®

Modern Sewer Design
First Edition 1980 Second Edition 1990 Third Edition 1995 Fourth Edition 1999

Copyright 1980 AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE 1101 17th Street, NW Suite 1300 Washington, DC 20036 - 4700

Copyright 1980 AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE

All rights reserved, including the right of translation and publication in foreign countries.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NO. 79 - 56206 First Edition 1980 First Printing March 1980 Second Printing November 1985 Second Edition 1990 Third Edition 1995 Fourth Edition 1999

Printed in the United States of America

Preface

iii

This Edition of AISI’s “Modern Sewer Design” is the result of a thorough review, revising and updating of information to reflect the needs of the users. The most significant change is the inclusion of both S.I. units (metric) and traditional U.S. Imperial units. In addition, significant updates have been made to Chapter 8, “Durability,” to reflect the NCSPA Durability Guidelines. This book is intended for the experienced practitioner as well as the serious student. Major credit is due to the members of the NCSPA Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) and others responsible for preparing this Edition. Users of “Modern Sewer Design” are encouraged to offer suggestions for improvements in future editions. The American Iron and Steel Institute actively promotes the use of steel in construction. AISI’s Transportation and Infrastructure Group develops specifications, design guides and innovative engineering solutions to make steel the material of choice for infrastructure. The contributions of the following AISI 1999 Construction market Committee member companies are greatly appreciated: AK Steel Corporation Bethlehem Steel Corporation California Steel Industries, Inc. Dofasco, Inc. Ispat Inland Inc. IPSCO Steel, Inc. LTV Steel Company National Steel Corporation Rouge Steel Company Stelco Inc. USS-POSCO Industries USX-US Steel Group WCI Steel, Inc. Weirton Steel Corporation Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation AMERICAN IRON & STEEL INSTITUTE 1999

Written and graphic materials in this publication provide general information and serve as a preliminary design guide only. Procedures, techniques and products shown should be used only with competent professional advice. Neither the contributors, the National Corrugated Steel Pipe Association, nor the American Iron & Steel Institute intend this publication as an endorsement or warranty of the suitability of any product, material or data for any specific or general use.

Contents
Chapter 1

iv

Preface....................................................................................................................iii STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS Introduction ........................................................................................1 Corrugated Steel Pipe and Structural Plate Data ..............................1 Corrugated Steel Pipe ........................................................................1 Structural Plate Pipe ..........................................................................1 Perforated Pipe ................................................................................12 Arch Channels ..................................................................................22 CSP Coupling Systems ....................................................................24 CSP Field Joints ..............................................................................24 CSP Fittings and Sewer Appurtenances ..........................................27 Fittings ..............................................................................................27 Saddle Branch ..................................................................................34 Transitions ........................................................................................35 Manholes and Catch Basins ............................................................36 Manholes and Catch Basin Tops ......................................................37 Manhole Reinforcing........................................................................38 Manhole Slip Joints ..........................................................................38 Manhole Ladder................................................................................39 Manhole Steps ..................................................................................40 CSP Slotted Drain Inlets ..................................................................41 CSP Concrete-Lined Pipe ................................................................41 Spiral Rib Steel Pipe ........................................................................42 Double Wall (Steel Lined)................................................................42 Pipe Materials, Protective Coatings, Linings and Pavings ..............43 Sheets and Coils ..............................................................................43 Pipe ..................................................................................................43 STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING Introduction ......................................................................................47 Conceptual Design............................................................................49 The Minor System ............................................................................49 The Major System ............................................................................49 Methods to Reduce Quantity of Runoff and Minimize Pollution........................................................50 Surface Infiltration............................................................................51 Effects on Water Quality ..................................................................53 Foundation Drains ............................................................................53 Environmental Considerations of Runoff Waters ............................55 Ground Water Quality Process ........................................................58 Ground Water Monitoring ................................................................61 HYDROLOGY Introduction ......................................................................................63 Estimation of Rainfall ......................................................................64 Rainfall Intensity- Duration Frequency Curves ..............................65 Rainfall Hyetographs........................................................................65 Synthetic Rainfall Hyetographs........................................................67 Uniform Rainfall ..............................................................................67 The Chicago Hyetograph..................................................................68 The Huff Rainfall Distribution Curves ............................................69 SCS Storm Distributions ..................................................................70 Estimation of Effective Rainfall ......................................................71 The Runoff Coefficient C (Rational Method) ..................................72 The Soil Conservation Service Method ..........................................73 The Horton Infiltration Equation......................................................75 Comparison of SCS and Horton Methods........................................78 Establishing the Time of Concentration ..........................................79 Factors Affecting Time of Concentration ........................................81

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

The Kirpich Formula ........................................................................82 The Uplands Method ........................................................................82 The Kinematic Wave Method ..........................................................83 Other Methods ..................................................................................85 Determination of the Runoff Hydrograph........................................85 SCS Unit Hydrograph Method ........................................................86 Rectangular Unit Hydrograph ..........................................................87 Linear Reservoir Method..................................................................89 SWMM Runoff Algorithm ..............................................................90 Computer Models ............................................................................92

Chapter 4

HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Introduction ......................................................................................97 Classification of Channel Flow ........................................................98 Laws of Conservation ......................................................................98 Bernoulli Equation............................................................................99 Specific Energy ................................................................................99 Energy Losses ................................................................................102 Friction Losses................................................................................103 Manning Equation ..........................................................................112 Kutter Equation ..............................................................................115 Solving the Friction Loss Equation................................................116 Surface Water Profiles ....................................................................120 Hydraulic Jump ..............................................................................121 Form Losses in Junction, Bends and Other Structures ..................122 Transition Losses (Open Channel) ................................................122 Transition Losses (Pressure Flow) ................................................122 Entrance Losses ..............................................................................123 Manhole Losses ..............................................................................124 Manhole Losses (Flow Straight Through) ....................................125 Terminal Manhole Losses ..............................................................125 Manhole Junction Losses ..............................................................125 Bend Losses....................................................................................125 Hydraulics of Storm Inlets ............................................................127 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS Introduction ....................................................................................141 Backwater Analysis ........................................................................142 Solution ..........................................................................................142 Methods of Determining Equivalent Hydraulic Alternatives ........152 Design of Storm Drainage Facilities ..............................................159 System Layout ................................................................................159 Minor System ................................................................................159 Major System..................................................................................159 Hydraulic Design Example of Minor-Major System ....................163 Description of Site..........................................................................163 Selected Design Criteria ................................................................163 The Minor System ..........................................................................165 Detailed Metric Hydraulic Calculations for Step No. 9 in Minor System Design ........................................174 Major System..................................................................................176 Foundation Drains ..........................................................................176 Computer Models ..........................................................................179 STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL Stormwater Detention Facilities ....................................................185 Underground Detention ..................................................................185 Surface Detention ..........................................................................185 Roof Top Detention ........................................................................187 Design of Storm Water Detention Facilities ..................................189 Hydrograph Method ......................................................................189 Other Detention Techniques ..........................................................194 "Blue-Green" Storage ....................................................................194

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Flow Regulators..............................................................................194 Subsurface Disposal of Storm Water..............................................196 Infiltration Basins ..........................................................................196 Infiltration Trench ..........................................................................196 Retention Wells ..............................................................................199 Soil Investigation and Infiltration Tests..........................................200 Field Tests ......................................................................................201 Laboratory Methods ......................................................................201 Indirect Methods ............................................................................203 Subsurface Disposal Techniques ....................................................203 Linear Recharge System ................................................................203 Point Source and Recharge System................................................204 Combination System ......................................................................204 Design Example..............................................................................209 Determination of Pre-Development Peak Runoff ..........................209 Exfiltration Analysis ......................................................................209 Exfiltration Calculations ................................................................209 Construction of Recharge Trenches ..............................................212 Trench in Permeable Rock and/or Stable Soil ..............................212 Trench in Non-Cohesive Soil or Sand............................................212 Perforated Pipe ..............................................................................213 Synthetic Filter Fabrics ..................................................................215 Pipe Backfill ..................................................................................215

Chapter 7

STRUCTURAL DESIGN Introduction ....................................................................................217 Loadings ........................................................................................217 Live Loads ......................................................................................217 Dead Loads ....................................................................................218 Design Pressure ..............................................................................218 Strength Considerations..................................................................219 Handling Stiffness ..........................................................................220 Deflection ......................................................................................223 Seam Strength ................................................................................223 Pipe-Arches ....................................................................................224 ASTM Standard Practices ..............................................................224 Design Example..............................................................................225 Depth of Cover ..............................................................................226 Installation and Backfill of Spiral Rib Pipe ..................................229 Aerial Sewers..................................................................................242 Design Fittings ..............................................................................242 Structural Design for CSP Field Joints ..........................................244 DURABILITY Introduction ....................................................................................251 Factors Affecting CSP Durability ..................................................251 Durability in Soil ............................................................................251 Durability in Water ........................................................................253 Resistance to Abrasion ..................................................................253 Field Studies of Durability ............................................................254 State Studies ..................................................................................254 AISI Study ......................................................................................255 NCSPA/AISI Study ........................................................................255 Canadian Studies ............................................................................255 Coatings for Corrugated Steel Pipe................................................256 Metallic Coatings............................................................................256 Non-Metallic Coating and Pavings ................................................256 Project Design Life ........................................................................259 Durability Guidelines ....................................................................259 Environmental Ranges....................................................................259 Abrasion ........................................................................................259 Abrasion Levels..............................................................................259 Service Life of Metallic Coatings ..................................................259

Chapter 8

...........281 Present Value Calculations .264 AISI Method for Service Life Prediction ...............277 Engineering Assumptions .......276 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis...............291 Trench Stability ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................302 Alignment Changes ..............................................................................302 Saddle Branches ...............................320 General .................273 Cost Savings in Alternate Designs ...................................................................282 Practical Economic Considerations....................................................................320 Shotcrete Lining ...............278 Material Service Life..................................313 Reported Practice................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................282 Spend Now-Save Later ......................................................................................................................................289 Trench Shape ........................................280 Residual Value ......................................266 Chapter 9 VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Introduction ................................................................................Service Life ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................321 Conversion Tables ........................ Alignment and Installation .261 AISI Method for Service Life Prediction ..........................................................................................................................................................................................266 Example of Durability Design...287 Trench Excavation ...261 Service Life of Non-Metallic Coatings ..................................................309 Trenches.279 Borrowing Rates .........................................................................................320 Cement Mortar Lining..292 Trench Stabilization Systems .....278 Project Design Life .............310 Wells .......................................................................................................312 Methods and Equipment for Cleanout Systems ...............................................................................................................................................................................331 General Index .........................................................................................................309 Basins .........317 In-Place Installation of Concrete Invert ....299 Underground Construction .......................................................318 Inversion Lining.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................262 Additional Service Life .............................................279 Discount Rate .................................................315 Rehabilitation ..............................................................................287 Subsurface Soil Information ..............271 Alternate Design and Bid on Pipes ..........................................................................333 .....................296 Performance............................................................................271 Value Engineering ....................303 Backfilling Procedures .............................................................279 Economic Assumptions ..............293 Couplings................................................................283 Chapter 10 CONSTRUCTION Construction Plans........................................................................................................................317 Relining Materials ..............................................................................................................................................280 Inflation ...................323 General Tables ........................................316 Methods of Rehabilitation ..........................................................................310 Catch Basins .........264 Steps in Using the AISI Chart .........280 Financial Calculations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................298 Field Layout..............303 Chapter 11 MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION General .............................................318 Sliplining .......................................................

.viii MODERN SEWER DESIGN Fabricated fittings can be made to solve almost any sewer problem.

5 and 1. reliable and positive coupling systems—all contribute to speed and economy in field installation.9. Standard sizes of structural plate are indicated in Table 1.4. a range of protective coatings is available to meet rigorous service demands. steel thickness and shapes available for the various types of steel pipe. where the corrugations run annularly around the pipe. 1.11.1. is available with a variety of corrugation profiles that provide optimal strength. Helical CSP. countless miles of CSP now provide reliable service throughout the highway system. 1. Factory-made pipe. structural plate pipe can be furnished for bolted assembly in the field. Tables 1. Annular CSP. 1. long lightweight sections. in sizes large enough to accommodate most needs. Structural Plate Pipe For larger structures requiring field assembly. 1. c) integrally attaching at the lockseam a helically corrugated steel sheet with a smooth inner steel lining (smooth lined pipe). Structural plate pipe is fabricated from hot-dip galvanized plates and is assembled by bolting individual plates together to form large pipes.8 show the design details for corrugated steel pipe-arches.6. In addition. is fabricated by: a) lockseam method. b) bolting the seams. where the corrugations and seams run helically around the pipe. CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE AND STRUCTURAL PLATE PIPE DATA Corrugated Steel Pipe There are basically two types of corrugated steel pipe: helical and annular. Introduced by a city engineer in 1896. durable.10 and 1. corrugation profiles. Table 1. pipe-arches and arches are illustrated in Tables 1.3. A wide variety of geometrical shapes are available in corrugated steel pipe to satisfy requirements such as low headroom or greater hydraulic efficiency.2. For larger structures. Shop fabricated fittings. Reformed annular ends for joining are available.1 illustrates the sizes. Handling weights for CSP are shown in Tables 1. economical selection for the construction of sewer systems. is fabricated by: a) riveting the seams. and in large and small municipalities across the North American continent. c) resistance spot welding the seams. pipe-arches and a variety of other shapes. . b) continuous welding of the seams.1 CHAPTER 1 Steel Sewer Products INTRODUCTION Corrugated steel pipe (CSP) provides a strong. The sewer designer can select from a wide range of CSP products to meet exacting job requirements.7 and 1. Sizes and layout details for circular pipe. structural plate pipe is available.

0.26 ft 152 x 51 6x2 2.7 9.27 1.109 .2.018 0.5 mm (11/2 x 1/4 in.77 .4 11.5 7.004 .63 1. and Handling Weights 38 mm x 6.7 11.0.) 6 8 10 12 15 18 (m2) 0.9 6.9 14.2.) 4.27 1.159 (ft2) 0.168 Round .63 .) Shape Corrugated 150 .767 (mm) 1.63 1.064 Round .545 0.82 .0.049 0.064 .1 (in.3000 Spiral Rib Pipe 450 .63 . Thickness and Shapes Available for Various Types of Steel Pipe Size (Diameter or Span) (mm) (in.2 Corrugated Steel Pipe (CSP) — Round Standard Diameters.6 9.32 .36 51 x 13 12 .168 Round.120 75 x 25 72 .3 6.785 1.0.144 125 x 25* 54 .0 14.0 21.3 25.7 7.8 9. Pipe-Arch Round.120 125 x 25* .227 1.8 14.63 1.064 Perforated sub-drains will weigh slightly less.6 8.1 17.064 ..0 13.4.052 .2.900 (Helical and 300 .450 Steel Pipe 150 .168 Pipe-arch .27 2.114 19x25x292 3/4 x1x111/2 1. Corrugation Profiles.8010 5 ft .4.0 20.9 5.079 .63 .) 3.052 .0.168 Round .63 1.1 7.0.4.3 17.63 1.196 0.8 7.079 Round .4 17.) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use End Area Approximate Kilograms per Linear Meter (Pounds Per Linear Foot) (Weights will vary slightly with fabrication method) Specified Thickness Metallic Coated* (mm) 5.3 12.3600 1800 .27 2. End Areas.32 1.5 11.071 0.064 .63 1.5 7.65 0.109 Round.4 9.0.052 .8 (in.2400 900 .1 14.064 .052 .3 9. * Metallic coated: Galvanized or Aluminized .7 21.0.0 17.01 .32 1.3600 1350 .32 1.77 .349 0.0.7 11.4 14.052 .1 9.109 .1.3 14.) Corrugation Profile (mm) (in.77 .32 .109 Round.2 6.2850 Structural Plate Pipe 6 .052 .064 .5 6 .32 1.9. Pipe-Arch 36 .3 8.2 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Round Pipe Arch Table 1.32 .01 1. Pipe-Arch 1500 .144 75 x 25 54 .27 (in.3 16.96 19x19x190 3/4 x 3/4 x71/2 1.0 5.031 0.064 .9 4.9 Inside Diameter (mm) 150 200 250 300 375 450 Notes: (in.2400 Annular Pipe) 1350 .96 68 x 13 54 .4 9.280 Elliptical & Other Special Shapes Notes: *Available only in helical pipe.4.052 .052 .168 Pipe-arch 18 .3600 1350 . Pipe-Arch .5 11.) .63 (in.63 .32 1.6 11.32 1.1 Sizes.052 .0 Full Bituminous Coated (mm) 7.110 0.7 11.18 38 x 6.064 . Table 1.) 1 /2 x /4 2 x 1/2 22/3 x 1/2 3x1 5x1 3x1 5x1 1 1 Type of Pipe Specified Thickness Range (mm) 1.4.064 .

01 2.Not for Specification Use* Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter** End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated (m2) (mm) 0.01 1.51 4. for 1060 mm x 740 mm. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 3 Table 1.51 4. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.63 2.63 2.01 1.63 2.22 600 0.77 3.64 1050 0.51 1.01 2. .28 750 0. the weights may be interpolated.27 1.27 12 15 18 15 18 22 18 22 27 21 25 31 22 28 36 30 36 45 36 43 54 74 93 42 51 63 85 108 46 57 71 97 123 150 65 80 109 138 168 89 121 154 186 Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 19 22 25 22 27 31 25 33 37 28 39 45 30 45 52 37 54 63 43 65 76 96 115 49 76 88 111 133 54 85 100 126 151 178 98 113 142 171 201 126 158 192 223 39 42 46 46 51 55 54 61 64 61 67 74 76 82 89 74 97 112 135 150 106 115 126 157 172 126 141 180 195 232 141 156 195 232 262 208 270 285 25 30 31 36 34 39 43 51 52 61 97 103 122 129 146 155 174 190 170 180 202 223 190 205 231 255 279 232 259 286 313 286 318 348 Inside Diameter (mm) 300 Full Bituminous Coated 15 18 21 18 22 27 21 28 33 24 31 37 25 36 43 33 45 54 39 54 64 34 104 45 63 74 97 120 49 71 86 112 138 165 82 97 126 154 184 106 137 171 202 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined 375 0.27 2.32 1.63 2.77 3.01 1.16 525 0.32 1.77 3. * Lock seam construction only.63 2. refer to 900 mm diameter pipe weight.01 1.77 3.1.32 1.77 101 131 Notes: Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.01 2. 68 mm x 13 mm pipe-arch.44 900 0. ** For other coatings or linings.32 1.32 1.43 77 88 1500 1.11 450 0.32 1.51 1.63 2.63 2.13 68 79 1350 1.3M Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (68 mm x 13 mm) Estimated Average Weights .01 2. For example.01 2.32 1.63 2.51 4.77 3.01 1.01 1.87 63 71 1200 1.32 1.07 1.63 2.32 1.63 2.

68 mm x 13 mm pipe-arch. *Lock seam construction only.3M (Cont. the weights may be interpolated.14 2.01 2.51 4.46 2250 3.98 430 460 518 552 2400 Notes: 4. for 1060 mm x 740 mm.51 4.4 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1. refer to 900 mm diameter pipe weight.Not for Specification Use* Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter** End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated (m2) (mm) 2.27 97 132 168 205 146 183 223 156 198 241 168 214 259 181 229 277 244 295 Full Bituminous Coated 115 150 186 223 167 204 244 180 222 265 198 240 285 217 256 304 284 323 Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 139 174 210 247 192 229 270 205 247 291 231 266 312 250 286 333 323 239 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined 238 267 205 253 313 354 298 342 390 335 357 405 143 179 156 196 168 211 314 347 382 378 417 1800 2.99 453 180 226 487 195 243 292 259 310 2100 3.77 3.51 4.77 3.52 Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.54 1950 2.27 2. ** For other coatings or linings.27 2.27 2.) Inside Diameter (mm) 1650 Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (68 mm x 13 mm) Estimated Average Weights .77 3.51 4. For example.51 4.27 2.27 3. .51 4.77 3.77 3.

064 0.14 30 4.064 0.168 0.23 18 1.3 Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (22/3 x 1/2 in.079 0.052 0. refer to 36 in.41 24 3. .79 0.052 0.064 0.079 0.109 0.064 0. diameter pipe weight.57 46 53 54 15.1. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 5 Table 1.138 0. the weights may be interpolated.064 0.77 21 2.052 0.91 36 7.052 0.064 0.064 0. * Lock seam construction only.079 0.064 0.052 0.064 0.079 0.052 0. for 42 x 29.109 0.138 0.138 0.052 0.079 0.079 0.109 0.079 0.) 0. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.064 0.138 0.079 0. For example.109 0.) Estimated Average Weights . 22/3 x 1/2 pipe-arch.Not for Specification Use* Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter** End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated (ft2) (in.079 0.052 0.90 52 59 Notes: Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.052 0.) 12 Full Bituminous Coated 10 12 14 12 15 18 14 19 22 16 21 25 17 24 29 22 30 36 26 36 43 56 69 30 42 50 65 80 33 48 58 75 92 110 55 65 84 103 123 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined 15 1. ** For other coatings or linings.07 42 9.168 8 10 12 10 12 15 12 15 18 14 17 21 15 19 24 20 24 30 24 29 36 49 62 28 34 42 57 72 31 38 48 65 82 100 44 54 73 92 112 Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 13 15 17 15 18 21 17 22 25 19 26 30 20 30 35 25 36 42 29 44 51 64 77 33 51 59 74 89 36 57 67 84 101 119 66 76 95 114 134 26 28 31 31 34 37 36 39 43 41 45 50 51 55 60 50 65 75 90 100 71 77 85 105 115 85 95 120 130 155 95 105 130 155 175 17 20 21 24 23 26 29 34 35 41 65 69 82 87 98 104 116 127 114 121 135 149 128 138 154 170 186 156 173 191 209 Inside Diameter (in.079 0.62 42 48 48 12.

138 0. the weights may be interpolated.138 0.109 0.138 0.138 0.27 Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.168 0.109 0.109 0.6 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1.3 (Cont.) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use* Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter** End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated (ft2) (in.109 0.079 0.138 0.27 78 33. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.138 0.109 0.168 60 81 103 124 65 89 113 137 98 123 149 105 133 161 113 144 173 121 154 186 164 198 Full Bituminous Coated 71 92 114 135 77 101 125 149 112 137 163 121 149 177 133 161 190 145 172 204 191 217 Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 85 106 128 149 93 117 141 165 129 154 180 138 166 194 155 179 208 167 192 224 217 239 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined 140 180 190 160 180 210 170 210 236 200 230 260 225 240 270 68 88 192 212 232 211 233 255 254 278 66 23. ** For other coatings or linings.168 0.76 96 120 105 132 113 142 72 28.18 289 309 348 371 96 Notes: 50. For example. . 22/3 x 1/2 pipe-arch.18 302 121 152 325 130 163 196 174 208 84 38.49 90 44.) 60 Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (22/3 x 1/2 in. diameter pipe weight.168 0.) 19.138 0.64 0.) Inside Diameter (in.168 0. refer to 36 in. for 42 x 29.109 0.168 0.168 0. * Lock seam construction only.079 0.

27 1.77 3.63 2. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 7 Table 1.98 132 165 216 564 609 657 2400 4.51 4. .27 1. 76 mm x 25 mm pipe-arch.63 2.51 4.27 1.43 (mm) 1.63 2.1.63 2.77 3.63 2. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.63 2.27 1.77 3.01 2. refer to 1800 mm diameter pipe weight * 125 mm x 25 mm weighs approximately 12% less than 75 mm x 25 mm ** Lock seam construction only.77 95 110 1650 2.01 2.01 2.77 3.51 4.51 4.52 152 176 231 601 649 760 Notes: Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.77 3.51 4.54 115 132 2100 3.27 1. For example.27 1.51 4.4M Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (75 mm x 25 mm or 125 mm x 25 mm*) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use** Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter*** Inside Diameter End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated Full Bituminous Coated Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 125 141 177 210 244 138 156 195 234 271 152 173 214 256 298 165 188 234 279 325 193 219 273 325 379 193 235 292 349 406 222 251 313 375 435 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined (mm) 1350 (m2) 1.01 2.14 104 121 1800 2.51 4.63 2.01 2.77 3. for 2050 mm x 1500 mm.01 2. the weights may be interpolated.01 2.77 3. *** For other coatings or linings.46 132 155 2250 3.27 74 91 124 159 193 82 100 138 177 214 89 110 151 193 235 98 121 165 210 256 115 140 192 246 298 115 149 205 262 319 129 159 20 28 342 98 115 150 184 219 109 128 165 204 241 119 140 181 223 265 131 152 198 243 289 152 177 231 285 336 152 189 246 303 360 173 202 264 325 385 205 222 256 291 325 228 246 285 324 361 250 269 312 354 396 272 293 340 385 432 317 342 396 450 502 317 366 424 481 538 360 390 453 514 574 86 100 293 308 339 367 396 324 341 367 408 439 357 375 414 448 483 390 409 451 489 526 478 526 568 613 1500 1.

11 (mm) 1.4M (Cont.27 2.63 2.77 3. *** For other coatings or linings.01 2. the weights may be interpolated.27 1.77 3.63 2.51 4. For example.51 2.27 2.38 3000 7.77 3.55 3450 9.63 2. for 2050 mm x 1500 mm.51 4.18 345 436 Notes: Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.51 4.07 3150 7.77 3.51 4.01 2.79 3300 8.01 2.35 251 329 3600 10.01 2.51 4.27 138 170 232 297 361 155 179 247 316 384 155 199 272 333 426 163 201 274 351 426 210 290 370 220 304 388 471 229 317 405 492 332 420 516 185 216 283 343 408 207 228 297 366 433 207 254 327 385 481 219 256 330 406 481 266 347 427 280 363 448 531 292 379 468 555 397 485 582 384 415 480 554 609 430 439 510 579 646 430 490 563 610 718 444 483 567 643 718 515 595 678 540 624 711 793 564 652 742 829 682 769 868 161 188 246 639 690 744 2700 5.77 3.77 3.51 4.27 1. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.63 2. * 125 mm x 25 mm weighs approximately 12% less than 75 mm x 25 mm ** Lock seam construction only.27 1.01 2. . refer to 1800 mm diameter pipe weight.8 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1.) Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (75 mm x 25 mm or 125 mm x 25 mm*) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use** Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter*** Inside Diameter End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated Full Bituminous Coated Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 235 266 330 394 459 262 280 349 418 486 262 313 385 441 540 274 315 388 465 540 327 408 489 344 427 513 595 359 446 535 622 467 555 652 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined (mm) 2550 (m2) 5.77 3.51 4.73 180 198 259 730 787 180 220 287 771 874 190 222 289 811 874 231 302 243 317 2850 6.01 2.77 3.01 2. 75 mm x 25 mm pipe-arch.27 2.

.079 0.168 0.109 0.8 70 81 72 28. or 5 x 1in.138 0.4 Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (3 x 1 in.064 0.168 50 61 83 106 129 55 67 92 118 143 60 74 101 129 157 66 81 110 140 171 77 94 128 164 199 82 100 137 175 213 87 107 147 188 228 66 77 100 123 146 73 86 110 136 161 80 94 121 149 177 88 102 132 162 193 102 119 154 189 224 109 127 164 202 240 116 136 176 217 257 138 149 171 194 217 153 165 190 216 241 168 181 208 236 264 183 197 227 257 288 213 230 264 300 335 228 246 283 321 359 242 262 302 343 383 58 67 197 207 226 245 264 218 229 251 272 293 240 252 276 299 322 262 275 301 326 351 321 351 379 409 60 19.064 0. weights will vary with other fabrication practices.138 0.079 0.079 0. *5 x 1 in.064 0.138 0.1.079 0.109 0.079 0.109 0.079 0.3 77 89 84 38. pipe-arch.) 0. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 9 Table 1.2 96 111 144 376 406 438 96 50.168 0.168 0.3 102 118 154 401 433 467 Notes: Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.109 0.) 54 (ft2) 15.*) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use** Approximate Pounds Per Linear Foot*** Inside Diameter End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated Full Bituminous Coated Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 84 95 118 140 163 93 105 130 156 181 102 116 143 171 199 111 126 156 186 217 130 147 182 217 253 140 158 195 233 271 149 169 209 250 290 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined (in. For example: for 81 x 59.109 0.168 0.168 0.109 0.138 0.064 0.079 0. weighs approximately 12% less than 3 x 1 in.109 0.5 89 104 90 44.138 0.6 64 74 66 23. **Lock seam construction only. 3 x 1 in.138 0.9 (in. refer to 72 in.168 0. ***For other coatings or linings the weights may be interpolated.138 0. diameter pipe weight.064 0.064 0.064 0.

109 0.168 0.1 232 293 Notes: Pipe-arch weights will be the same as the equivalent round pipe.) 102 (ft2) 56.064 0.138 0.109 0.079 0.109 0.168 0.6 132 95. 3 x 1 in. .9 169 221 144 113.138 0.079 0.168 0.168 0.064 0.10 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1. or 5 x 1in.109 0.0 138 103.*) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use** Approximate Pounds Per Linear Foot*** Inside Diameter End Specified Area Thickness Metallic Coated Full Bituminous Coated Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved 158 179 220 263 306 166 188 233 279 324 176 199 246 294 360 183 210 259 310 360 220 274 326 231 287 342 397 241 300 357 415 314 373 435 Bituminous Coated and Full Paved Steel Concrete Lined Lined (in. **Lock seam construction only.168 0.) 0.138 0.109 0.) Handling Weight of Corrugated Steel Pipe (3 x 1 in.138 0. refer to 72 in.138 0.079 0. weights will vary with other fabrication practices. ***For other coatings or linings the weights may be interpolated.8 (in.079 0.079 0.5 126 86.079 0. weighs approximately 12% less than 3 x 1 in. For example: for 81 x 59.6 115 133 173 487 525 121 141 183 514 583 127 148 193 541 583 155 203 163 213 114 70. pipe-arch. *5 x 1 in.9 120 78.079 0.064 0.138 0.4 (Cont.064 0.109 0.168 0.138 0. diameter pipe weight.109 0.138 0.168 93 114 155 198 241 98 120 165 211 256 104 127 174 222 284 109 134 183 234 284 141 195 247 148 204 259 314 154 213 270 328 223 282 344 124 145 189 229 272 131 153 198 244 289 139 162 209 257 321 146 171 220 271 321 179 233 285 188 244 299 354 196 255 312 370 267 326 388 258 279 320 363 406 273 295 340 386 431 289 312 359 407 479 296 329 378 429 479 346 400 452 363 419 474 529 379 438 495 553 458 517 579 108 126 164 426 460 496 108 63.109 0.

77 . the weights may be interpolated.77 1.01 1.109 .01 2.8 5.109 .73 63.109 .77 1.63 2.109 Metallic Coated Full Bituminous Coated Full Bituminous Coated and Invert Paved (kg/m) 30 34 33 39 49 39 44 63 49 58 74 58 68 88 67 79 90 77 91 118 86 101 131 95 112 144 102 121 159 134 174 144 176 135 202 220 234 249 262 (lbs/ft) 20 23 22 26 33 25 32 42 32 38 50 38 45 59 43 52 60 50 60 78 56 67 88 62 74 97 68 81 106 89 116 96 118 104 136 147 156 167 176 (kg/m) (lbs/ft) (kg/m) (lbs/ft) 22 27 25 31 43 30 36 54 37 46 63 45 55 74 52 64 86 60 73 100 67 82 112 74 91 124 79 99 136 109 149 118 161 106 173 186 198 210 223 15 18 17 21 29 19 24 36 24 30 42 29 36 50 33 42 58 38 48 66 43 54 75 48 60 83 53 66 91 72 99 78 108 71 116 124 132 141 150 28 33 31 37 49 37 43 61 46 55 71 55 65 85 64 76 98 74 88 115 83 98 128 92 109 141 99 118 156 129 170 140 171 131 198 214 228 243 256 19 22 21 25 33 24 29 41 30 36 48 36 43 57 41 50 66 48 58 76 54 65 86 60 72 95 66 79 104 86 113 93 115 101 133 143 152 163 172 600 24 0.2 3.079 .77 1.28 3.77 19.01 2.3 5.079 .01 2.77 1.01 2.77 (in.77 .8 0.064 .079 . .064 .064 .77 .14 23.52 50.9 900 36 0.44 4.63 2.77 .109 2.11 56.079 .64 7.064 .064 .4 Specified Thickness (mm) 1.1 2.9 1500 60 1.6 1650 66 2.109 .109 2.) and 19 mm x 25 mm Rib at 292 mm (3/4 x 1 x 111/2 in.109 * Lock seam construction only.01 2.43 15.63 2.064 .77 2.54 28.63*** .22 2.109 .079 .6 1200 48 1.77 2.77 1.77 1.109 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 Notes: 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 2.109 .63 2.5 End Areas and Handling Weights of Spiral Rib Pipe 19 mm x 19 mm rib at 190 mm (3/4 x 3/4 x 71/2 in.079 2.63 2.5 3. ***For 19 mm x 25 mm rib at 292 mm (3/4 x 1 x 111/2 in.6 2.079 .109 2.16 1.6 1350 54 1.109 .98 44.1 750 30 0.01*** .46 38.01 .8 1.77 2.01 2.63 2.) .079 .1.01 2.63 2.079 .63 2.109 .1 1050 42 0.064 2. ** For other coatings or linings.079 .77*** .63 2.064 . STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 11 Table 1.079 .01 2.064 .) 450 525 18 21 End Area (m2 ) (ft2) 0.) Estimated Average Weights — Not for Specification Use* Approximate Kilograms Per Linear Meter** (Pounds Per Linear Foot) Inside Diameter (mm) (in.109 .01 2.2 4.) only.87 9.079 .109 .01 2.13 12.99 33.77 1.079 2.064 .

20 0. subject to manufacturing tolerances.) 31/2 41/8 47/8 51/2 67/8 81/4 95/8 11 123/8 133/4 151/8 161/2 Rt (in.68 2.6 2.) 13 15 18 20 24 29 33 38 43 47 52 57 Waterway Area (ft2) 1.) 255/8 331/8 345/8 421/4 551/8 661/8 771/4 881/4 991/4 1101/4 1211/4 1321/4 Dimensions shown are not for specification purposes.6 14. Rise R t Rc .9 11. Most fabricators are equipped to furnish 10 mm (3⁄8 in.) 85/8 103/4 117/8 14 177/8 211/2 251/8 285/8 321/4 353/4 393/8 43 Rb (in.37 1. Other sizes and configurations are available. Corrugation) Design Span (in.9 26.1 1.) 17 21 24 28 35 42 49 57 64 71 77 83 Rise (in.15 0. subject to manufacturing tolerances. Table 1.08 1.) 41/8 47/8 55/8 61/2 81/8 93/4 113/8 13 145/8 161/4 177/8 191/2 Rc (in. Diameter (in. See Chapter 6 for design requirements.2 2.) round holes.12 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Perforated Pipe Corrugated steel pipe is available with perforations for collection or dissemination of water underground.5 8. Diameter (mm) 375 450 525 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 Notes: Sizes and Layout Details — CSP Pipe-Arches (68 mm x 13 mm Corrugation) Design Span (mm) 430 530 610 710 885 1060 1240 1440 1620 1800 1950 2100 Rise (mm) 330 380 460 510 610 740 840 970 1100 1200 1320 1450 Waterway Area (m2) 0.0 Layout Dimensions B (in.60 0.27 0.42 Layout Dimensions B (mm) 105 125 145 165 205 250 290 330 370 415 455 495 Rc (mm) 90 105 125 140 175 210 245 280 315 350 385 420 Rt (mm) 220 275 300 355 455 545 640 725 820 910 1000 1090 Rb (mm) 650 840 880 1075 1400 1680 1960 2240 2520 2800 3080 3360 Dimensions shown are not for specification purposes. Rb R c B Span Table 1.) 15 18 21 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 Notes: Sizes and Layout Details — CSP Pipe-Arches (22/3 x 1/2 in.03 2.7 18.10 mm (30 -3 ⁄8 in.5 6.6M Equiv.10 0.6 Equiv. per square foot) round holes per square meter of pipe surface.9 4.1 21.83 1. The most common standard pattern is 320 .42 0.

3 23.46 5. subject to manufacturing tolerances.7 15. Table 1. subject to manufacturing tolerances.79 2.10 9.5 81 89 98 107 Layout Dimensions B (in.0 42.94 B (mm) 385 520 580 640 605 655 705 755 805 855 905 955 1005 1040 1090 1145 1195 Layout Dimensions Rc (mm) 260 475 525 580 530 575 620 665 705 750 795 840 885 915 965 1015 1040 Rt (mm) 715 745 830 935 1005 1100 1195 1300 1395 1510 1605 1710 1820 1930 2030 2085 2160 Rb (mm) 1865 1300 1430 1620 2100 2345 2545 2835 3055 3345 3550 3795 4125 4370 4570 4675 4825 1340 x 1050 1520 x 1170 1670 x 1300 1850 x 1400 2050 x 1500 2200 x 1620 2400 x 1720 2600 x 1820 2840 x 1920 2970 x 2020 3240 x 2100 3470 x 2220 3600 x 2320 3800 x 2440 3980 x 2570 4160 x 2670 4340 x 2790 Dimensions shown are not for specification purposes.94 4.7M Equiv.1.16 2.92 7.) 737/16 511/8 561/4 633/4 825/8 921/4 1001/4 1115/8 1201/4 1313/4 1393/4 1491/2 1623/8 172 180 184 190 Dimensions shown are not for specification purposes.) 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 Notes: Sizes and Layout Details — CSP Pipe-Arches (3 x 1 or 5 x 1 in.44 3.) 53 581/2 65 721/2 79 861/2 931/2 1011/2 1081/2 1161/2 1231/2 131 1381/2 146 153 159 165 Rise (in. Diameter (in.) 281/16 293/8 325/8 363/4 391/2 433/8 47 511/4 547/8 593/8 631/4 673/8 715/8 76 80 82 85 Rb (in.52 8.2 27.7 Equiv.0 54.) 41 481/2 54 581/4 621/2 671/4 713/4 76 801/2 843/4 891/4 933/4 98 102 107 113 1181/2 Waterway Area (ft2) 11.4 74. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 13 Table 1.2 60. Corrugation) Nominal Size (in.98 3.09 1. .4 48.62 6.27 9.04 5.1 37.56 2.4 32.5 67.) 103/16 183/4 203/4 227/8 207/8 225/8 243/8 261/8 273/4 291/2 311/4 33 343/4 36 38 40 41 Rt (in.45 1. Diameter (mm) 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 Notes: Sizes and Layout Details — CSP Pipe-Arches (125 mm x 25 mm and 76 mm x 25 mm Corrugation) Nominal Size (mm) (m2) 1340 1485 1650 1840 2005 2195 2370 2575 2755 2955 3135 3325 3515 3705 3885 4035 4190 Design Span Rise (mm) 1050 1235 1375 1480 1585 1710 1825 1935 2045 2155 2270 2385 2490 2595 2720 2875 3010 Waterway Area (m2) 1.6 19.) 53 x 41 60 x 46 66 x 51 73 x 55 81 x 59 87 x 63 95 x 67 103 x 71 112 x 75 117 x 79 128 x 83 137 x 87 142 x 91 150 x 96 157 x 101 164 x 105 171 x 110 Design Span (in.) 151/4 201/2 223/4 251/8 233/4 253/4 273/4 293/4 315/8 335/8 355/8 375/8 391/2 41 43 45 47 Rc (in.26 6.

7 143.66 17.77 2.16 2.70 48.5 86.46 22.01 44.0 329.10 37.48 41.3 433.3 268.0 122.1 153.6 23.0 103.9 346.6 510.91 6.9 165.7 Periphery Total N 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 Pi 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 150 156 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 240 246 252 258 264 270 276 282 288 294 300 306 312 (mm) 1500 1665 1810 1965 2120 2275 2430 2585 2740 2895 3050 3205 3360 3515 3670 3825 3980 4135 4290 4445 4600 4755 4910 5065 5220 5375 5530 5685 5840 5995 6150 6305 6460 6615 6770 6925 7080 7235 7390 7545 7700 7855 8010 .0 176.20 21.58 3.84 46.9 397.2 38.46 14.3 33.60 50.8 Size and Layout Details — Structural Plate Circular Pipe 152 mm x 51 mm (6 x 2 in.81 18.87 34.5 44.31 32.2 362.31 29.4 415.5 452.7 132.6 188.4 530.65 5.73 10.07 4.6 70.2 471.6 201.4 254.7 28.46 26.14 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1.2 56.7 63.7 283.9 240.08 25.89 9.) 5-0 5-6 6-0 6-6 7-0 7-6 8-0 8-6 9-0 9-6 10-0 10-6 11-0 11-6 12-0 12-6 13-0 13-6 14-0 14-6 15-0 15-6 16-0 16-6 17-0 17-6 18-0 18-6 19-0 19-6 20-0 20-6 21-0 21-6 22-0 22-6 23-0 23-6 24-0 24-6 25-0 25-6 26-0 (m2) 1.61 11.53 (ft2) 19.5 314.86 28.75 24.4 298.23 43.0 213.2 50.77 39.) Corrugation Profile Inside Diameter Waterway Area (ft-in.32 8.79 31.99 20.9 379.8 78.26 5.52 12.47 36.7 226.8 113.47 13.49 15.04 3.5 95.09 8.54 4.56 16.60 7.2 490.

1.27 8.17 B (mm) 530 520 560 540 530 570 550 530 580 550 600 580 560 610 660 640 700 670 640 700 670 640 610 670 730 700 670 730 800 770 730 700 760 730 Layout Dimensions Rt (mm) 940 970 1040 1080 1110 1180 1210 1240 1320 1350 1430 1460 1480 1560 1650 1670 1760 1780 1810 1900 1920 1940 1960 2050 2140 2160 2180 2280 2370 2390 2400 2430 2520 2540 Rb (mm) 1940 2500 2120 2650 3460 2790 3500 4650 3580 4540 3670 4510 5790 4530 3890 4580 4010 4650 5500 4740 5510 6540 7990 6470 5600 6450 7560 6460 5760 6500 7400 8590 7390 8450 Periphery Total N 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Pi 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 114 117 120 123 126 129 132 135 138 141 144 147 150 153 156 159 162 165 Dimensions Span Rise (mm) 1850 1930 2060 2130 2210 2340 2410 2490 2620 2690 2840 2900 2970 3120 3250 3330 3480 3530 3610 3760 3810 3860 3910 4090 4240 4290 4340 4520 4670 4720 4780 4830 5000 5050 Notes: (mm) 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1910 1960 2010 2060 2110 2160 2210 2260 2310 2360 2410 2460 2540 2570 2620 2670 2720 2770 2820 2870 2920 3000 3020 3070 Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.96 11.60 2. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 15 Rb R c B Span Table 1.12 10.88 3.33 11.42 2.04 2.07 3.83 5.60 6.39 5. Rc Waterway Area (m2) 2. N = 3 Pi = 244 mm Rise R t Rc .25 7.23 2.22 6.87 7.53 3.64 9.71 12.38 9.01 9.55 4.27 4.50 10.25 3.99 4.72 3.75 10.11 5.90 8.53 7.9M Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Size and Layout Details 152 mm x 51 mm Corrugation — Bolted Seams 457 mm Corner Radius.67 5.95 6.

78 7.42 4.4 26.7 21.9 21.86 5.07 21.3 7-5 7-7 7-9 7-11 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-7 8-9 8-11 9-1 9-3 9-5 9-7 9-10 9-11 10-1 Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.18 24.29 28.7 20.49 5.98 4.4 20.68 11.8 22.2 24.4 25.13 5.8 27.73 Periphery Total N 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Pi 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 114 117 120 123 126 129 132 135 138 141 144 147 150 153 156 159 162 165 Dimensions Span Rise (ft-in.0 26.1 7.) 21.27 8.24 11.) 4-7 4-9 4-11 5-1 5-3 5-5 5-7 5-9 5-11 6-1 6-3 6-5 6-7 6-9 6-11 7.79 18.80 21.9 27.96 8.6 30.9 31.47 7.09 7. N = 3 Pi = 9.89 12.35 9.3 28.37 6.23 18.2 28.63 3. Corrugation — Bolted Seams 18-inch Corner Radius.1 27.6 in.16 7.33 (ft) 6.68 4.0 21.44 6.03 7.88 3.9 23.83 7.23 21.16 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Rb 18 ” B Span Table 1.75 14.03 13.1 25.78 4.4 30.9 26.78 5.73 7.8 22.1 28.16 15.8 23.05 14.29 6.5 22.22 6.5 26. Rc Waterway Area (ft2) 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 38 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 71 74 78 81 85 89 93 97 101 105 109 113 118 122 126 131 B (in.0 20.15 11.27 18.08 4.54 18.33 4. Rise R t ” 18 .53 3.9 22.96 8.90 21.42 3.03 15.9 Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Size and Layout Details 6 x 2 in.18 3.18 24.98 14.77 15.7 Layout Dimensions Rt Rb (ft) 3.85 5.) 6-1 6-4 6-9 7-0 7-3 7-8 7-11 8-2 8-7 8-10 9-4 9-6 9-9 10-3 10-8 10-11 11-5 11-7 11-10 12-4 12-6 12-8 12-10 13-5 13-11 14-1 14-3 14-10 15-4 15-6 15-8 15-10 16-5 16-7 Notes: (ft-in.36 8.49 15.45 26.41 5.23 6.31 24.07 3.86 12.2 27.93 6.6 26.3 25.39 21.3 28.89 7.19 18.24 27.4 21.

N = 3 Pi = 244 mm Rise R t Rc .1.8 12.7 13.0 15.6 B (mm) 980 960 1010 990 960 1010 1060 1040 1020 1070 1040 1100 1070 1050 1100 1080 1140 1110 1170 1140 1110 1080 1140 1110 Layout Dimensions Rt Rb (mm) 2040 2070 2140 2170 2200 2280 2370 2390 2420 2500 2530 2620 2640 2660 2750 2770 2860 2880 2970 3000 3020 3040 3130 3150 (mm) 4890 5590 5030 5650 6520 5790 5300 5890 6620 6000 6680 6120 6780 7570 6870 7610 6970 7680 7080 7750 8550 9510 8590 9490 Periphery Total N 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Pi 138 141 144 147 150 153 156 159 162 165 168 171 174 177 180 183 186 189 192 195 198 201 204 207 Dimensions Span Rise (mm) 4040 4110 4270 4320 4390 4550 4670 4750 4830 4950 5030 5180 5230 5310 5460 5510 5660 5720 5870 5940 5990 6070 6220 6270 Notes: (mm) 2840 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3510 3560 3610 3660 3710 3760 3810 3860 3910 3960 4010 Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.5 18.8 10.0 16.6 15.4 11.4 16.9 17.2 13.0 9.3 12. Rc Waterway Area (m2) 9.0 19. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 17 Rb R c B Span Table 1.1 10.5 9.6 11.6 14.0 14.10M Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Size and Layout Details 152 mm x 51mm Corrugation — Bolted Seams 787 mm Corner Radius.0 11.5 16.0 18.6 19.

13 7.90 9.5 42. Rc Waterway Area (ft2) 97 102 105 109 114 118 123 127 132 137 142 146 151 157 161 167 172 177 182 188 194 200 205 211 B (in. N = 3 Pi = 9.5 44.3 43.6 38.3 42.1 43.78 7.9 39.13 Periphery Total N 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Pi 138 141 144 147 150 153 156 159 162 165 168 171 174 177 180 183 186 189 192 195 198 201 204 207 Dimensions Span Rise (ft-in.09 9.18 31.08 22.7 43.) 9-4 9-6 9-8 9-10 10-0 10-2 10-4 10-6 10-8 10-10 11-0 11-2 11-4 11-6 11-8 11-10 12-0 12-2 12-4 12-6 12-8 12-10 13-0 13-2 Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances. Corrugation — Bolted Seams 31 in.9 40.58 8.33 (ft) 16.27 10.29 8.19 28.10 Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Size and Layout Details 6 x 2 in.8 40.33 16.73 9.8 37.22 25.65 8.43 28.6 in.05 18.93 8.23 24.0 42.03 7.34 21.9 43.83 22.98 17.67 21.22 7.98 10.98 22.6 45.7 42.7 39.38 9.) 38.68 6. Rise R t ” 31 .4 44.) 13-3 13-6 14-0 14-2 14-5 14-11 15-4 15-7 15-10 16-3 16-6 17-0 17-2 17-5 17-11 18-1 18-7 18-9 19-3 19-6 19-8 19-11 20-5 20-7 Notes: (ft-in.93 20.75 9.9 44.02 9.1 41.5 37.72 19.8 41.76 7.84 7.3 41.55 24.19 23.04 31.46 9.88 25.21 8.83 9.8 43. Corner radius.38 18.38 19.55 21.49 18.18 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Rb 31 ” B Span Table 1.48 7.7 Layout Dimensions Rt Rb (ft) 6.

52 0.53 0.53 0.42 0.65 5.58 1.53 4.65 5.81 2.25 4.86 1.30 0.30 to 0.46 3.53.32 0.76 6.40 0.42 1.52 0.1.44 4.43 4.07 2.38 0.35 0.48 3.11M Structural Plate – Representative Sizes 152 mm x 51 mm Corrugation – Bolted Seams Rise (mm) 550 700 970 710 860 1120 640 1020 1270 640 1180 1440 1050 1350 1600 1070 1360 1750 1230 1520 1910 1240 1550 2060 1410 1700 2210 1410 1730 2010 2360 Waterway Area** (m2) 0.53 0.39 7.16 3. ** End area under soffit above spring line.72 2.38 0.70 1.39 0.52 0.52 0.52 Rise over Span*** Radius (mm) 1040 950 910 1140 1090 1070 1300 1230 1220 1500 1400 1370 1630 1540 1520 1850 1710 1680 1970 1850 1830 2200 2040 1980 2310 2180 2130 2590 2360 2310 2290 Periphery Total N 9 10 12 11 12 14 13 14 16 14 16 18 16 18 20 17 19 22 19 21 24 20 23 26 22 24 28 23 25 27 30 Pi 27 30 36 33 36 42 39 42 48 42 48 54 48 54 60 51 57 66 57 63 72 60 66 78 66 72 84 69 75 81 90 Inside Dimensions* Span (mm) 1830 2130 2440 2740 3050 3350 3660 3960 4270 4570 Notes: * Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.34 0.40 0.97 8.31 0.44 0.86 2.34 0.55 6.43 0.65 3.18 5. Rise Rise .33 0.32 0.55 3.39 1.44 0.50 4.42 0.16 1.52 0.52 0. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 19 Span Table 1.41 0. Intermediate spans and rises are available.32 0.37 0.32 3.11 1.39 1.55 0. *** R/S ratio varies from 0.

75 5.43 0.52 0.85 8.56 17.50 0.42 0.97 9. ***R/S ratio varies from 0.57 7.00 15.06 6.89 19.50 Rise over Span*** Radius (mm) 2670 2460 2440 2920 2620 2590 3020 2770 2740 3120 2920 2900 3380 3100 3050 3480 3250 3200 3710 3430 3350 3730 3560 3510 3860 3710 3660 4060 3860 3810 Periphery Total N 25 29 32 26 30 34 28 32 35 30 34 37 31 35 39 33 37 41 34 38 43 37 41 45 39 43 47 40 45 49 Pi 75 87 96 78 90 96 84 96 111 90 102 111 93 105 123 99 111 123 102 114 129 117 123 135 117 129 141 120 135 147 Inside Dimensions* 5180 5490 5790 6100 6400 6710 7010 7320 7620 Notes: * Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.50 0.) Span (mm) 4880 Structural Plate – Representative Sizes 152 mm x 51 mm Corrugation – Bolted Seams Rise (mm) 1570 2160 2510 1590 2180 2690 1750 2340 2720 1930 2490 2880 1930 2530 3050 2110 2690 3200 2110 2720 3350 2440 3000 3510 2590 3150 3660 2600 3310 3810 Waterway Area** (m2) 5.55 11.98 10.43 0.52 14.32 13.50 0.32 0.43 0.01 8.13 13.42 0.33 0.30 to 0.45 15.43 0.31 0.40 0.33 0.99 9.00 14.45 0.53.66 13.50 0.35 0.50 0.65 12.52 0.32 0.43 0.32 0.66 11.59 9.71 8.23 22.94 17. ** End area under soffit above spring line.35 0.42 0.96 13.95 0.45 11.40 19.47 21.11M (Cont. Intermediate spans and rises are available.31 0.50 0.08 10.34 0. .20 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1.50 0.

38 0.37 0.0 12.52 0. Rise Rise .35 0.) 41 371/2 36 45 43 42 51 481/2 48 59 55 54 64 601/2 60 73 671/2 66 771/2 73 72 861/2 801/2 78 91 86 84 Periphery Total N 9 10 12 11 12 14 13 14 16 14 16 18 16 18 20 17 19 22 19 21 24 20 22 26 22 24 28 Pi 27 30 36 33 36 42 39 42 48 42 48 54 48 54 60 51 57 66 57 63 72 60 66 78 66 72 84 Inside Dimensions* Span (ft) 6.33 0.11 Structural Plate Arch — Representative Sizes 6 x 2 in.1.42 0.53 0.0 13.0 9.42 0.53.40 0.52 0. Intermediate spans and rises are available.40 .0 8. ** End area under soffit above spring line.39 0.52 0.52 0.44 0.52 0.30 to 0.0 11.0 14.32 0.30 0. Corrugation — Bolted Seams Rise (ft-in.) 1-91/2 2-31/2 3-2 2-4 2-10 3-8 2-11 3-4 4-2 2-11 3-101/2 4-81/2 3-51/2 4-5 5-3 3-6 4-51/2 5-9 4-01/2 5-0 6-3 4-1 5-1 6-9 4-71/2 5-7 7-3 Waterway Area** (ft2) 71/2 10 15 12 15 20 17 20 26 181/2 261/2 33 25 34 41 271/2 37 50 35 45 59 38 49 70 47 58 80 0.0 7.41 0.32 0.43 0.34 0. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 21 Span Table 1.52 0. ***R/S ratio varies from 0.34 0.0 10.32 0.0 Notes: * Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.52 0.052 Rise Over Span*** Radius (in.

44 0. galvanized unbalanced channels with anchor lugs are available. See Figure 1.1 below.50 0.1 General dimensions of unbalanced channels for structural plate arches.0 24.45 0.50 0.31 0.31 0.52 0. Arch Channels For arch seats.43 0.) 101 93 91 90 105 97 96 115 103 96 119 109 114 123 115 114 133 122 126 137 128 126 146 135 132 152 140 138 152 146 144 160 152 150 Nominal Arc Length N 23 25 27 30 25 29 32 26 30 34 28 32 35 30 34 37 31 35 39 33 37 41 34 38 43 37 41 45 39 43 47 40 45 49 Pi 69 75 81 90 75 87 96 78 90 96 84 96 111 90 102 111 93 105 123 99 111 123 102 114 129 117 123 135 117 129 141 120 135 147 16.35 0. Corrugation — Bolted Seams Rise (ft-in.32 0.40 0. or 3660 mm (6’. .50 0.11 (Cont.34 0.32 0.50 0. 2440. 3050.50 0.52 0. ***R/S ratio varies from 0.31 0.43 0.) 4-7 ⁄ 5-8 6-7 7-9 1 2 Inside Dimensions* Waterway Area** (ft2) 50 62 75 92 60 86 105 Rise Over Span*** 0. 8’.33 0. or 12’) 75 mm (3”) Slotted Holes Elevation 50 mm (2”) Anchor Lugs Bent Down and Twisted in Field Figure 1.52 0. 10’.50 0.42 0.0 6-4 8-3 ⁄ 10-0 2 21.0 5-2 7-1 8-3 5-2 ⁄ 7-2 8-10 1 2 17.0 6-11 8-10 10-6 6-11 8-11 11-0 8-0 9-10 11-6 8-6 10-4 12-0 8-6 ⁄ 10-10 ⁄ 12-6 1 2 22.0 5-9 7-8 8-11 6-4 8-2 9-5 ⁄ 1 1 19.53.50 0.0 25.38 0.43 0. ** End area under soffit above spring line.) Span (ft) 15.42 0.0 63 92 119 75 104 126 87 118 140 91 124 157 104 140 172 109 146 190 134 171 208 150 188 226 1 2 18.0 23.0 155 207 247 Notes: * Dimensions are to inside crests and are subject to manufacturing tolerances.43 0.42 0.22 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1.0 2 20.35 0.33 0.32 0.30 to 0.50 Radius (in. Intermediate spans and rises are available.43 0.0 Structural Plate Arch — Representative Sizes 6 x 2 in. Cross Section 1830.

1. a suitable gasket or geotextile wrap is required Universal* Water-Tight Couplers Sleeve Gasket Mastic or Gasket Corrugated (Anular) O-Ring Hat Semi-Corrugated (Hugger) . STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 23 Soil-Tight Couplers Semi-Corrugated (Hugger) Corrugated (Annular) Flat Hat *Unless a dimple fills each corrugation valley.

Section 26. & Oor Annular Angles Strap Ring Strip Mastic Plain Plain Reformed X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Type of Band Universal Corrugated Semi-Corrugated Channel Flat Wing Channel Cross Section . with a plastic index greater than 12 are generally too well adhered to infiltrate.4(e). Any watertight requirements are dictated by specific project conditions such as when the pipe system is located below the groundwater table or when it is carrying hazardous pollutants. The design of field joints using these criteria is covered in Chapter 7. water that has exfiltrated into the backfill.4. However. Table 1. A wide variety of pipe joints are available for field connecting lengths of corrugated steel pipe. Clayey materials.4. there is no need for concern with a coupling system that utilizes rerolled or annular ends. See AASHTO Section 26. The drawings on the previous page illustrate and define the standard joints which can be classified as Soil-tight and Watertight. such as a minimum stone are too large to infiltrate. Other equally effective couples may be designed and supplied based on specific project needs.24 MODERN SEWER DESIGN CSP COUPLING SYSTEMS The functional requirements for pipe joints are specified in the AASHTO Bridge Design Specification. the specifier must first consider the backfill surrounding the coupler along with the flow conditions the pipe will experience.2. Very fine. However.2. Generally. granular backfill materials such as silty sands can infiltrate into a pipe. Conversly. Watertight Conditions Watertight couplers are rarely required. infiltrates back into the pipe and might carry with it fine backfill particles. soil-tight considerations are necessary.12 Coupling Bands For Corrugated Steel Pipe Gaskets Pipe End Bar Sleeve Helical Bolt. course materials. Watertight coupling systems should be prequalified through laboratory testing to avoid installation influences on performance and eliminate time consuming and extremely expensive field-testing. In applications where flow increases and decreases quickly. when pipe is buried in a silt or fine sand backfill situation and flows rise and fall quickly. Soil-tight Conditions Couplers need to be soil-tight to keep backfill from infiltrating into the pipe.

1. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS Standard CSP Gaskets 25 O-Ring Gasket Sleeve Gasket Strip Gasket or Geotextile Wrap Standard CSP Band Connectors The following band connectors are used with CSP coupling systems: Band Angle Connector Clip or Lug Angle Connector Bar and Strap Connector .

may be bolted if required. Jacking or Threading Boring-Pipe slit.26 MODERN SEWER DESIGN For unusual conditions (i. threading pipe inside existing pipe. a variety of special designs are available or a new special joint may be designed by the manufacturer to meet a new requirement. Rod & Lug Band is secured by rod around band connected by lugs.e. high pressures. jacking or boring pipe. extreme disjointing forces. Stab type joint. Flat Joint Bolted Flanges are attached to pipe ends. stabs together.. Sleeve Joint Smooth sleeve with center stop. Internal Type . and deep vertical drop inlets).

The following pages illustrate how this hardware is used in corrugated steel structures. presented herein are the typical fittings and appurtenances fabricated throughout the country. Fittings Tables 1. Pipe sizes larger than those shown in these tables should be individually designed.13. Note that these are minimum dimensions. manhole covers. ladders and steps are easily incorporated in corrugated steel manholes or inlets. Manifold system used for underground detention.14 and 1. It may be most practical in some cases to fabricate fittings with longer legs than those shown here. The larger sizes can require longer leg dimensions. it may be useful for the designer to have these minimum dimensions in laying out turns or intersections where precision is required. The nature of the material makes possible almost any special fitting that can be designed. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 27 CSP FITTINGS AND SEWER APPURTENANCES An important feature of corrugated steel pipe sewers is the wide range of fittings and appurtenances that can be employed. depending on wall thickness and type of pipe fabrication. To guide the designer.15 list the standard or minimum dimensions of common fittings and elbows. 1. it is generally most economical to use the most commonly produced or “standard” fittings.1. . It is ordinarily best to let the contractor and supplier work out such details. Sewer system hardware such as grates. However. When possible.

1650 1800 .2400 A (mm) 300 600 900 Total Length (mm) 600 1200 1800 Pipe Diameter (mm) 150 .90° Elbow L 46° . All dimensions are in millimeters.90° Elbow Pipe Diameter (mm) 150 .45° Elbow L 46° .1050 1200 . All dimensions are nominal.28 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1. Fittings with other dimensions to satisfy specific needs are also available.675 750 .13M Minimum Dimensions for Elbows for Round CSP (mm) All Corrugations A A A A B A A 2 Piece 2 Piece 3 Piece L 10° . .2400 2250 .1200 1350 .2400 A (mm) 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 Total Length (mm) 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 6000 Pipe Diameter (mm) 150 200 250 300 375 450 525 600 675 750 825 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 A B C Total Length (mm) 600 600 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 2400 2400 3000 3000 3000 3000 3600 (mm) (mm) (mm) 340 360 360 650 670 690 690 700 700 1020 1020 1030 1040 1360 1370 1380 1370 1710 1730 1740 1780 2080 200 230 250 280 300 360 380 410 430 480 510 530 580 660 710 790 840 910 990 1040 1170 1170 200 190 180 470 470 460 430 420 410 670 660 650 620 890 860 830 800 1070 1030 1000 940 1240 Notes: The total length (mm) and pipe diameter (mm) listed are minimum requirements for fitting fabrication.450 525 .250 300 .

.1.) 131/2 14 14 251/2 261/2 27 27 271/2 271/2 40 40 401/2 41 531/2 54 541/2 54 671/2 68 681/2 70 82 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 23 26 28 31 33 36 39 41 46 46 Notes: The total length (ft) and pipe diameter (in.90° Elbow L 46° .13 Minimum Dimensions for Elbows for Round CSP All Corrugations A A A A B A A 2 Piece 2 Piece 3 Piece L 10° . All dimensions are nominal.) (in.) 6-10 12-27 30-42 48-66 72-84 90-96 A (ft) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Length (ft) 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pipe Diameter (in. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 29 Table 1.) 6-18 21-48 54-96 A (ft) 1 2 3 Total Length (ft) 2 4 6 Pipe Diameter (in.) 6 8 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 A B C (in.90° Elbow Pipe Diameter (in. Fittings with other dimensions to satisfy specific needs are also available.) 8 71/2 7 181/2 18 17 161/2 16 151/2 261/2 26 251/2 241/2 35 34 321/2 311/2 42 401/2 391/2 37 49 Total Length (ft) 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 12 (in.) listed are minimum requirements for fitting fabrication.45° Elbow L 46° .

.total net length needed to fabricate fitting All dimensions are in millimeters.30 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1. Tee A B Stub Same or Smaller Than Main Diameter Cross 45° Lateral TL A (mm) 600 600 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 3000 3000 B (mm) 600 600 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 3000 3000 TL (mm) 1200 1200 1200 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 4800 4800 6000 6000 6000 6000 A B C TL A 45° Wye B TL (mm) (mm) 150 200 250 300 375 450 525 600 675 750 825 900 1050 1200 1350 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 Notes: 600 600 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 3000 3000 (mm) (mm) 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 1800 1200 1200 1000 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3600 3600 4500 4500 4500 4800 (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 600 600 600 600 1200 600 1200 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1500 900 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 3600 4200 4800 4800 4800 4800 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3600 3000 3600 3600 3600 3600 200 200 430 430 460 330 560 580 510 530 480 460 530 460 580 810 1140 1170 1190 1240 1270 1200 1200 1800 1800 2400 2400 2400 3000 3000 3000 3600 4200 4200 4800 5400 6600 7200 8400 8400 8400 8400 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 900 900 900 900 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 2400 2400 3600 3600 4200 4200 4200 4200 4800 TL .14M Minimum Dimensions for CSP Round Fittings (mm) B B A A A C A Tee B Cross B A 45° Lateral A 45° Wye Main Diam.

STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 31 Table 1.) 6 8 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 Notes: Tee A (ft) 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 B (ft) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 Stub Same or Smaller Than Main Diameter Cross 45° Lateral TL (ft) 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 A (ft) 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 B (ft) 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 TL (ft) 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 16 16 16 20 20 20 20 A (ft) 2 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 10 10 12 12 14 14 16 16 16 B (ft) 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 8 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 C (in.1. ..) 8 8 17 17 18 13 22 23 20 21 19 19 21 28 23 30 32 45 46 47 49 50 TL (ft) 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10 10 10 12 14 14 18 18 22 22 24 24 28 28 28 A (ft) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 45° Wye B (ft) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 TL (ft) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 16 TL .14 Minimum Dimensions for CSP Round Fittings (in. ft) B B A A A C A Tee B Cross B A 45° Lateral A 45° Wye Main Diam. (in.total net length needed to fabricate fitting.

15M Minimum Dimensions for CSP Pipe-Arch Elbow Fittings Rise Span A A A A S A A S S 2 Piece S S L 10° .90° Elbow L 90° Elbow Equivalent Round Diameter (mm) 375 450 525 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 Notes: Span S (mm) 430 530 610 710 885 1060 1240 1440 1620 1800 1950 2100 Rise R (mm) 330 380 460 510 610 740 840 970 1100 1200 1320 1450 45° Elbow 2 Piece A (mm) 510 510 480 460 410 690 640 610 860 840 1090 1070 L (mm) 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 90° Elbow 2 Piece A (mm) 690 640 610 860 760 970 890 1090 1320 1520 1420 1420 L (mm) 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 3600 4200 4800 4800 5400 90° Elbow 3 Piece A (mm) 790 760 740 710 970 890 1140 1060 1320 1570 1520 1780 L (mm) 1800 1800 1800 1800 2400 2400 3000 3000 3600 4200 4200 4800 All dimensions are nominal L—length for fabrication .45° Elbow 2 Piece S 3 Piece L 50° .32 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1.

) 15 18 21 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 Notes: Span S (in.1.45° Elbow 2 Piece S 3 Piece L 50° .90° Elbow L 90° Elbow Equivalent Round Diameter (in.) 27 25 24 34 30 38 35 43 52 60 56 56 L (ft) 6 6 6 8 8 10 10 12 14 16 16 18 90° Elbow 3 Piece A (in. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 33 Table 1.) 17 21 24 28 35 42 49 57 64 71 77 83 Rise R (in.) 20 20 19 18 16 27 25 24 34 33 43 42 L (ft) 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 8 10 10 90° Elbow 2 Piece A (in.15 Minimum Dimensions for CSP Pipe-Arch Elbow Fittings Rise Span A A A A S A A S S 2 Piece S S L 10° .) 31 30 29 28 38 35 45 42 52 62 60 70 L (ft) 6 6 6 6 8 8 10 10 12 14 14 16 All dimensions are nominal L—length for fabrication .) 13 15 18 20 24 29 33 38 43 47 52 57 45° Elbow 2 Piece A (in.

34 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Saddle Branch Saddle branches are used to connect smaller branch lines to the main. bolted to main sewer on the job or at the plant. enables laterals and house connections to join the sewer. Saddles can be used to connect almost any type of pipe to a CSP main. . A common “universal” type of saddle branch stub to do this is shown below. Saddles make it practical to accurately tie in connections after the main line is laid.2 Saddle branch. A Saddle Plate Shop Weld Section A-A A Side View of Sewer with Saddle Branch in Place Figure 1. Or. new connections can be effectively made on old lines with saddles. Connecting Pipe Fill Annular Space With Mastic Sealant Saddle Plate Oversize CSP Stub Universal Connection Detail Using Saddle Branch Typical pre-fabricated CSP saddle branch fitting used in connecting house laterals or incoming pipe from catch basins.

A simple. there are circumstances when a pipe reducer or enlarger section is desired. Reinforcement may be required.1. However.3 Enlarger Flow Figure 1. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 35 Transitions Changes in pipe diameter should be accomplished in junction structures. Tapered transitions may be fabricated in smooth steel for helical pipe systems as shown in Figure 1. Plate Flow Smooth Taper Section Figure 1.4.3. instant size change can be done as shown in Figure 1. .4 Eccentric Transition Saddle branch manhole is bolted to sewer conduit while riser extension is being lowered and coupled.

However. when the shaft is greater than 900 mm (36 in.) diameter or greater. It is only feasible for trunk lines of 900 mm (36 in. Trunk Line Riser Type Manhole Vertical Shaft Type Manhole Welded Flange for Cover or Grade Ring Smooth Steel Eccentric Reducer Larger Diameter CSP Manhole Junction Reduction Details . The riser type of manhole is the simpler of the two and quite economical.36 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Manholes and Catch Basins Manholes are available in corrugated pipe construction in two basic types as shown below. When junctions of smaller diameters are involved. some reduction detail must be used to suit the cover.) in diameter. Typical reduction details are shown below. it is possible to use a vertical shaft of larger diameter CSP to connect the sewers.

1. added concrete may be poured. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 37 Manhole and Catch Basin Tops Manhole Cover or Grate Concrete Top Poured in Place or Pre-Cast Manhole Cover or Grate 1 Flat Steel Plate Cover Three Lugs Equally Spaced Manhole Cover or Grate 2 Manhole Cover Ring 3 Detail (1) can be used with almost any type of surface cover or grate. Concrete grade ring may be augmented with brick to raise cover elevation in the future. . Direct connections of cast or fabricated plates or rings as in (2) and (3) are particularly suitable for grated inlet openings. Alternatively. Standard cast iron covers and/or steel grates are used with CSP manholes and catch basins.

38 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Manhole Reinforcing Structural Angle Formed to Fit Pipe Curvature Ma Di nho am le ete r Trunk Line Structural Angle Use of manhole reinforcing may be required. which allows settlement in the riser. minimum length: 150 mm) O-Ring Gaskets If Required Band Heavily loaded manholes sometimes make slip joints desirable. Manhole Slip Joints CSP with Annular Ends Soft Wood Spacer Blocks Required at Joint (minimum 4 blocks per joint. . Shown above is one method of providing a slip joint. particularly for larger diameters.

