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Submitted To:Er.Amit K.Bhardwaj Asst. Prof. LMTSOM Thapar Univ.,Patiala
Submitted By:Varun Bakshi (501004069) MBA-2nd Year
Introduction To Cloud Computing ........................................................................................................... 2 Three cloud service models ........................................................................................................................ 6 Cloud deployment models: ......................................................................................................................... 7 CLOUD ENVIRONMENT ROLES ...................................................................................................................... 8 SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS / CAPABILITIES OF CLOUDS .............................................................................. 9 Cloud Computing in Larger Businesses ....................................................................................................... 15 Cloud Computing in Small Business ............................................................................................................ 17 Benefits of Cloud Computing ...................................................................................................................... 18 Some Findings -- Cloud Computing ............................................................................................................. 20 TCS’s Service Offerings in Cloud Computing ............................................................................................... 25 CLOUD COMPUTING IN HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY .................................................................................... 30 Cloud technology from Microsoft ............................................................................................................... 32 Cloud ERP .................................................................................................................................................... 35 Ramco OnDemand ERP ......................................................................................................................... 35 Business case for cloud computing ............................................................................................................. 38 Threats to Cloud Computing ....................................................................................................................... 40 How Integrated, Web-Based Software Makes Business More Efficient ..................................................... 44 Business Benefits Of Cloud Computing ....................................................................................................... 46 REFERENCES & SOURCES......................................................................................................................... 47
Introduction To Cloud Computing
The boom in cloud computing over the past few years has led to a situation that is common to many innovations and new technologies: many have heard of it, but far fewer actually understand what it is and, more importantly, how it can benefit them. In an attempt to gain a competitive edge, businesses are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways to cut costs while maximising value – especially now, during a global economic downturn. They recognize that they need to grow, but are simultaneously under pressure to save money. This has forced the realisation that new ideas and methods may produce better results than the tried and tested formulas of yesteryear. It is the growing acceptance of innovative technologies that has seen cloud computing become the biggest buzzword in IT. However, before an organisation decides to make the jump to the cloud, it is important to understand what, why, how and from whom. Not all cloud computing providers are the same. The range and quality of services on offer varies tremendously. The increased degree of connectivity and the increasing amount of data has led many providers and in particular data centres to employ larger infrastructures with dynamic load and access balancing.
By distributing and replicating data across servers on demand, resource utilisation has been significantly improved. Similarly web server hosts replicate images of relevant customers who requested a certain degree of accessibility across multiple servers and route requests according to traffic load. However, it was only when Amazon published these internal resources and their management mechanisms for use by customers that the term ―cloud‖ was publicly associated with such elastic infrastructures – especially with ―on demand‖ access to IT resources in mind. In the meantime, many providers have rebranded their infrastructures to ―clouds‖, even though this had little consequences on the way they provided their capabilities.
Cloud computing is an Internet-based way of working where users access applications through a web browser rather than hosting software locally on their own PC. The applications can be very simple, such as web-based email, through to more complex business software such as web-based accounting.
a 'cloud' is an elastic execution environment of resources involving multiple stakeholders and providing a metered service at multiple granularities for a specified level of quality (of service).
Cloud computing as a delivery model for IT services is defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as ―a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction‖
c. thus removing the burden of software maintenance. e. Rapid elasticity enables the fast and automatic increase and decrease to the amount of available computer processing. Instead. without requiring human interaction between customers and the vendor. d. Virtualisation and multi-tenancy mechanisms are typically used to both segregate and protect each customer and their data from other customers.NIST specify five characteristics of cloud computing: a. ongoing operation and support. Broad network access enables customers to access computing resources over networks such as the Internet from a broad range of computing devices such as laptops and smartphones. and being able to monitor their usage. Pay-per-use measured service involves customers only paying for the computing resources that they actually use. network bandwidth or user email accounts. where applications are run and interacted with via a web browser. the cost is incorporated into the subscription fee. hosted desktop or remote client. and to make it appear to customers that they are the only user of a shared computer or software application. This is analogous to household use of utilities such as electricity Cloud computing can be visualised as a pyramid consisting of three sections: Cloud Application This is the apex of the cloud pyramid. A hallmark of commercial cloud computing applications is that users never need to purchase expensive software licenses themselves. On-demand self-service involves customers using a web site or similar control panel interface to provision computing resources such as additional computers. A cloud application eliminates the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer. Resource pooling involves vendors using shared computing resources to provide cloud services to multiple customers. b. 4 . storage and network bandwidth as required by customer demand.
reconfigures and deprovisions servers as needed to cope with increases or decreases in demand.Cloud Platform The middle layer of the cloud pyramid. which provides a computing platform or framework as a service. self governed environments. These are then interlinked with others for resilience and additional capacity 5 . which can be scaled in terms of CPU. configures. The infrastructure includes servers. ―farms‖ or "cloud centres". RAM. networks and other hardware appliances delivered as either Infrastructure ―Web Services‖. This in reality is a distributed computing model. Virtualisation allows the splitting of a single physical piece of hardware into independent. where many services pull together to deliver an application or infrastructure request. Cloud Infrastructure The foundation of the cloud pyramid is the delivery of IT infrastructure through virtualisation. A cloud computing platform dynamically provisions. Disk and other elements.
GoGrid and Rackspace Cloud. Software as a Service (SaaS) involves the vendor using their cloud infrastructure and cloud platforms to provide customers with software applications. Example PaaS vendor services include Google App Engine.Three cloud service models Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) involves the vendor providing physical computer hardware including CPU processing. PaaS enables customers to use the vendor‘s cloud infrastructure to deploy web applications and other software developed by the customer using programming languages supported by the vendor. Amazon Web Services Elastic Beanstalk. IaaS enables customers to run operating systems and software applications of their choice. Typically the customer only controls and maintains limited application configuration settings specific to users such as creating email address distribution lists. Platform as a Service (PaaS) involves the vendor providing Infrastructure as a Service plus operating systems and server applications such as web servers. The vendor may share their hardware among multiple customers referred to as ―multiple tenants‖ using virtualisation software. Typically the customer only controls and maintains the software applications developed by the customer. Example IaaS vendor services include Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). 6 . Example applications include email and an environment for users to collaboratively develop and share files such as documents and spreadsheets. and the Microsoft Windows Azure platform. Typically the vendor controls and maintains the physical computer hardware. eliminating the need for the user to install or maintain additional software. Example SaaS vendor services include Salesforce. . Typically the vendor controls and maintains the physical computer hardware. Force.com. operating systems and server applications. Typically the vendor controls and maintains the physical computer hardware.com Customer Relationship Management (CRM). data storage and network connectivity. Typically the customer controls and maintains the operating systems and software applications. These end user applications are typically accessed by users via a web browser. memory. operating systems and software applications. Google Docs and Google Gmail.
