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Polymers in Aerospace Applications
Joel R. Fried
Volume 16, Number 12
Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics
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33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and etherbased commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.
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Polymers in Aerospace Applications Joel R. Fried ISBN: 978-1-84735-093-0 .
...........................16 Abstracts ...................................................................................1 Nano-Reinforcements .....1 Carbon-Based Fibres.........................................................................................................................1 Fibre Types ...............................................................................6 4......................................................................................................................................7 5......................................................3 2.............................................................3 Properties of Nanocomposites............................2 Fibre Forms .............12 5........................................................................................................ Foams ....................1............................................... Adhesives .....................................................................1............................................................................................................13 6.............2 Inorganic Fibres ................................................................................... Composites..........................4 Hybrid Fibres .............................................................................................1.............................................................16 Abbreviations .........3 Interfacial Properties ........................................................3 4.....................3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................Polymers in Aerospace Applications Contents 1..............................................................................................3 4...........................................................................................................1...............7 5.........................................1.........................................................................................................................................2 Processing ............................................................. Coatings ..................................................................................................2 Fabrication Methods .......................................................................................................7 5.........................................................19 Index .....................................................................................1 Coupling Agents ..........10 5.....................................................................................15 7..6 4......................13 6...........................6 4.................................................3............................................1 Matrix Polymers ......6 4................................1....................................................................................................................16 References ......................................................................................8 5.............................3 Non-destructive Testing............................................................................................4 4....................................... Nanocomposites .............................................................1 Thermosetting Matrices ...........................................................................................3 Polymeric Fibres ..............................................2 TP Matrices ........................... Fibres.....15 6......................................3 3.....................................2 Surface Treatment .................................... Introduction .....3 4......12 6..................................................................................................................................................5 4..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................131 1 .........................3 4..................................................
Fried Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Cincinnati 2600 Clifton Avenue. 2 . The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Smithers Rapra Technology arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.Polymers in Aerospace Applications Author contact details: Joel R. Ohio 45221 USA The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reﬂect those of Smithers Rapra Technology or the editor. Cincinnati.