Hot-dip galvanizing of all ladder components is recommended. 3. 2. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 39 Manhole Ladder See Detail A Double Nuts not Shown Steel Rungs Slotted Joints Typical Manhole Ladder Flat Plate Thru Bolt Corrugated Manhole Detail A Typical Ladder Bracket Attachment 1. Use bolts with double nuts to connect splice plate at ladder joint to allow vertical movement. Ladder may be constructed in one length.1. .

40 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Manhole Steps Double Nut Rung to CSP Manhole See Detail B Manhole Steps Detail B Plate Each Side of Corrugated Manhole Typical Manhole Steps Step Rung Step Alternate Methods for Attaching Manhole Steps CSP catch basin with concrete slab and standard cast-iron frame and cover. .

this product has proven even more useful in curb inlets. CSP concrete-lined pipe. . airports.1. parking lots. Originally conceived to pick up sheet flow in roadway medians. high strength concrete. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 41 CSP Slotted Drain Inlets By welding a narrow section of grating in the top of a corrugated steel pipe. The lining provides a superior wearing surface for extended structure life as well as a smooth interior for improved hydraulics.. etc. a continuous grate inlet is achieved. CSP Concrete-Lined Pipe The interior lining of the corrugated steel pipe is composed of an extremely dense.

42 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Spiral Rib Steel Pipe Spiral rib pipe is manufactured from a continuous strip of metallic-coated steel passed through a forming line that forms the external ribs and prepares the edges. The finished product has the structural characteristics needed for installation and a smooth interior for improved hydraulics. Lengths of pipe-arch are easily moved into position. The formed section is then helically wound into pipe and the edges are joined by lock seaming. Double Wall (steel lined) Double wall (steel lined) is a smooth interior corrugated steel pipe fabricated in full circular cross section with a smooth steel liner and helically corrugated shell integrally attached at helical lock seams from the end of each length of pipe. The smooth steel interior lining provides for improved hydraulics. 19 mm (3⁄4”) 19 mm (3⁄4”) 190 mm (71⁄2”) 19 mm (3⁄4”) 25 mm (1”) 292 mm (111⁄2”) Spiral rib pipe installation. .

1. LININGS AND PAVINGS Sheets and Coils Corrugated steel pipe is fabricated from steel sheets or coils conforming to national specifications. Fabric sling protects pipe coating. or an integral smooth steel inner shell. a) Metallic Coatings Most CSP sheets and coils have a zinc coating. The base metal is mill coated with one of several metallic or non-metallic coatings or a combination thereof. The pipe may be fully lined with bituminous material. b) Non-Metallic Coatings Sheets and coils are available mill coated with non-metallic coatings. 2) Fibers are embedded in the molten metallic coating. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 43 PIPE MATERIALS. Placing coated CSP sewer section. concrete. 1) Various polymer films or liquids are applied to one or both sides of the metal. PROTECTIVE COATINGS. or specially fabricated smooth with external ribs. bituminous coated and invert paved. . Other metallic coatings using aluminum or aluminum-zinc alloys are also available. Pipe Fabricated pipe may be bituminous coated. and/or bituminous coated and fully paved.

Polymeric pre-coated sewer and drainage pipe 3. tensile strength – 310MPa (45 ksi) min. Standard O-ring gaskets 2. elongation (50 mm/ 2 in. Structural plate pipe Corrugated steel pipe of any of the types shown above with a 1. Fiber bonded impregnated corrugated steel pipe 4. .25 mm (0. high purity asphalt cover Corrugated steel pipe of any one of the types shown above with an asphalt pavement poured in the invert to cover the corrugation by 3.) Corrugated steel pipe of the types shown above: 1.2 mm (1/8 in. Corrugated steel pipe with a single thickness of smooth sheet fabricated with helical ribs projected outward 3. Aluminized corrugated steel pipe 5.44 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 1. A862 A760M M-36 M-36 A849.. or by rolling annular corrugated mill sheets and riveting seams: 1. Mastic sealant AASHTO M-218 M-246 ASTM A929M A742M – A885 Aluminum Coated Coils Sewer and Drainage pipe M-274 A929M M-36 M-245 – M-36 M-167 M-190 A760M A762M A760M A760M A761M A849 A862 Asphalt Coated Steel Sewer Pipe Invert Paved Steel Sewer Pipe M-190 A849 A862 Fully Lined Steel Sewer Pipe M-190 M-36 A849.16 Material Description and Specifications Specifications Material Zinc Coated Sheets & Coils Polymer Coated Sheets and Coils Fiber Bonded Coated Sheets Description Steel base metal* with 610 g/m2 (2 oz/ft2) zinc coating Polymer coatings applied to sheets* and coils* 0.). Sponge neoprene sleeve gaskets 3. Pipe is fabricated by corrugating continuous coils into helical form with lockseam or welded seam. With an internal asphalt lining centrifugally spun in place 2.0050 in.3 mm (0. Gasketing strips. butyl or neoprene 4.. Corrugated steel pipe with a smooth steel liner integrally formed with the corrugated shell Fibrated mastic or coal tar base coatings of various viscosities for field or shop coating of corrugated pipe or structural plate 1.010 in. Galvanized corrugated steel pipe 2.) – 20% min.) thickness each side Steel base metal with zinc coating and fibers pressed into the zinc while molten to form fiber bonded coating Steel base metal* coated with 305 g/m2 (1 oz/ft2) of pure aluminum Corrugated pipe fabricated from any of the above sheets or coils. With an internal concrete lining in place 4. A979M A760M Cold Applied Bituminous Coatings Gaskets and Sealants M-243 A849 – – D1056 C361 Notes: *Yield point – 230MPa (33 ksi) min.

1. STEEL SEWER PRODUCTS 45 .

.46 MODERN SEWER DESIGN CSP sewer designed for very wide trenches.

during history. The Major System is the route followed by runoff waters when the minor system is inoperable or inadequate. such runoff will be accommodated by the natural streams and watercourses. but as development takes place. culverts.47 CHAPTER 2 Storm Drainage Planning INTRODUCTION Rainfall exceeding the soil’s capacity of infiltration and storage results in runoff. developed techniques for accommodating the increased runoff by constructing swales. is to collect as much storm water runoff as possible and rapidly discharge it through a system of pipes to the nearest outlet. and to limit the inconvenience to the public. with a detrimental effect on existing vegetation. . now occur much more frequently. In undeveloped areas. which now may become very difficult and expensive to solve. b) Lowering of water tables. namely the Minor System and the Major System. fertilizers from lawns and debris from streets and paved areas being conveyed directly to the streams. permitting salt water intrusion. ditches. sewers and canals. c) Reduction in base flows in receiving streams affecting aquatic life. most of this water could soak back into the earth. Nevertheless. resulting in greater runoff due to the increase in impervious surface areas. f) Damage due to flooding (runoff quantities) which had been experienced rarely. The major problems that have been created can be summarized as follows: a) Higher peak flows in storm sewers and streams that require larger facilities at higher cost. Prior to development. d) Excessive erosion of streams and sedimentation in lakes due to higher discharge velocities. these techniques have improved as more knowledge has been gained about the factors affecting storm water runoff (hydrology) and the conveyance (hydraulics) in pipes and open watercourses. with capacity to handle runoff from a storm expected to occur with a certain frequency and in a way that will cause relatively minor public inconvenience. The lack of a properly designed major system often leads to flooding. present practices often prevent it. our ability to find more efficient ways of constructing storm drainage facilities also has increased. causing severe damage. e) Increased pollution of receiving streams and lakes due to industrial fallout on roofs. the natural hydrological balance is changed. The Minor System (or “convenience” system) consists of carefully designed closed and open conduits and their appurtenances. Of major importance in the design of storm drainage facilities is the realization that all urban storm drainage systems are comprised of two separate and distinct systems. Over the years. people have. it has become apparent that in many instances we have ended up creating new problems. and in low-lying coastal areas. In response to this. Similarly. The basic philosophy applied to the design of storm drainage facilities followed in the past and still widely practiced today.

By careful attention during the initial planning stage. In recent years a philosophy has emerged which departs from the past practices. Lifting lugs are provided to protect the exterior coating on this CSP. Another term that has become synonymous with Storm Water Management is the term Zero Increase in Storm Water Runoff.e.e. The application of the philosophy has come to be known by the term Storm Water Management. etc. c) Storm Water Detention. temporary storage of excess runoff. in urban areas where hydrologic abstractions (i. disposal of storm water by subsurface infiltration drainage. to control the effects of storm water so that the threat not only to life and property. . depression storage. For instance. a major system can usually be incorporated at no additional cost.48 MODERN SEWER DESIGN It is not economically feasible to enlarge the minor system to obviate the need for the major system. (i. but also to the environment as a whole.) have been reduced or completely eliminated. and professions responsible for design and construction of storm drainage facilities. This is the implementation of storm water management to limit storm water runoff to flows that occurred prior to development. lawns. infiltration. This criteria may be applied to one frequency of occurrence or may be designed for a series of frequencies. which may be defined as follows: “Storm water management is the combined efforts of governing agencies providing policies and guidelines. particularly in areas with a substratum of high porosity. facilities are designed to accommodate the abstractions lost through urbanization. with subsequent regulated release rate to the outlet. where runoff is directed to pervious surfaces. parks).” Management techniques consist of methods such as: a) Surface Infiltration. can be minimized. and it often permits substantial cost savings. b) Ground Water Recharge. by attempting to follow the natural hydrological processes as much as possible. permitting the runoff rates and volumes to remain close to those prior to development. or limited to an acceptable level.

the engineer should examine the site of the proposed development. resulting in a more economic system. STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 49 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN When designing the storm drainage system. 25-year minimum. even during major storms. in such a way that will be both aesthetically pleasing and functional. b) Continuous road grades or overflow easements to open watercourses. To achieve these objectives. except where the sewers are sufficiently deep or large to prevent hydrostatic pressure in basements during surcharge conditions. one to handle low intensity storms (the “minor” system) and another (the “major” system) that comes into use when the first system has insufficient capacity or becomes inoperable due to temporary blockage. Every effort should be made to coordinate proposed drainage facilities. utilizing suitable splash pads. e) Minimum depth of cover to be a function of external loading. By careful attention from the initial planning stage. The Major System The major system is the route followed by runoff waters when the minor system is inoperable or inadequate. c) No damage may be caused to private structures due to flooding. increasing up to five or ten years for major traffic arteries and commercial districts. f) Downspouts should. When both systems are properly designed. The criteria recommended for this system are as follows: a) Level of Service – One. but the springline must always be below frost depth. i. it must be realized that urban drainage is always composed of two separate and distinctive systems. they will provide a high level of protection against flooding. permitting the hydraulic gradient to follow roadways. d) Foundation drains must not be connected by gravity to storm sewers. both by visual inspection and through the aid of topographical maps to obtain a better understanding of the natural drainage patterns. d) Surface flows on streets to be kept within reasonable limits. such as storm sewers and artificial channels with natural waterways. It is usually expensive to eliminate any need for a major system.e. with the capacity to handle runoff from a storm expected to occur once within a one-year to five-year period and in a way that will cause relatively minor public inconvenience.2. wherever possible. c) No connections other than to catchbasins and other inlet structures.or two-year rainfall intensity for normal residential areas. The Minor System The minor system consists of carefully designed closed and open conduits and their appurtenances. greater protection at less cost. a major system can usually be incorporated at no additional cost and will often result in substantial savings in the minor system as well. while usually being more economical than the conventional methods prevalent in many urban areas.. . b) Design to recognize surcharging to road surfaces. be discharged to the ground. The criteria recommended for this system are as follows: a) Level of Protection –100-year frequency desirable.

preferably to the same extent as prior to development. Whatever amount cannot be so accommodated at the point of rainfall should be detained in nearby locations for a controlled outlet to the receiving streams. and maybe to an even greater extent.50 MODERN SEWER DESIGN METHODS TO REDUCE QUANTITY OF RUNOFF AND MINIMIZE POLLUTION If the storm water is permitted to follow its natural hydrological process. The following Table 2. By allowing storm water to infiltrate back into the soil. it will not only reduce the quantity of runoff and recharge the water table. Storm water should be directed into the soil. improving quality. There are a variety of methods in common use today that can effectively control peak runoff rates. . with peak flows approaching the pre-development peak flows.1 lists such methods along with their effectiveness. it will inevitably result in a reduction in the quantity of storm water runoff and a reduction of pollution loading in the receiving watercourses. while at the same time. but the filtering properties of the soil will improve the water quality. Long lengths with fewer joints can lower the effective “n” value.

a large percentage of the roof runoff may be absorbed into the soil. be placed in a location that will avoid problems during freezing temperatures. They are similar to detention basins. such as icing of driveways. wherever practical. resulting in further reduction in runoff. STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 51 Table 2. and preferably where the runoff can reach grassed areas. but permit recharging of groundwater while detaining only the excess runoff. green belts and parklands. The downspouts should. By discharging roof water onto lawns. In such cases. . Special “recharge basins” can also be included as part of the drainage system in areas where the percolation rate is fair to high. For minor storm events.1 Measures for Reducing Quantity of Runoff and Minimizing Pollution Reduce Peak Rate of Runoff Improvements to Runoff Water Quality Applicability Commercial Institutional Residential Highways X X X X X X X X Industrial X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Measure Roof Water to Grassed Surfaces Contour Grading Porous Pavement — Interlocking Stones — Gravelled Surfaces — Porous Asphalt Grassed Ditches Infiltration Basins Blue-Green Storage Ponding on Flat Roofs Ponding on Roadways Ponding on Parking Lots Detention Ponds (Dry Pond) Retention Ponds No Freeboard Retention Ponds With Freeboard Subsurface Disposal — Perforated Storm Sewer — Infiltration Trenches — Dry Wells Subsurface Detention Reduce Volume of Runoff X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Surface Infiltration One method of reducing runoff is to make maximum use of the pervious surfaces in lawns.2. Additional infiltration and delay in runoff can often be achieved by means of contour grading of the site. This will also increase the time of concentration. it is very important that splash pads be placed below the downspouts. this will generally mean a reduction in runoff of about 60-70 percent for the roof area. This will prevent erosion and permit water to flow freely away from the foundation wall. To prevent the downspout discharge from reaching the foundation drains. the designer may use the same runoff factors for roofs as for sodded areas.

2400 mm (96 in.) diameter provide cooling water at the Crist Steam Generating Plant of Gulf Power Company.52 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Twin 180 m (590 ft) long smooth line. .

In addition to the high cost involved.2. were considered to be worth the cost. directed over grassed surfaces rather than being piped directly to a storm sewer. times occurred when the storm sewer backed up to levels above the basement floors. most foundation drains were often connected to the sanitary sewers. it became logical to eliminate as much extraneous flow from the sanitary sewers as possible. with the result that storm water flowed into foundation drains and caused the condition it was supposed to prevent (see Figure 2. The additional expense of extending storm sewers to serve the full length of all streets rather than to catch basins only. FOUNDATION DRAINS In the past. preferring to connect them to the storm sewer. Since it is not economically feasible to size storm sewers to accommodate every possible runoff eventuality. Perforated storm sewers with a properly designed filter material will permit initial runoff (the “first flush”). STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 53 Effects on Water Quality The concepts used for detention and reduction of storm water runoff not only regulate the amounts and rate of runoff of storm water. will receive a substantial reduction in pollution through its travel over-land or through percolation into the soil. but also are an important factor in reducing pollution. With the growing demand for increased sewage treatment capacities. this method resulted in many flooded basements as well as extenSanitary Vent Road Level Manhole Surcharge Level in Storm Sewer Foundation Drain Storm Service Storm Sewer Figure 2. much larger than the one we were trying to solve. which contains most of the pollutants. and the extra depths needed to connect the foundation drains by gravity. underground recharge systems and detention facilities all have treatment capabilities. otherwise they were served by sump pumps. . The condition became considerably worse where roof-water leaders were also connected to the same outlet pipe as the foundation drains. Runoff from roofs. The voids in the stone filter material will permit treatment of pollutants somewhat similar to the action of a septic tile bed. to be temporarily stored in the underground system for gradual percolation into the soil. where such were available. Sedimentation basins. and some municipalities started to prohibit foundation drain connections to sanitary sewers. Only later did we realize that a problem was created.1 Foundation drain and downspout connected to storm sewer by gravity.1).

or even ten-year rainfall frequency. this solution does not seem very desirable when projected for areas expecting a large urban growth. Standard methods of construction cannot withstand a hydrostatic pressure of more than 150 to 300 mm (6 to 12 in.2). Due to the variations in storm patterns and runoff conditions. may cause flooding in his basement. it may be the best solution. The method has several advantages and. . for many new areas. be able to accommodate a storm of much higher intensity. A foundation drain collector will: Roof Drain Sanitary Vent Roof Drain Manholes Concrete Splash Pad Foundation ice Drain Serv tary Sani Foundation Drain Service Concrete Splash Pad Dual Manhole Construction Sanitary Sewer Foundation Drain Collector Stor mS ewer (Sur char ged) Sidewalk Catch Basin Figure 2.2 Foundation drain connected to foundation drain collector by gravity. This conflicts with the present emphasis of reducing runoff. This would transfer the problem to the individual homeowner. With a different storm pattern the condition could be reversed.54 MODERN SEWER DESIGN sive structural damage to basements from the hydrostatic pressure exerted. The resulting damage. would not cause structural failure to the basement. If foundation drains are connected by gravity to storm sewers of less capacity and the hydraulic grade line exceeds the basement elevation. Some areas experiencing this problem have preferred to increase the sewer design criteria from a two-year to a five. who may not be too pleased with a device that.) before damage takes place. however. and in other locations considerably less. in some areas. An alternative solution is a separate foundation drain collector. as a result of mechanical or power failure. protection against flooding of basements cannot be obtained. Although the inflowing water would be relatively clean storm water rather than sewage. a system designed for a ten-year frequency may. Another possibility could be sump pump installations which can discharge to the ground or to a storm sewer. many indeterminable factors not yet recognized in storm drainage design will make it impossible for the designer to predict with any degree of accuracy what storm frequency the system will actually be able to handle before hydrostatic pressure will occur on basements. but even if it did not. such as a third pipe installed in the same trench as the sanitary sewer but with connection to foundation drains only (see Figure 2. as pressure equalizes inside and outside.

Various sources of data do attempt to define the character and concentrations of pollutants generated from urban areas. The EPA established the National Urban Runoff Program (N. resulting in cost savings for the storm sewer system. As part of this program.P. particularly within built-up areas where storm sewer outlets have already been provided. Environmental Considerations of Runoff Waters This section addresses environmental and legal constraints that should be considered in planning and designing underground disposal systems for storm water runoff.) in 1978. Section 402 now requires the EPA to promulgate regulations establishing permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges and separate storm sewers (Table 2. The average concentration or median event meant concentrations were based on data from 28 projects throughout the United States. and d) permit positive design of both the minor and major storm drainage systems. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)4. Standard CSP structural designs permit unrestricted trench width. 1. and could reduce length of storm sewers. .R. it may not be practical in all areas. c) permit shallow storm sewers. STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 55 a) eliminate the probability of hydrostatic pressure on basements due to surcharged sewers.2). 3 An extensive database was gathered for the Water Planning Division of the U.S. 2. design for lower rainfall intensity. average concentrations for various pollutants were established Act of 1987.2.U. Since it does require an outlet with free discharge even during severe thunderstorm conditions. b) eliminate infiltration into sanitary sewers from foundation drains.

31 – – 0.2 Mixed Median 7.85 70 0.48 0.50 1179 0.96 0.73 0.75 201 0.32 29 0.43 0.66 1.81 – 195 965 543 121 26 1.75 0.99 0.58 57 0.11 CV Commercial Median CV Open/Non-urban Median CV Median EMCs for All Sites by Land Use Category Pollutant 0.41 0.67 0.69 0.84 0.83 0.55 0.75 80 0.07 1.3 0.66 2.52 – 0.46 Residential Median CV Biochemical Oxygen Demand mg/l 10.67 572 0.35 104 0.71 0.78 226 1.39 40 0.92 1.0 Chemical Oxygen Demand mg/l 73 Total Suspended Solids mg/l 101 Total Lead µg/l 144 Total Copper µg/l 33 Total Zinc µg/l 135 Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen µg/l 1900 Nitrite + Nitrate µg/l 736 Total Phosphorus µg/l 383 Soluble Phosphorus µg/l 143 Legend: mg/ l= milligrams per liter µg/l = micro grams per liter CV = coefficient of variation MODERN SEWER DESIGN .68 30 1.78 2.91 1.52 9.14 69 0.8 65 67 114 27 154 1288 558 263 56 0.56 Table 2.00 0.

Section 402 now requires the EPA to promulgate regulations establishing permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges and separate storm sewer systems.43 0.01 Health Health Health Health Health Health 1 Disease 0.P.5 The main stimulus to elimination of storm sewer discharge into surface waters has been concern over its impact on public health and aquatic biological communities. per 100 mg Pesticides. U. The latest revisions to the constituents and concentrations should be used. mg/l Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2. Design guidelines for the use of these systems are defined in detail in the “Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. and U. 3. higher limits for lower temperatures.000 or more. The rules develop a framework for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (N.01 0.S. .6 Table 2.2. and discharges from medium municipal separate storm sewer systems (systems serving a population of 100. 2. attention has focused on the quality of stormwater To effectively address the storm water issue.01 0.D.000 or more).E. mg/l Chemical. mg/l Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Fluoride Lead Mercury Nitrate as N Selenium Silver Bacteriological Total coliform. U. 5-TP Notes: 0. As combined sanitary storm sewer systems have been identified and direct discharges reduced . 19757 Value 12 Reason For Standard Aesthetic 1. 4-D 2.4-2.002 10 0.) permits for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity.3 Constituent or Characteristic Physical Turbidity. Congress amended section 402 of the Clean Water Act in the course of enacting the Water Quality Act of 1987.0002 0.005 0. Dependent on temperature. STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 57 Perspective on the possible impacts of subsurface disposal of storm water runoff can be gained from information available on the land treatment of municipal wastewater.” published jointly by the EPA. Army Corps of Engineers.S. Department of Agriculture.05 Health Health Health Health Health Health Health Health Health Cosmetic EPA Regulations on Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards.S. discharges from large municipal separate storm sewer systems (systems serving a population of 250. 4.S.000).0 0.004 0.05 1.1 0. Five mg/l of suspended solids may be substituted if it can be demonstrated that it does not interfere with disinfection.05 0. but less than 250.05 1.1 0.

The principle dissolved nitrogen species are ammonia. Under water pollution law in Ohio. For areas affected by saltwater intrusion or locations with naturally poor quality ground water. The EPA-proposed drinking water standards are listed in Table 2. Ground Water Quality Process Chemical analyzes of water commonly report constituent concentrations as “total. To prevent ground water pollution. organic matter containing nitrogen. some agencies in California require a 3 m (10 ft) aquifer clearance for drainage well construction. nitrite. offenders can be charged with polluting ground water but those charges must be made and proven in a court of law. .3. The particulate in the various elements are also represented in the suspended sediments. or insoluble mineralogic phases with nitrogen in the lattice. The particulate can be either absorbed nitrogen. If ground water contaminants are substantially higher in the area of concern than any of the current listed standards for drinking water quality. and nitrate.9 Drainage wells are readily capable of polluting ground water supplies. for example. is a total of dissolved and particulate phases. disposal of poor quality surficial storm water is not a serious concern. and local regulatory agencies should be consulted concerning the amount of aquifer clearance required for a specific project. for example.” This designation implies that nitrogen. The distinction is sometimes important as soils and interstitial areas of Structural plate storm sewer encloses stream in an urban area. future use as a public water supply is doubtful and the subsurface disposal permitting process should be greatly simplified. soluble organic nitrogen. Most State Health Departments prohibit direct discharge of storm water runoff into underground aquifers.58 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The general reference for ground water quality is drinking water standards since many near-surface or water table aquifers constitute the main source of public water supplies. These states have tended to refrain from use of storm water recharge systems fearing possible contamination of ground water.8 Some northern states use large quantities of road de-icing salts during winter months. Recharge systems are not utilized in some states because these requirements place restrictions on storm water infiltration systems.

silts. If impure water is allowed to enter directly into coarse gravel or open joints in rocks. Ionic lead tends to precipitate in the soil as lead sulfate and remains relatively immobile due to low solubility. The particular locations tested by USDA had soils with a relatively high clay content. absorption by organic matter. zinc. infiltration systems may degrade the ground water quality. Sites that are underlain with highly permeable strata. revealed that lead concentrations were very low.2. and the land disposal techniques. STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 59 some aquifers can filter out particulate or suspended solids thereby reducing the impact of the various pollutants on the ground water. Nearly all pathogenic bacteria and many chemicals are filtered within 1-3 m (3-10 ft) during vertical percolation. precipitation.11 Ionic forms can also be tied up by soil micro-organisms. The natural filtration of runoff water by the soil removes most harmful substances before they can reach the water-bearing aquifer. watertable. ion exchange.12 The interaction of lead with the high bicarbonate probably caused precipitation in the surface water borrow pond.S. or absorption can still reduce the available lead. ion exchange with clay minerals. Although lead is primarily exhausted as particulate matter. it is fairly soluble. and other moderately permeable soils also very definitely improve the quality of storm water. This concept underlies the practice of disposing of domestic sewage in septic tanks with leach lines or pits. Surface and ground water quality samples collected near a major highway interchange in Miami.10 Tests made by the U. . precipitation with other anions. This is particularly important in the case of bacteria.8 Layers of fine sands. or uptake by plants. Faults and intrusions should always This twin CSP diversion is more than a kilometer long. Sediment concentrations were relatively high. Department of Agriculture for the Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District indicated heavy metals such as lead. and copper were present in the upper few centimeters of storm water infiltration basin floors. or cracked and jointed rocks have the best capabilities for rapid disposal of surface waters. and within 15-60 m (50-200 ft) of lateral water movement in some soil formations. this layer may require removal or other treatment where a buildup of concentrations of these elements has occurred. the impurities may enter into and contaminate adjacent ground waters. Once ionic lead reaches the ground. Florida. Unless adequate arrange ments are made to treat contaminated water or to filter impurities. Generally after 10 to 15 years of storm water collection. One of the major traffic-related contaminants is lead.

Definitive information on this subject can be obtained by consulting appropriate references. These faults play a significant role in the effectiveness of the drainage wells. however. to dispose of storm runoff from newly developing industrial and residential areas. The authors also indicate that these direct conduits to ground water have caused quality degradation in one area. on quality. important in the planning stages of a large subsurface storm water disposal project to identify the underlying soil strata in terms of its hydraulic. and the absorption and filtration capabilities for various inorganic ions. and also in the movement of ground water. A view of the 18 lines of 1200 mm (48 in. cation-exchange capacity. Grim. It is.15 or other textbooks on the subject.) diameter fully perforated corrugated steel pipe used as a recharge system.60 MODERN SEWER DESIGN be evaluated for their effect on ground water occurrence. If the underlying rock strata is fractured or crevassed like limestone.” The case cited illustrates the possibility of ground water contamination in areas where fractured and highly permeable rock layers exist. Virginia. . and soil depth. Further discussion of the chemical characteristics of soils is beyond the scope of this manual. The importance of proper identification of the hydraulic characteristics of the rock strata has been noted previously. providing conduits for widespread movement of contaminants. organic content. Important hydraulic characteristics are infiltration rate. Several major faults exist in the underlying bedrock. The items referring to physical and hydraulic characteristics are addressed to some extent in other chapters of this manual. and on direction of movement. therefore.14 This approach does not guarantee that an anticipated chemical reaction will occur but does indicate how many ionic species should behave. “ground water users in adjacent Roanoke County have not experienced quality problems that could be connected to this means of storm water disposal. If detailed ground water quality analyzes are available. Chemical characteristics that may be important include pH. it is possible to compute the solution-mineral equilibrium. Breeding and Dawson13 tell about a system of 127 recharge wells used by the City of Roanoke. and chemical characteristics. for example. and permeability. structure. storm water may be diverted directly to the ground water. thereby receiving less treatment than percolation through soil layers. Pertinent physical characteristics include texture. physical.

” Report No. Johnson.. STORM DRAINAGE PLANNING 61 Ground Water Monitoring Environmental laws and regulations now in force require the monitoring of ground water where adverse effects to its quality may result from disposal and storage of solid and liquid wastes.S.. Geological Survey Open File Report 78-154. 2. Minn. 14. DOT-FH-11-8608. Jr. Peter R.” Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District. Dec.S. Dec.” Report No.C. Oct.S.K. Status of the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX .” U. 24. 1977. R.. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. 1968. 10. W. “Final Report of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. Environmental Protection Agency. D... R.. 1966. Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (N. Olson. PB-215 899. 402-411.S.C. R. Environmental Science and Technology. REFERENCES 1. M.. Response to Task Force 17 Questionnaire. Infiltration Drainage of Highway Surface Water.. Federal Highway Administration. U.S. Office of Research and Development.W.” Water and Sewage Works. SOLMNEQ: Solution-Mineral Equilibrium Computations.. and Sherwood. “Characteristics of Highway Runoff in Texas. Identification of Soil Lead Compounds from Automotive Sources.S. Pitt. 3. U.S. M. 5.D. C. Mar.K. U. October-November 1977”. Federal Highway Administration. 1975. St. Clay Minerology. 1977. 15. E.P.E. and La Graff.. J.B. Army Corps of Engineers and U. M. Bradford. Report 44019-75-004. . Smith. U.C. Jr.C. Vol. U. Water Quality Management Planning for Urban Runoff. Kharaka. 1973.L..” U.E. Mattraw. Smith.. Aug.. Shirley. I.. B. U... Monitoring systems have not. Office of Water Programs Operation. No.. M. Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. DOT-FH-11-8600. Groundwater and Wells. McGrawHill Inc. Paul.2. Breeding. Grim. Washington. V. Washington. 3. pp. J. EPA. Broward County. Singh. Edwards. Environmental Research Information Center.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Geological Survey Computer Contribution. “Recharge Wells.E. Skogerboe. 1977. Department of Agriculture. 7. 1978. 13.. Moe. California Department of Transportation. 11. T. G.. 4.E. December 1974.R. Bullin.S. 227-230. 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY Amy..W.S. D. E. Journal of Research. Water Planning Division. “Infiltration Drainage Design for Highway Facilities. R. 1969.S. U. D. Apr... “Effects and Evaluation of Water Quality Resulting from Highway Development and Operation. Transportation Laboratory. U. Environmental Protection Agency. Feb. 1983.M) For National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (N. Gupta. R. Office of Enforcement And Permits..R. Miculka. H. J. N. 6. Environmental Protection Agency.. pp. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations.. and Lougheed. 1977. 1978. Geological Survey Open File Report. 40 CRF 141.D. in Review..R. Agnew. 1977...C. B. and Barnes. “Water Quality in Borrow Ponds near a Major Dade County.. Office of Research and Development. 12. as yet. R. Nov.) Permit Application Requirements For Storm water Discharges. T. Research Report 6328201. and Lord.. 9. Geological Survey. Meinholz. 8.K.S. Florida Highway Interchange. “The Quality of Storm Water Runoff from a Residential Area.F. 1977. Jointly sponsored by U. K... Polasek. R. T.September 1977). 27. Feb. 1975. been required for ground water recharge utilizing storm water.. Nov.. Washington.B. Florida.W. and McPherson. Beaven.S. Oct. and Dawson.P.. Inc.

.62 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 7 m (24 ft) diameter steel sewer being installed in wet conditions.

Different specialist interests.1 Hydrologic cycle . oceanographers or agronomists.1. Every effort has been made to keep the presentation simple. This should help the user of these models in determining appropriate data and interpreting the results.2. thereby lessening the “black box” impression with which users are often faced. From M. particularly where these apply to computer models. the relevant part of the cycle can be represented in idealistic fashion by the block diagram of Figure 3. but some fundamental knowledge of hydrology has been assumed. it is necessary to describe many of these processes in mathematical terms. The effect of urbanization on the environment is to complicate that part of the hydrologic cycle that is affected by the modification of natural drainage paths. The objective of this chapter is to introduce the drainage engineer to different methods for estimating those components of the hydrologic cycle which affect design decisions—from precipitation to runoff.G. There are many inter-related phenomena involved in this process and these are often depicted in a simplistic form as shown in Figure 3. impounding of water. such as meteorologists. Inevitably. Precipitation Ve ge Ev tat ap ion ora tio nF rom Po nd s Tran spir atio n In g llin Fa Fr om From Streams Gro un dS urf ace Evaporation from Soil Evaporation Ground Water Infiltration Temporary Storage To Vegetation To Soil To Streams To Ocean Ocean Storage Figure 3. focus on different components of the cycle. Emphasis is placed on the description of alternative methods for analyzing or simulating the rainfall-runoff process. but from the point of view of the drainage engineer. Spangler’s “Soil Engineering”1 From Oceans . division of storm water and the implementation of storm water management techniques.where water comes from and where it goes.63 CHAPTER 3 Hydrology INTRODUCTION The hydrologic cycle is a continuous process whereby water is transported from ocean and land surfaces to the atmosphere from which it falls again in the form of precipitation.

The rainfall event may be either historic.64 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Precipitation Runoff Losses Subsurface Flow and Ground Water Receiving Bodies of Water Evaporation Figure 3.2 Block diagram—Hydrologic Cycle. The main parameters of interest are the total amount (or depth) of precipitation (Ptot). taken from recorded events or idealized. This fact. is often difficult to convey to residents of an area. The frequency of occurrence (N) of a storm is usually expressed in years and is an estimate based on statistical records of the long-term average time interval. Continuous rainfall records extending many days or weeks may sometimes be used for the simulation of a system.. a storm of equal or greater severity will not occur for another 25 years. . particularly where the quality rather than the quantity of runoff water is of concern. In most cases this will be a single event storm. depth Ptot in a given time td). which is expected to elapse between successive occurrences of two storms of a particular severity (e. ESTIMATION OF RAINFALL The initial data required for drainage design are descriptions of the rainfall. the duration of the storm (td) and the distribution of the rainfall intensity (i) throughout the storm event. while statistically true.g. i. a period of significant and continuous rainfall proceeded and followed by a reasonable length of time during which no rainfall occurs. The word “expected” is emphasized because there is absolutely no certainty that after a 25-year storm has occurred.e..

it is essential that the timestep not be too large. rainfall intensity is plotted in the form of a bar graph. The rainfall intensity-duration curves are readily available from governmental agencies. However. of rainfall is usually expressed in depth per unit time with the highest intensities occurring over short time intervals and progressively decreasing as the time intervals increase. These curves are then said to represent storms of a specific return frequency. The curves may be in the graphical form as the example shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Each curve represents the intensity-time relationship for a certain return frequency. HYDROLOGY 65 Rainfall Intensity—Duration Frequency Curves Rainfall intensity-duration frequency curves are derived from the statistical analysis of rainfall records compiled over a number of years. Rainfall Hyetographs The previous section discussed the dependence of the average rainfall intensity of a storm on various factors. thus the highest intensity for a specific duration for N years of records is called the N year storm. Obviously this approximation becomes a truer representation of reality as the timestep gets smaller. local municipalities and towns. It is thus implicitly assumed that the rainfall intensity remains constant over the timestep used to describe the hyetograph. from a series of storms.3. The intensity. this point should be kept in mind since it is usual to employ the same timestep for . or may be represented by individual equations that express the time intensity relationships for specific frequencies. and as such are widely used in the designing of storm drainage facilities and flood flow analysis.3. in the form: a i = ——– b (t + c) where: i = intensity mm/hr (in. Of great importance from historical rainfall events is the way in which the precipitation is distributed in time over the duration of the storm. When using a computer model. otherwise peak values of both rainfall and runoff can be “smeared” with consequent loss of accuracy. At the other extreme. very small timesteps may require very large amounts of data to represent a storm and can increase the computational cost of simulation considerably./hr) t = time in minutes a. The greater intensity of the storm. but are the distribution of the highest intensities over time durations for a storm of N frequency. especially for short duration events or very small catchments. or the rate. c = constants developed for each IDF curve The fitting of rainfall data to the equation may be obtained by either graphical or least square methods. Conventionally. which is a graphical representation of the variation of rainfall intensity with time. b.2 It should be noted that the IDF curves do not represent a rainfall pattern.4 shows a typical example. This can be described using a rainfall hyetograph. Rainfall hyetographs can be obtained (usually in tabular rather than graphical form) from weather stations that have suitable records of historical rainfall events. with a frequency of once in N years. the lesser their recurrence frequency.

rainfall duration.4 Rainfall hyetograph.66 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 200 Rainfall Intensity. 5-Year 25 100-Year Frequency 50 Intensity mm/hr (in./hr) 25 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Time (minutes) Figure 3. .3 Rainfall for various storm frequencies vs. mm/hr (in./hr) 175 150 50 125 10 100 75 50 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 Rainfall duration (minutes) Figure 3.

b) It may be desirable to standardize the design storm to be used within a region in order that comparisons of results from various studies may be made. b) Discretization of the available data. Choice of timestep is therefore influenced by: a) Accuracy of rainfall-runoff representation. except for first cut or “back-of-the-envelope” . b) The Chicago hyetograph. Thus i = iave = Ptot td This simplified approximation is used in the rational method with the further assumption that the storm duration is equal to the time of concentration of the catchment (see Figure 3. it will be found that late peaking storms produce higher peak runoff than early peaking storms of the same total depth as the latter tend to be reduced in severity by the initially high infiltration capacity of the ground. the storm duration should equal the time of concentration. Synthetic Rainfall Hyetographs An artificial or idealized hyetograph may be required for a number of reasons. it may be necessary to use several different rainfall hyetographs to determine the sensitivity of the results to the different design storms. Care should therefore be taken in selecting a design storm to ensure that it is representative of the rainfall patterns in the area under study. when runoff from pervious areas is significant. Selection of the storm duration will also influence the hydrograph characteristics. In many cases. HYDROLOGY 67 both the description of the rainfall hyetograph and the computation of the runoff hyetograph. For watersheds where the time of concentration exceeds six hours. Use of a rectangular rainfall distribution is seldom justified or acceptable nowadays. Uniform Rainfall The simplest possible design storm is to assume that the intensity is uniformly distributed throughout the storm duration. and d) Computational storage and cost. For example. two of which are noted here. c) The SCS design storms. The time distribution of the selected design hyetograph will significantly affect the timing and magnitude of the peak runoff. The Soil Conservation Service Handbook3 recommends that a six-hour storm duration be used for watersheds with a time of concentration less than or equal to six hours. A number of different synthetic hyetographs are described in the following sections. depending upon the size of the watershed and degree of urbanization. c) Size of the watershed. and d) Huff’s storm distribution patterns.5).3. a) The historic rainfall data may not be available for the location or the return frequency desired. These include: a) Uniform rainfall as in the rational method.

3 – 0. a) After the peak a ia = [ ( [ ( (1 . i tc Figure 3. the average intensity for each “slice” would lie on a single curve of the IDF diagram. It implies that the Chicago design storm displays statistical properties that are consistent with the statistics of the IDF curve. have some use in explaining or visualizing rainfall runoff processes since any hyetograph may be considered as a series of such uniform. short duration pulses of rainfall.b) tb r tb r +c +c ] 1+b ta = time after peak tb = time before peak r = ratio of time before the peak occurs to the total duration time .68 MODERN SEWER DESIGN estimates. which defines the fraction of the storm duration that occurs before the peak rainfall intensity. starts with the parameters of an IDF curve together with a parameter (r). however. The synthesis of the Chicago hyetograph. t The Chicago Hyetograph The Chicago hyetograph4 is assumed to have a time distribution such that if a series of ever increasing “time-slices” were analyzed around the peak rainfall. The continuous curves of the hyetograph in Figure 3. The value of r is derived from the analysis of actual rainfall events and is generally in the range of 0.6 can be computed in terms of the times before (tb) or after (ta) the peak intensity by the two equations below.5 Uniform rainfall.b) ta +c 1-r ] ta +c 1-r ) ) 1+b b) Before the peak a ib = where: (1 . It can. therefore.5.

Table 3. 80%.r ia = ————————— 1+ b tb –—– + c 1./hr) 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 [ ] ( ) [ ( ] ) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Time (Minutes) Figure 3.25 km2 to 25 km2 or 0. HYDROLOGY 69 The Chicago storm is commonly used for small to medium watersheds (0. a family of curves was developed representing values exceeded in 90%.. 300 275 250 tb tb (1. 2nd. The Huff Rainfall Distribution Curves Huff 5 analyzed the significant storms in 11 years of rainfall data recorded by the State of Illinois. It has been found that peak runoff flows computed using a Chicago design storm are higher than those obtained using other synthetic or historic storms. Another point to note is that the resultant peak runoff may exhibit some sensitivity to the time step used.0 to 4.1 to 10 mi. 1st quartile) is represented by the 50% exceedence curve. Typical storm durations are in the range of 1.0 hours.e.2) for both rural or urbanized conditions. of the storm events.b) –—– + c 1. . The storms were grouped into four categories depending on whether the peak rainfall intensity fell in the 1st.g. at time t after the start of rainfall) as a fraction of the total storm depth Ptot and plotting this ratio as a function of a nondimensional time t/td.r a Rainfall Intensity.. Thus the average of all the storm events in a particular category (e.3.b) –– + c r ib = ————————— tb 1+ b –– + c r a ta ta (1. The data were represented in non-dimensional form by expressing the accumulated depth of precipitation Pt (i. In each category. very small timesteps giving rise to slightly more peaked runoff hydrographs. mm/hr (in. 3rd or 4th quarter (or quartile) of the storm duration.. This is due to the Chicago storm attempts to model the statistics of a large collection of real storms and thus tends to present an unrealistically extreme distribution.1 shows the dimensionless coefficients for each quartile expressed at intervals of 5% of td. 70%.6 Chicago hyetograph. etc.

031 0.944 0.958 0.50 0.993 1.875 0.630 0.971 0. This distribution is used in all regions of the United States and Canada with the exception of the Pacific coast. Soil Conservation Service design storm was developed for various storm types.000 4 0.215 0. The study area and storm duration for which the distributions were developed vary considerably.350 0.000 0.70 0.085 0.155 0.60 0. with td varying from 3 to 48 hours and the drainage basin area ranging from 25 to 1000 km2 (10 to 400 mi. based on duration and location.65 0.20 0.180 0.280 0.860 0.500 0. SCS Storm Distributions The U.798 0.072 0.975 1.80 0.35 0.830 0.915 0.178 0.900 0.760 0.040 0.95 1.015 0.90 0.040 0.305 0.15 0.930 0.620 0.55 0.020 0.85 0. however.705 0.920 0. To use the Huff distribution.948 0.000 0. The storm duration was initially selected to be 6 hours.974 0.2. the user need only specify the total depth of rainfall Ptot the duration td and the desired quartile.525 0.805 0. The distributions are most applicable to midwestern regions of North America and regions of similar rainfall climatology and physiography.122 0.70 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The first quartile curve is generally associated with relatively short duration storms in which 62% of the precipitation depth occurs in the first quarter of the storm duration.898 0.935 0.185 0.290 0.880 0.983 0.740 0.25 0.000 3 0.115 0. 12.965 0.690 0.962 0.333 0.395 0.30 0.994 1.063 0.000 0.790 0.1 t/td 0. The rainfall distribution varies.10 0. been developed.535 0.2).930 0.985 0.055 0.020 0.100 0.00 0.855 0. Durations of up to 48 hours have. storm durations and regions in the United States3.000 0.000 .and 24-hour distributions for the SCS Type II storm are given in Table 3.725 0.155 0. The third quartile has been found to be suitable for storms on the Pacific seaboard.420 0.100 0.125 0. t. The 6-.545 0.215 0.995 1.135 0. The fourth quartile curve is normally used for longer duration storms in which the rainfall is more evenly distributed over the duration td and is often dominated by a series of rain showers or steady rain or a combination of both.070 0.40 0.985 0.208 0.05 0.245 0. Table 3.00 Dimensionless Huff Storm Coefficients Pt/Ptot For Quartile 1 0.S.000 2 0.75 0.45 0.435 0.140 0. The curve can then be scaled up to a dimensional mass curve and the intensities obtained by discretizing the mass curve for the specified timestep.070 0.

0 8. The balance is diverted in various ways. After even quite a short dry period.0 19 89 4. 12h and 24h Durations 6 Hour Fcum (%) Time end’g 0.5 1.0 8 12 2.5 3.5 7 96 5. Rainfall that reaches a pervious area of the ground surface will initially be used to satisfy the capacity for infiltration in the upper layer of the soil. 6h.0 4 100 6.5 2.2) rural basins. This fraction is trapped in vegetation or roof depressions and never reaches the catchment surface.0 5.5 9. The longer duration storms tend to be used for sizing detention facilities while at the same time providing a reasonable peak flow for sizing the conveyance system.5 3. both the longer duration (6.to 48-hour) and shorter 1-hour thunderstorm distributions have been used in urban areas and for smaller areas.0 10.5 8.0 1.0 3.0 6.5 2. the infiltration SCS Type II Rainfall Distribution for 3h.0 7.2 3 Hour Time end’g Finc (%) . However.0 3.3. It is eventually dissipated by evaporation.0 4.0 Finc (%) 2 2 4 4 7 51 13 6 4 3 2 2 Fcum (%) 2 4 8 12 19 70 83 89 93 96 98 100 Time end’g 0.5 11.5 58 70 3. Evaporation In certain climates it is possible that some fraction of the rainfall evaporates before reaching the ground.5 4.0 11.5 1.0 1.5 12.5 6.5 7.0 2.5 5.0 9.0 12 Hour Finc (%) 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 6 45 9 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Fcum (%) 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 15 19 25 70 79 83 86 89 91 93 95 96 97 98 99 100 Time end’g 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 24 Hour Finc (%) 2 2 4 4 7 51 13 6 4 3 2 2 Fcum (%) 2 4 8 12 19 70 83 89 93 96 98 100 Interception Infiltration Table 3. HYDROLOGY 71 The design storms were initially developed for large (25 km2 or 10 mi.5 2.0 2.5 0.5 10. Estimation of Effective Rainfall Only a fraction of the precipitation that falls during a storm contributes to the overland flow or runoff from the catchment.5 1.0 4.5 4 4 1. Since rainfall is measured by gauges on the earth’s surface this subtraction is automatically taken into account in recorded storms and may be ignored by the drainage engineer.0 5.

. Only after these tiny reservoirs have been filled will overland flow commence and contribute to the runoff from the catchment. Surface Depression Storage If the intensity of the rainfall reaching the ground exceeds the infiltration capacity of the ground. the excess will begin to fill the interstices and small depressions on the ground surface.00278 for SI units (k=1 for Imperial units) When using the rational method. Qt = Precipitation. The Runoff Coefficient C (Rational Method) If an impervious area. The infiltrated water will either: a) Evaporate directly by capillary rise. after a time (time of concentration Tc). A number of methods are available to estimate the effective rainfall and thus the amount of runoff for any particular storm event. Three methods for estimating effective rainfall are outlined. b) Evapotranspirate through the root system of vegetal cover.g. This might be expressed as follows: Runoff. then. and the degree of sophistication warranted for the design. the runoff will be given by the equation: Q = k·i·A The rational method assumes that all of the abstractions may be represented by a single coefficient of volumetric runoff C so that in general the equation reduces to: Q = k·C·i·A where: Q = runoff in m3/s (ft3/s) i = intensity in mm/hr (in. The effective rainfall is thus that portion of the storm rainfall that contributes directly to the surface runoff hydrograph. A. d) Penetrate to deeper levels to recharge the ground water. Clearly this will begin to happen almost immediately on impervious surfaces. 100 mm/hr) but this gradually diminishes after the start of rainfall as the storage capacity of the ground is saturated.3. the data available. Since these surface depressions are not uniformly distributed it is quite possible that runoff will commence from some fraction of the catchment area before the depression storage on another fraction is completely filled. Typical recommended values for surface depression storage are given in Table 3.72 MODERN SEWER DESIGN capacity can be quite large (e. c) Move laterally through the soil in the form of interflow toward a lake or stream. The method selected should be based on the size of the drainage area. the following assumptions are considered: . Pt – Interception Depth – Infiltrated Volume – Surface Depression Storage All of the terms are expressed in units of depth. i. is subjected to continuous and long-lasting rainfall of intensity./hr) A = drainage area in hectares (acres) k = constant = 0. These range from the runoff coefficient C of the rational method to relatively sophisticated computer implementations of semi-empirical laws representing the physical processes. or.

c) The time of concentration is the time required for the runoff from the most remote part of the watershed to reach the point under design.3 Typical Recommended Values for Surface Depression Storage6.0 7. Since C is the only manipulative factor in the rational formula. . root crops) Grass Areas in Parks. as defined by SCS soil scientists. Care should be exercised in selecting the value as it incorporates all of the hydrologic abstractions. Table 3. The curve number is a function of soils type.1 0.4 The Soil Conservation Service Method The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method3 developed a relationship between rainfall (P). retention (S). soils with a permanent high water table. d) (High runoff potential) Soils having a very slow infiltration rate when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of clay soils with a high swelling potential. The retention or potential storage in the soil is established by selecting a curve number (CN). well to excessively drained sands or gravel. moderately well to well drained soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse texture. It is important to note that the appropriate value of C depends on the magnitude of the storm and significantly higher values of C may be necessary for more extreme storm events.2 0. 7 Land Cover Large Paved Areas Roofs. b) The maximum runoff rate occurs when the rainfall lasts as long or longer than the time of concentration. are: a) (Low runoff potential) Soils having a high infiltration rate even when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of deep.1 0. soils with a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface and shallow soils over nearly impervious material.5 2. b) Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of moderately deep to deep. the runoff is directly proportional to the value assigned to C.3 0. ground cover and Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC). and effective rainfall or runoff (Q).3.5 5. HYDROLOGY 73 a) The rainfall intensity is uniform over the entire watershed during the entire storm duration.5 7. This is perhaps one of the most serious of the deficiencies associated with this method. soil types and antecedent conditions. Flat Fallow Land Field Without Crops Fields with Crops (grain. Table 3.0 (in.) 0.3 0. The hydrological soil groups. Lawns Wooded Areas and Open Fields Recommended Value (mm) 2.5 10. c) Soils having a slow infiltration rate when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of soils with a layer that impedes downward movement of water or soils with moderately fine to fine texture.4 lists typical values for C as a function of land use for storms of approximately 5 to 10 year return period.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . .35 The coefficients in these two tabulations are applicable for storms of 5. .20 to 0. . . . . . .70 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This procedure often is applied to typical “sample” blocks as a guide to selection of reasonable values of the coefficient for an entire area. . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Average. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Neighborhood. . . . . . . .50 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . .25 to 0. . . . . . . . . .70 Residential Single-family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .to 10-yr frequencies. . . . higher intensity storms will require the use of higher coefficients because infiltration and other losses have a proportionally smaller effect on runoff. . . . . 2 to 7 percent . . . . 0. . . . .70 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . attached . . the runoff potential or CN value of a site may be determined. . Three levels of Antecedent Moisture Conditions are considered in the SCS method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 to 0. . . . . . 0.5 lists typical CN values. . . Less frequent. . . This is the lowest runoff potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Heavy . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 percent . . . . . . .90 Parks. . . . .50 to 0. . . . . AMC II — The average case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Multi-units. . . .18 to 0. . . . . . . . . It is defined as the amount of rainfall in a period of five to 30 days preceding the design storm. .60 to 0. . . . . . . . . .30 It often is desirable to develop a composite runoff based on the percentage of different types of surface in the drainage area. . . . . . . . . . . AMC III — Heavy or light rainfall and low temperatures having occurred during the previous five days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 3. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 to 0. .35 Railroad yard . . . . . . . . Table 3. . 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 to 0. . . . . . . . Knowing the hydrological soil group and the corresponding land use. . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Playgrounds . . . . . . . .10 to 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . .50 Multi-units. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 percent. . . . . . . . . .25 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Unimproved . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coefficients with respect to surface type currently in use are: Character of Surface Runoff Coefficients Pavement Asphalt and Concrete . . . . . . .95 Lawns. .60 to 0. . . . . . . . . . detached . . . This is the highest runoff potential. . . 0. . . . . . . .75 Residential (suburban) . . . .40 Apartment . . . . . the heavier the antecedent rainfall. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . the greater the runoff potential. . . . . . . cemeteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The coefficients are based on the assumption that the design storm does not occur when the ground surface is frozen. . .4 Recommended Runoff Coefficients8 Runoff Coefficients Description of Area Business Downtown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Brick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 to 0. . . . . . AMC I — Soils are dry but not to the wilting point. . . . . .70 Industrial Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .13 to 0. . . . . . . sandy soil Flat. . . . . . . . . . . .85 Roofs . . . . . . . . . . .22 Steep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

be shifted (dashed line for first timestep. The effective rainfall is defined by the relationship. infiltration and depression storage prior to runoff and infiltration after runoff.7 shows a typical rainfall distribution and infiltration curve. which defines the infiltration capacity of the soil. (P .3. if the infiltration capacity is given by: _ fcap = fc + (fo . fo. To account for this the infiltration curve should. The Horton Infiltration Equation The Horton equation9. Under these conditions the Ia value may be reduced to be a lesser percentage of S or may be estimated and input directly to the above equation. fc. then a corresponding CN value is determined (see Table 3. A further modification is necessary if surface depression is to be accounted for.4 P + S .10 • 25. The potential storage in the soils is based on an initial abstraction (Ia).2 S. However. changes the initial rate. . the initial finite values of the effective rainfall hyetograph must be reduced to zero until a depth equivalent to the surface depression storage has been accumulated. The reduction in infiltration capacity is dependent more on the reduction in storage capacity in the soil rather than the elapsed time from the start of rainfall.Ia)2 100 Q = ———— where S = —— . if moisture conditions I or III are chosen. to a lower rate.6). Therefore. HYDROLOGY 75 The CN values in Table 3.5 are based on antecedent condition II.fc) e t · k Then the actual infiltration. which is the interception. many engineers have found that this may be overly conservative. The infiltration capacity is an upper bound and is realized only when the available rainfall equals or exceeds the infiltration capacity. The final hyetograph is the true effective rainfall that will generate runoff from the catchment surface. Thus. For the initial timesteps. ∆t) by an elapsed time that would equate the infiltration volume to the volume of runoff. the infiltration rate exceeds the rainfall rate. therefore. especially for moderated rainfall events and low CN values. Since the storage depth must be satisfied before overland flow can occur. will be defined by one or the other of the following two equations: f = fcap for i ≥ fcap f = i for i ≤ fcap In the above equations: f = actual infiltration rate into the soil fcap = maximum infiltration capacity of the soil fo = initial infiltration capacity fc = final infiltration capacity i = rainfall intensity k = exponential decay constant (1/hours) t = elapsed time from start of rainfall (hours) Figure 3.Ia CN ( ) The original SCS method assumed the value of Ia to be equal to 0. f.

Parks. Chapter 9. Golf Courses. Section 4. Roofs. 3 Curve numbers are computed assuming the runoff from the house and driveway is directed toward the street with a minimum of roof water directed to lawns where additional infiltration could occur. refer to National Engineering Handbook. Cemeteries. etc. 2 Good cover is protected from grazing and litter and brush cover soil. . Lawns. a curve number of 95 may be used. Aug. Driveways. 19723. no mulch good cover2 Open Spaces.5 Runoff Curve Numbers2 Runoff curve number for selected agricultural suburban and urban land use (Antecedent moisture condition II and Ia = 0. 4 The remaining pervious areas (lawn) are considered to be in good pasture condition for these curve numbers. Hydrology.76 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 3.5 Streets and Roads: paved with curbs and storm sewers5 gravel dirt Notes: 77 61 57 54 51 98 98 76 72 85 75 72 70 68 98 98 85 82 90 83 81 80 79 98 98 89 87 92 87 86 85 84 98 98 91 89 1 For a more detailed description of agricultural land use curve numbers. poor cover.2 S) Land Use Description Cultivated Land1: without conservation treatment with conservation treatment 72 62 68 39 30 45 25 39 49 89 81 Hydrologic Soil Group 81 71 79 61 58 66 55 61 69 92 88 88 78 86 74 71 77 70 74 79 94 91 91 81 89 80 78 83 77 80 84 95 93 Pasture or Range Land:poor condition good condition Meadow: good condition Wood or Forest Land: thin stand. etc. 5 In some warmer climates of the country. Good Condition: grass cover on 75% or more of the area Fair Condition: grass cover on 50% to 75% of the area Commercial and Business Areas (85% impervious) Industrial Districts (72% impervious) Residential3: Average lot size Average % Impervious4 1/20 hectare or less (1/8 acre) 65 1/10 hectare (1/4 acre) 38 3/20 hectare (1/3 acre) 30 1/5 hectare (1/2 acre) 25 2/5 hectare (1 acre) 20 Paved Parking Lots.

HYDROLOGY 77 Table 3.3.6 CN for Condition II 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 Curve Number Relationships for Different Antecedent Moisture Conditions CN for Conditions I & III 100 97 94 91 89 87 85 83 81 80 78 76 75 73 72 70 68 67 66 64 63 62 60 59 58 57 55 54 53 52 51 50 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 100 100 99 99 99 98 98 98 97 97 96 96 95 95 94 94 93 93 92 92 91 91 90 89 89 88 88 87 86 86 85 84 84 83 82 82 81 80 79 78 CN for Condition II 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 CN for Conditions I & III 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 19 18 18 17 16 16 15 12 9 6 4 2 0 78 77 76 75 75 74 73 72 71 70 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 43 37 30 22 13 0 .

Table 3. at time = t t Infiltration Curve.9 in.7 Representation of the Horton equation. the SCS method is used with the initial abstraction set at an absolute value of Ia = 6.9(a) shows that no runoff occurs until approximately 30 minutes have elapsed at which time the rainfall has satisfied the initial abstraction. i Infiltration Curve. Rainfall. the runoff.24 in.1 mm (0.78 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The selection of the parameters for the Horton equation depends on soil type. (f).). (i) f. vegetal cover and antecedent moisture conditions. The incident storm is assumed to be represented by a second quartile Huff curve with a total depth of 50 mm (1. although small. is finite and continues to be so to the end of the storm. From that point./hr)for a variety of soil types under different crop conditions.6.7 shows typical values for fo and fc (mm/hour or in.) and a duration of 120 minutes. In one case. The curve number used is 87.08. at time = 0 ∆t TIME Figure 3. Comparison of the SCS and Horton Methods Figure 3. however. The value of the lag constant should be typically between 0. (f).8 illustrates the various components of the rainfall runoff process for the SCS and Horton methods.04 and 0. . The following example serves to show some of the difference between use of the SCS method in which the initial abstraction is used and the moving curve Horton method in which surface depression storage is significant. Figure 3.

08 fo fc 15 36 20 43 64 53* 89 8 3 3 8 10 53* 53 Clavey Sand K = 0. Moreover.).9(b) shows that infiltration commences immediately and absorbs all of the rainfall until approximately 30 minutes have elapsed.06 fo fc 33 43 20 64 71 71* 89 10 8 3 10 15 71* 71 Sand. HYDROLOGY 79 The Horton case is tested using values of fo = 30 mm/hr (1. orchards Notes: *K = 0 . fc = 10 mm/hr (0. These values have been found to give the same volumetric runoff coefficient as the SCS parameters. ski slopes Uncompacted grassy surface. root crops. Tc.7 Typical values for the Horton equation parameters9 Loam. with the channel flow time being determined from pipe flow equations. This time is composed of two components: a) The time for overland flow to occur from a point on the perimeter of the catchment to a natural or artificial drainage conduit or channel. meadows. This is generally called the Time of Concentration. b) The travel time in the conduit or channel to the outflow point of the catchment. Gravel K = 0.25 hour and a surface depression storage depth of 5 mm (0.18 in. K = 0. Establishing the Time of Concentration Apart from the area and the percentage of impervious surface. the rainfall intensity is less than fc and runoff is effectively stopped at that time. Figure 3. It will be found that the effective rainfall hyetograph generated using the Horton method has more leading and trailing “zero” elements so that the effective hyetograph is shorter but more intense than that produced using the SCS method. one of the most important characteristics of a catchment is the time that must elapse until the entire area is contributing to runoff at the outflow point. Table 3. grass areas in parks. woodland. the initial excess surface water has to fill the surface depression storage. In storm sewer design. Inlet times used in sewer design generally vary from 5 to 20 minutes.3./hr).36 in. Loess. vines) Grassed verges.04 fo fc 43 64 20 89 89 89* 89* 15 10 3 18 18 89* 89* Land Surface Types Fallow land field without crops Fields with crops (grain. which delays the commencement of runoff for a further 13 minutes.2 in. Clay K = 0. the time of concentration may be defined as the inlet time plus travel time. lawns Gardens. pastures Coniferous woods City parks. However. after 72 minutes. playground./hr).

70 Initial abstraction Initial Abstraction 60 50 40 mm/hr 30 20 10 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 Minutes Figure 3.) and CN = 87. Infiltration Infiltration Direct Runoff Direct runoff .80 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Direct Runoff (effective rainfall) Storm Initial Abstraction SCS Losses Infiltration Horton Surface Depression Storage Figure 3.8 Conceptual components of rainfall. .6.24 in. .1 mm (0.9a SCS Method with Ia = 6.

Tc will be proportional to the Manning roughness factor. In situations where insufficient historical data are available. it may help to compare the results obtained by two or more methods. However. Long lengths result in long travel times.9b Horton equation fo = 30 mm (1. the depth of flow is not a characteristic of the catchment alone but depends on the intensity of the effective rainfall or surface moisture excess. n. . b) Average surface slope (S). Since Tc is inversely proportional to S. care must be exercised in estimating an average value for the surface slope. The impact on the resultant hydrograph due to using different methods for establishing the time of concentration should then be assessed.2 in. it is desirable to compare the value to that obtained from observation.3.). rough surfaces result in long travel times and vice versa. Several methods of estimating the Time of Concentration are described below. Thus.) Factors Affecting Time of Concentration The time taken for overland flow to reach a conduit or channel depends on a number of factors: a) Overland flow length (L).36 in. if possible. HYDROLOGY 70 81 Surface depression storage 60 50 40 mm/hr Infiltration 30 Direct runoff 20 10 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 Minutes Figure 3. This should be measured along the line of greatest slope from the extremity of the catchment to a drainage conduit or channel. Since it is clear that this parameter has a strong influence on the shape of the runoff hydrograph.25 Fig re 3 9b Horton eq tion f = 30mm f mm (0. d) Depth of overland flow (y).18 in. K Surface depression storage = 4 mm (0. In general. It seems reasonable to assume that very shallow surface flows move more slowly than deeper flows. c) Surface roughness.). if a Manning equation is used to estimate the velocity of overland flow. fc= 10 = 10mm K = 0 25 = 0.

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The Kirpich Formula
This empirical formula10 relates Tc to the length and average slope of the basin by the equation: Tc = 0.00032 L0.77 S-0.385 (See Figure 3.10) Where, Tc L S H = = = = time of concentration in hours maximum length of water travel in meters (ft) surface slope, given by H/L difference in elevation between the most remote point on the basin and the outlet, in meters (ft)

From the definition of L and S, it is clear that the Kirpich equation combines both the overland flow or entry time and the travel time on the channel or conduit. It is, therefore, particularly important that in estimating the drop H, the slope S and ultimately the time of concentration Tc, an allowance, if applicable, be made for the inlet travel time. The Kirpich equation is normally used for natural basins with well defined routes for overland flow along bare earth or mowed grass roadside channels. For overland flow on grassed surfaces, the value of Tc obtained should be doubled. For overland flow on concrete or asphalt surfaces, the value should be reduced by multiplying by 0.4. For concrete channels, a multiplying factor of 0.2 should be used. For large watersheds, where the storage capacity of the basin is significant, the Kirpich formula tends to significantly underestimate Tc.

The Uplands Method
When calculating travel times for overland flow in watersheds with a variety of land covers, the Uplands Method2 may be used. This method relates the time of concentration to the basin slope, length and type of ground cover. The individual times are calculated with their summation giving the total travel time. A graphical solution can be obtained from Figure 3.11. However, it should be noted that the graph is simply a log-log plot of values of V/S0.5 given in the following table.

Twin outfall lines for major urban storm sewer system.

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83

1 40,000 2 3 10000 8000 6000 5000 4000 10 8 6 5 4 4 5 6 20,000 3 30,000 10 8 6

10

20

30 2

TC in hours

2 1 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

TC in hours

4 3

8 10

40

10,000

L in meters

3000 2000

1.0 .8 .6

20

H in meters

8,000 6,000

60 80 100

30 40 50 60 80 100

L, feet

EXAMP LE

.4 4,000 3,000 0.1 .3 .2

EXA MPL E

800 600 500 400 300 200

200 2,000

300 200 400

100

Example L = 2210 m H = 39 m Tc = 0.57 hr

300 1,000 400 500 600 800 1000 800 600

Example L = 7250 feet H = 130 feet then Tc = 0.57 hr

600 800 1000

Figure 3.10 Tc nomograph using the Kirpich formula.

The Kinematic Wave Method
The two methods described above have the advantage of being straight forward and may be used for either simple or more complex methods of determining the runoff. Apart from the empirical nature of the equations, the methods assume that the time of concentration is independent of the depth of overland flow or, more generally, the magnitude of the input. A method in common use that is more physically based and that also reflects the dependence of Tc on the intensity of the effective rainfall is the Kinematic Wave method. The method was proposed by Henderson11 to analyze the kinematic wave resulting from rainfall of uniform intensity on an impermeable plane surface or rectangular area. The resulting equation is as follows: Tc = k (L n/ S) 0.6 ieff -0.4 in which k L n S ieff = = = = = 6.98 for SI units (0.939 for Imperial Units) Length of overland flow m (ft) Manning’s roughness coefficient Average slope of overland flow m/m (ft/ft) Effective rainfall intensity mm/hr (in./hr)

H, feet

1000

84

Slope in Percent

Slope in Percent

3

100 90 80 70 60 50 40

0.5 1.0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 30 20 2

3

100 90 80 70 60 50 40

0.5 30 20 0.1 0.2 0.3
Tras hF allo wo rM For est with H

1.0

10 9 8 7 6 5 4

2

0.03

0.04 0.05 0.06

0.08 0.10

Tras hF allo wo rM

For est with H

0.20

0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Velocity, ft/sec

Velocity, m/sec 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20

0.4 0.5 0.6

0.8 1.0

2.0 3.0 4.0

eav yG rou inim nd um Litte Tilla r an ge C dH ay M ultiv atio ead ow n; C (Ov onto erla ur o nd Nea r St Sho Flow rly rip rt G Bar ) Cro rass e an ppe Cul Pas dU d an tiva ture ntill ted, dW ed ( (Ov ood Stra Ove erla land ight rlan Row nd Flo (Ov dF w) erla low (Ov nd ); a erla Flow nd nd Allu ) Flow vial Pav ) ed A Fan Gra sW rea sse este (Sh dW eet rn M ater Flow oun way ); a tain nd Reg Sm ions all U plan dG ullie s

eav yG rou inim nd Litte um r an Tilla dH ge C ay M ultiv ead atio ow n; C (Ov onto erla ur o nd Nea Flow r St Sho rly rip rt G ) Bar Cro rass e an ppe Cul Pas dU d an tiva ture ntill ted, dW (Ov ed ( ood Stra erla Ove land ight nd rlan Flow Row (Ov dF erla low ) (Ov nd ); a erla Flow nd nd Allu ) Flow Pav vial ed A ) Fan Gra rea sW sse (Sh este dW eet rn M ater Flow way oun ); a nd tain Sm Reg all U ions plan dG ullie s

Figure 3.11 Velocities for Upland method for estimating travel time for overland flow.

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

5.0

3. HYDROLOGY

85

V/S0.5 Relationship for Various Land Covers
Land Cover Forest with Heavy Ground Litter, Hay Meadow (overland flow) Trash Fallow or Minimum Tillage Cultivation; Contour, Strip Cropped, Woodland (overland flow) Short Grass Pasture (overland flow) Cultivated, Straight Row (overland flow) Nearly Bare and Untilled (overland flow) or Alluvial Fans in Western Mountain Regions Grassed Waterway Paved Areas (sheet flow); Small Upland Gullies 3.0 4.6 6.1 10.0 15.0 20.0 V/S0.5 (m/s) 0.6 1.5 2.3 2.7 V/S0.5 (ft/s) 2.0 5.0 7.5 9.0

Other Methods
Other methods have been developed that determine Tc for specific geographic regions or basin types. These methods are often incorporated into an overall procedure for determining the runoff hydrograph. Before using any method, the user should ensure that the basis on which the time of concentration is determined is appropriate for the area under consideration.

DETERMINATION OF THE RUNOFF HYDROGRAPH
The following sections outline alternative methods for generating the runoff hydrograph. Emphasis will be given to establishing the hydrograph for single storm events. Methods for estimating flow for urban and rural conditions are given. Irrespective of the method used, it should be ensured that wherever possible the results should be compared with historical values. In many cases a calibration/validation exercise will aid in the selection of the most appropriate method. All of the methods described could be carried out using hand calculations; however, for all but the simplest cases the exercise would be very laborious. Furthermore, access to many tested computer models has been made easier in recent years due to the widespread use of microcomputers. For these reasons emphasis will be placed on describing the basis of each method and the relevant parameters. A subsequent section will relate the methods to several computer models. Rainfall runoff models may be grouped into two general classifications that analyze losses (i.e., to initial infiltration and depression storage) and effective rainfall. The effective rainfall hyetograph is then used as input to a catchment model to pro-

Ease of installation of CSP through existing concrete box.

86

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

duce a runoff hydrograph. It follows from this approach that infiltration must stop at the end of the storm. The alternative approach employs a surface water budget in which the infiltration or loss mechanism is incorporated into the catchment model. In this method, the storm rainfall is used as input and the estimation of infiltration and other losses is made an integral part of the calculation of runoff. This approach implies that infiltration will continue as long as the average depth of excess water on the surface is finite. Clearly, this may continue after the cessation of rainfall.

SCS Unit Hydrograph Method
A unit hydrograph represents the runoff distribution over time for one unit of rainfall excess over a drainage area. This method assumes that the ordinates of flow are proportional to the volume of runoff from any storm of the same duration. Therefore, it is possible to derive unit hydrographs for various rainfall blocks by convoluting the unit hydrograph with the effective rainfall distribution. The unit hydrograph theory is based on the following assumptions.

