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Public Policy Syllabus

Public Policy Syllabus

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DR. AMBAKISYE DUKUZUMURENYI
LECTURER
FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
TUMAINI UNIVERSITY IRINGA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
IRINGA, TANZANIA EAST AFRIKA
DR. AMBAKISYE DUKUZUMURENYI
LECTURER
FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
TUMAINI UNIVERSITY IRINGA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
IRINGA, TANZANIA EAST AFRIKA

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PUBLIC POLICY
SPRING 2012 MONDAY 16:00 – 18:00 PM RM: CAFE-2 TUESDAY 18:00 – 20:00 PM RM: OLD LIBRARY RESERVE
Ambakisye-Okang Quaashie Nantambu Olatunde Dukuzumurenyi
Ph.D., Public Policy Analysis Southern University A&M College, United States of America M.P.A., Masters of Public Administration Grambling State University, United States of America B.A., History Grambling State University, United States of America Certificate, Secondary Education Level 3 Teaching Certificate Louisiana, United States of America Certificate, Entrepreneurship & Small Business Development University of Louisiana Monroe & Northeast Louisiana Delta Community Development Corporation Areas of Specialization: Afrikana History, Public Administration, Public Policy, Educational Pedagogy, Philosophy of Education & Curriculum Development, Political Philosophy, Economic Development, Entrepreneurship, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Public Health Management, Afrikan Traditional Religions, Afrikan Traditional Political and Economic Institutions, Economic Sociology, Political Sociology, Political Psychology
Office: E-6 FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS Hours: MONDAY 10:00 - 16:00 TUESDAY 10:00 – 18:00 WEDNESDAY 10:00 - 18:00 THURSDAY 10:00 – 14:00 FRIDAY 10:00 – 18:00 Telephone: OfficeExt. 147 Mobile0718 117300 Email: Ambakisye.Dukuzumurenyi.IUCo@gmail.com

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Tumaini University Iringa University College Honor Code Guidelines The Professor, under the watchful eyes of the Creator, the Ancestors, and the Beautiful Ones Who Are Not Yet Born, Pledges to Guide You in the Process of Education according to the High Standards of Cultural Excellence set by Our Afrikan Ancestors, the first Humans to Walk Upon the face of the Earth, Worship the Creator, Build Cities, and Erect Civilizations that existed for Millennia. What I think, is what I shall speak. What I speak, is what I shall do. I shall think, speak, and do Maat: the Ancient Afrikan Concept of Justice. I shall be Impartial and Just in thought, act and deed. Furthermore, the Professor Pledges to Guide You in the Process of Education according to the Tumaini University Iringa University College Honor Code Guidelines on Academic Integrity. The University has a commitment to maintaining an atmosphere of Intellectual Integrity and Academic Honesty. Students pledge to knowingly neither give, nor receive any inappropriate assistance in academic work [Academic Dishonesty consisting of Cheating, Fabrication, Facilitating Academic Dishonesty, and Plagiarism], thus maintaining a personal commitment to Honor and Integrity. You are requested to read the Tumaini University Iringa University College Prospectus for detailed explanation. Included in this publication are rules and regulations governing student rights and responsibilities, disciplinary sanctions, penalties, violations, and other type of offenses.