Report 37) was published in 1990. As shown by representative values in Table 1. Most ¿bres used in aerospace applications serve as reinforcements in composite materials. These are widely used in the manufacture. aramid.6 reinforced with nickel-coated carbon ¿bres (CF) have been used for EMI/ RFI shielding. the modulus can vary by more than one order of magnitude. Other major applications include use in adhesives. assembly. carbon. For example. parachutes. 2. and the bonding of elastomers to metal parts. Coatings 4. or pitch (e. other uses are found for these fibres in cabin furnishing. A comparison of the modulus and strength of glass.Polymers in Aerospace Applications 1.. 4. The principal use for polymers in aerospace applications is as a matrix material and/or reinforcing ¿bre for composites.g. and polymeric ¿bres are reviewed in depth within the following sub-sections. Modi¿ed phosphate pigments contained in an epoxy/polyurethane carrier have been used for primers for metal and plastic substrates.W. and boron (470). Structural adhesives are manufactured in ¿lm and paste form (344). compositeto-metal bonding. Ultra-high temperatureresistant epoxy adhesives have been used to join together polybenzimidazole (PBI) sheets (199) under high-energy irradiation and low-pressure plasma treatment to provide service temperatures in the range –260 °C to +370 °C for potential aerospace and space applications (199).1 Carbon-Based Fibres Coatings can provide protection against abrasion and corrosion as well as reduce icing. Rayon. Nylon-6. Adhesives Applications for adhesives include metal-to-metal bonding for aluminium and titanium parts. anti-misting additives. These primers are resistant to hydraulic Carbon ¿bres Since the 1960s. Another use is the damping of engine and noise vibration (190). and polyimides (PI) have been used to cover layers of insulation in aircraft and space vehicles. and aramid ¿bres is given in Table 1.1. epoxy-based syntactic paste has been used for engine vibration damping. Other ¿bres used for high-performance composites include ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and poly(p-phenylene-2. Polysul¿des and silicone resins have been used for anti-icing applications. polyethylene. It includes coverage of new materials and technologies (particularly nanocomposites). CF have been the most widely used reinforcing ¿bres in advanced composites. ¿bres. inorganic. Table 1 Mechanical Properties of Typical Aerospace Fibres (472) Fibre Modulus (GPa) Strength (MPa) 72. and other specialised applications. Properties and applications of carbon-based. Principal differences between ¿bre groups include modulus as well as thermal and chemical stability. A Àame-retardant epoxy paste has been used for high-strength reinforcement in honeycomb core parts as well as in fasteners in overhead baggage lockers (190). petroleum 3 . The present report strives to provide a contemporary review of this area with an emphasis on the literature appearing after 1990. Adhesives with working temperatures in the range 315 °C to 400 °C have been reported for advanced thermal protection systems bondlines. Wright. and repair of interior and exterior aircraft components. elastomers. provide shielding against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI). carbon.1 Fibre Types 3. Examples include the reinforcement of honeycomb structures such as luggage lockers and Àoor panels (190). and to protect insulation.6-benzobisoxazole) (PBO) (217). Àuids. Introduction The last RAPRA Report on Polymers in Aerospace Applications (W.5 4600 280–450 4140–5170 4500 E-glass S-glass Carbon (PAN-based) Aramid 830 PAN: Polyacrylonitrile 4. and foams. Thin ¿lms of poly(vinylidene Àuoride). They can be produced from PAN. Fibres The most widely used ¿bres for aerospace are glass. coatings.4 3450 85.
especially for nanocomposite applications (see Section 6. CF is less impact-resistant that aramid or glass ¿bre (398). Quartz Fibre Compared with glass ¿bre. Pitch-based CF have low-to-negative coef¿cients of thermal expansion that are attractive for spacecraft applications (253).. including limestone. Compared with E-glass ¿bres.e. The use temperature of quartz ¿bre is as high as 1050 °C for continuous exposure and up to 1250 °C for short exposures (309). The remaining composition includes oxides of aluminium. It is estimated that 30% of CF consumption in 2009 will be for the aircraft and aerospace sector.92 GPa and a tensile modulus of 240 GPa. including lower density. This is attributed to a resurgence of the aerospace market and speci¿cally to production demands for new commercial aircraft such as the Boeing B787 and Airbus A380.1.. and a near zero coef¿cient of thermal expansion (CTE) (309. PAN precursors are now more common because they can be produced without the hightemperature graphitisation step required for Rayon-based CF. and quartz. calcium. 1950 W/(m·K)). conductivity (e. with about 54% of the remaining production targeted for industrial use and 15% for sporting goods (245). High-strength glass. including E-glass. These superior properties come at a premium in cost. ¿bres made from S-glass have higher silica oxide content and are about 40–70% stronger (253) and 20% stiffer (398).1) is vapour-grown carbon ¿bre (VGCF) (310). VGCF also has lower cost but defective microstructure can be a concern. and other compounds. boron. about twice the elongation-to-break and higher strength and stiffness). E-glass is a better electrical insulator than other glass ¿bres and represents 90% of all glass-¿bre reinforcements (particularly ¿berglass). Global demand for PAN-based CF is expected to grow at >10% per year (248). Corrosion-resistant glass (C-glass or E-CR glass) provides greater resistance to acid