Rainfall

Losses

Effective Rainfall

Losses

Catchment Model

Runoff

Rainfall

Catchment Model

Runoff

Losses and infiltration

Surface Depression Storage

Figure 3.12 Classification of rainfall-runoff models: Effective Rainfall (top) & Surface Water Budget (bottom)

3. HYDROLOGY

87

a) For a given watershed, runoff-producing storms of equal duration will produce surface runoff hydrographs with approximately equivalent time bases, regardless of the intensity of the rain. b) For a given watershed, the magnitude of the ordinates representing the instantaneous discharge from an area will be proportional to the volumes of surface runoff produced by storms of equal duration. c) For a given watershed, the time distribution of runoff from a given storm period is independent of precipitation from antecedent or subsequent storm periods. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service, based on the analysis of a large number of hydrographs, proposed a unit hydrograph that requires only an estimate of the time to peak tp. Two versions of this unit hydrograph were suggested, one being curvilinear in shape, the other being a simple asymmetric triangle as shown in Figure 3.13. In the standard procedure, the duration of the recession link is assumed to be tr = (5/3)tp so that the time base is given by tb = (8/3)tp. The ordinates of the unit hydrograph are expressed in units of discharge per unit depth of effective rainfall. It follows, therefore, that the area under the triangle must equal the total contributing area of the catchment, so that, in terms of the notation used in Figure 3.13: qp = 2 A/tb = 0.75 A/tp for tb = ( 8/3 ) tp Expressed in SI units the above equation becomes: 1 qp = 0.75 ( A x 10002 x —— ) / ( tp x 3600 ) 1000 or qp = 0.208 A / tp or = 484 A / tp (US Imperial Units) where A is in km2 (mi2) tp is in hours, and qp peak flow is in m3/s per mm (ft3/s per inch) of effective rainfall The numerical constant in the above equation is a measure of the storage in the watershed. This value, generally denoted as B, is usually taken to be about 0.13 for flat marshy catchments and 0.26 for steep flashy catchments. The estimate of the time to peak tp is based on the time of concentration Tc and the time step ∆t used in the calculation using the relation: tp = 0.5 ∆t = 0.6 Tc where Tc may be determined by any acceptable method such as those described in the previous section. From the above equation it can be seen that the time to peak tp, and therefore the peak of the Unit Hydrograph qp, is affected by the value of timestep ∆t. Values of ∆t in excess of 0.25 tp should not be used as this can lead to underestimation of the peak runoff.

Rectangular Unit Hydrograph
An alternative option to the triangular distribution used in the SCS method is the rectangular unit hydrograph. Figure 3.14 illustrates the concept of convoluting the

If the rainfall duration td is not equal to Tc. If td is made equal to Tc. The rational method is often used as a rough estimate of the peak flow. then the resultant runoff hydrograph is trapezoidal in shape with peak flow given by the equation below and a time base of tb = td + Tc. However. . which assumes the peak flow occurs when the entire catchment surface is contributing to runoff. for pervious or more irregular surfaces. may be simulated using a rectangular unit hydrograph. it may be necessary to route the instantaneous hydrograph through a hypothetical reservoir in order to more closely represent the runoff hydrograph. the resultant runoff hydrograph will be symmetrical and triangular in shape with a peak flow given by Q = k·C·i·A and time base of tb = 2 Tc.13 SCS triangular unit hydrograph Where: D = excess rainfall period (not to be confused with unit time or unit hydrograph duration) L = lag of watershed. This may be appropriate for impervious surfaces in which surface depression storage is negligible. The ordinate of the unit hydrograph is defined as the area of the unit hydrograph divided by the time of concentration (Tc). The effective rainfall with duration td is convoluted with a rectangular unit hydrograph. which has a base equal to the time of concentration Tc. This method. and Q = k·C·i·A ( td / Tc ) Q = k·C·i·A for td ≤ Tc for td > Tc This approach makes no allowance for the storage effect due to the depth of overland flow and results in an “instantaneous” runoff hydrograph. In this case the effective rainfall hydrograph is reduced to a simple rectangular function and ieff = k·C·i.88 MODERN SEWER DESIGN D L qp tp tb tr Figure 3. time of center of mass of excess rainfall (D) to the time to peak (tp) effective rainfall with a rectangular unit hydrograph.

5 Tc where Tc is computed from the kinematic wave equation in which the rainfall intensity used is the maximum for the storm being modelled. A linear reservoir is one in which the storage S is linearly related to the outflow Q by the relation: S = K·Q where K = the reservoir lag or storage coefficient (e. The use of imax is justified since this intensity tends to dominate the subsequent runoff hydrograph. .g.. The resulting Unit ieff Effective Rainfall Time t q Unit Hydrograph t Time Tc Q Runoff Hydrograph Time Figure 3. HYDROLOGY 89 Linear Reservoir Method A more complex response function was suggested by Pederson12 in which the shape of the unit hydrograph is assumed to be the same as the response of a single linear reservoir to an inflow of rectangular shape and of duration ∆t. the value of K is taken to be 0.3. in hours) In the Pederson method.14 Convolution process using a rectangular unit hydrograph.

antecedent moisture conditions. land use and topography. It comprises five main “blocks” of code in addition to an Executive Block or supervisory calling program. the capability for continuous simulation has been added to single event simulation. infiltration. depression storage and runoff are all considered as processes qp = (l-e -∆t/k) /∆t q q = qp · e -(t -∆t)/k ∆t Time Figure 3. Since then it has been expanded and improved by the EPA and many other agencies and companies.15 and comprises a steeply rising limb that reaches a maximum at time t = ∆t followed by an exponential recession limb. It follows that the peak of the runoff hydrograph will usually be close to the time of peak rainfall intensity irrespective of the catchment characteristics. slope or roughness. The two curves can be described by the following equations.90 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Hydrograph is illustrated in Figure 3. This section describes the basic algorithm of the Runoff Block.S. The method differs from those described above in that it does not use the concept of effective rainfall. quality as well as quantity is simulated and snow-melt routines are included in some versions. which is used to generate the runoff hydrograph in the drainage system. Environmental Protection Agency in 197113. qp = [l-e -∆t/k) ] / ∆t q = qp · e -(t -∆t)/k at t = ∆t for t > ∆t and An important feature of the method is that the unit hydrograph always has a time to peak at ∆t and is incapable of reflecting different response times as a function of catchment length. In particular. based on a rainfall hyetograph. The model is intended for use in urban or partly urbanized catchments.15 The single linear reservoir. SWMM Runoff Algorithm The Storm Water Management Model was originally developed jointly for the U. . but employs a surface water budget approach in which rainfall.

3. Treating each sub-catchment as an idealized. occurring simultaneously at the land surface. taking into account the depth of depression surface storage (yd). Infiltration is assumed to occur as long as excess surface moisture is available from rainfall. the continuity or mass balance equation at the land surface is given by the statement: Inflow = (Infiltration + Outflow) + Rate of Surface Ponding That is: i·L·B = (f·L·B + Q) + L·B· ( ∆y/ ∆t) where i = Rainfall intensity f = Infiltration rate Q = Outflow y = Depth of flow over the entire surface The depth of flow (y) is computed using the Manning equation. rectangular plane surface of breadth B and length L. This is the dynamic equation: Q = B (1/n ) (y .16. depression storage or finite overland flow. which is also assumed to be uniform over the entire surface. . HYDROLOGY 91 i y So L Q yd f Figure 3.yd)5/3 S1/2 where n = Manning’s roughness coefficient for overland flow S = Average slope of the overland flow surface The infiltration rate (f) must be computed using a method such as the “moving curve” Horton equation or the Green-Ampt model.16 Representation of the SWMM/Runoff algorithm. The interaction of these inputs and outputs may be visualized with reference to Figure 3.

8 lists several of these models and their capabilities. by an interactive scheme such as the Newton-Raphson method) the outflow Q follows. in the range 0..92 MODERN SEWER DESIGN It is important to note that the value of Manning’s “n” used for overland flow is somewhat artificial (e. many computer models have been developed for the simulation of the rainfall/runoff process. Various methods can be used for the simultaneous solution of the continuity and dynamic equation. One method is to combine the equations into one nondifferential equation in which the depth (y) is the unknown..g. Saddle branch manhole is bolted in place.g. COMPUTER MODELS In recent years.1 to 0. . Once y is determined (e. Table 3.4) and does not represent a value which can be used for channel flow calculation.

8 Models Hydrologic Computer Models 3.Table 3. HYDROLOGY HEC-114 HYMO15 Model Characteristics ILLUDAS17 MIDUSS18 OTTHYMO19 SCS TR-2021 SCS TR-5521 SSARR22 STANFORD23 STORM24 SWMM13 HSPF16 QUALHYMO20 Model Type: Single Event Continuous • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Model Components: Infiltration Evapotranspiration Snowmelt Surface Runoff Subsurface Flow Reservoir Routing Channel Routing Water Quality • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Application: Urban Land Use Rural Land Use • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ease of Use: High Low • • • • • • • • • • • • • USDAHL-7425 • • • • • • • 93 .

8.L. 2. R. pp.. Section 4. L.G. L. Chu. U.S. “An Approach Toward a Physical Interpretation of Infiltration Capacity.” Water and Pollution Control Federation Manual of Practice No. Urban Hydrology for Small Watershed. 1957. M.. Horton. 399-417. 4. 1007-1019. 4th Edition. 5. 1967. “Synthetic Storm Pattern for Drainage Design.S.” Water Resources Research. A. 1972. 37. E. “Availability of Rainfall Runoff Data for Partly Sewered Drainage Catchments. 5. Dorsch Consult Limited. 362. 9. 6.” HVM Manual. 9 and American Society of Civil Engineers Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. “Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. Huff. 3140. Kirpich.. U. Hydrology. Soil Conservation Service. Soil Engineering. pp. 3. Technical Release No. 1940. H. Keifer. 7. R. 1940. Handy. REFERENCES 1.S..” Proceedings ASCE. Technical Memorandum No. . 1987. National Engineering Handbook. “Time Distribution of Rainfall in Heavy Storms. 1982. Z. Spangler. 8.94 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Laying full bituminous coated and full paved CSP. 10. p.. “Time of Concentration in Small Agricultural Watersheds. 55.. Soil Conservation Service.” ASCE Urban Water Resources Program. F. P. H.” Soil Science Society of America Proceedings.S. Tucker. Harper and Row Publishers. 1975..” Civil Engineering (New York). 10. “Hydrograph Volume Method of Sewer System Analysis. 1969. Federal Republic of Germany.

. Davis. Dickinson.” Users Manual. U.E.T.. Hanson. J. E. Dundas. Williams.J.” Users Manual. Washington.. R. 1973. Wisner.. Hann. MacMillan Publishing Company. Ontario. Army Engineer Division. Portland.. 22. Holtan... Ontario. IMPSWMM Program. and P’ng. Nix. D. 1984.. J. 20. 24. Department of Agriculture. 1987. University of Ottawa.. Heaney.S. U. J. M. “HEC-1 Flood Hydrograph Package” Users Manual..3. J. Stall. 1980.. Terstriep.S. Agricultural Research Service. N.S. Texas.” Users Manual. “Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF).” Users Manual..R. l975. 23. Army Corps of Engineers. 1983. 39.. 14. V.S. H. P.. Oregon.” Technical Release No. 1972. J. Ohio. 12. U. 1982..1980.S. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Davis. . G.A. Athens. Soil Conservation Service.H. U. K. H. “QUALHYMO Users Manual. Overflow Model (STORM). University of Ottawa. Georgia.M. 1970. C. 1966. Treatment. “Microcomputer Interaction Design of Urban Stormwater Systems (MIDUSS). J. and Davis. U. Pederson. F. A.J. C. U.S. Department of Civil Engineering. pp.. R. A. Huber. “Computer Program for Project Formulation—Hydrology. Smith. C. U.S. 106 (HY5). Crawford. 25. D. N. 20. N. Cincinnati. HYDROLOGY 95 11. Illinois “Urban Drainage Area Simulator (ILLUDAS). 1982. 19.” Technical Bulletin No. 15. Illinois State Water Survey.” Bulletin 58. “Digital Simulation in Hydrology: Stanford Watershed Model IV.” Release 1. “Storm water Management Model (SWMM). M. Hydrologic Engineering Center. 1977. and Polmann. 1974. U. Inc. D. Johanson. Department of Civil Engineering. 18.” Program Description and Users Manual. and Lopez. Agricultural Research Service.. D. and Helweg. H. Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory. Peters. Imhoff. Version III. C E. Handbook of Steel Drainage and Highway Construction Products.. 1966.“Storage. Ottawa. Department of Agriculture.. Environmental Research Laboratory. BIBLIOGRAPHY Chow. P. 1978. 21.. Stiltner.. Ontario. Urbana.C.M. 1518. D. Illinois. H. Department of Agriculture. L.. “USDAHL— 74 Revised Model of Watershed Hydrology. R. National Research Council of Canada.” Users Manual. California. 17. New York. W. 13.. R...S. Handbook on the Principles of Hydrology. “Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR). “HYMO: Problem Oriented Computer Language for Hydrologic Modeling. NY. American Iron and Steel Institute. Rowney.E. 1964. Journal of Hydraulics Division. 1965. B. “Open Channel Flow”.C. Environmental Protection Agency. Version 4. Department of Civil Engineering. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. Ottawa. C. Gray.” Technical Report No. Army Corps of Engineers. Henderson.P. “Hydrology by Single Linear Reservoir Model” Proceedings ASCE. U. J. T.. OTTHYMO A Model for Master Drainage Plans. Hydrologic Engineering Center. 16... S. Stanford University..0.2.. J. California. 837-842. Environmental Protection Agency.W. Wisner.S.. Linsley.

.96 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Fabricated fittings reduce head losses in the system.

a thorough hydraulic analysis should be performed to assure that the system operates efficiently. In conclusion. Subsequent sections of this chapter deal with losses (friction and form) within the sewer system and the hydraulics of storm water inlets. As a result of this. This in turn has led to flooding damage. An overview of several commonly used computer programs that may be used to design sewer systems is also given in Chapter 5. Overloading of the sewer system may occur in upper reaches while lower segments may be flowing well below capacity because of the inability of the upper reaches to transport the flow or vice versa with downstream surcharging creating problems. it should be assured that the hydraulic grade line does not exceed the floor level of any adjacent basements or catch basin grate opening elevations where surcharge conditions may create unacceptable flooding or structural damages. or for pressure or “pipe” flow under surcharged conditions. excessive surcharging has been experienced in many instances due to improper design of the hydraulic structures. . when service connections have been made to the storm sewer. CSP is easy to install in difficult trench conditions. Manual calculations for designing a storm drainage system are presented in Chapter 5. both surface and structural. where there is a free water surface. an efficient. Too often in the past a simplistic approach to the design of storm sewers was taken. cost effective storm drain system cannot be designed without a complete and proper hydraulic analysis.CHAPTER 4 Hydraulics of Storm Sewers 97 INTRODUCTION Storm sewers may be designed as either open channels. with the design and sizing of conduits and appurtenances derived from nomographs or basic hydraulic flow equations. Regardless of whether the sewer system is to be designed as an open channel or pressure system. When the storm sewer system is to be designed as pressure flow. The following section outlines the basic hydraulic principles for open channel and conduit flow.

Thus: GRADUALLY VARIED flow occurs when depth changes occur over long distances such as the flow profiles or backwater profiles that occur between distinct reaches of uniform flow.. various categories of flow can be identified: STEADY flow exhibits characteristics at a point that is constant with respect to time. which varies with respect to space and time and is a function of discharge. except where backwater or surcharging may occur. strictly speaking. or nearly so —the channel is prismatic (i. is flow in which velocity is the same in magnitude and direction at every point in the conduit. Full details can be found in any text on the subject. NON-UNIFORM or VARIED flow occurs when any of the requirements for uniform flow are not satisfied. b) Conservation of energy is usually stated as the Bernoulli equation. At this point. Flow subject to very slow change may be assumed to be steady with little error. it is sufficient to note that: a) Conservation of mass reduces to a simple statement of continuity for fluids in which the density is essentially constant. UNIFORM flow. has the same cross-sectional shape at all sections) —depth is constant along the length of the channel —the bedslope is equal to the energy gradient. which is discussed below. is generally assumed to be steady and uniform.1 illustrates various typical occurrences of these different classes of flow. such as across a hydraulic jump.98 MODERN SEWER DESIGN CLASSIFICATION OF CHANNEL FLOW Channel flow is distinguished from closed-conduit or pipe flow by the fact that the cross-section of flow is not dependent solely on the geometry of the conduit. RAPIDLY VARIED flow occurs in the vicinity of transitions caused by relatively abrupt changes in channel geometry or where a hydraulic jump occurs. floodwave or gate movement causes a change in flow and/or depth to be propagated through the system. but depends also on the free surface (or depth). Note that uniform flow is possible only if: —flow is steady. UNSTEADY flow results when some time-dependent boundary condition— tide. Laws of Conservation Fluid mechanics is based on the law of conservation applied to the mass.e. energy and momentum of a fluid in motion. c) Conservation of momentum is significant in transitions where there are local and significant losses of energy. As a result. In the design of sewer systems. Varied flow may be further sub-classified depending on the abruptness of the variation. Figure 4. uniform flow is assumed to occur when the velocity at corresponding points in the cross-section is the same along the length of the channel. the flow. Less rigidly. .

1 In open channels. have been developed to express the rate of energy dissipation as it applies to the Bernoulli Equation. which is simply the total energy when the channel bottom is taken to be the datum. Cutter.1 Different classes of open channel flow. This equation may be applied to any conduit with a constant discharge. All the friction flow formulae such as the Manning’s. the flow is primarily controlled by the gravitational action on moving fluid. etc.4. The Bernoulli Equation defines the hydraulic principles involved in open channel flow. Specific Energy An understanding of open channel flow is aided by the concept of Specific Energy E.. The theorem states that the energy head at any cross-section must equal that in any other downstream section plus the intervening losses. which overcomes the hydraulic energy losses. Thus: E = y + V2/2g = y + Q2/2gA2 . HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 99 V1 V2 X Uniform Flow V1 = V2 Gradually Varied Flow Gradually Varied Flow Rapidly Varied Flow (Hydraulic jump) Rapidly Varied Flow Figure 4. Hazen-William’s. Bernoulli Equation The law of conservation of energy as expressed by the Bernoulli Equation is the basic principle most often used in hydraulics.

thus yl + Zl + V12 V2 = y2 + Z2 + 2 + hf 2g 2g For pressure or closed conduit flow.2 Energy in open channel flow. . the Bernoulli Equation can be written as: P P V2 V12 + 1 + Zl = 2 + 1 + Z2 + hf 2g 2g where: P = pressure at given location = specific weight of fluid Horizontal Line V12/2g P1 Sf Sw V1 Z1 Datum Line 1 1 hf V2 2/2 g P1 V2 Z2 #2 EGL HGL #1 Figure 4.3 Energy in closed conduit flow. 1 So Z2 #2 V2 H=y+ H = Total Velocity Head y = Water Depth V2 = Velocity Head 2g EGL = Energy Grade Line So = Slope of Bottom V2 + Z + hf 2g hf V Z HGL Sf Sw = = = = = = Headloss Mean Velocity Height above Datum Hydraulic Grade Line Slope of EGL Slope of HGL The total energy at point #1 is equal to the total energy at point #2.100 MODERN SEWER DESIGN V12/2g y1 V1 EGL HGL 1 1 Sf Sw hf V22/2g y2 Z1 Datum Line #1 Figure 4.

A. Subcritical range (upper-stage flow) yu Vc2 2g VL2 2g Vu2 2g Depth. y. where B is the basewidth. and cross-sectional area. For the special case of rectangular cross-sections.4 shows a plot of specific energy as a function of depth of flow for a known cross-sectional shape and constant discharge Q. are functions of the depth. T. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 101 Figure 4. The turning value occurs where E is a minimum and defines the critical depth ycr.4. y yc(critical depth) yL Q = Constant E Subcritical range (lower-stage flow) Specific energy head. A = B•y and T = B. The critical depth is defined by setting dE/dy = O from which it can be shown that: Q2 T =1 gA3 in which the surface breadth. Q. the above equation for critical depth reduces to: Q2 =1 g•B 3•y 2 from which the critical depth is found as ycr = (Q2/gB2)1/3 and the corresponding critical velocity is Vcr = (g•y)l/2. The velocity corresponding to ycr is called the critical velocity and is given by: V2cr T =1 gA or Vcr = (g A/T)1/2 The critical velocity and hence the critical depth. . ycr is unique to a known crosssectional shape and constant discharge. In this case. E = y + V2 Q2 =y+ 2g 2gA2 Figure 4.4 Typical plot of specific energy as a function of depth.

5M Critical flow and critical velocity in circular conduits .99 1 100 0. 4. For pipe arch CSP. the kinetic energy is small and the velocity is less than Vcr.3 Diameter (mm) Discharge Q (cms) Pivot Line 2 4 6 10 40 100 10000 D 10 1000 0.03 cms Follow broken line and turn at the Pivot Line.102 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The critical depth serves to distinguish two more classes of open channel flow: y > ycr The specific energy is predominantly potential energy (y). expansions and contractions.01 Figure 4. It is a common mistake to include only friction losses in the hydraulic analysis. Energy Losses When using the Bernoulli Equation for hydraulic design. The flow is called SUBCRITICAL (i.7).3 Ycr = 120 mm Vcr2/D=2.1 m. The losses are expressed in terms of head and may be classified as: friction losses—these are due to the shear stress between the moving fluid and the boundary material. y < ycr Most of the specific energy is kinetic energy and the depth or potential energy is small. with respect to velocity) or TRANQUIL..1 Vcr2/D 1 0. Figures 4.03 cms D = 400 mm Solution: Enter Q scale at Q=0. it is necessary to make allowance for energy losses as illustrated in Figure 4.2.e.9 0. form losses—these are caused by abrupt transitions resulting from the geometry of manholes. Ycr /D = 0. it is important to make allowance for them in the design.5 0.6. although estimates of form losses are generally based on empirical equations. For circular conduits.7 0. The velocity is greater than Vcr and the flow is therefore called SUPERCRITICAL or RAPID. bends. Vcr = 0.5 provides a nomograph for calculating ycr. pipe charts provide a graphical method of determining critical flow depths (Figures 4. Form losses can constitute a major portion of the total head loss and.1 Q = 0.9 m/s Example: Given: 0. 1000 Q D Ycr Ycr /D 0.

9 .1 103 V2cr ⁄ D .000 1.8 Q 50.95 ft/sec .000 D ycr .04 1 30.05 2 D 50 3 Discharge Q (c. D=12ft Solution: Enter Q scale at Q= 800 cfs Follow broken line and turn at the Pivot Line.5 Critical flow and critical velocity in circular conduits Friction Losses In North America. Ycr=6.) 500 20 300 200 10 100 50 30 20 10 5 3 2 1 .4 .99 140 Figure 4.4. fully developed rough turbulent flow is assumed so that the head loss per unit length of conduit is approximately proportional to the square of the discharge Proper installation techniques are always important. the Manning and Kutter equations are commonly used to estimate the friction gradient for turbulent flow in storm sewers.48ft V2cr /D=14.) 5 .7 .5 .3 7 8 9 10 Diameter D (Ft.000 20.54. In both equations. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS ycr ⁄D . .f. Ycr /d=.8 3 2 20 30 50 100 1 Example: Given: Q=800 cfs. V=12.2 4 5 Pivot Line 6 .6 .000 10.000 3.000 30 .000 2.000 5.s.

5 0.05 0.6 Discharge .(mm) Pipe-Arch 800 600 ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 2130 mm x 1400 mm 1880 mm x 1260 mm 1630 mm x 1120 mm 1390 mm x 970 mm 400 200 (b) 0 0 0.2 0.3 0.4 2. .6 0.Q (m3/s) 1200 1000 Critical Depth .2 2.8 Discharge .4 0.104 700 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 600 Critical Depth .(mm) Pipe-Arch 500 400 ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 300 1030 mm x 740 mm 910 mm x 660 mm 680 mm x 500 mm 560 mm x 420 mm 200 100 0 (a) 0 0.6M Critical depth curves for standard corrugated steel pipe (adapted from Federal Highway Administration)2.25 0.4 0.6 1.ycr .35 0.55 0.6 2.2 0.1 0.4 1.45 0.ycr .2 1.Q (m3/s) Figure 4.8 2 2.8 1 1.15 0.

0 1.4 1.4 (a) 0 10 20 30 Discharge-Q-CFS 40 50 60 3.2 Ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 1.6 2.0 43” x 27” 36” x 22” 29” x 18” 25” x 16” Pipe-Arch 0.8 0. .6 Critical Depth—Ycr—Feet 1.8 72” x 44” 1.6 Critical depth curves for standard corrugated steel pipe (adapted from Federal Highway Administration)2.6 0.4 65” x 40” 58” x 36” 1.4. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 105 2.4 3.6 0 43” x 27” 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Pipe-Arch (b) Discharge-Q-CFS Figure 4.2 Ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 1.0 50” x 21” 0.8 1.0 Critical Depth—Ycr—Feet 2.

(mm) 1000 ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 3400 mm x 2010 mm 2590 mm x 1880 mm 2240 mm x 1630 mm 2060 mm x 1520 mm 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Discharge .Q (m3/s) 3500 3000 Pipe-Arch 2500 Critical Depth .(m3/s) 25 30 35 40 Figure 4.ycr .ycr .(mm) 2000 1500 ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 6250 mm x 3910 mm 5490 mm x 3530 mm 5050 mm x 3330 mm 4370 mm x 2870 mm 1000 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 Discharge .7M Critical depth curves for structural plate pipe-arch (adapted from Federal Highway Administration). .106 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 2000 Pipe-Arch 1500 Critical Depth .

HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 107 5 4 Critical Depth—Ycr—Feet Ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 3 9’–6’ x 6’–5’ 8’–2’ x 5’–1’ 7’–0’ x 5’–9’ 6’–1’ x 4’–7’ 2 Pipe-Arch 1 0 100 200 300 400 Discharge-Q-CFS 500 600 9 8 Critical Depth—Ycr—Feet 7 6 Ycr Cannot Exceed Top of Pipe 5 11’–5” x 7’–3” 4 9’–6” x 6’–5” 15’–4” x 9’–3” 3 16’–7” x 10’–1” 12’–10” x 8’–4” 2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Discharge-Q-CFS 1800 2000 2200 2400 Pipe-Arch Figure 4. .7 Critical depth curves for structural plate pipe-arch (adapted from Federal Highway Administration).4.

0 19.52 5.16 0.31 29.06 11.04 2.22 0.75 11.94 4.60 50.60 6.71 13.59 15.2 13.60 2.98 17.01 9.68 2.53 Pipe-Arch (13 mm) Size (mm) 430 x 330 530 x 380 610 x 460 710 x 510 885 x 610 1060 x 740 1240 x 840 1440 x 970 1620 x 1100 1800 x 1200 1950 x 1320 2100 x 1450 Area (m2) 0.42 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Waterway Areas for Standard Sizes of Corrugated Steel Conduits Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Size Area 457 mm Corner Radius (mm) 1850 x 1400 1930 x 1450 2060 x 1500 2130 x 1550 2210 x 1600 2340 x 1650 2410 x 1700 2490 x 1750 2620 x 1800 2690 x 1850 2840 x 1910 2900 x 2960 2970 x 2010 3120 x 2060 3250 x 2110 3330 x 2160 3480 x 2210 3530 x 2260 3610 x 2310 3760 x 2360 3810 x 2360 3810 x 2410 3860 x 2460 3910 x 2540 4090 x 2570 4240 x 2620 4290 x 2670 4340 x 2720 4520 x 2770 4670 x 2820 4720 x 2870 4780 x 2920 4830 x 3000 5000 x 3020 5050 x 3070 (m2) 2.38 7.87 34.99 20.48 41.90 8.75 24.07 0.0 16.81 4.43 1.70 48.11 5.27 4.25 7.73 6.35 10.99 3.50 10.79 31.23 43.42 2.56 16.15 0.11 0.6 15.28 0.07 3.56 2.07 3.14 2.8 10.48 6.55 9.43 8.77 39.71 12.65 5.04 5.64 9.42 0.0 11.6 14.45 1.98 3.27 0.46 22.1M Round Pipe Diameter (mm) 300 375 450 525 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 3825 3980 4135 4290 4445 4600 4755 4910 5065 5220 5375 5530 5685 5840 5995 6150 6305 6460 6615 6770 6925 7080 7235 7390 7545 7700 7855 8010 Area (m2) 0.6 19.64 0.32 21.75 10.5 16.18 11.0 9.16 2.0 18.01 44.62 6.25 7.53 3.9 17.7 13.72 3.66 17.08 1.8 12.53 7.44 3.4 11.17 Pipe-Arch (25 mm Corrugation) Size 1520 x 1170 1670 x 1300 1850 x 1400 2050 x 1500 2200 x 1620 2400 x 1720 2600 x 1820 2840 x 1920 2970 x 2020 3240 x 2120 3470 x 2220 3600 x 2320 Area 1.46 14.55 9.83 5.77 2.12 10.86 28.20 0.00 22.44 0.31 32.87 7.0 15.54 2.67 5.10 37.01 14.4 16.10 0.03 2.20 21.84 46.108 Table 4.49 15.08 25.46 26.39 5.22 6.33 11.13 1.0 14.87 1.55 4.79 8.11 5.88 3.5 18.99 4.1 10.26 6.46 5.96 11.27 8.60 0.47 36.98 4.46 3.95 6.25 3.79 2.23 2.50 7.86 2.6 .6 11.95 787 mm Corner Radius 4040 x 2840 4110 x 2900 4270 x 2950 4320 x 3000 4390 x 3050 4550 x 3100 4670 x 3150 4750 x 3200 4830 x 3250 4950 x 3300 5030 x 3350 5180 x 3400 5230 x 3450 5310 x 3510 5460 x 3560 5510 x 3610 5660 x 3660 5720 x 3710 5870 x 3760 5940 x 3810 5990 x 3860 6070 x 3910 6220 x 3960 6270 x 4010 9.42 3.47 13.81 18.39 1.65 19.07 7.3 12.37 1.38 9.52 12.92 Structural Plate Arch Size 1830 x 970 2130 x 1120 2440 x 1270 2740 x 1440 3050 x 1600 3350 x 1750 3660 x 1910 3960 x 2060 4270 x 2210 4570 x 2360 4880 x 2510 5180 x 2690 5490 x 2720 5790 x 2880 6100 x 3050 6400 x 3200 6710 x 3350 7010 x 3510 7320 x 3660 7620 x 3810 Area 1.5 9.83 1.

405 3.6 2.6 415.767 2.904 19.49 44.5 Structural Plate Arch Size 6. Corner Radius 13-3 x 9-4 13-6 x 102 14-0 x 9-8 14-2 x 9-10 14-5 x 10-0 14-11 x 10-2 15-4 x 10-4 15-7 x 10-6 15-10 x 10-8 16-3 x 10-10 16-6 x 11-0 17-0 x 11-2 17-2 x 11-4 17-5 x 11-6 17-11 x 11-8 18-1 x 11-10 18-7 x 12-0 18-0 x 12-2 19-3 x 12-4 19-6 x 12-6 19-8 x 12-8 19-11 x 12-10 20-5 x 13-0 20-7 x 13-2 97 102 105 109 114 118 123 127 132 137 142 146 151 157 161 167 172 177 182 188 194 200 205 211 .4 490.0 x 11-0 23.5 67.621 12.7 201.1 Round Pipe Diameter (in.0 x 11-6 24.5 8.7 452.3 11-7 x 7.0 x 6-9 14.4 363.0 x 5-3 11.18 50.1 380.9 11.2 27.7 143.4 48.62 70.0 x 6-3 13.8 227.142` 4.6 19.18 38.88 78.0 x 9-5.8 283.2 330.9 165.0 x 10-0 21.0 x 3-8 8.5 298.0 x 5-9 12.7 132.1 346.566 15.0 240.5 20.0 x 12-0 25.1 397.3 23. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Table 4.6 14.9 26.0 x 8-3 17.0 x 8-10 18.5 6.6 314.) 6-1 x 4-7 6-4 x 4-9 6-9 x 4-11 7-0 x 5-1 7-3 x 5-3 7-8 x 5-5 7-11 x 5-7 8-2 x 5-9 8-7 x 5-11 8-10 x 6-1 9-4 x 6-3 9-6 x 6-5 9-9 x 6-7 10-3 x 6-9 10-8 x 6-11 10-11 x 7-1 11-5 x 7.27 63.9 Pipe-Arch (1/2 in.0 x 7-9 16.87 113.7 18.4.03 103.5 11-10 x 7-7 12-4 x 7-9 12-6 x 7-11 12-8 x 8-1 12-10 x 8-4 13-5 x 8-5 13-11 x 8-7 14-1 x 8-9 14-3 x 8-11 14-10 x 9-1 15-4 x 9-3 15-6 x 9-5 15-8 x 9-7 15-10 x 9-10 16-5 x 9-11 16-7 x 10-1 (ft2) 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 38 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 71 74 78 81 85 89 93 97 101 105 109 113 118 122 126 131 Pipe-Arch (1 in.227 1.1 1.2 60.5 433.909 7.0 x 8-11 19.7 188.54 95.5 254 268.9 4.) 12 15 18 21 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 108 114 120 132 138 144 150 156 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 240 246 252 258 264 270 276 282 288 294 300 Area (ft2) .4 74.0 42. Corrugation) Size 60 x 46 66 x 51 73 x 55 81 x 59 87 x 63 95 x 67 103 x 71 112 x 75 117 x 79 128 x 83 137 x 87 142 x 91 Area 15.4 32.0 109 Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Size Area Waterway Areas for Standard Sizes of Corrugated Steel Conduits 18-inch Corner Radius (ft-in.2 2.) 17 x 13 21 x 15 24 x 18 28 x 20 35 x 24 42 x 29 49 x 33 57 x 38 64 x 43 71 x 47 77 x 52 83 x 57 Area (ft2) 1.785 1.1 213.4 471.635 23.27 33.0 x 3-2 7.1 21.0 x 4-8.5 10.0 x 4-2 9.0 x 10-6 22.1 153. Corrugation) Size (in.1 176.1 37.0 x 7-3 15.758 28.10 122.069 9.0 x 12-6 Area 15 20 26 33 41 50 59 70 80 92 105 119 126 140 157 172 190 208 226 247 31 in.0 54.

216 .167 .280 .319 .348 .794 .287 .995 .06 .354 .592 .803 .308 .362 .257 .971 .662 .432 .266 .769 .947 .03 .830 .06 .993 .284 .7 .334 .364 .357 .750 .632 .600 .423 .299 Determination of Hydraulic Radius .608 .655 .773 .437 .348 .616 .528 .394 .6 .9 1.04 .3 .332 R Values of —— D .979 .363 .716 .197 .337 .937 .624 .346 .355 .982 .381 .729 .06 .01 .956 .2 .313 .365 .240 .618 .293 .2 .312 .05 .04 .247 .752 .110 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Hydraulic Properties of Pipe Arch Conduits Flowing Part Full T y = Depth of flow D = Rise of conduit B = Span of conduit A = Area of flow R = Hydraulic radius T = Top width of flow y D B Table 4.1 .697 .250 .541 .09 .01 .8 .157 .987 .691 .352 .998 .277 .100 .086 .4 .932 .09 .267 .350 .207 .647 .976 .847 .914 .197 .353 .822 .355 .960 .128 .585 .8 .222 .110 .08 .479 .275 .470 .985 .704 .508 .764 .997 .289 .341 .863 .307 .6 .344 .704 .325 .361 .081 .191 .640 .360 .318 Table 4.5 .126 .204 .363 .784 .337 .410 .360 .942 .272 T Values of —— B .170 .772 .670 .184 .331 .315 .08 .993 .956 .1 .559 .462 .326 .999 .7 .783 A Values of —— BD .916 .245 .839 .780 .964 .342 .891 .971 .678 .148 .506 .210 .326 .2 .362 .297 .5 .094 .339 .138 .365 .788 Determination of Area .4 .365 .00 .515 .996 .08 .187 .090 .760 .9 .158 .9 1.649 .078 .951 .357 .677 .576 .6 .00 .550 .690 .3 .07 .938 .900 .2 .177 .00 .460 .717 .109 .995 .07 .855 .998 .741 .316 .910 .734 .09 .884 .8 .1 .133 .4 .237 .877 .359 .177 .404 .02 .322 .356 .451 .346 .223 .7 .385 .365 .301 .755 .156 .07 .305 .364 .5 .0 .787 Table 4.364 .976 .442 .710 .567 .488 .328 .776 .4 .948 .964 .602 .358 .04 .967 .740 .361 .365 .365 .03 .364 .0 .256 .989 .3 .921 .03 .228 .497 .3 .02 .227 .927 .234 .261 .350 .524 .785 .271 .363 .072 .584 .119 .01 .02 .897 .870 .548 .163 .05 .998 .375 .344 .664 .745 .728 .927 .634 .148 .982 .990 .904 .533 .102 .413 .486 Determination of Top Width .763 .217 .141 .813 .349 .997 .986 .118 .722 .684 .05 .297 .991 .567 .336 .

304 .121 .286 .704 .775 .960 .761 .262 .292 .472 .259 .057 .171 .866 .115 .623 .341 T Values of —— D . D D D D2 .6 .697 .0 .423 .7 .990 .771 .632.954 .303 .198 .296 .247 .000 .104 .063 .286 .217 . D = 400 mm.303 .189 .171 .482 .732 .304 .877 .947 .650 .453 .207 .093 .572 .180 .1 .293 .510 .087 .925 .842 .06 .07 .980 .815 .436 .280 .433 .694 .01 .6 .074 .1 .947 .09 .4.301 .04 .640 .373 .383 .784 Table 4.462 .984 1.888 .689 .08 .07 .026 .933 .198 .045 .392 .00 .070 .9 1.650 .8 .282 .341 .908 .210 .4 .05 .954 .657 .768 .089 .229 .296 .180 .000 .298 .280 .614 .033 .294 .02 . HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF CIRCULAR CONDUITS FLOWING PART FULL 111 T D = Diameter y = Depth of flow A = Area of flow R = Hydraulic radius T = Top width Table 4.353 .854 .436 .013 .531 .785 .253 .047 .278 .03 . = 0.587 .363 .145 .298 .029 .193 .2 .738 .250 Determination of Hydraulic Radius .0 .268 .600 .745 .152 .199 i.712 .06 .7 .299 .053 .502 .304 .681 .302 .766 .457 .157 .007 .719 .866 .4 .051 .001 .733 .569 .997 .245 .284 .288 .987 .274 .559 .302.08 .275 .828 .004 .067 .543 .403 .987 .475 .222 .877 .142 .236 .6 .112 .888 .572 .5 .933 .756 .02 .1 .898 .908 .304 .3 .2 .714 .035 .714 .9 1.081 .04 .971 .189 .733 .0 .161 .075 .081 .0 .147 .096 .015 .: Given y = 300 mm.768 .02 .240 .998 .333 .578 .206 .842 .673 .540 . A R T y = 0.995 .940 .995 .917 .725 .136 .828 .280 .5 .000 Determination of Top Width .984 .000 .8 .03 .06 .673 .289 .060 .03 .917 .099 .279 R Values of —— D .512 .284 .199 .265 .605 .999 .632 .800 .492 .510 .975 1.990 .01 .202 .7 .292 .264 .126 .267 Table 4.313 .273 .256 .779 A Values of —— D2 .104 .392 .136 .543 .925 .999 .024 .5 .666 .176 .283 .898 .302 .782 .303 .131 .971 .05 .110 .166 .293 .998 .751 .09 .255 .940 . = 0.08 .236 .2 .975 .039 .00 .993 .393 .120 .226 .550 .521 .413 .019 .218 .960 .000 .04 .304 .304 .674 .966 .854 .800 .303 .8 .600 .343 .162 .5 .185 .07 .323 .815 .0 .041 .270 .785 D Y Determination of Area .9 1.626 .3 .966 .233 .980 1.000 .295 .011 .007 .649 .694 .7 .01 .304 .785 .750 .75 From tables.128 .993 .300 .226 .243 .3 .997 .154 .443 .0 .09 .214 .299 .05 .290 .626 .866 = 0.e.4 .302 .000 .00 .301 .020 .250 .6 .596 .751 .274 .

050-0.400 0.040 0.020-0. 100 ft) Fairly regular section Irregular section with pools 0.012-0.017 0.011-0.020 0.018 0. Tables 4.112 MODERN SEWER DESIGN (or velocity).015 0.9 and 4.011-0.011-0.012-0. Both equations use an empirical coefficient ‘n’ to describe the roughness of the channel boundary. m (ft) cross-sectional area. fairly uniform Rock Unmaintained Natural Channels (minor streams.015 0. Brick c.011-0.017 0.10 give suggested values for ‘n’ for various corrugation profiles and linings.0700 0.015 0.015 0. Concrete d. Vegetal Excavated or dredged Earth. top width at flood stage < 30m.025-0.011-0.020-0.013-0.017 – – 0.015-0. It is widely used in open channel flow but can also be applied to closed conduit flow. The equation is not dimensionally homogeneous and a correction factor must be applied depending upon the system of units being used.100 0. Rubble or riprap e. straight and uniform Earth.486 for US Imperial Units) hydraulic radius = A/P.014 0.015 0.030-0.017 .045 0.8 Effective Absolute Roughness and Friction Formula Coefficients3 Conduit Material Manning n Closed conduits Asbestos-cement pipe Brick Cast iron pipe Uncoated (new) Asphalt dipped (new) Cement-lined & seal coated Concrete (monolithic) Smooth forms Rough forms Concrete pipe Plastic pipe (smooth) Vitrified clay Pipes Liner plates Open channels Lined channels a. V= (M/n) R2/3 Sf1/2 Where V M R A = = = = average velocity 1 for SI units (1.011-0.030-0. m2 (ft2) Table 4. Manning Equation The Manning Equation is one of a number of so-called empirical equations.013-0.030 0. Asphalt b.035 0.140 0.040-0.030-0. winding.013-0.

027 0.021 0.022 0.019 0.026 0.021 0.019 1500 0.021 0.022 All pipe with smooth interior* Notes: Includes full paved.5 Flowing: Diameters 200 250 300 375 0.023 0.019 0.019 0.017 0.022 1950 and Larger 0.017 0.023 0.019 All Diameters 0.013 0.020 1650 0.012 Full Unpaved Full 25% Paved Part Full Unpaved 0.021 1650 0.019 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 and Larger Values of Coefficient of Roughness (n) for Standard Corrugated Steel Pipe (Manning’s Formulas). 113 . All Dimensions in mm.019 0.011 0.026 0.025 0.020 0. Reference 13 modified for lower values of n for helical pipe.022 Full Unpaved 25% Paved 0.019 Helical 125 x 25 1200 0.018 Annular 75 x 25 4.020 0.017 0.015 0.018 0.022 0.9M Helical 68 x 13 450 0. spiral rib and double wall pipe.020 1050 1200 1350 1500 0.020 0.023 1620 x 1100 and Larger 0.015 0.022 0.024 0.023 Full Unpaved 25% Paved 0.019 Helical 75 x 25 900 0.021 0.014 0.024 0.022 0.025 Pipe-Arch 430 x 330 530 x 380 710 x 510 885 x 610 1060 x 740 1240 x 840 1440 x 970 Full Unpaved Part Full 0.022 0. concrete lined.027 0.024 0.025 0.025 0.027 0.012 0.012 0.016 0.016 0.018 0.023 0.021 0.021 0.021 1950 and Larger 0.024 0.026 0.014 0.024 0.013 0.023 0.023 Annular 125 x 25 Flowing: 1800 0.Table 4.025 0.020 0.013 Flowing: 0. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Flowing: 1800 0.029 0.022 0. Corrugations Annular 68 mm 38 x 6.012 1350 0.020 0.018 0.014 0.022 0.

024 0.023 0.016 0. 10 in.022 0. 54 in. 0. 0.019 Helical 3 x 1 in.012 0.013 0.023 0. concrete lined. 48 in. 48 in.022 0. 0.024 0. 18 in.026 0.023 0.022 0.011 0.013 Flowing: Pipe-Arch 17 x 13 Full Unpaved Part Full 0.014 0.017 0. 12 in. Flowing: Full Unpaved 25% Paved 0.017 0. 0.019 All Diameters 0. spiral rib and double wall pipe. and Larger Values of Coefficient of Roughness (n) for Standard Corrugated Steel Pipe (Manning’s Formulas) Corrugations Annular 22/3 in.012 0.019 60 in. 0.9 Helical 22/3 x 1/2 in.022 0.021 0.025 0.019 0.016 0.022 0. 54 in.022 All pipe with smooth interior* MODERN SEWER DESIGN Notes: Includes full paved.018 0.022 78 in.020 42 in. 48 in.025 28 x 20 35 x 24 42 x 29 49 x 33 57 x 38 0.020 0.014 0.022 72 in. 0.114 Table 4. and Larger 0.021 0.015 0. 36 in.024 0. 42 in.021 0.014 0.021 78 in.022 0.015 21 x 15 0.019 24 in.024 0. 0.025 0. .029 0.027 0. 0.018 0.027 0.023 Annular 5 x 1 in.020 0.020 0. 30 in.022 0.017 0.013 0.024 0.018 0. 0.027 0.012 54 in. Reference 13 modified for lower values of n for helical pipe. 60 in. Flowing: Full Unpaved 25% Paved 0.023 0.019 0.019 0.023 64 x 43 and Larger 0.012 Full Unpaved Full 25% Paved Part Full Unpaved 0.023 0. 11/2 x 1/4 in.026 0.026 0. and Larger 0.020 0.021 66 in. 15 in.019 0.021 0.018 Annular 3 x 1 in. 0.025 0. Flowing: Diameters 8 in.021 72 in.020 0.020 66 in.021 0.019 Helical 5 x 1 in.025 0. 36 in. 0.

) diameter.00155 ) Sf Although the friction slope Sf appears as a second order term in the expression for ‘C.028 .028 2120 (mm) 0.8 provides nomographs for estimating steady uniform flow for pipe flowing full. Table 4.036 15 (ft) 0. The values in Table 4.033 0. especially where the roughness coefficient is large. Kutter Equation The Kutter Equation is used for open channel calculations in certain areas of the United States.8.11 are also valid for noncircular pipes flowing partially full.033 0.’ Q = A•C•R1/2 •Sf1/2 23 + 0. For smaller sized conduits.0 m (3 ft). 4. m (ft) Sf = friction gradient or slope of energy line n = Manning’s roughness coefficient (see Tables 4. In cases where conduits are flowing only partly full. which represents a very large pipe of perhaps 3600 mm (144 in.032 0.028 0.11 shows the difference (%) in discharge computed using the Kutter equation compared with that obtained by Manning.10 Corrugations 6 x 2 in.4. using the Manning equation.10.027 10 (ft) 0.030 0. The table gives the relationship between the diameter (D) and the hydraulic radius (R) assuming full flow in a circular pipe. Values of n for Structural Plate Pipe for 6 x 2 in.9 and 4.9.032 0.028 0. the corresponding hydraulic ratios may be determined from Figures 4. Corrugations (Manning’s Formula) Diameters 5 (ft) 7 (ft) 0.030 0. It is an empirically derived relation between the Chezy coefficient ‘C’ and the Manning roughness coefficient ‘n.’ the resulting discharge is not sensitive to this term. 4.027 Values of n for Structural Plate Pipe for 152 x 51mm Corrugations (Manning’s Formula) Diameters 3050 (mm) 0.00155 + 1 Sf n 1+ n where C = √R (23 + 0.10) Figure 4. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 115 P = wetted perimeter.10M Corrugations 152 x 51 (mm) Plain – unpaved 25% Paved 1500 (mm) 0. the difference is significant. The two equations give identical results for values of R close to l. Table 4.024 Table 4.026 4600 (mm) 0.024 Plain – unpaved 25% Paved 0.

116 Solving the Friction Loss Equation MODERN SEWER DESIGN Of the three quantities (Q.8M Nomograph for solution of Manning’s formula. which is the depth at which uniform flow would take place in a very long reach of channel. Sf. yo) of greatest interest in open channel analysis. Because of the exponential form of the Manning equation. the discharge Q and the friction slope Sf are easily obtained as they appear explicitly in the equations. . HL = S. the second order term in Sf is of little importance and can be safely ignored as a first iteration when solving for Sf. for Manning’s formu- Figure 4. The third quantity is the normal depth yo. Note: Use chart for flow computations. it is a simple matter to compute the friction slope Sf as a function of velocity or discharge for known cross-sectional properties. Alignment chart for energy loss in pipes. The normal depth is less easily determined as it appears in the expressions for both area A and hydraulic radius R. Even with the Kutter equation.

83 (0. area and velocity expressed as a function of the relative depth y/D.56). ft/ft – S s= 03 0. n= 2 0. ft/sec – V A EX MP LE v = 2.486 R ⁄ S ⁄ n 2 1 3 2 Note: Use chart for flow computations.) For full-pipe flow R = D/4 = 0. A pipe of diameter l.0l3 = 2.68x 1= 0.01) 1/2 / 0. Thus the normal depth is given by: yo = 0. 9 ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT – n R = 6 0. Alignment chart for energy loss in pipes.8 Nomograph for solution of Manning’s formula. la.0 . A trial and error solution is required except for sections of straightforward geometry. HL = S. It is required to find the normal depth yo for a discharge of 2 m3/s (40 ft3/s). HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 117 TURNING LINE HYDRAULIC RADIUS in feet – R SLOPE.75 ft) Q = (1)2 (0. For partially-full circular channels.7 ft3/s) Step 2: Get the proportional discharge Qact/Qfull = 2/2. for Manning’s formuFigure 4.0 EQUATION: V=1.013) has a gradient of 1. a convenient semi-graphical method of solution is provided by the curves describing proportional ratios of discharge.68 m (1.4.6) Step 3: From the ‘Discharge’ curve of Figure 4.0 m (3 ft) (n = 0.68 ft) VELOCITY.68 (0. Step 1: Calculate the full-pipe capacity using Manning’s equation for D = 1050 mm (assume 1 m) (36 in.10 find the corresponding proportional depth y/D = 0.4 m 3/s (66.25 m (0.25)2/3 (0. hydraulic radius.0%. Two simple examples should give an indication of how these curves can be used: Example 1: Finding the normal depth yo.4 = 0.

5 .1 1.5 .2 .0 1.118 FULL 90 Wetted perimeter 80 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Area 70 Percent of total rise 60 50 Discharge 40 30 20 Hydraulic radius 10 0 .8 .7 .9 Hydraulic properties of corrugated steel and structural plate pipe-arches FULL 90 Ratio of depth of flow to diameter y/D 80 Area 70 60 50 Discharge 40 30 20 Velocity 10 0 Hydraulic radius .3 Proportional values based on full conditions Figure 4.4 .7 .8 .2 1.4 .6 .2 .3 Figure 4.9 1.1 .3 .1 Hydraulic elements in terms of hydraulic for full section 1.10 Hydraulic elements graph for circular CSP .9 1.3 .0 1.6 .2 1.1 .

18 -0.82 -0.2 ft3/s) without surcharging.0 3.31.92 -1.00 -0.6 . A pipe is designed to carry a minimum discharge of 0.14 -16.18 -8.24 ft3/s).58 2. (n = 0.75 1.250 1.500 -0.20 -0.013 n = 0.01 -0.00 -0.66 2.).75 4.0 2.78 ft/s) Step 3: Thus for full pipe flow the required section area is given by: A = Qmax / Vfull = 0.25 3.07 -0.39 -0.5 5.50 -2.875 1.50 1.07 -0.07 -3.12 -1.95 -3.11 Diameter D-(ft) 1.15 1. which in turn corresponds to a proportional velocity of Vmin / Vfull = 0.54 -4.00 0.44 n = 0.0%) Hydraulic Radius R-(m) 0.2 Step 2: This corresponds to y/D = 0.25 2.375 0.27 -0.500 0.96 -0.25 1.6 = 0.05 2.375 1.125 1.78 = 1.28 -0.19 0.78 0.5 6.74 -3.00 2.50 2.0 15.94 0.01 0.62 ft) Thus the required grade is So = 0.31 1.21 -5.77 -1.45 -0.0 5.38 m2 and R = D/4 = 0. Use the flattest gradient possible. With a velocity not less than 1.17 0.750 0.02 n = 0.11M Diameter D-(m) 0.4% .78 (Figure 4. the selected diameter must be rounded down (to ensure Vmin > 1. Qmin / Qfull = 0. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Table 4.9).13 -16.00 1.175 m (0.95 ft/s) and a maximum discharge 0.74 -2.0%) Hydraulic Radius R-(ft) 0.62 -2.0 10.0 7.11 0.0 14.0 m/s (2.10 -0.0 9.5 1.5 3.04 0.94 -1.12 / 0.45 -0.013) Step 1: Assuming Qfull = Qmax = 0.0043 or approximately 0.0 4.250 0.125 0.0 Percent Difference of Kutter Equation Compared With Manning Equation (Grade = 1.00 3.19 -1.12 -0.92 1.31 0.20 0.0 12.75 3.25 0.14 0.0 m/s) to 750 mm (2.0 4.28 m/s (3.77 m (2.54 -5.00 -4.0 / 0.96 -0.64 0.82 -8.05 -1.74 -11.23 0.36 n = 0.35 -0.20 -0. Thus the full pipe velocity corresponding to Vmin = 1.80 -2.28 = 0.62 -0.19 -0.70 -6.16 -0.32 0.06 -0.03 Example 2: Designing for a range of flows.03 Table 4.24 0.0 119 Percent Difference of Kutter Equation Compared With Manning Equation (Grade = 1.625 0.46 2.0 3.50 3.0 m/s is given by: Vfull = 1.0 8.55 1.25 1.0 13.0 16.12 m3/s (4.38 -0.50 0.47 m2 or D = (4 A/π)1/2 = 0.32 -0.75 2.34 1.5 1.0 5.39 -0.26 0.5 2.39 -26.4.000 1.56 -0.0 6.70 -0.0 11.39 -6.51 2.0 2.03 0.5 4.38 -0.67 ft) Step 4: Assuming that commercial sizes are available in increments of 100 mm (3 in.46 -0.013 n = 0.6 m3/s (21.6 / 1.02 n = 0.5 ft) Step 5: The necessary slope is then obtained from the Manning equation as Q2 n2 So = Sf = ——–— A2 R4/3 where A = π D 2/4 = 0.

120 Surface Water Profiles MODERN SEWER DESIGN Uniform flow is seldom attained except in very long reaches. Gradually varied flow occurs as a form of gentle transition from one stage of uniform flow to another.01yn>yc M1 Yn Ycr S1 Yn Ycr M2 Ycr Yn S2 Ycr Yn M1 M3 Ycr Yn Ycr Yn Figure 4. Critical. free from any form of transition. and non-uniform flow is found to be the rule rather than the exception.11 Idealized flow profile.0. So ycr i. So < > Sc. The flow profiles of gradually varied flow can be classified in relation to the normal depth yo and the critical depth ycr and the slope of the channel. Most textbooks show five classes of channel slope: Mild. M1 Yn Horizontal Horizontal M2 2 Ycr M3 1 y>yn>ycr yn>y>ycr Yn Ycr S2 3 y>ycr>y S3 Steep Slope s0>0. yn<ycr 2 3 S1 1 Mild Slope s>0. .e.e. Scr. Steep. so that strictly speaking the description of Mild or Steep should not be applied to the channel without regard to the flow conditions. Channel slope is described as: (1) MILD when (2) STEEP when yo yo > < yc i. Note that the critical slope Scr is slightly dependent on the stage or magnitude of flow.

a profile of gradually varied flow can be classified depending on whether it lies above. an abrupt transition is formed that takes the form of a surface roller or undular wave. In practice. V2 y2 ycr . ‘2’ or ‘3’ profiles may be classified as ‘M1’ or ‘S3. below or between the normal and critical depths. The energy losses associated with the violent turbulence of the hydraulic jump make application of the Bernoulli equation impossible. Figure 4. the last three categories are special cases of the first two and it is sufficient to consider them. For the special case of a rectangular cross-section. In addition to the channel slope. state and the Zone number ‘1’.12 Hydraulic jump. The three zones may be defined as follows.4. the solution can be obtained directly using the discharge per unit breadth: y2 = – (y1/2) + (y12/4 + 2q2/(gy1))1/2 where y2 = depth downstream of the jump y1 = depth upstream of the jump q = discharge per unit breadth of channel g = gravitational acceleration The above equation is reversible so that y1 may be found as a function of y2 using a similar relationship. Instead. which tries to move upstream but is held in check by the velocity of the supercritical flow. y1 V1 Figure 4.11 shows the idealized cases of the six basic profile types along with typical circumstances in which they can occur. Hydraulic Jump When supercritical flow enters a reach in which the flow is subcritical. this can be expressed as follows: Q2/(g A1) + A1 y1 = Q2/(g A2) + A2y2 where y = depth to the centroid of the cross-section A = cross-sectional area Q = total discharge g = gravitational acceleration. the control volume of fluid containing the jump can be analyzed using the equation of conservation of momentum. For a prismatic channel of arbitrary cross-section. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 121 Horizontal and Adverse.12 shows a typical situation in which supercritical uniform flow from a steep reach enters a reach of mild slope in which the normal depth is subcritical. Zone 1— Profile lies above both yo and ycr Zone 2— Profile lies between yo and ycr Zone 3— Profile lies below both yo and ycr Using the capitals ‘M’ and ‘S’ to denote Mild or Steep channel.’ Figure 4.

BENDS AND OTHER STRUCTURES From the time storm water first enters the sewer system at the inlet until it discharges at the outlet. Transition Losses (pressure flow) Contraction: Ht = K ( ) [ ( )] V22 —— 2g 1– A2 —— A1 2 K = 0.2 [ ] V —— 2g 2 where Kt is the transition loss coefficient ( ( V22 V12 —— – —— 2g 2g ) ) V2 > V1 V12 V22 —— – —— 2g 2g V1 > V2 Where V1 = upstream velocity V2 = downstream velocity Simple transition in size in a manhole with straight-through flow may be analyzed with the above equations.1 for well designed transition and A1. They are primarily based on experiments. Velocity losses may be expressed in a general form derived from the Bernoulli and Darcy-Weisbach equations. contractions.5 for sudden contraction K = 0.1 Expansion: Ht = .122 MODERN SEWER DESIGN FORM LOSSES IN JUNCTIONS. These losses have been called “minor losses.” This is misleading. . which will cause velocity head losses. In some situations these losses are as important as those arising from pipe friction. V2 H = K —— 2g where H = velocity head loss K = coefficient V = average velocity K = coefficient for the particular structure The following are useful velocity head loss formulae of hydraulic structures commonly found in sewer systems. Transition Losses (open channel) The energy losses may be expressed in terms of the kinetic energy at the two ends: Ht = Kt ∆ Contraction: Ht = . A2 = cross-sectional area of flow of incoming and outgoing pipe from transition. enlargements and transitions. bends. it will encounter a variety of hydraulic structures such as manholes.

23 .56 .4 1.04 .64 50° .59 .72 .35 .79 .31 25° .07 .03 .53 .30 .2 1. Ht = K ( ) V2 —— 2g Entrance Losses V2 H = Ke –— 2g Table 4.24 .05 .39 .04 . V1.0 10.54 .11 .42 .41 .82 .71 .10 .37 .02 .63 .74 .24 .6 (12) .61 .35 .95 .40 .0 ∞ 2° .90 4.82 .73 .16 20° .52 .54 .65 .04 .53 .36 .26 .4 1.69 .74 .31 .87 .13 Values of K2 for Determining Loss of Head Due to Gradual Enlargement in Pipes.58 .91 .33 .55 .2 (4.62 .1 1.29 .82 .10 .48 .07 .83 .75 .03 .06 .60 .50 .40 .94 2.89 .03 . HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Expansion: Ht = K 123 [ (V1 –V2) 2 ———— 2g ] K = 1.60 .04 .91 3.03 .78 .03 4° .89 .40 .6 1.68 . then the tables in conjunction with the energy losses equation in the form below should be used for pressure flow.03 .04 .41 .25 .19 .5 (15) .08 15° .16 .80 .05 .04 . If a more detailed analysis of the transition losses is required.89 .8 2.70 .24 .80 .01 .5 3.84 .10 .18 .75 .76 .00 1.48 .91 .77 .0 (10) .2 for well designed transition The above K values are for estimating purposes.60 . From the Formula H2 = K2 (V12/2g) 7 d2/d1 = Ratio of Diameter of Larger Pipe to Diameter of Smaller Pipe.0) .46 .33 .88 .70 .0) 1.66 .04 .16 .21 .03 .0) .74 .35 .1 (7.12 Values of K2 for Determining Loss of Head Due to Sudden Enlargement in Pipes.23 .16 .24 .6 (2.12 .88 6.00 1.34 .88 .0 5.04 .44 .58 .63 .08 .48 .0 2.07 . From the Formula H2 = K2 (V12/2g) 7 V1 = Velocity in Smaller Pipe Velocity.29 .0 2.08 .04 .70 .72 .32 .50 .21 .02 .54 .47 .84 . in Meters Per Second (feet per second) 0.83 12.58 .0) .2 1.96 1.98 1.23 .96 .28 .56 .93 3.09 .05 .10 .85 .65 .32 .26 .37 .72 .0) .54 .25 .01 .49 .20 .23 .57 .15 .38 .0 (30) .02 .0 for sudden expansion K = 0.36 .03 .47 .37 .04 .09 .46 .0 (20) .80 .5 (5.6 1.44 .40 30° .39 .95 2.09 .68 .66 .05 8° .0 4.87 .64 .26 .4.05 .62 .05 .83 .04 6° .47 .48 .08 .77 .44 .42 .67 .22 .8 2.51 .93 .63 .0) .58 .5 3.02 .4 (8.67 60° .55 .92 .03 .01 .83 .37 .69 .16 .13 .61 .09 .20 .67 .04 .78 .03 .86 9.35 .50 .72 .22 .51 .36 .86 .14 .99 1.52 .0 ∞ . Angle of Cone d2/d1 1.43 .09 .49 35° .55 .56 40° .76 .86 .96 1.81 d2/d1 = Ratio of Larger Pipe to Smaller Pipe —— d2/d1 Table 4.47 .09 .06 10° . Angle of Cone is Twice the Angle Between the Axis of the Cone and its Side.52 .46 .80 .65 .47 .8 (6.21 .05 .30 .16 .45 .10 .92 .02 .51 .31 .38 .10 .03 .9 (3.65 .0) .0 (40) .93 .00 0.10 .60 45° .84 .

45 .36 .30 .14 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Values of K3 for Determining Loss of Head Due to Sudden Contraction From the Formula H3 = K3(V22/2g) 7 V2 = Velocity in Smaller Pipe Velocity.124 Table 4.46 .41 .04 .37 .47 .49 .26 .44 .0) .0) .5 (5.45 .45 .2 (4.17 .42 .34 .46 .07 . the important ones are: relative pipe sizes.04 . the following may be used as a guideline to estimate manhole losses.42 .1l.26 .9 (3.03 . Marsalek9. These works should be referred to whenever possible.07 .42 .31 .26 . the sewer system may surcharge leading to basement flooding or sewer overflows.09 . Various experimental studies10.44 9.45 6.49 0.07 .44 .8 (6.0) . Base shape and relative manhole sizes were less influential.18 .17 .29 .47 .35 .39 .0) .07 .18 .32 .19 .07 .0 4.40 .48 1.48 .47 3. Losses at sewer junctions are dependent upon flow characteristics. or underestimated. b) Among the junction geometrical parameters.48 .42 .0) .45 . General problems with respect to flow through junctions have been discussed by Chow8.0 (40) .18 .43 .6 (12) .36 .41 .34 .37 .26 .25 . The head loss was minimized when the lateral flows were equal.37 .05 .31 .17 .04 .48 .38 .18 .47 .5 3.42 .17 .34 .38 .40 .04 .0 (20) .04 .48 2.38 Manhole Losses Manhole losses in many cases comprise a significant percentage of the overall losses within a sewer system.44 . the most important flow variable was the relative lateral inflow for junctions with more than two pipes.48 .39 .13.46 .1 (7.35 .12. who concluded that the losses could be best estimated by experimental analysis as opposed to analytical procedures.41 .05 .08 .34 . c) Full benching to the crown of the pipe significantly reduced losses as compared to benching to the mid-section of the pipe or no benching.07 .42 .40 .37 .07 .33 .45 .26 .43 .10 .14.39 .33 .08 .33 .0 2.46 .8 2.43 .35 .39 .0 5.0) .46 . if these losses are ignored.5 (15) .17 .49 1.44 .46 4.44 .40 .42 .04 .41 12.37 .26 .47 .2 1.20 . in Meters Per Second (feet per second) d2/d1 = Ratio of Larger Pipe to Smaller Pipe d2/d1 1. .41 .25 .04 . in a study for three junction designs.24 .45 .40 .08 .34 .36 .2 2.06 .38 . Consequently.34 .47 3.46 .6 (2.6 1.40 .37 .48 1.47 2. In cases where no applicable results are available.25 .17 .04 .32 .36 .46 .41 . The losses increased as the ratio of the lateral discharge to main line discharge increased.34 .33 .15 have been performed to estimate manhole losses.0 (30) .37 .26 .39 . junction benching and pipe alignment. V2.40 .47 .0) . the head losses increased as the difference in flows between the two lateral sewers increased.48 .34 .26 .4 1.37 . junction geometry and relative sewer diameters.17 .0 ∞ 0.39 .29 .26 . d) In junctions where two lateral inflows occurred.04 .33 .38 .27 .47 .11 .31 .38 .43 .0 (10) .0 10.34 .48 .4 (8.43 . found the following: a) In pressurized flow.1 1.

losses can be estimated by: V2 Hm = 0. V2 Hj = Kj —— 2g using the laws of pressure plus momentum: Q22 Q12 Q32 (A1 + A2) (Hj + D1 .4. θ 3 Flow 1 2 .D2) ————— = —— – —— – —— cos θ 2 A2g A1g A3g Bend Losses Bend losses may be estimated from the equation: V2 Hb = Kb —— 2g For curved sewer segments where the angle is less than 40° the bend loss coefficient may be estimated as: Hm = .25 where: ∅ √—— 90 ∅ = central angle of bend in degrees For greater angles of deflection and bends in manholes. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Manhole Losses (flow straight through) 125 In a straight through manhole where there is no change in pipe size.13. the bend loss coefficient may be determined from Figure 4.05 —— 2g Terminal Manhole Losses Losses at terminal manholes may be estimated by the formula: V2 Htm = —— 2g Manhole Junction Losses Losses at junctions where one or more incoming laterals occur may be estimated by combining the laws of pressure plus momentum where Hj is equal to the junction losses.

2 r D 1.0 0° 20° 40° 60° Deflection Angle O.2 Sewer r/D > 6 0.4 Bend at Manhole. Curved or Deflector Curved Sewer r/D = 2 0.13 Sewer bend loss coefficient.16 .4 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 1.126 1.6 Curved o 0. no Special Shaping Deflector 0.0 o 0. Kb Bend at Manhole.8 Loss Coefficient. Degrees 80° 90° 100° Figure 4.

16.09 m3/s (3.16 — One inlet on each side of the road — Upstream carryover flow = 0 m3/s Catchment Runoff = 0. resulting in a greater demand for interception. Generally.14. Many different types of inlets have thus been developed. In the past. In some cases the limited capacity of the inlets may be desirable as a storm water management alternative thereby offering a greater level of protection from excessive sewer surcharging. the hydraulic capacities of some of these inlets were often unknown. Recent experiments on inlet capacities17 have resulted in a set of tables and charts to aid the designer in storm water inlet selection and sewer system design. The hydraulic efficiency of inlets is a function of street grade. This threshold velocity depends upon the geometry of the inlet and characteristics of the gutter.18 m3/s (6.17.16. However. sometimes resulting in erroneous capacity estimates. there is a threshold where the velocity is so high that less flow can be intercepted. This value is then used with Table 4. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 127 HYDRAULICS OF STORM INLETS Hydraulics of Storm Water Inlets Storm water inlets are the means by which storm runoff enters the sewer system.4. location and capacity are adequately determined to achieve the overall drainage requirements. as street grades continue to increase. Inlets play an important role in road drainage and storm sewer design because of their effect on both the rate of water removal from the road surface and the degree of utilization of the sewer system.17 to obtain the storm water inlet or grate inlet capacity. cross-slope. it may accumulate. it may result in a lower level of roadway convenience and conditions hazardous to traffic. both the quantity of runoff intercepted and the resulting level of roadway convenience must be known. which allows a greater flow to reach the inlets for interception. Storm water inlets may not intercept all runoff due to the velocity of flow over the inlet and the spread of flow across the roadway and gutter. The difference between the flow on the roadway and the inlet capacity is referred to as the carryover.17. Their design is often neglected or receives very little attention during the design of storm drainage systems.02 ft/ft) — Gutter type B — Inlet grate type per Figure 4.18 ÷ 2 = 0. An illustrative example is presented below: Design Parameter — Road crossfall = 0. The depth of flow in the gutter may be estimated from Figure 4. gutter design and inlet type. As carryover flow progresses downstream.02 m/m (0.02 ft/ft) — Road grade = 0. see Figures 4. If inlets are unable to discharge the design inflow to the sewer system.15 and 4. Initially as the street grade increases there is an increase in gutter flow velocity. overdesign in the number of inlets results in higher costs and could result in overuse of the sewer system.2 ft3/s) Gutter Flow = 0. A sample of the results is shown in Figures 4.16. as shown in Figure 4. No one inlet type is best suited for all conditions. It is imperative that more emphasis be placed on inlet design to assure that the inlet type.15 and 4. In such cases. see Table 4. the designer determines the overland flow and the resulting spread in gutter flow from a pre-determined road grade and crossfall.1 ft3/s) . Tables 4. inlet geometry and curb and gutter design. The effect of street grades on inlet capacities varies.02 m/m (0. It may also lead to overdesign of the sewer pipes downstream of the inlet. an increased street cross-slope will result in increased inlet capacity as the flow is concentrated within the gutter.16 and 4. This leads to the concept of carryover flow. To use these charts or tables. Furthermore.