A managed private cloud may enable enterprise customers to more easily negotiate suitable contracts with the vendor. This model has maximum potential cost efficiencies due to economies of scale. If the private cloud is properly implemented and operated. it has reduced potential security concerns. which interacts with sensitive data stored or processed in a private cloud. Community cloud involves a private cloud that is shared by several organisations with similar security requirements and a need to store or process data of similar sensitivity. 7 . and most of the economic benefits of a public cloud. Compared to the public cloud model. This model attempts to obtain most of the security benefits of a private cloud. Private cloud involves an organisation‘s exclusive use of cloud infrastructure and services located at the organisation‘s premises or offsite. A well architected private cloud properly managed by a vendor provides many of the benefits of a public cloud. this model has a variety of inherent security risks that need to be considered. An example community cloud is the sharing of a private cloud by several agencies of the same government. An example is using commodity resources from a public cloud such as web servers to display non-sensitive data.Cloud deployment models: Public cloud involves an organisation using a vendor‘s cloud infrastructure which is shared via the Internet with many other organisations and other members of the public. the private cloud model has reduced potential cost efficiencies. instead of being forced to accept the generic contracts designed for the consumer mass market that are offered by some public cloud vendors. but with increased control over security. Hybrid cloud involves a combination of cloud models. However. and managed by the organisation or a vendor.
The cloud enhanced services thus effectively become software as a service. individual roles can be identified similar to the typical role distribution in Service Oriented Architectures and in particular in (business oriented) Virtual Organisations. As the roles relate strongly to the individual business models it is imperative to have a clear definition of the types of roles involved in order to ensure common understanding. (Cloud) Providers offer clouds to the customer – either via dedicated APIs (PaaS). by mapping emerging industry requests into innovative solutions and second by utilizing these innovative solutions by European companies in the global marketplace. 8 . Similar to the software and consulting industry. the creation of European cloud partner ecosystems will provide significant economic opportunities in the application domain – first. but to make use of the direct results.e. not to improve the services and capabilities they offer. however. virtual machines and / or direct access to the resources (IaaS). This enables them to e.g.CLOUD ENVIRONMENT ROLES In cloud environments. (Cloud) Resellers or Aggregators aggregate cloud platforms from cloud providers to either provide a larger resource infrastructure to their customers or to provide enhanced features .This relates to community clouds in so far as the cloud aggregators may expose a single interface to a merged cloud infrastructure. i. (Cloud) Adopters or (Software / Services) Vendors enhance their own services and capabilities by exploiting cloud platforms from cloud providers or cloud resellers. They will match the economic benefits of global cloud infrastructures with the understanding of local customer needs by providing highly customized. Note that hosts of cloud enhanced services (SaaS) are typically referred to as Service Providers. (Cloud) Consumers or Users make direct use of the cloud capabilities – as opposed to cloud resellers and cloud adopters. provide services that scale to dynamic demands – in particular new business entries who cannot estimate the uptake / demand of their services as yet . though there may be ambiguity between the terms Service Provider and Cloud Provider. either to execute complex computations or to host a flexible data set. enhanced offerings to local companies (especially SME‘s) and world-class applications in important European industry sectors. Note that this involves in particular larger enterprises which outsource their inhouse infrastructure to reduce cost and efforts.
the gain through cost reduction has to be carefully balanced with the increased effort to build and run such a system. 9 . one can identify additional technological aspects to be addressed by cloud system. Obviously. Non-functional aspects are one of the key reasons why ―clouds‖ differ so strongly in their interpretation. it is mandatory to elaborate on these aspects. economic and technological capabilities addressed. This section specifies the concrete capabilities associated with clouds that are considered essential (required in any cloud environment) and relevant (ideally supported. relevant aspects thereby to consider relate to the cut-off between loss of control and reduction of effort. Implicitly. There is currently a strong tendency to regard clouds as ―just a new name for an old idea‖. technological challenges implicitly arise from the non-functional and economical aspects. As has been noted in the first section. but to a general provisioning paradigm with enhanced capabilities.SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS / CAPABILITIES OF CLOUDS Since ―clouds‖ do not refer to a specific technology. Economic considerations are one of the key reasons to introduce cloud systems in a business environment in the first instance. With respect to hosting private clouds. which is mostly due to a confusion between the cloud concepts and the strongly related P/I/SaaS paradigms but also due to the fact that similar aspects have already been addressed without the dedicated term ―cloud‖ associated with it. partially as a pre-condition to realize some of the high level features. they can be realized in multiple fashions and interpreted in different ways which typically leads to strong compatibility and interoperability issues between individual providers as they pursue their own approaches to realize their respective requirements. Non-functional aspects represent qualities or properties of a system. rather than specific technological requirements. but partially also as they directly relate to specific characteristics of cloud systems. As opposed to these aspects. In addition to these implicit challenges. when trying to realize them. respectively to be addressed by cloud systems. The particular interest typically lies in the reduction of cost and effort through outsourcing and / or automation of essential resource management. We can thereby distinguish non-functional. but may be restricted to specific use cases). technological challenges typically imply a specific realization – even though there may be no standard approach as yet and deviations may hence arise. which strongly differ between providers.
no code reset during execution etc. (Redundancy in the file systems vs. One can distinguish between horizontal and vertical scalability.). etc.NON-FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS The most important non-functional aspects are: Elasticity is an essential core feature of cloud systems and circumscribes the capability of the underlying infrastructure to adapt to changing.no loss of data.g. i. and does also allow the dynamic integration and extraction of physical resources to the infrastructure. must be guaranteed at least. from the middleware management perspective this poses additional requirements. Elasticity goes one step further. for example amount and size of data supported by an application. so as to ensure that the quality guarantees of the cloud user are met. but with large scale systems it is vital that such changes can be maintained automatically. Reliability is essential for all cloud systems – in order to support today‘s data centre-type applications in a cloud. this is identical to scaling. UPS. Quality of Service support is a relevant capability that is essential in many use cases where specific requirements have to be met by the outsourced services and / or resources. In general.Reliability denotes the capability to ensure constant operation of the system without disruption. Whilst from the application perspective.e. and vertical scalability refers to the size of the instances themselves and thus implicit to the amount of resources required to maintain the size. RAID controllers. stateless front end servers vs.and downscaling. potentially non-functional requirements. tough. in particular regarding reliability. Cloud scalability involves both (rapid) up. changing amount of requests. In business cases. Reliability is typically achieved through redundant resource utilisation. 10 . basic QoS metrics like response time. whereby horizontal scalability refers to the amount of instances to satisfy e. many of the reliability aspects move from a hardware to a software-based solution. Interestingly. throughput etc. number of concurrent users etc. it is assumed that changes in the resource infrastructure are announced first to the middleware manager. reliability is considered one of the main features to exploit cloud capabilities.