environments than does E-glass (253). Glass Fibre Compared with CF. and has very high thermal Boron Fibre Boron ¿bres were developed in the early 1960s and were the ¿rst high-performance reinforcements for advanced 4 . higher durability. boric acid. a magnesium aluminosilicate glass.. Glass ¿bres come in several forms. There is a continuing need to produce lower-cost CF ideally produced at low temperatures from cheap. About 50% of the composition of E-glass is silica oxide. S-glass. better electromagnetic properties (favourable for fabrication of aircraft radomes). The commonest is E-glass (i. Figure 1 Estimated global production of carbon ¿bre (245) Another carbon-based ¿bre with interesting properties.2 Inorganic Fibres Inorganic ¿bres include primarily glass ¿bres but also ¿bres fabricated from more specialised material such as quartz and boron that ¿nd use in high-performance composite applications. 4. 398). electrical grade). as well as increased demand in other market sectors including use in the manufacture of windmill blades. CF are stronger than glass or aramid ¿bres but are less impact-resistant and contact with metal can result in galvanic corrosion (253). abundant precursors such as anthracitic coal powder. VGCF has a typical tensile strength of 2. C-glass. and ¿lament-wound rocket motor cases (470). Applications include aircraft panels. and clay (253). is known as S-glass in the USA (R-glass in Europe and T-glass in Japan).Polymers in Aerospace Applications or coal tar). VGCF has some similarities to multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) but has larger outer (50–200 nm) and inner (30–90 nm) diameters. with lengths in the range 50 m to 100 m and aspect ratios between 100 to 500. Àuorspar. glass ¿bre has higher density but offers superior impact resistance.g. In general. Global production ¿gures for carbon ¿bres between 1999 and 2009 are shown in Figure 1. Early CF were produced from the pyrolysis of Rayon precursors. helicopter rotor blades. quartz ¿bre provides superior performance. a calcium aluminoborosilicate glass. better mechanical properties (e.g.
UHMWPE is a highly crystalline aliphatic polymer that is extruded as a gel under high pressure at low temperatures to achieve highly extended single chains offering very high modulus in the tensile direction. These have high use-temperatures and provide high modulus and excellent ballistic properties. They have very high strength and modulus. 4. known as aramids. PBO also offers excellent heat and Àame resistance (469) and has about twice the modulus and tensile strength of that of an aramid ¿bre. 309). Like PBO. PBO PBO ¿bres (Zylon®) [a. Aramid fibres have lower compressive strength than CF or inorganic ¿bres. rigid-chain polymers. and excellent resistance to organic solvents. Kevlar is prepared by the polycondensation of 1. 398).4-phenylene diamine and terephthalic acid. and lightly loaded structures on aircraft (470). Examples of aerospace applications include aircraft empennage skins. or by the use of a coupling agent (254). N N Aramid Fibre Aramids include poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (KevlarTM) O H N H N C O C O O Figure 4 Structure of PBO Figure 2 Structure of Kevlar and poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (NomexTM) Polybenzothiazole (PBZT) Another rigid-rod polymer similar in structure to PBO is PBZT [a. The high tensile strength (Table 1) of aramid ¿bres offers important opportunities for composite applications such as ¿lament-wound rocket motor cases. Although boron ¿bres are expensive. plasma treatment. Typical high-performance aramid ¿bres have moduli of about 138 GPa and tensile strength in the range of 3.1.1] have higher strength than CF. The decomposition temperature of PBO is about 100 °C higher than Kevlar (253. The most widely used aramid ¿bre for high-performance composites is Kevlar.3-phenylene diamine and isophthallic acid (254). space shuttle truss members.2].3 Polymeric Fibres Most polymeric ¿bres used for composite applications are highly aromatic. Nomex is prepared by the condensation polymerisation of 1. Quite distinct from these high-performance polymers that have highly aromatic main chains is UHMWPE. Other disadvantages include high water absorption and poor matrix adhesion in some cases. PBZT has high modulus.447 MPa. gas pressure vessels. Bonding of the ¿bre to the matrix can be improved through chemical modi¿cation. Aramid ¿bres provide exceptional impact resistance and tensile strength (253). Boron ¿bres can be made by the vapourdeposition of boron vapours on tungsten or carbon ¿laments. their superior mechanical properties have led to applications as structural components on some high-performance military aircraft (470). N S O O N H N H S N Figure 3 Structure of Nomex Figure 5 Structure of PBZT 5 .Polymers in Aerospace Applications composites. NomexTM and KevlarTM are aramids. Comparison of the properties of aramid and PBO ¿bres is made in Table 2. The properties of aramid ¿bres can be modi¿ed by surface oxidation or plasma etching that can improve off-axis strength of the composite (254). 309. and offer excellent compressive properties and buckling resistance. These include aromatic polyamides. high temperature resistance. and prefabricated aircraft repair patches (253. Specialty polymeric ¿bres include PBO and polybenzothiozole.