Course Description This course will introduce students to the field of Public Policy from a multidisciplinary inquiry based Afrikan perspective. Concepts, ideas and theories will be drawn from Afrikana Studies, Cultural Anthropology, Political Anthropology, History, Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy, Geography, Linguistics, Political Science, and Economics. The use of this methodology will serve to broaden the discussion and analysis and center it within the Afrikan subjective historical experience. The multidisciplinary inquiry will be conducted through the analysis of the major socio-historical, socio-cultural, socioeconomic, and socio-political issues, philosophies, paradigms and political science perspectives of the local, and national Tanzanian political economic arena, the East Afrikan political economic arena, the sub-Saharan Afrika political economic arena, the continental Afrikan political economic arena, the Afrikan Diaspora political economic arena and the International political economic arena. Along with a survey of the discipline of Public Policy Studies, which includes the approaches and processes of public policy making, public policy analysis, public policy design, public policy implementation and evaluation, the key concepts and public policies to be addressed
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include: land reform, land tenure, Agricultural production, Agricultural management, Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution, public policy and economic theory, political communication, power, the nation-state, nation-building, reconstruction, imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, delinking, liberation, enslavement, mal-development, socio-economic and sociopolitical change, resistance, and the methods of violent and nonviolent political participation („legitimate political action‟- voting, particularized contacting, and civil disobedience, war, terrorism and state terrorism), the political ideologies of liberalism, neo-liberalism, Ujamaa, Privatization, conservatism, Marxism, Capitalism, nationalism, Black/Afrikan Nationalism, Black/Afrikan Consciousness, Afrikan traditional political egalitarianism, feminism, environmentalism and programmatic Pan-Afrikanism, Afrikan Identity, Afrikan Citizenship and Afrikan Nationality; the organization and policies of major political systems; institutions of governance; executives, legislatures, and courts; the international dimensions of local and national Tanzanian political and economic public policies. The method of analysis utilized will, from an Afrikan perspective, first locate the student as a centered active participant, a major factor of Afrikan political and economic “…agency and accountability…” and second, “…locate the imaginative structure...” of the political arenas and key concepts in their “…attitude, direction, and language…” by analyzing “…text, institution, personality, interaction, or event.” These themes provide frameworks to interpret and analyze current events, locate them as either central or peripheral to the Tanzanian and Afrikan experience and evaluate their impact on the nature of domestic and international public policy and its effect on Tanzania, East and continental Afrika and the Afrikan Diaspora. To do so the student must assume a principal role as a representative and servant of Afrikan people and their advancement. Parallel goals of this course include developing effective Kiswahili and English reading, writing, active listening and speaking skills, enhancing critical and creative thinking, research, analysis, and writing skills. Regarding research methods, the student will learn the following skills: how to select a topic, conduct literature review, formulate hypotheses, operationalize concepts, select a research design, collect appropriate data, test hypotheses, analyze the results, and actually write (and rewrite) a research paper. This class will foster a global understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity, north/south political economic difference, and
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inequality and its solutions, through critical and creative thinking. Together, these objectives help form the basis for future coursework in and out of the discipline and should help students make informed judgments about the political economic world around them as they position themselves as centered Afrikan leaders in the Tanzanian, East Afrikan, continental Afrikan and Global community operating as active Afrikan agents of social change. In short, this course is about developing the requisite background to engage in comprehensive problem solving. Research projects will attempt to answer questions that are pertinent to both global society and in particular Afrikan/Afrikan Diaspora society. Completing a research project that provides even a tentative, limited answer to the critical survival issues of the Afrikan global community is of utility, as it will lay the foundation for future analysis and research. The acquisition of research skills will move students beyond the perspective of education, which holds that the learning endeavor is a passive activity where information is provided to the student, i.e., rote memorization. Instead, students will be moved into the proactive sphere, where education is a process through which students discover answers and develop innovative solutions to questions and problems of interest to their families, themselves, their nation, Afrikan people and the global community. Public Policy Questions [Learning Objectives] I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Family & Group Policy Questions What concerns you the most? What are the causes of your concerns? Can any of your concerns be eliminated? How? Which of your concerns would you deal with first? How did you decide? Are there other people with the same problems? How do you know? How can you find out? If you had an important idea that you wanted to let everyone in the world know about, how might you go about letting them know? What concerns you most about adults of today? Of the past? Why? What excites you most about adults of today? Of the past? Why? What concerns you most about government officials of today? Of the past? Why?
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10. What excites you most about government officials of today? Of the past? Why? 11. What concerns you most about business owners of today? Of the past? Why? 12. What excites you most about business owners of today? Of the past? Why? 13. What concerns you most about parents of today? Of the past? Why? 14. What excites you most about parents of today? Of the past? Why? 15. What concerns you most about children of today? Of the past? Why? 16. What excites you most about children of today? Of the past? Why? 17. What concerns you most about Marriage of today? Of the past? Why? 18. What excites you most about Marriage of today? Of the past? Why? 19. What do you think about the direction that the government officials are leading the nation? Why? How would you do things differently? Why? 20. How do you want to be different from adults you know? Why? 21. How do you want to be similar to adults you know? Why? 22. How do you want to be different from government officials? Why? 23. How do you want to be similar to government officials? Why? 24. How do you want to be different from parents you know? Why? 25. How do you want to be similar to parents you know? Why? 26. How do you want to be different from business owners of today? Why? 27. How do you want to be similar to business owners of today? Why? 28. What if anything seems to be worth dying for? How did you come to believe this? 29. What seems to be worth living for? How did you come to believe this? 30. At the present moment what would you most like to be – or be able to do? Why? What would you have to know in order to be able to do it? What would you have to do in order to get to know it? 31. How can you distinguish „good‟ people from „bad‟ people?
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32. How can „good‟ be distinguished from „evil‟? 33. What kind of a person would you most like to be? How might you get to be this kind of person? 34. At the present moment what would you most like to be doing? Five years from now? Ten years from now? Why? What might you have to do to realize these hopes? What might you have to give up in order to do some or all of these things? 35. When you hear or read or observe something, how do you know what it means? 36. Where does „meaning‟ come from? 37. What does „meaning‟ mean? 38. How can you tell what something „is‟ or whether it „is‟? 39. Where do words come from? 40. Where do symbols come from? 41. Why do symbols change? 42. Where does „knowledge‟ come from? 43. What do you think are some of the most important ideas from the United States? Europe? India? China? Arabia? Japan? Where did they come from? Why did they come up with them? How did they come up with them? Why do you think it is important? 44. What do you think are some of the most important ideas from Tanzania? East Afrika? Continental Afrika? The Afrikan Diaspora? Where did they come from? Why did they come up with them? How did they come up with them? Why do you think it is important? 45. What is an „idea‟? 46. What is a „good idea‟? 47. How do you know when a „good‟ idea becomes a „bad‟ idea? 48. Which of the humanity‟s ideas would we be better off forgetting? How do you decide? 49. What is „progress‟? 50. What is „change‟? 51. What are the most obvious causes of change? Of progress? 52. What are the least apparent causes of change? Of progress? 53. What conditions are necessary in order for change to occur? For progress to occur? 54. What kinds of change are occurring right now? Which are important? How are they similar to or different from other changes that have occurred?

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55. What kinds of progress are occurring right now? Which are important? How are they similar to or different from other kinds of progress that have occurred? 56. What are the relationships between new ideas and change? Between new ideas and progress? 57. Where do new ideas come from? Why? Why does it matter? 58. If you wanted to stop one of the changes going on now, how would you go about it? What consequences would you have to consider? 59. If you wanted to stop one of the examples of progress going on now, how would you go about it? What consequences would you have to consider? 60. Of the important changes going on in Tanzania now, which should be encouraged? Which should be resisted? Why? How? 61. Of the important changes going on in East Afrika now, which should be encouraged? Which should be resisted? Why? How? 62. Of the important changes going on in Sub-Saharan Afrika now which should be encouraged? Which should be resisted? Why? How? 63. Of the important changes going on in Continental Afrika, which should be encouraged? Which should be resisted? Why? How? 64. What are the most important changes that have occurred in the past ten years in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? How did you determine their importance? 65. What are the most important changes that have occurred in the past twenty years in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? How did you determine their importance? 66. What are the most important changes that have occurred in the past fifty years in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? How did you determine their importance? 67. What are the most important changes that have occurred in the last year in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? How did you determine their importance?

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68. What are the most important changes that have occurred in the last six months in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 69. What are the most important changes that have occurred in the last month in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? How did you determine their importance? 70. What will be the most important changes next month in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? On what criteria did you base your prediction? 71. What will be the most important changes next year in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? On what criteria did you base your prediction? 72. What will be the most important changes in twenty years in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? On what criteria did you base your prediction? 73. What will be the most important changes in fifty years in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? On what criteria did you base your prediction? 74. What changes would you make if you could in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? Why? 75. How might you go about making those changes in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? Why? 76. Who do you think has the most important things to say today in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? To whom are they speaking? Why are they speaking? How did you determine the „facts‟ of what they have to say? 77. What are the „dumbest‟ and more dangerous ideas that are „popular‟ today? Why do you think so? Where did these ideas come from? 78. What are conditions necessary for life to survive? Why? 79. What are the conditions necessary for Plants to survive? Why?