It lies in the ability to introduce redundancy for services and data so failures can be masked transparently. different quality or different routes. It includes on-time reaction to changes in the amount of requests and size of resources. Implicitly. Availability of services and data is an essential capability of cloud systems and was actually one of the core aspects to give rise to clouds in the first instance. but also adaptation to changes in the environmental conditions that e. Scalability and Pay per Use are essential aspects of this issue.g.Agility and adaptability are essential features of cloud systems that strongly relate to the elastic capabilities. setting up a cloud system typically entails additional costs – be it by adapting the business logic to the cloud host specific interfaces or by enhancing the local infrastructure to be ―cloud-ready‖. Pay per use The capability to build up cost according to the actual consumption of resources is a relevant feature of cloud systems. Notably. require different types of resources. This can be regarded as the original essence of scalability in cloud systems.g. Fault tolerance also requires the ability to introduce new redundancy (e. where specific requirements to be met by the system and hence to be paid for can be specified. One of the key economic drivers for the current level of interest in cloud computing is the structural change in this domain. With increasing concurrent access. cloud systems should help in realising the following aspects: Cost reduction is one of the first concerns to build up a cloud system that can adapt to changing consumer behaviour and reduce cost for infrastructure maintenance and acquisition. etc. By moving from the usual capital upfront investment model to 11 . Pay per use strongly relates to quality of service support. availability is particularly achieved through replication of data /services and distributing them across different resources to achieve load-balancing. ECONOMIC ASPECTS In order to allow for economic considerations. agility and adaptability require resources (or at least their management) to be autonomic and have to enable them to provide self-capabilities. previously failed or fresh nodes) in an online manner non-intrusively (without a significant performance penalty).
but also to reduce the carbon footprint. Note that beyond software stack aspects. In addition. Whilst carbon emission by individual machines can be quite well estimated. Improved time to market is essential in particular for small to medium enterprises that want to sell their services quickly and easily with little delays caused by acquiring and setting up the infrastructure.g. plenty of Green IT issues are subject to development on the hardware level. benefits from advertisements) ROI. Clouds can support this by providing infrastructures. Return of investment (ROI) is essential for all investors and cannot always be guaranteed – in fact some cloud systems currently fail this aspect. Outsourcing resources versus increasing the local infrastructure and employing (private) cloud technologies need therefore to be outweighed and critical cut-off points identified. Larger enterprises need to be able to publish new capabilities with little overhead to remain competitive. up-scaling should be carefully balanced not only with cost.g. 12 .in particular in a scope compatible and competitive with larger industries. Clouds principally allow reducing the consumption of unused resources (down-scaling). Employing a cloud system must ensure that the cost and effort vested into it is outweighed by its benefits to be commercially viable – this may entail direct (e.an operational expense. potentially dedicated to specific use cases that take over essential capabilities to support easy provisioning and thus reduce time to market. “Going Green” is relevant not only to reduce additional costs of energy consumption. but also carbon emission issues. more customers) and indirect (e. this information is actually taken little into consideration when scaling systems up. cloud computing promises to enable especially SME‘s and entrepreneurs to accelerate the development and adoption of innovative solutions.
where the location of code and / or data is principally unknown and the same resource may be assigned to multiple users (potentially at the same time).). Infrastructure independency: in principle. Privacy and Compliance is obviously essential in all systems dealing with potentially sensitive data and code. ranging from data protection to legislator issues. yet in more complicated cases information may be concurrently altered. even though maintained for isolated tenants. Security. the underlying infrastructure can change more flexible according to different conditions and requirements (assigning more resources. Multi-tenancy is a highly essential issue in cloud systems. as well as reduces the overhead for controlling the system. virtualisation allows for higher interoperability by making the code platform independent.TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS The main technological challenges that can be identified and that are commonly associated with cloud systems are: Virtualisation is an essential technological characteristic of clouds which hides the technological complexity from the user and enables enhanced flexibility (through aggregation. More concretely. Flexibility and Adaptability: by exposing a virtual execution environment. virtualisation supports the following features: Ease of use: through hiding the complexity of the infrastructure (including management. all information is maintained in separate databases or tables. Location independence: services can be accessed independent of the physical location of the user and the resource. etc. routing and translation). Multitenancy implies a lot of potential issues. This affects infrastructure resources as well as data / applications / services that are hosted on shared resources but need to be made available in multiple isolated instances. Classically. configuration etc.) virtualisation can make it easier for the user to develop new applications. 13 .
As size of data may change at any time. charging and billing. Metering of any kind of resource and service consumption is essential in order to offer elastic pricing. strong consistency. transactional isolation vs./ herself. atomic operations over individual data items vs. Another crucial aspect of data management is the provided consistency guarantees (eventual vs. whilst a cloud environment provides the features in a fashion that allows the user to leave such management to the system. Implicitly. At the same time. multiple data times etc.Data Management is an essential aspect in particular for storage clouds. adaptation and usage of cloud services.). 14 . Tools are generally necessary to support development. no isolation. where data is flexibly distributed across multiple resources. APIs and / or Programming Enhancements are essential to exploit the cloud features: common programming models require that the developer takes care of the scalability and autonomic capabilities him. data management addresses both horizontal and vertical aspects of scalability. data consistency needs to be maintained over a wide distribution of replicated data sources. the system always needs to be aware of the data location (when replicating across data centres) taking latencies and particularly workload into consideration. It is therefore a pre-condition for the elasticity of clouds.
Banks operate in a complex regulatory framework regarding their handling of customer data. Indeed. Domestically-based Clouds are considered more 15 . several of the major banks have recently been calling for more work on the establishment of Cloud computing standards to ensure that they are able to retain control of any outsourced IT. It was noted that the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) has been counseling caution in the adoption of Cloud computing. The scope of bank services is far wider than merely financial transactions however. This is particularly related to the question of vendor lock-in. The failure of any Cloud-based arrangements could risk the reputation of the company and questions of confidentiality. anecdotal evidence suggests that many would embrace Cloud computing solutions for data storage and retrieval they could trust. reliability and security remain. which in turn should not expose their customers to unnecessary risk. Legal advice offered to one major banking concern regarding the possible use of Cloud computing focused on privacy considerations and the US Government‘s Patriot Act. and customer relationship management is an area thought amenable to Cloud computing.Cloud Computing in Larger Businesses Major companies are increasingly seeking Cloud computing and exploring the development of private Clouds. combined with concerns about the potential reputational risks which could arise if something goes wrong with client data in the Cloud. with the various privacy acts being a major consideration. While some large businesses are moving quickly into the use of Cloud computing. others -.are proceeding cautiously at this stage. such legislation does not pose the primary barrier . However. Customers have to trust their financial institution. This is partly a response to the unsettled nature of the market for Cloud computing (including the absence of widely adopted standards). While obviously mindful of potential pitfalls. The rapid development of a wide range of Cloud service providers within Australia certainly implies an escalating demand from both public and private sector users.including some of the banks -. It is fair to say that the Task Force discussed a wide range of large business responses to the emergence of Cloud computing.the wider question of customer trust remains the stumbling block. and allowed for a range of options including asking customers to opt-in to the scheme.