1 2. 398).6 Aramid 1450 23. For high-temperature aerospace applications. The aerospace applications for UHMWPE ¿bre composites are limited. special ¿bre treatments may be used in place of coupling agents that may degrade at elevated temperatures.3 Interfacial Properties Poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) PEEK. outstanding impact resistance.2 Fibre Forms Fibre reinforcements come in various forms. These yarns can be used under long-term exposure to 250 °C and shortterm exposure at 500 °C. In general. extremely high speci¿c strength. UHMWPE ¿bres have low resistance to elongation under sustained load and a comparatively low usetemperature (398) with a melting point of 150 °C. the interfacial strength of a glass ¿bre-reinforced composite 6 . Fibre drawing increases strength and modulus (254). and moisture resistance. 4.Polymers in Aerospace Applications Table 2 Mechanical Properties of PBO and Aramid Fibres (469) Fibre Tensile Strength Elongation at Break (g/den) (%) PBO 500 44. 4. Figure 6 Structure of PEEK 4. and chopped ¿bre. Tows may be used directly in ¿lament winding or pultrusion. including continuous spools of tow (carbon) or roving (glass). Tows are bundles of continuous ¿bres.1 4.5 Aramid high modulus 1440 21. woven fabrics. UHMWPE fibre is produced by gel spinning of UHMWPE dissolved in a suitable solvent (254). Typical sizes of aerospace-grade tows range 1 K to 12 K (253). a measure of the ¿bre weight reported in the number of grams per 9000 m.1 Coupling Agents PEEK can be spun into high-modulus yarn for aerospace applications by drawing at 200 °C (1). and anti-ballistic properties (253). or fabricated in a unidirectional tape.1.4 den: Denier. is a semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic (TP) with a heat distortion temperature (HDT) of 148 °C.3]. The number of individual ¿bres in a tow is designated by a number followed by ‘K’. Conversely. O O O C Good interfacial strength between the ¿ller and the matrix polymer is critical to achieving high modulus and particularly strength [a. This is often achieved by using a coupling agent that shares the chemical characteristics of the ¿bre and the matrix. Carbon/aramid and carbon/glass ¿bre hybrids have been used in some aircraft applications such as ribbed aircraft engine thrust reversers (254. excellent chemical. For example. Denier Tensile Modulus (g/den) 1320 1790 610 910 UHMWPE The attractive properties of these lightweight ¿bres made from UHMWPE include high impact resistance. Functional groups can be introduced on the surface of UHMWPE ¿bres by means of corona discharge and plasma treatment (254).6 2. ultraviolet (UV). stitched multaxials. 4. indicating a multiplication by 1000.0 PBO high modulus 490 42. abrasion resistance. as discussed in Section 4. 398).1.1 3. but their antiballistic properties are suitable for applications such as the bulletproof insert in forti¿ed cockpit doors in Boeing single-aisle aircraft (253. CF tows consist of thousands of ¿bre. non-woven mats.3.3. the interfacial strength of composites can be improved by the use of low-molecular-weight organofunctional silanes or titanates.4 Hybrid Fibres CF can be woven with aramid and glass ¿bres to produce hybrid cloths for composite application. low dielectric constant.
