no change in elevation p = as s = 1, 000 kg/ m3 6 m/ s2 p = 6, 000 N/m3 s

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4.33: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water accelerated from rest in horizontal pipe. L = 100 m, D = 30 cm, as = 5 m/ s2 . Find: Pressure at upstream end ( kPa). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 , pdownstream = 90 kPa. PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation with no change in elevation p = as s = 1, 000 kg/ m3 5 m/ s2 = 5, 000 N/m3 p s pdownstream pupstream = s pupstream = 90, 000 Pa + 5, 000 N/ m3 (100 m) = 590, 000 Pa, gage pupstream = 590 kPa, gage

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4.34: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water stands in a vertical pipe closed at the bottom by a piston. z = 10 ft. Find: Maximum downward acceleration before vaporization ( ft/ s2 ). Assumptions: Vapor pressure is zero. Properties: = 62.4 lbm/ ft3 = 1.94 slug/ ft3 , = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Applying Eulers equation in the z-direction with p = 0 at the piston surface (p + z) z (p + z) (p + z)at water surface (p + z)at piston patm pv + (zsurface zpiston ) 14.7psi (144psf/psi) 0 + 62.4 lbf/ ft3 (10 ft) = az = = = = az z az (zsurface zpiston ) 12 az 10 1.94 slug/ ft3 az az = 141 ft/s2

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4.35: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A liquid ows through a conduit. Find: Which statements can be discerned with certainty: (a) The velocity is in the positive direction. (b) The velocity is in the negative direction. (c) The acceleration is in the positive direction. (d) The acceleration is in the negative direction. Assumptions: Viscosity is zero. Properties: pA = 170 psf, pB = 100 psf, = 100 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation (p + z) = a z p = a where p/ = (pB pA )/ = (100 170)/2 = 35 lb/ft3 and z/ = sin 30 = 0.5. Then 1 a = (35 lb/ ft3 (100)(0.5)) 1 = (15 ) lbf/ft3 Because a has a negative value we conclude that Answer (d) the acceleration is in the negative direction . Answer The ow direction cannot be established; so answer (d) is the only answer that can be discerned with certainty.

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4.36: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Velocity varies linearly with distance in water nozzle. L = 1 ft, V1 = 30 ft/ s, V2 = 80 ft/ s. Find: Pressure gradient midway in the nozzle (psf/ft). Properties: = 62.4 lbm/ ft3 = 1.94 slug/ ft3 . PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation (p + z) = ax x but z =const.; therefore p = ax x V ax = aconvective = V x V = (80 30)/1 = 50 s1 x Vmid = (80 ft/ s + 30 ft/ s)/2 = 55 ft/s = (55 ft/s)(50 ft/s/ft) = 2, 750 ft/s2 Finally p = (1.94 slug/ft3 )(2, 750 ft/s2 ) x p = 5, 330 psf/ft x

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4.37: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Closed tank is full of liquid. L = 3 ft, H = 4 ft, ax = 0.9g. a = 1.5g, S = 1.2. Find: (a) pC pA (psf). (b) pB pA (psf). Properties: = 1.94 slug/ ft3 . PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation. Take in the z-direction. dp = d = = pB pA = Take d dp = al d d

(g + a ) 1.2 1.94 slug/ ft3 (32.2 ft/ s2 1.5 32.2 ft/ s2 ) 37.5 psf/ft 37.5 psf/ft 4 ft pB pA = 150 psf

in the x-direction. Eulers equation becomes dp = ax dx pC pB = ax L = 1.2 1.94 slug/ ft3 0.9g 3 ft = 202.4 psf pC pA = pC pB + (pB pA ) pC pA = 202.4 150 pC pA = 52.4 psf

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4.38: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Closed tank is full of liquid. L = 2.5 m, H = 3 m, ax = 2/3g, a = 1.2g, S = 1.3. Find: (a) pC pA ( kPa). (b) pB pA ( kPa). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 . PLAN Apply Eulers equation. SOLUTION Eulers equation in z direction dp + = az dz dp = (g + az ) dz dp = 1.3 1, 000 kg/ m3 (9.81 m/ s2 6.54 m/ s2 ) dz = 4, 251 N/m3 pB pA = 4, 251 N/ m3 (3 m) = 12, 753 Pa pB pA = 12.7 kPa Eulers equation in x-direction dp = ax dx pC pB = ax L = 1.3 1, 000 9.81 2.5 = 31, 882 Pa pC pA = pC pB + (pB pA ) pC pA = 31, 882 + 12, 753 = 44, 635 Pa pC pA = 44.6 kPa

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4.39: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Stirring a liquid in a cup. Find: Report on the contour of the surface. Provide an explanation for the observed shape. SOLUTION Stirring the cup of liquid creates a surface depressed at the center and higher at the wall of the cup. The dierence in depth between the wall and the cup center creates an inward radial force to keep the uid moving in a circle.

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4.40: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A cyclonic separator separates solid particles from a gas stream by inducing a spin in the gas stream Find: Explain the mechanism by which the particles are separated from the gas. SOLUTION With no particles in the separator, the pressure gradient in the gas is just sucient to provide a force equal to the centripetal acceleration and keep the gas moving in a circle. The pressure force is insucient to keep the heavier particles moving in a circle and they migrate to the outer walls.

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4.41: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A closed tank lled with water is rotated about a vertical axis. D = 4 ft, = 10 rad/ s. Find: Pressure at bottom center of tank (psig). Properties: = 62.4 lbm/ ft3 = 1.94 slug/ ft3 , = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Apply the equation for pressure variation equation- rotating ow. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow

2 rp 2 r2 2 = pp + zp 2 2 where pp = 0, rp = 3 ft and r = 0, then

p + z

p = (r)2 + (zp z) 2 1.94 slug/ ft3 = (3 ft 10)2 + 62.4 lbf/ ft3 (2.5 ft) 2 = 717 psfg = 4.98 psig p = 4.98 psig

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4.42: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A tank of liquid is rotated on an arm. S = 0.80, D = 1 ft. h = 1 ft, r = 2 ft. VA = 20 ft/ s, pA = 25 psf. Find: Pressure at B (psf). Properties: = 62.4 lbm/ ft3 = 1.94 slug/ ft3 , = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation- rotating ow from point A to point B. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow pA + zA