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80. What are the conditions necessary for Animals to survive? Why? 81. What are the conditions necessary for Humans to survive? Why? 82. Which of these conditions are necessary for all life to survive? Why? 83. Which of these conditions are necessary for plants to survive? Why? 84. Which of these conditions are necessary for animals to survive? Why? 85. Which of these conditions are necessary for humans to survive? Why? 86. What are conditions necessary for life to thrive and flourish? Why? 87. What are the conditions necessary for Plants to thrive and flourish? Why? 88. What are the conditions necessary for Animals to thrive and flourish? Why? 89. What are the conditions necessary for Humans to thrive and flourish? Why? 90. Which of these conditions are necessary for all life to thrive and flourish? Why? 91. Which of these conditions are necessary for plants to thrive and flourish? Why? 92. Which of these conditions are necessary for animals to thrive and flourish? Why? 93. Which of these conditions are necessary for humans to thrive and flourish? Why? 94. What are the greatest threats to all forms of life? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 95. What are the greatest threats to all forms of plant life? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 96. What are the greatest threats to all forms of animal life? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 97. What are the greatest threats to human life? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 98. What are some of the „strategies‟ living things use to survive? To thrive and flourish? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 99. What are some of the „strategies‟ living things use to survive, thrive and flourish that are unique to plants? What criteria did you use to make your assessment?

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100. What are some of the „strategies‟ living things use to survive, thrive and flourish that are unique to animals? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 101. What are some of the „strategies‟ living things use to survive, thrive and flourish that are unique to humans? What criteria did you use to make your assessment? 102. What kinds of human survival „strategies‟ are similar to those of animals and plants? Why? 103. What kinds of human survival „strategies‟ are different to those of animals and plants? Why? 104. What does humanity‟s language permit them to develop as survival „strategies‟ that animals cannot develop? Why? 105. How might humanity‟s survival activities be different from what they are if humanity did not have language? Why? 106. What other „languages‟ does humanity have besides those consisting of words? 107. What functions do these other „languages‟ serve? Why do they exist? How did they come about? Can you invent a new one? How might you start? 108. What would happen if humanity had no „number‟ languages [mathematical languages]? Why? 109. What difference would it make if humanity had no „number‟ languages? Why? 110. What would humanity not be able to do if it had no „number‟ languages? Why? 111. How many symbol systems does humanity have? Why does humanity have them? Does it matter that humanity has them? 112. What are some good symbols? Why do you think so? 113. What are some bad symbols? Why do you think so? 114. What good symbols could we use that we do not have? Why do you think so? 115. What bad symbols do we have that we would be better without? Why do you think so? 116. What is worth knowing? How did you make your decision? 117. What are some ways to go about getting to know what‟s worth knowing?

II.

Global Policy Questions

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1. What is the „Language‟ of Public Policy? 2. What is „policy‟? 3. Who or what is the „public‟? 4. What is „Language‟? 5. What is a Language System? 6. What is a System? 7. What are the characteristics of different language systems? 8. What are the characteristics of different language situations? 9. What is the purpose of the language of public policy? 10. What are the important symbols of the language of public policy? 11. What kinds of relationships does the language of public policy maintain with it audiences? 12. What are the sociological values of the language of public policy? 13. What are the political values of the language of public policy? 14. What are the spiritual values of the language of public policy? 15. What are the psychological values of the language of public policy? 16. What are the labor values of the language of public policy? 17. What are the philosophical values of the language of public policy? 18. What are the ethical values of the language of public policy? 19. What are the intellectual values or inherent ideas, and abstractions of the language of public policy? 20. What are the cultural values, mores and taboos of the language of public policy? 21. What are the ideological and power values of the language of public policy? 22. What are the historical values of the language of public policy? The Psycho-historical Values? The Psychodynamic Values? 23. What are the biological values of the language of public policy? 24. What are the physiological values of the language of public policy? 25. To what extent do the sociological, political, spiritual, psychological, labor, philosophical, ethical, intellectual, ideological, power, historical, psycho-historical, psychodynamic, cultural, biological and physiological values

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reflect those of the audiences of the language of public policy? 26. What are the controlling metaphors of the language of public policy? 27. How do the controlling metaphors of the language of public policy work? 28. What are the situations in which the symbolism of the language of public policy is most effective? 29. What standards may be used to judge the „truth‟ of the language of public policy? 30. In what sense can the language of public policy be „true‟? 31. What is a „fact‟ in the language of public policy? 32. What do we mean by „objectivity‟ in the language of public policy? 33. From whose point of view is the language of public policy written? How can you tell? 34. What are the major assumptions of the language of public policy? 35. What attitudes are required to interpret the language of public policy intelligently? 36. What is the characteristics tone of the language of public policy? 37. What is the function of the language of public policy? 38. How does the language of public policy accomplish its work? 39. How is the language of public policy organized? 40. What are the various levels of abstraction in the language of public policy? 41. What problems must we solve as Afrikan people in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 42. What goals do we want to reach as Afrikan people in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 43. What quality of life do we want to enjoy as Afrikan people in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 44. What kind of people must we become in order to solve the problems that we must solve as Afrikan people? 45. What kind of attitudes and relationships must we have toward each other as Afrikans? Toward Europeans? Toward Indians? Toward the Chinese? Toward the Arabs? 46. What institutions must we develop so that we can act in terms of our interests as Afrikan people?
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47. What kind of social, educational, political, economic and spiritual experiences must we expose ourselves to and our children to, so that we become the type of people we need to become in order to solve the problems we need to solve as Afrikan people? 48. What kind of education, politics, and economics must we design to solve our problems as Afrikan people? 49. What kind of education, knowledge, information, skills, and so forth must we develop so that we can build the institutions, and develop the relationships and attitudes to be the kind of Afrikan people we need to be to solve the problems we have to solve? 50. What are the socio-historical, socio-cultural, socioeconomic, and socio-political issues, philosophies, paradigms and political science perspectives of the Tanzanian, East Afrikan, Sub-Saharan Afrikan, Continental Afrikan, Afrikan Diaspora and International political economic arena? 51. How do political institutions and political processes function? 52. What are the perennial normative issues of politics? 53. What are the techniques of political analysis and public policy analysis? 54. What are the current national and global political events that are important to Afrika? 55. What ideas validate and invalidate the issues, philosophies, paradigms and political science perspectives which are the basis of public policies? 56. What is your position on the public policy that you think is very important for the development of Tanzania, East Afrika, Sub-Saharan Afrika, Continental Afrika and the Afrikan Diaspora? Communicate your answer both orally and in writing using the skills of political analysis and public policy analysis? 57. What are the interrelations between government and society, political ideologies, techniques of political analysis, techniques of public policy analysis and the public policy studies discipline? 58. What is your analysis of domination in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 59. What criteria would you use to assess domination in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively?