7 Zd z 1 8 Equation: Q = 0.1 .7 0.005 .067 m 3 Find Q = 0.08 .04 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 INSTRUCTIONS 1.9 0.0 Reference: H.03 . T 2. To determine d a discharge in composite section: follow instruction x zbd 3 to obtain discharge in = zc(d-d1) section o at assumed depth d: obtain Qb for slope ration Zb and depth d1. .001 .002 . .R. Connect z/n ratio with slope (s) and connect discharge (Q) with .14M Nomograph for flow in triangular channels.15 Entrance Loss Coefficients For Corrugated Steel Pipe or Pipe-Arch Inlet End of Culvert Projecting from fill (no headwall) Headwall.001 . or headwall and wingwalls square-edged Mitered (beveled) to conform to fill slope *End-Section conforming to fill slope Headwall.2 } Depth at Curb or Deepest Point (d) in m 1000 800 0.003 .(x/2) d b 4.07 .02 3.56 n s ⁄2d ⁄3 d . These two lines must intersect at turning line for complete solution.003 .01 . then Q T = Q a • Q b . Then use nomograph to determine Q b in section b for depth d1 = d .003 Figure 4.07 .03 .0 n = 0.007 .5 0.04 .008 .05 .25 () .5 10000 8000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Coefficient Ke 0.09 .6 .03 2.002 .2 0.056 m /sec .B.3 Discharge.01 .009 . To determine d1 a discharge Qx in b portion of channel d x having width x: z x determine depth d or total discharge in entire section o.05 .004 .5 0.005 .06 .10 .4 . For shallow v-shaped channel as shown use nomograph with z = T/d d .06 .007 .02 Ratio z/n Turning Line 600 500 400 300 200 .08 . rounded edge Beveled Ring Notes: *End Sections available from manufacturers. proceedings 1946.128 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 4.02 .10 .006 10 .008 .03 .02 d = 0.01 .0 z = 24 z/n = 1200 1. equation (14) Example (see dashed lines) 3.0001 depth (d).0 Given: s = 0.20 0. (Q) m3/s Slope of Channel (s) in m/m n is roughness coefficient in Manning formula appropriate to material in bottom of channel Z is reciprocal of gross slope 10.30 0.006 . page 150.004 .

03 0.10 0.2 0. page 150.008 0. proceedings 1946. . Connect z/n ratio with slope (s) and connect discharge (Q) with depth (d).60 0.07 0.30 0.20 0.02 0.02 Ratio z/n 400 300 200 Turning Line 600 500 0.14 Nomograph for flow in triangular channels.40 Reference: equation (14) Example (see dashed lines) Given: s = 0. To determine Za discharge in composite x zbd section: follow instruction = zc(d-d1) 3 to obtain discharge in section o at assumed depth d: obtain Qb for slope ration Zb and depth d1.(x/2) d b 0.005 0.03 1.08 0.01 Figure 4.0 0.004 INSTRUCTIONS 1. ft3/s Slope of Channel (s). To determine discharge Qx in b d x portion of channel z having width x: x determine depth d or total discharge in entire section o.50 0.05 0. These two lines must intersect at turning line for complete T 0.10 0. ft/ft 1000 800 0.002 0. For shallow v-shaped channel as shown use nomograph with z = T/d d 0.03 z = 24 z/n = 1200 n = 0.70 0.0 ft3/sec n is roughness coefficient in Manning formula appropriate to material in bottom of channel Z is reciprocal of gross slope H.02 0.05 0.5 0.007 0. 0. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Zd d 10000 8000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 z 1 8 Equation: Q = 0. ft Discharge (Q).03 0.R. 100 50 30 20 10 5 3 1 0.4. then Q T = Q a • Q b 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.3 0.04 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 2.06 0. Then use nomograph to determine Q b in section b for depth d1 = d .22 Find Q = 2.1 } Depth at Curb or Deepest Point (d).01 0.B.006 0.80 0.05 0.02 d = 0.56 n s ⁄2d ⁄3 2.07 0.0 129 () 0.003 10 a d1 3.001 x d a 4.01 solution.

5 ?? Sx = 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.10m/m INLET CAPACITY (m3/s) 1.42 .71 Sx = 0.5 Sx = 0.9 2.9 3.5 m INLET CAPACITY (m3/s) 0.04 0.12 1.00 0.6 2.8 0.10 ft/ft 1.3 2.6 6.10 ft/ft 2.05 Grade 3.00 0.6 4.00 0.5 1.8 8.04 0.71 Sx = 0.3 ft 2.2 2.04 0.00 0.06 0.6 Figure 4.05 Grade 0.42 3.3 2.10 ft/ft 0.00 0.02 0.12 1.08 0.04 0.71 8.05 Grade Sx = 0.00 0.00 0.16 .05 Grade 0.10m/m 0.5 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 2.0 0.15 Sewer inlet capacity: as per curb and gutter in Figure 4.10m/m 0.84 INLET CAPACITY (cfs) 9.04 0.0 0.8 0.10 ft/ft 0.5 2.6 4.9 3.5 1.8 0.00 0.00 0.12 6.02 0.5 1.0 0.8m 0.00 0.06 T = 1.42 .05 Grade 4.130 T = 2.0 0.5 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.6 .0m 0.42 .0 1.06 0.05 Grade Sx = 0.10m/m Sx = crossfall T = spread INLET CAPACITY (cfs) T=8.06 0.2ft 2.3 2.71 Sx = 0.05 Grade 1.7 2.00 0.5 1.08 0.00 0.0 1.84 2.05 Grade 2.5m Sx = 0.12 1.9 3.5 1.

043 0.073 0.00 1.64 5.48 1.18 1.118 0.54 4.64 2.039 0.08 0.00 1.108 0.59 2.41 4.087 0.00 2. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Table 4.018 0.027 0.187 0.64 8.19 1.00 2.50 0.86 9.00 0.11 0.84 1.70 3.46 3.239 0.093 0.530 0.59 1.86 3.92 6.087 0.228 0.72 23.044 0.06 1.80 1.296 0.34 2.083 0.56 8.59 6.37 10.123 0.153 0.511 0.293 0.117 0.378 0.033 0.76 8.50 0.64 2.75 0.75 1.49 0.231 0.188 0.78 5.025 0.46 6.26 0.95 18.04 0.053 0.92 6.43 5.31 2.107 0.047 0.06 0.96 14.13 0.08 0.66 5.014 0.08 0.71 1.36 0.013 0.90 1.361 0.057 0.93 5.16 1.02 0.338 0.75 20.12 1.82 2.01 0.022 0.517 0.50 0.66 2.51 2.168 0.67 0.81 4.110 0.051 0.04 16.230 0.10 0.018 0.36 0.146 0.28 4.35 15.64 5.14 7.50 0.64 2.023 0.026 0.068 0.31 5.07 0.058 0.82 9.69 0.131 0.01 0.195 0.4.131 0.358 0.153 0.084 0.35 3.206 0.49 0.38 1.08 1.059 0.06 4.04 0.080 0.00 0.72 0.341 0.34 2.020 0.41 6.039 0.64 0.290 0.10 0.16 0.022 0.265 0.08 4.39 3.633 0.11 14.29 0.02 2.80 1.49 0.28 10.56 8.066 0.008 0.181 0.76 4.39 10.028 0.142 0.234 0.065 0.089 0.33 0.02 Grade (ft/ft) 0.04 0.378 0.005 0.28 0.81 2.15 0.31 2.31 0.41 0.023 0.126 0.169 0.044 0.017 0.45 12.53 2.76 0.034 0.34 8.47 18.11 12.078 0.17 1.102 0.14 0.514 0.16M Crossfall Spread (m/m) (m) 0.68 6.55 1.08 0.08 0.64 0.66 4.140 0.06 0.041 0.47 2.58 4.81 3.50 0.64 2.046 0.008 0.84 14.84 5.25 13.94 15.11 0.134 0.34 11.44 2.02 1.817 0.76 1.034 0.22 8.197 0.39 3.068 0.097 0.335 0.09 2.20 1.053 0.00 0.00 1.148 0.422 0.258 0.096 0.04 0.089 0.030 0.264 0.69 8.074 0.043 0.052 0.36 6.075 0.161 0.255 Grade (m/m) 0.41 0.95 3.38 2.06 0.04 3.281 0.24 3.98 9.255 0.05 0.50 1.74 9.474 0.49 0.073 0.18 3.46 3.062 0.36 20.47 18.19 1.62 0.07 3.123 0.313 0.103 0.209 0.02 8.28 4.80 3.70 3.094 0.216 0.23 0.52 7.50 0.20 8.24 2.104 0.181 0.36 0.305 0.83 1.175 0.75 0.398 0.63 11.05 14.294 0.91 1.23 25.061 0.01 2.60 8.15 0.58 0.026 0.14 28.92 7.17 8.32 11.080 0.56 7.09 0.30 0.327 0.230 0.84 1.80 2.207 0.64 2.99 0.50 2.051 0.024 0.04 1.46 3.81 1.20 0.05 22.50 2.76 1.020 0.09 0.30 0.38 11.042 0.17 9.325 0.074 0.28 4.113 0.25 12.86 2.39 6.67 1.11 0.151 0.128 0.17 3.120 0.02 4.267 0.571 Table 4.072 0.186 0.413 0.07 1.90 6.50 17.25 131 Gutter Flow Rate17 (m3/s) Depth (m) 0.98 1.93 1.16 Crossfall Spread (ft/ft) (ft) 0.28 1.89 10.10 0.099 0.46 0.02 0.26 0.07 0.31 3.068 0.14 5.95 5.69 5.26 0.15 0.58 0.63 4.051 0.097 0.75 1.56 3.16 .227 0.061 0.057 0.69 11.104 0.003 0.46 3.61 4.033 0.14 3.23 6.584 0.28 3.43 1.162 0.10 Gutter Flow Rate17 (cfs) Depth (ft) 0.38 0.163 0.044 0.016 0.161 0.03 0.010 0.365 0.21 0.447 0.78 13.50 2.84 4.37 16.048 0.54 2.36 6.10 0.09 0.36 0.014 0.30 0.15 8.92 2.43 0.012 0.37 12.040 0.39 10.031 0.35 0.07 5.731 0.092 0.037 0.03 9.11 0.003 0.237 0.38 5.29 1.506 0.012 0.43 2.15 4.17 0.442 0.84 3.08 0.653 0.90 1.028 0.92 5.263 0.093 0.06 0.62 9.411 0.06 0.03 0.136 0.036 0.031 0.09 0.00 1.34 0.49 0.28 4.93 10.63 2.46 0.059 0.63 4.32 3.13 0.114 0.00 0.23 0.163 0.055 0.292 0.05 0.460 0.43 0.189 0.73 9.11 1.08 .88 3.067 0.024 0.00 1.99 18.133 0.56 2.

552 mm (22 in.048 0.036 0.023 0.029 0.062 0.046 0.032 0.037 0.061 0.00 0.064 0.081 0.033 0.024 0.042 0.080 0.072 0.08 Notes: *Grate shown in Figure 4.50 0.030 0.50 2.070 0.014 0.00 1.032 0.06 0.031 0.50 2.) 50 mm (2 in.04 0.005 0.014 0.019 0.023 0.022 0.012 0.023 0.032 0.132 600 mm (24 in.021 0.018 0.012 0.054 0.027 0.049 0.010 0.010 0.055 0.058 0.038 0.057 0.) Curb Side 48 mm (2 in.028 0.) Curb & Gutter Type B Crossfall = 0.01 0.026 0.022 0.50 2.70 3.00 0.010 0.061 Grate Inlet Capacity17 (m3/s)* Grade (m/m) 0.052 0.08 0.047 0.017 0.042 0.054 0.030 0.024 0.038 0.053 0.056 0.054 0.024 0.00 0.044 0.) 604 mm (24 in.076 0.035 0.042 0.078 0.054 0.044 0.017 0.054 0.030 0.040 0.17M Crossfall (m/m) Spread (m) 0.058 0.050 0.008 0.043 0.019 0.007 0.012 0.012 0.) 400 mm (16 in.034 0.015 0.052 0.023 0.035 0.022 0.018 0.013 0.028 0.035 0.012 0.021 0.050 0.059 0.050 0.039 0.019 0.02 0.10 0.071 0.055 0.063 0.054 0.057 0.068 0.042 0.034 0.02 1.043 0.041 0.02 50 mm (2 in.75 1.00 2.057 0.057 0.50 0.046 0.052 0.057 0.050 0.063 0.035 0. Table 4.039 0.75 1.) 600 mm (24 in.020 0.030 0.011 0.068 0.50 0.50 0.051 0.056 0.071 0.057 0.50 0.013 0.028 0.031 0.040 0.75 1.068 0.029 0.75 1.021 0.027 0.) 150 mm (6 in.052 0.062 0.038 0.056 0.04 0.) Figure 4.038 0.033 0.013 0.064 0.027 0.027 0.) MODERN SEWER DESIGN 150 mm (6 in.013 0.074 0.042 0.071 0.062 0.06 0.069 0.) .031 0.016 0.03 0.071 0.16.056 0.072 0.073 0.081 0.046 0.044 0.042 0.043 0.021 0.061 0.070 0.024 0.048 0.057 0.16 Catch basin grate.00 1.072 0.007 0.017 0.038 0.00 0.50 0.00 2.040 0.038 0.

24 0.55 0.04 2.46 3.69 1.97 1.41 2.63 0.45 0.27 2.46 2.83 1.18 0.85 0.07 1.92 2.46 0.00 0.73 2.90 2.64 2.17 Crossfall (ft/ft) Spread (ft) 1.89 2.80 2.50 2.04 2.82 1.54 1.96 2.63 1.21 1.92 2.10 1.41 0.46 3.55 1.63 2.14 0.06 1.14 0.96 2.56 1.59 0.93 1.96 1.84 1.22 1.41 0.97 2.07 1.94 2.25 2.79 1.84 1.55 0.83 1.96 1.75 1.92 1.48 0.89 2.70 0.94 0.33 1.47 1.83 1.02 2.08 0.49 1.17 Stormwater inlets.51 2.46 3.02 0.69 2. CURB INLETS (a) Undepressed (b) Depressed GUTTER INLETS (c) Deflector Inlet (d) Undepressed (e) Depressed (f) Combination Inlet Grate placed directly in front of curb opening depressed Down Hill Flow (g) Multiple Inlet Undepressed Slotted Drain Curb (h) Slotted Drain Road Typical Cross Section Slot-In Sag Figure 4.39 0.84 1.02 0.56 8.78 0.98 2.28 0.92 6.28 4.10 0.34 0.41 0.63 0.28 4.04 1.33 1.84 2.53 1.75 0.77 2.36 0.13 1.51 0.74 1.02 2.77 1.29 1.43 0.64 2.82 0.34 2.81 1.86 1. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS Table 4.07 1.46 0.24 0.15 133 Grate Inlet Capacity17 (cfs)* Grade (ft/ft) 0.03 2.43 1.24 1.99 1.42 1.52 1.00 2.34 1.01 0.86 9.21 1.14 1.34 0.68 0.51 1.83 2.65 0.03 0.19 0.28 0.59 1.54 1.61 2.16.06 0.96 1.11 1.49 2.19 0.99 1.45 0.66 1.74 1.57 1.61 0.46 3.16 1.20 8.06 0.03 0.35 2.60 0.14 1.22 1.02 4.28 0.52 1.64 2.04 0.92 6.47 2.39 2.75 0.01 2.44 0.76 1.85 0.18 1. .11 1.53 1.64 2.17 0.27 1.01 1.50 1.50 0.87 2.25 1.26 0.56 8.04 0.80 1.40 1.66 0.39 1.43 0.77 1.99 1.20 1.81 1.64 1.48 2.4.90 2.21 1.69 0.74 0.36 2.08 Notes: *Grate shown in Figure 4.54 0.45 1.34 0.09 0.42 1.

040 = 0.4 ft).16 the resulting spread in flow = 2.18-0.08 = 0.12 m (0. these charts can be used to establish minimum spacing between inlets. The area is simplified to a rectangular shape of width and length where the length represents the distance between inlets.82 for ft3/s) l = length of opening. The carryover flow = 0.56 ft) of spread results in an inlet capacity of 0. the increases in inlet capacity rarely exceed 50 percent of the single inlet capacity. the inlet begins to operate as an orifice and its discharge is expressed by the following: Q = C A D0.18 Flow into the inlets initially operates as a weir having a crest length equal to the length of perimeter that flow crosses. m3/s (ft3/s) transverse slope C = (1.17. m3/s (ft3/s) A = clear opening of the grate.25 for m3/s (1.e.00 m (6.). The quantity intercepted is expressed by the following: Q = C•L•D1.134 MODERN SEWER DESIGN From Table 4.0) D = depth of water ponding above the top of the grate. The inlet operates under these conditions to a depth of about 100 mm (4 in. highways and arterial roads).00 m (6.66 for m3/s (3. m (ft) The inlet capacity of an undepressed curb inlet may be expressed by the equation: Q/l = C x 10-3 d (g/d)1/2 where Q = discharge into inlets. such installations are usually installed in series. From Table 4.47 for m3/s (4. parallel to the curb. This is done by controlling the catchment area for each inlet. m (ft) When the depth exceeds 0.10 m3/s (3.66 (3.87) hydraulic gradient of gutter coefficient of roughness of gutter 0.36 ft3/s).5 Q = rate of discharge into the grate opening. disregarding bars and neglecting the side against the curb. For roads where few restrictions to inlet location may exist (i.563 .0 for ft3/s) L = perimeter length of the grate.84 ft3/s). Under special circumstances. it may be necessary to install twin or double inlets to increase the inlet capacity. m3/s (ft3/s) C = 1.42 ft3/s). For reasons of interference by traffic. m (ft) Where or √(s/n) This assumes a gutter of wedge shaped cross-section with a cross-sectional street slope of 10-3 to 10-1 with Qo i s n C = = = = = flow in the gutter.080 m3/s (2.040 m3/s (1.5 Where Q = rate of discharge into the grate opening C = 1.87 for ft3/s) Q/l = C i0. Therefore.. m3/s (ft3/s) d = depth of flow in gutter. m2 (ft2) C = 1. Studies17 have shown that where such installations exist on a continuous grade. The capacity of storm water inlets at a sag in the roadway is typically expressed by weir and orifice equations. 2.579 ( ) Qo 0. m (ft) g = gravitational acceleration. m (ft) D = depth of water at the grate. the total flow intercepted = 2 x 0.56 ft).

Example: if 20% carryover (Qa / Qd = 80%) is allowed. Compacting backfill is required for proper installation of all sewers.19. LR. The slot should be parallel to the curb and located in the gutter approximately as shown. LA should never be less than 6 m (20 ft) for sag inlet cases.072 QD (1. resulting in a 42% savings in material and installation costs. for total interception can be calculated from the following equation: 0. LA must be at least the length of LR.401 for Imperial Units) LR = ———— √h For sag inlets.4.18.18.0 times the calculated LR to ensure against the debris hazard. The advantages of carryover are shown in Figure 4.) minimum be used. At on-grade inlets where carryover is not to be permitted. It is suggested that L be in increments of 1. Make certain that there is a feasible location to which the carryover may be directed. the economics favor slotted drain pipe inlets designed with carryover rather than for total flow interception. then only 58% (LA/LR) of the total slotted drain length is required. It should be carefully noted that. the required length of slotted drain. generally. LA should be at least 2.0 but greater than 0. Pipe diameter is usually not a factor but it is recommended that a 450 mm (18 in.4. . assume a length (LA) such that LA /LR is less than 1.) from Figure 4. construction and inspection. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 135 The inlet capacity for a slotted drain may be determined from Figure 4. If carryover is to be permitted.5 m or 3 m (5 or 10 ft) to facilitate fabrication.O. Determine the amount of carryover (C. At sag inlets.

so that the open slot acts as a weir intercepting all of the flow uniformly along the entire length of the drain. m/m (ft/ft) d — Depth of flow. m/m (ft/ft) Sx — Transverse slope. m (ft) Qd — Total discharge at an inlet.0037 m3/s per meter (0. m3/s (ft3/s) Slotted Drain is used effectively to intercept runoff from wide. as required by a slot-on-grade installation. Slopes ranged from a longitudinal slope of 9 % and a Z of 16.0023 m3/s per meter (0.5 0.0023 m3/s per meter (0. Even at the maximum discharge of 0. flat areas such as parking lots. At the design discharge of 0.0 Relative Length – (LA/LR) . highway medians — even tennis courts and airport loading ramps.04 ft3/s per foot) and maximum slopes.6 0. 1.025 ft3/s per foot). nearly all the flow passed through the slot. Slotted Drain has been tested for overland flow (sheet flow).0 Efficiency – (Qa/Qd) 0. which corresponds to a rainstorm of 380 mm/hr (15 in. to a longitudinal slope of 0.8 0. m/m (ft/ft) Z — Transverse slope reciprocal.18 The tests included flows up to 0. The test system was designed to supply at least 0.9 0.9 1. it was reported that the total flow fell through the slot as a weir flow without hitting the curb side of the slot. m3/s (ft3/s) Qa — An assumed discharge. m (ft) (no carryover) LA — An assumed length of slot. These results are published. m (ft) L — Length of slot.8 0.04 ft3/s per foot)./hr) over a 22 m (72 ft) wide roadway (6 lanes).5% and a Z 90 mm (3 1⁄2 ”) of 48.7 0.6 0.025 ft3/s per foot).136 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Definitions S — Longitudinal gutter or channel slope. m3/s (ft3/s) LR — Length of slot required for total interception.0037 m3/s per meter of slot (0. m (ft) Q — Discharge. The water is not collected and channeled against a berm.7 0. In these installations. the drain is placed transverse to the direction of flow.

20 10.06 .5 ft /s Find: LR = 24 ft Find: Solution Method: 1.07 .005 Z = 31 Q = 0. Connect points from S and Z to 2.762 Q.015 0. Turning Line Slotted Drain Inlet Length for n = 0.03 Example 1 Given: S = 0.9 .0 .0 5.0 9.0 8.87 If n ≠ 0.19 Slotted drain design Nomograph.305Z.08 . Lr = LR ——— n (Extrapolation not recommended) ( ) Example 1 Given: S = .015: LR = (6. ft/ft .0 4.5 ft3/s LR = 22.02 Slotted Drain Inlet Length for n = 0.005 ft/ft Z = 32 Q = 3.305 Z. Q.001 Discharge m3/S – Q Longitudinal Slope (m/m) – S Longitudinal Slope (S).0 7. Connect point on turning line to Transverse Slope Reciprocal – Z Example 2 S = . Connect point on turning line to Transverse Slope Reciprocal – Z Example 2 S = 0.0 turning line.0 .0 Length (m) – LR Turning Line 6.015. 0.07 Find: LR = 7.015.10 LR = 7.0 3.05 .427S.427 S.007 ft/ft Given: Z = 35 ft/ft 3 Q = 2.655) Q.015) n (Extrapolation not recommended) Figure 4. Discharge (Q). HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 137 20.87 If n ≠ .10 . Q.007 m/m Given: Z = 36 m/m Q = 0.3 m Find: Solution Method: 1.015 LR = 4.01 0.4.005 0. ft.05 0.04 48 40 32 24 16 0. ft3/sec Length (L). Connect points from S and Z to 2.5 turning line. .766 0.766 0.09 . Lr = LR (.

Wright. E. “Friction Factors for Hydraulic Design of Corrugated Metal Pipe. 1976. 1959 pp. G. FHWA-RD-79-106. Wallingford.S. C.W. “Friction Factors in Corrugated Metal Pipe. Open Channel Hydraulics. July 1985.. Report No. Bussy. 37. M. and Metcalf. 1959. April 1971. F. H. R. Bettes. C. R. Handbook of Hydraulics. K. pp. 11. U. and Colyer. 54. September 19-22. B. 6. K. September 19-22. Ontario.” Project Report No. “Head Losses at Selected Sewer Manholes... The University of Missouri Bulletin. Jr. King. Report No. Marsalek. Brater. Vol. Hydraulics Division. 12. FHWA. 18. 1984. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Head Losses at Two Pipe Stormwater Junction Chambers. Water and Pollution Control Federation Manual of Practice No. Marsalek. 44. Sept. Canada. Goteburg. Sorenson... pp. Brisbane.. 1985. J.” Engineering Series Bulletin No. F. 219-223. “Pressure Changes at Storm Drain Junctions. Corps of Engineers.” Proceedings Second National Conference on Local Government Engineering. 1969. Silberman. 637. “Magnitude of Hydraulic Losses at Junctions in Piped Drainage Systems.. E. P. Black..” Environmental Hydraulics Section. 1959. V.” Hydraulic Design Series No. IT185.T. K. Engineering Experiment Station..S. Institution of Civil Engineers. Ackers. 1982.. J. 6th Edition. June 4-8. pp. 1983. T. Wood. W. 4. Federal Highway Administration.G. MN..VI.. American Society of Civil Engineers. “Road and Bridge Deck Drainage Systems. Dahlin.138 MODERN SEWER DESIGN REFERENCES 1. 3. 1978. Vol. Piggott.. St. J. National Water Research Institute. 1983.” Civil Engineering Transactions. 5. FHWA. Grace. deGrout.” Dept.Q. 882-884 and 1033-1036. Federal Highway Administration. W. 13. FHWA-IP-85-15.” Ministry of Transportation and Communications. 5. 121. “Further Studies of Friction Factors for Corrugated Aluminum Pipes Flowing Full... No. 2... U. 4... Colorado. 1965. Howarth. D. J. WrightMcLaughlin Engineers. Sangster.. J. 15. 1980. A. Vol. 127-136. 1969.” Journal of the Hydraulic Division. 16. Research and Development Branch. Brisbane. C. Canada Centre for Inland Waters. H. 35-67. Proceedings of the Highway Research Board. of Defense. Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. 1969.. 3rd Edition. Chow. University of Minnesota. 14.” Civil Engineering and Public Works Review. “An Investigation of Head Losses at Sewer Manholes. “Head Losses and Air Entrainment at Surcharged Manholes. F. 19.W. P. E. T.. Smavelor. pp.” Proceedings Second National Conference on Local Government Engineering.. . Hydraulics Research Station. L.” Feb. J. Boyd. 71-77. E. Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 8. H. 9 and American Society of Civil Engineers Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No.. 9.” Report No. 10. J. Denver.. Archer. Vol. M. Hare.” Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage. “Experimental Determination of Head Losses in Stormwater Systems. Webster. L. Volume I. 17. 85. Davis. “Energy Loss Coefficients at Manholes. M. Nov. McGraw-Hill Book Company. B. Waterways Experimental Station. A. Sept. and Saul. Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual. L. Minneapolis.M. “Hydraulic Characteristics of Slotted Drain Inlets. 7. “Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts. 1983. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.

9. 1974. 27 pp. 20590. J. July 1973. D.S. Hydraulics Branch. American Society of Civil Engineers.S.” Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. Inc.. J..C. American Iron and Steel Institute. Normann. Hydraulics Branch. Washington. Bauer Engineering. and Johnson. Office of Engineering.. 13. M. 96. Government Printing Office. “Hydraulic Design of Large Structural Plate Corrugated Metal Culverts. J.” Unpublished Report.S. Vol. “73-3 Implementation Package for Slotted CMP Surface Drains.C.C.” Bauer. W. I972.. Harrison. C. Dept. Feb. M. Silberman.” April 1969.” Hydraulic Design Series No. “Debris Control Structures. F. Aug.. “Design Charts for Open Channel Flow. U.. Morris. of Transportation. U.. D.4. 2253-2263. 20590. 1970. IL. Corrugated Steel Pipe.” Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. Federal Highway Administration. Normann. “Design of Culverts. Federal Highway Administration. Bridge Division. “Effects of Helix Angle on Flow in Corrugated Pipes.. Chicago. E. HNG-31. HYDRAULICS OF STORM SEWERS 139 BIBLIOGRAPHY Handbook of Steel Drainage and Highway Construction Products. J. C. Federal Highway Administration. Bureau of Public Roads. “Determination of Manning’s n for 14 ft. . 17 pp. D. 20402.” Journal of the Hydraulics Division. Nov. pp.” U. Jones. L. 3. 1983. Washington. L. 37 pp. “Hydraulic Design of Improved Inlets for Culverts. S. 1964. Jan.. W. 1961. Washington.

.140 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Fabricated fittings are hydraulically superior.

the user may then select the level of analysis that is required. the designer should first establish the type of flow (sub-critical or supercritical) to determine the direction his calculations are to proceed. — Hydraulic jump may form if there is super and sub-critical flow in the same sewer.141 CHAPTER 5 Hydraulic Design Of Storm Sewers INTRODUCTION The hydraulic design of a sewer system may have to take into account the effect of backwater (the limiting effect on flows that a downstream sewer has on upstream sewers). of these factors have to be considered depends on the complexity of the sewer system and the objectives of the analysis (i. when designing with common friction flow formulae such as the Manning equation. it is recognized that a reasonable conservative “estimate” or “shortcut” will sometimes be required. By defining the above factors. which is demonstrated on the following pages.. a listing of various computer models that may be used in the analysis or design of sewer systems is provided. Only in this way can the free flow conditions be known and the hydraulic grade controlled. the degree of analysis will also depend on the potential impact should the sewer system capacity be exceeded. Consideration must therefore also be given to the changes in hydraulic grade line due to pressure changes. or all. However. — Sub-critical flow – designer works against the flow. i. In addition.e. These design aids do not consider the additional head losses associated with other structures and appurtenances common in sewer systems. manholes and junctions. working methodically through the system. Making such an analysis requires backwater calculations for each run of conduit. inlet capacity and all energy losses in the system. Flow charts and nomographs such as those presented in Chapter 4 provide quick answers for the friction head losses in a given run of straight conduit between structures (manholes. thus assuring performance of the system.e. but on the hydraulic grade line.. This can be done and is also demonstrated on pages 160 through 166. Furthermore. This section will outline two methods using hand calculations. A comprehensive storm sewer design must therefore proceed on the basis of one run of conduit or channel at a time. is the sizing of the system preliminary or final?). the hydraulic grade is assumed to be equal to the pipe slope at an elevation equal to the crown of the pipe. The design should then not only be based on the pipe slope. that the inlet capacity of the system is not a limiting factor. surcharging. . This is a detailed process. elevation changes. would surcharging result in damages to private property due to the foundation drains being connected to the system or is the depth of flooding on a roadway important because emergency vehicles depend on safe access along the street. For example. In most instances. Whether each. When using the backwater curve approach. — Super critical flow – designer works downstream with flow. junctions). Both methods assume that all flows enter the sewer system.

Hm. 3. f. G. using formulas in text. a backwater calculation will be performed in this example with helical corrugated steel pipe. Velocity = —– V = 2.76 ft2) Q .2. e. and preliminary design for the initial pipe sizing has been completed. 2. (4) by adding all energy loss columns.G.1 and 5. is the average of the two point slopes Sf being considered.142 MODERN SEWER DESIGN BACKWATER ANALYSIS Given is a flow profile of a storm drainage system (see Figures 5.2) where the hydraulic grade is set at the crown of the outlet pipe. E.8 m/s (6. Calculate energy losses: Hb. (9) (2) (3) (4) (6) (8) .) Hydraulic grade elevation H. Calculate the first section of sewer line. Energy grade point. Hydrological computations have been made. Velocity Head (l0): Hv = —— 2g d. G. Sf (13) by length of sewer section. have been calculated in preliminary design. are known. Sf) (13) for each reach of pipe L (14). Solution 1.1 ft/s) A Note: (1) Numbers in parentheses refer to the columns on Table 5.1 for a given diameter of pipe and with a known ‘n’ value for the expected flow Q.2 m (94. Compute new H.54 m2 (23. Diameters of pipe. Ht. ‘Sf’ value (12): Sf = K —— ÷ R4/3 2g The friction slope (Sf) may also be estimated from Table 5.50 ft) Diameter D = l800 mm (66 in. therefore. calculations to begin at outfall working upstream. L (14) = Hf (15). G. Hj. Therefore. ‘K’ value (7): K = (2g) n2 (Derived from Manning-Chezy Formula) V2 b. G. (15) thru (19) to previous H. the friction slope (Avg. Draw a plan and surface profile of trunk storm sewer. To demonstrate the significance of form losses in sewer design. D. Note: Normal depth is greater than critical depth. V2 c. Compute: a. At “point of control” set design conditions on profile and calculations sheet: Station 0 + 00 (outfall) Design discharge Q = 7. Design discharges. Sf (12) is a “point slope” at each station set forth by the designer. (4) plus the velocity head (10). A. Q. g. Areas.0 m3/s (145 ft3/s) Invert of pipe = 28. (11) is equal to H. yn > yc. = 30 m (100 ft) Area of pipe A = 2. Friction loss (15): Multiply Avg. are known.

043 0.013 0.587 0.900 0.040 4.260 1.017 0.693 2.282 0.075 0.041 0.853 0.012 792 241 91.531 1.0010 0.14 2.114 0.0004 0.28 0.145 0.0003 0.835 6.0006 0.884 1.150 0.5 26.172 0.0012 0.010 0.406 0.798 0.260 0.235 0.188 0.0013 0.44 0.0017 0.554 0.0005 n = 0.023 0.52 5.224 0.0035 0.28 11.38 7.021 2426 738 279 84.013 0.646 0.0004 0.218 4.750 1.0022 0.206 0.328 0.008 0.10 14.619 0.54 2.Table 5.355 0.711 0.024 3168 964 364 111 41.524 8.056 0.05 0.507 0.008 0.825 0.0022 0.919 1.0019 0.063 0.48 4.185 1.052 0.654 1.037 0.0007 0.0002 1986 604 228 69.457 0.0030 0.094 0.120 0.286 0.666 3.258 0.485 0.037 0.0023 0.36 0.652 0.73 6.450 0.131 0.880 0.023 1.0007 0.07 7.009 0.563 0.003 0.651 0.0011 0.136 0.18 0.0017 0.092 0.769 0.825 0.406 5.206 0.38 7.448 0.0014 0. multiply Q2 by the figure under the proper value of n.0002 0.470 9.9 32.55 5.43 9.46 3.79 8.77 2.011 0.068 0.35 10.350 0.64 0.005 0.109 0.87 1.010 0.026 0.349 0.338 0.494 1.53 0.410 0.007 0.709 3.0010 0.824 2.050 0.3 16.141 0.0005 0.266 0.675 0.004 0.300 0.488 n 2 2/3 Hydraulic Radius AR 2/3 ( ——) A R 5.040 0.027 0.031 0.088 0.43 1.681 0.074 0.0005 0.0003 0.020 0.105 1.0013 0.225 0. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS (mm) (m2) (m) 200 250 300 375 450 525 600 675 750 825 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 0.004 0.724 1.080 0.006 0.030 0.198 3.0009 0.93 18.0006 0.0003 0.0008 0.0014 0.075 0.22 0.932 143 Manning Flow Equation: Q = AR 2/3 2 ( ) —— —— n x S1/2 Energy Loss = S = Q2 AR To find energy loss in pipe friction for a given Q.600 0.187 0.694 0.0008 0.0006 0.99 3.179 0.003 0.370 0.263 0.178 0.863 0.233 0.906 0.1 27.006 0.796 0.0004 n = 0.607 2.089 5.113 0.375 0.414 0.002 0.788 0.016 0.1M n x 10-2 2 Energy-loss Solution by Manning’s Formula For Pipe Flowing Full Diameter AR n = 0.13 1.16 0.488 0.206 0.047 0.056 0.55 9.525 0.0006 2/3 Area R 2/3 n = 0.0043 0.850 2.687 0.7 10.0056 0.169 0.07 0.921 3.520 0.413 0.98 4.019 0.305 0.0002 1238 376 142 43.016 0.007 0. ( ) .11 6.157 0.750 0.004 0.713 0.015 n = 0.017 0.03 0.11 0.646 7.011 0.0008 0.254 2.026 0.

832 8.Table 5.082 1.049 831.20 8.24 260.909 7.250 .773 12.019 681.442 0.106 .266 63.375 1.817 5.303 .935.440 1.405 3.362 0.5 531.875 2.456 0.071 21.576 .797 5.486 n xR 2/ 3 ) x S1/2 —— 1.144 0.758 28.012 271.979 3.731 .5 Manning Flow Equation: Q = MODERN SEWER DESIGN ( ( A x 1.566 15.452 3.803 12.452 1.859 55.230 126.756 0.397 .385 1.524 0.904 19.75 1.625 1.00 166.250 .895 1.359.730 54.) (ft2) (ft) 6 8 10 12 15 18 21 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 108 114 120 .410 0.566 .825 .671 AR 2/3 n = 0.802 17.125 Hydraulic Radius ( —— ) A R (in.566 17.164 0.125 1.875 1.5 1.54 .130 2.54 76.142 4.882 78.351 .713 25.842 Energy Loss = S = Q2 .098 n = 0.6 3.069 9.088.137 0.3125 .021 .587 1.647 6.919 1.7 1.208 .191 .148 6.717 1.0 510.475 0.630 .000 17.578 0.337 1.486 AR 2/3 To find energy loss in pipe friction for a given Q.605 6.125 0.031 n 424.103 0.5 852.312 .635 23.902 1.25 1.936 10.879 6.179 50.698 2.04 79.466 3.600 58.880 67.167 0.164 71.350 232.40 4.226 0.064 0.16 1.50 .25 2.209 0.227 1.382 1.349 .219 0.621 12.196 79.743 0.7 19.144.486AR 2/3 n = 0.039 45.2 340. ) .041 0.772 109.049 .00 1.588 5.520 3.196 .274 33.00 1.777 00.326 0.126 29.4 2.617 70.767 2. multiply Q2 by the figure under the proper value of n.375 .5 50.01 48.365 37.8 1.950 0.086.7 1.096 10.316 1.60 417.521 1.667 16.353 5.241 0.520 .777 29.015 n = 0.75 .707 20.785 1.625 .000 145.953 13.12 58.364.035.314 0.055 0.791 8.1 n x 10-7 2 Energy-loss Solution by Manning’s Formula For Pipe Flowing Full 144 Diameter 1.00 2.125 .509 44.461 .437 .208 22.041.485 44.030 3.640 0.965 1.206.192 0.545 .50 1.183 38.085 0.485 0.20 155.6 772.940 177.780 1.182 0.691 33.180.102 0.257 0.024 1.848 2.420 90.102.915 1.741 3.234.375 2.310 0.703 27.026 1.078 2 Area R 2/3 n = 0.236 1.167 .541 8.257 0.310 1.455 26.160 0.98 666.39 202.835 0.170 144.202 1.31 127.

13 1.49 0.00636 5.01130 0.5 3.00785 0.911 35.54 2.043 32.0351 0.8 2.5 4/3 Hydraulic Calculation Sheet 9 Q (m3/s) (m) 0.356 0+138.G (m) 30.0191 0.28 0.1 3.443 33.St L Ht Hb Hj Hm Ht 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 E.401 36.54 2.3 30.740 29.00636 0.5 3.338 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Station Invest D H. S1 Avg.814 30.13 0.0 7.0127 0.05 0. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS n = Variable K = 2g(n2) Sf = K v2 2g ( )÷R 145 .0406 0.424 30.0 1.493 34.059 0.334 33.54 1.012 31.248 1800 1800 1800 1800 1400 1400 1400 1200 1200 600 600 30.4 2.061 1.5 4.900 0+180.0127 0.784 35.056 0.711 34.625 28.0406 0.0127 0.000 0+033.64 ∑Hfriction= 6.5 3.669 0.002 38.64 0.255 33.238 0.28 0.402 32.836 0+141.g.0406 0.848 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.0266 0.54 1.401 36.00950 0.5 0.00950 0.402 32.5 4.000 30.0 7.Table 5.390 30.1 35.0127 0. Section A K (m) (mm) (m) (m2) 0+000.032 2.0511 33.39 0.00785 0.39 0.0 3.01130 0.54 1.212 29.70 37.473 0.191 ∑Hform = 2.930 31.900 0+176.0191 0.00950 0.0 3.421 0+215.299 0.7 37.238 1.493 34.8 2.590 0+077.085 1.222 0+075.0 7.930 31.402 38.132 0.200 28.528 0+038.805 31.338 0.0511 0.0511 0.784 35.876 0+108.540 31.0 7.0 (m) V2/2g E.5 4.0191 0.8 4.123 1.54 2.2M 8 V (m/s) 0.5 1.39 1.5 35.0127 0.424 0.580 37.492 39.01130 0.49 0.390 30.814 30.05 1.070 37.255 33.492 39.01130 0.G.0 7.0299 0.1 3.05 1.0 7.205 32.0127 0.0406 0.814 (m) (m/m) (m/m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) 7.053 1.0406 0.39 0.092 0.5 30.380 36.127 0.657 30.54 1.8 2.892 28.734 34.5 3.

38 ∑Hform = 4.0155 0.66 101.5 94.05 101.46 104.61 0.06 0.76 23.76 23.01678 0.5 3+55.0 8.01678 0.70 101.66 102.01166 0.0064 0.6 7.01410 0.29 1.0120 0.1 6.88 3.03 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 100 100 20 20 ∑Hfriction = 7.5 100 100 10 100 10 100 0.81 109.93 0.1 9.28 101.57 3.5 4+65.0064 0.4 6.90 15.93 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Station Invest D H.12 1. S1 Avg.1 6.99 0.4 2+48 2+55.63 102.G.63 102.5 5+75.g.) (ft) (ft2) 0+00 1+10 1+52.28 99. Section A K (ft) 6.St L Ht Hb Hj Hm Ht 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 E.1 9.0115 0.58 101.70 112.58 0.90 12.08 1.0120 0.65 107.5 6+75.01166 0.0115 0.76 23.83 101.14 0.80 111.80 111.5 5+65.70 0.01410 0.0120 100 42.0110 0.57 12.70 112.07 105.4 95.28 101.27 0.33 105.08 0.4 4/3 (in.01678 0.62 106.58 0.90 15.0064 0.55 1.14 0.0064 0.1 6.58 1.76 15.146 Table 5.0115 0.0064 0.15 0.G (ft) 100.1 9.65 107.0118 0.0 6.99 0.24 102.06 112.1 8.78 0.50 95.01678 0.0155 0.0155 0.62 106.07 105.97 0.5 4+55.58 0.20 95.00746 0.0064 0.55 96.17 102.64 100.14 3.16 96.67 98.55 0.29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23.0064 0.58 101.24 102.2 8 V (ft/s) Hydraulic Calculation Sheet 9 Q (cfs) 0.15 1.66 106.64 0.00746 n = Variable K = 2g(n2) 2.21 Sf = K v ( 2g ) ÷ R 2 MODERN SEWER DESIGN .46 104.06 110.0155 0.29 1.0150 0.20 (ft) (ft) (ft/ft) (ft/ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) V2/2g E.81 111.01410 0.78 104.29 0.0155 0.29 66 66 66 66 54 54 54 48 48 24 24 100 100.

056 m (0. G.053m (0. In the example we are designing for full flow conditions. Determine conduit invert (2). HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 147 Note: If sewer system is designed under pressure (surcharging). Energy Losses Station 0 + 033.132 m (0. G. k.222 (Bend) V2 Hb = K —– .06 ft) Station 0 + 138.1433 (0.876 (Transition) Kb = 0. central angle of bend = 30o 30 —– = 0.2 (1.08 ft) Station 0 + 075. (20) equal to E.05) = 0.0.900 (Junction) Hm= 0. Continue to follow the above procedure taking into account all form head losses.05 (1. G. This saves time and usually helps in spotting any design errors. (4). grade and pipe sizes.836 to 0 + 141. then energy losses must be added (or subtracted. Complete profile drawing. (4) is at crown of pipe and invert (2) is set by subtracting. H. depending on whether you are working upstream or downstream) to the energy grade line. h.5.39) = 0.39) = 0.05 . where Kb = 0.590 to 0 + 077.05 () .528 to 0 + 038. Set new E.25 2g Φ. G. therefore.14 ft) Station 0 + 108. E. (11) i.1443 90 ∴ Hb = 0.2 ( ) √ √ Ø 90 ( V12 V 2 2 — – — 2g 2g ) = 0. j. D (3) from H. G.356 (Manhole) V2 — 2g = 0.25 Ht = 0. showing line.

13 m2 (5.13 m2 (12.2 – 1.81) ) 1.88 ft) Fittings and elbows are easily fabricated in all sizes.9 ft2) D2 = 1400 mm (4.13 (9.105– 0. .5 ft) θ3 = 30 Σ P = Σ Μ (Pressure plus momentum laws) (Hj + D1 – D2) (Hj + 1.0 m3/s (145 ft3/s) A2 = 1.57 ft2) D1 = 1200 mm (48 in.) 3 2 Q2 = 7.267 = 1.335 Hj – 0.5 ft) Q3 = 3.81) )( – 3.0)2 = —————– (1.148 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 30° 1 Q1 = 3.243 – 1.181 Hj = 1.522 cos 30° ————— 1.957 1.335 Hj – 0.2 (1.13 + 1.335) = 3.54 ———— 2 ) ) Q22 Q12 Q32 cos Φ = —–– – —–– – ————— A1g A3g A2g (7.5 m3/s (100 ft3/s) A1 = 1.40) ( ( 1 2 ———— A + A 2 1.54 m2 (15.13 (9.5 m3/s (45 ft3/s) A3 = 1.522 ————— 1.81) – ( 3.54) (9.085 m (0.0 ft2) D3 = 1200 mm (2.

6 — 1. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 149 Station 0 + 176.0)2 (1.657 m (3.57) D2 = 1200 mm (48 in.03 ft) Total friction Hf throughout the system = 6.2) ————————— 0.705 Hj – 0.892 (Manhole) Hm = .5)2cos 70° —————— – ————— (0.78 ft) Station 0 + 215.05 ( ) V2 —— 2g = .28 m2 (3.705 Hj – 0.05 (0.493 Hj = 1.421 (Junction) 3 70° 1 70° 4 2 Q1 = 1.705 = 1.97 ft) In this example.81) 0.5 (60) A3 = 0. which would have reduced the pipe sizes.14 ft2) D1 = 600 mm (24 in.28 (3.64 (7.81) (0. allowing surcharging in the manholes.123 – 0.0 (20) A4 = 0.6 (0.191 m (7.64) = 0.28) (9.64) (9. in many cases.5 (100) A2 = 1.5)2 – ————————— (1.423 = 0.900 to 0 + 180. .105 – 0.28 + 1. the head losses at junctions and transition could also have been accommodated by either increasing the pipe diameter or increasing the slope of the pipe.032 m (0.38 ft) Total form losses = 2.28) (9.13 2 = ————————— (3.) Q2 = 3.0 m3/s (20 ft3/s) A1 = 0. This backwater example was designed under full flow conditions but could also have been designed under pressure.13) (9.125 0.5. Storm sewer systems.299 m (3.81) (1.0)2cos 70° (1.364 – 0.13 (12.81) (0.07) D3 = 900 (36) θ3 = 70° Q22 ——— Q4 = 1.) Q3 = 1.14) D4 = 600 (24) θ4 = 70o (Hj + D1 — D2) ( A1 + A2 —————— 2 ) = A2g Q12 Q32 cos θ3 Q42 cos θ4 – —— – ————— – ————— A1g A3g A4g (Hj + 0. can be designed under pressure to surcharge to a tolerable hydraulic gradeline level.

900 3.900 0 + 138.5 m3/s 30° 0 + 141.5 m3/s 7.0 00 Flow Cha nnel .421 1.836 1.590 0 + 038.876 0 + 075.0 m3/s 70° 0 + 180.528 BC 0 + 108.1 Plan for storm sewer.892 c M. L 0 + 077.222 EC Figure 5. 0+ 00 0. L 1.5 m3/s 3.H.H.0 m 3/s 176.0 m3/s 0 + 033.150 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 0 + 215.356 c M.0 m3/s FLOW 7.

421 0 + 176.H. 0 + 075.876 0 + 038.836 0 + 108.528 0 + 000.G.0 + 215.2 Profile for storm sewer. L 0 + 180.G. at Crown 30 m 5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 600 mm CSP 0 + 105 Transition 0 + 070 1200 mm CSP 1400 mm CSP 1800 mm CSP 23 m 0 + 035 0 0 + 245 0 + 210 0 + 175 0 + 140 junction junction 151 Figure 5.222 E. . H.900 0 + 141.892 c M.H.900 0 + 138.590 0 + 033.L.356 c M. L GROUND SURFACE 0 + 077.000 37 m H.G.

) through 2550 mm (102 in. and then relatively quickly determine conduit sizes required for alternative materials.000 ft) of 2100 mm (84 in.10 ft) of cover. rather than computing the backwater profiles for each material. and develop a relationship for pipes of different roughness coefficients. The relationships for hydraulic equivalent alternatives in storm sewer design may be derived from the friction loss equation. full bituminous coated and full paved CSP with semi-corrugated bands with O-ring gaskets. 2 -3 m (6 . provides storm drainage for airport— 5800 m (19. fiber-bonded. The derivation shown below allows the designer to assign representative values for loss coefficients in the junctions and length of average reach between the junctions. In this manner the designer need only perform a detailed hydraulic analysis for one material.) diameters.152 MODERN SEWER DESIGN METHODS OF DETERMINING EQUIVALENT HYDRAULIC ALTERNATIVES A method has been developed to aid the designer in quickly determining equivalent pipe sizes for alternative material. The total head loss in a sewer system is composed of junction losses and friction losses: HT = Hj + Hf where: Hj = Kj = Kj = Kj where: Hf = V —— — — — 2g Q2 —— — — — A2 2g Q2 16 π2 D4 2g ——— — — ——— — — — — — 2 13 n2LQ2 (16) 2n2 LV2 ——— —— = —————— ——— for Kf = 2n2 — ——— — — — — — — ———— ——— —— —— — — — — —— — — — — 4/3 2g R 2g π2 D16/3 HT = Hj + Hf = 2g π2 D16/3 ——— — —— — — — — ——— ——— — ——— —— — — — — — — — — 16 Q2 Kj 8Q2 13 n2LQ2 (16) + ———————————— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2g π2 D4 ——— ——— ——— —— — ——— ——— ——— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — = gπ2 [ KjD4/3 + 13 n2L D16/3 ] Philadelphia Airport. .

.5. manhole and elbow in one length of pipe.0. In this example. therefore the relationship simplifies to: Kj(Dc)4/3 + 13(nc)2L —————————– (Dc)16/3 Kj(Dc)4/3 + 13(nc)2L ————————— (Ds)16/3 Average values for conduit length between manholes (L). n and Kj values the equations are determined for a series of pipe diameters. must next be selected. The results are shown in Tables 5. These figures are then plotted on semi-log paper.3 and 5. the average conduit length is 90 m (300 ft) with an average junction loss coefficient of 1.4). from which hydraulically equivalent materials may be easily selected (Figures 5. Combination increaser. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 153 Thus. Representative values may be derived for the hydraulic calculations that will have already been performed for one of the materials.3. With the selected L. for comparison of concrete and steel: 8Q2 —— = gπ [ ——————————————— Kj(Dc)4/3 + 13(nc)2L (Dc )16/3 ] = = 8Q2 ——— = gπ [ ———————————————— Kj(Ds)4/3 + 13(ns)2L (Ds)16/3 ] The flow Q for each conduit will be the same. and junction loss coefficient (Kj).

0 1 10 1 0 0.0 ➤ ➤ Diameter in meters 1.8 1.1 10000 1000 100 D 4/3 1.3M Equivalent alternatives with annular CSP where C = 13n2L.6 +C D 16/3 2.7m diameter smooth pipe 1.4 ➤ 0.2 .0 2.8 m diameter CSP.8 Smooth Pipe CSP 1.2 Figure 5.154 MODERN SEWER DESIGN EXAMPLE: Given: 0. 0. hydraulically equivalent to 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.

5.0 8 6 4 3 2 1.001 8 6 4 3 2 ➤ ➤ SMOOTH PIPE 0.3 Equivalent alternatives with annular CSP 22⁄3 x 1⁄2in.) 80 90 100 110 120 Figure 5. .0 8 6 4 3 2 EXAMPLE: Given: 72” Diameter CSP.01 8 6 4 3 2 ➤ ➤ CSP ➤ 0. Hydraulically Equivalent to 60” Diameter Smooth Pipe 0. where C = 185n2L.1 8 +C 4/3 6 16/3 D D 4 3 2 0.0001 10 20 30 40 70 60 50 DIAMETER (in. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 155 10.

156

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

CSP

Smooth Pipe

10000

100

0.1

10

1

1000

D

4/3

+C

D

16/3

Figure 5.4M Equivalent alternatives with helical CSP (n variable) where C = 13n2L.

0.01

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2 1.0 Diameter in meters ➤ ➤

1.4

1.6

1.8

EXAMPLE: Given: 0.9 m diameter CSP, Hydraulically Equivalent to 0.8 m Diameter Smooth Pipe

2.0

2.2

5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS

157

10.0 8 6 4 3 2

1.0 8 6 4 3 2 EXAMPLE: Given: 30” Diameter CSP, Hydraulically Equivalent to 27” Diameter Smooth Pipe

0.1 8 6 +C
16/3

4 3 2

4/3

D 0.01 6 4 3 2 ➤ CSP ➤ ➤ 8 0.001 8 6 4 3 2 ➤

D

Smooth Pipe

0.0001

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

Diameter, Inches

Figure 5.4 Equivalent alternatives with helical CSP 22⁄3 x 1⁄2 in. (n variable) where C = 185n2L.

158

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

Table 5.3M

Methods of Determining Equivalent Alternatives
Junction and Friction Losses Kj = 1.0 Annular CSP Pipe n = 0.024 D4/3 + 0.674 D16/3 4226.21 1351.46 537.74 176.59 72.05 34.11 17.99 10.30 6.29 4.04 2.71 1.34 0.74 0.44 0.28 0.18 0.12 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.04 L = 90 m Helical CSP Pipe n var. (see Table 4.9) D4/3 + 1170 n2 D16/3 n values 1525.30 628.76 210.48 82.07 38.37 20.29 11.73 7.25 4.55 3.10 2.19 1.15 0.66 0.40 0.26 0.17 0.12 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.012 0.014 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015 0.016 0.016 0.017 0.018 0.019 0.020 0.020 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.02

Diameter

Smooth Pipe n = 0.012 D4/3 + 0.168 D16/3 1525.30 529.86 227.03 82.07 36.30 18.40 10.28 6.19 3.94 2.63 1.82 0.95 0.55 0.34 0.22 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.03

(mm) 200 250 300 375 450 525 600 675 750 825 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400

Notes: Pipe diameter in meters in above equations.

Table 5.3

Methods of Determining Equivalent Alternatives
Junction and Friction Losses Kj = 1.0 Annular CSP Pipe n = 0.024 D4/3 + 0.674 D16/3 32.40 10.10 3.85 1.73 0.860 0.268 0.103 0.0471 0.0233 0.0131 0.0076 0.0048 0.00303 0.00203 0.001409 0.001003 0.0007309 L = 300ft. Helical CSP Pipe n var. (see Table 4.9) D4/3 + 1170 n2 D16/3 n values 7.72 2.84 1.28 0.657 0.372 0.147 0.064 0.0318 0.0176 0.0105 0.00618 0.00385 0.0025 0.00169 0.00118 0.000843 0.000618 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015 0.017 0.018 0.019 0.020 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021

Diameter

Smooth Pipe n = 0.012 D4/3 + 0.168 D16/3 8.98 2.84 1.11 0.513 0.263 0.086 0.0352 0.0168 0.0087 0.0051 0.0031 0.00205 0.00134 0.000884 0.0006648 0.0004880 0.0003659

(in.) 12 15 18 21 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96

Notes: Pipe diameter in meters in above equations.

5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS

159

DESIGN OF STORM DRAINAGE FACILITIES
System Layout
The storm drainage system layout should be made in accordance with the urban drainage objectives, following the natural topography as closely as possible. Existing natural drainage paths and watercourses such as streams and creeks should be incorporated into the storm drainage system. Thus the storm design should be undertaken prior to finalization of the street layout to effectively incorporate the major-minor drainage concepts. Topographic maps, aerial photographs, and drawings of existing services are required before a thorough storm drainage design may be undertaken. Existing outfalls within the proposed development and adjacent lands for both the minor and major system should be located. Allowances should be made for external lands draining through the proposed development both for present conditions and future developments. The design flows used in sizing the facilities that will comprise the drainage network are based on a number of assumptions. Flows that will occur under actual conditions will thus be different from those estimated at the design stage; “the designer must not be tempted by the inherent limitations of the basic flow data to become sloppy in the hydraulic design.”1 Also, the designer should not limit his investigation to system performance under the design storm conditions, but should assure that in cases where sewer capacities are exceeded, such incidents will not create excessive damage. This requirement can only be practically achieved if the designer realizes that a dual drainage system exists, comprised of the minor system and the major system. Utilizing both systems, the pipe system may be provided for smaller, more frequent rainfall events, and an overland system for extreme rainfall events. In the layout of an effective storm drainage system, the most important factor is to assure that a drainage path both for the minor and major systems be provided to avoid flooding and ponding in undesirable locations.

Minor System
The minor system consists chiefly of the storm sewer comprised of inlets, conduits, manholes and other appurtenances designed to collect and convey into a satisfactory system outfall, storm runoff for frequently occurring storms (2 to 5-year design). Storm sewers are usually located in rights-of-way such as roadways and easements for ease of access during repair or maintenance operations.

Major System
The major drainage system will come into operation when the minor system’s capacity is exceeded or when inlet capacities significantly control discharge to the minor system. Thus, in developments where the major system has been planned, the streets will act as open channels draining the excess storm water. The depth of flow on the streets should be kept within reasonable limits for reasons of safety and convenience. Consideration should be given to the area of flooding and its impact on various street classifications and to public and private property. Typical design considerations are given in Table 5.4.

Slope, percent Slope – percent

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

0 0 10

1

2

3

4

160

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

Figure 5.5M Hydraulic capacity of roadways Note: Blvd. = Boulevard Note: Blvd. = Boulevard Capacity – (m /s)
3

15 m right of w ay - 8 m Pa 20 m vemen right t (2%B of wa lvd) 15 y-9 m m Pa rig ht o veme nt (2% f wa Blvd) y-8 mP ave 15 men m t (4% rig Blvd ht ) of wa y 2 -8 0m mP r ig ave ht me of nt ( wa 6% yBlv 9m d) Pa vem e nt ( 4% Blv d)

2

0

20 30
150mm Blvd.

m

rig

ht

o

fw

ay

-9

m

Pa ve m en t( 6% Bl vd )

Street line

40
W.L. Major system n = 0.013 Pavement

50
n = 0.05 Blvd. Street line

60

4

3
d.)

Blv

Blv d.)

me nt (6%

n

t( 4%

’P av

2
28

em e

Slope, percent

of

a W
Street Line

y—

’ 28

P

t en m ve a

% (6

.) vd Bl

5 0’ R ight of Wa y—2 6’ Pav ement (2% Blv 66’ d. ) Rig ht o fW ay — 50’ 28 ’ Pav Ri g ht o emen fW t (2% a y— Blvd.) 26 ’ Pav 50 em ’R ent (4% igh Blvd t .) of 66 Wa ’R y— igh to 26 fW ’P a ve ay —

’ 66

ht Rig

Major System W.L.

5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS

Street Line

1 0.5’ Blvd.

n = 0.013 Pavement

n = 0.05 Blvd.

0 600 700 800

0

100

200

300

400

500

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Capacity, ft3/sec

161

Figure 5.5 Hydraulic capacity of roadways

Note: Blvd. = Boulevard

) above crown 200 mm (8 in. public.162 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 5.) above crown up to crown *In addition to the above. Local and Feeder Roads Collector and Industrial Roads Arterial Roads Notes: 5 Minor surface flow up to 25 mm (1 in.. it should be done in consideration of the minor system.4 Typical Maximum Flow Depths Storm Return Frequency (Years) Location* Walkways. (i. 2-year) next the major system is designated for a low frequency of flood storm. If the roadway cannot handle the excess flow. . The flow capacity of the streets may be calculated from the Manning equation. 100-year). (i.5 may be used to estimate street flows. When designing the major system. the minor system should be enlarged accordingly. with the sum of their capacities being the total system’s capacity. To prevent the flooding of basement garages.e.) deep at low point catch basins Minor surface flow 25 mm (1 in.) deep on walkways 25 As required for overland flow outlets 40 As required for overland flow outlets 1 m (3 ft) wide in gutters or 100 mm (4 in. The minor system should be first designed to handle a selected high frequency storm. Open spaces Minor. residential buildings. unless buildings are flood-proofed. commercial and industrial buildings should not be inundated at the ground line for the 100 year storm..) above crown 100 mm (4 in. or Figure 5.) Minor Surface flow 25 mm (1 in.) up to crown 1 lane clear 100 mm (4 in.e. Multiple inline storage installation. driveways will have to meet or exceed the elevations corresponding to the maximum flow depth at the street.

Where sags in roadways between intersections could not be avoided. a two-year design curve is considered adequate as a design basis for the minor system within this development. Selected Design Criteria Based on a reasonable level of convenience to the public. To accommodate the principles of the “minor-major’’ storm drainage systems.7. The site slopes generally from west to east.5. the streets have been planned to conform as much as possible to the natural contours of the lands. where it is bounded by a major open water course. as shown on Figure 5.6. . The site is about 15 hectares (6 acres) in size consisting of single family and semi-detached housing as well as a site for a public school. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 163 HYDRAULIC DESIGN EXAMPLE OF MINOR-MAJOR SYSTEM Description of Site The site for this design example is shown on Figure 5. overflow easements or walkways have been provided to permit unobstructed surface runoff during major storms. Storm Sewer installation involved 1300 m (4300 ft) of full bituminous coated full paved pipe arch.

6 Site plan with route of surface runoff.164 MODERN SEWER DESIGN N School Green Belt Green Belt Figure 5. .

7 Storm drainage areas. The major (or overflow) system will be checked together with the minor system against a 100-year storm intensity. designing on the principles of the minormajor drainage concept without gravity connections to foundation drains permits considerable tolerance in the degree of accuracy of runoff calculations such that the rational formula Q = k•C•i•A is considered adequate.5. Minor System For the limited extent of area involved.5. The values for the two-year rainfall intensity curve obtained from local records are shown in Table 5. The combination of these two systems shall be able to accommodate a 100-year storm runoff. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 165 Wa ter co urs e N Culvert Green Belt Drainage Area of Design Example Storm Sewer Section School Culvert Green Belt Headwall Overflow Easement Overflow Easement Figure 5. The fol- .

The example has been simplified in that impervious areas discharging to grass areas have been given a runoff coefficient equal to the grassed area runoff coefficient.85 2.81 0.75 0.63 1.95 for impervious surfaces (streets and driveways). A drainage area map should be prepared indicating the drainage limits for the site.55 1.65 1.85 1.75 1.90 0.30 1.00 0./hr) 4.15 2.50 3.20 for grassed areas and areas discharging to grass such as roof.04 0.58 0. patios and sidewalks) and 0. 3.45 0.15 2.35 for all the sub-areas.50 1.33 7. The appropriate runoff coefficient should be developed for each sub-area. The drainage area should be divided into sub-areas tributary to the proposed storm sewer inlets. .35 0.69 0.81 3.88 1.27 1.86 4. The runoff coefficient in this example has been determined based on 0.27 100 Year Return (mm/hr) 262 178 146 122 109 97 89 81 74 69 64 59 55 51 47 44 41 39 38 33 32 25 23 22 (in. location of imported minor system and carryover flows.63 0.53 0.49 0. which for this site results in an average runoff coefficient of 0.70 2./hr) 10.50 2. In this case the inlet shall be located at the upstream end of each pipe segment.166 MODERN SEWER DESIGN lowing steps should be followed in the hydraulic design of the minor system: 1.98 0.47 1.10 1.20 1.30 3.04 5.40 0.31 2.90 2.32 1.74 4.20 2.96 0.31 0.5 Time (Min) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 125 150 175 200 Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency 2-Year Return (mm/hr) 105 72 57 48 42 37 34 30 28 26 24 22 21 19 18 16 15 13 12 11 10 9 7 7 (in.00 1.25 1. external tributary areas. proposed minor-major system layout and direction of surface flow. The coverage of each sub-area should be calculated.80 4. 2. Table 5.

85 in. The above computations are summarized in Table 5. Also. a weighted area x C value must be determined at each successive inlet. The resulting time of concentration is then used to determine a new intensity at that point. At a confluence of two or more conduits.9) has been selected as the conduit material. Recharge trench installation showing junction box./hr) for a 2-year storm (Table 5. Tc = 10 minutes. Inlets will be located at the upstream manhole for each length of conduit.5. Commencing at the upstream end of the system. Added to this value is the required travel time in the conduit to the next inlet. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 167 5. to a maximum of 4.5 m/s (15 ft/s) to avoid erosive damage to the conduit. The corresponding velocities for the expected flow are determined to calculate the pipe flow time. Design velocities in storm sewers should be a minimum of 1.6. The required capacity of each inlet should be calculated using the rational method. In this example. a helical 68 mm x 13 mm (2 2/3 x 1/2 in. In this design example.5).) CSP with variable roughness coefficient (Table 4. the longest time of concentration is selected and the procedure continues downstream. 7. This time added to the upstream time of concentration results in the new time of concentration for the downstream segment as described in Step 6. With computed discharges at the upstream end of each pipe segment. with the initial time of concentration and the corresponding intensity. The initial time of concentration is 10 minutes at the most up-stream inlet. a tentative pipe size to accommodate friction losses only is selected using the friction flow charts in Chapter 4. . 6.0 m/s (3 ft/s) when flowing half full to full to attain self cleaning velocities and to prevent deposition. the discharge to be carried by each successive segment in a downstream direction is calculated. i = 72 mm/hr (2.

new flow values should be determined.25 ft) for 45° to 90° junctions Also crowns of incoming and outgoing pipes at manholes were kept equal where the increase in downstream diameter met or exceeded the above manhole drops.15 ft) for 45° junctions 75 mm (0. on pages 182 and 183. Note: If upon completion of the hydraulic design (and backwater calculations) the times of concentrations have varied enough to alter the discharges. but rather manhole drops were adjusted to account for the junction losses. with hydraulic calculations proceeding upstream. As the preliminary design proceeds downstream. The detailed hydraulic calculations are computed for each station. some account must be made for the manhole and junction losses. and industrial land development.6 with the tentative pipe sizes and manhole drops. In this design example. with the results summarized in Table 5.168 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Culvert design technology and open-channel flow design are increasingly applied to urban storm water management. Triple structural plate pipe-arches enclose stream under roadway. In this example the initial pipe sizes did not change.05 ft) for straight runs 45 mm (0. 9. If junction losses had resulted in the elevation of the pipe crown exceeding the minimum cover criteria. The energy loss equations shall be used following the same procedure as in the Hydraulic section. the following manhole drops were assumed: 15 mm (0. Certain rules of thumb may be used before the detailed hydraulic analysis. The hydraulic grade is set at the crown of the outlet conduit.7. The preliminary minor system design is shown in Table 5. In most cases the slight variance in the Tc will not significantly affect the peak flows. The hydraulic analysis should next be performed on the proposed minor system to ensure that it operates as expected. then the hydraulic grade line may have been lowered by increasing the pipe . 8.

8. Large storm drain projects under runways at a major airport. The hydraulic grade line may be permitted to exceed the crown where some surcharging in the storm system can be tolerated. The alternative conduit will have constant n = . 10. In this example. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 169 Increasers are easily fabricated for correct field location. . but rather use the method of “Equivalent Alternatives” as described earlier in this chapter. The designer may now estimate the required pipe sizes for a minor system for an alternative conduit material or roughness coefficient.5. The results are summarized in Table 5. There is no need to perform a detailed hydraulic analysis for the alternative conduit.0. Therefore the alternative material may be determined.012. the average length of conduit is estimated to be 90 m (300 ft) with an average manhole junction loss coefficient of 1. size.

26 1.41 2. 525.13 0. 500.780 229.90 0.12 0.055 223.80 0.05 0.630 226.05 0.790 220.30 0.29 0.61 1.04 0.H.80 15.30 0.04 Sect.96 1.200 0.65 1.47 – MODERN SEWER DESIGN Note: Diameters of 400.65 1.35 0.13 0.40 1.55 2.35 0.475 226.74 1.47 (m) (m3/s) (m/s) 1.09 13.03 60 58 56 55 53 53 0.70 1.54 4. Vel.H.67 0.53 0.830 229.68 0.37 7 8 10 11 12 8 9 11 12 13 – 1.03 5.775 231.640 228.40 2.80 0.35 0.12 0.47 1.20 – 0.17 0.99 0.77 5 9 13 14 15 16 9 13 14 15 16 Outfall 0.74 0.610 230.35 – 0.130 226.58 12.53 1.62 1.35 0.295 219.88 11.19 0.490 220.74 0.37 0.22 0.42 – 0.56 0.10 1.68 1.76 1.715 220.64 10.85 0.53 2.46 12.H.47 12.69 0. Q = Flow C = Coefficient of Runoff A = Area in Hectares I = Intensity of Rainfall for Period in mm/h .37 4.220 228.41 0.91 18.53 (m) (mm) Slope % M.85 17.84 1.76 0.15 – 0.60 0.19 0.71 1.26 0. (mm) 200 300 400 400 200 75 75 75 75 45 15 75 75 150 75 15 75 75 230.28 1.080 0.99 1.39 0.32 2.15 0.590 230.19 0.505 220.36 0. Min.170 Table 5.18 0.35 – 0.50 2.26 14. To Area C AxC Total Section AxC (ha) 1 2 3 4 6 2 3 4 5 7 0.04 0.07 0.10 1.100 227.35 0.04 11.43 0. 700.07 Length of Pipe Time (Entry: 10min) Accum.98 1.79 1.25 0.475 230.400 226. Min.18 0.63 0.35 0.47 0.70 2.35 0.03 1.70 0.24 13.50 1.71 0.83 1.095 226.45 2.06 0.005 228.35 0.35 0.130 223. Drop Actual Cap.715 228.20 1.22 0.86 0.58 1.06 0.24 0.42 1.79 1.62 0.50 1.03 1.74 0. 675.86 11.16 0.39 1.47 2.430 230. Preliminary Storm Sewer Design Location Runoff Length Street M.20 0.77 2.56 5.085 227. and 825 mm.35 0.01 1.04 0.89 0.68 0.74 200 300 300 300 400 500 600 600 600 700 800 0.07 1.96 1.77 0.19 0.19 19.850 227.02 1.80 0.780 226.70 0.88 1.360 229.30 1.17 0.24 0.35 0. From M.755 229.35 0. and 800 mm are non-standard.63 0.70 0.55 2.16 0. Total Intensity Trunk I AxC Flow Q (m) 90 80 81 93 90 90 75 90 83 81 81 81 150 150 35 150 (mm/hr) (m3/s) 72 67 65 62 72 – 66 72 69 67 1.92 0.32 1.40 0.26 0.09 1.28 0.76 16.08 12.23 1.07 0.6M Inverts Size Pipe Fall Up Down Stream Stream (m) 231.80 1.020 227. Standard sizes are 375.