2 rA 2 r2 2 = pB + zB B 2 2 2 2 2 pB = pA + ( )(rB rA ) + (zA zB ) 2

where = VA /rA = 20/1.5 = 13.333 rad/s and = 0.8 1.94 slugs/ft3 . Then pB = 25psf + 1.94 slug/ ft3 (0.80/2) (13.33 rad/ s2 ) (2.5 ft)2 (1.5 ft)2 + 62.4 lbf/ ft3 (0.8) (1) = 25 + 551.5 49.9 pB = 527 psf

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4.43: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A cream separator is in operation. D = 20 cm, f = 9000 rpm. Find: Centripetal acceleration (m/s2 ). RCF. SOLUTION The centripetal acceleration is ar = V2 = 2r r

The rotational rate of the separator is 9000rpm = 942.5 rad/s = 2 60 s/ min The radius of the separator is 10 cm or 0.1 m. The acceleration is ar = (942.5 rad/ s)2 (0.1 m) ar = 888306 m/s2 The RCF is RCF = 888306 m/s2 /9.81 m/s2 RCF = 9055

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4.44: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A closed tank with liquid is rotated about the vertical axis. = 10 rad/s, rB = 0.5 m, az = 4 m/ s2 . Find: Dierence in pressure between points A and B (kPa). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 , S = 1.2. PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow between points B & C. Let point C be at the center bottom of the tank. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow

2 rB 2 r2 2 = pC C 2 2 where rB = 0.5 m, rC = 0 and = 10 rad/s. Then

pB

pB pC = = pC pA = = = =

2 2 ( )(r ) 2 1200 kg/ m3 (100 rad2 / s2 )(0.25 m2 ) 2 15, 000 Pa 2 + az 2 11, 772 N/ m3 + 1, 200 kg/ m3 4 m/ s2 (2) 33.1 kPa

Then pB pA = pB pC + (pC pA ) = 15, 000 Pa + 33, 144 Pa = 48, 144 Pa pB pA = 48.1 kPa

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4.45: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A U-tube rotating about the leg on the right side. r1 = 0.5 m, z1 = 0.5 m. z2 = 0 m, r2 = 0 m. Find: Maximum rotational speed so that no liquid escapes from the leg on the left side (rad/s). PLAN Since the uid is in rigid body rotation, apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow. At the condition of imminent spilling, the liquid will be to the top of the left leg and at the bottom of the right leg. Thus, locate point 1 be at top of the left (outside) leg. Locate point 2 at the bottom of the right (inside) leg. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow p1 + z1 Term-by-term analysis p1 z1 r1 z2 r2 Substitute values into Eq. 1.

2 r1 2 r2 2 = p2 + z2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (0.5 m ) =0+00 0 + g (0.5 m) 2 (0.52 m2 ) 2 =0 g (0.5 m) 2 2 = 4g =2 g 2 r1 2 r2 2 = p2 + z2 2 2 2

(1)

= = = = =

p1 + z1

= 6.26 rad/s

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4.46: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A stagnation tube in a tank is rotated. = 100 rad/ s, r = 20 cm, = 10000 N/ m3 . Find: Location of liquid surface in central tube. PLAN Pressure variation equation for rotating ow from pt. 1 to pt. 2 where pt. 1 is at liquid surface in vertical part of tube and pt. 2 is just inside the open end of the Pitot tube. SOLUTION

1 10 cm 0 2

Elevation view

Plan view

(1)

where z1 = z2 . If we reference the velocity of the liquid to the tip of the Pitot tube then we have steady ow and Bernoullis equation will apply from pt. 0 (point ahead of the Pitot tube) to point 2 (point at tip of Pitot tube). p0 V02 p2 V22 + + z0 = + + z2 2g 2g p2 0.1 r2 2 + = +0 2g

(2)

Solve Eqs. (1) & (2) for = 0 liquid surface in the tube is the same as the elevation as outside liquid surface.

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4.47: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A U-tube partially full of liquid is rotating about one leg. f = 50 rpm, S = 3.0, r1 = 1 ft. Find: Specic gravity of other uid. PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow between points 1 & 2. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow

1 S=3.0

p2 + z2

(1)

where f is the specic weight of the other uid. Solve for f between Eqs. (1) & (2) f = 159.6 lbf/ft3 f S = H2 O 159.6 = 62.4 S = 2.56

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4.48: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A manometer is rotated about one leg. z = 20 cm, r = 10 cm, S = 0.8. Find: Acceleration in gs in leg with greatest amount of oil. PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow between the liquid surfaces of 1 & 2Let leg 1 be the leg on the axis of rotation. Let leg 2 be the other leg of the manometer. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow

2 r1 2 r2 2 = p2 + z2 2 p1 + z1 2 2 2 r2 2 0 + z1 0 = z2 g 2 2 2 r2 = z2 z1 2g an = r 2 (z2 z1 )2g = r2 (0.20)(2g) = 0.1 an = 4g

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4.49: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A fuel tank rotated in zero-gravity environment. f = 3 rpm, r1 = 1.5 m, zA = 1 m. Find: Pressure at exit (Pa). Properties: = 800 kg/ m3 , p1 = 0.1 kPa. PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow from liquid surface to point A. Call the liquid surface point 1. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow p1 + z1

2 r1 2 r2 2 = pA + zA A 2 2 2 2 2 (r r1 ) + (z1 zA ) pA = p1 + 2 A

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4.50: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A rotating set of tubes has liquid in the bottom of it. D1 = 2d, D2 = d. r2 = , z2 = 4 . Find: Derive a formula for the angular speed when the water will begin to spill. PLAN Start with pressure variation equation for rotating ow. Let point 1 be at the liquid surface in the large tube and point 2 be at the liquid surface in the small tube. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow p1 + z1

2 r1 2 r2 2 = p2 + z2 2 2 2

2 3.75 l 1

The change in volume in leg 1 has to be the same as leg 2. So h1 d2 = h2 d2 1 2 2 d2 h1 = h2 d2 1 h2 = 4 The elevation dierence between 1 and 2 will be z2 z1 = 3 + = 3.75 Then p1 = p2 = 0 gage, r2 = , and z2 z1 = 3.75 so 3 4