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60. What is your analysis of the delinking in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 61. What criteria would you use to assess delinking in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 62. What is your analysis of imperialism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 63. What criteria would you use to assess imperialism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 64. What is your analysis of colonialism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 65. What criteria would you use to assess colonialism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 66. What is your analysis of neo-colonialism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 67. What criteria would you use to assess neo-colonialism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 68. What is your analysis of mal-development in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 69. What criteria would you use to assess mal-development in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 70. What is your analysis of liberation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 71. What criteria would you use to assess liberation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 72. What is your analysis of enslavement in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 73. What criteria would you use to assess enslavement in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively?

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74. What is your analysis of liberalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 75. What criteria would you use to assess neo-liberalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 76. What defense can you provide for liberalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 77. What is your analysis of neo-liberalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 78. What criteria would you use to assess neo-liberalism in Tanzania? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In East Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 79. What is your analysis of conservatism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 80. What criteria would you use to assess conservatism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 81. What is your analysis of nationalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 82. What criteria would you use to assess nationalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 83. What is your analysis of Black/Afrikan Nationalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 84. What criteria would you use to assess Black/Afrikan Nationalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 85. What is your analysis of Black/Afrikan Consciousness in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 86. What criteria would you use to assess Black/Afrikan Consciousness in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 87. What is your analysis of Marxism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively?
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88. What criteria would you use to assess Marxism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 89. What is your analysis of Capitalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 90. What criteria would you use to assess Capitalism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 91. What is your analysis of power in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 92. What criteria would you use to assess power in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 93. What is your opinion of political communication in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 94. What choice would you have made concerning the nationstate at or prior to independence in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? Prior to Emancipation and Independence in the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 95. How would you determine the facts of socio-political and socio-economic change in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 96. Which is the most important: violent methods of political participation or non-violent methods of political participation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 97. What is your analysis of Afrikan Traditional Political Economic Egalitarianism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 98. How would you assess Afrikan Traditional Political Economic Egalitarianism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 99. What is your analysis of Programmatic Pan-Afrikanism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively?

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100. How would you assess Programmatic Pan-Afrikanism in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 101. What is your analysis of Afrikan Identity in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 102. What criteria would you use to assess Afrikan Identity in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 103. What is your analysis of Afrikan citizenship in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 104. What criteria would you use to assess Afrikan citizenship in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 105. What is your analysis of Afrikan nationality in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 106. What criteria would you use to assess Afrikan nationality in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 107. What is your analysis of the organizations and public policies of the major political systems in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 108. What criteria would you use to assess the organizations and public policies of the major political systems in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 109. What is your analysis of the institutions of governance in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? [The institutions of governance are: executive, legislative, judicial and traditional] 110. What criteria would you use to assess the institutions of governance in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 111. What is your analysis of the international dimensions of political and economic public policies in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 112. What criteria would you use to assess the international dimensions of political and economic public polices in
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Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 113. What is your analysis of Ujamaa in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 114. What criteria would you use to assess Ujamaa in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 115. What is your analysis of Privatization in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 116. What criteria would you use to assess Privatization in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 117. What is your analysis of Nation-building in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 118. What criteria would you use to assess Nation-building in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 119. What is your analysis of Reconstruction in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 120. What criteria would you use to assess Reconstruction in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 121. What is your analysis of Public Policy Design in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? [Public Policy Design areas include: Land Reform Policy, Land Tenure Policy, Housing Policy, Agriculture Management Policy, Agriculture Marketing Policy, Agriculture Production Policy, Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution Policy, Labor Policy, Financial Capital Policy, Material Capital Policy, Natural Resources Policy, Human Resource Development Policy, Entrepreneurship Policy, Law, Education Policy, Entertainment Policy, Politics, Religion, War, Economic Policy, Health Policy, Intimate Relationships, Criminal Justice Policy, Welfare Policy, Tax Policy, International Trade Policy, Foreign Direct Investment Policy, Immigration Policy, Nationalization/Citizenship Policy, Civil and Social Rights Policy, Environmental Policy, Gender Equality Policy, Income Distribution Policy, East Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Sub-Saharan Unification/Integration Policy, Continental
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Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Military Development Policy, External Defense Policy, Internal Security Policy, Foreign Policy] 122. What criteria would you use to assess Public Policy Design in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 123. What is your analysis of Public Policy Implementation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? [Public Policy Implementation areas include: Land Reform Policy, Land Tenure Policy, Housing Policy, Agriculture Management Policy, Agriculture Marketing Policy, Agriculture Production Policy, Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution Policy, Labor Policy, Financial Capital Policy, Material Capital Policy, Natural Resources Policy, Human Resource Development Policy, Entrepreneurship Policy, Law, Education Policy, Entertainment Policy, Politics, Religion, War, Economic Policy, Health Policy, Intimate Relationships, Criminal Justice Policy, Welfare Policy, Tax Policy, International Trade Policy, Foreign Direct Investment Policy, Immigration Policy, Nationalization/Citizenship Policy, Civil and Social Rights Policy, Environmental Policy, Gender Equality Policy, Income Distribution Policy, East Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Sub-Saharan Unification/Integration Policy, Continental Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Military Development Policy, External Defense Policy, Internal Security Policy, Foreign Policy] 124. What criteria would you use to assess Public Policy Implementation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 125. What is your analysis of Public Policy Evaluation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? [Public Policy Evaluation areas include: Land Reform Policy, Land Tenure Policy, Housing Policy, Agriculture Management Policy, Agriculture Marketing Policy, Agriculture Production Policy, Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution Policy, Labor Policy, Financial Capital Policy, Material Capital Policy, Natural Resources Policy, Human Resource Development Policy, Entrepreneurship Policy, Law, Education Policy, Entertainment Policy, Politics, Religion, War, Economic Policy, Health Policy, Intimate Relationships, Criminal Justice Policy, Welfare Policy, Tax Policy,
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International Trade Policy, Foreign Direct Investment Policy, Immigration Policy, Nationalization/Citizenship Policy, Civil and Social Rights Policy, Environmental Policy, Gender Equality Policy, Income Distribution Policy, East Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Sub-Saharan Unification/Integration Policy, Continental Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Military Development Policy, External Defense Policy, Internal Security Policy, Foreign Policy] 126. What criteria would you use to assess Public Policy Evaluation in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 127. What is your analysis of Public Policy Making in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? [Public Policy Making areas include: Land Reform Policy, Land Tenure Policy, Housing Policy, Agriculture Management Policy, Agriculture Marketing Policy, Agriculture Production Policy, Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution Policy, Labor Policy, Financial Capital Policy, Material Capital Policy, Natural Resources Policy, Human Resource Development Policy, Entrepreneurship Policy, Law, Education Policy, Entertainment Policy, Politics, Religion, War, Economic Policy, Health Policy, Intimate Relationships, Criminal Justice Policy, Welfare Policy, Tax Policy, International Trade Policy, Foreign Direct Investment Policy, Immigration Policy, Nationalization/Citizenship Policy, Civil and Social Rights Policy, Environmental Policy, Gender Equality Policy, Income Distribution Policy, East Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Sub-Saharan Unification/Integration Policy, Continental Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Military Development Policy, External Defense Policy, Internal Security Policy, Foreign Policy] 128. What criteria would you use to assess Public Policy Making in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 129. What is your analysis of Public Policy Analysis in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? [Public Policy Making areas include: Land Reform Policy, Land Tenure Policy, Housing Policy, Agriculture Management Policy, Agriculture Marketing Policy, Agriculture Production Policy, Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution
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Policy, Labor Policy, Financial Capital Policy, Material Capital Policy, Natural Resources Policy, Human Resource Development Policy, Entrepreneurship Policy, Law, Education Policy, Entertainment Policy, Politics, Religion, War, Economic Policy, Health Policy, Intimate Relationships, Criminal Justice Policy, Welfare Policy, Tax Policy, International Trade Policy, Foreign Direct Investment Policy, Immigration Policy, Nationalization/Citizenship Policy, Civil and Social Rights Policy, Environmental Policy, Gender Equality Policy, Income Distribution Policy, East Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Sub-Saharan Unification/Integration Policy, Continental Afrikan Unification/Integration Policy, Military Development Policy, External Defense Policy, Internal Security Policy, Foreign Policy] 130. What criteria would you use to assess Public Policy Analysis in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 131. What is your analysis of Public Policy and the economic theory on which it is based in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 132. What criteria would you use to assess Public Policy and the economic theory on which it is based in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 133. What is your analysis of Agricultural Marketing Policy in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 134. What criteria would you use to assess Agricultural Marketing Policy in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 135. What is your analysis of Industrial Planning in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 136. What criteria would you use to assess Industrial Planning in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 137. What is your analysis of Agricultural Planning in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively?