19 19.92 2.84 6.17 (ft) (ft) Slope % Fall Vel.10 5.H.27 761.50 9.59 5.91 18.37 2. Min.37 0.51 14.04 0.90 769.69 753.29 756.20 6.20 1.92 7. From M./hr) Time (Entry: 10min) Accum.70 1.84 1.38 4.59 4.72 735.10 5.40 2.62 755.88 15.77 735.35 — 0.59 8.82 4.61 7.85 17.27 6.35 0.34 756.86 0.94 762.30 1.98 3.24 6.92 2.56 0.37 0.05 .6 Inverts Size Pipe Up Down Stream Stream (ft) (ft) Q(ft3/s) (ft/s) Sect. Min.50 1.47 0.62 5.55 2.40 771.50 3.77 Note: A = Area in Hectares C = Coefficient of Runoff I = Intensity of Rainfall for Period in mm/h 171 .70 1.19 765.56 0.79 0.60 0.47 12.98 6.25 .23 14.62 2.35 0.85 — 2.35 0.51 4.96 0.80 1.35 0.64 10.92 0.H.43 12.63 5.46 0.85 2. Drop Actual Cap.29 1.06 0.35 0. Preliminary Storm Sewer Design Location Runoff Length Street M.09 1.24 13.73 4.57 5.01 1.46 23.73 4.50 1.62 1.63 2.25 .76 16.23 24.37 5.25 .32 5.64 0.27 744.39 4.62 25.56 2.17 755.77 0. (in.44 6.62 0.76 1.11 753.45 5.52 3.58 11.01 11. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 12 5 9 13 14 15 16 3.62 5.44 4.96 1.25 .54 763.22 0.35 0.98 25.53 5.30 5.87 757.30 1.16 — 0.04 1.47 733.46 12.81 4.) .83 4.76 0.56 2.18 2.05 .04 12.81 — 0.70 2.98 300 260 265 306 300 300 245 300 275 265 265 265 265 500 110 500 10” 12” 15” 15” 10” 10” 12” 12” 12” 15” 18” 24” 24” 24” 27” 30” 0.28 1.06 1.25 .00 1.35 0.61 6.62 766.61 7.22 1.34 25.48 1.00 767.72 734.43 .09 2.40 7.35 0.39 5.35 0.65 2.60 2.51 14.25 .89 24.50 .16 2.20 .46 1.58 757.27 2.46 2.35 0.92 — 1.98 25.44 757.46 771.63 — 3.64 1.52 744.87 766.06 2.068 2.10 0.83 7.26 14.72 0.52 761.20 — 0.61 763.25 .59 6.61 753.52 755.46 762.58 2.50 1.25 .76 8.85 4.73 2.73 2.82 2. M.90 0.92 2.09 1.95 6.H.25 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 12 13 9 13 14 15 16 Outfall 1.88 13.40 1.85 2.86 11.92 — 2.15 730.32 3.71 768.79 1.60 2.65 2. Total Intensity Trunk I AxC Flow Q (ft3/s) (ft) Length of Pipe (in.46 0.27 12.Table 5.35 0.05 1.64 1.57 2. To Area A C AxC Total Section AxC (ha) 5.70 4.82 7.78 8.35 0.40 7.80 0.27 11.27 2.88 11.

19 0.001 230.551 1.751 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00283 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Note: Diameters of 400.17 0.0274 220. and 800 mm are non-standard. 525.968 1.745 3.060 221.0087 0.111 0.24 0.880 7 6 4 3 2 1 233. .0183 0.117 0.00385 0.002 0.380 238.098 233.428 228.12 0.00636 0.0121 0.253 0.478 227.015 0.108 231.25 0.13 0.St L Ht Hb Hj Hm Ht E.131 231.081 0.678 230.592 0.031 0.708 231.098 233.265 2.38 0.74 0.229 2.501 0.000 220.382 228. and 825 mm.060 221.380 238.20 0.994 230.0198 230.008 0.13 0.264 232.540 1.140 234.512 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0389 0.111 221.26 0.16 0.00332 0.0092 0.07 0.G.482 224.0176 90 90 93 81 80 90 2.149 220.293 224.036 0.7M 8 V (m/s) (m3/s) (2/g) 0.18 0.131 231.0108 0.184 234.00385 0.394 231.03 0.06 0.166 0.614 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Hydraulic Calculation Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M.593 232.879 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.00636 0.182 230.737 234.949 221.74 0.315 229.320 1.17 0.022 (m) (mm) (m/m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) 1.140 0.22 0.993 233.551 200 200 400 400 300 200 234.927 237.0060 0.200 220. Standard sizes are 375.393 233.111 221.700 1.173 0. 675.376 0.0068 0.162 229.00636 0.28 0.322 2.078 228.0246 0.0155 0.086 229.00283 0.295 0.579 500 400 300 300 300 230.50 0.912 800 800 700 600 600 600 220.0229 0.69 0.880 0.07 0.028 0.00636 0.261 0.798 233.840 2.264 232.184 234.28 0.878 231.223 1.007 0.406 1.511 231.015 0.433 1.00636 0.473 1.924 2. (m) 220.0243 0.034 0.0310 0. Sf Avg.393 233.655 231.256 0.0060 0.147 0.584 81 81 83 90 75 0.655 231.0332 0.111 0.229 1.00332 0.482 224.00283 0.40 Q V2 E.0389 0.00441 0.614 0.0389 0.442 2.689 2.0178 0.214 1.033 0.988 3. Section A K (m) (mm) (m) (m2) Outlet 16 15 14 13 9 219.900 0.13 0.016 0.016 0.00636 5 12 11 10 8 229.593 223.0182 0.H.189 0.G.13 0.025 0.0236 0.74 0.382 228.304 0.172 Table 5.752 1.07 0.07 0.0054 0.586 228.315 229.335 150 35 150 150 81 0.482 230.102 0.287 0.856 0.0092 0.03 0.129 234.105 0.253 0.220 0.0097 0.01 0.415 1.0129 0.00332 0.076 0.0204 0.00385 0. 700. 500.G.037 234.67 0.01 0.098 233.156 0.028 229.0123 0.473 1.511 231.0060 0.127 237.07 0. Invert D H.13 0.875 0.074 0.513 2.50 0.371 1.0163 0.07 0.162 229.00332 0.0154 0.

62 2.98 25.74 14.H.0042 .23 0.545 .83 761.72 25.056 .0057 Note: n = Variable ÷ R4/3 2g(n2) K = —— 2.68 774.43 .0170 .81 771.52 2.29 6.90 .87 Hydraulic Calculation Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M.0150 .0084 .76 5.98 25.098 .39 2.85 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.10 4.G.50 734.23 0.374 .51 7.36 .52 756.0180 .65 766.798 .976 3.48 744.404 .29 759.18 761.65 .72 770.73 746.68 775.St L Ht Hb Hj Hm Ht 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 E.0057 .83 4.23 1.20 5.0057 .89 18” 15” 12” 12” 12” 761.7 8 V (ft/s) .45 5.14 .17 775.81 766.64 .360 .530 .92 6.95 4.10 5.0062 .129’ .10 772.18 770.33 733.0076 .137 .0068 .66 763.028 1.047 759.66 .61 4.58 737.46 765.60 4.01 2.0042 .51 6.0084 .785 .0140 .89 0 0 0 0 0 1.014 .59 4.079 .86 10” 10” 15” 15” 12” 10” 769.61 .29 5.46 771.91 3.046 .G.77 1.106 .32 9.50 1.21 Sf = K ( ) V2 —— 2g 173 .49 .40 1.52 756.52 773.19 764.039 .92 6.240 .00 736.29 766.045 .85 30” 30” 27” 24” 24” 24” 733.60 2.0042 7 6 4 3 2 1 768.99 774.0075 .76 759.0170 .19 775.91 769.14 3.40 4.G.19 764.82 .52 773.69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.785 0.18 .01 738.545 0.98 24.27 769.34 23.20 5.53 7.34 765.83 775.02 767.76 759.36 .0220 .0084 .24 1.17 775.84 7.0084 .79 758. Section A K (ft) (in.83 6.08 735.0098 .0057 .19 775.0120 .44 5.57 753.43 737.61 3.0110 .47 .785 0.14 3.87 8.57 755.180 .91 4.058 (ft3/s) (ft) (ft) (ft/ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) (ft) Q V2 E.53 .62 7.666 .86 758.42 .30 4.0042 .0084 300 300 306 265 300 300 5.23 .85 771.048 5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 5 12 11 10 8 759.86 755.73 .) (ft) (ft2) Outlet 16 15 14 13 9 730.0075 .0049 .91 769.66 762.36 .65 759. (ft) 733.95 .545 1.0240 .39 747. Invert D H.00 8.65 766.62 5.82 7.09 764.56 769.43 .785 0.0075 5.0049 .43 737.39 747.39 500 110 500 500 265 3.56 770.01 738.0049 .Table 5.52 265 265 275 300 245 2.90 .0170 . Sf Avg.81 5.031 .086 .59 2.

117 90 = 0.3 x 0.2 x (.20 + 0.28) 9. 13 Hb = 0.6 – 0.H.67)2 = ——–—— – ———–— 9.798 ft) M.81 (0.13 K = 0.046 ft) 2g 2g V22 V12 —— – —— = 0.016 m (0.028 ft) cos 90° = 0 ( (0.4)2 –––——— = ——–—— – ———–— 2 9.05 x .81 (0.29) = 0.4)2 (0.25 Hb = Kb Hm = 0.034 m (.H.05 M.2 x (.2 ( ) ( ) ( ) —— 2g V2 V22 V12 —— – —— = 0. 14 Ht = 0.5 – 0.28) 9.30 = 0.24)2 0.033 m ∴Hb =K Ht = 0.H.28 (Hj + 0.25 Hb = Kb ( ) ( ) V2 ––– 2g V2 ––– 2g √ √ 20 ––– = 0.10 = 0.11) = 0.022 m (0. 5 θ = 90° .220 m (.H.11 = 0.117 x (.H. 15 M.19) = 0.174 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Detailed Metric Hydraulic Calculations for Step No.3 = 0.28) ( √ ) x 0. 9 in Minor System Design M.015 m (.28 + 0.058 ft) 2g 2g 10 ––– 90 = 0.008 m (.19 – .30 – .137 ft) M.81 (0.083 x .2 M.079 ft) = 0.H.25 2g ∴θ = 90° ∴(Hj + 0.376 m (1.6) –––——— 2 Hj = 0.30 = 0.048 ft) Ht = 0.025 m (.81 (0. 9 V2 Hb = Kb ––– = 0. 16 θ = 45° From Figure 4.6) ( ) 10 ––– 90 (0.28 (0.20) ) Hj = 0.106 ft) (Hj + D1 – D2) ∴θ = 90° ( ) ( V2 ––– 2g A1 + A2 –––—— 2 ) Q22 Q12 Q32 = —— – —— – —— gA2 gA1 gA3 cos θ cos 90° = 0 0.

530 ft) (.08 = 0.374 ft) M.26) = 0.25) = 0.H.15 – .16 – .13 m (.0 Hm = K M.H.03) = 0.666 ft) M.36 ft) θ = 90° From Figure 4.2 (.10) = 0. 4 ( ) V2 ––– 2g = 1.25 2g Ht = 0.08) = 0.12) = 0.H.04 Hb = 1.18 ft) . 11 M. 10 Hm = 0.25) = 0.49 (0.031 ft) ( ) V2 ––– 2g = 1.26 – .007 m (.1 (.250 m (.17) = 0.H.010 m (.H.3 – 0. 12 Hb = ( √ ) ( ) ( √ ) 10 ––– 90 V22 V12 —— – —— 2g 2g 10 ––– 90 0.260 m (.2 (.0 (0.2 ( ( V12 V22 —— – —— 2g 2g ) ) = 0.1 M.047 ft) θ = 90° From Figure 4.17 m (.16) = 0.086) M.H.002 m (.240 ft) Ht = 0.074 m (.015 m (.056 ft) x .H.031 m (.25) = 0.001 m (. 6 K = 1.13 = 0.5.0 Hm = K V12 V22 —— – —— 2g 2g = 0.13 K = 1. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 175 V2 Hb = Kb ––– = 0. 8 Hb = ( ) V2 ––– 2g V2 ––– 2g 20 ––– 90 = 0.49 Hb = 0.15) = 0.H.05 (. 2 θ = 60° From Figure 4.016 m (. 3 Ht = 0.2 M.045 ft) Hm = 0.13 K = 1.05 K = 1.13 K = 0.036 (.1 M.0 (0.04 (0.12 = 0.2 (0.039 ft) Ht = 0.098 ft) = 0.04 Hb = 1. 1 K = 1.0 x 0. 7 ( ) ( √ ) ( ) 0.25 V12 V22 —— – —— 2g 2g = 1.H.0 Hm = K M.014 ft) M.404 ft) = 0.04 (0.010 m (.25 x 0.166 m (.H.

. adequate consideration must be given for its conveyance to the receiving water body. 675. the major system can tolerate the variability in flows estimated by the various methods. and 825 mm. indicating the groundwater table would be safely below the footing elevations for the proposed buildings.012 Location Street M. As a preliminary estimate. The results are shown in Table 5. such as the SCS Graphical Method or a suitable hydrological computer model. the C factor of 0. This may involve increasing the minor system and inlet capacities or providing adequate drainage swales.65 x 10-5 m3/s (0.8 Equivalent Alternative n = . From 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 12 5 9 13 14 15 16 Notes: M. The designer must also consider the remaining overland flow accumulated at the downstream end of the development. and 800 mm are non-standard.60. 525. designers often apply the Rational formula. Except in special circumstances. The increase in value is basically to allow for a change in the antecedent moisture condition. Accordingly a flow value of 7.85 need not be used. thus further reducing the possibility of surface water entering the foundation drains.10. For detailed calculations see Table 5.0027 ft3/s) per basement is used. 500.9. an increase of about 70 %. minimizing the amount of inflow that can be expected into the foundation drains. See the discussion on Foundation Drains in Chapter 2 of this text. In cases where this method results in flows in excess of the acceptable roadway capacity. A minor increase in the depth of surface flow will greatly increase the capacity of the major system.H. without necessarily causing serious flooding.35 used for the design of the minor system will be increased to 0. In this design example. To 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 12 13 9 13 14 15 16 Outfall MODERN SEWER DESIGN Pipe Size* (mm) 200 300 400 400 200 200 300 300 300 400 500 600 600 600 700 800 (in. Foundation Drains To establish the groundwater level. Standard sizes are 375.H.176 Table 5. If properly laid out. piezometer measurements over a 12 month period were taken.) 10 12 15 15 10 10 12 12 12 15 18 24 24 24 24 27 *Diameters of 400. 700. a C factor above 0. The municipal requirements include detailed lot grading control. using the rainfall intensity for a 100-year storm and a C factor 60% to 85% higher than what would be used for a 2-year or 5-year storm. Major System Various manual methods can be used to estimate the major system flows. a more detailed method should be applied.

0 10.15 4.23 11.00 2.26 0.79 8.00 2.2 10.41 0.74 1.49 15.15 5.66 0.11 0. A C AxC (ha) 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 6-7 0.96 5.4 24.0 142 136 130 120 113 112 0.00 0.93 0.0 179 174 160 151 179 0.53 2.60 0.50 1.23 0.85 2.63 0.13 0.15 5.12 0.96 3.22 0.49 8.60 0.35 — 0.11 0.00 2.60 0.72 2.53 0.10 1.60 0.22 0.04 0.54 1.60 0.31 0.41 5.76 2.70 0.19 2.5 13.00 2.80 0.78 0.60 0.9 23.85 1.43 0.37 0.71 0.44 0.64 5.62 0.14 0.79 7.23 0.39 10.0 11.62 6.0 11.12 0.4 20.64 — 1.12 0.14 0.1 18.66 0.60 0.8 14.76 0.00 2.00 0.48 3.06 0.57 0.60 0.79 3.43 2.15 5.90 2.50 (mm/hr) (m3/s) % (m3/s) (m3/s) Intensity I Total Runoff Q Sewer* Capacity Major System (overland flow) Road Grade Surface Capacity** (m3/s) 5.00 2.0 169 159 179 169 160 0.67 0.5 12.00 0.11 2.96 Major System Flows For 100-Year Storm Runoff Total Section AxC Location MH to MH Area.9M Time of Concentration (min) 0.79 0.62 0.55 2.98 1.42 0.07 0.60 — 0.15 0.53 0.78 7.21 2.60 0.60 0.50 2.50 0.15 5.60 0.90 1.32 1.09 5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 7-8 8-9 10-11 11-12 12-13 — 1.50 0.00 1.24 2.10 1.34 2.43 0.60 0.41 — Notes: * Assuming sufficient inlet capacity 177 .08 8.15 5.33 1.41 7.14 0.08 1.83 1.5 12.42 — 0.14 0.51 1.00 0.60 — 0.20 2.Table 5.20 2.7 17.00 1.53 0.36 2.28 0.75 7.25 5-9 9-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-Outfall 0.08 0.44 1.41 2.65 2.22 0.

90 2.06 0.94 85.28 0.63 0.95 7.178 Table 5.35 5.14 43.80 4.68 1.04 6.80 2.24 1.37 6.62 85.9 23.65 6.82 2.00 2.50 2.09 1.10 4.0 180.06 1.54 1.71 4.0 275.0 182.64 1.68 3.30 4.90 32. A C AxC (acres) 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 6-7 1.87 27.30 5.0 11.00 0.53 21.54 3.42 74.78 11.79 3.60 0.0 275.00 4.60 0.0 182.82 3.0 182.20 2.60 0.00 3.60 — 0.46 1.00 2.0 191.50 4.38 0.81 — 0.1 18.58 7-8 8-9 10-11 11-12 12-13 — 3.60 0.71 17.09 2.22 2.32 5.96 16.00 1.5 13.46 4.0 191.50 0.0 6.0 11.5 12.64 1.85 6.44 0.0 310.12 2.57 93.73 2.0 175.0 182.38 2.65 6.95 7.07 23.40 34.73 4.0 10.60 0.00 2.9 Time of Concentration (min) 1.76 1.63 5-9 9-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-Outfall 1.0 Major System Flows For 100-Year Storm Runoff Total Section AxC Location MH to MH Area.60 5.75 92.5 12.00 2.05 — 0.64 77.70 4.13 14.00 1.67 18.60 0.60 1.49 4.64 0.95 7.0 182.0 5.89 14.95 11.20 2.37 20.49 — MODERN SEWER DESIGN Notes: * Assuming sufficient inlet capacity .85 2.8 14.80 7.4 24.76 22.0 140.10 27.2 10.15 8.60 0.60 0.22 82.94 4.80 84.30 0.30 7.00 2.70 26.0 140.74 5.00 23./hr) (ft3/s) % (ft3/s) (ft3/s) Intensity I Total Runoff Q Sewer* Capacity Major System (overland flow) Road Grade Surface Capacity** (ft3/s) 182.37 5.04 7.80 5.50 (in.60 0.44 47.79 18.14 30.4 20.74 4.85 10.00 2.57 2.02 15.60 0.51 1.04 6.0 275.60 — 2.06 2.00 18.58 — 3.60 0.7 17.0 7.90 4.27 5.87 24.26 7.78 7.02 21.

. backwater. which use the rational method to estimate the peak flow to comprehensive models that are based on the continuity and momentum equations and are capable of modeling surcharge.5.11 lists several of these models and their capabilities. Table 5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 179 Computer Models There is a wide range of computer models now available for analyzing sewer networks. weirs and other sewer components. The complexity of the models varies from straightforward models. orifices. Smooth-lined CSP storm sewer being installed.

30 2. Capacity (m/s) 1.031 0. Unit Area Density (ha) (per ha) Crescent ‘G’ ‘G’ ‘G’ ‘G’ ‘G’ 1A 2A 3A 4A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 1.31 1.65 7.81 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 0.67 1.034 0.55 1.60 1.20 1.H.52 2.65 7.93 0.036 0.21 1.20 1.51 0.035 0.94 3 3 Source: Paul Theil Associates Ltd.85 0.21 1.52 2 2 2 2 2 ‘G’ ‘G’ Street ‘F’ ‘F’ Street ‘A’ 6A 7A 9A 10A 5A 7A 8A 10A 11A 8A 0.034 0.60 8.34 1.063 0.42 2.180 Table 5.52 2.65 7.59 1.H. MODERN SEWER DESIGN .31 1.28 1.10M Total Units (m3/sx10-5) (m3/sx10-3) (m) 119 94 152 93 152 90 105 137 133 82 75 133 4.58 1.20 0.022 0.54 0.49 0.023 0.30 3.22 3.79 0.98 1.037 0.65 7.51 0.65 7.65 7.041 0.28 1.65 7.39 200 200 200 200 200 0.72 1.036 (%) (mm) 7.65 7.65 7.50 0.65 7.63 2 2 3 3 3 ‘A’ ‘A’ 8A 11A 11A 13A 0.90 4.37 0.65 7.82 1.040 0.87 10.76 (m3/s) 18 11 22 9 23 14 9 30 17 13 10 19 116 135 37 46 30 47 106 18 29 51 60 23 Cum.34 Total Flow Velocity Foundation Drain Collector Design Sheet Location From M. Units Flow Per Unit Length Gradient Pipe Dia. To M.11 1.65 8.25 1.38 2.83 3.12 1.

25 1.34 1.7 4.76 0.0027 0.75 6 6 6 6 6 ‘G’ ‘G’ Street ‘F’ ‘F’ Street ‘A’ 6A 7A 9A 10A 5A 7A 8A 10A 11A 8A 2.5 4.0027 0.31 1.97 1.162 0.50 0.081 0.0027 0.H.062 (ft3/s) (ft3/s) 18 11 22 9 23 14 9 30 17 13 10 19 116 135 37 46 30 47 106 18 29 51 60 23 Cum.Table 5.023 0.0027 0.42 2.28 (%) (in.62 1.7 4.24 1.0027 0. 181 .0 7.30 1.2 4.286 0.313 0.45 2.124 0.2 5.4 Foundation Drain Collector Design Sheet Location From M.0027 0.6 4.27 2.10 1.127 0.365 0.08 1.23 1.81 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1.0027 0.28 0.6 2. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS Source: Paul Theil Associates Ltd. Units Flow Per Unit Length Gradient Pipe Dia.68 1.32 0.0 5.) 0.20 1.078 0.0027 0.39 8 8 8 8 8 1.0027 0.33 8 8 5. Capacity Total Flow Velocity (ft/s) 3.0027 0. To M.19 1.80 1.H.98 1.0027 0.0048 0. Unit Area Density (acres) (per acre) Crescent ‘G’ ‘G’ ‘G’ ‘G’ ‘G’ 1A 2A 3A 4A 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 2.0027 0.10 Total Units (ft3/s) (ft) 390 310 500 306 500 295 345 450 435 268 245 435 4.20 1.55 1.19 1.51 0.43 3.48 3.80 2.138 0.0 4.56 6 6 8 8 8 ‘A’ ‘A’ 8A 11A 11A 13A 1.78 3.5 2.

11 Computer Models — Sewer System Design and Analysis SWMM-Extran5 HVM Dorsch3 SWMM-Transport5 WASSP-SIM6 CE Storm2 ILLUDAS4 Model Characteristics Model Purpose: Hydraulic Design Evaluation/Prediction Model Capabilities: Pipe Sizing Weirs/Overflows Surcharging Pumping Stations Storage Open Channel Water Surface Profile Hydraulic Equations: Linear Kinematic Wave Non-Linear Kinematic Wave St.C. M. Denver. Illinois State Water Survey. Venant’s . Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator (ILLUDAS). Urban Storm Drainage Criteria Manual. 1986. Illinois. 4. 1987. Hydraulics Research Laboratory. 2. Stormwater Management Model (SWMM Version IV) Users Manual.. Wellingford. UK. Wright. 1974. Hydrograph Volume Method of Sewer System Analysis.. Venant’s . J. of the Army. Dept.L. W. Environmental Protection Agency. Wallingford Storm Sewer Package (WASSP). Heaney. CE Storm Users Manual. Colorado. Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. Terstriep.K. 3. WrightMcLaughlin Engineers.B. HVM Manual.P.Explicit St. Champaign. Federal Republic of Germany. Urbana.Implicit Ease of Use: High Low • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • REFERENCES 1. 5.A. 1985. U. 1969. Bulletin 58. Dorsch Consult Limited. and Cunningham.S. J. K. Huber. 1984. B. Users Guide. Stall. 6. Volume I.182 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 5. WSPRO • • • • . Illinois...

5. HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STORM SEWERS 183 .

.184 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Two 6 m (20 ft) joints of perforated pipe banded together for ease of installation.

The methods of detention available may be categorized under three classifications: 1) underground.185 CHAPTER 6 Stormwater Detention & Subsurface Disposal STORMWATER DETENTION FACILITIES Detention facilities in new storm drain age systems are increasing in popularity as a means of achieving the urban drain age objectives. underground detention may be used. Areas used for overflow parking or employee parking are best suited. close to 100% of the storm runoff may be controlled. Each proposed development should be carefully examined in order to determine which method of storm water detention or combination of methods could be best applied. A detention basin will act as a “cushion. catch basins may be sealed where positive overland drainage is assured.1). Off-line detention collects storm water runoff before it enters the minor system and then discharges it into either a sewer or open water course at a controlled rate. Storm water is then collected in underground storage tanks and discharged back to the combined sewer at a controlled rate (see Figure 6. By making use of the major system and connecting all tributary catch basins to a detention tank. approximately 80% of storm runoff may be prevented from directly entering conventional sewer systems. Parking lots provide a very economical method of detaining peak runoff when the rate of runoff reaches a predetermined level. thus they may serve other purposes such as recreational and aesthetic. Detention facilities may also be incorporated into existing developments where flooding problems due to sewer surcharging are occurring. The areas to be ponded should be placed so pedestrians can reach their destinations without walking through the ponded water. 3) roof top. The maximum depth of ponding would vary with local conditions. removing sediments and reducing pollutants before discharge to streams and lakes. Such facilities are very applicable in areas with a combined sewer system. but should not be more than 200 mm (8 in.) to prevent damage to vehicles. Ponds either wet or dry may be located on open spaces or parklands to control runoff. Wet ponds hold water during dry periods. 2) surface. it will result in sewer surcharging. which will discharge at a pre-determined control rate back into either the sewer system or open watercourse. Trapped storm water might also be reused for lawn watering and irrigation. In-line storage incorporates the storage facility directly into the sewer system. In such cases. Overflow arrangements must be made to prevent the water depth exceeding the predetermined maximum. Surface Detention Surface detention is feasible in developments where open spaces exist.” which will have the effect of decreasing the peak runoff. either in line or off line. Underground Detention In areas where surface ponds are either not permitted or not feasible. In areas where roof drains are discharged to the surface. Excess storm water will be accommodated in some form of storage tank. Should the capacity of the storage facility be exceeded. .

186 Downspouts Discharge to Surface or Regulated Catchbasin Sealed Road Flow (Major System) Storm Water Detention Tank Regulated Outflow MODERN SEWER DESIGN Existing Sewer (Storm or Combined) Figure 6.1 Inlet control system. .

they will also accommodate an equivalent load of water without any structural changes. Overflow mechanisms should be provided so that the structural capacity of the roof is not exceeded.6. . Since these facilities are designed to drain completely.) water depth is equivalent to 150 kg/m2 (31. For a typical roof drain with controlled outflow. a very significant reduction indeed. Also.) diameter CSP used as an underground detention chamber. Special roof drains with controlled outlet capacity have been used for many years to reduce the size of drainage pipe within an individual building or site. The outlet control structure is located at the opposite end and to the right of those pipes. the resultant peak runoff from a roof can be reduced by up to 90 %. By installing roof drains with controlled outlet capacity. Many flat roofs now also pond significant amounts of storm water.2 lb/ft2) less than most snow load requirements in northern United States and Canada. they may serve other functions such as golf courses. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 187 Dry ponds are operable during and a short time after a storm event. special consideration should be given to water tightness when roof top ponding is to be incorporated.1 Roof Top Detention Flat roofs are very common for industrial. In addition to this important advantage.2. commercial and apartment buildings. it is obvious that there would be substantial cost savings. playing fields. Seldom was this reduction in peak flow recognized in the sizing of the municipal storm sewers. this should also be considered when estimating peak flows. 2700 mm (108 in. and the total benefit was therefore not achieved. parks. see Figure 6. A 150 mm (6 in. etc. Since they are often designed for snow load.

Broad plane surface combines with clamping collar to hold flashing and roofing felts in tight vise-like grip. ) open area dome permits unobstructed flow.4 m (4 ft ) . Multi-weir barrier provides flow rates directly proportional to the head. Integral clamping-collar at bottom of weir provides positive clamping action without puncturing roof or flashing. Supports the drain body and assures flush. MODERN SEWER DESIGN Figure 6. Also provides integral gravel guard. Insulation Waterproofing membrane Underdeck clamp for rigid mounting stabilizes the entire assembly and renders it an integral part of the roof structure.2 . Height as required by thickness of insulation.2 Special roof drains with control outlet capacity. Available with 1 to 6 inverted parabolic notches to meet varying requirements. roof-level placement. shock-resistant aluminum and is bayonet-locked to gravel guard on weir.188 2 2 2 Large 95.000 mm (148 in. Dome is made of lightweight. Bayonet-type locking device on dome firmly in place with weir yet allows dome to be easily removed. Metal roof deck Extension sleeve accommodates the addition of insulation to a roof deck. Gravel Roof sump receiver distributes 2 2 weight of drain over 0.

CPRE = 0. The existing land use is an undisturbed meadow. The depth-versusdischarge curve is dependent upon the outlet structure. depth-versus-storage (Figure 6. O2 = outflow at beginning and end of time step Sl. in new developments. I2 = inflow at beginning and end of time step O1. For the most part.6 in. or to control the flow rate to a predetermined level for all storm events. for example. These include both manual and computer-aided methods. The requirements for these facilities may be relatively straightforward. S2 = storage at beginning and end of time step ∆t = time step A working curve of O2 plotted against (S2/∆t) + (O2/2) is necessary for solving the equation. tc. The storage indication method is widely used for routing flows through reservoirs. The facility may be required to control post-development flows to pre-development levels for a range of storms. I10 = 117 mm/hr (4. PRE = 10 min. The following equation describes the routing process: – S1 O1 S2 O2 I + —— – —— = —— + —— ∆t 2 ∆t 2 Where I = (Il + I2)/2 Il. POST = 5 min. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 189 DESIGN OF STORM WATER DETENTION FACILITIES Commonly.3 CPOST = 0. A 30-minute duration storm is to be used. the methods used assume that the facility acts as a reservoir. Many methods may be used for design of the proposed facility.4 hectare parcel of land is to be developed for commercial use. detention or retention facilities are necessary for the storm water management requirements to be met. An example using the storage indication method is given in “SCS National Engineering Handbook. the objective may be to control the 10-year post-development flow to pre-development rates.5) The depth versus storage relationship may be determined from the proposed grading plan of the facility and the existing topography.”3 Hydrograph Method The design of underground detention facilities may be determined by knowing the inflow hydrograph and the desired release rate. depth-versus-discharge (Figure 6.4) b.7 tc.6. Section 4. The design of the facility generally requires that the following two relationships be established: a./hr) for a 30-minute duration . Hydrology. the requirements may be more complex. Example of Detention Pond Design: GIVEN: An 0. Detention facilities may also be used for improving water quality. Conversely. You are to design an underground detention chamber to maintain the 10-year post developed peak flow to pre-developed conditions.

QATp + ( QATp)/2 + (QA2Tp)/2Qp volume of storage needed duration of precipitation peak discharge after development peak discharge before development time to peak after development ratio of time to peak before development/time to peak after development where = (30)(0.40) X 2.) 30 35 40 45 Post Developed Hydrograph Pre Developed Hydrograph Figure 6.091) = (2.195 + 0.091) . Assuming uniform pipe size. Using the dimensions of the pipe.01 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (min. a 1500 mm (5 ft) maximum pipe diameter can be used.039)2(5)/(2)(0.190 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Step 1: Develop Inflow Hydrograph using Modified Rational Method QPRE = CIA X 2.039)(5) + (2)(0.40) X 2. the Stage-Storage Table can be obtained by geometric relationships.0.3 = 0. the storage volume is estimated as: VS VS Td Qp QA Tp = = = = = = = TdQp .(0.08 0.78(10) .04 0.06 0.78(10) .1 m3 (3330 ft3) Step 3: Size Pipe and Compute Stage-Storage Table based on the site constraints of an invert of an existing storm sewer system outfall and minimum cover requirements.7)(117)(0.05 0.3 = 0.039)(5)/2 + (0.039 m3/sec (1.3 Pre and Post Hydrographs Step 2: Estimate Required Storage Volume using the Modified Rational Method with a storm duration of 30 minutes.4 cfs) QPOST = CIA X 2. . the slope of the pipe is neglected.78(10) -3 = (0.02 0.73 .(0.2 cfs) 0.3 m (170 ft) pipe length is required to meet the estimated storage volume.07 Flow (cms) 0.3)(117)(0.1 0.1. a 54.039)(30) .195 + 0.78(10) -3 = (0.17 .091 m3/sec (3. In this example.03 0.QATd . The length is increased to 60 m (200 ft).09 0.042)(60 s/min) = 96.

7 0.8 106.040 0 0. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 1600 1400 1200 Elevation.038 0.027 0. Table 6.033 0.61.4 1.5 1.0 27.0 39.6 79.5 5.016 0.6 0. Since the maximum release rate based on pre-developed conditions is 0.9 1.1 Stage mm ft Stage Storage & Discharge Table m3 Storage ft3 m3/s Discharge ft3/s 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 0 0.3 1.2 1.0 0 54 15.4 Stage-Storage Curve 50 60 Storage.2 0 205 559 991 1467 1964 2460 2936 3368 3723 3927 0 0. For this example.0 1.035 0.2 91.1 1.0 4. Cd = 0.8 66.0 3.010 0.0 2. m3 70 80 90 100 110 Step 4: Size Release Structure and Compute Stage Discharge Table An orifice will be used to regulate the discharge from the pipe.4 cfs). Based on the orifice equation.6 52.030 0.024 0.5 2.039 m3/sec (1.5 4. an orifice is sized to release this amount at the maximum stage of approximately 1500 mm (5 ft). mm 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 191 Figure 6.021 0. Q = CdA(2gh)1/2 A 125 mm (5 in.0 1.6.5 3.2 100.3 0.4 .) diameter orifice is selected and the Stage Discharge Table is computed and combined with the Stage Storage Table below.

55 0.015 0.04 0.020 0 0.28 0.34 0.012 0.2 79.75 0.5 1.55 0.040 0 0 0 0.5 5.30 11.19 7.35 13.030 0.79 0.65 0.05 1.0 2.6 15.03 0.50 0.22 8.79 0 0.3 5.88 0.2 Elevation mm ft 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 0.019 0.1 66.11 0.70 0 0 0 0.027 0.025 Flow (cms) 0.015 0.00 0.9 39.016 0.24 0.4 100.41 0.68 0.3 91.04 Step 5: Develop the Storage-Indicator Table and Perform the Routing from the procedures presented earlier.4 205 0.10 3.038 0.13 4.010 0.2 3927 0 0.0 991 0.1 0.02 0.36 0.6 1467 1.24 8.34 12.30 0.033 0.18 6.65 0.8 3723 1.035 0.5 4.86 0.010 0.37 Figure 6.0 0 0.0 52.32 11.89 0.6 Storage Indicator Curve . the following Storage-Indicator Table is developed: Storage–Indicator Table Discharge m3/s cfs Storage m3 ft3 O2/2 S2/vt S2/vt + O2/2 Table 6.5 Stage–Discharge Curve 0.4 106.14 0.024 0.20 0.16 0.36 13.2 2936 1.23 0.06 2.0 3.021 0.30 0.2 3368 1.26 9.0 1.02 0.0 559 0.035 0.32 0.05 0.8 1964 1.005 0 0 0.0 4.37 13.024 0.03 0.06 0.018 0.192 1600 1400 1200 Elevation (mm) 100 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.017 0.08 0.39 0.70 0.016 0.7 27.6 2460 1.19 0.09 3.14 5.05 0.60 0.016 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Figure 6.35 0.01 0.5 2.5 3.28 10.03 Discharge (cms) 0.45 0.03 0.09 0.035 0.83 0.15 0.

008 .2 0.80 .032 .20 .036 .3 0.40 1.104 3.00 0 0.1 1.20 .80 .03 0.024 0.2 .152 5.192 6.10 .047 1.50 .012 .011 .70 0.70 .034 .178 6.) 80 90 100 11 120 Outflow Inflow Figure 6.316 11.30 1.20 .50 .00 0 0.10 .06 0.10 .005 .80 1.2 .004 .40 .30 .00 .028 .00 0.005 .011 0.0 0.10 .00 0 0.027 .08 0.7 0.026 .00 0 0.00 0 0.091 3. compute the Storage Routing Table below: Table 6.00 0 0.040 .80 0.013 .023 .083 2.034 .046 1.023 .256 9.152 5.30 0.00 0 0.091 3.70 .017 .378 13.091 3.019 .9 0.091 3.127 4.1 1.026 .338 11.192 6.4 1.4 0.00 .80 .01 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (min.206 7.20 .00 .2 1.3 1.017 . 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 Inflow m3/s cfs 0 0 .021 .02 0.016 0.20 .1 0.30 0.60 0.50 .024 0.00 .030 .040 .002 O2 cfs 0 0.40 .00 S2/vt + O2/2 m3/s cfs 0 0 .00 0.90 0.50 .40 1.2 .60 0.40 .00 0 0.035 .338 11.10 0.002 .60 .20 1.124 4.031 .6 0.091 3.70 .04 0.031 .372 13.6.00 .032 .30 .268 9.6 0.09 0.40 0.0 1.178 6.8 0.124 4.040 .047 1.046 1.07 Flow (cms) 0.016 0.7 Inflow/Outflow Hydrographs .104 3.0 0.4 1.05 0.002 O1 cfs 0 0.2 .0 0.20 .60 .372 13.00 .8 1.019 .60 .236 8.007 0.028 .20 1.268 9.023 . STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 193 Step 6: Perform the Storage Routing to obtain the Outflow Hydrograph using the procedures described earlier.011 0.20 .025 .80 .046 1.5 0.064 2.00 0 0.025 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (I1+I2)/2 m3/s cfs 0 0 .091 3.10 .3 0.091 3.10 1.20 0.040 .007 0.00 1.40 .10 1.10 m3/s 0 0 .00 0 0.035 1.030 .013 .00 0 0.302 10.00 0 0.027 .9 0.091 3.011 .00 0 0.046 1.20 .127 4.021 .00 0 0.50 0.023 .40 .10 .20 .1 0.00 0 0.035 .10 .088 2.00 0 0.10 m3/s 0 .206 7.00 .10 .005 0.2 1.00 .40 .302 10.091 3.00 S1/vt + O1/2 m3/s cfs 0 0 0 0.091 3.60 0 0.3 1.00 .008 .004 .2 .035 1.90 0.00 0 0.091 3.30 1.70 .378 13.012 .316 11.036 .20 .00 .256 9.10 .00 .064 2.236 8.3 Storage Routing Table Time min.20 .

each equipped with a regulator. The simplest form of a flow regulator is an orifice with an opening sized for a given flow rate for the maximum head available. all that is required is the addition of one or more storage reservoirs. If the allowable maximum overflow depths are exceeded. In this manner. due to the reduction in head. yet provide for continuous flow in the drainageway. flow regulators should be self-regulating. and has since been successfully applied in a number of installations in North America. An example of such a device has been developed in Scandinavia. In such cases. such as occur with combined sewers or with separate storm sewers with foundation drains connected. It is particularly useful in existing developed areas experiencing basement flooding. By placing the regulator between a stor- . with erosion protection from the upstream point on the embankment face to below the downstream toe of the embankment. It is also important to note that since this method is achieved through restrictions in the drainageway. where the storage capacity within drainageways is utilized. other forms of flow regulators designed to permit larger openings can be used. This technique can be repeated several times along the same drainageway. It is obviously important to avoid openings that could result in frequent clogging. backwater calculations should be performed to establish flood lines. in effect creating a chain of temporary ponds. Regulators may also be placed within large sewers as a means of achieving in-line system storage. For example. The designer must remember to design the roadway embankment as a dam. Flow Regulators The installation of flow regulators at inlets to storm sewers provides an effective means of preventing unacceptable storm sewer surcharging. then the culvert(s) through the embankment should be increased in size. The culvert(s) through the embankment may be hydraulically designed to permit a range of regulated outflow rates for a series of storm events and their corresponding storage requirements. Should all the storage capacity in the drainageway be utilized. with minimum maintenance requirements. then the overflow may be permitted over the embankment. This regulator utilizes the static head of stored water to create its own retarding energy. The storm water exceeding the capacity of the storm sewer may be temporarily ponded on the road surface. as well as in areas with heavy infiltration into sanitary sewers.194 MODERN SEWER DESIGN OTHER DETENTION TECHNIQUES “Blue-Green” Storage An economical way of detaining surface runoff is the “Blue-Green” approach. allowing only the regulated outflow rate to be conveyed through the embankments. Overflow depths on minor local streets of 200–300 mm (8 to 10 in.) are usually acceptable. thus maintaining a relatively constant discharge. the dynamic storage characteristics of the greenbelt system will retard the peak flows. with lower values for roads with higher classifications. This technique may be achieved by designing road crossings over drainageways to act as dams. Where orifice openings become too small. the opening can be larger than for an orifice placed at the lower level of the outlet pipe. by placing a horizontal orifice directly under a catchbasin grating. in off-line detention basins or underground tanks. Ideally. or when this is not feasible.

STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 195 age reservoir and a sewer.6. only the pre-determined rate of flow that the sewer can handle without excessive surcharging will be released (see Figure 6.6). Existing Sewer System .8 Typical installation of regulator for underground storage. Catch Basin New Detention Basin Regulator in Manhole Figure 6.

10 a & b). In subsurface disposal. either natural or excavated. and retention wells as discussed below. In highway design they may be located in rights-ofway or in open space within freeway interchange loops. or trenches backfilled with porous aggregate and with perforated pipes5 (see Figure 6.5 The basic methods involve the use of infiltration basins. The major advantages of using subsurface disposal of storm runoff are: a) replenishment of groundwater reserves. These include. or vertically-sided trenches with a concrete slab cover. c) an effective method of reducing runoff rates. Such basins may serve dual functions as both infiltration and storage facilities (see Figure 6. extensive outlet piping or drainage channels. into which storm water is conveyed and then permitted to infiltrate into the underlying material.9). d) a beneficial way to treat storm water by allowing it to percolate through the soil. whether runoff is being conveyed overland or discharged to underground facilities. The addition of the perforated pipe in the infiltra- . reduction in base flow. Basins also present the problems of security of standing water and insect breeding. Infiltration basins may be integrated into park lands and open spaces in urban areas. careful consideration should be given to any adverse impact that may result. intended that the water soak back into the earth. excessive erosion. However.4 Infiltration Trench Infiltration trenches may be unsupported open cuts with stable side slope. void of both backfill or drainage conduits. Nature. In areas where natural well-drained soils exist. infiltration trenches. increased flooding and pollution. One approach that would help emulate nature’s practices is to direct storm water back into the soil.196 MODERN SEWER DESIGN SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL OF STORM WATER Introduction Increased urbanization has resulted in extensive construction of storm drainage facilities that reduce the natural storage and infiltration characteristics of rural land.4. Numerous projects involving subsurface disposal of stormwater have been constructed and have been proven to be successful. Infiltration Basins Infiltration basins are depressions of varying size. The negative aspects to basins are their susceptibility to clogging and sedimentation and the considerable surface land area required. forested areas. b) an economic alternative of disposing of storm runoff without the use of pumping stations. The effectiveness and applicability of a given method should be evaluated for each location. subsurface disposal of storm water may be implemented as an effective means of storm water management. especially where municipal water is dependent on groundwater sources. lowering of the water table. high peak flows. The reliance on efficient drainage systems for surface water disposal creates a series of new problems. swamps. this may include the adverse impact of percolated water on the existing quality of the groundwater. A variety of methods are currently being employed in practice. or where overdraft of water is causing intrusion of sea water. through a system of bogs. and undulating terrain.

9 Infiltration basin. filtration manholes. or any area with limited space. sediment traps. 8 m (25 ft) Deep) 4:1 180 m (600 ft) Figure 6. parking lots. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 197 tion trench will distribute storm water along the entire trench length. The use of deep catch basins. 4:1 . Since trenches may be placed in narrow bands and in complex alignments. they are particularly suited for use in road rights-of-way. 2 m (8 ft) Deep) Outfall Lines Street 8:1 200 m (650 ft) 8:1 4:1 Outfall Structure Gate Controlling Flow into Drainage Basin Drainage Basin (Approx. thus clogging the system. Storm Sewer Storm Sewer 8:1 Holding Basin (Approx. A major concern in the design and the construction of infiltration trenches is the prevention of excessive silt from entering the aggregate backfill. easements. and the installation of filter bags in catch basins has proven effective.6. thus providing immediate access to the trench walls. synthetic filter cloths. It will also allow for the collection of sediment before it can enter the aggregate backfill.

.) Clear Stone 300 mm (1 ft) Minimum 50 mm (2 in. Holes per ft2) Permeable Plastic Filter Cloth Variable 50 mm (2 in.3/8 in.) Clean Stone Variable Note: Depth and Width of Trench Subject to Flow Volumes and Permeability of Soil Variable Figure 6.8 m (4 to 6 ft) Place Openings in Curb in Suitable Locations Pavement 150 mm (6 in.10 mm Holes per m2 of Surface (30 .198 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Ordinary Backfill 300 mm (1 ft) Minimum Perforated Pipe: 320 .10b Typical trench for parking lot drainage.2 m to 1.) Clean Stone Variable Figure 6.) Pavement Gravel Base Gravel Base 20 mm (3/4 in.10a Typical trench for perforated storm sewer. 1.

) Diameter 600 mm (24 in. A.C.) Minimum Figure 6.6.11 Recharge well. Inlet Pavement Frame and Grate Natural Ground 375 to 900mm (15 to 36 in. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 199 Retention Wells The disposal of storm water directly into the subsurface may be achieved by the use of recharge wells (see Figure 6.) Varies 300 mm (12 in.) Galvanized Wire Mesh Screen Over Bottom of CSP 150 mm (6 in.) Perforated 3 m(10 ft) Minimum #10 25 mm x 25 m (1 in.) Auger Hole Minimum 600 mm (24 in. or in conjunction with infiltration basins to penetrate impermeable strata.) Wide Trench Ballast Rock Typically 20 to 40mm (3⁄4 to 11⁄2 in. . x 1 in.11). The versatility of such installations allows them to be used independently to remove standing water in areas difficult to drain. or be employed as bottomless catch basins in conventional minor system design.

c) natural ground slope. clay and other suspended materials can clog surfaces reducing the infiltration rate.200 MODERN SEWER DESIGN SOIL INVESTIGATION AND INFILTRATION TESTS The rate of percolation (or infiltration) is dependent on many factors. and soil types. 100 m (320 ft) of 3825 mm (12 ft . PA. The above would strongly suggest that the soil infiltration rate is best determined by carrying out field tests under known hydraulic gradients. Several contaminants including dissolved salts. silt.) diameter structural plate pipe with gasketed seams used as an underground detention chamber collecting runoff from a shopping center near Harrisburg. including: a) type and properties of surface and subsurface soils. grease. b) geological conditions. d) location of the water table. . Field investigations should concentrate on the following:6 a) The infiltration capability of the soil surfaces through which the water must enter the soil. water tables. Laboratory tests are limited in that the condition within the laboratory may not simulate field conditions and should only be used to estimate the infiltration rate. chemical substances. b) The water-conducting capability of the subsoils that allow water to reach the underlying water table. oil.5 in.

Department of Transportation.) Flow from the system under mounding conditions (water table elevation = bottom of infiltration system) at the maximum infiltration rate.4 Typical Coarse gravel Coefficients of permeability Value of K mm/s (in. and the falling head test for fine-grained soils.e..8 Table 6.2 x 10-3) 0. Approximate permeabilities of different soils are listed below.2) 5 – 0. Field Tests Field tests may be carried out using various methods. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 201 c. sample trenches. dirty sand Silt Clay Laboratory test specimens are mixtures of disturbed materials.” U.2 . Other laboratory methods for determining permeability are sieve analysis and hydro-meter tests. or well-pumping tests.S.6.7 Laboratory Methods The permeability of a soil sample may be calculated by laboratory methods. fine sand Silty sand. The method chosen will depend on the type of facility to be designed and the site location parameters.) The capability of the subsoils and underlying soils and geological formations to move water away from the site. Two methods commonly used are the constant head test for coarse-grained soil. The tests may therefore give permeabilities higher or lower than in situ materials. the reader is referred to a manual entitled “Underground Disposal of Storm Water Runoff. d. i./s) over 5 (0. type of equipment available to perform the test excavation. and type of soils. number of test sites required. requirements for maintenance of the vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic.2 X 10-7) 5 x 10-4 – 5 x 10-6(2 X 10-5 .05 (0.2 X 10-5) less than 5 x 10-6 (2 x 10-7) Relative permeability Very permeable Medium permeability Low permeability Very low permeability Practically impervious Sand. Darcy’s law may be used to estimate the coefficient of permeability. pits. presence of underground utilities. For a detailed description of alternative methods and the applicability of each. A factor of safety of 2 is commonly used to account for possible differences between laboratory and in situ values. A constant head is maintained during the laboratory test: Q K = —— A•i Where: Q = the rate of flow A = cross sectional areas of soil through which flow takes place K = coefficient of permeability i = gradient or head loss over a given flow distance .05 – 5 x 10-4 (2 X 10-3 . including auger holes (cased or uncased).

.12 Falling head laboratory test.202 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Area (a) Position at Time0 (t0) Position at Time1 (t1) Riser Tube h0 h1 Soil Screen Area (A) Outflow (Q) Supports Figure 6.

Field permeability tests are recommended before final design. The specific surface method of New York State9 may be used to calculate the saturated coefficient of permeability from an empirical equation relating porosity. In designing any subsurface disposal system.3 a L h0 K = ——— log10 —— A ∆t h1 Where: A = cross sectional area of the soil through which flow takes place K = coefficient of permeability L = length of the soil specimen a = cross sectional area of the riser tube ∆t = time interval (t1 . Linear Recharge System This system is similar to a conventional drainage system making use of catch basins and manholes. This fact will cause some form of detention to be required for most subsurface disposal facilities. moderate. it should be realized that for many applications the rate of runoff is considerably greater than the rate of infiltration. Such systems are applicable to apartment developments. Such maps will indicate in general the expected drainage characteristics of the soil classified as good. Further field permeability testing should be conducted before final design. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 203 In the falling head laboratory test. specific surface of solids.10). but storm runoff is directed to fully perforated pipes in trenches that allow for the exfiltration of the water over a larger area. the head drops from the initial test point to the final test point (Figure 6. the zero increase in runoff criteria may be achieved by allowing the volume of water exceeding the pre-development flows to be disposed of into the subsurface stratum. . The following equation may be used to establish the coefficient of permeability: 2. Modifications can also be made to existing systems to take advantage of the infiltration capacity of the soil. or poor drainage.6. This information may aid the designer in preliminary infiltration drainage feasibility studies.t0) h0 = initial head h1 = final head Indirect Methods These methods are used when field or laboratory percolation tests have not been performed. the soil classification should be verified by field investigation. SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES Subsurface disposal techniques have various applications that will result in both environmental and economic benefits. The simplest of these methods is the use of SCS soil classification maps. parking lots. or median or ditch drainage in highway construction. Thus. and permeability. Since the maps only give a general idea of the basic soil types occurring in various areas.

13 to 6. where soil conditions permit subsurface disposal. The use of filter cloth surrounding the stone. can virtually eliminate the clogging of the stone media with fines. such systems were susceptible to silting up relatively quickly. and filter bags made of filter cloth placed in the catch basins. detention areas. Typical installations are shown in Figures 6. fully perforated catch basins and manholes. Fully perforated corrugated steel pipe surrounded by a stone filter medium has been found to be very suitable in these applications. storm runoff may be collected and disposed of in perforated catch basins or wells.204 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Point Source and Recharge System In small areas. may all be used as an effective means of stormwater management. Five lines of 1800 mm (72 in.) slots in the invert. The design criteria described previously should be followed to assure that the system operates effectively. etc. An example of a combination underground detention chamber and recharge system. . Recharge basins.) diameter corrugated steel pipe with 150 mm (6 in. In the past. Combination System In large developments.16. fully perforated pipes my be used in place of conventional storm sewers.

If settlement occurs.)or No. Corrugated Steel Pipe — ASTM A760. (Ground Water Level. intrusion of fines or sediment into the ballast rock may be prevented by use of new “filter cloth” materials. d.gradation shall be such that all of the material will pass the 25 mm (1 in.) Trench Ballast Rock Ballast Rock Pea Rock Street lateral as req’d Perforated Trapping Hood (if req’d) P CS Recharge Select Fill G. Typical Material Specs: a. The ballast rock shall be washed.) property lateral (as req’d) Ballast Rock Ballast Rock Filtration Well (Note: plastic “Filter Cloth” at interface of ballast and select.W.shall meet the gradation requirements as specified by AASHTO M-43 for size No. governing the Los Angeles Abrasion Test. It shall not show more than ten percent loss in 10 cycles as specified by the M-63 soundness test. Crushed lime rock will not be permitted. and not more than 5 percent will pass the 6 mm (1⁄4 in. or zero increase of runoff regulations on land development in many urban areas. c.shall consist of well-graded rock. wash down with clear water to allow for initial settlement. and complete recharge drain construction.5 mm to 19 mm) (11⁄2 to 3⁄4 in. Fine sand. if req’d) LONGITUDINAL SECTION TRANSVERSE SECTION Note: If “Select Fill” not available.) sieve.Silt Barrier Main Storm Sewer Catch-basin Felt Curb Pea Rock Select Fill 15 kg (30 lb) Roofing Felt or Heavy Ballast Rock CSP = 450 mm (18 in.). 205 Figure 6. Otherwise. and free of deleterious material. filter cloth materials may be specified for the select fill-ballast interface. 6. 4 (37. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL Note: After ballast rock has been initially placed to desired elevation. or rock and coarse sand fill. Pea Rock .) CSP CatchBasin Select Granulated Fill 200 mm (8 in. . 24 (63 mm to 19 mm) (21⁄2 to 3⁄4 in.) sieve.L. Select Fill . SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL OF STORMWATER RUNOFF can be an attractive alternative to present costly storm sewer conveyance systems. Ballast Rock . or Table) CSP Catch Basin 900 mm (36 in.(May be used in conjunction with longitudinal recharge trench and/or combination positive storm drain system) Catch-basin Select Fill Select Fill Polyethylene . Materials shall not have more than 45% loss of section as specified by AASHTO M-63.13 Typical street recharge system (French Drain). With the imposition of zero discharge. subsurface recharge may become a necessity for the drainage designer. add additional ballast to required elevation. or fill having a high proportion of sand and/or fines. latest revision b. will not be accepted.

C.B.B.B. C.) fully perforated pipe banded together for installation.) Diameter CSP C.B. C. C.B. 250 mm or 300 mm (10 or 12 in.B.14 Typical plan for “underground disposal of stormwater runoff” for residential development.) Perforated Pipe C. 12 m (40 ft) length of 2100 mm (84 in.B.H.206 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 600 mm (24 in. . C.B. C. Sod Granular Backfill Perforated Pipe Figure 6. C. M.B.

) 13 mm x 19 mm (1/2 x 3/4 in.) Diameter Fully Perforated CSP 150 mm (6 in.) 430 mm (17 in. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 207 Concrete Curbing 200 mm (8 in.15 Typical design for combination catch basin for sand and sediment and recharge well.) Diameter CSP 150 mm (6 in.) Diameter Fully Perforated CSP 600 mm (24 in.) Diameter CSP Flow 1800 mm (6 ft) 300 mm (12 in. and recharge well jetted through lower pipe to flush silt and restore permeability.) Gravel Packing Drain Well 760 mm (30 in.) Diameter CSP Horizontal Recharge Drain (Optional) Steel Grate 150 mm (6 in. Catch basin would be periodically cleaned.) CSP Drop Inlet Figure 6.6. .) Diameter Weep Hole 900 mm (36 in.

) Diameter Fully Perforated CSP 900 mm (36 in.) Diameter CSP A A 600 mm (24 in.16 Typical CSP “Filter Manhole.) Diameter CSP 375 mm (15 in.” .) Diameter CSP Plan Open Corrugated Cover Flow 600 mm (24 in.) Diameter Fully Perforated CSP 900 mm (36 in.208 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 375 mm (15 in.) Diameter CSP Horizontal CSP Recharge Drain (optional) Flow Open Flow To Recharge Well (optional) Ballast Corrugated Bottom Section ‘A–A’ Figure 6.) Diameter CSP 300 mm (12 in.

• Determine infiltration rate. infiltration trenches. Determination of Pre-Development Peak Runoff A Tc I C Q = = = = = = = 0.55 ha (1.68 x 10-1mm/s (2. Soil characteristics may be determined from subsurface soil investigations. The potential infiltration rate or permeability may be estimated either from field or laboratory tests. with the excess storm being detained in an infiltration perforated pipe facility. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 209 DESIGN EXAMPLE The main steps to be followed when designing a stormwater subsurface disposal system are summarized as follows: • Determine “Q. with an estimated coefficient of permeability of K = 6.00278 (0. A combination system will be designed utilizing a regulator to discharge the pre-development outflow rate.” or storm runoff.021 m3/s (0.55 ha (1. constant factor 20 minutes 69 mm/hr (2./hr) 5 year storm .36 ac) site. • Determine soil profile and groundwater levels.) perforated pipe surrounded by 50 mm (2 in.”11 A relatively straightforward example.55) 0. • Design subsurface disposal systems.6. The average trench surface area exposed for infiltration is 2 m + 2 m = 4 m (6. Surface area of trench for exfiltration = 4 m2/m (13 ft2/ft) length Length of trench = 12 m (40 ft) Area of exfiltration = 12 m x 4 m2/m = 48 m2 (520./s).73 ft3/s) Exfiltration Analysis Soils investigations indicate a relatively pervious sub-soil. Darcy’s law. Several design examples for infiltration basins.0 ft) (trench walls only considered).15). An apartment development is proposed on a 0.2)(69)(0.5 ft2) .63 x 10-2 in. and retention wells are given in “Underground Disposal of Storm Water Runoff. The municipality requires a zero increase in runoff for a five-year storm.00278. Exfiltration Calculations A 900 mm (36 in.36 ac) k = 0.7 in.5 + 6.2 (pre-development) kCIA 0.) clean stone will be used (Figure 6.5 = 13. using an estimated coefficient of permeability. It is recommended that a factor of safety of 2 be applied to this figure when calculating exfiltration. and a simplified hydrological method is given below. The design runoff may be regulated by using the techniques discussed in Chapter 3. Hydrology.

57 ft3/s) (exfiltration rate).3 (684) (1314) 29. Exfiltration from trench: Q = A•K•i ÷ safety factor.9 (4104) – 149.3 (780) 33.0 (1026) (1752) 38.0 = 1.6 (3420) (504) 115.7 30.9 (5292) Determined from mass outflow calculations using 5-year Intensity Duration Frequency Curve and post-development runoff factors.5 (4608) 149.0 (4272) 127.0 (3120) 105. Check storage capacity of pipe and trench.5 (4608) 149.0 (2052) (1536) 77.7 (48) – – – – – (219) 4.0 (3708) 121.61 x 10-2 m3/s (0. Rate of 1.2 (1632) 58.0 43.0 (636) 23.021 m3/s (0. The hydraulic gradient (i) may now be estimated.75 (882) 22.4 47.6 (1368) (1656) 58.6 (2880) 89. Maximum storage required.7 (342) (657) 14.73 ft3/s) (5-year pre-development).3 12. Storage requirement for a 5-year storm is 24.3 (2736) (1080) 96.9 25.9 (5292) Storage requirements m3 (ft3) 18.61 x 10-2 m3/s (0.4 (1170) 44.8 14.0 (4272) 127.0 i = ———— = 1.36 m3 (615 ft3) 4 Total Volume Available = 24.68 x 10-4 m/s x 1 = ——————————— 2. Rate of .5 (513) (876) 19.8 (171) (438) 9. m3 (ft3) Total outflow m3 (ft3) 11.1 (792) 14. Once runoff volume becomes less than allowable release plus exfiltration volume.9 (852) 24.8 (2340) 89.0 A hydraulic gradient of 1 will be used in the design.6 Exfil.0 + 9.8 (540) 0.1 (1026) 46.210 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The soil investigation has shown that the pervious subsoil extends 9 m (30 ft) from the bottom of the trench to the ground water table.04 (3708) 121. 48 m2 x 6.4 (4500) 130. m3 (ft3) 29.1 (390) 22. h i = — l where: h = average available head l = flow distance 1.1 (2052) 66.43 = 17. 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 180 1 2 3 4 5 Accumulated1 runoff vol.4 (4500) 130.99 m3( 898 ft3) ∴ enough storage provided for excess water . 40 x π (3)2 Pipe = ————— = 7. then inflow equals outflow.6 18.8 50.5 (1560) 66.6 (2352) 81.7 m3 (882 ft3).2 37.9 (5292) Allowable2 release m3 (ft3) 6.7 (3168) 105.1 9.9)2 Trench (43% voids) = (2 x 2 x 12 – x 12) .63 m3 (283 ft3) 4 π (.3 vol.57 ft3/s) Time Min.

17 Infiltration trench cross-section. A “Toys R Us” facility in Ocala.6.) 2 m (7 ft) Figure 6.) 2m (6.) 550 mm (24 in.) 900 mm (36 in. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL 211 Native Backfill Permeable Plastic Filter Cloth 800 mm (30 in.5 ft) 550 mm (24 in. FL during construction showing a detention basin constructed of 18 lines of 1200 mm (48 in.) Perforated Pipe 30–10 mm Holes per m2 of Surface (30–3/8 in.) diameter fully perforated corrugated steel pipe used for a recharge system.) Clean Stone 300 mm (12 in. holes per ft2) 50 mm (2 in. .

212

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

CONSTRUCTION OF RECHARGE TRENCHES
Trench and ballast construction can be categorized under two soil conditions:

Trench in Permeable Rock and/or Stable Soil
A recharge trench of permeable soil or rock that will support its own walls without the need for protective shoring or cages is the least difficult to construct. Unless the sidewalls are heavy in silt or fines, there is rarely a need to line the trench walls with filter cloth to deter backflow of “fines” into the ballast rock filter. Trench depth is not critical. The recharge CSP drain should be below the frost line, but there appears to be no problem in placing the trench bottom below normal groundwater level. A bedding of ballast rock 25–50 mm (1 to 2 in.) in size is laid prior to pipe placement, usually not less than 600 mm (2 ft) deep. The perforated pipe is placed on the bedding, and covered a minimum of 300 mm (12 in.) on sides and top, or up to the 6 mm (1/4 in.) “pea gravel” level shown in the cross-section drawing (Figure 6.11). A minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) of the 6 mm (1/4 in.) rock is laid over the ballast, and this in turn is covered with two layers of 15 kg (30 lb) construction quality felt, or two layers of construction polyethylene sheeting. This barrier is most important in preventing the vertical infiltration of silts or sediments into the ballast rock, resulting in clogging of the recharge system. The sequence is finalized with earth or base course. The construction sequence, as shown on the following pages, is carried forward as an “assembly line” process, with the entire sequence in close proximity. It is important that care be taken not to excavate any more trench than can be completed in the working period. If too much of the trench is excavated and the walls collapse, the trench will have to be re-excavated, and the fallen wall area replaced by ballast rock. Also, any rainfall may lead to an influx of sediments into the excavated area, resulting in clogging of the pervious layers in the trench wall.

Trench in Non-Cohesive Soil or Sand
Trench in non-cohesive soil or sand will result in a wider trench, and possibly the need for considerably more of the expensive ballast rock. A high percent of fines of either silt or sand may also suggest the advisability of a filter cloth between the ballast rock and native material. A field-constructed “slip-form” of plywood can maintain the narrow width of ballast in the trench and expedite the placement of the filter cloth envelope around the ballast rock. After excavation, the plywood form is set in place, the filter cloth is loosely tacked from the top and stretched down the sides of the form. As the sequence of bedding, pipe-laying, ballast and side fill proceeds, the tacks are pulled, and the form slowly lifted. This allows the fill to hold the rock in place instead of the form, with the filter cloth in between. The sequence is continued until the ballast rock is to desired grade. The filter cloth is then lapped over the top of the ballast rock to finish the trench.

6. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL

213

Perforated Pipe
Fully perforated pipes are shown on page 190. Such pipes, when used in conjunction with an infiltration trench, allow for the entire concept of subsurface disposal of storm water. Perforations of 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) diameter uniformly spaced around the full periphery of the pipe are desirable, with not less than 3.23 perforations per m2 (30 per ft2). Perforations of not less than 8.0 mm (5/16 in.) may be used provided that an opening area of not less than 23,000 mm2/m2 (3.31 in2/ft2) of pipe surface is achieved.

Common recharge trench installation showing relative placement of perforated pipe ballast rock, gravel, and asphalt impregnated building paper.

214

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

At manhole, junction, or other structures, the perforated pipe should be attached to a 1200 mm (4 ft) stub of unperforated pipe attached to the structure. This will prevent piping at the structure with subsequent soil settlement.

3000 mm (120 in.) diameter fully perforated pipe being fabricated on helical pipe mill.

One of two corrugated steel pipe detention chambers constructed on this industrial tract, each consisting of 730 m (2400 ft) of 1200 mm (48 in.) diameter pipe, located in Chantilly Park, VA, a few miles south of Dulles Airport.

6. STORMWATER DETENTION & SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL

215

Synthetic Filter Fabrics
Multi-layered graded aggregate filters have been commonly used for the prevention of soil migration through the filter median. The diminishing supply of dependable aggregates and increasing prices has resulted in the increased use of synthetic filter fabrics. These fabrics are inert materials not susceptible to rot, mildew, and insect and rodent attack. Fabric filters must provide two important functions: 1. They must prevent the migration of fines to the aggregate material. 2. They must not inhibit the free flow of water. In situations where the fabric is to act as a separator, condition 1 need only be met.

Pipe Backfill
The aggregate material should provide sufficient void space to allow the free flow of water, and pass the fine sands, silts, silty clay and other fine material found in storm water without clogging. The void space will also provide additional storage within the trench.

REFERENCES
1. Poertner, H. G., Practices in Detention of Urban Storm Water Runoff, A.P.W.A., Spec. Rep. No. 43, 1974 2. Zurn Industries Inc., Erie, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 3. National Engineering Handbook, Section 4, Hydrology, U.S. Soil Conservation Service, 1964. 4. A New Approach to Engineering and Planning for Land Developments, Paul Theil Associates Limited, 1975. 5. Zero Increase in Storm Water Runoff: A New Concept in Storm Water Management, Paul Theil Associates Limited, Hudac Technical Research Committee, 1976. 6. Recharge Basins for Disposal of Highway Storm Drainage, Research Report 69-2, Engineering Research and Development Bureau, New York Department of Transportation, 1971. 7. Underground Disposal of Storm Water Runoff, Design Guidelines Manual, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, February 1980. 8. Study on the Feasibility of Correlating Percolation Time with Laboratory Permeability, Ministry of the Environment, Ontario, 1975 9. Test Procedure for Specific Surface Analysis Soil Test Procedure STP-I, Soil Mechanics Bureau, State of New York, Dept. of Transportation, No. 7.41-5STP 1173, 1973.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Wanielista, M. P., Storm Water Management Quantity and Quality, Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., 1978. Urban Storm Drainage, Proceedings of International Conference, University of Southampton, Edited by P. R. Helliwell, Pontech Press Limited, 1978. Residential Storm Water Management, U.L.I., A.S.C.E., N.A.H.B., 1975.

216

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

CSP sewers are designed for the deepest installations.

217

CHAPTER 7

Structural Design

INTRODUCTION
After the pipe diameter (or pipe-arch size) has been determined for the expected hydraulic flow, the structural design must be considered. Specifically, the corrugation profile and the steel thickness must be determined so that the final installation will have strength and stiffness to adequately resist the live and dead loads present. The tables subsequently presented in this chapter simplify this process of determination. The following discussion of loadings and design considerations provides a background for the tables.

LOADINGS
Underground conduits are subject to two principal kinds of loads: a) dead loads developed by the embankment of trench backfill, plus stationary superimposed surface loads, uniform or concentrated; and b) live loads—moving loads, including impact.

Live Loads
Live loads are greatest when the height of cover over the top of the pipe is small and decrease as the fill height increases. Standard highway loadings are referred to as AASHTO H-20 and H-25 live loads, and standard railroad loadings are referred to as AREA E-80 live loads. Tables 7.1 gives the pressure on the pipe for H-20, H-25, and E-80 live loads.
Table 7.1M Highway and Railway Live Loads (LL)
Highway loading1 Depth of Cover, (m) 0.30 0.61 0.91 1.22 1.52 1.83 2.13 2.44 Load, kPa H-20 86.2 38.3 28.7 19.2 12.0 9.6 8.4 4.8 H-25 107.8 47.9 35.9 24.0 15.0 12.0 10.5 6.0 Railway E-80 loading1 Depth of Cover, (m) 0.61 1.52 2.44 3.05 3.66 4.57 6.10 9.14 >9.14 181.9 114.9 76.6 52.7 38.3 28.7 14.4 4.8 — Load, kPa

Notes:

1. Neglect live load when less than 5 kPa; use dead load only.

the total load (TL) is assumed to act on the pipe. when H < S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and TL = Pv.86 For 90% Standard Density K = 0. m (ft) Dead load pressure. . . This value easily will apply to ordinary installations in which most specifications will call for compaction of 90%. . Dead Loads The dead load is considered to be the soil prism over the pipe. . . . . . . .65 The recommended K value is for a Standard Density (AASHTO T-99 or ASTM D98) of 85%. when H ≥ S .75 For 95% Standard Density K = 0. Neglect live load when less than 100 psf. . . psf H-20 1800 800 600 400 250 200 175 100 — H-25 2280 1150 720 470 330 240 180 140 110 Railway E-80 loading1 Depth of Cover (feet) 2 5 8 10 12 15 20 30 — Load. The unit pressure of this prism acting on the horizontal plane at the top of the pipe is equal to: DL = w = H = DL = wH . . kN/m3 (lb/ft3) Height of fill over pipe. . .218 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7. . . In summary: Pv = K (DL + LL). . . . . . . This will extend the allowable fill height or save on thickness. . .1 Depth of Cover (feet) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Notes: Highway and Railway Live Loads (LL) Highway loading1 Load. . If the height of cover is less than one pipe diameter. . . . . use dead load only. . . for more important structures in high fill situations. . . the total load (total load is the sum of the live and dead load) can be reduced by a factor of K which is a function of soil density. . For 85% Standard Density K = 0.(1) Unit weight of soil. kPa (lb/ft2) where: Design Pressure When the height of cover is equal to or greater than the span or diameter of the structure. However. . . . . .(2) Pv = (DL + LL). psf 3800 2400 1600 1100 800 600 300 100 — 1. . . . select a higher quality backfill at a higher density and specify the same in construction. . .