Other attractive properties for aerospace applications include good vibrational damping. low CTE.62 Two-Hour Boil 0.23 0. the low thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of some polymeric composites can be a concern for many hightemperature aerospace applications. and good fatigue resistance. Conversely.Polymers in Aerospace Applications can be improved by the use of silicon-containing coupling agents: these are the most common.. PEEK and poly(aryl ether ketone ketone) PEKK). 5.1 Matrix Polymers Polymeric matrices for composites include traditional thermosets (e. TP are semicrystalline or amorphous. compared with glass-reinforced plastics such as ¿breglass). The surface life of ¿bre-reinforced polyimide composites in a high-temperature oxidative environment can be extended by coating a polyimide precursor solution followed by curing at elevated temperature in a nitrogen environment (468). 4.3] Flexural Strength (GPa) Dry 0.. Examples of commonly used coupling agents are given in Table 3. The effect of two different silane coupling agents (Table 3) on the Àexural properties of an unsaturated polyester composite is illustrated in Table 4..46 0.38 0.2 Surface Treatment The interfacial properties of ¿bres can be improved without the use of traditional coupling agents. Composites Compared with metals.e. Although carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP) represent a small portion of the total composite market (i. epoxies) and TP resins (475). Some TP polymers such as Table 3 Common Coupling Agents [a. For example. Titanate coupling agents are also used in some cases.3. the interfacial adhesion of UHMWPE ¿bre can be improved by plasma treatment in pure oxygen. the market growth of CFRP is signi¿cantly greater than for other composite materials. composites offer high strength and low weight.3] Type Epoxy silane H 2C Representative Structure O C H CH 2O C H 2C H2C H 2 CH 2 Si( OC H 3) Methacrylate H 2C Primary amine silane Vinyl silane Titanate C H3 O C C O CH2CH2CH2 Si(OCH3 )3 NH2CH2C H2CH2 H2C CH C H3 Si(OCH3) 3 Si(OCH3)3 O C O ( Coupling Agent None Vinyl silane Methacrylate silane H2C C ) TiOCH(CH3)2 3 Table 4 Flexural Strength of a Glass-Reinforced Polyester [a. Comparison shows that vinyl silane and particularly methacrylate silane improve Àexural strength under dry exposure and at 2-hour exposure in boiling water.g. 5.59 7 .41 0. including some PI and aromatic ketone polymers (e.g.
e. 220 °C to 290 °C). and PI. Other polymers belonging to this category and reviewed in this section are benzoxazines and phthalonitrile resins.3-5. Bismalemides BMI thermosetting resin has similar properties to those of epoxies but offers better temperature performance.2 180-250 0. Applications for CE include ablatives and radomes due to excellent Table 5 Properties of High-Performance Thermosets (462) Property Density (kg/m3×10-3) Use temperature (°C) Tensile modulus (MPa) ×10-3 Dielectric constant (1 MHz) Cure temperature (°C) Mould Shrinkage (mm/mm) TGA onset (°C) RT: Room temperature Epoxy 1. skin temperatures of Mach 1 aircraft reach 110 °C. good adhesive properties. 398. re-entry vessels. polybenzoxazoles. PBI. For example.1. Ciba Geigy) provide excellent high-temperature performance (464). They have been used for high-temperature structural applications on military aircraft (290).4-bismaleimide diphenyl methane/oo´-diallyl alcohol of bisphenol A (Matrimid 5292. CE are more easily processed than BMI. A study of the effect of storage ageing on BMI prepregs have suggested that ageing for >30 days may reduce the curing rate (16).0006 260-340 Phenolic 1.. and superior electrical properties with a hot/wet service temperature around 149 °C (253.4-3. CE resins provide low dielectric loss. high solubility in ketones. and CE is often toughened (198) by including TP polymers or rubber.2-1. BMI. and low moisture absorption (198). and polyquinolines provide even higher temperature stability but at higher costs.24 200–250 3-5 4. thermosetting resins provide greater resistance to aggressive Àuids such as acetone and hydraulic Àuids.25 RT to 180 3.3 ~200 3.4 2. but temperatures can reach 300 °C (327) for Mach 3 military aircraft. Typical properties of epoxy. the highest temperature stability (based upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data) is