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138. What criteria would you use to assess Agricultural Planning in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 139. What is your analysis of Food and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In SubSaharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? 140. What criteria would you use to assess Food, Clothing and Housing Quality, Quantity and Distribution in Tanzania? In East Afrika? In Sub-Saharan Afrika? In all of Continental Afrika? In the Afrikan Diaspora? Collectively? III. Questions About The Questions

1. Which of the questions above can you answer with absolute certainty? How can you be certain of your answer? 2. What information will enable you to answer other questions with absolute certainty? Where will you get the information? 3. Which questions restrict you to giving factual information? Which do not? Which questions require no facts at all? 4. Which questions require the greatest amount of definition to answer them? 5. Which questions require the testimony of experts? What makes one an expert? 6. Which questions assume the answerer is the expert? 7. Which questions may have false assumptions? 8. Which questions require predictions as answers? 9. What kinds of information may improve the quality of a prediction? 10. What is the purpose of the question? 11. What are the sub-questions of the question? 12. Have you seen similar questions before? 13. What type of question is it? [Essential, Historical, Political, Economic, etc.] 14. What are the assumptions of the question? 15. What is the point of view of the question? 16. What data, information, and evidence are required to answer the question? 17. What are the concepts and ideas in the question? 18. What does the question infer? 19. What interpretations does the question make? 20. What are the implications of the question? 21. What are the consequences of the question?

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Expectations Student's Expectations [What you can expect of me.] 1. I will be interested, excited and enthusiastic about you, the course and the material. 2. I will demonstrate for you that this material is relevant to your life. 3. I will start and end classes on time. 4. I will Challenge you to think about the subject. 5. I will always question you. 6. I will always ask questions, give activities and assignments that will require you to clarify a problem, make observations relevant to the solution of the problem, and make generalizations based on your observation. 7. I will always engage you in defining, questioning, observing, classifying, generalizing, verifying, applying and evaluating concepts, information and problems. 8. I will always ask for the REASONS and CAUSES of a problem. 9. I will encourage you to interact with each other. 10. I will always focus on the process of thinking. 11. I will not accept a single statement as an answer. 12. I will help you to be an efficient and effective problemsolver. 13. I will encourage you to engage in contingent thinking. 14. I will help you to depend on yourself as a thinker. 15. I will not judge the quality of your thinking, you will. 16. I will help you to develop your own criteria for judging the quality, precision, and relevance of ideas. 17. I will always assume that you are in the continual process of acquiring skills, assimilating new information, formulating or refining generalizations. 18. I will draw out of you latent and potential talents. 19. I will have confidence in your ability to learn. 20. I will have confidence in my ability as a Professor. 21. I will control my thinking. 22. I will control my actions. 23. I will be abiding, adamant, persevering, faithful and relentless in my Purpose. 24. I will identify with the Higher Ideals of: Harmony, Balance, Reciprocity, Righteousness, Propriety, Truth and Justice. 25. I will have evidence of having a Mission in life. 26. I will have deep insight.
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27. I will persevere in helping you with the challenging work you will do. 28. I will be ready and prepared to teach.