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4.51: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water lls a tube that is closed at one end. D = 1 cm, r = 40 cm, = 50 rad/s. Find: Force exerted on closed end (N). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow from the open end of the tube to the closed end. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow p1 = z1

2 r1 2 r2 2 = p2 + z2 2 2 2

where z1 = z2 . Also let point 2 be at the closed end; therefore r1 = 0 and r2 = 0.40 m. p2 = (0.4 m)2 (50 rad/s)2 2 = 500 kg/ m3 0.16 m2 2500 rad2 / s2 = 200 kPa

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4.52: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water sits in a U-tube that is closed at one end. D = 1 cm, L = 40 cm, = 50 rad/s. Find: Rotational speed when water will begin to spill from open tube (rad/s). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 , = 9810 N/ m3 . PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow between water surface in leg A-A to water surface in open leg after rotation. SOLUTION When the water is on the verge of spilling from the open tube, the air volume in the closed part of the tube will have doubled. Therefore, we can get the pressure in the air volume with this condition. pi V i = pf V f and i and f refer to initial and nal conditions pf = pi pf 1 Vi = 101 kPa Vf 2 = 50.5 kPa, abs = 50.5 kPa, gage

2 rA 2 ropen 2 = popen + zopen 2 2 2 2 (6 ) pA + 0 0 = 0 + 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 50.5 10 Pa = 9810 N/ m (6) (0.1 m) 1000 kg/ m (0.6 m) 2 3 2 50.5 10 = 5886 180 w2 = 313.3

pA + zA

= 17.7 rad/s

53

4.53: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water is pumped from a reservoir by a centrifugal pump consisting of a disk with radial ports. r = 5 cm, f = 3000 rpm, z1 = 0 m. Find: Maximum operational height (m). PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow from point 1 in vertical pipe at level of water to point 2 at the outer edge of the rotating disk. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow. The exit pressure of the pump is atmospheric. Let point 1 be the liquid surface where z = 0 and point 2 the pump outlet.

2 r1 2 r2 2 = p2 + z2 2 2 2 2 r2 2 0 + 0 0 = 0 + z2 2 2 2 0.05 0 = z2 2g

p1 + z1

The rotational rate is = (3000 rev/min)(1min/60 s)(2 rad/rev) = 314.1 rad/s Therefore z2 = ((0.05 m)(314.1 rad/ s))2 2 9.81 m/ s2 z2 = 12.6 m

54

4.54: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A tank rotated about the horizontal axis and water in tank rotates as a solid body. V = r, z = 1, 0, +1 m, = 5 rad/ s. Find: Pressure gradient each value of z (kPa/m). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 . PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow. SOLUTION Pressure variation equation- rotating ow. p p + = r2 r r p = r 2 z when z = 1 m p = 2 z 2 = 1 + g = 9, 810 N/ m3 (1 +

25 ) 9.81 m/ s2

3

25 9.81 m/ s2

At z = 0 p = z p = 9.81 kPa/m z

56

4.55: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A tank rotated about the horizontal axis and water in tank rotates as a solid body. Find: Derive an equation for the maximum pressure dierence. PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation for rotating ow. SOLUTION Below the axis both gravity and acceleration cause pressure to increase with decrease in elevation; therefore, the maximum pressure will occur at the bottom of the cylinder. Above the axis the pressure initially decreases with elevation (due to gravity); however, this is counteracted by acceleration due to rotation. Where these two effects completely counter-balance each other is where the minimum pressure will occur (p/z = 0). Thus, above the axis: p = 0 = + r2 minimum pressure condition z Solving: r = /2 ; pmin occurs at zmin = +g/ 2 .Using the equation for pressure variation in rotating ows between the tank bottom where the pressure is a maximum ( zmax = r0 ) and the point of minimum pressure. pmax + zmax

2 r0 2 r2 2 = pmin + zmin min 2 2 2 2 r g (g/2 )2 2 = pmin + 2 pmax r0 0 2 2

2 2 g 2 g + r0 + 2 = r0 2 2

2 2 r0 g + r0 + 2 2 2

pmax =

57

4.56: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A tank 4 ft in diameter and 12 feet long rotated about horizontal axis and water in tank rotates as a solid body. Maximum velocity is 25 ft/s. V = r, Vmax = 25 ft/ s. D = 4 ft, L = 12 ft. Find: Maximum pressure dierence in tank (psf). Point of minimum pressure (ft). Properties: = 62.4 lbm/ ft3 = 1.94 slug/ ft3 , = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Same solution procedure applies as in Prob. 4.55. SOLUTION From the solution to Prob. 4.55 pmin occurs at z = / 2 where = (25 ft/s)/2.0 ft = 12.5 rad/s. Then zmin = 2 g = 2 32.2 ft/ s2 = (12.5 rad/ s)2 zmin = 0.206 ft above axis The maximum change in pressure is given from solution of Problem 4.55 pmax =

2 2 r0 g + r0 + 2 2 2 3 62.4 lbf/ ft3 (32.2 ft/ s2 ) 1.94 slug/ ft (12.5 rad/ s)2 (2 ft)2 3 = + 62.4 lbf/ ft (2 ft) + 2 2 (12.5 rad/ s)2 = 606.2 + 124.8 + 6.43 pmax = 737 psf

58

4.57: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: High winds. Find: Applying the Bernoulli equation, explain how a roof might be lifted from a house. SOLUTION If a building has a at roof as air ows over the top of the building separation will occur at the sharp edge between the wall and roof. Therefore, most if not all of the roof will be in the separation zone. Because the zone of separation will have a pressure much lower than the normal atmospheric pressure a net upward force will be exerted on the roof thus tending to lift the roof. Even if the building has a peaked roof much of the roof will be in zones of separation. These zones of separation will occur downwind of the peak. Therefore, peaked roof buildings will also tend to have their roofs uplifted in high winds.

59

4.58: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Aspirators. Find: How does an aspirator work? SOLUTION Air is forced through a constriction in a duct There is a port at the smallest area connected to a reservoir of uid to be aspirated. The Bernoulli equation predicts a minimum pressure at the contraction which pulls uid into the air ow from the reservoir and breaks it up into droplets that emerge from the aspirator.