. . STRUCTURAL DESIGN 219 where: Pv = K = DL = LL = H = S = Design pressure. . . the pressure around the periphery tends to be approximately equal. Since the pressures at the corners of the pipe-arch are greatest. The compressive thrust in the conduit wall is equal to the radial pressure acting on the wall multiplied by the pipe radius or C = P x R. For round pipes. . . kN (lb/ft) PV = Design pressure. . . . the soil-bearing capacity may control the maximum allowable fill height for pipe arches. Accordingly. called the “ring compression. For pipe-arch shapes. . Thus. the stress in the pipe wall may be determined and compared to recognized allowable values to prevent yielding. . the vertically directed total load pushes the side of the pipe ring against the compacted fill material and mobilizes the passive earth pressure. kPa (lb/ft2) Load factor Dead load. . m (ft) Span. . kPa (lb/ft2) S = Span. . m (ft) With the inherent flexibility of corrugated steel pipe. For conventional structures in which the top arc approaches a semicircle. buckling. m (ft) . . . This thrust. the soil adjacent to them is subjected to the highest pressures. kPa (lb/ft2) Live load. . . . . STRENGTH CONSIDERATIONS The radial pressures develop a compressive thrust in the pipe wall. . .7. or seam failures.1. it is convenient to substitute half the span for the wall radius. . the pressure is approximately inversely proportional to the radius of curvature of the segments as shown in Figure 7. and the pipe must have structural strength adequate for this purpose. The soil in the corner areas must have sufficient bearing capacity to resist such pressure. . The ring compression is an axial force acting tangentially to the conduit wall. applying a safety factor of about 2. . Such allowable values have been derived from destructive tests done in extensive research programs. . the pipe ring is often assumed to be loaded by radial pressure. particularly at deep fill heights. .(3) where: C = Ring compression. . . . kPa (lb/ft2) Height of cover. .” is the force carried by the steel. Accordingly. . . PV S C S Then: C = PV x 2 .

. . (33. fb fc = — . . . . . . . . .) I = Moment of inertia of wall. . .000 lb/in. . . for corrugated steel structures with backfill compacted to 90% Standard Density and a minimum yield point of 230 MPa (33. is computed from the calculated compression in the pipe wall.(5) r r 3. . . . . (5) and (6). . . . . . . . .(6) r 4. . .(8) fc Values of A and I for the various corrugations are given in Table 7. . .4 x 107 fb = ———— .) r = Radius of gyration. . .220 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The ultimate compressive stresses. . . D2 FF = —– . . .2 HANDLING STIFFNESS Minimum pipe stiffness requirements for practical handling and installations without undue care or bracing have been established through experience and formulated. . .2) D = Diameter or span. . . mm4/m (in. . . . .000 lb/in2) is expressed by equations (4). . mm (in. . mm4/mm (in.2/ft) A factor of safety of 2 is applied to the ultimate compressive stress to obtain the design stress. . . . . A. . . . . . . . for an assumed corrugation profile from Tables 7. . . . . .(4) r D 2 D fb = 275 – 558 x 10-6 –– . and the allowable stress fc. 2 D —— r D or when ––– > 500 or 3. . . . . . . . fb. mm2 /m (in. . . . . 2 = D —— r () ( ) ( ) where: D = Diameter or span. .4/ft) A = Area of pipe wall. D fb = fy = 230 MPa. .(7) 2 The required wall area. . FF. The first is the specified minimum yield point of the steel which represents the zone of wall crushing or yielding. . The resultant flexibility factor. . .when 294 < ––– ≤ 500 . . . .(9) EI where: E = Modulus of elasticity = 200 x (10)3. . . . . . . C. . . .93 x 109 ———— .) . . . . . . . . mm (in.) I = Moment of inertia of pipe wall. . the ring buckling zone. . . MPa (30 x 106 lb/in. . . . . . . . . . . C A = — . . . . .2) when ––– ≤ 294 . .) (calculate r min. . . . . . The second represents the interaction zone of yielding and ring buckling.4/in. fc. . . mm (in.4 x 107 . . . . .2. limits the size of each combination of corrugation and metal thickness. . And third.

296 . I.154 1.093 2.28 40.608 .63 2.523 1.188 0.838 1.20 178.157 2.11 24.692 4. Properties are effective values.1 90.77 2.8 145.0180 3x1 .109 2.0041 11/2 x 1/4 2 x 1/2 .9 7.170 0.2/ft .968 1.4/ft .1111 .681 1.715 .023 2.658 4.0227 .743 8.771 7.627 5.754 1.1306 .168 0.100 1.0 411.725 1.199 3.58 112.7.06 58.052 0.1157 0.0184 22/3 x 1/2 .2 1576 1770 2080 2395 2718 Cross-Sectional Wall Area.249 2.890 3.7 19.0719 0.28 330.506 1.138 0.0053 .511 .739 3. in.1039 .240 3.505 1.761 .65 99.0569 .634 4.14 93.19 31.652 .374 .011 2.2 Moment of Inertia (I) and Cross-Sectional Area (A) of Corrugated Steel for Underground Conduits Specified Thickness1.792 2.719 1.11 Moment of Inertia.32 7.0431 .13 253. Where two thicknesses are shown.79 5.775 .0 46. Where two thicknesses are shown.0068 .815 .5 990.390 1.80 31.2438 .1855 .00 141.883 1.0425 .82 411.249 0.0145 .250 3. inches 0.140 0.184 5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 221 Table 7.817 3.32 1.23 75. mm4/mm 5.109 0.380 1.54 6.0233 .624 3.744 2.0550 .1331 .507 1. 2.111 0. top is corrugated steel pipe and bottom is structural plate.81 26.711 1.556 1.611 1.992 .1878 .0827 5x1 6x2 3/ x 3/ x 71/ (2) 4 4 2 3/ x 1 x 111/ (2) 4 2 11/2 x 1/4 2 x 1/2 22/3 x 1/2 3x1 5x1 6x2 3/ x 3/ x 71/ (2) 4 4 2 3/ x 1 x 111/ (2) 4 2 .1062 .884 1.0544 .331 1.196 2. I.0687 0.113 .049 2.287 1.0295 .63 14.294 2.760 4.310 1.192 .712 1.785 4.428 1.725 .8 60.0586 . in.280 Corrugation Profile (inches) Moment of Inertia. top is corrugated steel pipe and bottom is structural plate.356 1.729 2.788 2.794 .0858 . Ribbed pipe.0730 .99 74.640 1.3010 0.82 3.133 2.077 0.5 51 x 13 68 x 13 75 x 25 125 x 25 152 x 51 19 x 19 x 1902 19 x 25 x 2922 Notes: 1.5 51 x 13 68 x 13 75 x 25 125 x 25 152 x 51 19 x 19 x 1902 19 x 25 x 2922 4.942 3.62 25. mm2/mm 38 x 6.869 3.203 4.75 98. . Ribbed pipe.6 332.890 .0103 .079 0. mm 1.218 0.01 2.008 1.27 4.870 3.32 Corrugation Profile (mm) 38 x 6.2M Moment of Inertia (I) and Cross-Sectional Area (A) of Corrugated Steel for Underground Conduits Specified Thickness1.064 0.019 .430 4.990 Cross-Sectional Wall Area.449 2.27 39.515 5.938 0.51 3.302 2.2421 .74 151.3 256.01 56.0196 0. Properties are effective values. Table 7.524 1.356 2.79 79.0411 .3011 1.56 4. 2.119 Notes: 1.05 9.003 1.9 1281 121.950 1.0287 .560 1.3 181.798 6.458 2.619 .

a somewhat different approach is used.050 3.) 19 x 19 x 190mm (3/4 x 3/4 x 71/2 in.17 0.043 in.77 0.10.19 .028 .033 2.060 .51 0.) corrugation. The flexibility factors have been limited to the following values: For spiral rib pipe.21 0.25 . the modulus for aluminum is approximately one-third the stiffness of steel.109 .17 0. and type of installation.63 0.19 0.036 ./lb) Installation Type 19 x 25 x 292mm (3/4 x 1 x 111/2 in. sheet thickness.19 0.11 0. Flexibility Factor for Ribbed Pipe. This has come about because aluminum has only one-third the stiffness of steel.060 .050 2. To obtain better control./lb) 152 x 5l mm(6 x 2 in./lb) Increase the maximum values of FF for pipe-arch and arch shapes as follows: Pipe-Arch FF = 1.064 .17 (in. Corrugation Depth (mm) 6. as shown below.025 .5 x FF shown for round pipe Arch FF = 1.26 0./lb) (mm/N) (in.63 0.01 0. is one example. FF = 0.15 0. is more than twice that recommended above for steel./lb) 125 x 25 mm (5 x 1 in.056 Thickness II III III .043 .026 .022 .222 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Recommended maximum values of FF for ordinary installation: 68 x 13 mm (22⁄3 x 1⁄2 in.) corrugation.109 ./lb) 75 x 25 mm (3 x 1 in.) 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ Diameter Range (mm) all 1050 or less 1200 to 1800 1950 or more all pipe arch all all round arch & pipe arch (in.028 . the flexibility factors are varied with corrugation profile./lb) (mm/N) (in.24 0.3 x FF shown for round pipe Higher values can be used with special care or where experience has so been proven. mm/N (in.060 .46 0.068 .13 0. the flexibility factor permitted for aluminum pipe.) (mm/N) (in. FF = 0.138 .34 0. For example.036 .23 0.245 mm/N (0./lb) (mm/N) (in.23 ./lb) (mm/N) (in.029 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 The fill heights that follow in this chapter are for trench installations.079 .) 42 or less 48 to 72 78 or more Flexibility Factor (mm/N) 0. FF = 0.29 0.36 .01 0.037 .040 2.77 0.5 13 13 13 13 25 51 51 (in. FF = 0.34 0.2) for steel.2) vs.043 . Aluminum pipe experiences are another.34 0.020 in.080 .022 . as in sewer design.245 mm/N (0.044 1.019 .079 . Trench condition.25 0. Where this degree of flexibility is acceptable in aluminum./lb) . it will be equally acceptable in steel.22 0.043 in.15 0./lb) 1. 200 x 103 MPa (30 x 106 lb/in.035 2. the modulus for aluminum is approximately 69 x 103 MPa (10 x 106 lb/in.114 mm/N (0. The details of the installation requirements are given subsequently with the allowable fill heights in Table 7.29 .32 .033 ./lb) (mm/N) (in.043 in.030 .) corrugation./lb) (mm/N) (in.027 .40 .064 .25 0. in some national specifications.) corrugation.14 0.245 mm/N (0.043 .

) Single Double 75 x 25 mm (3 x 1 in.) Double Rivet Dia.3 Riveted CSP—Minimum Ultimate Longitudinal Seam Strength.) Rivets 68 x 13 mm Thickness (mm) 1. Inquire for sheet thicknesses less than 1. Table 7.138 .000 51. mm (in.500 25.109 . the maximum ring compression should not exceed the ultimate longitudinal seam strength divided by a factor of 2.218) (0.32 4.280) 2830 (194.4 Specified wall thickness.54 6. (in. the pipe deflection under total load will not influence the overall strength of the pipe.51 4.4 are those standard riveted and bolted seams that do not develop a strength equivalent to fy = 230 MPa (33.) 3/ 3/ (22/ 3 x 2 in.11 Minimum Ultimate Longitudinal Seam Strength for SPCSP Structures.140) (0. DEFLECTION Although ring deflection does occur. it is not usually a consideration in the design of the pipe structure. It has been shown in both test and field applications that.400 24.170) (0.700 — 63.77 3.82 3. Since helical lockseam and continuously-welded-seam pipe have no longitudinal seams.700 35.800 49.000) (112.000) (62. For 68 x 13 mm corrugation.3 and 7.700 18.7.000) (132. Shown above in Tables 7.000) (144.188) (0.300 419 521 — 929 1032 28.79 5. kN/m (lb/ft) Bolts Per Corrugation 2 613 905 1182 1357 1634 1926 2101 (42. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 223 Table 7. there is no seam strength check for these types of pipe.168 16.000) SEAM STRENGTH Most pipe seams develop the full yield strength of the pipe wall.63mm.064 .000 lb/in.) Rivets 68 x 13 mm (22/3 x 1/2 in. To maintain a consistent factor of safety of 2 and to account for change in soil density.) 10 mm (3/8 in.56 4. double rivets are required for pipe diameters 1050 mm and over. .111) (0.700 10 10 — 12 12 .200 — — — 8 8 — 7/ 16 7/ 16 Notes: 1. However. if granular backfill soil is compacted to a specified density of 90%.249) (0.27 (in. 2.000) – – – – – – 2626 3 – – – – – – (180.000) 4 (0.2).01 2.) 1/ Single Double (mm) 315 435 — — — kN/m 244 266 — — — lb/ft (kN/m) (lb/ft) (kN/m) (lb/ft) (kN/m) (lb/ft) (mm) — — 341 357 374 — — 23.000) (81.) 2.63 2.600 — — 683 715 748 — — 46.079 .000) (93. there are exceptions in standard pipe manufacture.32 7.kN/m (lb/ft) 8 mm (5/16 in.700 70.

224 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Pv Rc Pc Rt Rt Rc Pc = Pressure acting on soil at corners kPa (lb. To calculate the corner pressure. and C = P x R at any point on the periphery.” These practices are frequently referenced in project specifications. This means the normal pressure to the pipe-arch wall is inversely proportional to the wall radius. This often becomes the practical limiting design factor rather than stress in the pipe wall. “Standard Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated Steel Pipe. Pc = Pv x Figure 7. ASTM STANDARD PRACTICES A procedure for the structural design of pipe is provided by ASTM A796. ring compression. Assuming zero moment strength of the pipe wall. . It uses a more conservative form of the buckling equation.” The practice applies to structures installed in accordance with A798/A798M. C.ft2) Rt = Radius at crown mm (ft) Rc = Radius of corner mm (ft) Pv = Design pressure kPa (lb. and Arches for Storm and Sanitary Sewers and Other Buried Applications. “Standard Practice for Installing Factory-Made Corrugated Steel Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications. Pipe-Arches. PIPE-ARCHES The pipe-arch shapes poses special design problems not found in round or vertically-elongated pipe. First. The pressure on a pipe-arch varies with location and radius being greatest at the corners. In spite of all these differences. ASTM uses the weight of the entire prism of soil over the pipe and does not recognize the load reduction factor. for the dead load. some of which are more conservative than those listed here. “Standard Practice for Installing Corrugated Steel Structural Plate Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications.ft2) Corner Pressure. the resulting designs for typical projects will usually not differ greatly from those provided in this chapter.” or A807/A807M. It provides flexibility factors for both trench and embankment conditions. The design procedure in A796 is similar to that described in this chapter but differs in several respects. It includes more specific information on acceptable soil types. is the same at any point around the pip-arch. ignore the bending strength of the corrugated steel and establish allowable loads based on the allowable pressure on the soil at the corners.1. Pipe-arches generate corner pressures greater than the pressure in the fill.

LL Weight of Soil. .86 (142 + 0) = 123 kPa (2580 lb/ft2) Ring Compression. Pv = 0.58 mm4/mm (0.5 m (25 ft) = H-20 = 19 kN/m3 (120 lb/ft3) Find: Wall thickness and type of corrugation.) corrugation.) provides an uncoated wall area of 1.293 (0.8 kN/m (5160 lb/ft2) Design Stress. Given: Pipe diameter required Depth of cover.86 (DL + LL).313 in. C = Pv x S/2.32 mm (0.310 mm2/mm (0. Assume a minimum of 85% for design.1) Pv = 0.500 lb/in2) Wall Area.3/ft) required From Table 7. I = 24.58 0. Then.7.32 mm specified thickness.86 Design Pressure. where DL = dead load = H x 19 = 7.00150 in.6.2.0 m (8 ft) (Tables 7. Handling Stiffness D2 FF = —– = flexibility factor = 0. This selection agrees with Table 7.) corrugated steel pipe. mm4/mm (in.8/115 = 0. A = C/fc = 73.343 max (Trench installation) EI where: D = diameter = 1200 mm (48 in. Therefore. SOLUTION: Assume helical pipe.619 in.32 = 278 < 294 fb = fy = 230 MPa (33. where S = Span.636 mm2/mm (0. D/r min = 1200/4.2.000 lb/in2) fc = fb/2 115 MPa = 115 N/mm2 (16. Selection A specified wall thickness of 1.5 x 19 = 143 kPa (3000 lb/ft2) LL = live load = negligible for cover greater than 3.) E = modulus of elasticity = 200 x 103 MPa (30 x 106 lb/in2) I = moment of inertia.2/2 = 73.) corrugation.4/in.32 mm (0. m (ft) C = 123 x 1.0512) 200 x 103 x 24. for 1.) = 7.) 12002 Then FF = ———————– = 0. w = 1200 mm (48 in.052 in.293 < 0. Loadings 90% AASHTO T-99 density is specified. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 225 DESIGN EXAMPLE The following example illustrates the application of design method used to develop the depth of cover tables.) is selected for 68 mm x 13 mm (22⁄3 x 1⁄2 in.060). fc = fb/2 Assume 68 mm x 13 mm (22⁄3 x 1⁄2 in. ∴ K = 0. flexibility factor is OK.343 (. H Live Load. a specified thickness of 1.2/ft) for the 68 mm x 13mm (22⁄3 x 1⁄2 in.052 in.0512 < .4/ft) From Table 7.

5 Thickness for CSP Sewers— 38mm x 6.32 1.5mm (11/2 x 1/4 in.32 1. .052 . “Construction. The tables are for trench installations. 7. are presented as Tables 7. 4. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%. The pipes must be installed and the backfill must be compacted as outlined in Chapter l0.052 .) . In addition. Tables 7.8. and reasonable care should be exercised in handling and installation.226 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Installing a fully paved sanitary sewer. or E-80 Live Load Diameter of Pipe (mm) 100 150 200 250 300 375 450 Notes: (in. DEPTH OF COVER Tables for the selection of the steel wall thickness in millimeters. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.052 .32 (in.) Corrugation H-20. Zinc coated steel sheet thickness shown is based on commercially available sheets.10.) 4 6 8 10 12 15 10 For Maximum Depth of Cover Above Top of Pipe Equal to 12m (40ft) (mm) 1.052 1. 2. Each table is for a circular pipe. H-25.16 through 7. depending upon the pipe diameter and depth of cover requirements.5 through 7. 3. The tables include the effect of live loads (surface loads) that do not exceed an H-20.052 . H-25 or E-80 live load.052 . The maximum cover requirements are the same as those given for E80 live loads in Tables 7.32 1. Table 7.19 give the minimum cover requirements for round pipe under airplane wheel loads of various magnitudes.” If other loading conditions are encountered.32 1. as indicated.15.11.32 1.32 1. 7.052 . the designer should consult with industry sources for recommended practices. Minimum depth of cover over top of pipe is 300mm (1 ft). pipe-arch or an arch of a particular corrugation profile.

0 4.) 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 75 246 50 164 37 121 30 98 25 82 21 69 18 59 16 52 — 66 53 44 37 33 29 26 216 174 144 121 108 95 85 56 48 42 37 34 184 157 138 121 112 59 52 46 41 194 171 151 134 1.01 .) 17 x 13 21 x 15 24 x 18 28 x 20 35 x 24 42 x 29 49 x 33 57 x 38 64 x 43 71 x 47 77 x 52 83 x 57 (m) 5. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.168 Maximum Depth of Cover Over Pipe-Arch for Soil Bearing Capacity of 200kPa Span x Rise Minimum Cover* (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 (in.7 Depth of Cover for CSP Pipe-Arch Sewers—68mm x 13mm (22/3 x 1/2 in.168 227 (in.63 1.) Corrugation Specified Thickness Diameter Of Pipe mm (in.0 4. . For E80 loading minimum steel thickness is 1.63 mm (.109 Maximum Cover mm (in.0 4.138 .0 4.168 .77 3. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.) .63 1.064 . Soil bearing capacity refers top the soil in the region of the pipe corners.) 1.109 . * For H25 loading and 200kPa (2 tons/ft2) bearing capacity.064 mm (in.) Minimum Cover 4. minimum cover is 600 mm (24 in. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%. The remaining backfill around the pipe-arch must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.6 Depth of Cover for CSP Sewers—H20 or H25 Live Load 68mm x 13mm (22/3 x 1/2 in.064 .27 (in.0 4. STRUCTURAL DESIGN Table 7. 3.) 2.) 300 450 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 Notes: 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 m (ft) m 94 63 47 37 31 27 23 21 18 (ft) 308 207 154 121 102 89 75 69 59 m (ft) m (ft) m (ft) (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 mm (in.7.064 in). 2.77 2.63 .064 .0 4.) 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 (mm) 430 x 330 530 x 380 610 x 460 710 x 510 885 x 610 1060 x 740 1240 x 840 1440 x 970 1620 x 1100 1800 x 1200 1950 x 1320 2100 x 1450 Notes: (in.27 4.63 1.0 4.079 .0 4.) Corrugation H20 or H25 Live Load Minimum Specified Thickness Required (mm) 1.064 .) 2.51 4.0 4. Table 7.77 .0 (ft) 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 1.01 2.63 1.079 mm (in.) 3. 2.0 4.) for all sizes.109 .138 mm (in.27 .0 4.51 .064 .064 .63 2.63 1.

51 3.01 2.77 2.77 2.51 3.109 . Table 7.109 .109 .77 2.109 .01 2.138 2.109 .) .01 2.079 .77 2.079 .109 .1 5.138 .77 2.01 2.8 5. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.) (mm) (in.168 Diameter Of Pipe Minimum Cover Maximum Cover (mm) 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 Notes: (in.) kPa 2 tons/ft2 2.079 .) Corrugation H20.51 3.079 (mm) (in.) 4.1 6.) (mm) (in.51 (in. H25 Live Load Specified Thickness (mm) (in.228 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7.079 .77 2.77 2.109 .109 .138 .51 3.079 .8 5.01 2.109 .77 2.) 2.51 3.109 (mm) 3.138 .) 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 (m) 17 15 14 12 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 (ft) 56 49 46 39 36 33 33 30 30 26 26 (m) 21 19 17 16 14 13 12 12 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 (ft) 69 62 56 52 46 43 39 39 36 33 33 30 30 26 26 (m) 29 26 24 22 20 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 10 9 (ft) 95 85 79 72 64 62 56 52 49 46 43 39 36 33 33 30 (m) 38 34 31 28 26 24 23 21 20 19 17 20 18 17 16 14 (ft) 125 112 102 92 85 79 75 69 66 62 56 52 49 46 43 36 (m) 47 42 38 35 32 30 28 26 25 23 21 20 18 17 16 14 (ft) 154 138 125 115 105 98 92 85 82 75 69 66 59 56 52 46 (mm) (in.4 6.079 .6 7.8 25 25 25 24 21 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Minimum Specified Thickness Required Span x Rise (mm) 1340 x 1050 1520 x 1170 1670 x 1300 1850 x 1400 2050 x 1500 2200 x 1620 2400 x 1720 2600 x 1820 2840 x 1920 2970 x 2020 3240 x 2120 3470 x 2220 (in. H25 Live Load Maximum Depth of Cover m(ft) Over Minimum Pipe-Arch for Soil Bearing Capacities 75 x 25 3 x 1 125 x 25 5 x 1 Cover 200 (mm) (in.01 2.51 3.138 300 375 375 450 450 450 450 450 525 525 600 600 600 750 750 750 750 12 15 15 18 18 18 18 18 21 21 24 24 24 30 30 30 30 7. 2.1 6.3 6.8 Depth of Cover for CSP Sewers—125mm x 25mm and 75mm x 25mm (5 x 1 and 3 x 1 in.138 .01 2.8 5.6 7.138 .) Corrugation H20.138 .109 .138 . .8 5.064 2.77 2.51 3.8 5.109 .9 Depth of Cover for CSP Pipe-Arch Sewers— 125mm x 25mm and 75mm x 25mm (5 x 1 and 3 x 1 in.77 2.109 .8 5.) 300 300 30 300 300 300 300 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 1.079 .77 3. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.27 .) 53 x 41 60 x 46 66 x 51 73 x 55 81 x 59 87 x 63 95 x 67 103 x 71 112 x 75 117 x 79 128 x 83 137 x 87 3600 x 2320 142 x 91 3800 x 2440 150 x 96 3980 x 2570 157 x 101 4160 x 2670 164 x 105 4340 x 2790 171 x 110 Notes: 1.01 .51 3.01 2. The remaining backfill around the pipe-arch must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.51 . Use reasonable care in handling and installation.) 1.109 .8 5.109 .079 .138 (mm) (in.138 .77 2.1 6. 2.77 2.77 2.77 3.77 .51 . Soil bearing capacity refers to the soil in the region of the pipe corners.109 .079 .) (mm) (in.01 2.63 .6 7.

or damage shall not be used. Compaction equipment or methods that cause excessive deflection. SW. or to well graded granular materials classified as GW. proper placement. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 229 INSTALLATION AND BACKFILL OF SPIRAL RIB PIPE Satisfactory backfill material. GM. Backfill materials are the same as for TYPE I installations. or walls behind equipment. Controlled moisture content and uniform gradation of the backfill may be required to limit the compaction effort while maintaining pipe shape. free from rocks. It provides a good check on proper backfill placement and compaction methods.7. Installation types are: Type I Installations can be in an embankment or fill condition. compacted to a minimum 90% standard density per ASTM D698 (AASHTO T-99). Installations have the same requirements as TYPE II installations except that backfill materials are limited to clean. Type II Type III Note: . frozen lumps. and foreign matter that could cause hard spots or that could decompose and create voids. distortion. ML and CL materials are typically not recommended. non-plastic materials that require little or no compaction effort (GP. Backfill in the pipe envelope shall be granular materials with little or no plasticity. SP). Installations require trench-like conditions where compaction is obtained by hand. GC. Installations shall meet ASTM A798 requirements. Special attention should be paid to proper lift thicknesses. Minimum pipe metal thickness is dependent upon minimum and maximum cover and installation TYPE I. II. Simple shape monitoring-measuring the rise and span at several points in the run-is recommended as good practice with all types of installation. as noted in the fill height table. Special attention to moisture content to limit compaction effort may be required. Use soil placement and compaction methods that will ensure that the vertical pipe dimension (rise) does not increase in excess of 5% of the nominal diameter. or III. or SC with a maximum plastic index (PI) of 10.). Use methods that will ensure that the horizontal pipe dimension (span) does not increase in excess of 3% of the nominal diameter. Maximum loose lift thickness shall be 200 mm (8 in. These guidelines will help insure that the final deflections are within normal limits. Soil cement or cement slurries may be used in lieu of the selected granular materials. or by saturation and vibration. and compaction are key factors in obtaining satisfactory performance. SM.

5 12.079 (in. 2. ( ) Requires TYPE II installation.10 Depth of Cover For CSP Sewers— Spiral Rib Pipe H20 or H25 Live Load Maximum Depth of Cover Above Top of Pipe (ft ) Minimum* Cover (in. TYPE 1 installations are allowed unless otherwise shown.1 (11.9) [6.7] [6.4) [5. [ ] Requires TYPE III installation.0 9.) 0.1] [8.4 12.63 (mm) 2.8 7.3 8.7] Minimum* Cover (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 450 450 450 450 600 600 600 600 750 750 Diameter or Span (mm) 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 Notes: 1.7 21.6) [9. 2.9 (7. . 4.5 14. TYPE 1 installations are allowed unless otherwise shown.4 16. ( ) Requires TYPE II installation. 3.8) [9.064 (in.) 0.0 (6.) 51 41 34 29 26 23 (21) [19] 72 58 48 41 36 32 29 26 (24) [22] [21] 121 97 81 69 61 54 49 44 40 37 (35) (32) [30] [29] [27] 51 41 34 29 26 (23) [21] 72 58 48 41 36 32 29 (26) [24] [22] 121 97 81 69 61 54 49 44 40 (37) (35) [32] [30] [29] 1. [ ] Requires TYPE III installation.079 (in.2) (10.) 12 12 12 12 12 18 18 18 18 24 24 24 24 30 30 Diameter or Span (in.) 0.3 (10.4] 36.9 7.8 (6.3 14.3) [6.6 24.8] 22. Table 7.5 10.109 (in.4 10.7) (9.) 0.3] 21.7 (7.6 12.2] [8.8 13.5 12.01(mm) 15.77 (mm) 1. 4.01 (mm) 2.10M Depth of Cover For CSP Sewers— Spiral Rib Pipe H20 or H25 Live Load Maximum Depth of Cover Above Top of Pipe (m) 19 x 25 x 292 Corrugation 19 x 19 x 190 Corrugation 2.7 14. Allowable minimum cover is measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavementor top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.6] 1.064 (in.8 7.3 12.9 17.0 9.8 18.5 20.8] [8.2 11.63 (mm) 2.8 8.) 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 Notes: 3 ⁄4 x 1 x 111⁄2 Corrugation 3 ⁄4 x 3⁄4 x 71⁄2 Corrugation 0. Minimum cover in unpaved areas must be maintained. Allowable minimum cover is measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.0 17.2] 15.7 7.7] [9.9 13.) 0.109 (in.3 24.4 11.7 8.9 29.230 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7.77(mm) 36.6 29.2] [6.6 14.6 12.5 11.0 18. 3.4 8. Minimum cover in unpaved areas must be maintained.6 16.8) [7.

06 4.56 36.77 15.68 16.84 31.39 23.68 17.29 17.16 38.73 19.20 11.34 64.54 62.46 16.48 73.74 26.05 26.21 18.78 22.00 24.93 7.00 12.30 17.26 21.38 16.37 10.85 15.22 47.78 22.52 25 23.63 37 35.13 47.55 14.76 33.56 21.83 25.26 21.28 10. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 231 Table 7.67 4.02 13.89 34.60 39.89 11.76 9.93 31.17 22.79 29.57 28.11 12.17 67.20 11.73 19.45 9.87 43.09 23.80 12.02 13.91 25.33 13. 3.51 41.33 13.09 23.32 30.87 44.55 14.50 11. 2.11 12.85 15.87 22.67 1.50 12.55 14.68 17.72 13.94 14.58 10.24 14.50 56.98 10.82 18.52 25.37 9.82 24.87 21.88 51.33 13.45 54. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.82 18.62 3.85 15.21 18.94 36.21 18.30 24.56 44.05 26.29 17.54 30.98 6.46 15.46 15.65 20.16 15.29 17.48 22.51 41.70 22.68 16.67 33.26 44.88 28.41 36.89 11.20 11.05 26.67 10.28 10.43 19.94 59.76 32.35 27.65 20.07 61.63 14.63 14.26 21.94 14.77 39.24 38.72 13.24 14.15 32.57 28.23 7.16 15. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.17 22.89 57.82 19.22 24.24 14.54 32.28 10.66 50.39 22.56 20.65 20.56 21.94 14.72 13.11 12.34 20. Minimum cover must be maintained in unpaved traffic areas.13 25.59 10.82 19.10 29.12 19.59 10.55 14.90 18.67 10.11 12.11M Diameter of Pipe (mm) 1500 1655 1810 1965 2120 2275 2430 2585 2740 2895 3050 3205 3360 3515 3670 3825 3980 4135 4290 4445 4600 4755 4910 5065 5220 5375 5530 5685 5840 5995 6150 6305 6460 6615 6770 6925 7080 7235 7390 7545 7700 7855 8010 Notes: Depth of Cover for Structural Plate Pipe Sewers.16 15.52 25.20 11.32 47.67 34.38 17.46 15.29 17.34 20.54 8.07 16.98 7.30 47.11 12.32 71.90 18.15 32.28 10.11 12.77 16.79 53.29 17.15 8.33 13. .59 34.59 33.66 48.66 27.89 11.72 13.51 41.11 35. Minimum covers are for H20 and H25 loads.11 12.73 20.07 16.10 29.57 28.65 20.59 34.59 11.39 23.89 11.72 13.51 42.84 8.32 53.51 18.77 39.44 26.30 24.43 19.38 40.5 12.88 28.73 19.38 16.79 28.32 31.90 18.20 11.71 52.41 13.91 25 24.5 11.90 17.72 13.63 13.48 44. Minimum covers are measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.35 27. m 152 x 51 mm Corrugation H20 or H25 Live Load Specified Wall Thickness (mm) Minimum Cover (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 900 900 900 900 900 1050 1050 1050 1050 1050 1050 2.01 29.94 14.98 5.11 80.07 16.02 36.40 29.7.73 18.

0 11.5 10.11 Diameter or Span (ft) 5.0 14.5 19.5 11.5 7.) 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 126 132 138 144 150 156 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 240 246 252 258 264 270 276 282 288 294 300 306 312 Depth of Cover Limits for Structural Plate Pipe.0 6.0 22.0 Notes: (in.5 18.0 13.0 17.) 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 42 42 42 42 42 1.232 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7.0 8.0 16.218 205 186 171 157 146 137 128 120 114 108 102 97 93 89 85 82 79 76 73 70 68 66 64 62 60 57 55 52 50 48 47 45 43 41 39 38 36 0. Minimum cover must be maintained in unpaved traffic areas.5 9.5 14. Minimum covers are for H20 and H25 loads. ft.5 17.280 264 240 220 203 188 176 165 155 146 139 132 126 120 114 110 106 101 98 94 91 88 85 82 80 77 74 71 68 65 62 60 57 56 53 51 49 46 45 43 41 39 37 35 Minimum Cover (in. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.111 81 74 68 62 58 54 51 48 45 43 40 39 37 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 0.170 157 143 131 121 112 105 98 92 87 82 78 74 71 68 65 63 60 58 56 54 52 50 49 47 45 43 42 40 38 37 35 0.0 19.188 176 159 146 135 125 117 111 103 97 92 87 83 79 76 73 70 67 65 62 60 58 56 54 53 51 49 47 45 43 41 40 38 36 0. .5 12.5 21.5 16. 3.0 18.5 22.0 25.0 7.) 0.0 5.0 24. 6 x 2 in. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.140 120 110 101 92 86 80 75 71 67 63 60 57 54 52 50 48 46 44 43 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 0.5 15.5 26.5 20.5 24.0 15. Minimum covers are measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.249 234 213 195 180 168 156 146 137 130 123 117 112 106 102 97 93 90 87 83 80 78 75 73 71 68 65 63 60 58 55 53 51 49 47 45 43 41 40 38 26 0.0 20.5 25.5 23.5 6.0 23. Corrugation H20 or H25 Live Load Specified Wall Thickness (in.0 10. 2.5 8.0 12.0 21.5 13.0 9.

82 2.0 3.82 2.1 300 kPa (m) Size Span (mm) 1850 1930 2060 2130 2210 2340 2410 2490 2620 2690 2840 2900 2970 3120 3250 3330 3480 3530 3610 3760 3810 3860 3910 4090 4240 4290 4340 4520 4720 4780 4830 5000 5050 Notes: 4.4 3.82 2.82 2.82 2.0 3.7 2.12M Depth of Cover for Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Sewers – 152 mm x 51 mm Corrugations.82 2.6 3.4 2.82 Minimum Cover (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 300 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 750 750 Maximum Cover (m) Over Pipe-Arch for the following Soil Corner Bearing Capacities 200 kPa (m) 5.4 2.9 4.7.82 2.82 2.82 2.82 2. Minimum cover must be maintained in unpaved traffic areas.82 2.7 2.6 4. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 233 Table 7.82 2.7 2.82 2.4 2.6 4.7 3.82 2.7 3. . The remaining backfill around the pipe-arch must be compacted to a specific AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.82 2.7 2.6 4.3 4.82 2.6 4. 2.4 3.82 2.82 2.82 2.4 2.2 4.0 2.0 3.7 2.0 4.82 2.7 1.7 3.8 5.82 2.0 2.7 3.5 5. Minimum covers are for H20 and H25 loads.82 2. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.82 2.82 2.82 2. Soil bearing capacity refers to the soil in the region of the pipe corners.7 2.82 2.4 3.82 2. 457mm Corner Radius H20 and H25 Live Load Minimum Specified Thickness Required Rise (mm) 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1750 1750 1800 1850 1910 1960 2010 2060 2110 2160 2210 2260 2310 2360 2410 2460 2540 2570 2620 2670 2720 2770 2870 2920 3000 3020 3070 (mm) 2. 3.7 3.0 3.3 4. Minimum covers are measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.9 4.82 2.7 3.7 3.82 2.82 2.82 2.4 2.82 2.

111 0. Minimum covers are for H20 and H25 loads.111 0.) 0.111 0.111 .111 0.111 0.111 0.111 0.111 0.111 0. Corrugations.111 Minimum* Cover (in.) 6-1 6-4 6-9 7-0 7-3 7-8 7-11 8-2 8-7 8-10 9-4 9-6 9-9 10-3 10-8 10-11 11-5 11-7 11-10 12-4 12-6 12-8 12-10 13-5 13-11 14-1 14-3 14-10 15-4 15-6 15-8 15-10 16-5 16-7 Notes: 1. 18 in. Soil bearing capacity refers to the soil in the region of the pipe corners.111 0.111 0.234 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7.111 0. .111 0.111 0.111 0.111 0.111 0. The remaining backfill around the pipe-arch must be compacted to a specific AASHTO T-99 density of 90%. Rc Corner Radius H20 or H25 Live Load Size Minimum Specified Thickness Required Rise (ft-in.111 0.111 0.111 0.111 0. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.111 0.111 0.111 0. Minimum covers are measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.) 4-7 4-9 4-11 5-1 5-3 5-5 5-7 5-9 5-11 6-1 6-3 6-5 6-7 6-9 6-11 7-1 7-3 7-5 7-7 7-9 7-11 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-7 8-9 8-11 9-1 9-3 9-5 9-7 9-10 9-11 10-1 (in.111 0.111 0.) 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 30 30 Maximum Cover (ft) Over Pipe-Arch for the Following Soil Corner Bearing Capacities 2 tons/ft2 19 18 17 16 16 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 12 10 8 8 8 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 15 15 14 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 tons/ft2 Span (ft-in.111 0.111 0. 2.111 0. 3.111 0.12 Depth of Cover for Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Sewers – 6 x 2 in. Minimum cover must be maintained in unpaved traffic areas.0111 0.111 0.

4 3.13M Depth of Cover for Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Sewers – 152mm x 51mm corrugations.82 2.7 2.82 2.56 3. .4 3.0 4.82 2.7 2.7.0 3.82 2.82 2.7 2.0 1.6 4. Minimum cover must be maintained in unpaved traffic areas.6 4.0 4.56 3.82 2.82 2.7 2.0 3.82 2.7 3.0 3.0 2. 787mm Corner Radius H20 and H25 Live Load Minimum Specified Thickness Required (mm) 2.82 2.0 3.3 4.82 2.56 3.3 4.82 2. 2.4 300 Size Span (mm) 4040 4110 4270 4320 4390 4550 4670 4750 4830 4950 5030 5180 5230 5310 5460 5510 5660 5720 5870 5940 5990 6070 6220 6270 Notes: Rise (mm) 2840 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3510 3560 3610 3660 3710 3760 3810 3860 3910 3960 4010 4. The remaining backfill around the pipe-arch must be compacted to a specific AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.0 4.82 2.0 4.7 2.56 Minimum Cover (mm) 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 900 900 Maximum Depth of Cover (m) Over Pipe-Arch for Soil Bearing Capacities (kPa) 200 4.82 2.82 2.82 2. Use reasonable care in handling and installation. Minimum covers are measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.82 2. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 235 Table 7. Soil bearing capacity refers to the soil in the region of the pipe corners.0 4.6 4.0 3.82 2.7 2.56 3.3 4. Minimum covers are for H20 and H25 loads.82 2.82 3.7 3.3 4. 3.7 2.4 2.0 3.0 4.7 3.4 3.7 3.

Minimum cover must be maintained in unpaved traffic areas. Minimum covers are for H20 and H25 loads.111 0.13 Depth of Cover for Structural Plate Pipe-Arch Sewers – 152mm x 51mm Corrugations. The remaining backfill around the pipe-arch must be compacted to a specific AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.140 0. .111 0.111 0. 787mm Corner Radius H20 and H25 Live Load Minimum Specified Thickness Required (in.111 0.111 0.111 0.) 9-4 9-6 9-8 9-10 10-0 10-2 10-4 10-6 10-8 10-10 11-0 11-2 11-4 11-6 11-8 11-10 12-0 12-2 12-4 12-6 12-8 12-10 13-0 13-2 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 1. 3.111 0.111 0.140 0.111 0.140 0. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.) 0.140 0.111 0.140 Minimum Cover (in.111 0.) 13-3 13-6 14-0 14-2 14-5 14-11 15-4 15-7 15-10 16-3 16-6 17-0 17-2 17-5 17-11 18-1 18-7 18-9 19-3 19-6 19-8 19-11 20-5 20-7 Notes: Rise (ft-in.) 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 36 36 Maximum Depth of Cover (ft) Over Pipe-Arch for Soil Bearing Capacities 2 tons/ft2 13 13 12 12 12 12 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 3 tons/ft2 Size Span (ft-in.111 0. 2.111 0. Soil bearing capacity refers to the soil in the region of the pipe corners.111 0.111 0.111 0.236 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7.111 0. Minimum covers are measured from top of pipe to bottom of flexible pavement or top of pipe to top of rigid pavement.111 0.111 0.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN 237 Table 7. 2.63 2. Use reasonable care in handling and installation. Minimum cover is from top surface of flexible pavement to top of CSP.01 2. 3. U.27 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 600 600 450 450 450 750 750 600 600 450 750 600 600 750 750 750 750 Case 3. of Transportation.27 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 750 600 600 600 600 900 750 750 600 600 750 750 600 900 750 900 900 Case 4. F.77 3.77 3.63 2.01 2.77 3. 5.01 2. 1990.63 2. Loads to 489 kN – Dual Wheels 1. Loads to 178 kN – Dual Wheels Pipe Diameter (mm) 300 300 300 450 300 300 600 300 300 300 900 450 450 300 300 300 1200 600 600 450 450 300 1500 1800 2100 2400 Wall Thickness (mm) 1. 4. From Airport Drainage.63 2. Seam strength must be checked for riveted pipe. Dept.7. Notes: 1.77 3.51 4. Loads are total load of airplane. * 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 900 900 750 750 750 750 1200 750 750 750 1500 900 750 1800 900 2100 900 2400 300 450 600 Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.A. Loads to 6672 kN 1.51 4. Loads to 3336 kN – Dual-Dual 1.27 Diam.14M Minimum Cover in Feet for Airplane Wheel Loads on Flexible Pavements—68mm x 13mm Corrugation Case 1.51 4.. .S.27 600 450 450 600 450 600 600 Case 2.51 4.A.01 2.

5 1.0 2.0 84 3.168 12 1.) . of Transportation. 2. Notes: 1. Loads to 110.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Million Lb.5 2.168 2.5 2.5 2.168 1.0 3.0 2.) 26 48 60 1.5 36 3.5 2. 3. F.000 Lb.0 2.0 1.0 Specified Thickness (in.0 2.0 3.0 1. Loads to 750.5 2.109 .5 1.0 2. Dept.0 72 84 96 2.000 Lb.0 2.079 .5 1.5 1.5 Case 3.0 1.5 2.5 1.0 1..138 .138 .0 2.138 . U.5 2.5 60 3.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.5 2.138 .5 72 3.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 3. 1990.0 Case 4.0 18 1.5 48 2. 4.109 .0 2. Minimum cover is from top surface of flexible pavement to top of CSP. – Dual Wheels . Loads to 1. Corrugation Case 1.0 2. . * 2. Loads to 40.000 Lb.5 2.5 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.A.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.0 1.0 2.064 .5 2.079 .5 2.5 2.5 1.0 2.5 2.5 2.238 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7. 5.5 1.5 2.168 Diam.S.5 2.5 2. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.5 2.5 1. From Airport Drainage.064 . . – Dual Wheels Pipe Diameter (in.0 2.0 2.0 Case 2.064 .0 3. Loads are total load of airplane.0 1.5 1.A. Seam strength must be checked for riveted pipe.14 Minimum Cover in Feet for Airplane Wheel Loads on Flexible Pavements—22/3 x 1/2 in.0 2.0 1.064 0.0 1.79 .0 96 12 18 24 Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.0 24 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.109 .5 2.0 2.109 .5 2.0 1.5 2.079 .0 2.0 2. – Dual-Dual .

1990. Loads to 6672 kN 1050 900 900 750 2700 1050 900 900 3000 Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%. 4. 2.A.51 4.77 3.01 2. Loads to 489 kN – Dual Wheels 900 750 750 750 900 750 750 Case 3. Notes: 1. U. Loads are total load of airplane. * 600 600 450 600 600 600 Case 2.63 2.27 1.. Loads to 178 kN – Dual Wheels Pipe Diameter (mm) 900 450 450 300 300 300 450 450 450 450 450 600 600 600 600 600 750 750 750 750 750 900 1200 450 450 300 300 300 600 450 450 450 450 600 600 600 600 600 750 750 750 750 750 1200 1500 450 450 450 300 300 600 600 600 450 450 750 750 600 600 600 750 750 750 750 750 1500 1800 600 600 450 450 450 750 750 600 600 450 750 750 750 600 600 900 750 750 750 750 1800 2100 600 600 450 450 450 750 750 750 600 600 900 900 750 750 600 900 900 750 750 750 2100 2400 750 750 600 450 450 900 750 750 750 600 1050 900 900 750 750 1050 900 900 750 750 2400 2700 3000 Wall Thickness (mm) 1.01 2.7. F.15M Minimum Cover in Feet for Airplane Wheel Loads on Flexible Pavements*— 125mm x 25mm and 75mm x 25mm Corrugation Case 1. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.01 2.77 3. Loads to 3336 kN – Dual-Dual 1050 900 750 750 900 900 750 Case 4. . Dept. Minimum cover is from top surface of flexible pavement to top of CSP.51 4.77 3.51 4. Seam strength must be checked for riveted pipe.63 2. From Airport Drainage. of Transportation. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 239 Table 7.A.27 1. 5.77 3.63 2.63 2.27 Diam.27 1.01 2.51 4.S. 3.

5 2.5 2.0 2.5 Case 3.5 2.0 1.064 .0 2.0 1.5 2.0 1. Loads to 40.5 2.0 3. * 2.5 3.5 Case 4.0 2. – Dual Wheels .5 3. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.5 1.A. Corrugation Case 1.5 1.0 2.0 120 Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%.064 .5 2.079 .0 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.0 2.064 .5 3.5 2.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 2.138 .109 .0 3. 1990. Loads are total load of airplane.0 1.0 2. – Dual Wheels Pipe Diameter (in.5 1.240 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7. Loads to 1.5 1. Notes: 1.0 2. Loads to 110.109 .0 1.5 2.0 3.5 3.5 2.168 1.5 2.5 2.5 1. 4.0 3.079 .064 .0 2.5 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.079 .0 2. Seam strength must be checked for riveted pipe.5 2.5 2. Loads to 750.000 Lb.. 5.5 3. 2.5 84 3.5 2.5 2. .0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.5 2. of Transportation.5 1.5 2.168 2. U.109 .0 1.5 36 2.5 1.0 2.0 2.0 2. Dept.138 .5 48 2.5 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.168 2.0 1.5 1.0 72 2.) .0 2.0 3.5 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.S.0 2.000 Lb.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.5 3.5 1.5 2.0 3.079 . From Airport Drainage.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.) 36 1.138 .0 2.5 108 120 Specified Thickness (in.0 2.A.5 2.5 2.0 2.5 3.5 72 3.0 2.5 2. F.5 2. .0 48 1.5 3.5 108 3.0 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 84 2. – Dual-Dual .5 96 3.5 2.0 1.5 60 3.0 2.0 3.168 Diam.15 Minimum Cover in Feet for Airplane Wheel Loads on Flexible Pavements*— 5 x 1 in.5 2.5 1.109 .0 60 1.138 .0 2.5 2. 3.0 3.000 Lb. Minimum cover is from top surface of flexible pavement to top of CSP.0 Case 2.0 1.5 96 2.5 2.0 2.5 1.5 1.5 Million Lb.5 2.5 2. and 3 x 1 in.5 2.5 2.

01 100.17 Dual Wheels With Loads To Minimum Cover Minimum Cover Airplane Wheel Loads on Flexible Pavements – 152 x 152 mm (6 x 2 in. MS.000lb 1179 kN 1. 3.5 Twin Assembly 445 kN 300 Twin Assembly 265.5 ft) Notes: 1. Jr. Ulery.8. 5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 241 Table 7. 5. Minimum cover is from bottom of slab to top of pipe.S. 2. * See Table 7.000lb 0.000 lb) D/8 but not less than 300 mm (1. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%..5 450 1. Vicksburg. 4. 6. Paper S-73-65.0 ft) 6672 kN (1.) Minimum Cover for Airplane Wheel Loads on Rigid Pavements* (All Corrugations) Single Wheel 67 kN 150 300 15.16 Pipe Diameter (mm) (in.11 for maximum depth of cover. Use reasonable care in handling and installation. Backfill around pipe must be compacted to a specified AASHTO T-99 density of 90%. Jr.000 lb) D/5 but not less than 600 mm (2.5 1.) Corrugation 178 kN (40. Loads are total of airplane. .000lb 0.0 ft) 489 kN (110. Minimum cover for C5A airplane is same as 445 kN assembly. and H. 4.5 ft) 3336 kN (750.5 Notes: 1. See Table 7. Calhoun. From “Development of Minimum Pipe-Cover Requirements for C5A and Other Aircraft Loadings” C. November 1973. Minimum cover is from top surface of flexible pavement to top of CSP.5 million lb) D/4 but not less than 750 mm (2. Table 7. Loads are not total loads but loads per wheel or assembly.000 lb) D/6 but not less than 450 mm (1. 2.11 for maximum depth of cover.6. or 7.7. Use reasonable care in handling and installation.C.0 300 150 – 1500 6-60 1650 – 2700 66-108 300 1.000lb 1. U.0 Single Wheel 111kN 150 25.H.0 450 1. 3. Army WES. 7.

and for branches at acute angles and in wye branches. A new ASTM design specification has been developed and a Design Data Sheet is available from NCSPA. The bending moments were calculated on the basis of a simple span and limited to a factored value of ultimate bending moment. including the weight of an asphalt-coated pipe. Consideration must be given to the design of the pipe support system. Design of Fittings Corrugated steel pipe is available with an almost unlimited assortment of factory supplied fittings. CSP aerial sewers supported on bents afford an economical solution. Ultimate moments were determined theoretically and verified by limited testing. It may be necessary to reinforce the opening.242 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Aerial Sewers Should the need arise to run sewers above ground to cross ravines or streams. Small diameter pipe with short spans can often be placed directly on bents. This is particularly true for larger diameter pipe. CSP aerial sewer being installed. Table 7. The table provides for pipes flowing full of water. However special structural considerations are appropriate to prevent loss of ring strength when designing fittings for branch connections.19 provides a table of allowable spans for this purpose. The severity of the support requirements increases with diameter and span. Larger diameter pipe should be supported in shaped 120 degree concrete cradles or by a ring girder. . Design methods used for smooth steel water pipe systems can be adapted to investigate these requirements.

0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5.0 3.3 7.4 5.7 6. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 243 Table 7.2 8.6 4.2 4.4 6.51 3.9 4.7 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 8.79 5.7 6.7.4 6.7 3.8 8.5 5.5 5.9 7.0 3.4 3.5 5.2 4.6 7.7 – 4.3 4.6 75mm x 25mm Corrugation 152mm x 51mm Corrugation *Where two thicknesses are shown.77 2.5 5.3 4.9 4.2 7. .54 6.0 7.3 4.9 4.82 6.0 3.6 7.4 6.9 7.0 3.3 4.5 5.3 7.8 8.6 4.6 4.3 4.1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7.27 4.2 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 6.4 2.32 – – 9.0 4.1 6.0 – – – 5.2 – – 6.9 4.8 5.7 2.56 – 7.1 5.1 6.0 – – 3.4 6.4 – – – – 2.4 3.7 3.0 7.18M Diameter of Pipe (mm) 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000 1810 2120 3050 3670 4290 4910 5530 6150 Notes: Allowable Span (m) for CSP Flowing Full Specified Steel Thickness* (mm) 1.7 6.2 5.9 7.0 3.5 5.6 4.63 2.3 7.3 7.7 2.5 8.0 6.4 3.8 5.0 7.3 – 3.8 5.2 5.9 7.8 5.7 6.01 2. top is corrugated steel pipe and bottom is structural plate.6 4.7 6.4 3.3 – – – 3.4 2.5 5.3 4.3 4.5 – – – 4.0 4.5 5.32 7.4 3.1 6.6 4.7 6.2 5.2 8.11 68mm x 13mm Corrugation 4.0 3.4 – – – – – – – – – – – 4.

More recently. this section of the AASHTO Specification (adapted to metric format) is reprinted below. rational structural requirements have been developed for field joints in Corrugated Steel Pipe.280 2 2 / 3 x 1 / 2 in. Corrugation* 72 84 120 144 168 192 216 240 Notes: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 12 11 11 11 10 10 — — 15 14 14 13 13 13 12 — 17 17 16 16 16 16 15 15 19 19 18 18 18 17 17 17 22 22 21 21 21 20 20 20 — 24 24 21 23 23 23 22 — 27 27 27 26 26 26 25 *Where two thicknesses are shown.188 0. the design of field joints for conduits has been a “cookbook” or “recipe” process. .168 0.138 0. It does provide that such values may be determined either by calculation or test. the arbitrary “hardware” being spelled out in most specifications.064 Allowable Span (ft) for CSP Flowing Full 0.) 0.18 Diameter of Pipe (in. Section 26.140 — 25 25 24 24 23 — 0.111 13 12 11 — — — — 15 15 14 14 — — — 20 20 19 19 18 — — Specified Steel Thickness* (in. or 3 x 1 in.4 of the AASHTO Bridge Specification contains this important design information. That is. Corrugation 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 9 9 8 8 8 — — — 11 11 10 10 10 10 — — — 15 14 14 14 14 14 — — — 18 18 18 18 18 17 — — — 22 22 22 21 21 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 6 x 2 in. Corrugation 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 5 x 1 in.109 0.170 — — 30 29 29 28 27 —– — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.218 0. For the convenience of the reader.249 0. STRUCTURAL DESIGN FOR CSP FIELD JOINTS For many years. It should be noted that the AASHTO Specification establishes values for required strength parameters of field joints. top is corrugated steel pipe and bottom is structural plate. Little thought was given to the functional requirements of individual pipe jobs.079 0. Such tests and calculations have been made by public agencies and are available. It does not define any test procedures to measure these values for a specific joint design.) 0.244 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 7. all joint details and dimensions were spelled out based on traditional mechanical devices. Many designers have no recourse to make tests and may be unsure of what calculations to make.

4 ASSEMBLY 26.7. The applied bolt torque for 19mm (3/4 in. Corrugated metal pipe shall be placed on the bed starting at down stream end with the inside circumferential laps pointing downstream. For 19mm (3/4 in. . the applied bolt torque shall be a minimum of 136 Nm (100 ft-lbs)and a maximum of 204 Nm (150 ft-lbs).1 General Corrugated metal pipe and structural plate pipe shall be assembled in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Speed and ease of installation is a major factor in the choice of CSP for storm drainage. Structural plate pipe. the important factor is the seam fit-up. pipe arches. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 245 “26. Bolted longitudinal seams shall be well fitted with the lapping plates parallel to each other. Pipe or plates shall not be rolled or dragged over gravel or rock and shall be prevented from striking rock or other hard objects during placement in trench or on bedding. All pipe shall be unloaded and handled with reasonable care. and arches shall be installed in accordance with the plans and detailed erection instructions. There is no structural requirement for residual torque. Paved invert pipe shall be installed with the invert pavement placed and centered on the bottom.4. Bituminous coated pipe and paved invert pipe shall be installed in a similar manner to corrugated metal pipe with special care in handling to avoid damage to coatings.) diameter aluminum bolts.) diameter high strength steel bolts shall be a minimum of 136 Nm (100 ft-lbs) and a maximum of 407 Nm (300 ft-lbs). Joints for corrugated metal culvert and drainage pipe shall meet the following performance requirements.

2.1 through 26.” Such back fill typically includes fine sands and silts. Suitable transverse field joints. 26. c. Bands of special design that engage factory reformed ends of corrugated pipe. these joints are satisfactory for ordinary installations. small gravel. Standard joints are for pipe not subject to large soil movements or disjointing forces.4.2 Joints Joints for corrugated metal culverts and drainage pipe shall meet the following performance requirements.4. this condition can only be tolerated for relatively low fill heights. Other equally effective types of field joints may be used with the approval of the Engineer. 26. or larger) and cohesive clays. Backfill that is subject to piping action. Special joints are required when poor soil conditions are encountered such as when the backfill or foundation material is characterized by large soft spots or voids. Backfills of organic silt. Flat bands. is classified as “Erodible.3.2. b. e. a.2.1 Field Joints Transverse field joints shall be of such design that the successive connection of pipe sections will form a continuous line free from appreciable irregularities in the flow line.246 MODERN SEWER DESIGN 26. If construction in such soil is unavoidable.3 Soil Conditions a.4. The requirements of the joints are dependent on the soil conditions at the construction site.4.2 Joint Types Applications may require either “standard” or “special” joints. are included in this classification. Corrugated bands.2. . b. d. Bands with projections. where simple slip-type joints are typically used. 26. Pipe backfill which is not subject to piping action is classified as “Nonerodible. can be obtained with the following types of connecting bands furnished with the suitable band-end fastening devices. Special joints are for more adverse requirements such as the need to withstand soil movements or resist disjointing forces.4.” Such backfill typically includes granular soil (with grain sizes equivalent to coarse sand. c. In addition.2. Downdrain joints are required to resist longitudinal hydraulic forces. which are typically semi-fluid during installation. Examples of this are steep slopes and sharp curves. because the pipe must span the soft spots and support imposed loads. Special designs must be considered for unusual conditions as in poor foundation conditions. which satisfy the requirements for one or more of the subsequently defined joint performance categories.4. the joints shall meet the general performance requirements described in items 26. and would tend to infiltrate the pipe to be easily washed by exfiltration of water from the pipe.

the length of the channel must be at least four times the size of the opening.19 AASHTO Categories of Pipe Joints Soil Condition Nonerodible Joint Type Standard Special Standard Erodible Joint Type Special Downdrain Shear 2% 5% 2% 5% 2% Moment a 5% 15% 5% 15% 15% Tensile 0 -1050 mm Dia.3 for medium to find sand and 0. The minimum total sleeve width shall be as given in Table 26. See article 23.000 lb) (10.2 0.3. the ratio of . 0 22 kN – 22 kN 22 kN (0 . (b) Moment Strength—The moment strength required of the joint is expressed as a percent of the calculated moment capacity of the pipe on a transverse cross section remote from the joint. Soiltightness is influenced by the size of the opening (maximum dimension normal to the direction that the soil may infiltrate) and the length of the channel (length of the path along which the soil may infiltrate).) 267 mm (10.1.5.3 or 0.) (5000 lb) (5000 lb) (5000 lb) 1200 .42 in.4. Furthermore. (d) Joint Overlap—Standard joints that do not meet the moment strength alternatively shall have a minimum sleeve width overlapping the abutting pipes.2100 mm Dia. which would tend to separate adjacent pipe section.5. No opening may exceed 25 mm (1 in.1.4. if the size of the opening exceeds 3 mm (1/8 in. pipe-arches.000 lb) (10. In addition. The values for various types of pipe can be determined by a rational analysis or a suitable test.2 Watertightness See paragraph 26. (e) Soiltightness—Soiltightness refers to openings in the joint through which soil may infiltrate. Alternate requirement.5 in. See paragraph 23.) NA NA Soiltightnessb NA NA 0. Minimum ratio of D85 soil size to size of opening 0.5 in.7. and arches shall be installed in accordance with the plans and detailed erection instructions. for all categories.3 or 0.4.4 Joint Properties The requirements for joint properties are divided into the six categories given in Table 26. 26. c.2 for uniform sand. Properties are defined and requirements are given in the following paragraphs (a) through (f).) NA 267 mm (10.3. b.2.2 0. Structural plate pipe.) (10. for nonerodible or erodible soils.000 lb) Joint Overlapc (min. (a) Shear Strength—The shear strength required of the joint is expressed as a percent of the calculated shear strength of the pipe on a transverse cross section remote from the joint.4(b).).2.).4(f) Notes: a.4.84 in. Any joint meeting the requirements for a special joint may be used in lieu of a standard joint. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 247 Table 7. – 44 kN – 44 kN 44 kN (42 .4(e). (c) Tensile Strength—Tensile strength is required in a joint when the possibility exists that a longitudinal load could develop.3 or 0.

National Academy of Sciences. Marston. Iowa Engineering Experimental Station. and Glock. DC 20590.” Proceedings of a Symposium on SoilStructure Interaction. 400 7th Street. The adjoining pipe ends in any joint shall not vary more than 13 mm (0.) diameter or more than 38 mm (1. Vol. “Comparative Studies on Corrugated Metal Culvert Pipes. E. July 1968. pp. American Society of Civil Engineers. a backfill material containing a high percentage of fine grained soils requires investigation for the specific type of joint to be used to guard against soil infiltration. H. National Academy of Sciences. The leakage rate shall be measured with the pipe in place or at an approved test facility. DC 20418.. W. “Stresses Against Underground Cylinders. (1970). “Theoretische und Experimentelle Untersuchungen zu den Traglast-problem beigeweichen. Columbus. “Structures in Soils Under High Loads.” Bulletin No. Anson.06. 22. ASTM Standards. 5-8. 5359.5 in.” Federal Highway Administration Reports in Progress. Handbook of Steel Drainage & Highway Construction Products. 10 der Institut für Statik und Stahlbau der Technischen Hochschule. Alternatively. Germany. Duncan. SDR-80-4. Downsview. R.2) hydrostatic test without leakage.248 MODERN SEWER DESIGN D85 soil size to size of opening must be greater than 0. Washington. Ontario M3M 1J8. 36-80. E.Allgood. 2101 Constitution Avenue. A. 400 7th Street. DC 20590. Burns. pp.. SW.” FHWARD77-5. A.. 1200 Wilson Avenue. Corrugated Culverts.. Central Building. Kulhawy.” August 1977. J.. J. Ministry of Transportation and Communications. pp. SW. Sept. “Field Verification of Ring Compression Design. DC 20418. Baider. CA 95805... 1930. et.” National Structural Engineering Meeting.. Bulletin No. F. These tolerances may be attained by proper production controls or by match-marking pipe ends.. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abel. Heog. pp. Ames. NW.” Note: Joints that do not meet these requirements may be wrapped with a suitable geotextile. it will be considered soil tight. EES. 94. these ratios need not be met for cohesive backfills where the plasticity index exceeds 12. Federal Highway Admınistration. Katona. Transportation Research Board. Ohio State University.. Darmstadt. SM4.” Publication Nr. Sacramento.. “The Theory of External Loads on Closed Conduits. (f) Watertightness—Watertightness may be specified for joints of any category where needed to satisfy other criteria. “Soil-Culvert Interaction Method for Design of Culverts. Oct. T. al. Selig. 378-392. Office of Research and Development.” Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division. American Society of Civil Engineers. H. Transportation Research Board. August 1980. J. 1978. M. 3rd ed. University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station. W. E. “Attenuation of Stresses for Buried Cylinders. Washington. and Richard. 414 pp. 1936. 1966. pp.) in circumference for watertight joints. Bakht.2 for uniform sand. 1964. F. DC 20005-2701. OH. M. “Review of the Design and Construction of Long-Span..” Transportation Research Record 678. University of Arizona. 1976. February 1965. Washington. J. Bacher. California Department of Transportation. Vol. “Live Load Testing of SoilSteel Structures”. R. Federal Highway Administration. if a joint demonstrates its ability to pass a 14kPa (2 lb/in. 116. . Falby. “CANDE-A Modern Approach for Structural Design and Analysis of Buried Culverts. K.” Building Research Laboratory Report No. 96.. in die Erde eingebetterne Röhre.” Highway Research Record No. Lane. As a general guideline. Klöppel. 2101 Constitution Ave. American Iron and Steel Institute.3 for medium to fine sand or 0. J. IA. Washington. K. “Proof Testing of a Structural Plate Pipe with Varying Bedding and Backfill Parameters. 01. D. Washington. 1133-l5th St. 833 858.. Demmin.5 in. W. April 1970. 1983.. G..

M. Sept. S. 1963. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 20418.. Washington. and Fisher. G. “Specifications for Corrugated Structure Plate Pipe. and American Iron and Steel Institute. J.M. 1966. K.. “The Corrugated Metal Conduit as a Compression Ring.” Engineering Journal of the Engineering Institute of Canada. P.” Manual of Recommended Practice. and Gere. G. 2nd ed.” Sept. McGraw-Hill. J. 1996. G. 389-397. G. “Strength of Steel Culverts Bearing Against Compacted Sand Backfill. Timoshenko.7. “Composite Design of Underground Steel Structures.. DC.. and Baikie. Vol.. NW. “Plans for Pipe Culvert Inlet and Outlet Structure. Logan.” Highway Research Record No. 50 F St. 39. Watkins. 56 pp. Theory of Elastic Stability. . DC 20590.. 30. DC 20001. R. Sixteenth Edition. Large diameter twin structures are installed with great savings to the owner. National Academy of Sciences. P. P. Washington. Pipe-Arches and Arches. C L. American Railway Engineering Association. “The Structural Performance of Buried Corrugated Steel Pipes. and Layer. D. NW. L. DC 20001. D. 1963. Washington.C. White.” Circular Memo and Sheets No.. Utah. Transportation Research Board.” Proceedings of the Highway Research Board. 2101 Constitution Avenue. H. New York. Williams. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Suite 225.. pp. Utah State University. Washington. Federal Highway Administration. and Moser. pp. 444 North Capitol Street. Meyerhof. 1-14. G. 1969. Washington. R. 1964. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 249 Meyerhof. L. 1960.. 400 7th Street.. SW. G-39-66 to G-44-66...

250 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Installing subaqueous corrugated steel sewer pipe. .

These studies have shown that CSP provides outstanding durability with regard to soil side effects. the main factors affecting durability and the results of field studies will be reviewed before presenting specific Durability Guidelines. soluble salts. which are usually found in areas of high rainfall. and that virtually any required service life can be attained for the waterside by selecting appropriate coatings and/or pavings for the invert. all pipe materials show some deterioration with time. while 81.5. . acidity (pH). However.000 installations have been the subject of critical investigative research to establish durability guidelines (1. an estimated 50. Thus. for galvanized steel storm sewer and culvert pipe. Of course. Where the soil moisture content was below 17. However.2). Table 8. the soil moisture content primarily affects the activity of any chloride ions present and the chloride’s acceleration of the corrosion. FACTORS AFFECTING CSP DURABILITY Durability in Soil The durability of steel pipe in soil is a function of several interacting parameters including soil resistivity. Since the initial applications before the turn of the century.5 percent have a soil-side service life in excess of 100 years. The study also found that soil moisture contents below 17. The behavior of both the soil side and the effluent side of the pipe have been studied. the greater the durability. A study performed by Corrpro Companies in 1986 found that soil-side durability is generally not the limiting factor in designing CSP systems. moisture content. which is favorable to durability.2 percent of the plain galvanized installations have a soil-side service life in excess of 75 years. “Under most circumstances. To aid the engineer in evaluating site conditions and selecting the appropriate CSP system. Soils with lower pH values (acid soils).4. oxygen content (aeration).5 percent. tend to be more corrosive. “Survey results indicate that 93. and such effects vary with site conditions.” In the vast majority of CSP installations. corrosion rates are directly related to soil moisture content.251 CHAPTER 8 Durability INTRODUCTION Corrugated steel pipe (CSP) has been used successfully since 1896 for storm sewers and culverts throughout the United States and other countries. the higher the resistivity and/or lower the soil moisture content. and bacterial activity3.5 percent did not exhibit any accelerated corrosion.” Most soils fall in a pH range of 6 to 8. all of the corrosion processes involve the flow of current from one location to another (a corrosion cell). the chloride ion concentration did not have a significant affect on the corrosion rate of the zinc coating.1 lists typical ranges of resistivity values for the primary soil types6. durability is controlled by the invert (water side) of the pipe. It continues to provide long service life in installations that cover a wide variety of soil and water conditions.

this can contribute to corrosion by lowering the resistivity. Porous loams or clay loams thoroughly oxidized to great depths 1. Clay loams 2.1 Typical soil resistivities6 Classification Clay Loam Gravel Sand Rock Resistivity Ohm-cm 750. Soil moisture may also contain various dissolved solids removed from the soil itself. Several coating systems are available to provide additional soil side protection when necessary. Conversely. Muck Peat Tidal marsh Clays and organic soils Aeration Drainage Color Water Table Good Good Uniform color Very low II Moderately corrosive III Badly corrosive IV Unusually corrosive Fair Fair Slight mottling Heavy texture Moderate mottling Bluish-gray mottling Low 600 mm to 900 mm (2 to 3 ft) below surface At surface. or extreme impermeability Poor Poor Very poor Very poor Granular soils that drain rapidly enhance durability. . 3. many soil chemicals form insoluble carbonates or hydroxides at buried metal surfaces. Clays 1. soils with a moisture content above 20 percent tend to be corrosive8. The relative corrosivity of soils of various physical characteristics is described in Table 8. this can reduce soil-side corrosion. 4. Sands or sandy loams 2.252 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table 8. High levels of chlorides and sulfates will make a soil more aggressive. Condition and Corrosion Survey of Corrugated Steel Storm Sewers and Culvert Pipe. 2. Clay loams 1.”9 and is available from NCSPA. Conversely.2000 2000-10000 10000-30000 30000-50000 50000-Infinity* *Theoretical Table 8. Light textured silt loams 3. Silt loams 3. High clay content soils tend to hold water longer and therefore are more corrosive than well-drained soils. A computer program to estimate soil-side service life is included in “Final Report. Sandy loams 2. Coatings listed in the Product Usage Guidelines under additional soil side protection are generally considered to provide 100 years service life from a soil side perspective within appropriate environmental conditions.2 Soil type I Lightly corrosive Corrosiveness of Soils7 Description of soil 1.27.