Professor's Expectations [What I expect of You.] 1. I expect you to ATTEND CLASS DAILY. Come to class PREPARED and ON TIME! You are expected to be in your seat 15 minutes prior to the official time for the beginning of class. This will give you time to arrange your materials and review previous class assignments, discussion and lecture notes. YOU WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO ENTER CLASS AFTER THE OFFICIAL TIME THAT CLASS BEGINS. I expect you to finish reading assignments prior to class; take complete notes of class discussions, which you review regularly and keep an organized notebook. I expect you to complete all assignments on time and hand them in when due. LATE ASSIGNMENTS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED WITHOUT UNIVERSITY RECOGNIZED EXCUSE. I expect you to accept responsibility for your learning. My role as the Professor is to facilitate your development as an independent critical and creative thinker. Be an active thinker. If you need help, get it early. Don't fall behind. I expect you to know that it is a nationwide standard that, for success in most courses, a student needs to put in 2-3 hours outside of class for each hour spent in class. I expect you to know that it is the responsibility of each student to set and meet personal objectives. It is the student's responsibility to work toward personal goals. I expect you to have confidence in your ability to learn. I expect you to enjoy solving problems. I expect you to rely on your own judgment. I expect you to not be afraid of being wrong. I expect you to think carefully before giving an answer. I expect you to look at things your point of view and other points of view. I expect you to have a respect for „facts‟. I expect you to be skilful in distinguishing between statements of a „fact‟ and other types of statements. I expect you to know how to ask „meaningful‟ questions. I expect you to be persistent in examining your own assumptions.
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2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

I expect you to use definitions, metaphors and analogies as instruments of your thinking. I expect you to be cautious and precise in making generalizations. I expect you to continually verify what you believe. I expect you to be a careful observer. I expect you to recognize that language tends to obscure differences and control perceptions. I expect that you do not need to have an absolute final irrevocable resolution to every problem. I expect you to Control Your Thinking. I expect you to Control Your Actions. I expect you to be abiding, adamant, persevering, faithful and relentless in your Purpose. I expect you to Identify with the Higher Ideals of: Harmony, Balance, Reciprocity, Righteousness, Propriety, Truth and Justice. I expect you to have evidence of having a Mission in life. I expect you to have deep insight. I expect you to have confidence in my ability as a Professor. I expect you to persevere in the challenging work you will do. I expect you to be ready and prepared to learn.

Class Participation Students must be ready to engage one another in discussion. Of course, to participate, one needs to attend class. In addition to listening attentively and taking notes, participation entails asking thought-provoking questions, answering questions and generating new directions of thought in the materials under discussion. Participation in the class means that you demonstrate excellent preparation: which means you have analyzed material exceptionally well, relating it to other readings and other material (e.g., personal readings, course material, discussions, experiences, etc.). Furthermore, participation means you offer analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of material, e.g., you put together pieces of the discussion to develop new approaches that take the class further. You contribute in a very significant way to ongoing discussion: which means you keep analysis focused, respond very thoughtfully to other students' comments, contribute to the cooperative argument-building, suggest alternative ways of approaching material and help class analyze which approaches are

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appropriate, etc. In short, you demonstrate ongoing very active involvement. Background Competencies 1. The Determination, Persistence, Desire & Faith to Grow and Learn Enthusiastically. 2. Ability to obtain information from public media, library and Internet. 3. Ability to work independently and cooperatively. 4. Ability to use Word processing, and presentation software. 5. Effective reading, writing, listening and oral presentation skills.

Evaluation Method The Final Grade will be based on the following:

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Evaluation Method

Number of Assign ments

Estimated Proportion of Final Grade*

Self-Reflection Journal Analysis Critical Analysis Concept Papers Quizzes Exams Research Project Problem- Solution Papers Critical Analysis Issue/Event Papers Critical Analysis Reaction Papers Critical Analysis Position Papers Critical News Analysis Critical Analysis Case Studies

TBA TBA TBA 2 1 TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA

5% 5% 5% 25% 15% 15% 10% 5% 5% 5% 5%

Estimated Proportion of Final Grade totals are subject to change during the course of the academic year. Grading Scale
80 70 60 50 40 0 – – – – – – 100 79 69 59 49 39 A B+ B C D E 5 4 3 2 1 0 Distinction Very Good Good Pass Fail (Supplement) Fail (Repeat course)

Instructional Methodology

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Ambakisye-Okang Olatunde Dukuzumurenyi, Ph.D.
Do you see a man who is diligent in his work? This man shall go far in life, He shall accomplish many things great and small; He shall not fail. Oriental Proverb O Tehuti, set me in Aa-t Qema hetchhetchui, Khemenu Thy City, where life is serene.Thou suppliest all my needs with bread and water; Thou guardest my mouth in speech. Would that I had Tehuti behind me on the morrow. Come to me Wisdom, When I enter into the Halls of Judgement Stay with me that I might be Justified Thou bringest Thy cool, refreshing water, Even to the distant place, in the midst of confusion. Come and rescue me, the Silent Servant O Wisdom, Thou Sweet well of life for a man thirsting in desert. It is sealed up to him who has not discovered his mouth, But it is open to thy Silent Servant. Khemetic Prayer for Wisdom

I The ancient aphorism and wisdom prayer quoted above are the two statements, which succinctly express the direction and manner in which the instructional methodology that I use are directed. Viewing free sound inquiry as the foundation of balanced living, my methodology has the established objective of producing effective Afrikan leaders, professionals and scholars.1 This will be achieved while providing students with the highest level of academic knowledge in the midst of instilling the attributes of diligence and persistence. It

1

Jacob H. Carruthers, MDW NTR: Divine Speech A Historiographical Reflection of African Deep Thought From The Time of the Pharoahs to the Present (Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1997)