60

4.59: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A water jet res vertically from a nozzle. V = 20 ft/ s. Find: Height jet will rise. PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation from the nozzle to the top of the jet. Let point 1 be in the jet at the nozzle and point 2 at the top. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation p1 V12 p2 V22 + + z1 = + + z2 2g 2g where p1 = p2 = 0 gage V1 = 20 ft/s V2 = 0 0+ (20 ft/ s)2 + z1 = 0 + 0 + z2 2g 400 ft2 / s2 z2 z1 = h = 64.4 ft/ s2 h = 6.21 ft

61

4.60: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water discharges from a pressurized tank. z1 = 0.5 m, z2 = 0 m, V1 = 0 m/ s. Find: Velocity of water at outlet (m/s). Properties: Water (20 C, 10 kPa), Table A.5: = 998 kg/ m3 , = 9790 N/ m3 . SOLUTION Apply the Bernoulli equation between the water surface in the tank (1) and the outlet (2) V2 V2 p1 + z1 + 1 = p2 + z2 + 2 2 2 Neglect V1 (V1 V2 ).Also p2 = 0 gage. The Bernoulli equation reduces to V22 = p1 + (z1 z2 ) 2 s 2 (p1 + (z1 z2 )) V2 =

Elevation dierence z1 z2 = 0.5 m. For water at 20o C, = 998kg/m3 and = 9790 N/m3 .Therefore s 2(10, 000 Pa + 9790 N/ m3 (0.5 m)) V2 = 998 kg/ m3 V2 = 5.46 m/ s (

62

4.61: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water ows through a vertical venturi conguration. V1 = 10 ft/ s, z = 0.5 ft. Find: Velocity at minimum area (ft/s). Properties: T = 68 F. SOLUTION Apply the Bernoulli equation between the pipe (1) and the minimum area (2) p1 + z1 + V12 V2 = p2 + z2 + 2 2 2

The dierence in the elevation in piezometers gives the change in piezometric pressure, (p1 + z1 ) (p2 + z2 ) = h so s q 2h 2 V1 + = V12 + 2gh V2 = q 102 (ft/s)2 + 2 32.2 ft/s2 (0.5 ft) = V2 = 11.5 ft/ s

63

4.62: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Kerosene ows through a contraction section and a pressure is measured between pipe and contraction section. V2 = 10 m/ s. Find: Velocity in upstream pipe (m/s). Properties: Table A.4: = 814 kg/ m3 . T = 20 C, p = 20 kPa. SOLUTION Apply the Bernoulli equation between pipe (1) and contraction section (2) p1 + z1 + V12 V2 = p2 + z2 + 2 2 2 2 2 V V pz1 + 1 = pz2 + 2 2 2

The pressure gage measures the dierence in piezometric pressure, pz1 pz2 = 20 kPa. Rewrite the Bernoulli equation for V1 V2 V12 = 2 (pz1 pz2 ) 2 s2 2(pz1 pz2 ) V22 V1 =

The density of kerosene at 20o C is 814 kg/m3 .Solving for V1 s 2(20, 000 kPa) V1 = (10 m/ s)2 (814 kg/ m3 ) V1 = 7.13 m/ s

64

4.63: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Pitot tube measuring airspeed on an airplane at 10,000 ft where the temperature is 23o F and the pressure is 10 psia. The pressure dierence is 10 inches of water. z2 = 10000 ft, hH2 O = 10 in. Find: Airspeed ( ft/ s). Properties: Water (23 F), Table A.5: = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . Table A.2: R = 1716 J/ kg K. p2 = 10 psia. PLAN Apply the Pitot-static tube equation. SOLUTION Pitot-static tube equation. V pz = 2pz = H2 O hH2 O = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 = 52 psf Ideal gas law = p RT (10psi)(144psi/psf) = ((1, 716 J/ kg K)(483 K)) = 0.00174 slugs/ft3 s 2 52 lbf/ft2 (0.00174 slugs/ft3 ) 10 ft 12 s

V = 244 ft/s

65

4.64: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A glass tube with 90o bend inserted into a stream of water. V = 4 m/ s. Find: Rise in vertical leg above water surface (m). PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation. SOLUTION Hydrostatic equation (between stagnation point and water surface in tube) ps =h+d where d is depth below surface and h is distance above water surface. Bernoulli equation (between free stream and stagnation point) V2 ps = d+ 2g V2 h+d = d+ 2g 2 V h = 2g (4 ft/ s)2 h = 2 (9.81 ft/ s2 ) h = 0.815 m

66

4.65: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Bourdon tube gage attached to plate in an air stream. D = 1 ft, V0 = 40 ft/ s. Find: Pressure read by gage (>, =, <) V02 /2. SOLUTION Because it is a Bourdon tube gage, the dierence in pressure that is sensed will be between the stagnation point and the separation zone downstream of the plate. Therefore Cp = 1 (Cp,back of plate ) Cp = 1 (neg. number) p = 1 + positive number V02 /2 2 V0 p = (1 + positive number) 2 Case (c) is the correct choice.

67

4.66: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An air-water manometer is connected to a Pitot-static tube to measure air velocity. T = 60 F, h = 2 in. Find: Velocity ( ft/ s). Properties: Table A.2: R = 1716 J/ kg K. Water (60 F, 15 psia), Table A.5: = 62.4 lbf/ ft3 . PLAN Apply the Pitot tube equation calculate velocity. Apply the ideal gas law to solve for density. SOLUTION Ideal gas law = = p RT

15 psia 144 in2 / ft2 (1, 715 J/ kg K)(60 + 460) K = 0.00242 slugs/ft Pitot tube equation V = From the manometer equation 1/2

2pz

a pz = w h 1 w but a / w 1 so V 1/2 2 w h = #1/2 " 2 62.4 lbf/ ft3 (2.0/12) ft = 0.00242 slug/ ft V = 92.7 ft/ s