The business model of Cloud service providers tends not to intersect with the more conservative framework that banks must adhere to. The colocation of data in Cloud computing solutions also poses new challenges and creates the perception of new risk asymmetries.secure than international Clouds. The use of IT outsourcing raised similar considerations. just as banks must earn the trust of their customers regarding the handling of their financial assets. but service providers must build trust with their banking clients. Unfortunately. for instance. contracts with Cloud providers have proved difficult to negotiate with insufficient protections for privacy. rather than actually guaranteeing the continuity and security of provision demanded of them. 16 . data backups and data segregation offered by vendors. and many problems were encountered with its deployment. Vendors tend to offer a promise of 'best endeavours' to maintain services. Pitfalls experienced with other much-hyped revolutions in computing and the internet have underlined this tendency towards caution.
and vice versa. Public seminars. Cloud developments could also encourage employment by reducing IT start-up costs for small businesses. It allows information and communications capacity to be bought as needed. workshops and ‗concept exercises‘ might also prove useful in helping small and medium enterprises understand Cloud technology. as well as its possible risks. with infrastructure aggregators becoming a major factor in the market. Secondary brokerage is a growing market. This has obvious risks as well as potential for small players to penetrate larger markets.Cloud Computing in Small Business Small business will embrace Cloud computing to reap the cost savings promised by vendors. It facilitates new ways of collaborating and working and can drive increases in productivity as well as saving costs. but in many instances may be ill prepared to do so in an informed and considered fashion. Cloud computing allows identities to be obscured online to an even greater degree than before. The potential of Cloud computing to solve a firm‘s specific problems could be demonstrated through the generation of practical scenarios which could also examine issues which might arise regarding privacy and security. Government could therefore play a useful role in raising awareness and educating the small business community about the possibilities of Cloud computing. 17 . with small organisations able to appear much larger than they are. Cloud computing can offer a much wider set of solutions than simply aggregated data services. offering flexibility and innovation to businesses which wish to free themselves of expensive and cumbersome in-house IT solutions.
but Cloud services allow the subscriber to pay the provider for usage alone. No capital expense: Cloud computing allows the user to pay for ICT as a service when consumed. Clear ICT value for businesses: ICT has always struggled to demonstrate its value to businesses. but Cloud applications can be deployed and scaled within days or hours. the cost of hardware and of software licenses are currently a major concern. turning capital expenses into operating (variable) costs. Cloud computing provides a direct connection between ICT spending and value – similar to domestic spending on phone bills or electricity. or its use within the business is for a limited time. Cloud providers can usually offer ICT services at a significantly lower cost than individual organisations can deliver themselves. Lower operational expense: Given economies of scale.Benefits of Cloud Computing Depending upon the implementation. cost and scaling advantages delivering: Lower upfront costs: When introducing a new application. avoiding the need for up-front expenditure and allowing costs to be spread over time and managed more closely. and there has been a seemingly constant disconnect between ICT spending and the perception of value it delivers. Reduced financial risk: If a Cloud-based application proves unsuccessful for whatever reason. high levels of automation and selfservice. Faster time to market (agility): It typically takes several months to achieve successful implementation of a traditional application. 18 . it can be discontinued without the retention of useless infrastructure. The user also avoids the financial risk of technological obsolescence. Cloud computing promises compelling efficiency.
Cloud providers can afford to offer more specialised services and deeper expertise in advanced security techniques. Sustainability: Most providers of Cloud services are facing pressure from consumers and governments to utilise facilities that consume less energy. redundant applications can be used to avoid downtime. Standardisation: Over time.Innovation: Cloud computing can offer an almost infinite ―ICT sandpit‖ for experimentation and innovation at low risk. application performance optimization. the Cloud can deliver incremental improvements and enhancements on a continuous basis. Experiments in the Cloud can be rapidly scaled up or abandoned depending on how they turn out. Continuous enhancements: Instead of facing occasional. 19 . Access to expanded expertise: Given their economies of scale. Larger Cloud providers can also afford to build ‗hardened‘ facilities with reserve power supplies and cooling equipment. data distribution strategies can help address disaster recovery and business continuity issues. low operating cost and with no capital expenditure. tailored user support and business continuity services than many in house ICT departments. In addition. Decreased downtime and delays (improved resilience): Since Cloud workloads can be spread across many facilities. yielding further savings and enabling the scaling of processes within an enterprise. disruptive and costly upgrades of ICT. and even across different Clouds. the use of Cloud services is likely to drive standardisation among users which in turn facilitates the simplification and alignment of business processes. There is a growing trend towards locating large data centres in locations where renewable energy is available.
2010 The stated preference of enterprises to buy cloud IaaS services from IT service providers or data center service providers could mean that the cloud computing idea becomes central to these service providers‘ portfolios. Data center service providers and IT system integrators also need to play a pivotal role in bringing the ecosystem together to demonstrate commitment to security. 20 .Cloud Computing Preferred channels for cloud services Source: EY survey — Cloud adoption in India. IT service providers looking to leverage the cloud IaaS opportunity should form alliances with third-party data center service providers or invest in building their own infrastructure. cloud IaaS services may prove to be a more profitable source of revenue as compared to their existing service/product mix. Equipment vendors should recognize and respond to this possibility. For data center providers.Some Findings -. service-level agreement (SLA) adherence and complete support at every layer of the cloud service model.
Finance and insurance firms emphasized scalability of capacity (44%) and improved employee productivity (50%). but all of the major benefits of cloud computing were recognised by the MNC respondents as such. MNC responses to our survey support the evolution model from traditional IT infrastructure provisioning to cloud-based infrastructure services. The benefits of cloud in industry-specific contexts were also recognised by our respondents.Scalability. unsurprising in an industry with such highly valuable employee 'capital'. unsurprising in a sector with such dramatic peaks and troughs in month-to-month and even day-to-day transactions 21 .Capacity and speed are key benefits of cloud. Retail sector respondents cited scalability and matching capacity to demand (both ranked as major benefits by 50% of respondents) as key draws to cloud . Speed of access to such services came in a close third.again. As shown in above figure 76% of MNCs surveyed rated scalability of capacity and matching capacity to fluctuating demand as the most beneficial attributes of cloud services.
or cloud service. Clearly. 22 .An Industry View Across all vertical sectors. they should also be concerned that so many companies see loss of control.Barriers. even if they are not the most important. Banks and insurance companies overwhelmingly rated security their highest concern (75%). they also appear consistent within their business sectors. any cloud-based service provider. If MNCs are consistent in bringing traditional concerns and requirements on managed ICT into cloud services. as the next figure shows. must address security first. 78% of companies rated security and 85% of companies rated data governance significant or major barriers to adoption. However. SLAs and potential difficulty in evaluating performance of prospective suppliers all as significant barriers.
Perceived Benefits of Implementing cloud IaaS Services 23 .
Characteristically. including media. accounts and sales data). 24 .Other industry-specific findings include the following: Related issues of data governance and loss of control were the next most important issues for financial services companies. professional services companies. Similarly manufacturing. which includes a number of significant pharmaceuticals companies. worried most about SLAs. and in fact gave it equal rating to security. perhaps showing just how much contracts and commercial metrics are in their blood. was most concerned about data governance. with 50% or more of them citing these as major barriers. Data governance was the major concern for the energy & utilities and retail & wholesale industries. where businesses are built on efficient management of huge volumes of customer records (billing.