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is my intention to accomplish this through sound systematic teaching methods2. As such, to ensure students will receive the analytical foundations necessary to become successful in future national, economic, community professional or academic pursuits, as well as in civic and social settings, the instructional methods are drawn from problem-based and cooperative learning theory. With these methods, students can be developed into positive contributors to the Afrikan global community. The methods fall under the rubric of Analytical and Conceptual Methodology, Self-reflective Evaluative Methodology, Experiential/Experimental Methodology, and Integrative Synthesis Methodology. These methodologies of instruction are balanced with a strong lecture and student centered discussion model; thereby allowing for adequate student participation in the intellectual stimuli of the educational process with synthesis and guidance of diverse responses and ideas taking place under my guidance. Moreover, the learning
2

John Dewey, Democracy and Education An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (New York: MacMillan Co., 1916) pp. 211. “Method is a statement of the way the subject matter of an experience develops most effectively and fruitfully. It is derived, accordingly from observation of the course of experiences where there is no conscious distinction of personal attitude and manner from material dealt with. The assumption that method is something separate is connected with the notion of the isolation of mind and self from the world of things. It makes instruction an learning formal, mechanical, constrained. While methods are individualized, certain features of the normal course of an experience to its fruition may be constrained. While methods are individualized, certain features of the normal course of an experience to its fruition may be discriminated, because of the fund of wisdom derived from prior experiences and because of general similarities in the materials dealt with from time to time. Expressed in terms of attitude of the individual the traits of good method are straightforwardness, flexible intellectual interest or open minded will to learn, integrity of purpose, and acceptance of responsibility for the consequences of one'‟ activity including thought.” 29 | P a g e

experience is enhanced through the use of the latest instructional media technologies. These include but are not limited to nonprojected visuals such as models, pictures, and field trips; projected visuals; audio media; computers, television and DVDs3. II Analytical and Conceptual Methodology The analytical and conceptual methodology are centered on theory and practice-guided reading materials. The intention here is to improve student literacy through a variety of literacy strategies designed to “…assist students in mastering vocabulary, comprehending difficult texts, studying, and evaluating what they read. 4” These strategies will be carried out with my being aware of the social context in which the instruction will take place. Literacy is more than just reading, it is comprehension of materials within a historical and social context5. If words are read within a void absent historical and social context then a degree of illiteracy still exists. The instructional methodology that I use takes this into account. This methodology is applicable to all areas of instruction and amenable to all content areas.
3

Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, and James D. Russell, Instructional Media and the New Technologies of Instruction (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company,1993)
4

John E. Readence, Thomas W. Bean and R. Scott Baldwin, Content Area Literacy An Integrated Approach (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1995) pp.9.
5

Ibid., pp. 5-9.

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III Self-Reflective Evaluative Methodology The self-reflective evaluative methodology uses journal entries, case study analysis, and socio-philosophical proverbs and quotes analysis to assist the learner in self -development. To do so this methodology guides the learner in developing a multidisciplinary view of himself and his surroundings. The skills emphasized include critical self-analysis evaluation and self-reformation. A socio-historical paradigm is presented which includes all areas of learning. The following diagram provides an illustration 6.
Inter-disciplinary Analysis

Broad Concept of Environment

Concepts & Perceptions

Learner

Comparative Analysis

Decision-Making & Social Action Focused

A Process of Self Development

The self-reflective evaluative methodology as illustrated places the student at the center of the self-development process. The student approaches his development from an interdisciplinary

6

James A. Banks, Teaching Strategies For Ethnic Studies (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1987) pp. 52-53 This model is an adaptation of Banks model of an effective multiethnic curriculum. 31 | P a g e

perspective. In particular the student is guided in applying various concepts to his own development of perceptions of his or her-self and the world around them. Including historical and contemporary world cultural experiences into the process of self-development further broadens the student‟s conceptualization. Each is considered in a comparative analysis considering the similarities and differences and evaluating utility. Along with self-development, the student is expected to manifest improved decision-making skills and a renewed interest in social, community and national action. IV Experiential/Experimental Methodology The experiential/experimental methodology approaches the learning endeavor through the use of group project simulations of ancient and contemporary real world scenarios. The use of both past and present scenarios will enhance the student‟s ability to identify similarities and differences through the use of such reasoning strategies as comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, and creating analogies. Integrated within this approach is the student‟s use of graphic organizers as well as stimulation of other right brain thought process. This method also incorporates cooperative learning strategies.

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Cooperative learning strategies allow for a serious active learning endeavor, which utilizes the whole person in the process of learning. The student in the group scenario will engage in collaborative, team and problem-based learning tasks each designed to improve individual and group oriented working skills. This methodology is of importance as it allows the student to gain a hands on understanding of interdependence, human contact skills in a working environment, personal responsibility and self-accountability, and serious self-reflection, within the group setting, which allows for comparative assessment as well. V Integrative Synthesis Methodology The integrative synthesis methodology makes use of policy research projects. These projects will be public policy oriented which means inclusive of social policy, foreign policy, military policy, internal security policy, community improvement policy, economic/business policy, educational policy, and health policy. All of these are components of Nation-Building-infrastructure development or redevelopment, social institution formation or reformation and economic development or redevelopment to name just a few. Below is an example of the type of model employed within the integrative synthesis methodology.
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VI Problem Solution Model7 STEP 1: Understanding the Problem. 1. Define the Problem A. List and describe the negative things that are occurring. B. List and describe the reasons why the negative things are happening. STEP 2: Determine the Probable Cause(s) of the Problem 1. Identify the possible causes as to why the conditions exist. A. List the possible causes that are behind the negative things that are happening. B. Determine the most probable of the possible causes. STEP 3: Determine the Stakeholders 1. Who is affected by the problem? 2. Why are they affected by the problem? 3. How are they affected by the problem? A. How are they affected socially, i.e., what is the quality of their life?

7

Clarke E. Cochran, Lawrence C. May, T. R. Carr and N. Joseph Cayer, American Public Policy An Introduction (New York: St. Martin‟s Press, 1993); Thomas R. Dye, Understanding Public Policy (Upper Saddle, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998); James E. Anderson, Public Policymaking (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997) 34 | P a g e

B. How are they affected economically, i.e., how does it affect their ability to earn a living? C. How are they affected politically, i.e., how does it affect the amount of power that they have? STEP 4: Conjecturing Solutions 1. List three possible solutions to the problem. A. Explain why you chose these three possible solutions. 2. Choose the 'best' possible solution by asking: A. How will the people by affected by the solution? B. How will the solution be paid for? C. What are the short-term goals of the solution? D. What are the long-term goals of the solution? E. What are the social costs of the solution, i.e., will the solution causes any other problems? STEP 5: Screening the Solution 1. Is the solution effective, i.e., will it solve the problem completely? 2. Why will the solution solve the problem completely? 3. Is the solution practical, i.e., are the resources needed for the solution available in sufficient quantity and quality?