68

4.67: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A ow-metering device is described in the problem. V2 = 2V1 , h = 10 cm. Find: Velocity at station 2 ( m/ s). Properties: = 1.2 kg/ m3 . PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation and the manometer equation. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation p2 V22 pt p1 V12 + = + = 2g 2g Manometer equation z }| { p1 + 0.1 9810 0.1 1.2 9.81 = pt V12 V1 V2

neglect

pt p1 = 981 N/m2 =

69

4.68: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A spherical Pitot tube is used to measure the ow velocity in water. V2 = 1.5V0 , h = 10 cm. Find: Free stream velocity ( m/ s). Properties: = 1000 kg/ m3 , p = 2 kPa. PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation between the two points. Let point 1 be the stagnation point and point 2 at 90 around the sphere. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation V12 V 2 = pz2 + 2 2 2 (1.5V0 )2 pz1 + 0 = pz2 + 2 pz1 pz2 = 1.125V02 2, 000 Pa = 1.778 m2 /s2 V02 = 1.125 (1, 000 kg/ m3 ) V0 = 1.33 m/ s

pz1 +

70

4.69: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A device for measuring the water velocity in a pipe consists of a cylinder with pressure taps at forward stagnation point and at the back on the cylinder. = 1000 kg/ m3 , p = 500 Pa, Pressure Coecient is -0.3. Find: Water velocity ( m/ s). PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation between the location of the two pressure taps. Let point 1 be the forward stagnation point and point 2 in the wake of the cylinder. SOLUTION The piezometric pressure at the forward pressure tap (stagnation point, Cp = 1) is pz1 = pz0 + At the rearward pressure tap pz2 pz0

2 V0 2

V2 2

= 0.3 V02 2

or pz2 = pz0 0.3 The pressure dierence is pz1 pz2 = 1.3 1/2

V02 2 The pressure gage records the dierence in piezometric pressure so V0 = 2 pz 1.3

71

4.70: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Pitot tube measures the ow direction and velocity in water. Find: Explain how to design the Pitot tube. SOLUTION Three pressure taps could be located on a sphere at an equal distance from the nominal stagnation point. The taps would be at intervals of 120o . Then when the probe is mounted in the stream, its orientation could be changed in such a way as to make the pressure the same at the three taps. Then the axis of the probe would be aligned with the free stream velocity.

72

4.71: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Two Pitot tubes are connected to air-water manometers to measure air and water velocities. Find: The relationship between VA and VW . p V = 2gh = SOLUTION The pz is the same for both; however, w >> a Therefore VA > VW . The correct choice is b). s 2pz

73

4.72: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Pitot tube measures the velocity of kerosene at center of a pipe. D = 12 in, h = 4 in, Find: Velocity ( ft/ s). Properties: From Table A.4: ker = 1.58 slugs/ft3 . T = 68 F, ker = 51 lbf/ft3 , HG = 847 lbf/ft3 . PLAN Apply the Pitot tube equation and the hydrostatic equation. SOLUTION Hydrostatic equation pz = h( HG ker ) 4 = ft(847 51) lbf/ ft3 12 = 265.3 psf Pitot tube equation 2pz 1/2

= =

1/2

V = 18.3 ft/ s

74

4.73: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Pitot tube for measuring velocity of air. Find: Air velocity ( m/ s). Properties: Air (20o C), Table A.3: = 1.2 kg/m3 . pz = 3 kPa. PLAN Apply the Pitot tube equation. SOLUTION Pitot tube equation 2pz 1/2

= =

1/2

V = 70.7 m/ s

75

4.74: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Pitot tube is used to measure the velocity of air. pz = 11 psf, T = 60 F. Find: Air velocity ( ft/ s). Properties: Air (60o F), Table A.3: = 0.00237 slug/ ft3 . PLAN Apply the Pitot tube equation. SOLUTION Pitot tube equation V V = = s 2pz 1/2

V = 96.3 ft/ s

76

4.75: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A Pitot tube measures gas velocity in a duct. Find: Gas velocity in duct ( ft/ s). Properties: pz = 1 psi, = 0.12 lb/ ft3 . PLAN Apply the Pitot tube equation. SOLUTION Pitot tube equation The density is 0.12 lbm/ft3 /32.2 = 0.00373 slugs/ft3 s 2pz V = 1/2 2 (1psi) (144psf/psi) = 0.00373 slug/ ft3 V = 278 ft/s

77

4.76: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A sphere moving horizontally through still water. V0 = 11 ft/ s, VA = 1 ft/ s. Find: Pressure ratio: pA /p0 PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation. SOLUTION

1 ft/s

By referencing velocities to the spheres a steady ow case will be developed. Thus, for the steady ow case V0 = 11 ft/s and VA = 10 ft/s. Then when Bernoullis equation is applied between points 0 and A it will be found that pA /p0 > 1 (case c)

78

4.77: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A body moving horizontally through still water. VA = 13 m/ s, VB = 5 m/ s, VC = 3 m/ s. Find: pB pC ( kPa). SOLUTION The Bernoulli equation Refer all velocities with respect to the sphere. Flow is then steady and the Bernoulli equation is applicable. pB pC = pB pC 2 2 (VC VB ) 2 1, 000 kg/ m3 = ( )[(13 m/ s 3 m/ s)2 (13 m/ s 5 m/ s)2 ] 2 = 18, 000 Pa pB pC = 18 kPa

79

4.78: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water is in a ume with a pressure gage along the bottom. Da = Db , Va = 0 m/ s, Vb = 3 m/ s. Find: If gage A will read greater or less than gage B. SOLUTION Both gage A and B will read the same, due to hydrostatic pressure distribution in the vertical in both cases. There is no acceleration in the vertical direction.

80

4.79: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An apparatus is used to measure the air velocity in a duct. It is connected to a slant tube manometer with a 30o leg with the indicated deection. D = 10 cm, Dstagn = 2 mm 1 = 6.7 cm, 2 = 2.3 cm. Find: Air velocity ( m/ s). Properties: Table A.2: R = 287 J/ kg K. T = 20 C, pstagn = 150 kPa, S = 0.7 PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation. SOLUTION The side tube samples the static pressure for the undisturbed ow and the central tube senses the stagnation pressure. Bernoulli equation V02 = pstagn. + 0 2 r 2 or V0 = (pstagn. p0 )

p0 +

But pstagn. p0 = ( 1 2 ) sin ( m air ) but m air pstagn. p0 = (0.067 m 0.023 m) sin 30 (0.7) 9, 810 N/ m3 = 151.1 Pa 150, 000 Pa p = = 1.784 kg/m3 = RT (287 J/ kg K) (273 + 20) K Then s 2 (151.1 Pa) 1.784 kg/ m3

V0 =

V0 = 13.0 m/ s

81

4.80: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An instrument used to nd gas velocity in smoke stacks. CpA = 1, CpB = 0.3, h = 5 mm. Find: Velocity of stack gases ( m/ s). Properties: T = 20 C, R = 200 J/ kg K. Tgas = 250 C, pgas = 101 kPa. SOLUTION Ideal gas law = = p RT