TCS believes that Cloud Computing will become an increasingly viable option for enterprise IT. TCS will address key questions which its enterprise customers have been asking. TCS Cloud Taxonomy With a lot of information available on Cloud Computing. devise a timeline. and will provide unique solutions through its TM TCS COIN -based Cloud initiative Each service offering needs special competencies. beginning with an advisory role in helping customers identify opportunities for leveraging Cloud Computing to enabling new business models. among other things.SaaS/PaaS/IaaS – as well as tools for rapid application development and deployment in the Cloud. it is imperative to build a taxonomy which forms the basis for common understanding and focus. which has built a completely new business model and which leverages the mindset and technologies of the Cloud. and a business case to move to the Cloud requires not just domain expertise but experience in end-to-end business transformation. 25 . Migrating Applications to the Cloud requires proven migration methodologies and toolsets which can rapidly cloud-enable applications. TCS proposes a range of services to customers. Helping customers define a to-be strategy. and the following taxonomy reflects TCS‘s insights on Cloud Computing. TCS has been providing a mature IT-as-a-Service component as a part of its Small and Medium Business (SMB) offering. As a part of the services. TCS has extensively studied this area. There are other taxonomies available such as the OpenCrowd Cloud Taxonomy. Fresh development of applications ―for‖ the Cloud and ―in‖ the Cloud requires a deep understanding of all the 3 Cloud delivery models . All these views will be the basis for the standardization efforts that have just started across the industry.TCS‘s Service Offerings in Cloud Computing Despite the challenges that exist today around Cloud Computing.Cloud management services presuppose an Application Driven Infrastructure Management approach.
Though layers and sublayers are static.The Cloud Taxonomy consists of four layers. The growing list is denoted by ellipsis in the following figure:- 26 . TCS foresees that the areas to address will be a growing list. and a variety of areas to address. eight sub-layers.
―when‖ (timelines).Service Offerings in the Cloud Cloud Advisory Services Cloud Migration Services Cloud Development Services Cloud Management Services Cloud Strategic Services Based on the 4. and ―why‖ (business case) Cloud Migration Services The typical entry point for the customers to the Cloud will be migration of their existing applications to the Cloud. wide variety of technologies. investment protection and lock-in TCS‘s integrated consulting and IT services capabilities bring continuity and consistency to customers‘ strategic programs. In addition to the Cloud. testing and performance engineering. implemented tool-based approach and end-to-end solution including architecture definition. TCS will help customers define ―to-be‖ state strategy. The strategy will Honor business and application constraints and requirements Identify appropriate target state for each application Address issues of interoperability. TCS will provide the following five service offerings: Cloud Advisory Services For Cloud. TCS will address a comprehensive set of questions on the ―what‖ (strategy). TCS has executed vast migration projects in which it has handled large engagements. TCS has extensive capabilities on application migration with automation assets and agility of building/enhancing tools for customer or engagement specific purposes. which will also apply to the migration engagements in Cloud.initially as a proof-of-concept and later in production.0 Cloud Services layer in the TCS Cloud Taxonomy. 27 .
standardization efforts are still in progress while vendor lock-in could become an issue with the usage of vendor-specific APIs. Dev 2.0 ―Do It Yourself‖ paradigm enables the customers to build simple applications and use it by themselves without TCS being involved. they want to know how this is adapted to manage a Cloud infrastructure. TCS InstantApps empowers business analysts to create Web based applications using its WYSIWYG designer. This is a reporting tool and a real time dashboard that can be 28 . TCS NetAsthra will be enhanced to provide a single window view of the health of the entire federated virtual private cloud. and/or making enhancements. InstantApps will be available as a cloudenabled PaaS. It has built in features to move applications from the ‗Dev‘ environment to the production environment. This significantly reuses code to speed up the new application development. Cloud Management Services Though customers are aware of the Infrastructure Management Services. With a variety of Cloud platforms available. there is a need to define programming models. and they are being enhanced to support a Cloud model.Cloud Development Services Application development will be a key activity for organizations that want to use Cloud Computing. development. TCS has built tools and platforms to support rapid application development and deployment. TCS classifies the development as follows: For the Cloud— An application will be built to run in the Cloud. TCS Model-Driven Development (MDD) toolset (TCS MasterCraft ) provides an integrated environment along with a product or application development lifecycle. if the application is also available in the same Cloud. design. deployment and evolution architectures for data-intensive business applications in the TM Cloud. legacy system integration. Besides. right abstractions. TCS will enhance MasterCraft to support application development for the Cloud. In the Cloud—Application development will use platforms and environments that run in the Cloud.
This also includes the required business. development. 29 . In the ―IT-as-a-Service‖ model. We also understand SMB‘s constraints with IT related budget and hence provide a ―build as you grow‖ model. This gives them comfort of low capital investment. CA Unicenter. when their business grows. which will enable almost any kind of application to be made available in the Cloud. TCS provides a ―One Stop Shop‖ for all SMB needs and removes the pain of running a highly complex internal IT departments and dealing with a large number of local vendors.seamlessly integrated with leading industry ESM tools such as BMC Patrol. a new offering is emerging in the Cloud arena. technical and consulting services for SMBs. which provides tremendous opportunities to the vendors and service providers in providing innovative business models and applications in the Cloud. Through this. There are opportunities around innovative licensing and payment terms. Cloud Strategic Services While migration. which gives the subscriber flexibility in IT investment. and management of applications on a Cloud infrastructure can be considered as an adaptation of existing tools and methodologies of conventional applications. The ―pay-as-you-use‖ option provides SMBs the choice of scaling up. TCS Small and Medium Business (SMB) Offering ―IT-as-a-Service‖ is the TCS way of serving SMBs. and HP Openview. network and software solutions. ―pay-as-you use‖ model through a combination of on premise and shared services hosted platforms. and other monitoring solutions. we deliver on-demand business capability with an integrated suite of hardware. The services are provided in a ―build-as-you-grow‖.
as India has traditionally always been a cost-sensitive market. However. with just a few early adopters of this technology with an established presence in this area. Challenges for technology adoption in the Indian health care industry: The health care delivery environment in India has distinctive challenges.CLOUD COMPUTING IN HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY A high upfront cost has been the main deterrent to health care IT adoption. Other challenges in integrating IT into the Indian health care system include: Lack of standards Lack of in-house IT domain knowledge Reluctance of medical. Inadequate infrastructure and a constrained health care delivery work process further intensify the complexity. since it reduces upfront investments in software and hardware. the concept of cloud computing is yet to prove its worth in health care. The most significant challenge in adopting this technology lies in the uncertainty around whether hospitals and clinics will trust their data to be stored offsite. However. nursing and other staff to adjust to change Apprehensions around technology failures (paper systems appear more reliable) Lack of proper vendor support 30 . The three key pain points for health care service providers are: High initial costs The need for human resources to maintain and service systems in-house Accessibility of data 24/7 A good cloud computing provider can resolve such challenges as it can deliver reliable 24/7 data access at reasonable costs. This is the best solution for the Indian health care system. this trend is gradually changing.