This should not be surprising because the invert tends to be exposed to water flow for a longer time and. abrasion level 2 as defined in this chapter. it may also be subject to abrasion. abrasion can become significant where flow velocities are high. The most important effect of carbon dioxide in water relates to its interference with the formation of the protective calcium carbonate films that frequently develop on pipe surfaces. In most cases. Increasing levels of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide can accelerate corrosion.8. However. Dissolved salts can increase durability by decreasing oxygen solubility. Thus. The influence of dissolved gases can be an important factor.5 at the steel surface10. regardless of whether they are protective metallic coatings such as aluminum or zinc or the base steel. Typically the corrosion product. such as an oxide. corrosion products formed through the galvanic cell (pit) may deposit in small discontinuities in the coating and serve to stifle further corrosion just as films of corrosion products protect solid surfaces.11 Field studies have shown that the portion the pipe most susceptible to corrosion is the invert12. In practice.5 to 9. over about 5 m/s (15 ft/s) and bedload is present. storm sewers tend to have modest slopes and do not have a bedload present to experience any significant abrasion problems. All metals form some type of corrosion product when they corrode. 14. particularly in hard waters. in some cases. but is small when the bed load is of a less abrasive character. is more stable and its buildup will result in a decreasing corrosion rate. the development of scales on metal surfaces is an important consideration when using metals in waters. Durability in Water There is little difference in the durability of steel in still waters in the pH range of 4. because the corrosion products maintain a pH of 9. but can increase corrosion if they ionize and decrease resistivity. should be used for service life prediction. 13. Resistance to Abrasion In most cases. DURABILITY 253 Plain galvanized CSP satisfied service life requirements for storm drains in this environment. Various invert treatments can be applied if significant abrasion is anticipated.5. . The amount of wear increases if rock or sand is washed down the invert.

Conversely. The California study included the combined effects of soil corrosion. and emphasize the need for proper guidence in coating selection. 16. . Louisiana18. Georgia20. and abrasion on the durability of CSP culverts that had not received special maintenance treatment. Nebraska21. and Kansas22 showed that the method was too conservative compared to their actual service experience. water corrosion. was found to be the critical area. studies in the northeast and northwest regions of the United States indicated that the method might be too liberal in those regions because of the prevalence of soft water.254 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Field Studies of Durability Reference to field studies of CSP performance in the region of application under consideration is often the most positive way to appraise CSP durability. the AISI method appears to be the most reasonable basis available for general use. The predictive method developed Joining factory made CSP into large structural plate storm drain. A design chart (AISI) derived from this work will be presented subsequently. The pipe invert. and industry investigators and now provide a wealth of accumulated information. Its generally conservative nature for storm sewer applications can be judged by reviewing the basis of the study which included the effects of abrasion not found in storm sewers. Investigations in Florida17. such studies have been made by various state. which could easily be paved to extend life. federal. The results of the various investigations illustrate the variety of conditions that can be found throughout the country. Over many years. Idaho19. State Studies California surveyed the condition of pipe at hundreds of locations and developed a method to estimate life based on pH and resistivity15. Nevertheless.

A very comprehensive study was conducted in the province of Alberta in 1988. Both galvanized and asphalt-coated pipes are included. Ohio. Inc. either factory or field applied. Minnesota. NCSPA/AISI Study In 1986. to conduct a condition and corrosion survey on corrugated steel storm sewer and culvert pipe. Also. the method should be conservative for storm sewers where the effects of abrasion are modest. Maryland and Kansas. with the cooperation of the AISI. British Columbia’s ministry of transportation inspected 21 structural plate and galvanized bin-type retaining walls. Indiana. and the pH ranges from 5. Utah. would be dominated by soil-side corrosion because the average rainfall was less than 250mm (10 in. and have ages ranging from 20 to 74 years. the study was based on pipes in high mountainous regions with the potential for significant abrasion. AISI Study In 1978. resistivity as well as electrical potential between the pipe and the soil. the study was based on pipes in the semiarid and desert areas in the southern part of California16. The installations were all more than 20 years old. The service life was estimated to exceed 100 years on all but two structures. South Dakota.3.) per year and the flow through the invert was only a few times per year. The installations investigated were located in 22 states scattered across the United States.. DURABILITY 255 depended on whether the pH exceeded 7. The test procedure called for 37 mm (11⁄2 in. North Carolina. Specific predictive guidelines have been developed on a statistical basis. the resistivity was only 260 ohm-cm. One was in an extremely corrosive environment. showed that the soil-side corrosion was relatively minimal on most of the pipes examined.3. As observed by others. Where the pH was greater than 7. inspecting 201 installations for zinc loss. The data indicate that CSP systems can be specified to provide a service life of 100 years in a variety of soil and water conditions. at least 70 percent of the pipes were expected to last longer than indicated by the chart. The four that needed maintenance work had an average age of 32 years. a corrosion consulting firm located in Medina. where appropriate) was tested for pH and resistivity. More recently (1993). the AISI made a survey of 81 storm sewers located in the states of Florida. invert pavements and coatings can be provided. The soil (and water. The age of the sewers ranged from 16 to 65 years.6 to 10. California. 77 were still in good condition. well below recognized minimum values. which was generally excellent.) diameter coupons to be cut from the structures and be examined for coating thickness in the lab. the NCSPA.3. Examination of CSP in Southwestern Ontario (London) confirmed that the California method was appropriate for predicting service life for local conditions. Durability under those conditions. commissioned Corrpro Companies. The study23. Where significant interior corrosion was observed. to provide significant additional durability. measuring soil and water pH. The study generated . Canadian Studies Many studies have been performed in Canada over the years. the oldest was installed in 1933. The study showed that out of the 81 sites inspected. Ohio. Where the pH was consistently less than 7. Virginia. Thus. Soil resistivities range from 1326 to 77000 ohm-cm. it was typically limited to the pipe invert.8.3. One of the earliest investigations was carried out by Golder in 1967.

• Aluminum Coated Type 2 (AASHTO M274.35% silicon). When the coating selected does not provide the required service life or is outside the appropropriate environmental conditions.) on each surface. • Invert Paved with Concrete Material (ASTM A849. It is produced with a coating weight of 305 g/m2 (1 oz/ft2) of surface (total both sides) to provide a coating thickness of 48 µm (0. • Aluminum Coated Type 1 (AASHTO M36. It is produced with a coating weight of 305 g/m2 (1 oz/ft2) of surface (total both sides) to provide a coating thickness of 48 µm (0. ASTM A849). a simple check of the site soil and water chemistry could confirm the average service life. Galvanizing is the most widely used metallic coating and is the basis for the service life Chart shown in Figure 8.256 MODERN SEWER DESIGN one of the best technical databases to date.05 in. Service life will be addressed when sufficient data becomes available.2 mm (1/8 in. The report concluded that a minimum service life of 50 years would be achieved 83% of the time and the average life expectancy was 81 years. Often the required service life can also be achieved by increasing the steel pipe wall thickness.) thick high strength concrete layer is placed in the installed pipe for at least 25% of the circumference of round pipe and 40% of the circumference for pipe arch. . Where site conditions indicated that this might be a problem. An asphalt coating is applied to the interior and exterior surface of the pipe with a minimum thickness of 1. A 75 mm (3 in.0034 in. ASTM 929) is a pure aluminum coating (no more than 0.) above the crest of the corrugations for at least 25% of the circumference of round pipe and 40% of the circumference for pipe arch. Initial lab tests have indicated increased corrosion and abrasion protection. ASTM A979). Metallic Coatings • Zinc-coated (Galvanized) Steel (AASHTO M36.) on each surface.0019 in. COATINGS FOR CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE All corrugated steel pipes have a metallic coating for corrosion protection. ASTM 929) is an aluminum coating with 5 to 11% silicon. ASTM A849). • Invert Paved with Asphalt Material (AASHTO M190. Where a longer design life was required.0017 in. Specific performance recommendations will be provided when further data is available. solutions such as thicker pipe walls or alternate coatings can be cost effective options. this alternative should be weighed against the cost of supplemental coatings.) on each surface. Non-Metallic Coating and Pavings • Asphalt Coated (AASHTO M190. • 4 Ounce Zinc-coated (Galvanized) Steel is a new coating produced with a coating weight of 1220 g/m2 (4 oz/ft2) of surface (total both sides) to provide zinc coating thickness of 86 µm (0. A asphalt material is used to fill the corrugations and provide a minimum thickness 3. This coating has been evaluated in the lab and is currently being evaluated in field installations. an alternate coating system can be selected.3.3 mm (0.) in both fully coated and half coated.0019 in. ASTM 929) is produced with a coating weight of 610 g/m2 (2 oz/ft2) of surface (total both sides) to provide zinc coating thickness of 43 µm (0.) on each surface.

05 in. each side) is the primary product used. Provides an aramid fiber fabric embedded in the zinc coating while it is still molten. • Aramid Fiber Bonded Asphalt Coated (ASTM A885). which improves bonding to the asphalt coating.) above the crest of the corrugations for at least 25% of the circumference of round pipe and 40% of the circumference for pipe arch.05 in. ASTM A742). DURABILITY 257 • Fully Lined with Asphalt Material (ASTM A849).) above the crest of the corrugations providing a smooth surface over the entire pipe interior. An asphalt material is used to fill the corrugations and provide a minimum thickness 3. A high strength concrete material is used to fill the corrugations and provide a minimum thickness 3.2 mm (1/8 in.2 mm (1/8 in. • Polymer Precoated (AASHTO M245.3 mm (0. The 10/10 grade (10 mils thickness. Typically film applied laminates over protective metallic coatings.) above the crest of the corrugations providing a smooth surface over the entire pipe interior. . A polymer modified asphalt material is used to provide a minimum thickness 1. • Invert Paved with Polymerized Asphalt Material (ASTM A849). A polymerized asphalt material is used to fill the corrugations and provide a minimum thickness 1. Construction crew assembling structural plate pipe.3 mm (0.) for at least 25% of the circumference of round pipe and 40% of the circumference for pipe arch. ASTM A979). • Fully Lined with Concrete Material (ASTM A849.8. • Invert Coated with Polymerized Asphalt Material (ASTM A849).

ras gh v od ev Hi (Le No Ab M (L al on on ti iti otec d Ad Pr es de id l Si ov i Pr So Zinc Coated (Galvanized) Aluminum Coated Type 2 Asphalt Coated Asphalt Coated and Paved PolymerIzed Asphalt Invert Coated* Polymer Precoated Polymer Precoated and Paved Polymer Precoated w/ PolymerIzed Asphalt Aramid Fiber Bonded Asphalt Coated Aramid Fiber Bonded and Asphalt Paved High Strength Concrete Lined MODERN SEWER DESIGN Concrete Paved Invert (75mm (3”) Cover) * Use Asphalt Coated Environmental Ranges for Fully Coated Product .Figure 8. 1 ra n io ive (Lv Ab s as e ra ion br l 4) at l 3) A e Ab er e n.1 Product Usage Guidelines for CSP 258 Shaded Circles Indicate Applicable Coatings See AISI Chart COATING s e on iti siv nd ro o e or C C siv al ly rm rro ild No M Co W AT E R S I D E 2) n ow & sio /L l.

. Obviously.8. • Severe Abrasion (Level 4): Heavy bedloads of gravel and rock with velocities exceeding approximately 15 ft. Abrasion Levels The following definitions are provided as guidance to evaluate abrasion conditions when necessary. metallic and non-metallic coatings. Environmental Ranges • Normal Conditions: • Mildly Corrosive: • Corrosive: pH = 5. “In designing storm sewer systems. CSP coatings can be classified into two broad categories. Metallic coatings commercially available include zinc-coated (galvanized) and aluminum coated (Type 2).33) or less when velocity determination is necessary.2) that follow.0 – 5./sec. SERVICE LIFE OF METALLIC COATINGS As discussed above. appropriate agencies were asked. what life and use expectancy is used?” Of the total. • Non-Abrasive (Level 1): No bedload regardless of velocity or storm sewer applications. 71 percent responded that 50 years or less was acceptable for storm sewer life24. Several nonmetallic coatings are available as shown in this document. DURABILITY GUIDELINES Coating selection and service life prediction can be determined using the Durability Guidelines below./sec./sec. The following discussion explains the differences and similarities of the two metallic coatings. Consideration should be given to a frequent storm such as a two-year event (Q2) or mean annual discharge (Q2. or less. Product Usage Guidelines in Figure 8. excessively long design lives are undesirable as they tend to inflate the initial cost and ignore the possibility of function obsolescence.8 – 9. • Moderate Abrasion (Level 3): Bedloads of sand and gravel with velocities between 5 and 15 ft. Abrasion velocities should be evaluated on the basis of frequency and duration. • Low Abrasion (Level 2): Minor bedloads of sand and gravel and velocities of 5 ft. In a survey of 14 cities in the southeastern United States. DURABILITY 259 PROJECT DESIGN LIFE The question often arises as to what project life to use for designing a storm sewer system.1 should be considered as general guidance when considering coatings for specific environments and should be used in conjunction with the Environmental Ranges and the Environmental Guidelines(Fig.8 pH < 5.0 for R > 2000 ohm-cm for R = 1500 to 2000 ohm-cm for R < 1500 ohm-cm Abrasion Invert Protection/Protective Coatings can be applied in accordance with the following criteria. 8.0 pH = 5.

Resistivity 100 ohm-cm) 4 Polymer Precoated and Paved (Min.2 pH Maximum Abrasion Level Environmental Guidelines for Corrugated Steel Pipe 260 pH 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 (see AISI chart) Zinc Coated (Galvanized) Water & Soil Resistivity 2. Resistivity 100 ohm-cm) 2 Aramid Fiber Bonded Asphalt Coated 3 Aramid Fiber Bonded and Asphalt Paved MODERN SEWER DESIGN *Use Asphalt Coated Ranges for Fully Coated Product .000 ohm–cm Aluminum Coated Type 2 (Min. Resistivity 1500) 2 2 Zinc Coated (Galvanized) (see AISI chart) Water & Soil Resistivity > 10.000 ohm–cm Asphalt Coated and Paved Polymerized Asphalt Invert Coated* 3 3 (see AISI chart) 3 Polymer Precoated (Min.000 to 10.000 ohm–cm Aluminum Coated Type 2 (Min. Resistivity 1500) 2 2 Asphalt Coated Water & Soil Resistivity > 2.Figure 8.

There may be conditions where the actual performance is more than or less than this range.3 times the AISI chart for galvanized(roughly 1 gage) and up to to 75 years (possibly more) in the appropriate environmental conditions. aluminum coated type 2 can provide a service life range of a minimum 1. Many specifying agencies view service life of aluminum coated type 2 as having additional service life over galvanized(27. From a corrosion standpoint. The specific multiplier used for design purposes should be based on comparable experience under similar environmental conditions. there may be little advantage. (Soft waters are generally classified as waters with a hardness of 50 parts per million CaCo3 or less. the rate of attack of zinc is approximately 1/25 that of steel in most atmospheres and various waters. The most practical method of predicting the service life of the invert is with the AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) chart shown above. was developed from a chart originally prepared by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans).”26 This film is quite stable in neutral and many acid solutions but is attacked by alkalies greater than a pH of 9. This chart predicts a variable service life based on pH and resistivity of water and soil and has been an industry standard for many years. and life of the coating. For the purposes of this Guide. Users are encouraged to review the practices in their area. This advantage varies throughout the country from minimal to significant depending on the environment and the geographic location. • Aluminum Coated Type 2 — “Aluminum is a reactive metal. 30). This chart is based on 16 gage galvanized CSP with a 610 g/m2 (2 oz/ft2) coating and can be applied to other thicknesses with the appropriate factor.5. The Caltrans study of durability was based on life to first . Service Life The service life of zinc coated galvanized is determined using the AISI Chart as discussed below. The significant advantage appears to be either for more corrosive effluent or soft waters where the protective scale forms rapidly for aluminum. High corrosion rates in strongly acidic and strongly alkaline solutions can be attributed to the absence of film on the metal surface (stable films are present on the surface when the corrosion rates are low). AISI Method for Service Life Prediction The service life of CSP can be reasonably predicted based on the environmental conditions. In benign environments or where protective scales form rapidly on zinc. Its excellent resistance to corrosion is due to the formation of protective films on zinc during exposure. aluminum has an advantage over galvanized in lower pH and in soft water due to the formation of the oxide film.8. Lab test indicated stable films in the pH range from about 6 to 12.) The coatings are essentially equal under abrasion and in waters where the zinc oxide film forms rapidly. 29. the thickness of the steel. which gives service life in terms of resistivity and pH. The AISI chart. This is consistent with the range of practice by state and federal specifying agencies. DURABILITY 261 • Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)25 — Zinc corrodes much more slowly then steel in natural environments and it galvanically protects steel at small discontinuities in the coating. but it develops a passive aluminum oxide coating or film that protects it from corrosion in many environments. See discussion above for estimating the service life of aluminum coated type 2. 28. On the average.

Thus. rehabilitation of the invert at the end of the predicted life can extend service life significantly SERVICE LIFE OF NON-METALLIC COATINGS Non-metallic coatings offer advantages over metallic coatings in the form of increased abrasion resistance. According to Corrpro23.34. Lead Project Investigator. This is considered a very conservative estimate for non abrasive and low abrasion (level 1 and 2). Inherent in these coatings is less variability in performance which is why specific add-on service life values are recommended under various abrasion levels.31. The Caltrans Method may be appropriate for use under pressure applications. a significant safety factor of 1. soil-side corrosion controlled and life could be predicted by resistivity.0.32. Based on several studies. . Asphalt coatings provide much higher service life on the soil-side and inherently extend the environmental ranges for soil conditions. Since storm sewers and culverts are usually designed with a structural safety factor of at least 2. Richard Stratfull. Asphalt Coated – Asphalt coatings are generally used for soil-side protection but also provide additional waterside protection. In the field inspection of 7000 culverts in California for Caltrans.3.” Asphalt Coated and Paved – Asphalt coated and paved provide both additional service life and added abrasion protection on the water side of the pipe. states he “has no memory of a corrosion perforation being initially found other than in the invert. For pipes where the pH was less than 7. coated and paved is considered to provide an additional 30 years service life under most abrasion levels 17.20.18. The results included the combined effects of soil-side and interior corrosion. Numerous studies have concluded that asphalt coating typically provides 10 years additional service life to the inside of the pipe 17. the interior invert corrosion generally controlled and both resistivity and pH were important.31. Polymerized Asphalt Invert Coated – Polymerized asphalt provides improved adhesion and abrasion resistance over standard asphalt products35.262 MODERN SEWER DESIGN perforation in culverts that had not received any special maintenance treatment. Where service life is controlled by invert performance. wider environmental ranges and longer service life. Full scale abrasion tests conducted by Ocean City Research indicate no deterioration of the coating under moderate abrasion (level 3)36.” At least 70 percent of the pipes were expected to last longer than the chart prediction.20. The consequences of small perforations are minimal in a gravity flow pipe such as most storm sewers and culverts and do not accurately reflect the actual service life. Because of this fact.3. For pipes where the pH was greater than 7. results indicate that the commercially available polymerized asphalt coating lasts at least 10 times longer than standard asphalt coating and at least three times longer than standard culvert coated and paved (Caltrans). the original curves were converted by Stratfull to average service life curves using data on weight loss and pitting in bare steel developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. use of the chart is considered reasonably conservative.18. Based on independent test lab results using test method ASTM A926.5 remains at the end of the service life predicted by the chart. as well as the average effects of abrasion.32.33. “study results indicate that the addition of an asphalt coating may have provided a soil side service life in excess of 100 years.

8. DURABILITY

263

Asphalt coating corrugated steel pipe.

Polymer Precoat – Polymer precoat provides excellent adhesion to the base steel and extended corrosion and abrasion resistance. The service life recommendation are based on extensive lab and field tests (35,37,38,39,40). According to PSG39, “No corrosion was observed on any of the coated (polymer coated) pipes. We can not find any data to suggest the pipe coating would not provide at least one hundred years service.” These sites contained environmental conditions with Resistivity as low as 100 ohm-cm and pH as low as 2.1. In addition, PSG conducted current requirement testing that is designed to determine corrosion activity of a given structure. The current requirement data shows polymer coated structures have up to 10,000 times less corrosion versus bare G210 galvanized. Tests conducted by Ocean City Research indicate polymer coated withstanding abrasion level three conditions. (Note: Corrosion conditions under extreme limits of the environmental ranges may require adjusting add-on service life values). Polymer Precoat and Asphalt Paved – Polymer precoat and asphalt paved benefits from the excellent adhesion of the polymer precoat to the base steel and the subsequent adhesion of the paving to the precoat. According to laboratory and field tests 39, 41, the combination of the three coatings results in a pipe which is highly resistant to acidic effluent. The bituminous material has much better adhesion to the polymeric coating than it does to the galvanizing. Polymer Precoat with Polymerized Asphalt Invert Coated – Full scale abrasion tests conducted by OCR36 show equal performance of the polymerized asphalt over polymer precoat as standard asphalt paved. This system has the same bonding characteristics as the polymer precoat and paved. Field sites also indicate improved adhesion and performance39. Aramid Fiber Asphalt Coated/ Aramid Fiber Asphalt Paved – The fibers embedded in zinc provide an anchor for the asphalt coating or paving to improve adhesion. High Strength Concrete Lined – Concrete linings are typically used for improved hydraulic performance but also provide additional abrasion protection and extended service life. The use of high strength concrete and metallic coated steel provide the high service life values.

264

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

Concrete Invert Paved – Concrete inverts provide extreme abrasion protection and extended service life. According to Stratfull12, “metal pipe with an invert paved with concrete should provide an indefinite service life if it is of sufficient width, thickness and quality. By calculation, a 4-inch thick coating over the invert steel could be expected to postpone its initial time to corrosion by approximately 7.7 times greater than a 3/4 inch coating.”

Additional Service Life
Additional service life can be provided by increasing the thickness of the base steel in accordance with the factors shown in the Chart for Estimating Average Invert Service Life or with the use of additional coating systems. Add-on service life values are provided in the Table 8.4 for protective coatings applied to metallic coated CSP.
Table 8.3 Add-On Service Life for Non-Metallic Coatings, in years WATER SIDE COATING Asphalt Coated Asphalt Coated and Paved Polymerized Asphalt Invert Coated Polymer Precoat Polymer Precoat and Paved Polymer Precoat with Polymerized Asphalt Invert Coated Aramid Fiber Asphalt Coated Aramid Fiber Asphalt Paved High Strength Concrete Lined Concrete Invert Paved (75mm (3 in.) cover) N/R = Not Recommended Level 1&2 10 30 45 80+ 80+ 80+ 40 50 75 80+ Level 3 N/R 30 35 70 80+ 80+ N/R 40 50 80+ Level 4 N/R 30 N/R N/R 30 30 N/R N/R N/R 50 References 17, 18, 20, 31, 32 17, 18, 20, 31, 32, 33, 34 28, 35, 36 35, 37, 38, 39, 40 36, 39, 41 36, 39 37 37 12, 42 12, 42

AISI Method for Service Life Prediction
As explained earlier, the original California method referred to previously was based on life to first perforation of an unmaintained culvert. However, the consequences of small perforations in a storm sewer are usually minimal. Therefore, the curves on the chart were converted by R.F. Stratfull to “average service life” curves, using data developed on weight loss and pitting of bare steel samples by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology, formerly the National Bureau of Standards)12. Figure 8.3 provides the resulting chart for estimating the average invert service life for CSP storm sewers. The chart limits useful service life to a 25% metal loss Even with a minimum design factor of safety, this provides a structural factor of safety of 1.5 at the end of the average service life. The calculations used to convert the original chart to an average service life

Figure 8.3

AISI Chart for Estimating Average Invert Life for Galvanized CSP

100 Thickness (mm) 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0

8. DURABILITY

pH > 7.3

pH = 7.3

pH = 7.0

6.5

1.3 1.6 2.0 2.8 3.5 4.3 (in) .052 .064 .079 .109 .138 .168 Gage 18 16 14 12 10 8 Factor 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.8 2.3 2.8 Aluminum Coated Type 2 : See Discussionxxxxxxxx

80

Years = 3.82R0.41

Average Invert Life, Years

60

40

20 100 1,000

10,000 Resistivity (R), Ohm-cm Years = 35.85 (Log10 R-Log10 (2160-2490 Log10 pH))

100,000

265

266

MODERN SEWER DESIGN

chart were conservative because they were based on corrosion rates for bare steel. The same data set showed that galvanized specimens corrode at a much lower rate.

Steps in Using the AISI Chart
This durability design chart can be used to predict the service life of galvanized CSP and to select the minimum thickness for any desired service life. Add-on service life values are provided in Table 8.3 for additional coatings. 1) Locate on the horizontal axis the soil resistivity (R) representative of the site. 2) Move vertically to the intersection of the sloping line for the soil pH. If pH exceeds 7.3 use the dashed line instead. 3) Move horizontally to the vertical axis and read the service life years for a pipe with 1.6 mm (0.064 in.) wall thickness. 4) Repeat the procedure using the resistivity and pH of the water; then use whichever service life is lower. 5) To determine the service life for a greater wall thickness, multiply the service life by the factor given in the inset on the chart.

EXAMPLE OF DURABILITY DESIGN
The following example illustrates the use of Figure 8.3 for designing a storm sewer project. Pipe sizes are in the 900 to 2400 mm (36 to 96 in.) range. Site investigation shows native soils to have a pH of 7.2 and a resistivity of 5000 ohmcm. Storm flow is estimated to have a pH of 6.5, a resistivity of 4500 ohm-cm, and low abrasive conditions. Required service life of the installation is 50 years. Referring to Figure 8.3, the following life may be obtained for galvanized 1.63 mm (.064 in.) thick pipe: Outside condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 years Inside Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 years (controls) Therefore, a thickness of 1.63 mm (.064 in.) is satisfactory. All storm sewer materials and coatings can be degraded by abrasive flows at high velocity. If significant abrasive flow is indicated or additional service life is desired, an appropriate coating or invert treatment should be added. Many different combinations of pipe and coating systems are possible. However, economic considerations will usually dictate the selection of no more than two or three “allowable” alternatives.

8. DURABILITY

267

REFERENCES
1. Durability of Drainage Pipe, N. C. H. R. P. Synthesis of Highway Practice No. 50, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1978. 2. Symposium on Durability of Culverts and Storm Drains, Transportation Research Record No. 1001, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1984. 3. Logan, K. H., Underground Corrosion, National Bureau of Standards Circular 450 Washington, DC, 1945. 4. Romanoff, M., Underground Corrosion, National Bureau of Standards Circular 579, Washington, DC, 1957. 5. Fitzgerald, J. H. III, The Future as a Reflection of the Past, Effects of Soil Characteristics on Corrosion, ASTM STP 1013, Chaker, V., and Palmer, J. D., Editors, ASTM, Philadelphia PA, 1989. 6. Wilson, C. L., Oates, J. A., Corrosion and the Maintenance Engineer, 2nd edit. Hart (1968). 7. American Water Works Association, Steel Pipe - A Guide for Design and Installation, Manual M11, 1989. 8. Ashworth, V., Googan, C. G., Jacob, W. R., Underground Corrosion and its Control, Corrosion Australasia, October, 1986. 9. Condition and Corrosion Survey: Soil Side Durability of CSP, Corrpro Companies, March, 1991. 10. Coburn, S. K., Corrosion in Fresh Water, Metals Handbook, 9th Edition, Vol. 1, ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1978. 11. Corrosion Basics: An Introduction, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1984. 12. Stratfull, R. F., Durability of Corrugated Steel Pipe, Special Publication, United States Steel, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986. 13. Bellair, P. J., and Ewing, J. P., Metal Loss Rates of Uncoated Steel and Aluminum Culverts in New York, Research Report 115, Engineering R & D Bureau, NYDOT, Albany, NY, 1984. 14. Conditioning and Corrosion Survey on Corrugated Steel Storm Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Bushman, J. B., et al, Corrpro Companies, Inc., Medina, OH, 1987. (First Interim Report). 15. Beaton, J. L., and Stratfull, R. F., Field Test for Estimating Service Life of

Corrugated Metal Culverts, Highway Research Board Proceedings, Vol. 41, Washington, DC, 1962. 16. Stratfull, R. F., A New Test for Estimating Soil Corrosivity Based on Investigation of Metal Highway Culverts, Corrosion, Vol. 17 No. 10, NACE, Houston, TX, 1961. 17. Brown, R. F., Kessler, R. J., and Brawner, J. B., Performance Evaluation of Corrugated Metal Pipes in Florida, Florida DOT, Gainesville, Fl, 1976. 18. Azar, D. G., Drainage Pipe Study, Research Report No. 57, LADOT, Baton Rouge, LA, 1971. 19. Durability of Metal Pipe Culverts, Idaho Department of Highways, Research Project No. 16, Boise, ID, 1965. 20. Little, H. P., Boedecker, K. J., and Brawner, J. B., Performance Evaluation of Corrugated Metal Culverts in Georgia, Southeastern Corrugated Steel Pipe Association, Inc., 1977. 21. Nebraska Soil Resistivity and pH Investigation as Related to Metal Culvert Life, Nebraska Department of Roads, 1969. 22. Worley, H. E., and Crumpton, C F., Corrosion and Service Life of Corrugated Metal Pipe in Kansas, Highway Research Record No. 412, 1972. 23. Condition and Corrosion Survey on Corrugated Steel Storm Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Bushman, J. B., et al, Corrpro Companies, Inc., Medina, OH, 1988 (2nd Interim Report). 24. Pollard, C N., A Questionnaire Survey of 14 Cities Concerning the Use of Storm Sewers, Unpublished survey by the Southeastern Section of the Corrugated Steel Pipe Association, Fayette, AL, 1973. 25. Zinc: Its Corrosion Resistance, C.J. Slunder and W.K. Boyd, 1971. 26. Corrosion Engineering, Fontana, 1986. Mars G.

27. Federal Lands Highways Design Guide, FHWA. 28. California Highway Design Manual, Fifth Edition. 29. Orgeon Department of Transportation. 30. Hydraulics Manual, Washington State Department of Transportation, 1997.

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31. Potter, J. C, Life Cycle Costs for Drainage Structures, Technical Report GL-87, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, 1987. 32. Durability of Corrugated Metal Culverts, John E. Haviland, Peter J. Bellair, Vincent D. Morrell, New York DOT, Bureau of Physical Research, 1967. (DU-163) 33. Culvert Performance Evaluation, Materials Division, Washington State Highway Commission, 1965. 34. Durability of Asphalt Coating and Paving on Corrugated Steel Culverts in New York, W.W. Renfrew, TRB, 1984 (DU-155) 35. Ocean City Research, Evaluation Methodology for CSP Coating/Invert Treatments, 1996. 36. Ocean City Research, 1999. 37. Evaluation of Drainage Pipe by Field Experimentation and Supplemental Laboratory Experimentation, Final Report, Louisiana Transportation Research, 1985. 38. Experimental Culvert Pipe, STH 80, Wisconsin DOT, 1996. 39. Field inspection of Polymer Coated CSP, PSG Corrosion Engineering & Ocean City Research, 1998. 40. Louisiana Highway Research Drainage Pipe Study, David G. Azar, 1972. (DU147) 41. Pipe Coating Study: Final Report, Indiana Department of Highways, September, 1982. 42. Durability of Culverts and Special Coatings for CSP, FHWA, 1991

Durability of Metal Pipe Culverts. Performance of Experimental Metal Culverts. G. November 1967. 1978.. 16. May 1971. Wllliam H. J. Kald. Albany. Steven L. Brown. July 23. A Study of the Durability of Corrugated Steel Culverts in Oklahoma.. Department of the Army.. Durability of Drainage Pipe. Pyskadlo. and R. Research Update.. San Antonio. Washington. Research Project No. FHWA Technical Advisory T 5040. Idaho Department of Highways. DC 20006. Oklahoma Dept. Beaton.. R. 291.O. Bellair. L.S. U88-19. October 1979. Malcolm. F. Life Cycle Cost for Drainage Structures. 50. and J. Transportation Research Board. Vermont Agency of Transportation.H. and Vincent D. National Corrugated Steel Pipe Association. Vol. NW. DURABILITY 269 BIBLIOGRAPHY Azar. D. Suite 1303. Corrugated Pipe Durability Guidelines. ibid. Boedecker. Evaluation of Drainage Pipe By Field Experimentation And Supplemental Laboratory Experimentation (Final Report) Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. 255-272. Nebraska Dept. Research Report No... E... 1988. H. 41. Performance Evaluation of Corrugated Metal Culverts in Georgia. H. 20590. State of New York D. Boyd. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Cumbaa. Galvanized Steel Drainage Pipe Durability Estimation with a Modified California Chart. C. and W.. Peter J. Field Test for Estimating Service Life of Corrugated Metal Culverts. Maryland State Roads Comm. of Roads. No. Physical Research Project No... Potter. Kessler. Gueho. and J. Washington.. B. Washington... Curtice. Transportation Research Board. D. Field Performance of Protective Linings for Concrete and Corrugated Steel Pipe Culverts. Funnel. 1989 (to be published).. Southern Corrugated Steel Pipe Association. D.C. and Richard J.R. Nebraska Soil Resistivity and pH Investigation as Related to Metal Culvert Life.. March 1971.. J.8. Stratfull. April 1969. Haviland.P. Florida D.. 505 King Avenue. W. Washington. Temple. M. Sewer Manual for Corrugated Steel Pipe. 1962. Durability of Plain Galvanized Steel Drainage Pipe in South America— Criteria for Selection of Plain Galvanized. Southwest Research Institute... R. Performance Evaluation of Corrugated Metal Culverts in Florida. Statewide Survey of BituminousCoated Only and Bituminous-Coated and Paved Corrugated Metal Pipe. Hayes. DC 20006. March 1985. 1984. Bednar. Little. 1971. J. Louisiana Department of Highways. Payer. Record Number 1001. D. Spring 1968. National Corrugated Steel Pipe AssociationCoating Selection Guide for Corrugated Steel Pipe. John O. and Wallace W. Synthesis of Highway Practice No. Highway Research Board Proceedings. E. Stiegelmeyer. Final Report on a Study of the Durability of Asbestos-Bonded Metal Pipe in Sewer Service to Armco Steel Corporation.. Texas. of Highways. F. Corrugated Steel Pipe Association of Iowa and Nebraska.C. DC.12. John E.C. 1750 Pennsylvania Avenue. 24 pp. N. 1976. Columbus. J. April 1965. Comparative Study of Coatings on Corrugated Metal Culvert Pipe. W. D. U.. Brawner. Federal Highway Administration. Bednar. presented at 68th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board. E. Renfrew.. Osborne. K.T. 9 pp. ..C. Durability Design Method for Galavanized Steel Pipe in Iowa. April 1977. Overview of Polymer Coatings for Corrugated Steel Pipe in New York. Final rep. Hurd. Bruce J. L. L. P. Morrell. April 1976.. 120 pp. J.O. J. K. Robert M. K. Materials and Research Division. Washington. Washington. Ohio 43201.. N. Fraseoia. Corps of Engineers Tech Rep GL-88-2.C. pp. 39 pp.T. Drainage Pipe Study. Durability of Corrugated Metal Culverts. 1989. 57.

270 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Well points and wide trenches were necessary to install full-bituminous coated and full-paved CSP in this unstable ground. .

with no sacrifice in either quality or performance. Therefore. the engineer may be comparing apples and oranges. which would affect either the completion date or quality of the finished product. Barriers to cost effectiveness are listed as lack of information. VALUE ENGINEERING A publication of the AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA entitled “Guidelines for Value Engineering” summarizes the basic processes as applied to street and highway construction. negative attitudes. Value engineering is the critical first step to ensure that correct alternates are used in the least cost analysis. 1) Cost reductions. it involves the consideration of both alternate products with equal performance and alternative designs. the basic techniques of value engineering are applicable. Thus. innovative use of corrugated steel pipe design techniques can offer truly substantial savings. or other unforeseen occurrences. establish a value for that function and provide the necessary function reliably at the lowest overall cost. savings on the order of 20% can frequently be realized. This manual offers guidelines for designing corrugated steel pipe systems that are structurally adequate. equal or superior performance can be realized through use of CSP products. over-specifying and poor human relations. maintainability. 2) Product or process improvements.” In all instances. wrong beliefs. Otherwise. habitual thinking. hydraulically efficient. By following these guidelines. Value Engineering is defined by the Society of American Value Engineering as: “The systematic application of recognized techniques which identify the function of a product or service. reluctance to seek advice. and 3) A detailed assessment of alternative means and materials both for construction and maintenance. During the design process. Value Engineering provides a formalized approach that encourages creativity both during the design process and after the bid letting. durable and easily maintained. safety and aesthetics. including the proper corrugated steel pipe system. the required function should be achieved at the lowest possible life cycle cost consistent with requirements for performance. . This requires both value engineering and least cost analysis. After bid award. material shortages. it involves the substitution of different project plans together with revised design or materials to meet time constraints. Alternative designs offer even more promise and savings of as much as 90% are possible compared with the costs of conventional designs.271 CHAPTER 9 Value Engineering and Life Cycle Cost Analysis INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the important subject of cost efficiency. Today’s engineer is turning to rational cost analysis in lieu of subjective selection of materials and designs. risk of personal loss. By allowing design and bid alternates.

Standard specifications should also be subjected to detailed analysis. time and effort are frequently well spent in applying the principles to individual project design. These are the very reasons that it came into being and in these instances. who would not otherwise do so to show interest in a proposal. It entails: 1) Identification of the function. and 3) Developing alternate means to accomplish the function without any sacrifice of necessary quality. Permitting alternates may further encourage contractors and suppliers. A Value Engineering analysis of standard plans can be very revealing and beneficial in most cases. This may be done as a team effort on all standards currently in use by an agency or it may be done on a project by project basis.272 MODERN SEWER DESIGN It is functionally oriented and consists of the systematic application of recognized techniques embodied in the job plan. the alternative selected should not be considered an inferior substitute. 2) Placing a price tag on that function. “O-Ring” being placed over the end of the pipe and recessed into the end corrugation. However. Affording contractors an opportunity to bid on alternates may result in a saving that was not previously evident. Designers are in some cases encouraged to be production oriented and to prepare completed plans as quickly as possible. Do local conditions indicate that receipt of bids on alternate designs is warranted? Do plans permit contractor selection of alternate designs and materials for specific bid items? These questions may be very pertinent in ensuring the most efficient storm and sanitary sewer designs. . and capable of functioning within the new limitations. or physical limitations of time and topography. Many Value Engineering recommendations or decisions are borne of necessity involving perhaps the availability of equipment or material. Such circumstances force us to restudy the function and if the appropriate job plan is carefully followed. the alternative selected should be equal if not better.

including the U. It was first used by the Navy in 1954 and since then 14 Federal Agencies. Moreover. The utility of value engineering as a cost control technique has long been recognized by the Federal Government. In addition.S. a Value Engineering or other cost reduction analysis must be conducted. The following recommendations on alternate designs are reproduced in its entirety from a study by the Sub-Committee on Construction Costs of AASHTOAGC-ARTBA. the 1970 Federal Aid Highway Act required that for projects where the Secretary deems it advisable. ALTERNATE DESIGNS AND BIDS ON PIPE A) Description of Proposal In many cases. have used these analyses in the design and/or construction of facilities. the EPA developed a mandatory Value Engineering analysis requirement for its larger projects and is actively encouraging voluntary engineering studies on its other projects. the site conditions pertaining to pipe installations are such that alternative designs involving various pipe products will yield reasonably equivalent end results from the standpoint of serviceability. it is proposed that wherever site conditions will permit.9. alternative designs be prepared for all types of pipe that . Therefore. Thus. in these cases no one pipe product is clearly less costly than the others. Army Corps of Engineers. these agencies obviously feel that the potential benefit resulting from such analysis far outweighs the cost incurred by the taxpayer in conducting them. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 273 CSP was a cost effective solution for the Newark Airport. As an example. particularly where all suitable products are allowed to compete. INCLUSION OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN A PROJECT INDUCES LOWER PRICES.

with a size differential when required for hydraulic performance.) diameter “bellmouth inlet” for cooling water intake for thermal power project on floor of Lake Erie is typical of widespread applications of design in steel to rigorous and difficult conditions. where necessary.274 MODERN SEWER DESIGN can be expected to perform satisfactorily and are reasonably competitive in price and the least costly alternative be selected for use. Any necessary changes in bidding procedures and construction specifications should also be instituted. B) Examples or References In the absence of unusual site conditions. bidders could be required to submit a bid for performing the work with the understanding that the successful bidder could furnish any one of the permitted types of pipe. . with the costs being determined by the competitive bidding process. Procedures should be instituted. In bidding the related construction work. C) Recommendation for Implementation The availability of competitive pipe products should be established on a statewide basis or on a regional basis within a state. where rigid design would either be impractical. alternative designs for a typical pipe culvert installation may provide for bituminous coated corrugated metal pipe and reinforced concrete pipe. to assure that all suitable types of pipe are considered during the design of pipe installations. Large 6000 mm (250 in. or prohibitively costly.

In the second case. jobsite: 1200 mm diameter 1800 mm diameter Installation cost differences:* 1200 mm diameter 1800 mm diameter *For concrete pipe: Increased excavation quantities Increased amounts of select backfill and bedding material Heavier sections requiring heavier handling equipment Short sections requiring more handling time Breakage factors high – less material yield Total cost $ 87.1 is an actual example from a Northwest storm drain project. Care must be taken to avoid alternative designs in situations where choice of a single design is dictated by site conditions.961 Reinforced Concrete Pipe $ 56. Construction time schedule differences could be a factor and should be required to be shown. bedding and minimum cover differences may also be significant. In the first case it is important to use Value Engineering principles when calculating estimates for various materials being considered. In any case. etc. .052 $ 74.697 $ 54.899 more $ 15. minimum interference with other phases of project. where alternate bids are taken.555 more Material F.B.O. minimum engineering and inspection costs.) diameter Principal factors Corrugated Steel Pipe $ 32. or business and residential areas. and (2) to select the most cost-effective bid submitted on alternates. Foundation. Table 9. bad weather hazards.664 $ 10. E) Precautions Complex bidding procedures should not be necessary and should be avoided.658 $ 157.9.170 *Other items of consideration for Contractor. Installation cost differences between concrete and corrugated steel pipe result from pipe dimensions. Table 9. Engineer or Agency may include several of the following: prompt delivery as needed. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 275 D) Advantages Acceptance of this proposal should permit the greatest feasible amount of competition among pipe products. bidders should be fully informed as to how the procedures are intended to operate. required equipment and speed of assembly. it is important to clearly spell out in the plans and specifications the differences in pipe and trench dimensions for concrete and corrugated steel pipe. foundation and bedding. This will permit all related economic factors to operate freely in establishing the lowest prices for pipe installations. There are two basic ways to use Value Engineering: (1) at the design stage to determine the most cost effective material or design to specify without alternates.1 Value analysis (abbreviated) Storm drain project—Northwest United States. This means including in the estimates all the factors bidders would consider in their bids.) diameter and 315 m of 1800 mm (1037 ft of 72 in. 475 m of 1200 mm (1557 ft of 48 in.

and this conventional solution was proceeded with for about eight years with a budget of about $1 million/year. a system of relief sewers was rejected as unfeasible. at a cost within 1 year’s sewer separation budget. Chapter 6 describes the design of storm water recharge systems. and designs components that restrict the water reaching each part of the system to its rated peak capacity. thereby eliminating flood damage. rather than the 2-year design envisaged. With rapid inflation. The Borough was then presented with the following estimates to cover all work in the four areas for three different storm intensities. Thiel’s firm was then engaged to seek alternative solutions to the problem. storm sewers were provided to carry the water to detention tanks. At low points. As three of the four areas involved were located away from suitable storm water outlets. Frequent basement flooding was occurring in areas with combined sewer systems in the Borough of York in Toronto. Earlier studies recommended separation of the storm and sanitary sewer systems. Storm water would thus be discharged into the combined sewer at a predetermined rate. smaller pipe sizes are required than for conventional systems and the cost of the pipe item itself can frequently be reduced. flood routing. 2-Year Storm — $110. Inlet control was achieved through the use of hydro-break regulators in the system. Excess water is stored at the point of entry and released in a controlled manner after the peak discharge has passed. the design is based on the peak discharge at the outlet end derived from the constituent contributions of the upstream network. An excellent example of the application of value engineering principles in a real situation is quoted in a paper by Thiel. alternative designs based on entirely different water management procedures can offer even more significant savings. which meet environmental requirements in force today without the high cost of advanced waste water treatment systems. Mr. Inlet control design analyzes the existing drainage system. and hydraulic considerations.000 As a result. Thus. . Canada. Another example of an alternative design procedure is the principle of “inlet” control. His task was to accommodate a 2-year design storm without causing surcharge above existing basement floors.276 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Cost Savings in Alternate Designs ln addition to the savings resulting in allowing pipe alternates in conventional designs. calculates its capacity. By applying the principles of Value Engineering it was possible to show that application of the inlet control method with detention storage was the most cost effective solution by far. by either disconnecting downspouts or placing flow regulators in them and by sealing catch basins where positive drainage could be achieved.000 10-Year Storm — $830. By using these techniques on a total system basis.000 5-Year Storm — $285. Most current designs are based on a peak “Q” resulting from hydrologic. it became apparent that no adequate relief would be obtained within a reasonable time span without absorbing further enormous costs. the Borough decided to proceed rapidly with providing protection against a 10-year storm.

LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Life-cycle cost analysis (LCC) is an economic evaluation technique. Storm Sewers. The alternative with the lowest total present value is the most economical or least cost approach. the key engineering assumptions include capacity requirements. Calculations are made which convert all relevant costs to their equivalent present value. It is well suited to compare alternative designs. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 277 Adequate. LCC methods are commonly included in engineering economic courses or texts. The NCSPA has a program available which specifically performs LCC analysis in accordance with ASTM: A930 Standard Practice for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Corrugated Metal Pipes Used for Culverts. and Other Buried Conduits. reinforced concrete (RCP) or plastic pipes are being considered. which produce fair comparisons of alternate designs. are less critical in their effect on the overall results. material service life for each alternate under consideration and any future maintenance or repair costs necessary to achieve the project service life. such as the treatment afforded inflation and residual or salvage value. This can often be the case when comparing competing bids for storm sewers where pipe alternatives such as corrugated steel (CSP). The key economic assumption is the value selected for the discount rate (time value of money). For drainage projects. project design life. LCC analysis is particularly well suited to determine whether the higher initial cost of an alternative is economically justified by reductions in future costs when compared to an alternative with lower initial but higher future costs. As is the case with most evaluation techniques. the real challenge lies in making unbiased assumptions. Other economic assumptions. .9. uniform compaction is the secret to building soil and steel structures. The equations are relatively straightforward. The work is further simplified through the use of financial calculators or computer programs. with differing cost expenditures over the project life.

278 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Trenches should be wide enough to permit proper tamping of backfill. public and private. what is the risk that the current design capacity will remain functionally adequate in the future? What action can be taken to increase capacity? Is a parallel line feasible or do the site circumstances dictate removal of the pipe to build a larger structure later? Do you oversize now or not? Arbitrarily choosing an excessive design life as a hedge against significant. . A rational determination of design life must consider the potential for future obsolescence. it should reflect the planning horizon for the project as selected by the owner. there is the question of available funds. have to live within a budget. then fewer projects (less capacity) can be purchased with today’s limited budget. ENGINEERING ASSUMPTIONS Project Design Life The first step in any LCC analysis is to establish the project design life. Even after a rational decision is reached regarding capacity (size) and project design life. For example. Since it can generally be said that excessive design lives result in higher initial and total costs. For example. In the case of some agencies it is already a matter of policy. consider how many structures that were carefully designed 30 or 40 years ago are functionally inadequate today? A realistic view of the factors that can and do contribute to functional obsolescence will set a practical upper limit on design life. This should be expressed as the number of years of useful life required of the drainage structure. In the absence of a mandated project design life. so fiscal prudence will set practical limits on how much is spent today to avoid future expenses. unanticipated future events or costs may feel prudent but can prove wasteful. Most entities. Needs generally exceed resources. A LCC analysis may be useful to evaluate the economic implications of different design life assumptions. a 50-year design life for primary state highway culverts is common. For example.

some as low as 1% or less. While in some public sector situations regulation or law may mandate the discount rate. The environment. A discount rate that includes inflation is referred to as a nominal discount rate. The NCSPA in conjunction with the AISI has developed a durability guide to aid in reasonably predicting the service life of corrugated steel pipe. . this lack of a specific or universal value can lead to confusion. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 279 The result of obsolescence and funding constraints is a practical limit on project design life of 50 years. Together with simple job site tests. The federal government. It is the interest rate at which the project owner is indifferent about paying or receiving a dollar now or at some future point in time. the discount rate should reflect the rate of interest that the owner could earn on alternative investment of similar risk and duration. A number of these are referenced in the bibliography at the end of this chapter. Regional durability studies and the historical performance of drainage structures in local applications are also helpful in estimating material service life. the stick with the 7% recommended in OMB A-94. has established guidelines for the selection and use of discount rates. there is no single correct discount rate for all situations. From an economic point of view. Design lives beyond 50 years are speculative at best. The January 1998 published real discount rate for use in evaluating long life projects is 7%. In the event the estimated material service life is less than the required project design life. The additional years of functional service due to any repairs or rehabilitation can be considered in satisfying the project design life requirement. and is adequate to evaluate most public and private sector projects. Taxpayers can identify with receiving a benefit or service over 50 years. This document contains guidance for use in evaluating the LCC cost for federal projects. The discount rate is used to convert costs occurring at different times to equivalent costs at a common point in time. Material Service Life Material service life is the number of years of service that can be expected from a particular type of drainage material or system before rehabilitation or replacement is necessary. This guide presents comprehensive information to assist in estimating service life.9. One that excludes inflation is referred to as a real discount rate. Unfortunately. the task of selecting the appropriate material and/or coating for a given environmental condition is made easy. it can be perplexing to encounter material suppliers whose commercially motivated LCC methodology incorporate very low discount rates. Detailed information is included in Chapter 8. effluent and application affect the service life of all materials. The end of the average service life does not necessarily mean replacement of the pipe. the possibility of rehabilitation should be considered. ECONOMIC ASSUMPTIONS Discount Rate The discount rate represents the value of money over time. Such claims should be put to the acid test question: Would you be satisfied if your pension investments earned a similar return? If not. There are a number of economical pipe rehab techniques in use. This term is sufficient for most public works projects. This rate is based on sound economic principles. as is assumed in some commercially biased LCC approaches. exclusive of inflation. in Office of Management and Budget Circular A-94. For those who only occasionally utilize LCC techniques.

Residual Value The residual. TM 5-802-1. From a practical point of view. exclusive of inflation. the question of dealing with changes in cost (inflation) over time should be considered. While public entities may borrow funds to finance the project. As is wisely recognized in OMB A-94. used drainage pipe or structures have very little value at the end of the life of the project and therefore have a negligible affect on the LCC result. LCC calculations are most simply performed when all estimates of future costs are made in current dollars and are discounted to their present value using a nominal discount rate. Economic Studies for Military-Design Applications should be consulted. Department of the Army Technical Manual. as it reduces the overall cost of the alternate under consideration. Past experience with the effects of inflation is. This is because they are likely to affect all alternatives in a similar manner. only a guide to what may occur in the future. the result of the evaluation (the ranking of alternates from lowest to highest cost) is generally not affected by the inclusion or exclusion of the effects of general inflation in the LCC calculations. the longterm value of money to the taxpayer is 7%.280 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Borrowing Rates Some LCC methods suggest that the interest rate on the type of public borrowing needed to finance the project should be used for the discount rate. This is completely inappropriate. it can be ignored. the expenditure of public funds represents funds that are no longer available for use by the taxpayer. The purpose of a LCC analysis is to determine the relative attractiveness of the alternatives under consideration. Inflation Since LCC analysis are primarily suited to evaluate and compare all costs over the life of a project for each alternative. This avoids the complexity inherent in attempting to accurately predict future costs. One commonly used index of general inflation is the Producer’s Price published by the US government. For those situations where there is a requirement to recognize differential inflation. In practice. the taxpayer is obliged to repay the debt incurred. of a facility and the end of the project design life theoretically should be included in a LCC analysis. ASTM A-930 provides specific guidance on how to perform calculations using either real or nominal discount rates. at best. especially over long periods of time. the effects of inflation can usually be ignored. Further. . Most taxpayers would agree that this value is reasonable especially when considering long-term performance on investments. the taxpayer is the “investor” or owner. Therefore. Accordingly. In the case of all public projects. It mistakes the cost of borrowing for the value of money to the investor. Predicting future costs can never be done with certainty. Typically. excluding inflation simplifies the calculation and reduces the chance of calculation errors influencing the results. or salvage value. The debt is merely a financing vehicle.

rehabilitation will be required to extend service life by at least 10 years. Example The following example develops the LCC for three alternative drainage structures to satisfy a 50-year design life. Most hand held financial calculators are equipped to easily perform present value computations. The present value of expenditures occurring in the future is calculated as: 1 n Present Value = A 1+d Where: A = amount d = discount rate n = number of years from year zero to the future expenditure ( ) Detailed calculation methodology is contained in ASTM A-930. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 281 Financial Calculations The basic approach is to determine the present value of all estimated expenditures for each alternative under consideration. The owner agrees that a real discount rate of 7% in appropriate. Other Assumptions • Maintenance: The periodic cost for inspecting and maintaining each of the three alternates is considered to be about equal. At the end of 40 years.9. inflation & Inflation: is ignored.000 and an estimated life in excess of the 50-year project design life. • C: Reinforced concrete pipe with an initial cost of $230. • Discount Rate All cost estimates are expressed in current dollars. Alternates • A: Galvanized CSP with an initial cost of $195. these recurring costs need not be included in the calculation. The alternate with the lowest total present value represents the most economical alternative. . and is part of the NCSPA Least Cost Analysis computer program.750. Since the effect on all alternates is equal. or 25% of the initial cost. The invert life can by extended by at least 15 years with a lining that is estimated to cost $48. in current dollars. • B: Asphalt coated CSP with an initial cost of $214. • Rehabilitation: The material service life of alternate A is less than the required 50-year project design life.500 and an estimated service life in excess of the 50-year project design life.000 and a projected service life of 40 years.

00 Expended at Various Intervals and Discount Rates .500 2 C $230.00 Years 25 50 75 Present Value of $1.11 6% 1.23 .23 .00 3% 1. at a discount rate of 7% the present value is as shown below: Discount Rate = 7% Year 0 .750 $198.01 . The following table and graph clearly depict how present value is influenced over time at various discount rates.Initial Cost 40 .20 9% .255 $198.0668 Present Value $195. only Alternate A needs to be analyzed to determine the present value of the invert rehabilitation projected in year 40.255 LCC Comparison Alternate Total Current Cost Total Present Value @ 7% Ranking A $243.40 6% .0000 .000 3 Alternate A.500 $214.00 .282 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Present Value Calculation Of the three choices. In the case of A. Practical Economic Considerations It is usually difficult to develop an accurate intuitive feeling for how the results of a LCC analysis are likely to turn out.255 1 B $214. The present value of alternates B and C is equal to their initial cost since there are no significant future expenditures.Rehab Total Current Dollars $195.05 .750 $243.000 $48.01 9% 1. with a present value of $198.60 3% .00 .00 .01 .255 is the lowest cost alternative.48 .750 Factor 1.12 . That is due to the long project design life and the exponential nature of the present value calculation. Present Value of $1.00 Expended at Various Intervals and Discount Rates Discount Rate Year 0 25 50 75 $1.000 $3.80 .000 $230.

000 48.000 C $230.404 + 1.000 $48.750 $243. 6%).750 as shown below.750 $201.000 $273.000 A $195. the effect on the total present value is less than +/.6%) has less of a present value significance than the same 3 percentage point difference at low rates (3% vs.750 — $243. 30 Invert Repair at Year Expenditures Year 0 30 40 Total Present Value @ 7% Difference 40 $195.750 Difference (C-A) $35. a 3 percentage point difference at higher rates (9% vs. Cash Flow Year 0 Year 40 Total $230. but would avoid the need for future rehabilitation estimated at $48. since present value factors behave exponentially.255 30 $195. 40% Invert Repair as % of Original Cost Expenditures Year 0 40 Total Present Value @ 7% Difference 25% $195. Also.000 $205.750 $243.01). Invert Repair Year 40 vs.5% Even with the sizeable variations in these assumptions. there is a 23-times decrease in the significance in the present values of expenditures occurring in year 50 (.247 + 3.6% Invert Repair at 25% vs. as shown in the following tables.000 (48. the usual format doesn’t readily answer the question: Is the extra initial investment worth it? For example. .750) .750) $(13. Spend Now-Save Later There can sometimes be a favorable attitude toward spending more up front in order to avoid future expenditures.750 $198.000 78. Alternate A remains the lowest cost choice. Although a LCC analysis can conveniently rank alternatives. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 283 In contrast to the three-time increase in discount rates from 3% to 9%.255 40% $195. the initial cost of Alternate C over Alternate A is $35.000 48.750 $198.23 vs.000.750 $243. At realistic discount rates.9. the foregoing implies that variations in the exact amount or timing of future expenditures are not likely to materially affect life cycle costs.5%.000 — 48.

By any measure. or less than 1%. This represents the discount rate.284 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Using differential cash flow evaluation techniques. material service life and the value of money or discount rate. the internal rate of return can be calculated. Said another way. The NCSPA LCC analysis program is design especially for typical drainage applications. a poor return. can then be used to judge the relative attractiveness of spending the higher initial investment. and conforms to ASTM A-930. SUMMARY LCC analysis is an appropriate means to aid in the selection of one design or material from various alternatives. the added investment yields less than a 1% return on investment. The use of sensitivity analysis techniques is helpful in appreciating how variations in the key assumptions affect the results. or value of money. Long lengths and simple mechanical joints are two of the cost saving features of CSP.750 future expenditures avoided are equal to the $35. expressed as an interest rate. at which the $48. The internal rate of return. . The internal rate of return in this case is 0.83%. The most critical elements of the evaluation are objective assumptions regarding project design life.000 increased initial cost.

Mar. Proceedings of the International Conference on Pipeline Design and Installation. T.. ASCE. M. Pub. Department of the Army. T. 1992. Epoxy Mortar Linings for Sewers. 137 pp. W.O. The Rule of Discount for Evaluating Public Projects. 24 pp.C. 1983.C. Leason. Washington. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis of Highway Practice No.. Greenwood Press.. Life Cycle Cost Analysis— Key Assumptions and Sensitivity of Results. 5th ed. 1977..C.9. 60 pp. D. 26 pp. Grant. Water Resources Council. D. Grant. Guidelines and Discount Rates for BenefitCost Analysis of Federal Programs. December 1985. National Corrugated Steel Pipe Association. New York. Washington. K. Jacobs.C. Circular No. 136 pp. Transportation Research Board. J. Eugene L. January 1974. Jan. PB 84-199405. March 1963. D. J. Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies. Handbook for the Analysis of Capital Investments. Washington.. 1976. VALUE ENGINEERING AND LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 285 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beenhakker. Tech. Materials Protection. U. Washington. Washington. Least Cost Analysis. DC. 1986.. W. Principles of Engineering Economy.. D.. 8 pp.C. October 29. 640 pp. Henri L. and Standley. Wonsiewicz.S. Transportation Research Board. Raymond F. A-94.C.. Economic Studies for Military Construction Design—Applications. D. Office of Management and Budget. American Enterprise Institute. Westport. New York. December 31. Childers. Connecticut... National Research Council.. Washington. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Pavements. K. 1990. 452 pp. D. 74-1. March 1986. NY. 1988. J.. and Ireson. Culvert Life Study. 64 pp. 122.. 1970.T. Department of the Interior.. TM 5-802-1. Washington. Mikesell. February 3. Maine D. Life Cycle Cost Analysis Discount Rates and Inflation.... The Roland Press Co. R. . R. Wonsiewicz.

286 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Trunk sewer mains for storm water runoff have proven particularly suited. and economical. Long lengths of helical CSP cut handling and installation costs and typical field assembly of large structural plate mains. as above. clearly optimize the use of municipal tax dollars. in design with steel. .

as well as other items such as utilities. This information is used to facilitate the design of the project.1.” This method provides layer by layer information in relation to the surface. Soils investigations can be performed by using several different procedures. trees. it may be advantageous to obtain additional subsurface information. Soil density can also be determined by relationship to the number of blows required to drive the sampling device. soil information that is adequate for design does not contain sufficient detail to meet the needs of the contractor.287 CHAPTER 10 Construction CONSTRUCTION PLANS The excavation for corrugated steel drainage structures must be made in conformance with specific project construction plans. that fall within the construction limits. structures. depending upon the degree of sophistication desired. This may be accomplished through tests performed by the contractor or by engaging the services of a soils engineer. SUBSURFACE SOIL INFORMATION Information regarding subsurface soil conditions is often included as a part of the construction plans. and also to aid the contractor in planning his construction procedure. etc. • The presence of rock. • The thickness of various strata. Water table elevation can be measured after the water level in the bore hole is stabilized. Soil borings obtained through the use of hand or power driven augers provide continuous samples at increasing depths. Soil and ground water information is graphically represented by plotting a vertical section of each sampling location on the project plan-profile or a separate profile sheet prepared to display soil information. • The presence of ground water and the elevation of the ground water table. but also information regarding relative density and elevations of various strata referenced to the same datum as the sewer project. Often.. The construction plans should contain both plan and profile views of the project area and are intended to describe graphically the horizontal and vertical locations of the conduit. . More detailed analysis may be made from continuous core samples obtained by driving a hollow sampling device. A sample section of a soil log is shown in Figure 10. For this reason. such as a “split spoon. The plan view depicts horizontal location and pertinent data for the proposed conduit. • The behavior of soils during and after excavation. The profile shows the elevation or vertical location of the same items as situated in the plane immediately above and below the proposed conduit. but only in cohesive soils void of rock and gravel. The soil section should indicate not only the soil types and location of the ground water. The purpose of a subsurface soils investigation is to determine: • The types of soils that will be encountered in the construction area. Auger methods are also useful in determining the presence of rock strata and ground water.

5 312.6 19 m 1500 mm enc.9 6.6 89.0 16 8.1 Log of boring no. 51 mm SAMPLER 51mm O. meters metres SAMPLING RESISTANCE SAMPLES SURFACE ELEV.5 26 28.2 10.4 74 77.0 16 Very stiff gray-red mottled fine sandy silty clay 23. % 38 LIQUID LIMIT. 28.288 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Figure 10.D.5 12 Soft to firm tan-brown silty fine sandy clay 103 51 24.5 2 P<50 1 Soft to very soft interbedded dark gray silty fine sandy clay/tan-brown fibrous peat 59.0 P150 1 P800 4. % ELEVATION PLASTIC LIMIT.7 LOCATION WATER CONTENT.5 3.0 6 16.5 10 Medium to dense interbedded tanbrown silty medium to fine sand/graybrown gravelly silty coarse to medium fine sand 19.1 9. % DESCRIPTION 0 1 Topsoil (300 mm) Topsoil(300mm) Firm brown micaceous clayey silt (fill) 1.9 26. B-21 DATE DEPTH. COMPLETION DEPTH 19m WATER DEPTH 1500mm enc.9 7. SPLIT BARREL SAMPLER OTHER TESTS X X X M .5 16 8.9 41 23 13.0 12.

and end loaders are only part of the myriad equipment available to contractors. and the contractor must bear in mind items such as type and volume of material to be excavated. backhoes. . scrapers. and pipe sections are also easier joined when progressing in this direction. and the disposal of excavated material. Choice of excavation equipment by the contractor is predicated on conditions existing on any specific project. Pre-fabricated miter section of CSP is lowered into place to match bend in trench. both the owner and contractor should thoroughly familiarize themselves with the latest OSHA requirements relating to the work specified. resulting in a cave-in. it should be stockpiled in a windrow at a safe distance back from the edge of the trench. As with the case of stockpiled excavation. These loads can reach such magnitudes as to cause the trench wall to fail. Each particular item of equipment is designed to perform a certain function. If excavated soil is to be used as backfill. field engineer. Care should always be exercised in the operation of equipment in the vicinity of an open trench. and contractor. Regardless of the type of equipment selected to perform the work. Most trenching equipment is more efficiently operated in this manner. trench excavation should proceed upstream.10. Prior to the start of trench excavation or any other part of the contract. draglines. Bulldozers. CONSTRUCTION 289 TRENCH EXCAVATION The successful completion of a conduit installation project is dependent upon all involved individuals. available working space. being familiar with surface and subsurface conditions. including the designer. the width and depth of the trench. the combination of equipment weight and vibration will cause a surcharge loading effect on the earth adjacent to the trench.

) diameter.). and backfilling) should be scheduled in close sequence with each other. pipe installation. The two main hazards that must always be considered in trenching work are: • Stability of trench walls. 2200 mm (90 in.290 MODERN SEWER DESIGN The three phases of a conduit construction project (excavation.064 in. • Water that may accumulate in the trench resulting from seepage and surface runoff. . the contractor must always keep in mind that an open excavation can result in damage to the project under construction.6 mm (. the following procedures should be followed: • Begin excavation only when installation of conduit materials can immediately follow. In addition to safety for workmen and the general public. 1.) full bituminous coated and full paved storm sewer. 76 mm x 25 mm (3 x 1 in. To minimize the chance of accidents and losses resulting from trenching operations. 820 m (2700 ft). An open trench is dangerous and vulnerable to accidents.

Trench Shape The cross-sectional shape of the trench is dependent upon several factors. such facilities should extend at least 1 m (3 ft) above the top of the trench. Using steel trench shield to install CSP sewer. • Trench excavation should proceed at the same rate as conduit installation with a minimum of distance. separating the two operations. • The type of soil encountered. the trench should be backfilled.2 m (4 ft) be equipped with ladders or steps located within 8 m (25 ft) of the working area. This means that no restriction of CSP trench width is necessary beyond those considerations listed above. It is important to understand the difference between these two types and how stability failures occur in each. • Procedures used in placement of backfill around the conduit structure. • As soon as practicable after conduit installation. including: • The design depth below surface. • The shape of the conduit structure. . as dictated by safety. it is suggested that all excavations deeper than 1. Other conduit materials may require a restricted trench width as this is commonly the basis for their design be classified into two general groupings—cohesive soils and cohesionless soils.10. CONSTRUCTION 291 • Protect trench walls to ensure their stability throughout the construction period. • Follow procedures that will keep the trench free of seepage and surface waters. Corrugated steel pipe is designed structurally to withstand the formal full loading of the overburden. Ladders or steps should be secured at the top of trench walls and for ease of access. • Foundation material present in the bottom of the trench. In the interest of safety.

It is important to understand the difference between these two types and how stability failures occur in each. While not theoretically correct. such as silts and clays. that owe the greater part of their strength to a complicated molecular interaction between individual soil particles. Failure in these soils can occur along a curved surface. The stability of a cohesive soil is measured by its shearing resistance strength—the amount of force required to destroy the bonding action between the soil particles. • The placement of a surcharge loading (soil excavation or equipment) adjacent to the trench.” as shown in Figure 10. An increase in soil moisture will cause a DECREASE in shearing resistance strength of the soil. The stability of a trench wall is dependent upon the type of soils present and the treatment given these soils. Soft foundation materials should always be excavated to a sufficient depth to allow for the placement of granular backfill that will provide adequate support for the structure. and are the result of a stress “build-up. Surcharge Loading Direction of Movement Slip Circle Figure 10. Materials encountered in trenching operations may be classified into two general groupings—cohesive soils and cohesionless soils. The degree of stability of this type of soil is dependent upon the soil’s internal angle of friction.2 Typical trench wall failure in cohesive soil . Sands and gravels are typical examples of cohesionless soils. The depth of bedding should be 75 mm (3 in.) when rock excavation is encountered.) for ordinary soils and a minimum of 300 mm (12 in. Cohesionless soils are composed of coarse. Cohesive soils are fine-grained materials.2.1 contains a listing of various cohesionless soils with their corresponding angle of repose and slope ratios.292 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Trench excavation should be carried to a depth below the corrugated pipe structure to allow for the placement of bedding materials. including: • The removal of lateral support through the excavation of the trench. Trench Stability As mentioned in earlier sections. trench wall stability is of prime importance in maintaining a safe working area and providing protection to the work in progress. or “slip-circle. Table 10.” which exceeds the shear resistance capability of such soils. the angle of internal friction of a cohesionless soil can roughly be assumed as equal to its angle of repose the maximum angle with the horizontal at which an excavated trench wall can be expected to remain stable. The development of excessive stresses along the “æslip-circle” can be attributed to several factors. weathered rock materials that depend upon an interlocking of the angular surfaces of one soil particle with another in order to maintain stability of the soil mass.

This is quite understandable. The soil can dry out. closed sheathing may be adequate. since most soils are not truly cohesive or cohesionless but are mixtures containing some of the properties of both general groupings. tight sheathing should always be used. Closed and tight sheathing are similar to each other. cohesionless soil.1 Stable slope angles for various cohesionless materials Angle of Repose 90° 63° 34° 27° Slope ratio (horizontal to vertical) Vertical 1/2:1 11/2:1 2:1 Material description Rock and cemented sand Compacted angular gravels Compacted angular sands Weathered loose sands The prediction of the degree of stability for any given trench wall usually defies theoretical analysis. • Surcharge loadings adjacent to the trench resulting from soil placement or the presence of construction equipment and/or vehicular traffic. • Tight sheathing. • The presence of ground water. trenching operations can change the behavior properties of a soil as work progresses. Figure 10. • Trench shields. This situation may arise due to: • Unstable soil conditions. all trenches should be considered as dangerous and treated with great respect. • A restricted surface work area. Trench Stabilization Systems Often. Rock surfaces that appear stable upon initial excavation can soften and become hazardous upon exposure to air. Systems most often used for trench stabilization. Consequently. but where ground water control operations are being conducted. and portions of the wall slough off. The shield is usually constructed of steel with reinforcing cross members at each end. it is not practical to stabilize trench walls by the use of sloping procedures. Either timber or steel sections can be used as the sheathing members. CONSTRUCTION 293 Table 10. • Closed sheathing. • An excessively deep excavation. Investigative methods available require assumptions to be made that result in only general guidelines regarding the stability of a sloped soil surface. provided that protection equal to other forms of shoring is achieved. After . OSHA regulations permit the use of a shield. When working in a dry. • Nearby underground structures. Safety requirements dictate that all except very shallow trenches be protected by either the use of sloping trench walls or the adoption of shoring or bracing systems. a trench shield (also referred to as a trench box) can be utilized in lieu of a sheathing system.3. are: • Open sheathing.10. The shield supplies a safe work area while trench bedding is prepared and conduit sections are placed. To further complicate the situation. develop cracks. In some soil conditions where a trench will be open for only a short period of time. the difference being that tight sheathing uses interlocking vertical members to impede the passage of ground water into the trench area.