V02 2

82

4.81: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: The wake of a sphere which separates at 120o . V0 = 100 m/ s. V = 1.5V0 , = 120 . Find: (a) Gage pressure ( kPa). (b) Pressure coecient. Properties: = 1.2 kg/ m3 . PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation from the free stream to the point of separation and the pressure coecient equation. SOLUTION Pressure coecient Cp = Bernoulli equation p0 + u2 U 2 = p+ 2 2 2 (U u2 ) p p0 = 2 p p0 V 2 /2

or

but

83

Cp = 0.687 U2 = Cp 2 = (0.687)(1.2 kg/ m3 /2)(100 m/ s)2 = 4, 122 Pa pgage = 4.12 kPa gage

84

4.82: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An airplane uses a Pitot-static tube to measure airspeed. z2 = 3000 m, Vind = 70 m/ s. Find: True air-speed (m/s). Properties: TSL = 17 C, T = 6.3 C. pSL = 101 kPa, p = 70 kPa. PLAN Apply the Pitot-tube equation and correct for density change. SOLUTION The Pitot-static tube equation is V = 2p 1/2 1/2

2p SL

1/2

2p SL

1/2

SL

From the ideal gas law pSL T 101 kPa (273 6.3) K SL = = = 1.327 TSL p 70 kPa (273 + 17) K True air speed Vtrue = 70 m/s 1.327

Vtrue = 80.6 m/ s

85

4.83: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An airplane uses a Pitot-static tube to measure airspeed. z = 10000 ft. Find: Speed of aircraft (mph). Properties: T2 = 25 F, p = 9.8 psig, p = 0.5 psid. SOLUTION The temperature is 25 degrees F and the pressure is 9.8 psia. The pressure dierence is 0.5 psid. The pressure is 1449.8 = 1411 psfa. The temperature is 460+25=485 R. The gas constant is 1545/29=53.3 ft-lbf/lbm-R. The density is = p 1411 psfa = = 0.0546 lbm/ft3 = 0.00169 slugs/ft3 RT 53.3ft-lbf/lbm-R 485 R

. The dierential pressure is 0.5 144 = 72 psf. The pitot equation is V = 2p 1/2 2 (72psf) = 0.00169 slug/ ft3 1/2 = (8.52 104 )1/2 = 292 ft/s

V = 199 mph

86

4.84: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Check equations for pitot tube velocity measurement provided by instrument company. p V = 1096.7 hv /d, d = 1.325Pa /T . Find: Validity of Pitot tube equations provided. PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation SOLUTION Applying the Bernoulli equation to the Pitot tube, the velocity is related to the change in piezometric pressure by V2 pz = 2 3 where pz is in psf, is in slugs/ft and V is in ft/s. The piezometric pressure dierence is related to the "velocity pressure" by w (lbf/ft3 )hv (in) pz (lbf/ft ) = 12(in/ft) 62.4 hv = 12 = 5.2hv

2

3

The velocity in ft/min is obtained by multiplying the velocity in ft/s by 60. Thus r 2 5.2hv V = 60 0.03106d r hv = 1098 d This diers by less than 0.1% from the manufacturers recommendations. This could be due to the value used for gc but the dierence is probably not signicant compared to accuracy of "velocity pressure" measurement. 87

where is in slugs/ft3 , p in psfa and T in o R. The gas constant for air is 1716 ftlbf/slug-o R. The pressure in psfg is given by Pa (in-Hg) 13.6 62.4 (lbf/ft3 ) p (psfg) = 12(in/ft) = 70.72Pa where 13.6 is the specic gravity of mercury. The density in lbm/ft3 is d = gc = 32.2 = 1.327 70.72Pa 1716 T

Pa T

88

4.85: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: The ow of water over dierent surfaces. Find: Relationship of pressures. (a) pC > pB > pA. (b) pB > pC > pA. (c) pC = pB = pA. (d) pB < pC < pA. (e) pA < pB < pC. SOLUTION The ow curvature requires that pB > pD + d where d is the liquid depth. Also, because of hydrostatics pC = pD + d. Therefore pB > pC . Also pA < pD + d so pA < pC . So pB > pC > pA . The valid statement is (b).

89

4.86: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Fluid element rotation. Find: What is meant by rotation of a uid element? SOLUTION An arbitrary cubical element is selected in a ow. One side lies along the x-axis. As the element moves through the ow it will be deformed. If the angle between the bisectors of the sides and the x-axis does not change, there is no rotation.

90

4.87: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A spherical uid element in an inviscid uid. Find: If pressure and gravitational forces are the only forces acting on the element, can they cause the element to rotate? SOLUTION The result force due to pressure passes through the center of the sphere so no moment arm to create rotation. The resultant forces due to gravity also pass though the center so cannot cause rotation.

91

4.88: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A two-dimensional velocity eld is represented by the vector V = 10xi 10yj. Find: Is the ow irrotational? SOLUTION In a two dimensional ow in the x y plane, the ow is irrotational if (Eq. 4.34a) v u = x y The velocity components and derivatives are u = 10x v = 10y Therefore the ow is irrotational. u =0 y v =0 x

92

4.89: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A ow eld has velocity components described by u = y and v = x. Find: Vorticity. Rate of rotation. SOLUTION Rate of rotation z = (1/2)( = v u ) x y

1 ( ()) 2 1 = (2) 2 z = Vorticity is twice the average rate of rotation; therefore, the vorticity = 2

93

4.90: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A two-dimensional velocity eld is given by: u = (x2Cx2 )2 , v = (x2Cy 2 )2 . +y +y Find: Check if ow is irrotational. SOLUTION Apply equations for ow rotation in x y plane. v u 2yCx 2xCy = x y (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 = 0 The ow is irrotational

94

4.91: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A two=dimensional ow eld is dened by: u = x2 y 2 , v = 2xy. x = 1 m, y = 1 m, t = 1 s. Find: If the ow is rotational or irrotational. SOLUTION Rate of ow rotation about the z-axis, z 1 u v = 2 y x 1 (2y + 2y) = 0 = 2