business continuity requirements. diagnostics companies and patients. Health care providers can use private or public cloud to: Store pathology and other reports(x-ray. The key users of IT. For hospitals. besides keeping costs low.) Maintain and store patient records/billing/claimns. picture archiving and communications systems (PACS). data security and integrity.Cloud computing in the health care sector The health care sector is now increasingly automated and highly dependent on information technology in the daily functioning of their businesses. etc. Correspondingly. electronic medical/health records (EMR/EHR) and point of care systems and generate significant clinical data. For the small and medium business (SMB) health care providers. The awareness and interest for cloud computing in the health care segment is at a nascent stage. 31 . hospitals spend a significant portion of their budget on non core resource costs. clinics or medical centers and R&D within drug companies. Host third party or in house applications (HMIS. these networks are complex and face constraints such as the availability of these services in remote locations. They use health care management and information systems (HMIS). Currently.etc) Connect on a community level between doctors/hospitals. cloud IaaS services lower the barriers to market growth by minimizing technology costs and upfront investments. Cloud services extend to health care provide the promise of reduced IT costs in the face of continued margin pressures and the critical need to generate and store large amounts of health data or information. cloud helps in meeting compliance requirements of maintaining EHRs. apart from hospitals are also diagnostic centers.
and address societal challenges. hosted services providers in the world. and workflow. which are outfitted to operate during power outages and after natural disasters.5 billion per year—in research and development to help drive the technology further. central location for collaboration. Microsoft Office Live Meeting delivers hosted Web conferencing. Microsoft SharePoint Online creates a highly secure. Our focus is making solutions for the real world of hybrid IT environments by providing cost-effective software and services that support your efforts to boost economic growth. Uptime Microsoft guarantees 99. also available as standalone software. isolated hosted environment. Government IT will continue to run applications within its own environment while adding new applications and services that run in the cloud. Long established in the cloud. voice. without storing any data offsite Government IT is not one size fits all—and neither is the cloud. content. Microsoft replicates data from its primary data centers to secondary data centers for redundancy. create opportunities. for hosted communication and collaboration. Software and services from Microsoft Microsoft Business Productivity Online Suite delivers a suite of services. That‘s why our approach to cloud computing is developed on providing you with choices and flexibility. And our extensive community of partners is available to work with you to deliver innovative solutions on premises or in the cloud. and video. Microsoft continues to invest heavily—U.Cloud technology from Microsoft As one of the largest. our enhanced Business Productivity Online Suite meets International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). For agencies that require a secure. Microsoft offers a solid track record as an online solution provider. Microsoft Exchange Online delivers your e-mail with protection. Microsoft Office Communications Online provides real-time person-to-person communications through text.S.9 percent uptime at its data centers. along with calendar and contacts.$9. with 32 .
Software developers can use Windows Azure Tools for Microsoft Visual Studio to create. making it the choice of many Microsoft partners who are using it to build their own public and private cloud services and data centers. Microsoft Exchange Hosted Services offers online tools to help your organization protect itself from spam and malicious software. Featuring Windows Azure for running Windows applications and storing data in the cloud. configure.S. and creating application services in the cloud. managing. debug. on premise. and provides online access to your work and a core set of Microsoft Office functionality over the Web. build. Windows Azure platform AppFabric. a cloud-based. encrypt data to preserve confidentiality. see our Windows Azure platform white papers. and infrastructure in the cloud. giving you the flexibility to run applications—or just store code or data—in the cloud. citizen personnel who have cleared background checks. Platform and infrastructure services from Microsoft Azure Services Platform supports applications. formerly known as . and e-mail policy violations. or with a combination of both. Azure Services Platform is an on-demand operating environment for hosting. scalable. multitenant database services. Microsoft Forefront Online Protection for Exchange helps protect e-mail from spam. data.NET Services.fingerprint access control and data access limited to U. and more. Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online streamlines customer relationship management. satisfy retention requirements for e-discovery and compliance. and run Web applications and services on Windows Azure. relational database service built on Microsoft SQL Server that offers highly available. makes it simpler for them to connect cloud services and on-premise applications. viruses. For more information. Microsoft Office Web Apps (coming soon) let you access documents from virtually anywhere. phishing scams. and delivers results through your browser and within your everyday productivity applications. 33 . Azure Services Platform also includes Microsoft SQL Azure Database.
along with partner extensions. operate. or business workflow. and manage premium data subscriptions in the Windows Azure platform. and deliver the foundation for a private cloud. application. monitor. partner-extensible toolkit that provides a framework for creating virtualized IT infrastructures. IT teams can use the toolkit with Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V and Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008. Dynamic Data Center Toolkit for Enterprise is a free. and you can consume the data from any platform. purchase. 34 . to plan. configure.Microsoft Code-Name ―Dallas‖ makes it easy to find. update. and troubleshoot computers from a single Web-based console—without the overhead associated with installing and maintaining an on-premise management infrastructure. System Center Online Desktop Manager lets you easily secure.
you can choose the functions you need to achieve the perfect fit for your business. and is definitely cost effective. and is based on the traditional Ramco ERP application. Most (if not all) Cloud environments are built using virtualization and load balancing technology that allows applications to be deployed across multiple servers and database resources. as all these happens automatically. The software includes comprehensive features to manage all facets of your business. Ramco OnDemand ERP is so simple to install and can be implemented in weeks. Your company can use it across the following areas: 35 . a global software solution company in India. Ramco OnDemand ERP Ramco OnDemand ERP is a Software as a Service (SaaS) ERP delivered on the cloud Ramco OnDemand ERP is the right solution for all your enterprise needs. security technologies. which has invested heavily in the state-of-the-industry service delivery. Since it is a delivery of application (ERP) via Internet.Cloud ERP ERP software that is deployed into a cloud environment becomes "Cloud ERP Software". and certification programs Ramco OnDemand ERP offers the following integrated features: Enterprise Resource Planning The ERP functionality in Ramco OnDemand ERP is designed to meet the needs of growing companies. Ramco OnDemand ERP is a solution from Ramco Systems. you do not require any investment on new hardware. Ramco OnDemand ERP is completely modular. because it takes the full power of ERP and places it on the cloud. Moreover. Also. or additional IT staff. As the solution is available on the subscription model. you need not worry about the maintenance & upgrades. an industry-leading product. training. you can scale up or down as per your requirements and save costs. Our ERP solution enables you to run the required solution on the Internet. It delivers role-based access to business application data and analytical tools.
implement. measure. which is pivotal in the effective functioning of a successful ERP application. and this eases decision making. and documentation. on a real-time basis. As a result. Extension Tools Ramco's extension tools are an integral part of Ramco OnDemand ERP. Human Capital Management Cost Planning and Control Supply Chain Management Discrete Production Process Production Tool Management Maintenance Customer Relationship Management Financial Management Service Management Business Analytics Ramco Business Analytics solution empowers organizations to 'Measure. migration to the next version is not compromised. Ramco's EDK does this. This solution comprises the facility to conduct a simple yet comprehensive analysis of data and processes. They encompass the methodology. Ramco EDK is also useful for making in-house changes after the solution goes live. Ramco EDK allows organizations to build their own unique set of extended features to their existing functionalities. and this provides a framework for planning ahead. without modifying the base product source code. which enable you to quickly evaluate. Monitor and Manage' their business goals and growth. and control organizational processes. and deploy best business practices for both industry-specific and general activities. you can analyze. With this solution. 36 . configuration settings. These tools include the Extension Development Kit (EDK).