achieved by the BMI and CE resins.7 220-300 0. including char yields of >55% and high glass transition temperature (Tg) (250 °C) (277). Toughening methods include copolymerisation with styrene and hydroxyl methacrylate (254).Polymers in Aerospace Applications PI can be crosslinked though the use of end-functioning low-molecular weight resin. especially hot/wet service temperatures up to 232 °C (462). Although most properties are similar among the four thermosets.1 3. were developed in the 1960s to provide such high service temperatures.8 3.8-4. and CE resins are compared in Table 5. PI prepared from the condensation polymerisation of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid and an aromatic diamine. Guided weapons.1-3. the brittleness of BMI resins is high. 5. low moisture absorption.2-1.35 ~200 3. and space shuttle service can require even higher use-temperature.1-1. but generally have poor solvent resistance. Crosslinked BMI thermosets such as 4. Maleimide- Cyanoacrylate Esters CE provide excellent strength and toughness.5 RT to 180 0. Benzoxazines are formed from the reaction of phenol with an aldehyde and aromatic amine (253). 462). but lower-impact properties and the shelf-life of pre-cure resins is limited. but toughened versions (see Table 5) are available (470).002 300-360 Toughened BMI 1. Composites prepared from TP resins can be fabricated by a wide variety of methods and provide higher toughness and increased fatigue and wear resistance. bismaleimides (BMI). high glass-transition temperature (i. Brittleness of cured CE resin can be a concern.004 400-420 8 . In general. cyanate esters (CE). and norbornene-functionalised benzoxazines provide improved thermal properties.4-4.1 Thermosetting Matrices The commonest thermosets for advanced composites include epoxies. The ability to withstand high temperatures can be a critical consideration in many aerospace applications. and high performance-to-cost ratio.4 150-190 0.1-3.7-3. Like epoxies.007 360-400 Cyanate Ester 1. phenolic. phenolics.
Applications include Àame-resistant aircraft interior panels as well as ablative and rocket nozzle applications (398). and low-smoke resins. Networks can be formed by reacting the endcapped oligomers with 4. Phenolics provide good heat and Àame resistance. In general.4´-diaminodiphenyl sulfone at elevated temperatures. Fire retardancy can be improved by the addition of phosphorus substituents. Elimination of water from the polycondensation reaction results in void formation that needs to be carefully controlled. Epoxy resins provide many attractive features. and the need for high-pressure curing. The mechanism of oxidative degradation of an aerospace epoxy resin based upon TGDM and triglycidylaminophenol and diaminodiphenylsulfone has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared analysis (237). and low cost (462). CE also can be blended with epoxies and BMI (462). Phthalonitrile Resins Epoxy Epoxy resins are the most commonly used matrix material for composites. processibility. These can be processed by conventional methods including pre-preging. and exposure to boiling water (198). the upper use temperature for advanced epoxies is limited to 150 °C to 180 °C (462). resin transfer moulding (RTM). Disadvantages include brittleness and moisture absorption that can lower use temperature as mentioned above.Polymers in Aerospace Applications dielectric properties of CE. loading. Phenolic Resins Phenolics such as phenol–formaldehyde resin are low-cost. an upper temperature limit of about 177 °C for dry structural use and only 149 °C for wet exposure has been suggested (198). This is followed by a ¿nal imidisation step. CE composites are used in primary and secondary structures in military aircraft as well as in satellite applications (462). Heavy loading of epoxy composites can lower use temperature to 120 °C. Oligomeric phthalonitrile resins have several attractive properties for high-performance composite applications. whereas 170 °C ageing resulted in broader. flame-resistant. As a class. PI have good adhesion and heat and chemical resistance as well as superior mechanical properties. For example. including good handling properties. Major shortcomings include brittleness. the major reaction is probably oxidation of a methylene group