Waters Sheathing Struts Closed Sheathing Open Sheathing Tight Sheathing Trench Shield Figure 10. For this reason. Backfill should be placed around the conduit while the sheathing is still in place. When a trench shield is used. If wooden sheathing is removed from the trench area adjacent to the conduit. and because of the small thickness of the member. and as the shield is moved forward. Trench shields can be constructed in various widths and heights. all wooden sheathing and bracing should be cut off at a point 450 mm (18 in. steel sheathing can be carefully removed without seriously reducing the effectiveness of the backfill material.3 Four systems most often used for trench stabilization.294 MODERN SEWER DESIGN installation and backfilling around the pipe. .) above the conduit top and the supports below this point left in place. For this reason. Therefore care must be taken to prevent problems if voids are excessive. void areas may develop between previously placed backfill and the trench wall. Steel sheathing has the capability of being reused many times. the shield is pulled forward. voids will develop that can reduce the effectiveness of the backfill material.

In most instances. When it is desired to lower the ground water table prior to trench excavation. • Pumping from sumps placed in the trench base. Systems available include: • Tight sheathing. The system selected. Water collection sumps can be placed in the trench bottom and filled with crushed stone or washed gravel to control relatively small amounts of ground water that may accumulate in the trench. is directly dependent upon both local conditions and the quantity of water that must be removed. a system of well points will be required. If individual wells placed along the proposed trench alignment will not sufficiently lower the water table. This additional force is caused by two factors—the hydrostatic pressure of the collected ground water and behavioral changes that occur in the soil due to saturated conditions. For these reasons. thus allowing water to flow to the sump area. Installation of CSP sanitary sewers. of course. increased pressures will develop on the bracing system. tight sheathing alone will not provide effective ground water control. . some form of pumping operations should be carried out in conjunction with tight sheathing.10. • Wells placed along the trench alignment. If ground water levels are allowed to build up behind the sheathing. This method of direct pumping is particularly effective in cohesionless soils or where granular bedding material has been placed in the trench bottom. • A system of continuous well points installed along the trench route. CONSTRUCTION 295 Several methods are commonly used to prevent and control the intrusion of ground water into the trench area. These methods can be used quite successfully on cohesionless soils that readily allow the passage of ground water. wells or a system of continuous well points should be utilized.

75 mm x 25 mm (3 x 1 in. If ground water is pumped at an excessive rate or over too prolonged a period of time. soil particles may be removed from the ground. however. Dewatering. since soil particle migration can occur. . COUPLINGS During the construction of a corrugated steel pipe system. A well point system consists of a series of small diameter vertical pipes driven or jetted into the water-bearing strata adjacent to the proposed trench.4. A negative pressure or suction is created in the system by use of either a vacuum or centrifugal pump that has the capability of passing both air and water.296 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Full bituminous coated and full paved. care should be given to the treatment of joints to prevent both infiltration and exfiltration. Each pipe is equipped with a perforated well point head that allows for the passage of ground water.) for storm sewer.) corrugation. are connected by flexible couplings to a horizontal header pipe at the ground surface.66 in. approximately 940 m (3100 ft) of 300-1800 mm (12 . The well point pipes. This is particularly true when fine grained soils (silt and clay) are present in the backfill material. The purpose of such systems is to provide a safe working area and an environment that will enable the corrugated steel structure to be installed and backfilled properly. Typical arrangements for dewatering operations are shown in Figure 10. This can result in the subsidence of trench walls and damage to nearby structures due to settlement. in turn. must be conducted with care. Both processes will have an effect upon backfill materials.

. CONSTRUCTION 297 Pumping from Trench Sumps Pumping by the Well Point System Figure 10.10.4 Typical arrangements for dewatering operations.

Joints such as the dimple or universal band that do not provide the necessary soil tightness can be made soil tight by wrapping them with an appropriate geosynthetic. etc. Soil tightness is required for all types of buried pipe applications. is advantageous in that exfiltration losses reduce the amount of discharge while recharging the natural ground water table. pipe joints must provide the proper degree of tightness and provide the necessary strength to maintain this performance over the design life. Any water tight requirements are dictated by specific job requirements. Special or higher strength joints are necessary where foundation conditions are poor or uneven. Unlike sanitary sewers. gaskets are available for placement between the outer surface of the conduit and the connecting band. Adequate pull-apart strength also becomes a factor where settlements are expected and where pipe grades are steep. To control leakage. The necessary strength requirements are also provided by AASHTO (see Chapter 7). Often leakage in storm sewers. PERFORMANCE Regardless of the piping material. When infiltration or exfiltration is anticipated. The proper soil tight criteria for CSP is outlined by AASHTO Section 26. A soil tight joint is necessary to ensure that water infiltrating into the pipe does not carry fine backfill material into the pipeline. Manhole risers can be built into the sewers with CSP pipe. . reducing the necessary backfill support over time. With any pipe joint. the owner agency may incorporate minimum pressure requirements into the project specifications. This portion of the AASHTO specification is provided in Chapter 7. CSP applications generally require specific water tight joint requirements only when the pipeline is carrying pollutants or when it is located below the ground water table so that infiltration would unduly reduce the capacity of the system.298 MODERN SEWER DESIGN A wide variety of couplings are used for joining sections of corrugated steel pipe. adequate shear and moment strength levels are necessary to ensure that settlement and pipe joint cocking will not allow the joint to open.

With this information.10. Joint designs should be prequalified by laboratory testing prior to their use to separate joint performance from contractor assembly problems. This method consists of establishing a series of measurement points along a reference line parallel to the conduit alignment.00 ft). “Grade Board” cut is then 3.25 ft) 3.0 m (100. 3.75 ft). the vertical distance.000 C Offset = 3. Slope is usually given as a percent of grade on the construction plans and denotes the change in conduit elevation per 100 m (100 ft). Hence. Line refers to the horizontal location and direction of a conduit while grade is a measure of its vertical elevation and slope. 5. Next. CONSTRUCTION 299 All joint requirements need to be determined in advance and properly specified. Field layout and installation must consider both the line and grade of the project. or “cut. 0 + 000. 2. a series of boards can be established at a constant distance above the proposed conduit flowline.7 m (105.7 m (5. Figure 10. 3.7 m (105.75 ft) F/L Design elevation + 30. These measurements. Engineer then marks Stake “A” cut. 4. FIELD LAYOUT.000 is 30. ALIGNMENT AND INSTALLATION Of critical importance in the process of constructing a sewer project is the correct placement of the conduit in its intended location.0 m (10 ft) 1.0 m (10 ft) 31. This procedure is illustrated in Figure 10. This is accomplished by an application of basic surveying procedures.5 m (1. along with the reference points. Layout engineer determines elevation Stake“A” is 31. Repeat at 10 m (25 ft) stations.5.0 m (10 ft) 1.0 m (10 ft). Complete line and grade information should always be incorporated as a part of the construction plans. a 1.3 m (4.5% grade simply means 1.1.” between each reference point and the conduit flowline adjacent to the reference point is determined.5 ft) of “fall” in each 100 m (100 ft) of conduit length. The project is first located or “laid out” on the ground surface by the placement of a series of reference points. One reliable method used to install conduit piping systems is known as the batter board or grade board system.) in this example. F/L design elevation at station 0 + 000.5 Pipe alignment using a grade board .0 m (10 ft) Stake “A” Station. Through the use of elementary surveying procedures. are then used by the contractor as guides for trench excavation and conduit installation. the horizontal and vertical position of the conduit relative to the various reference points is determined. Erect “Grade Board” (Batter Board) some convenient distance above existing ground.75 ft) 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in.

the board system to transfer line and grade has been supplanted by the use of laser generators. while the conduit flowline grade is determined by a vertical measurement from the stringline. However. Quick installation of CSP sewer keeps pace with modern trenching equipment. the initial alignment of the generator be through the use of a board system. a minimum of three grade boards should always be erected in series to minimize the chance of errors. For this reason. Care should always be exercised. extreme care should be exercised to minimize the chance of error. no matter how haphazardly placed. These generators project a concentrated low wattage light beam of such quality that little diffusion (or light spread) occurs in distances usually encountered in sewer conduit installation. and parallel to. will define a plane. the proposed flowline. Since the erection of boards essentially creates a measurement plane above. Alignment is transferred to the trench bottom by use of a plumb-bob attached to the stringline. . however. Input power is supplied by either an AC or DC source and output power is in the low range of 1 to 5 milliwatts. In recent years. The tops of any two boards.300 MODERN SEWER DESIGN A stringline is attached to the top of each grade board and positioned directly above the centerline of the proposed conduit. Calculations for grade board placement can be checked by visually aligning the tops to ensure that they are in a single plane. Various laser generators are available that are specifically designed for conduit installation. when laser equipment is in use. boards are employed on small projects and owner-agencies often require that when lasers are used. since eye injuries can result from staring directly at the light source. The light beam essentially replaced the stringline in the transfer of line and grade.

Laser generating equipment is adjusted and positioned in a manner similar to surveying instruments with the exception that an adjustment is provided to incline the beam at a slope equal to the grade of the conduit. braces. 75 x 25 mm (3 x 1 in. 1500 m (5000 ft) installed as stream enclosure for runway extension. This method has the advantage of providing a quick check against grade reference points. As each pipe section is installed.) diameter. for this reason. but any errors will be magnified as conduit installation progresses. A grade pole is then used to transfer line and grade to the trench bottom.) prefile full bituminous coated and full paved. a special target or template is placed in the pipe’s end and the vertical and horizontal alignment checked.10. A slight shift in alignment of the light beam may not be noticeable at first. such as tripods. the laser generator is positioned on the conduit centerline and the light beam functions in the same manner as the stringline in a grade board system. the generator must be protected against receiving an accidental bump. Whenever laser equipment is used. When the equipment is placed in the trench. The initial alignment of the laser generator should be accomplished by the erection of several grade boards as previously described. like any light beam. When a surface set-up is used. Two basic locations are generally used for the positioning of the laser equipment—in the trench bottom or on the ground surface. The light beam should be periodically checked against surface control points to ensure its correct horizontal and vertical alignment. poles. it is usually positioned in such a manner that the laser beam will describe the center of the conduit. the conduit line should be ventilated as work progresses. It must also be realized that. The beam projected through previously-placed conduit sections is also used to provide line and grade for trench excavation and the placement of bedding materials. This is primarily a function of humidity. and clamps to facilitate the set-up of the laser generator. CONSTRUCTION 301 3000 mm (120 in. A variety of accessories are available from manufacturers. a laser is subject to refraction as it passes through the atmosphere. but the beam is not available for continuous checks in the trench. and. .

or railroad without interrupting traffic. • The use of special fittings such as wyes. tees. A . Alignment Changes Changes in horizontal and vertical alignment of a corrugated steel pipe can be accomplished by any one or several of the following methods: • Field construction manholes. Underground construction can offer many advantages over open-cut methods. It is frequently desirable to change the horizontal or vertical alignment of large diameter corrugated steel drainage structures without the use of a manhole or junction chamber. They are designed to receive standard cast iron appurtenances such as manhole covers and grates. such as: • Work can be carried out in any weather or season. Figure 10. thus providing a custom design to accommodate required field conditions. For example. • Special corrugated steel pipe and pipe arch elbow sections. Such fittings are prepared from standard pipe and pipearch sections and have the advantage of providing a change in direction without interrupting the flowline. Elbow fittings can be used in conjunction with each other.6 graphically indicates the form of these sections that are available in any increment between 0° and 90°. Elbow pipe sections can be prepared by manufacturers to provide gradual changes in flow direction. They provide access for maintenance. thus reducing the possibility of damage to the pipeline due to flooding caused by unexpected weather conditions. • Boring. highway. Only contractors with suitable experience and equipment should attempt underground installation. and are used to facilitate a change in horizontal or vertical alignment. Structures of this design have the distinct disadvantage of causing turbulent flow conditions that. the following underground construction methods can be used: • Jacking. Shop fabricated corrugated steel manholes are available for all shapes of corrugated steel pipe structures. • Less pavement or other restoration is needed after the sewer is completed. in most instances. the additional fabrication cost is more than offset by the elimination of the manhole or junction chamber. and saddle fittings for branch lines. serve as junction chambers where several conduits are jointed together. in effect. Shop fabricated elbow sections are available for this purpose and. laterals. Corrugated steel manholes have the advantage of quick installation and backfilling. Monolithic concrete holes are usually square or rectangular in shape. • Detours that might dangerously congest traffic may be eliminated as well as most traffic liability. reduce the carrying capacity in upstream portions of the conduit system.302 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Underground Construction When it becomes necessary to install a sewer under a city street. a horizontal alignment change of 90° could be negotiated through the use of three 30° or four 221/2° sections. • Shop fabricated corrugated steel manholes. Manholes are multipurpose in function. • Tunneling.

R-5 m R-5 m P. The use of special fittings and elbow sections required precise surveys both in the design and layout stages.” C P. The saddle branch is fitted over this opening and the incoming line is then attached to this fitting.C. The field layout procedure for elbow pipe sections involve geometry similar to that of a standard highway curve. Any line at any angle may be joined to the main or line simply by cutting or sawing the required hole. The accurate location of special items must be predetermined in order for the manufacturer to supply fittings and straight pipe sections that will conform to field conditions. .10. C 90° Connecting Bands. BACKFILLING PROCEDURE The performance of a corrugated steel pipe in retaining its shape and structural integrity is dependent upon the quality. Saddle Branches Saddle branches are fittings available for field connecting laterals and other lines entering a corrugated steel pipe structure. Type as Specified Figure 10. placement. page 34. Layout and installation must be done with care to ensure proper positioning of all portions of the corrugated steel pipe system. The reader is encouraged to consult the following references for further detail on soils and installation requirements: (1) ASTM A798.6 Alignment for Pipe Elbow Sections. CONSTRUCTION 303 horizontal shift in alignment can easily be accommodated by the use of two elbow fittings with the second fitting simply installed in reverse orientation to the first. The above is a design to negotiate a 90° alignment change through the use of four 22 1/2° sections. See Chapter 1. “Standard Practice for Installing Factory-Made Corrugated Steel Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications. however. that only the center points at the end of each elbow section lie on the path of the circular curve. and degree of compaction of the backfill placed between the trench walls and the structure. It should be noted.T.

• Aid in the maintenance of the desired cross-sectional shape.” As vertical loads are applied to the conduit. thus reducing the load transmitted to the conduit. Good backfill around the pipe must. “Installing Corrugated Steel Structural Plate for Sewers and Other Applications. the sides will tend to move outward in the horizontal direction. In addition to providing support to the pipe. • Allow for uniform distribution of loading without development of stress concentrations in the pipe wall. chunks of highly plastic clay. it is recommended to either shape the bedding to the relatively flat bottom arc or fine-grade foundation to a slightly v-shape. When rock excavation is encountered. an earth arch can develop over the pipe. creating the soil-steel interaction system upon which the design was based. or other deleterious material. it must be excavated and replaced with a layer of soil. frozen lumps. be provided to ensure good results in pipe performance and to prevent damage to surface structures from trench fill substance. It is not required to shape the bedding to the pipe geometry. Compacting backfill is required for proper installation of all sewers. In this manner. therefore. organic matter. for pipe arches. Corrugated steel pipe may be placed directly on the fine-graded foundation for the pipe line. A properly developed foundation will: • Maintain the conduit on a uniform grade. the backfill adjacent to the pipe must also support a portion of the trench loading. A properly placed backfill will resist this outward movement.304 MODERN SEWER DESIGN (2) ASTM A807. This avoids the problem of trying to backfill under the difficult area beneath the invert of pipe arches. . The bedding material should not contain rock retained on a 3-in ring. Good bedding foundations can be viewed as a “cushion” for the conduit and should be relatively yielding when compared with compacted material placed between the trench wall and the pipe. However.

as compared to the haunches. a slightly yielding foundation under the bottom. Pit-run (or bank-run) sands and gravel compacted to 90% of AASHTO T-99 or ASTM 698 density provide excellent backfill for corrugated steel pipe. For this reason. It is important in pipe-arch installation to ensure a favorable relative movement of the haunches with respect to the pipe bottom. CONSTRUCTION 305 Backfill placed around the pipe structure should be granular. Care must be taken to ensure that the structure’s alignment. Likewise. A small amount of silt or clay material may aid in the compaction process. Quality backfill can be achieved by the use of a variety of tamping and vibrating equipment. Hand tamping is recommended for the filling of void areas beneath Stable – But Relatively Yielding COMPACTED TO MAXIMUM DENSITY UNDER HAUNCHES Figure 10. Truly cohesive soils. The backfill adjacent to the pipe-arch haunches must have a bearing capacity that will allow for a safe transfer of loading between the structure and the trench walls. This factor is illustrated in Figure 10. These materials exhibit good shear strength characteristics and are stable under varying moisture conditions. such as heavy clays. uniformly from both sides. particular care should be given to those areas around the pipe-arch haunches.10. To achieve the desired soil envelope around the corrugated steel pipe. Arrows show the direction of favorable relative motion of all pipe arches. and compacted to the specified density.7. is desirable. grade. should usually be avoided. a rolling or eggshaped distortion may occur. When backfilling around the sides of the pipe-arch. and cross-sectional shape are maintained. over-compaction can cause vertical elongation or distortion. the fill material should be placed in layers. but compaction must be performed at optimum moisture conditions for the particular soil.7 Pipe-arch loads are carried at the corners. If excessive height differential exists between backfill from side to side. Compacted Layers . This type of material can provide an effective backfill. Maximum pressure will be exerted on the soil backfill at these points.

The most important factor in the backfilling operation is the exercise of care to ensure that proper soil density is achieved between the conduit and trench walls. August. it is often necessary to use a 2 x 4 in. The slurry backfill can be placed in the trench around the pipe directly from the transit mix chute without vibrating. Waterjetting can be accomplished with a length of small diameter pipe attached to a small pump with a long length of flexible hose. 10mm (3⁄8 in. corrugated pipe structures. Hand tampers can also be used to compact horizontal layers adjacent to the pipe. Uplift can be controlled by limiting the rate of placement. 1987. and by placing weights such as sand bags. and care must be taken to avoid floatation of the pipe.) maximum slump.2). Corrugated steel pipe was installed 25 years before in an earlier expansion. The greatest single error in backfilling is the dumping of piles of material into the trench and then attempting to compact the backfill without spreading. However. it is important to estimate and control the pipe uplift to avoid damage. Also.) maximum size aggregate. Material should be carefully placed alongside the conduit and distributed in layers prior to the compaction operation. Further information may be found in “CSP Structure Backfill Alternatives. Such methods can only be used on free-draining soils. Mechanical tamping and vibrating equipment may also be used where space permits. Hand tamping equipment should weigh at least 10 kg (20 lb) and have a surface no larger than 150 mm x 150 mm (2 x 4 in.306 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Philadelphia Airport expansion again calls for CSP storm sewers. internally or externally along the pipe. timber for work in confined areas. . to achieve a minimum compressive strength of 690kPa (100 lb/in. and a 130 mm (5 in.” NCSPA. Care must be taken to raise the level of the slurry on either side of the pipe at about the same rate.). Granular material placed in lifts on each side of the pipe can be worked in under haunches and consolidated. To achieve proper compaction. Typical specifications describe a slurry with 40 kg (100 lb) of cement per meter. particularly where the native soil is not suitable or installation speed is critical. Slurry backfill can provide a viable alternative to the usual soil backfill. care should be exercised to avoid damaging the pipe during the compaction process.

CONSTRUCTION 307 Special Note: Pipe construction may involve hazardous materials. The principles discussed apply to most conditions. line. This chapter is intended both to call attention to good practice and to warn against possible pitfalls. concentrated loads during construction.) diameter CSP provide an underground stormwater detention system for a site. operations. . (4) Provide a uniform. (2) Make sure the length of the structure is correct. (8) Place and compact backfill as recommended. It is not intended to be a specification but merely a supplement to individual experience. (9) Protect structures from heavy. (5) Unload and handle structures carefully. This manual does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this manual to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.10. (6) Assemble the pipe properly. (10) Backfill subdrains with properly graded filter material. The following operations should be performed to insure a proper installation: (1) Check alignment and grade in relation to streambed. (3) Excavate to correct width. (7) Use a suitable backfill material. stable foundation. SUMMARY Proper installation of any drainage structure will result in longer and more efficient service. A twin run of 1200 mm (48 in. and grade. and equipment.

308 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Large diameter structures installed in difficult trench conditions using the advantage of long lengths. .

it is more practical to make certain that the basin is permitted to dry out between storms and during summer months. or mounting a still camera alongside the T. Such cover helps maintain soil porosity. Inspections can be on an annual or semi-annual basis. Other more economical alternate methods of inspection are also available. Various trade name flocculation agents are also available. Sedimentation basins and traps may require more frequent inspection and cleanout.1 BASINS Infiltration basin surfaces are sometimes scarified to break up silt deposits and restore topsoil porosity. It should be stressed that good records be kept on all maintenance operations to help plan future work and identify facilities requiring attention. volume of inflow and sediment load. Chemical flocculants can be used to speed up settlement in holding ponds. It is widely used in water treatment plants. Infiltration basins should be inspected at least once a year. This should be done when all sediment has been removed from the basin floor. camera and triggering it electronically. Flocculants should be added to the runoff water within the settlement pond inlet pipe or culvert where turbulence will ensure more thorough mixing. inexpensive and highly effective as a flocculating agent.V. After suspended matter has flocculated and settled in the pond. Inspection of pipes. but should always be conducted following major storms. Algae or bacterial growth can also inhibit infiltration. and wells can be accomplished with closed circuit television.309 CHAPTER 11 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Most of the following information was compiled by AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Task Force 17 on Storm Water Management. infiltration characteristics. Algae and bacteria will perish during dry spells. and still photographs can be obtained by either taking a picture of the monitor. . provided that standing water is dissipated. GENERAL Drainage systems should be inspected on a routine basis to ensure that they are functioning properly. Alum (Aluminum Sulfate) is readily available. Cleanout frequency of infiltration basins will depend on whether they are vegetated or non-vegetated and will be a function of their storage capacity. Although chemical flocculants may be impractical for general use. they might well be considered in special cases. this operation can be eliminated by the establishment of grass cover on the basin floor and slopes. covered trenches. Systems that incorporate infiltration are most critical since poor maintenance practices can soon render them inefficient. the water may be released into the infiltration basin for disposal. Procedures for maintenance of these systems are discussed in this chapter. Holding ponds or sedimentation basins can be used to reduce maintenance in conjunction with infiltration basins by settling out suspended solids before the water is released into the infiltration basin. However. While chlorination of the runoff water can solve this problem.

providing that drainage was good initially. of surface travel. Inasmuch as basins are usually accessible. by screening out suspended solids. forming a porous turf and preventing the formation of an impermeable layer.310 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Grass surfaces in infiltration basins seldom need replacement since grass serves as a good filter material. with consequent blocking of the perforations or slots in the well casing. Alternate wetting and drying builds up a scale of water-soluble minerals. Dirt or sand that has settled in the shaft or has clogged the casing perforations is forced out the top of the well. Rotary tillers or disc harrows with light tractors are recommended for maintenance of infiltration basins where grass cover has not been established. Maintenance methods associated with these systems are discussed later in this chapter. which is extremely hardy and can withstand several days of submergence. towed behind the equipment on the last pass. The subsequent disposal of silt and other sediments should comply with local area codes. If silty water is allowed to trickle through Bermuda grass. This is particularly true of Bermuda grass. this kind of operation is seldom expensive or difficult. Use of heavy equipment should be discouraged to prevent excessive compaction of surface soils. acid treatments or other procedures. Non-vegetated basins should be scarified on an annual basis following removal of all accumulated sediments. WELLS The same clogging and chemical reactions that retard basin and trench infiltration can affect wells to an even greater extent.) basins where a high runoff flows down a grassy slope between the roadway and the basin. Well established Bermuda grass on a basin floor will grow up through silt deposits. narrow. and it is then necessary to remove and clean it. Although the clogging of trenches due to silt and suspended material is more critical than that of basins. and looks attractive when trimmed. shoulder-type (swales. Coarse rock or pea gravel is often placed on the bottom of a drainage basin to prevent the formation of a filter cake on the soil. then injecting compressed air through a nozzle placed near the bottom of the shaft (refer to 4. Compressed Air Jet. of this chapter). The use of perforated pipe will minimize clogging by providing catchment for sediment without reducing overall efficiency. most of the suspended material is strained out within a few meter’s. . which removes silt and fines. After a period of operation the aggregate becomes partially clogged. will accomplish this. Jetting consists of partially filling a well with water. or replace it with new material. ditches. This could be done on an annual basis. Bermuda grass filtration would work well with long. Some agencies restore well efficiency by periodic jetting. Wells cleaned in this manner will operate fairly efficiently for several years. The basin floor should be left level and smooth after the tilling operation to ease future removal of sediment and minimize the amount of material to be removed during future cleaning operations. Bermuda demands very little attention besides summer irrigation in states having dry summers. One problem unique to wells is chemical encrustation of the casing. TRENCHES The clogging mechanism of trenches is similar to that associated with other infiltration systems. etc. A levelling drag. which can be broken up or dissolved by jetting. Planted on basin side slopes it will also prevent erosion. it is less critical than the clogging of vertical wells.

preference should be given where practicable to the use of filter materials that would facilitate maintenance. a 5-10 ppm dosage of chlorine should be added to the wells in question. MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION 311 Clogging due to silt and suspended material is much more critical in cased wells than in basins. the gravel packing. Should there be any signs of bacterial groundwater contamination. Filters or sedimentation basins and special maintenance procedures will help prevent silting up of wells. be removed for repair. Larger settling basins hold water longer for more efficient silt removal. or other deposits. Underground sediment traps in the form of drop inlets are frequently used with small wells. but these inlets do little more than trap the heaviest dirt and trash. Furthermore. Sand and gravel or other specially selected filter materials used in “gravel packed” wells cannot be removed for cleaning if they should become clogged.11. bacteria. Problems of corrosion of well screens can be eliminated by using slotted PVC pipes for well screens. . Generally. and chlorination or other chemical treatments may be necessary if biological growth or encrustation impedes drainage. Problems of clogging of gravel packing (and well walls) can often be minimized by using sediment traps and by treating the water to remove substances that will clog the soil. Exterior coatings are protected during installation by use of lifting lungs or slings. the PVC is not attacked by acids or other chemicals that are sometimes used for flushing wells to remove deposits that clog the gravel packing or the walls of wells. The importance of regular well maintenance cannot be over stressed. When infiltration well systems are being designed. Nor can well screens that become partially or totally clogged by corrosion. Periodic cleaning and redevelopment is essential. or the well screen. and provide some temporary storage volume at the same time. allowing finer suspended matter to flow into the well. It is important that those maintaining infiltration facilities that employ wells be knowledgeable of the kind of materials used in screens and other parts of the systems that could be damaged by acids and other corrosive substances. the only practical solution to the problem is to drill another well and abandon the inoperative one.

Filter bags can be used at street grade to reduce the frequency for cleaning catch basins and outflow lines. and cleaned much as a vacuum cleaner bag is cleaned. as discussed in the next section. When cased. or a new filter bag is inserted. designers should realize that it will be necessary to periodically remove the upper part of the filter material and clean it or replace it with clean material. In some situations this may not be practical.312 MODERN SEWER DESIGN If aggregate filter material is mounded over the infiltration well. Consideration should also be given to back flushing the well system using methods similar to those defined in earlier sections of this chapter. Whatever the problems. the bag is removed. Filter bags have been used successfully in Canada and various parts of the United States. fittings are available to solve them. which is fitted to the top of a well to trap sediment. When the inflow rate has decreased to the maximum tolerable amount. . Catch Basins Catch basins should be inspected after major storms and be cleaned as often as needed. Various techniques and equipment are available for maintenance of catch basins. gravel-packed wells are used. although some designers make use of a bag constructed of filter fabric. it would be impractical to use a fine aggregate filter.

which propels the nozzle forward as well as blasting debris toward the catch basin. It usually requires a 760 to 1200 l (200 to 300 gal) holding tank and a vacuum pump that has a 250 mm (10 in. bricks.11.) diameter pipe to carry the silty water and other debris to the surface. This equipment requires a holding tank for water and the removed debris. and sediment deposits. 1. MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION 313 METHODS AND EQUIPMENT FOR CLEANOUT OF SYSTEMS2 Various types of equipment are available commercially for maintenance of infiltration systems. the bucket travels in the direction of the flow and every time the bucket comes to the downstream manhole. Waterjet Spray This equipment is generally mounted on a self-contained vehicle with a high pressure pump and a 760 to 1200 l (200 to 300 gal) water supply. The well should be partially filled with water. The bucket is secured to the cables from each machine and is pulled back and forth through the section until the system is clean. When a length of pipe or trench is to be cleaned. As the hose line is reeled in. The machines are trailer-mounted.) wire cable. it is brought to the surface and emptied. This equipment is the most commonly available type. Generally. leaves. and are moved in tandem from site to site. The most frequently used equipment and techniques are listed below. with a clam shell type bottom that opens to allow the material to be dumped after removal. 2. The mobility of such equipment varies with the particular application and the equipment versatility. capable of holding 300 m (1000 ft) of 13 mm (1⁄2 in. usually with three wheels.) flexible hose line with a metal nozzle that directs jets of water out in front is used to loosen debris in pipes or trenches. 3. Bucket Line Bucket lines are used to remove sediment and debris from large pipes or trenches (over 1200 mm (48 in. and a 100 mm (4 in. This system can remove stones. the jetting action forces all debris to the catch basin where it is removed by the vacuum pump equipment. if required. A clutch and transmission assembly permits the drum to revolve in a forward or reverse direction. A two-man crew can clean a catch basin in 5 to 10 minutes. The machine employs a gasoline engine driven winch drum. The bucket is elongated. litter. The machines are set up over adjacent manholes. or to run free.) air lines. two machines are used. a diffusion chamber. Normal working depth is 0 to 6 m (0 to 20 ft). Compressed Air Jet The compressed air jet is normally used to clean and remove debris from vertical wells. As the silty water enters the diffusion chamber . and the compressed air injected through a nozzle near the bottom of the well. Because of the energy supplied from the water jet.) diameter or width). an air compressor. Buckets of various sizes are available.) diameter flexible hose with a serrated metal end for breaking up caked sediment. two 6 mm (1⁄4 in. A 76 mm (3 in. Vacuum Pumps This device is normally used to remove sediment from sumps and pipes and is generally mounted on a vehicle. a source of water supply (if the well is above the groundwater level). The nozzle can also emit umbrella-like jets of water at a reverse angle. The normal length of hose is approximately 60 m (200 ft). this method should not be used to clean trench walls that are subject to erosion. 4.

Sewer Jet Flushers The machine is typically truck-mounted and consists of a large watertank of at least 3800 l (1000 gal). Fire Hose Flushing This equipment consists of various fittings that can be placed on the end of a fire hose such as rotating nozzles. The depth is limited by the pumping capacity available. reduces the overall total installed cost. 7. etc. the surging and air jetting methods will be more effective if sodium polyphosphate is added to the water in the well prior to cleaning or redeveloping. A 2-5 ppm concentration of this chemical will deflocculate clay particles in the well and the immediately surrounding soil. it can be effective in removing light material from walls. Water can be supplied by either hydrant or truck. and pulls it into the well. a triple action water pump capable of producing 7000 kPa (1000 lb/in. 6. If the well is situated in clay soil or if clay materials have been washed into the well. a gasoline motor to run the pump. The process involves partially filling the well with water and then pumping a snugfitting plunger up and down within the casing. Surging and Pumping This procedure is another means of removing silt and redeveloping a well. 5.) disposal pipe and out of the top of the well by the denser water entering the bottom of the diffusion chamber intake. This action loosens silt and sediment lodged into the packing and the immediately adjacent soil. and Increaser. and the clay can then be pumped or jetted out very easily.) inside diameter high pressure hose.314 MODERN SEWER DESIGN (to which the other air line is connected) it becomes filled with entrained air and is forced up the 100 mm (4 in.2) or more pressure. . rotating cutters. Surging is immediately followed by pumping silt-laden water from the bottom of the well. Normal working depths are typically 0 to 20 m (0 to 75 ft). prefabricated in CSP. a hose reel large enough for 150 m (500 ft) of 25 mm (1 in. When this equipment is dragged through a pipe.

a questionnaire was mailed to the maintenance engineers of 50 southern cities. . The following systems were used to clean concrete storm sewers: Hand and water jet 5 Ropes. a minimum nozzle pressure of 4100 kPa is usually required. Replies were received from the following cities: ALABAMA Huntsville Anniston Tuscaloosa Mobile Florence GEORGIA Atlanta Macon TENNESSEE Jackson Chattanooga FLORIDA Jacksonville St. In order to clean pipes properly. The other 4 used rodding and flushing only. For sizes smaller than 800 mm (30 in. Pressure grouting was typically used to fill the void between the new pipe and existing structure. All material is flushed ahead of the nozzle by spray action. a minimum size of 800 mm (30 in.11. Periodic inspections were made in 10 of the cities to determine the need for cleaning and the useful life remaining in their storm drains. MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION 315 a hydraulic pump to remove the hose reel. sand and gravel infiltration and for general cleaning. pull-through devices for inspection and repair must be used. In maintaining storm sewers the following solutions to the problems shown were reported: Joint Separation Grout joints 6 Pour concrete collar 5 Replace 2 Hydraulic cement 1 Invert Failure Replace 6 Concrete invert 8 Structural Failure Replace 12 Repair 2 Four cities threaded a smaller diameter pipe within existing structures. REPORTED PRACTICE In 1973. buckets.) is recommended to permit access by maintenance personnel. fire hose 1 Water jet and vacuum hose 1 Rodder with cutting edge and water 5 Myers Machine 2 Ten of the cities used the same cleaning procedures for corrugated steel pipe. For high volume roads or expensive installations. This extremely mobile machine can be used for cleaning areas with light grease problems.). Petersburg Sarasota Pensacola Bradenton Thirteen of the fourteen used both concrete pipe and CSP for storm sewers.

which occurs long after first perforation. rehabilitation often requires merely providing a new wear surface in the invert. Even with 25% metal loss. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) recently has addressed the problem of rehabilitating existing concrete structures of all types. structural repair is unnecessary. rehabilitation often is very cost effective when compared to the alternative of new construction. CSP structures can be rehabilitated to provide a new.316 MODERN SEWER DESIGN REHABILITATION3 Rehabilitation of America’s infrastructure is a major undertaking now being addressed by federal. All of the methods described herein require a complete inspection and evaluation of the existing pipe to determine the best choice. . structural factors of safety are reduced by only 25%. However. if the pipe is structurally deficient. and local governments. This section deals mainly with the repair of corrugated steel pipe and/or steel structural plate or the use of CSP as a sliplining material. CSP storm sewers often provide factors of safety of 4 to 8—far in excess of that required for prudent design. Repair methods can be utilized and the structures restored to structural adequacy and then normal rehabilitation procedures performed. Concrete inverts can solve abrasion problems. While the magnitude of rehabilitation may at times appear enormous. Generally. When originally built. Methods of rehabilitating CSP structures are outlined here. this does not rule out rehabilitation. state. Storm sewers and highway culverts represent a significant portion of the infrastructure. Typically. With CSP. complete service life at a fraction of the cost or inconvenience of replacement.

1 or 2 in. For more severe conditions. The final design would be in the control of the Engineer and would obviously depend upon the extent of the deterioration of the pipe.11. • Reline existing structure.) 600 mm (24 in. Plain troweled concrete may be satisfactory for mild conditions of abrasion and flow. 64 mm (1.) Section A-A Figure 11.) 600 mm (2 ft) A 75 mm (3 in. a concrete pad may be placed in the invert. MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION 317 Methods of Rehabilitation • In-place installation of concrete invert.1 shows one method of reinforcing the pad and typical pad thickness.) 51 mm (2 in. . Depth of corrugation 13 mm. Slip line with slightly smaller diameter pipe or tunnel liner plate • Inversion lining • Shotcrete lining • Cement mortar lining In-Place Installation of Concrete Invert For larger diameters where it is possible for a person to enter the pipe.5 in.) long welded to crest of corrugation Typical Section 75 mm (3 in.)Concrete Pad Steel fabric reinforcement No. Figure 11. or 51 mm (1⁄2. 3⁄4. 25 mm. 6 gauge wire on 152 mm (6 in.) centers A 13 m (1/2 in.1 In-place installation of concrete invert.) Stud or angle. a reinforced pavement is required.

then your choice would necessarily have to be one of a material having full barrel cross section and possess sufficient structural capability to withstand the imposed dead and live loads. See Figure 11.2 Band is secured by rod around band connected by lugs. If sufficient clearance exists between the liner pipe and the existing line. then you may direct your attention only to the repair of the invert in most cases. The use of an internal expanding type coupling band is recommended to connect the sections if there is insufficient clearance on the outside of the liner pipe. .3. See Figure 11.2.318 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Relining Materials The selection of the reline material is dependent upon the condition of the pipe line to be rehabilitated and the diameter and/or shape. If the line has deteriorated to the point where it is deficient structurally. the sections may be joined by the use of a silo rod and lug type coupling band. Sliplining If downsizing of the existing line is not a concern. Rod & Lug Type Figure 11. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to select the material and method of relining dependent upon the pipeline’s rehab requirements. A hydraulic advantage may be gained by using helical corrugated steel pipe or spiral rib pipe if the existing pipe is annular corrugated. The following is a discussion of reline materials and methods of installing them. If you do not need to provide structural support. then the use of standard corrugated steel pipe AASHT0 M-36 or ASTM760 may be used and provided in lengths that would facilitate insertion.

MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION 319 Internal Type Figure 11.4 shows a typical section of a corrugated steel pipe fabricated for sliplining. Choices of this type of pipe include: 1. An alternative to the use of the conventional angles or lugs and bolts is to use sheet metal screws in conjunction with an installation jig.) adjusting rods on 3 m (10 ft) centers longitudinally Annular space filled with grout Existing Pipe “Guide Rails” (optional) Figure 11.11. 51 mm (2 in. . Spiral Rib CSP Figure 11. If the owner desires to maintain maximum hydraulic capacity of the line then the use of a smooth lined corrugated steel pipe is recommended.3 Internal expanding type coupling band. Double Wall CSP 4.5 m (5 ft) centers longitudinally (Spacing is dependent on diameter) Liner Pipe 19 mm (3⁄4 in.4 Typical section of corrugated steel pipe fabricated for sliplining.) diameter grout plugs on approximately 1. 100% Asphalt Lined 2. 100% Cement Mortar Lined 3.

ovoids. type of material. and the filler in the felt content. 3. Inversion lining with water is generally confined to pipelines with diameters less than 1500 mm (60 in. The cement mortar lining is applied in such a manner as to obtain a 13 mm (1⁄2 in. The following specifications should be considered: 1. which serves as the “form” for the liner. method of manufacture (straight or cross lap). and safety precautions for personnel and property. “Specifications for Materials. “Specifications for Concrete Aggregates’’ ASTM C 33.) in diameter. this process is highly technical. The water is added to the dry materials as it passes through the nozzle of the gun. shotcrete of equivalent aggregate-cement proportions usually is stronger because it permits placement with low water-to-cement ratios. When properly made and applied. If used.) minimum thickness over the top of the corrugations.320 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Inversion Lining Inversion lining is accomplished by using needle felt or polyester fiber. The felt variables include denier. felt liner. ambient temperatures. Cement Mortar Lining Cement mortar lining is particularly well suited to small diameter pipe that is not easily accessible. The quantity of water is controlled within certain limits by a valve at the nozzle.4% of the area of the lining in each direction. and existing structures make open excavation hazardous or extremely costly. It is normally applicable for distances of less than 60 m (200 ft) or where groundwater. air pressure is utilized for inversion techniques on larger diameter pipe. Low water ratios are required under ordinary conditions. A gun operated by compressed air is used to apply the cement mixture. and length of fiber. which vary with viscosity. The liner expands to fit the existing pipe geometry and therefore is applicable to egg-shaped. dense concrete. the cross-sectional area of reinforcement should be at least 0. the effects of ultraviolet light on the resin and catalyst.) and distances less than 300 m (1000 ft). Shotcrete Lining Shotcrete is a term used to designate pneumatically-applied cement plaster or concrete. soil condition. The cement and aggregate are machine or hand mixed and are then passed through a sieve to remove lumps too large for the gun. shotcrete is extremely strong. One side of the felt is coated with the polyurethane membrane and the other is impregnated with the thermosetting resin. Application operations . and resistant to weathering and chemical attack. For relining existing structures. The physical properties of the felt and chemicals must be determined for the specific project and in cooperation with prospective contractors. density. “Specifications for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete” ASTM C 494. Normally. The use of this method requires that the pipe be taken out of service during the rehabilitation period. Proportioning and Application of Shotcrete” “ACI 506. and arch pipe. the shotcrete should be from 50 to 100 mm (2 to 4 in. Compared with hand placed mortar.) thick depending on conditions and may not need to be steel reinforced. Other technical aspects include resin requirements. 2. Compared with other methods. Inversion lining has been utilized on lines from 100 to 2700 mm (4 to 108 in.

1987. Ontario. Compounds such as epoxies.. Mortar Mixer Generator Mortar hand loaded on mixer Winch Mortar Pump Mortar Line Finished mortar lining in place Cement throwing machine Conical trowel Cement mortar lining. Mar. “Infiltration Drainage of Highway Surface Water. the ease of maintenance associated with steel sewers is a major factor in economical sewer design. REFERENCES 1. E. Sept. . Research Report M&R 632820-1. R. Shirley. Thus. See Figure 11. Smith.R. Recommended Specifications for Sewer Collection System Rehabilitation. Smith. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. use of welding and mechanical fasteners for repair is applicable only to steel pipe. Sewer Maintenance Manual. prepared by Municipal Engineers Association of Ontario for Ministry of the Environment.. Peter. which are used in bridge and paving repair. 62 WPCF Manual of Practice No. 3. Canada.E. which shows a typical set-up for this process. A number of the above procedures are applicable to both concrete and steel pipe.” NCSPA Drainage Technology Bulletin. 1988. However. 1983.. 1969. Figure 11. California Department of Transportation. 2. General Numerous patching compounds are commercially available.5 Cement mortar lining. National Association of Sewer Service Companies.5. BIBLIOGRAPHY Existing Sewer Evaluation and Rehabilitation. Both plain and reinforced concrete can be used. W. The most common practice uses a centrifugal machine capable of projecting the mortar against the wall of the pipe without rebound—but with sufficient velocity to cause the mortar to be densely packed in place.C. 1974. T. R. Aug.. “Rehabilitation of Corrugated Steel Pipe and Pipelines of Other Materials.” Transportation Laboratory.11. FD-6. MAINTENANCE AND REHABILITATION 321 should be performed in an uninterrupted manner. can be used.

322 MODERN SEWER DESIGN .

These are the basic units of measure for the whole system. Derived units with special names and symbols Some derived units are used more frequently than others. For example. Units formed are known as derived units. this indicates that the bracketed portion is to be computed first. division or a combination of both. and is shown symbolically as m/s (meters per second). the SI unit for linear velocity is the meter divided by the second. a moment of force is expressed as newton meter. Where brackets occur in a symbol. and these are shown in Table C3. The oblique stroke placed between symbols indicates that the first base unit is divided by the second base unit. It has been found convenient to give the most frequently used derived units their own names and symbols. and written N•m. to eliminate using lengthy names and symbols formed from the base units. A dot placed midway between base unit symbols indicates that the units are multiplied. For example. it is called the “newton” and is expressed by the symbol “N”. . would be “kilogram meter per second squared” (kg•m/s2). Table C1 SI base units Quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity Name meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela Symbol m kg s A K mol cd Table C2 SI supplementary units Quantity plane angle solid angle Name radian steradian Symbol rad sr DERIVED UNITS General Derived units are combinations of base units. For example. if expressed in terms of base units. There are 15 derived units with special names and symbols. the unit for force. In fact.323 Conversion Tables SI BASE UNITS There are seven base (Table C1) and two supplementary units (Table C2) in the SI system. All other SI units are formed by combining base and supplementary units through multiplication.

i. potential difference.e. the name and symbol for linear acceleration is formed from two base units. and derived SI units which have their own names and symbols. electric charge electric potential. “newton meter”. “meter per second squared” and is written m/s2. quantity of heat power. work. radiant flux quantity of electricity. The name and symbol for moment of force is formed from a derived unit and a base unit. electromotive force electric capacitance electric resistance electric conductance magnetic flux magnetic flux density inductance luminous flux illuminance Name hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb Symbol Hz N Pa J W C volt farad ohm siemens weber tesia henry lumen lux V F V S Wb T H lm lx m2•kg•s–3•A–1 m–2•kg–1•s4•A2 m2•kg•s–3•A–2 m–2•kg–1•s3•A2 m2•kg•s–2•A–1 kg•s–2•A–1 m2•kg•s–2•A–2 cd•sr m–2•cd•sr OTHER DERIVED UNITS Derived units listed in Table 4 have names and symbols formed from base. (N•m). supplementary. stress energy.324 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table C3 SI derived units with special names Expressed in terms of base and supplementary units s–1 m•kg•s–2 m–1•kg•s–2 m2•kg•s–2 m2•kg•s–3 s•A Quantity frequency force pressure. For example. .

• The unit has a very limited and well-defined use. . usually for one of four reasons:– • The unit is beyond human control. Examples of such units are minutes and hours. flux density permittivity current density magnetic field strength permeability molar energy molar entropy. specific entropy specific energy thermal conductivity energy density electric field strength electric charge density surface density of charge. mass density concentration (amount of substance) specific volume luminance dynamic viscosity moment of force surface tension heat flux density. entropy specific heat capacity. e. the parsec. molar heat capacity radiant intensity indicated by symbol m–1•kg•s–1 m2•kg•s–2 kg•s–2 kg•s–3 m2•kg•s–2•K–1 m2•s–2•K–1 m2•s–2 m•kg•s–3•K–1 m–1•kg•s–2 m•kg•s–3•A–1 m–3•s•A m–2•s•A m–3•kg–1•s4•A2 indicated by symbol m•kg•s–2•A–2 m2•kg•s–2•mol–1 m2•kg•s–2•K–1•mol–1 m2•kg•s–3s•r –1 NON-SI UNITS USED WITH THE SI Some non-SI Units (Table C5) are used with SI. degrees of arc. irradiance heat capacity. the day.g. a unit of stellar distance. • The use of the unit is so ingrained internationally that the disruption resulting from a change would far outweigh any benefits gained.CONVERSION TABLES 325 Table C4 Quantity SI derived units without special names Description square meter cubic meter meter per second radian per second meter per second squared radian per second squared 1 per meter kilogram per cubic meter mole per cubic meter cubic meter per kilogram candela per square meter pascal second newton meter newton per meter watt per square meter joule per kelvin joule per kilogram kelvin joule per kilogram watt per meter kelvin joule per cubic meter volt per meter coulomb per cubic meter coulomb per square meter farad per meter ampere per square meter ampere per meter henry per meter joule per mole joule per mole kelvin watt per steradian Symbol m2 m3 m/s rad/s m/s2 rad/s2 m–1 kg/m3 mol/m3 m3/kg cd/m2 Pa•s N•m N/m W/m2 J/K J/(kg•K) J/kg W/(m•K) J/m3 V/m C/m3 C/m2 F/m A/m2 A/m H/m J/mol J/(mol•K) W/sr Description of base units area volume speed – linear speed – angular acceleration – linear acceleration – angular wave number density. e. • The unit is being retained for a limited time until a satisfactory replacement has been formulated.g. etc.

When divided by 1000 it becomes a millimeter (mm). a consistent method of multiplying or dividing units exists for all types of measurement.66053 x 10–27 kg 1 AU = 149. Similarly. a newton multiplied by 1000 becomes a kilonewton (kN) and.1 nm = 10–10 m 1 a = 102 m2 1 ha = 104 m2 1 bar = 100 kPa 1 atm = 101. and a corresponding symbol is attached to the unit symbol. The multiplying factors are shown in Table C6.326 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table C5 Non-SI units Unit minute hour day degree (of arc) minute (of arc) second (of arc) l tonne degree Celsius electronvolt unit of atomic mass astronomical unit parsec nautical mile knot Symbol min h d ° ‘ “ L t °C eV u pc Value in SI units 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 3600 s 1 d = 86400 s 1° = (p/180) rad 1’ = (p/10800) rad 1” = (p/648000) rad 1 L = 1 dm3 1 t = 103 kg Condition of use Permissible universally with SI Permissible in specialized fields 1 eV = 0.325 kPa kn Å a ha bar atm Permissible for a limited time ångström are hectare bar standard atmosphere MULTIPLES AND SUBMULTIPLES In SI. Example: If the original unit is a meter (m).160219 aj 1 u = 1. when divided by 1000 it becomes a millinewton (mN). when multiplied by 1000 it becomes a kilometer (km).600 Gm 1 pc = 30857 Tm 1 nautical mile = 1852 m 1 nautical mile per hour = (1852/3600) m/s 1 Å = 0. . Prefixes are employed attached to the unit to indicate multiples or sub-multiples of the unit.

as applied to linear measurement.01 0.000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 ENGINEERING CONVERSION UNITS It is useful to have conversion units to simplify calculations when working between the U.S.000 001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.001 0.01 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 Note: The SI prefixes in Table C6.1 0.1 0.000 000 001 0. .CONVERSION TABLES 327 Table C6 SI prefixes Multiplying factor SI prefix = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10–1 10–2 10–3 10–6 10–9 10–12 10–15 10–18 tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto SI symbol T G M k h da d c m m n p f a 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 100 10 0.000 000 000 000 001 0. are as shown in Table C7.001 0. Table C8 has been specifically designed to include those units most likely to be encountered in engineering calculations relevant to this handbook.000 000 000 000 001 0. Table C7 SI unit terrameter gigameter megameter kilometer hectometer decameter meter decimeter centimeter millimeter micrometer nanometer picometer femtometer attometer Metric linear measure units Symbol Tm Gm Mm Km hm dam m dm cm mm mm nm pm fm am Equivalent in meters 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 100 10 1 0. traditional and SI systems.

242 80 x 10–2 1.129 85 x 10–1 1.290 30 x 10–2 8.361 27 x 10–1 4.977 64 x 10–2 1.937 01 x 10–2 3.042 27 x 10–2 8.051 52 x 102 3.531 47 x 10 5.937 01 x 10–2 1.319 80 x 10 Name acceleration (gravitational) area see also section properties area per unit length bearing capacity.831 68 x 10–2 1.54 x 10 3.328 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table C8 Engineering conversion units Factors by which values must be multiplied to convert from SI units m/s2 m2 U.365 86 3.601 85 x 10 9.612 73 x 10–5 6.199 69 x 10–1 2. lbf ft in.550 00 x 10–3 1.365 86 x 10–3 6.576 80 x 10–2 Metric to Traditional 3.088 54 x 10 1.S.885 78 x 10–1 3.046 86 x 10–1 2.002 24 x 10 6.767 99 x 104 1.051 52 x 102 2.831 68 x 10 7.0 x 10–3 3.546 09 4.2 ft2 yd2 acre mile2 m2/m in2/in.894 76 4.546 09 4.375 62 x 10–1 3.699 01 2.724 41 x 10–4 1.531 47 x 10–2 1.850 75 7.788 03 x 10–2 9.0 x 103 2.641 72 x 10–1 1.861 02 x 10–1 3.546 09 3.199 69 x 10–1 2.937 01 x 10–2 4. mil or thou oz/ft2 oz/(ft2•a) mil/a g/cm3 lb/in.570 88 x 102 1.471 05 3.199 69 x 10–1 2.724 41 x 10–1 4.076 39 x 10 1.54 x 10 2.277 06 x 10–3 3.3 lb/ft3 lb/gal lb/ft3 lb/ft3 m3/s ft3/s ft3/min Equivalent metric units m/s2 mm2 cm2 m2 m2 ha km2 mm2/mm mm2/mm mm2/m kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 Nm Nm mm mm g/m2 g/(m2•a) mm/a kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/liter N/m3 kN/m3 or Traditional to metric 3. soils N/m2 bending moment coating thickness coating weight corrosion rate mass per area unit time depth per unit time density mass density N-m m kg/m2 g/(m2•s) m/s kg/m3 density equivalent to determine force flow volume basis m3/s m3/min or m3/h ft3/h m3/h gal(Cdn)/s liter/s gal(Cdn)/min liter/min gal(Cdn)/h liter/h gal(US)/s liter/s gal/m m3/s ft3/s L/s gal/m L/s .576 06 x 10 1.450 38 x 10–1 2.208 84 1.531 47 x 10 3.589 99 2.785 41 7.550 00 x 10–1 1.116 67 x 103 6. in2/ft in2/ft lbf/in2 lbf/ft2 tonf/ft2 lbf in.116 67 2.570 88 x 10–1 2.54 x 10 1.4516 9. Traditional units ft/s2 in.831 68 x 10–2 2.531 47 x 10 2.540 00 x 10 2.084 x 10–1 6.4516 x 102 6.937 01 x 10–2 3.576 80 x 10–5 2.195 99 2.831 68 x 10–2 4.355 82 2.277 06 x 10–3 3.319 80 x 104 3.

3/ft in.86 x 10–5 6.806 65 1. mil in.3/in.459 39 x 10–2 1. moment of inertia.CONVERSION TABLES 329 Table C8 Engineering conversion units (continued) Factors by which values must be multiplied to convert from SI units N U.896 44 9.4 Equivalent metric units N kN kN N N/m kN/m N/m kN/m mm mm mm m km km kg kg/m2 kg/m MPa (N/mm2) kPa kPa kPa mm3 mm4 Traditional to metric 4.488 16 6.719 69 x 10–1 1.451 60 x 102 5.204 62 2.019 72 x 10–1 6.710 15 x 10–3 5.751 27 x 102 1. S second moment of area.937 01 x 10–2 3.853 4.450 38 x 10–1 2.402 51 x 10–6 Name force force per unit length N/m linear measurement m mass mass per unit area mass per unit length modulus of elasticity pressure (stress) kg kg/m2 kg/m Pa Pa 6. I section properties per unit length: modulus of section per unit length moment of inertia per unit length m3 m4 m3/m m4/m in.397 01 x 10–2 3.86 x 10–2 1.54 x 10 2.44822 4.450 38 x 102 1. in.54 x 10 3.376 35 x 10 5.3 in.376 35 x 104 1.852 18 x 10 5.894 76 x 10–3 Metric to Traditional 2.S.248 09 x 10–1 2.576 05 x 10 1.322 85 x 10–7 .2 lbf/ft2 tonf/ft2 in.788 03 x 10–2 9.396 65 x 10–1 2.102 37 x 10–5 2.044 27 x 10–2 6.751 27 x 10–1 (N/mm) 2.248 09 x 102 1.088 54 x 10 1.2 lbf/in.638 71 x 104 4.55 x 10–3 1.459 39 x 10 1.365 59 x 103 1.852 18 x 10–2 6.4/in. in.280 84 x 10–3 3. ft ft statute mi nautical mi lb(avdp) lb/ft2 lb/ft lbf/in.280 84 6.162 31 x 105 section properties: first moment of area.365 59 x 106 1.102 37 x 10–5 7.124 04 x 10–1 1. modulus of section.882 43 1.084 16 x 10–1 6. lbf/in.3/ft in.4/ft in.710 15 3. Traditional units lbf lbf tonf kgf lbf/ft lbf/ft lbf/in.638 71 x 104 1.535 92 x 10–1 4.084 x 10–1 1.084 x 102 3.448 22 x 10–3 8.4/ft mm3/mm mm3/mm mm3/m mm4/mm mm4/mm mm4/m 6.609 35 1.894 76 4.322 85 x 10–4 7.213 71 x 10–1 5.

8696044.0057003 π2 π = 1.9942997 1 = 0. b=r+y– r2 – x2 y=b–r+ r2 – x2 x= r2 – (r + y – b)2 π = 3. A = 180º a = 57.7724539.3183099. d = 4 b + c 8b 4b Chord.27324 0.4971499 1 = 0.2957795.31831 Diameter of Circle of equal periphery as square = side Side of Square of equal periphery as circle = diameter Diameter of Circle circumscribed about square = side Side of Square inscribed in Circle = diameter x x x x 1. log = 1. log =1.1013212. b = r – 1/2 4 r 2 4 4 Arc.41421 0. r = 4 b + c Diameter.” r c . log = 0.2418774 180 180 = 57. a= Rise.14159265 Circumference of Circle = 2 π r Dia of Circle = Circumference x 0.78540 1. log = 0. c = 2 2 b r – b2 = 2 r sin Aº 2 2 – c2 = c tan Aº = 2 r sin2 A Rise.29578 r πr 2 2 2 2 Radius. log = 1.14159265.70711 a x y b Aº d π r Aº = 0.7514251 π = 0.330 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Table C9 Properties of the Circle* Circumference of Circle of Dia 1 = π = 3.0174533. log = 0.5028501 π π2 = 9. log = 2. log = 1.017453 r Aº 180 a Angle.5641896.7581226 π * From Carnegie’s “Pocket Companion.2485749 1 π = 0.

log = 1.78540 1. b=r+y– r2 – x2 y=b–r+ r2 – x2 x= r2 – (r + y – b)2 π = 3. r = 4 b + c Diameter.0174533.0057003 π2 π = 1.5028501 π π2 = 9.31831 Diameter of Circle of equal periphery as square = side Side of Square of equal periphery as circle = diameter Diameter of Circle circumscribed about square = side Side of Square inscribed in Circle = diameter x x x x 1.3183099. log =1.” r c .14159265. log = 0.41421 0. a= Rise. log = 0.5641896.14159265 Circumference of Circle = 2 π r Dia of Circle = Circumference x 0.7581226 π * From Carnegie’s “Pocket Companion. log = 2.2485749 1 π = 0.017453 r Aº 180 a Angle.9942997 1 = 0.4971499 1 = 0. log = 1.27324 0.2957795.70711 a x y b Aº d π r Aº = 0.331 General Tables Table G1 Properties of the Circle* Circumference of Circle of Dia 1 = π = 3.7724539. A = 180º a = 57.29578 r πr 2 2 2 2 Radius. log = 0.8696044.7514251 π = 0. c = 2 2 b r – b2 = 2 r sin Aº 2 2 – c2 = c tan Aº = 2 r sin2 A Rise. log = 1. d = 4 b + c 8b 4b Chord.1013212. b = r – 1/2 4 r 2 4 4 Arc.2418774 180 180 = 57.

87 1.0 2.0 7.3 1.97 Maximum (mm) 1.70 5.8 10 13 16 22 33 33 Table G2 Nominal Thickness2 (mm) 1. .0 1 2 Canandian Standard Thickness1 for Corrugated Steel Pipe Minimun (mm) 2.60 7.30 4.42 1.13 1.18 3.70 6.70 3.70 Weight (mass)3 (kg/m2) 24 31 39 47 55 Thickness is based on CSA G401-93 Nomonal thickness includes base metal thickness excluding zinc coating 3 Weight is based on nominal thickness.27 3.6 2.2 1 2 Thickness is based on CSA G401-93 Nomonal thickness includes base metal and metallic coating 3 Weight is based on nominal thickness.00 4.60 6.70 4.82 2. Table G2 Nominal Thickness2 (mm) 3.60 3.30 5.70 Maximum (mm) 3.78 2.0 4.15 1.43 Weight (mass)3 (kg/m2) 7.5 4.8 3.0 6.45 1.43 4.0 5.332 GENERAL TABLES Canandian Standard Thickness1 for Corrugated Steel Pipe Minimun (mm) 0.0 1.

259-266 . 76-77 D Deflection 223 Depression storage 72-73. 30-31 For elbows for round CSP T1.18.15M . minimum cover for T7.T1.14M T1.15. classifications of 98 Chemical analyses 58-60 Cleanout of systems 313-315 Coatings 43.18M . 12-13 Assembly of CSP field units 246-248 Combination system 204-208 Compressed air jet for cleanout 313-314 Computer programs 92-93.T3. 73 Depth of cover T7. table number and page number (T4. 28-29 B Backfilling procedure 215.9.18. 230-236 Design And bids on pipe. 179. Chapter 10 287-307 Plans in sewer excavation 287 Contents iv-vii Conversion tables 323-330 Corrosion From soil 251-252 From soil vs. 32-33 Arch (pipe-) layout details T1.17.T7. description 1 Antecedent Moisture Conditions (AMC) 73 Arch channels 22 Arch (pipe-) elbow fittings. The chapters and prime references are show in bold face.17.10M .T7. 277 Concrete-Lined pipe 41 Connectors 23-26 Construction.15M . Chapter 7 217-249 Techniques 203-204 Detention facilities 185-187 Detention pond 185-187 Dewatering of trenches 295-296 Dimensions For CSP pipe-arch elbow fittings T1. 303-306 Backwater analysis in hydraulic design 142-151 Basins. 237-241 Alignment changes of CSP 302-303 Allowable span T7.3. T3.5 . Corrections or suggestions are invited. Tables are indicated by T followed by chapter. 182.14.T1. alternate 273-275 Of stormwater detention facilities 189193 Structural. 296-298 Systems 24-26 Critical flow depth 99-103 Curve numbers T3.15. 227-228. T7. minimum dimensions T1.6 .6.T7. 32-33 For CSP round fittings T1. maintenance on 309-310 Bend losses 125 Bernoulli equation 99-100 Blue-green storage 194 Bucket line for cleanout 313 C Catch Basin(s) 36 Maintenance on 312 Reinforcing 38 Tops 37 Channel flow. 121).13M T1.333 General Index The scope of this book can best be determined by the Contents on pages iv through vii.13.6M T1. 256-257.T7.14M .13. A Abrasion level 259 Aerial sewers 242-244 Aircraft loads. 243-244 Alternate designs and bids on pipe 273276 Annular CSP. electrical resistivity 252 From water 253 Corrosiveness of soils 252 Corrugated Steel Pipe Annular 1 Data 1-22 Helical 1 Sizes 2 Cost savings in alternate design 276 Couplings 262-264.

110. 24 General Tables 331-332 Ground water Monitoring 61 Quality process 58-60 H Handling weight of CSP T1. dimensions.2 .7MT5.13. CSP 27 Flooding 97 Flow regulators 194 . 172-173 Jump 121 Properties of conduits T4.15.2M-T5.334 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Disclaimer iii Double wall (steel lined) 42 Drain inlets. T1. 3-10 Helical CSP. 180-181 In a major/minor system 176 Friction losses 103-112 Equation 112-119 J Joint Properties of 247-248 Type 246 K Kutter equation 115 . 28-33.1M . 246-248 Field layouts. T4. 111 Of storm sewers.10. 147-149 Solution T5. 57 Excavation of trenches 289-296 Exfiltration Analysis 209 Calculations 209-210 I Indirect method of soil investigation and infiltration tests 203 Infiltration 51 Basins 196 Rate of. T1.10M T5.4.T5.T4. T1.15M -T1.13M . 244. maintenance on 309-312 Trench 196-198 Interior coatings Storm sewers 256-257 F Field joints 24.3. minimum T1.T4.1.3M . Chapter 3 63-95 E Elbows. Chapter 2 47-61 Durability Chapter 8 251-269 Coatings 256-257 Design. 32-33 Energy loss In hydraulic design 102. methods for determining 152-158 Calculations T5.1. 143-144 Entrance loss 123 Coefficient T4. bends and other structures 122-126 Foundation drains 53-55 Collector (FDC) 54-55 Collector design sheet T5. T5.195 Form losses in junction. 28-29. 218 Loadings 217 Hydraulics Alternative.15. Example of 266 Factors affecting CSP 251-253 Field studies of 254-256 In soil 251-252 In water 253 Project design life 259 Service Life 259-266 Durability Guidelines 259 G Gaskets 24-25.7. 146. Chapter 4 97-139 Of storm inlets 127-137 Hydrograph method of stormwater detention 189-193 Hydrology.4. 242 Fittings and sewer appurtenances.5 .7.12.15. description of 1 Highway Live loads T7.2. factors 200-201 Systems. slotted 41 Drainage From Storms. alignments and installation 299-303 Field tests 201 Fire hosing flushing for cleanout 314 Fittings 27. 128 Environmental considerations 55-58 EPA regulations (proposed) T2.T1.13M T1.T1.

Steel. 221 Strength 247 .14. Chapter 1 1-44 Profiles of pipe T1.17. 163-169 Manhole Junction losses 124-125 Manhole(s) 36 Ladder 39 Reinforcing 38 Slip joints 38 Steps 40 Tops 37 Manning Formula 112-115 Materials Description and specifications T1.14M . 14 Lead contamination 59-60 Life Cycle Cost Analysis 277 Calculations 281-284 Economic Assumptions Borrowing rates 280 Discount rate 279 Inflation 280 Residual value 280 Engineering Assumptions Material Service Life 279 Project Design Life 278-279 Linear recharge system 203 Live loads. 217 Loadings in structural design 217-218 Loss of head T4. 66 Intensity duration frequency T5.6M . 165-169 Moment Of inertia and cross-sectional area T7.1.8. 49 Of storm drainage facilities 159-162.T4.T1. 123-124 P Pavings 43 Perforated pipe 12 In recharge trenches 213-214 Permeability coefficients T6.T4.321 Major drainage system 47.18. 112 Manning’s formula T4.5.16M T1. 252 Retention Wells 199 Rooftop detention 187 Roughness and friction formula Coefficients T4. 49. 166 Rational method. 218 Loadings 217 Rainfall Estimation 64 Hyetographs 65-69 Intensities 65. 113-114 M Maintenance. highway and railway T7.T1.17.GENERAL INDEX 335 L Law of conservation 98 Layout Details for CSP pipe-arches T1. 44 Metal contamination 59 Minimum cover for aircraft loads T7. 201 Pipe-arches 224 Elbow fittings T1.1. 2 Protective coatings 256-257 R Railway Live loads T7. 12-13 Pipe backfill 215 Planning of urban drainage systems 49 Point source and recharge system 204 Pollution and runoff 50-53 Preface iii Product usage guidelines 258 Products.19M .4.9.10. 32-33 Sizes and layout details T1. 12-13 Details for structural plate pipe-arches T1.2M . 237-241 Minor system of storm drainage facilities 47.2.T7.T7. limitations of 72-73 Recharge trenches Construction of 212-215 References Durability 267-269 Hydraulics of storm sewers 138-139 Hydrology 94-95 Maintenance and rehabilitation 321 Storm drainage planning 61 Stormwater detention and subsurface disposal 215 Structural design 248-249 Value engineering and life cycle cost analysis 285 Rehabilitation 316-321 Reline materials 318-321 Reported maintenance practice 315 Resistivity values (typical) T8.15M .12 . Sewer.15.7.16. Chapter 11 309 .T1.1.1M.9M . 15-18 Details for structural plate circular pipe T1.

T1.1. 86-87 Rectangular 87-88 . Steel. 221 Construction 302 Detention 185 Unit hydrograph Determination 85-86 Methods of S. T1.7M . 30. Chapter 1 1-44 Shapes of CSP T1. 2 Shear strength 247 Sizes of CSP T1. 170-171 Installation 287-307 Jet flushers 314-315 Products.5.31 Runoff Coefficients 723-73. environmental considerations 55-58 S Saddle branches 34. 76 Determination of hydrograph of 85-92 Estimation of 71-72 Quantity of.7. 172-173 Management 48 Subsurface disposal of 196-199 Stormwater Detention and Subsurface Disposal.2.T1.10.S.14M . 2.1. Chapter 5 141182 Stormwater Detention facilities 185-187 Detention facilities. 74 Curve numbers T3.9M .2M . 303 Sewer Appurtenances 27-40 Design (storm) preliminary T5.6M T5.8.4. moment of inertia and cross-section area T7. cohesionless 292-293 Conditions 246 Investigation and infiltration tests 200-203 Subsurface information 287-288 Tightness 247 Spiral rib steel pipe 42 Stable slope angles for various cohesionless materials T10.C. manhole 38 Slotted drain inlets 41 Soil Cohesive vs. Chapter 1 1-44 Stiffness of pipes 220-222 Storm Drainage Planning. 15-18 Subsurface soil information 287-288 Surface detention 185-187 Surface infiltration and runoff 51 Surface water profiles in hydraulic design 120-121 Surging and pumping for cleanout 314 Synthetic filter fabrics 215 T Testing joint tightness 298 Thickness of pipe T1.1. dimensions Minimum T1.T5. sizes and layout details T1.T7.11M T1. 293 Steel Sewer Products. 19-22 Pipe description 1 Pipe-Arches. layout of 159 Storm runoff. Chapter 2 47-61 Facilities. Chapter 7 217-249 For CSP field joints 244 Structural plate Arches.11.7.14.T1. T3.6M .12 Time of concentration 79-81 Transitions 35 Losses (open channel) 122 Losses (pressure flow) 122-123 Trench Construction in noncohesive soil or sand 212 Construction in permeable rock and/or stable soil 212 Dewatering 295-297 Excavation 289-296 Maintenance 310 Shape 291-292 Stability 292-293 Stabilization systems 293-296 U Underground Conduits. environmental considerations of 55-58 Storm sewers Hydraulic design of. design of 159-182 Facilities. Chapter 6 185-215 Strength considerations in structural design 219-220 Structural Design. reduction of 50-53 Waters. representative sizes T1. 1214 Slip joints.336 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Round fittings. design of 189-193 Inlet capacities T5.

51 W Water quality Effects of runoff on 53 Process (ground) 58-60 Waterjet spray for cleanout 313 Watertightness 248 Waterway areas for standard sizes of CSP T4. maintenance of 310-312 Z Zero increase in stormwater runoff 48 .T1.4.1M .3M .1. 108-109 Weight of CSP T1. 3-10 Wells.T4. Chapter 9 271-285 Volume reduction measures T2.GENERAL INDEX 337 V Vacuum pumps for cleanout 313 Value Engineering and Least Cost Analysis.1.

338 MODERN SEWER DESIGN Notes .

GENERAL INDEX 339 Notes .