95

4.92: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Fluid ows between two stationary plates. u = 2(1 4y 2 ), Vmax = 2 cm/ s. Find: Find rotation of uid element when it moves 1 cm downstream PLAN Apply equations for rotation rate of uid element.. SOLUTION The rate of rotation for this planar (two-dimensional) ow is 1 v u ) z = ( 2 x y In this problem, v = 0 so z = The time to travel 1 cm is t = = The amount of rotation in 1 cm travel is = z t =

8y (14y 2 )

1 u 2 y = 16y

1 u 1 2(1 4y 2 )

96

4.93: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A velocity distribution is provided for a combination of free and forced vortex. v = 1 [1 exp(r2 )], r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5. r d 2z = dv + vr = 1 dr (v r). dr r Find: Find how much a uid element rotates in one circuit around the vortex as a function of radius. SOLUTION The rate of rotation is given by 11 d = (v r) 2 r dr 11 d = [1 exp(r2 )] 2 r dr = exp(r2 ) The time to complete one circuit is t = = 2r v

2r2 [1 exp(r2 )] So, the total rotation in one circuit is given by = t exp(r2 ) (rad) = r2 2 1 exp(r2 ) A plot of the rotation in one circuit is shown. Note that the rotation is 2 for r 0 (rigid body rotation) and approaches zero (irrotational) as r becomes larger.

97

4.94: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Incompressible and inviscid liquid ows around a bend. V = 1 , ri = 1 m, ro = 3 m. r Find: Depth of liquid from inside to outside radius (m). PLAN Flow eld is irotational so apply the Bernoulli equation across streamlines between the outside of the bend at the surface (point 2) and the inside of the bend at the surface (point 1). SOLUTION Bernoulli equation p2 V22 p1 V12 + + z2 = + + z1 2g 2g V2 V2 0 + 2 + z2 = 0 + 1 + z1 2g 2g 2 V2 V z2 z1 = 1 2 2g 2g where V2 = (1/3) m/s; V1 = (1/1) m/s. Then 1 ((1 m/ s)2 (0.33 m/ s)2 ) 2g z2 z1 = 0.045 m

z2 z1 =

98

4.95: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An outlet pipe from a reservoir. V = 16 ft/ s, h = 15 ft. Find: Pressure at point A (psig). PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation. Let point 1 be at surface in reservoir.

2 p1 V12 pA VA + + z1 = + + zA 2g 2g pA (16 ft/ s)2 0 + 0 + 15 = + +0 62.4 lbf/ ft3 2 32.2 ft/ s2 pA = (15 ft 3.98 ft) 62.4 lbf/ ft3 pA = 688 psfg pA = 4.78 psig

99

4.96: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: An outlet pipe from a reservoir. V = 6 m/ s, h = 15 m. Find: Pressure at point A (kPa). Assumptions: Flow is irrotational. PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation. Let point 1 be at reservoir surface.

2 p1 V12 pA VA + + z1 = + + zA 2g 2g pA (6 m/ s)2 0 + 0 + 15 = + +0 9810 N/ m3 2 9.81 m/ s2 pA = (15 m 1.83 m) 9810 N/ m3 pA = 129, 200 Pa, gage pA = 129 kPa, gage

100

4.97: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Air ows past a cylinder. Highest velocity at the maximum width of sphere is twice the free stream velocity. V0 = 40 m/ s, Vmax = 2V0 . Find: Pressure dierence between highest and lowest pressure (kPa). Assumptions: Hydrostatic eects are negligible and the wind has density of 1.2 kg/m3 . PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation between points of highest and lowest pressure. SOLUTION The maximum pressure will occur at the stagnation point where V = 0 and the point of lowest pressure will be where the velocity is highest (Vmax = 80 m/s). Bernoulli equation Vh2 V 2 = p + ph + 2 2 2 ph + 0 = p + (Vmax ) 2 1.2 kg/ m3 (80 m/ s)2 ph p = 2 = 3, 840 Pa ph p = 3.84 kPa

101

4.98: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Velocity and pressure given at two points in a duct. V1 = 1 m/ s, V2 = 2 m/ s. Find: Determine which is true: (a) Flow in contration in nonuniform and irrotational. (b) Flow in contration is uniform and irrotational. (c) Flow in contration is nonuniform and rotational. (d) Flow in contration is uniform and rotational. Assumptions: Elevations are equal. Properties: p1 = 10 kPa, p2 = 7 kPa. = 1000 kg/ m3 . PLAN Check to see if it is irrotational by seeing if it satises Bernoullis equation. SOLUTION The ow is non-uniform. Bernoulli equation p2 V22 p1 V12 + + z1 = + + z2 2g 2g 10, 000 Pa (1 m/ s)2 (2 m/ s)2 7, 000 Pa + + +0 = +0 9, 810 N/ m3 2 (9.81 m/ s2 ) 9, 810 N/ m3 2 (9.81 m/ s2 ) 1.070 6= 0.917 Flow is rotational. The correct choice is c.

102

4.99: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Water owing from a large orice in bottom of tank. VA = 8 ft/ s, VB = 20 ft/ s. zA = 1 ft, zB = 0 ft. Find: pA pB (psf). Properties: = 62.4 lb/ ft3 . PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation pA pB V2 V2 + zA + A = + zB + B 2g 2g 2 2 (VB VA ) pA pB = zA 2g 2 2 3 (400 64) ft / s = 62.4 lb/ ft 1 ft 2 (32.2 ft/ s2 ) pA pB = 263 psf

103

4.100: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A ow pattern past an airfoil. V0 = 80 m/ s, V1 = 85 m/ s, V2 = 75 m/ s. Find: Pressure dierence between bottom and top (kPa). Assumptions: The pressure due to elevation dierence between points is negligible. Properties: = 1.2 kg/ m3 . SOLUTION The ow is ideal and irrotational so the Bernoulli equation applies between any two points in the ow eld p1 V12 p2 V22 + + z1 = + + z2 2g 2g 2 p2 p1 = (V V22 ) 2 1 1.2 kg/ m3 2 (85 752 ) m/ s p2 p1 = 2 = 960 Pa p2 p1 = 0.96 kPa

104

4.101: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow of water between parallel plates. Find: Is the Bernoulli equation valid between plates? SOLUTION The ow between the two plates is rotational. The Bernoulli equation cannot be applied across streamlines in rotational ows.