adjacent to the nitrogen atom of the TGDM unit. and sheet moulding techniques (462). CE can be used for the formation of interpenetrating networks by blending with TP and thermosets (462). Epoxy-modi¿ed bisphenol-A dicyanate resin reinforced with high-modulus CF for potential applications in a space environment has shown good resistance to thermal cycling. ¿lament winding. The high values of Tg of PI make processing dif¿cult. This intermediate is very corrosive and requires special consideration in mould design. Epoxies are commonly used in structural applications. CN H2 N O CN Figure 7 Structure for APPH Polyimides PI are produced by a two-stage process in which a poly(amic acid) is ¿rst produced. poor shelf-life. Crosslinking by the use a functionally terminated oligomer as in the case of PMR-15 (in situ polymerisation of monomer reactants and the designation ‘-15’ in PMR-15 indicated the molecular weight of the first formed oligomer (i. These resins have been used to prepare voidfree composites. 1500)) can lead to high-temperature and void-free 9 .. an aromatic diamine. Resin Àow characteristics and mechanical properties of tetraglycidyldiaminodiphenylmethane (TGDM) based epoxy resins can be modi¿ed by reactive blending with an acrylonitrile–butadiene–methacrylic acid rubber (456). Results show that very different mechanisms are operative at 120 °C (close to actual use temperatures) compared with 170 °C (representative of accelerated ageing) where general oxidative changes occur in all areas of the matrix. and by the use of toughening agents. general changes throughout the matrix.e. Oxidative degradation of epoxy resins is also an important concern. and 4-(aminophenoxy) phthalonitrile (APPH). Use of a polyimide oligomer can promote better ¿bre wettability. Phthalonitrile end-capped oligomers are prepared by reacting pyromellitic dianhydride. At the lower temperature. ablative characteristics. and low cost (470). Toughened epoxies have found applications in aircraft structural composites (290) but toughening can also signi¿cantly lower use temperature as indicated. but their use in high-performance applications is limited by low service temperature that is adversely affected by moisture content. UV-irradiation. including very low moisture absorption and good thermal stability (2).
although working temperatures as high as 315 °C have been reported. Some of the most widely used TP for composite applications include PEEK. PI resins can be thermosetting and TP. 255.7 3. 314). LARC™-ITPI. use temperatures and resistance to solvents such as methyl ether ketone and hydraulic Àuids of TP composites are lower than obtained using thermosetting composites. TP composites provide the advantage of signi¿cantly higher impact strength. and landing gear doors. The absence of volatile release in the second stage is an advantage in forming void-free composites. A second-generation material is PMR II (in situ polymerisation). This layer results in a decrease in tensile strength by acting as a crack initiation site. The use temperature for PI is typically 200 °C to 280 °C (463). Disadvantages include the need for a multi-stage cure process and the toxicity of the monomer 4. polyetherimide (PEI). oxygen concentration. Oxidation of the neat resin is diffusion-controlled. Tandon and co-workers (228) developed a model for thermo-oxidative ageing with a diffusion-reaction model whereby temperature. PI composite can be fabricated using quartz. The second stage involves a ring-opening addition-type crosslinking reaction at nadic end groups to form the ¿nal crosslinked polyimide matrix.Polymers in Aerospace Applications composites. thermosetting PI are the primary choice. buckhead Àoor panels. Ageing of PMR-15 neat resin in air at 288 °C has shown a small increase in Tg (330 °C to 336 °C) attributed to an increase in crosslink density (7). 475).16 mm thickness. Continuous ¿bre-reinforced TP composites (471) provide cost-effective manufacturing achieved by a high degree of automation. thereby. Thermosetting polyimides can provide hot/wet use temperature 260 °C to 320 °C. Ageing for 1000 hours resulted in a visibly damaged surface layer of ~0. promoting premature failure. The properties of non-halogen ¿re-resistant TP have been reviewed by Lyon and Emrick (40). The ¿rst-stage consists of solvent evaporation and an imidisation reaction to form short-chain imide oligomers with the release of condensation water. For composite applications. based upon the polycondensation of 4. Cost is typically high for these resins.3-phenylenediamine. is another high-temperature PI matrix for aerospace applications (473). 