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4. Is the solution feasible, i.e., are the resources needed for the solution to costly? 5. Is the solution legal? STEP 6: Defining the Solution 1. Specify all of the provisions or parts of the solution. STEP 7: Determining Areas of Concern 1. Are there any religious concerns about the solution? 2. Are there any cultural concerns about the solution? 3. Are there any health/safety concerns about the solution? 4. Are there any concerns about the fairness of the solution? STEP 8: Obtaining Predicted Consequences 1. List seven positive consequences of the solution and tell why you chose them. 2. List seven negative consequences of the solution and tell why you chose them. STEP 9: Determining Priorities 1. Identify the three most important positive consequences of the solution. 2. Identify the three most important negative seven negative consequences of the solution.

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STEP 10: Assessing Solutions 1. Determine whether the positive consequences outweigh the negative consequences or whether the negative outweigh the positive. 2. Keep the solution if the positive outweigh the negative, otherwise choose another solution. STEP 11: Implementation 1. The enactment of the solution. Implementation is influenced by discretion, the clientele to be served or helped, time and other social and economic realities. These other realities must be spelled out analyzed and evaluated. STEP 12: Adjudication 1. Determine the legality of the solution proposal. Does it violate any civil or moral law? Is it a bad policy? Is what is being done meeting what the solution proposed to do? STEP 12: Evaluation 1. Did the policy work? 2. Is there a cheaper more effective way to solve the problem and get the same or better results? STEP 13: Decision-Making 1. Maintain the policy. 2. Modify the policy. 3. Terminate the policy because the policy failed (and find a new solution) or terminate because the problem was solved.

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In the interest of developing an academic atmosphere where students can participate in the search for answers to the vexing problems of the subject matter and their individual and collective lives, each class period will begin with an analysis of excerpts of texts will be followed by a lecture. The lecture will lead into a discussion of relevant concepts and methods to determine student comprehension and followed by the analysis of problem situations and the practical application of concepts and methods to problem situations drawn from historical and contemporary local, regional, national and international media sources with emphasis on Afrika. The practical application occurs individually and within small groups, allowing students to gain experience with cooperative work, which is useful to all future endeavors. The group work will also provide opportunities for the student to practice combining a variety of perspectives and skills to solve problems, thereby reinforcing the spirit of synthesis, integration and compromise. Case studies will include where and when possible computer laboratory sessions that will provide the students with further learning opportunities with relevant electronic information sources, while improving their skills with technology. Each class will conclude with student self-reflection on materials and a series of additional questions for additional study and discussion. This student

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reflection will be recorded in the student‟s journal. The objective will include getting the students to understand the socio-historical and cultural determinants of problems and its major issues and relationships to their daily lives and to consider innovative problem solutions.

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Required Textbooks [HIGHLIGHTED BOOKS YOU MUST BUY!] Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Politics, & Methods, Edited by Frank Fischer, Gerald J. Miller and Mara S. Sidney. (New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2007) ISBN- 10: 1-57444-561-8 ISBN13: 978-1-57444-561-9 Civic Engagement in Public Policies: A Toolkit, United Nations. ST/ESA/PAD/SER.E/106 (New York: United Nations Publications, 2007) ISBN- 978-92-1-123173-1 A Guide to Policy Development, Office of the Auditor General, Manitoba. (Canada: 2003) The Global Politics of Educational Borrowing and Lending, Edited by Gita Steiner-Khamsi. (New York: Teachers College Press, 2004) ISBN: 08077-4493-X) The Black Agenda [Updated 2001], Edited by Naiwu Osahon (Lagos, Nigeria: The Think Tank of the Black World, 1992) The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, James Dobbins, Seth G. Jones, Keith Crane, Beth Cole Degrasse. (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2007) The Challenges of the Multiple Crisis for African Small-scale Farmers, The Via Campesina Notebooks (Maputo, Mozambique: Notebook No. 2. July, 2010) The Arusha Declaration and TANU’s Policy on Socialism and SelfReliance, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere. (Arusha: Tanganyika African National Union, 1967) National Security Study Memorandum 200: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests, Henry Kissinger. (Washington D.C.: National Security Council, December 10, 1974) How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Walter Rodney. (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 2009) ISBN: 9966-25-113-8 Oxfords Advanced Learners Dictionary, A. S. Hornby. (Oxford University Press, U.S.A., 2010) ISBN-10: 019479900X ISBN-13: 978-0194799003

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Tuki: English – Swahili Dictionary/Kamusi Ya Kiingereza-Kiswahili, (Institute of Kiswahili Research University of Dar Es Salaam, 1997) The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture, Fritjof Capra. (New York: Bantam, 1984) ISBN-10: 0553345729 ISBN-13: 9780553345728 Think On These Things, J. Krishnamurti. (New York: Harperone, 1989) ISBN-10: 0060916095 ISBN-13: 978-0060916091 Neo-Colonialism, The Last Stage of Imperialism, Kwame Nkrumah. (1965) Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in Afrikan Literature, Ngugi wa Thiong‟o. (Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House, LTD., 1981) ISBN: 094922538X African Women: A Political Economy, Editor, Meredeth Turshen. (New York: Palgrave MacMillian, 2010) ISBN: 978-0-230-10675-8 Neo-Colonialism, The Last Stage of Imperialism, Kwame Nkrumah. (London: PANAF, Books LTD., 1965) ISBN-10: 090178723X ISBN-13: 9780901787231 The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture, Fritjof Capra. (New York: Bantam, 1984) ISBN-10: 0553345729 ISBN-13: 9780553345728 Encyclopedia of Black Studies, Editors, Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama. (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2005) ISBN: 0-76192762-X Encyclopedia of African Religions, Editors, Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama. (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2009) ISBN: 978-14129-3636-1

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