Technology Platform Ramco OnDemand ERP TM is based on Ramco VirtualWorksTM (RVW) Platform. The Ramco VirtualWorks is a new breed of enterprise software. Data Security at Ramco 37 . which allows organizations to assemble global-class applications rather than engineer them.
reliable access to internal applications. cloud computing helps IT become more responsive to the pace and dynamic nature of business. Resources can be added.Business case for cloud computing The promise of cloud computing is real. where service providers can leverage economies of scale to provide a highly reliable platform with greater cost and management efficiency. For many organizations. this function is moved to the cloud. Companies depend on being able to provide consistent. Efficiency and cost control. Better business support. It has the potential to reshape the role that IT plays within an organization to the same extent that the Internet has changed communications and commerce. In a traditional computing environment. deploying a new business application is a major undertaking. Without sufficient time to assemble the necessary resources (human and financial). and electricity costs it incurs. which dramatically reduces the upfront 38 . The cloud eliminates the need for ―over-provisioning‖ and the unnecessary hardware. IT becomes a bottleneck to projects that could benefit the business. this creates the need to build and maintain redundant systems. or reassigned whenever necessary. maintenance. the most appealing feature of cloud computing is the flexible capacity it offers. Access to large amounts of scalable computing power gives organizations the freedom to adjust capacity up and down with the natural cycles of business. The advantages of cloud computing are especially clear when looked at from a business perspective. software. By reducing the time and effort required to launch new applications. and customer portals. Applications supported by the cloud don‘t require the deployment of a large infrastructure at the customer‘s location. which can be expensive and difficult to manage. external websites. turned off. For IT. In cloud computing.
Transitioning from a capital expense model to an operational expense model reduces financial risk to monthly increments and provides a higher degree of flexibility to manage expenses over time. the IT department can focus more on high-value activities that align with and support the business goals of the enterprise. Stronger IT focus. Instead of being primarily reactive and operations-focused. Cloud computing creates an opportunity for IT departments to change their focus from deploying and supporting applications to managing the services that those applications provide. the chief information officer (CIO) can function more as a technology strategist. If applications produce disappointing results. 39 . organizations aren‘t locked into expenses their budgets can no longer support. an enterprise can walk away or pursue a different direction without having to abandon an expensive on-premises infrastructure. Cloud computing eliminates the need for large capital outlays to launch new applications. making it easier to satisfy the needs of business managers throughout the organization. working with business units to understand their business needs and advising them on how best to use technology to accomplish their objectives. With cloud computing. By transferring the responsibility for monitoring and maintenance activities to a third party. Better financial management.commitment of resources. If the market slows. moving the decision out of the investment realm and into the operational. New applications can be approved and deployed more quickly. the financials are dramatically altered.
management. They are excited by the opportunities to reduce capital costs. However. entire blocks of IaaS network addresses have been publicly blacklist.Threats to Cloud Computing Abuse and Nefarious Use of Cloud Computing Cloud Computing represents one of the most significant shifts in information technology many of us are likely to see in our lifetimes. customers are also very concerned about the risks of Cloud Computing if not properly secured. promising innovations we cannot yet imagine. and monitoring are all performed using these interfaces. Spam continues to be a problem — as a defensive measure. Examples IaaS offerings have hosted the Zeus botnet. Insecure Interfaces and APIs Cloud Computing providers expose a set of software interfaces or APIs that customers use to manage and interact with cloud services. Customers are both excited and nervous at the prospects of Cloud Computing. Provisioning. botnets have used IaaS servers for command and control functions. The security and availability of general 40 . they are excited by the agility offered by the on-demand provisioning of computing and the ability to align information technology with business strategies and needs more readily. and focus on core competencies. and the loss of direct control over systems for which they are nonetheless accountable. Most of all. Additionally. InfoStealer trojan horses. and downloads for Microsoft Office and Adobe PDF exploits. They are excited for a chance to divest themselves of infrastructure management. orchestration. Reaching the point where computing functions as a utility has great potential.
or how it analyzes and reports on policy compliance. combined with a general lack of transparency into provider process and procedure. Brand damage. To complicate matters. to corporate espionage. as organizations may be required to relinquish their credentials to third parties in order to enable their agency. given their level of access and ability to infiltrate organizations and assets. Examples Anonymous access and/or reusable tokens or passwords. limited monitoring and logging capabilities. Furthermore.unknown service or API dependencies. it also increases risk. organizations and third parties often build upon these interfaces to offer value-added services to their customers. a provider may not reveal how it grants employees access to physical and virtual assets. or even nation-state sponsored intrusion. inflexible access controls or improper authorizations. and productivity losses are just some of the ways a malicious insider can affect an operation.cloud services is dependent upon the security of these basic APIs. the human element takes on an even more 41 . Malicious Insiders The threat of a malicious insider is well-known to most organizations. clear-text authentication or transmission of content. This threat is amplified for consumers of cloud services by the convergence of IT services and customers under a single management domain. there is often little or no visibility into the hiring standards and practices for cloud employees. how it monitors these employees. As organizations adopt cloud services. to organized crime. financial impact. The level of access granted could enable such an adversary to harvest confidential data or gain complete control over the cloud services with little or no risk of detection. This introduces the complexity of the new layered API.The impact that malicious insiders can have on an organization is considerable. Impact:. these interfaces must be designed to protect against both accidental and malicious attempts to circumvent policy. For example. This kind of situation clearly creates an attractive opportunity for an adversary — ranging from the hobbyist hacker. From authentication and access control to encryption and activity monitoring.