105

4.102: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Category 5 hurricane. Vmax = 175 mi/ h. Find: Calculate pressure at center (mbar). Properties: = 1.2 kg/ m3 , pcenter = 902 mbar, patm = 1 bar. SOLUTION The pressure change from the exterior to the core of a hurricane using the model of a rotating core surrounded by a free vortex is

2 p = Vmax

The speed of 175 mph in m/s is V = 175 miles 1 hr 5280 ft 1m = 84.21 m/s hr 3600 s 1 mile 3.048 ft

The pressure dierence is p = 1.2 84.212 = 8510 Pa To convert to mbar, 1 mbar=102 Pa so the pressure dierence is 85.10 mbar and the estimated pressure at the center of the hurricane is p = 1000 85.10 p = 914 mbar This is slightly higher than the recorded pressure. The discrepancy probably lies in the simplicity of the model. Also the presence of water droplets in the air will may increase the eective density giving rise to a higher pressure dierence.

106

4.103: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Pressure drop in a tornado. Find: Estimate maximum velocity (m/s). Properties: = 1.2 kg/ m3 , pcenter = 100 mbar. SOLUTION Assume an air density of 1.2 kg/m3 .The pressure depression in a tornado is estimated as 2 p = Vmax so Vmax = = s p 0.1 (100, 000 Pa) 1.2 kg/m3

107

4.104: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A whirlpool modeled as free and forced vortex. Vmax = 10 m/ s, r = 10 m. Find: Shape of the water surface to 50 meter radius. Properties: patm = 0. PLAN Apply the Bernoulli equation to the free vortex region. SOLUTION Bernoulli equation

2 V2 Vmax z10 + =z+ =0 2g 2g The elevation at the juncture of the forced and free vortex and a point far from the vortex center where the velocity is zero is given by 2 Vmax 2g In the forced vortex region, the equation relating elevation and speed is

z10 =

2 Vmax V2 =z 2g 2g

0 -2

10 r 2

10 r

510 r2

Elevation, m

-4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 10 20 30 40 50

Radius, m

109

4.105: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Tornado modeled as combination of forced and free vortex. Vmax = 350 km/ h. r = 50 m. Find: Variation in pressure. Properties: patm = 100 kPa. PLAN Apply the pressure variation equation-rotating ow to the vortex center and the Bernoulli equation in the free vortex region. SOLUTION From the pressure variation equation-rotating ow, the pressure reduction from atmospheric pressure at the vortex center is

2 p = Vmax

which gives 1000 2 ) = 11.3 kPa 3600 or a pressure of p(0) = 10011.3 = 88.7 kPa. In the forced vortex region the pressure varies as p = 1.2 (350 V2 2 In this region, the uid rotates as a solid body so the velocity is p(0) = p V = The equation for pressure becomes p = 88.7 + 2.26r2 /1000 for r 50 m r Vmax = 1.94r 50

The factor of 1000 is to change the pressure to kPa. A the point of highest velocity the pressure is 94.3 kPa. Bernoulli equation 1 2 1 p(50) + Vmax = p + V 2 2 2 In the free vortex region so the equation for pressure becomes

110

102 100

for r 50 m

Pressure (kPa)

98

96

94

92

90

Radius (m)

111

4.106: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A weather balloon in a tornado modeled as a forced-free vortex. Find: Where the balloon will move. SOLUTION The uid in a tornado moves in a circular path because the pressure gradient provides the force for the centripetal acceleration. For a uid element of volume V the relationship between the centripetal acceleration and the pressure gradient is dp V2 =V r dr The density of a weather balloon would be less than the local air so the pressure gradient would be higher than the centripetal acceleration so the balloon would move toward the vortex center.

112

4.107: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: The pressure distribution in a tornado. Find: If the Bernoulli equation over predicts or under predicts the pressure drop. SOLUTION As the pressure decreases the density becomes less. This means that a smaller pressure gradient is needed to provide the centripetal force to maintain the circular motion. This means that the Bernoulli equation will over predict the pressure drop.

113

4.108: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Flow over a sphere. u = 1.5U sin , p = 2.5 in H2 O. V = 100 ft/ s. Find: Angle of separation point. Properties: = 0.07 lb/ ft3 . SOLUTION Since the uid is air, neglect the contribution of hydrostatic in the Bernoulli equation The pressure coecient dened by Cp = (p p ) 1 U 2 2

can be expressed in terms of velocities as 2 V Cp = 1 U by application of the Bernoulli equation. The pressure in psfg at the stagnation point is psep = 2.5 inch H2 O = 13.0 lbf/ft2 In order to have the correct units, the density has to be in slugs/ft3 . = 0.07 The dynamic pressure is 1 2 1 ft2 slugs V = 0.00217 3 1002 2 = 10.85 psf 2 2 s ft The pressure coecient at the separation point is Cp = so 13.0 = 1.198 10.85 lbm 1slug slugs = 0.00217 3 ft 32.2 lbm ft3 1 ft lbf 62.4 3 12 in ft

Solving for sin gives sin = 0.988 There are two solutions = 81.1o , 98.9o Separation occurs on windward side so sep = 81.1o

115

4.109: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: Application of the Bernoulli equation between a point upstream and in the wake of a sphere. Find: Is the Bernoulli equation valid between these two points? SOLUTION The ow in the wake is irrotational so the Bernoulii equation cannot be applied between two arbitrary points

116

4.110: PROBLEM DEFINITION Situation: A two dimensional ow in the x y plane is described in the problem statement. Find: 2 2 (a) Show that d( u +v + gh) = 0. 2 V2 (b) Show 2g+h is constant in all directions. SOLUTION a) Substituting the equation for the streamline into the Euler equation gives u u dx + u u dy = g h dx x y x v v x dx + v v dy = g h dy y y

x x

or

2

u v 2

Adding both equations u2 + v2 h h u2 + v 2 dx + dy = g( dx + dy) x 2 y 2 x y or u2 + v 2 + gh) = 0 2 b) Substituting the irrotationality condition into Eulers equation gives d(

v u u + v x = g h x x v u v y + u y dy = g h y

22

dx + dx +

u2 ( )dy y 2 v2 ( )dy y 2

= g h dy y

= g h dx x

or

u2 +v 2 ( 2 x u2 +v2 ( 2 y

+ gh) = 0 + gh) = 0

117

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