Examples 42 .) were not designed to offer strong isolation properties for a multi-tenant architecture. Data Loss or Leakage There are many ways to compromise data. a virtualization hypervisor mediates access between guest operating systems and the physical compute resources. or more dangerous because of the architectural or operational characteristics of the cloud environment. and should include compute. Examples Joanna Rutkowska‘s Red and Blue Pill exploits Kortchinksy‘s CloudBurst presentations. CPU caches. even hypervisors have exhibited flaws that have enabled guest operating systems to gain inappropriate levels of control or influence on the underlying platform. The threat of data compromise increases in the cloud. GPUs. network traffic.profound importance. It is critical therefore that consumers of cloud services understand what providers are doing to detect and defend against the malicious insider threat. Deletion or alteration of records without a backup of the original content is an obvious example. Unlinking a record from a larger context may render it unrecoverable. unauthorized parties must be prevented from gaining access to sensitive data. Often. etc.g. Customers should not have access to any other tenant‘s actual or residual data. as can storage on unreliable media. Strong compartmentalization should be employed to ensure that individual customers do not impact the operations of other tenants running on the same cloud provider. due to the number of and interactions between risks and challenges which are either unique to cloud. Shared Technology Issues IaaS vendors deliver their services in a scalable way by sharing infrastructure. Finally. storage. the underlying components that make up this infrastructure (e. Loss of an encoding key may result in effective destruction. and network security enforcement and monitoring.. etc. Still. A defense in depth strategy is recommended. To address this gap.
in addition to network intrusion logs. vulnerability profiles. but it can 43 . fraud. and exploitation of software vulnerabilities still achieve results. Account or Service Hijacking Account or service hijacking is not new. attackers can often access critical areas of deployed cloud computing services. If an attacker gains access to your credentials. usually with stolen credentials. return falsified information. allowing them to compromise the confidentiality. Your account or service instances may become a new base for the attacker. operational failures. they may leverage the power of your reputation to launch subsequent attacks Impact Account and service hijacking. and other logs. jurisdiction and political issues. by groups who may lose track of the security ramifications. which must be weighed carefully against the contradictory security concerns — complicated by the fact that cloud deployments are driven by anticipated benefits. which amplifies the impact of such attacks. data center reliability. are all important factors for estimating your company‘s security posture. and redirect your clients to illegitimate sites. intrusion attempts. manipulate data.Insufficient authentication. persistence and remanence challenges: disposal challenges. Credentials and passwords are often reused. This has clear financial and operational benefits. inconsistent use of encryption and software keys. Organizations should be aware of these techniques as well as common defense in depth protection strategies to contain the damage (and possible litigation) resulting from a breach. Versions of software. From here. authorization. and disaster recovery. redirection attempts and/or successes. With stolen credentials. remains a top threat. they can eavesdrop on your activities and transactions. Unknown Risk Profile One of the tenets of Cloud Computing is the reduction of hardware and software ownership and maintenance to allow companies to focus on their core business strengths. security practices. and audit (AAA) controls. Attack methods such as phishing. Security by obscurity may be low effort. Cloud solutions add a new threat to the landscape. risk of association. Information about who is sharing your infrastructure may be pertinent. code updates. integrity and availability of those services. and security design.
There‘s a plethora of web based systems available for accounting. customers and suppliers. you‘ll be taking on more staff that will need to get to grips with the information management systems that you‘re using. then faster you‘ll grow. As the business grows. and also opens up room for human error. CRM. If your business has been running for a while. ecommerce and email marketing. maybe only on Excel. as well as a bookkeeping system to make sure that you‘re tracking money properly. then you might be running a stock control system. Amazon refused. then it‘s going to take more time to get things done. leads. Using online software to free you up to get on with actually running your business and making informed decisions based on the information you get. You need to know where the most up to date information is — when a contact is in your accounting system as well as your invoicing or CRM package. but it‘s a system nonetheless. billing and card payments. If you sell products. Not to mention the fact that using an intuitive. Having this integrated system online as a web based application 44 .result in unknown exposures. powerful piece of software means that you can spend less time on training staff and more time on selling! If you‘ve got different software applications for each part of your business. which one is right? Integrated software brings all your essential tools into the same application. Examples IRS asked Amazon EC2 to perform a C&A. Re-keying data takes time. and the sooner you start being organised. as well as service desk. Maybe you‘ve also got a website that‘s capturing new leads and sending you an email each time. Web-Based Software Makes Business More Efficient Cloud computing is the future of business software. then you‘ll have a load of contacts. Getting the information out of the owner‘s head and into a system is a crucial step in the life of any business. How Integrated. which means that you can move quickly efficiently and also gives you brilliant reporting capabilities without spending hours in spreadsheets. It may also impair the in-depth analysis required highly controlled or regulated operational areas.
45 . sending an automated response to keep customers engaged until you are ready to follow up. they progress through various steps as you start to narrow down deals and make sales. all at the same time. Sending quotes and invoices straight out by email from a web based application is easy. Online CRM (Customer Relationship Management) software can be set up to create contacts automatically from your website. No re-keying of data. accessible from home. and the client can approve or pay online by card. office or on the road. When invoices are raised and payments made.extends this power so that you can access the same. by multiple users. from wherever you all happen to be working. From here. live data as the rest of your team. everything happens in the same system. which means that you can track the entire relationship from beginning to end without needing to bounce between different pieces of software. Everything is online.
Flexibility in working Cloud Services are accessed securely through a web browser giving you and your staff access to vital business information anywhere. This makes implementing a flexible. so there‘s less need for you to have your own servers. you pay more for them when you need them. mobile working system much more simple. traditional software needs to purchased and installed on your computer before it can be assessed. before you spend money. something that‘s very important in the current economic climate. Cloud services tend to have several pay plans. which reduces your overheads. software and dedicated IT support staff. allowing you to try the application and make sure that it does what you need. which takes time and money Software that grows with your business You don‘t need to pay for a large amount of software features that you don‘t need. In contrast. If you need more features. from any computer (MAC or PC).Business Benefits Of Cloud Computing Low initial investment Cloud services usually offer a low initial investment or a free trial. Reduce your spend on IT Cloud Computing services are hosted by the company supplying them. Pearl costs as little as £10 per month (ex VAT) per user. anytime. allowing you to start with a basic package and roll out more services as your business grows and needs more sophisticated software systems. No need to worry about backing up your data 46 . For example.
where there is very low risk of it being damaged. ―Privacy Issues with Cloud Applications‖. 16-20. 5.available at http://msdn. 17 June 2010 Ranganathan V (2010).An IDC Update.Doc # TB20090929.All the data you enter into a Cloud application will be looked after by the service provider. Sep 2009 .2011 IDC Cloud Computing 2010 .aspx White paper. damaged or stolen.org/wiki/Cloud_computing RightScale Inc.0 Prepared by the Cloud Security Alliance.University of Twente. May 2011 Wikipedia. Vol.microsoft.Meeting of the NVvIR. REFERENCES & SOURCES The IT Report. 1.com/en-us/library/aa479086. ‗Cloud Computing‘ -available at http://en. ‗RightScale Cloud Management Features‘ . so you don‘t need to worry about having to back-up the data on your computer in case it is lost. and it is available for you to access whenever you need it.available at http://www. IS Channel. Frank Gens. ‗Multi-Tenant Data Architecture‘ . Richard L Villars. F. 2009 Technical aspects of Cloud computing. Top Threats To Cloud Computing V1. com/products/features/May 2011. Winter 2011 GAP Task Force on CLOUD COMPUTING Final Report. Service Providers will store your data in specialist ―data centres‖. pp. Luís Ferreira Pires. G & Wolter. No. Australia Chong. Carraro. Robert P Mahowald. Think Grid. (2009). R (2006).wikipedia.rightscale. March 2010 47 .
http://www.cerias.purdue.forrester.com/cloudsecuritywebinar http://www.edu/site/blog/post/symposium_summary_security_in_the_clou d_panel/ 48 .
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