290.2 TP Matrices Composites made using a TP matrix represent a small but fast-growing market (253. Such Àuids act as stress cracking agents that can lead to mechanical failure. These PI are formed by a polycondensation reaction. Representative properties are shown in Table 6.4]. 5. wing ribs and panels.3 10 .4´-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA) and 1.1. Over the past 20 years. and graphite ¿bres reinforcement and are favoured as engineering laminates in supersonic aircraft (327). Polyarylates Aromatic polyester carbonates (polyarylates) having the general structure: O OC O CO O OCO CH3 C CH3 O OCO Figure 8 Structure of Polyarylate Table 6 Representative Properties of Thermoplastic Resins (474) Polymer Morphology Tg (ºC) Processing Temperature (ºC) 380–400 315–360 330–345 Yield Strength (MPa) 100 103 79 Modulus (GPa) PEEK PEI PPS semicrystalline amorphous semicrystalline 143 210 88 3. and poly(p-phenylene sul¿de) (PPS). is more susceptible to fracture [a. Applications include use in aircraft interiors. resulting in the formation of a surface oxidation layer (11). boron. Extensive studies of the effect of ageing on the nanoindentation strain rate sensitivity have shown that the average strain rate sensitivity in the oxidised surface layer is much higher than that of the non-oxidised interior. PMR polyimides such as PMR-15 use a two-stage curing process. PMR-15 has been the most widely used PI in the aerospace industry due to its high Tg (~340 °C) and good thermo-oxidative stability.4´-methylenedianiline (301. but the release of volatiles may cause problems in terms of void formation during cure. indicating that the oxidised surface layer has limited ductility and. glass.6 3. Compared with thermosets. and weight-loss effects are considered. On the negative side. TP can be amorphous or semicrystalline.
PEEK has been reported to be capable of withstanding continuous operating temperature up to 260 °C in low-stress operations and 120 °C in aerospace structural applications (191). All high-temperature glass ¿bre sizings are suitable with PEKK and its processing temperature (335-345 °C) (378). Polyimides PI composites have been used at temperatures >300 °C for electronics and aerospace applications (466). N N O O Figure 11 Structure of LARC-ITPI Polyetherimide The commercial PEI Ultem® has the general structure O CH3 O O C CH3 O O O Matrimid® is a high T g (approximately 313 °C) amorphous TPI made from diaminophenylindane and 3. PEKK has high hot/ wet retentions (up to 130 °C) due to low resin moisture pick-up (378). developed in the 1980s. Choice of sizing. O O O C PEI is an amorphous polymer. respectively) glass and CF composites (378). and aramid ¿bres. Properties of composite structures formed by reactive heating a phenylethynyl-terminated PEI (Reactive Ultem®) coating on PAN-based CF have been reported (189).3´-diamino benzophenone (254). O O C O N N N N O O Figure 10 Structure of PEI Figure 12 Structure of Matrimid 11 . High-temperature coupling agents for S-glass and quartz fabric-reinforced PI are required at these temperatures to maintain high flexural strength (466). and polyimide 2080 produced by the reaction of benzophenone dicarboxylic acid dianhydride with a mixture of 80/20-toluene diisocyanate and methylene 4. and modulus. and melting temperatures in the range 300 °C to 310 °C (378).Polymers in Aerospace Applications are available in clear/transparent and pigmented versions that meet heat and smoke requirements for aircraft interior applications (40).e. PEKK is a semicrystalline TP with low Àammability.4´-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). corrosion. The mechanical performance of PEI degrades with exposure to aggressive Àuids such as Skydrol hydraulic Àuid (255). good abrasion resistance. PEKK is the preferred TP resin matrix at temperatures >90 °C (378). The effect of moisture on the interlaminar resistance of woven fabric PEI composite has been reported (187). LARCTM-ITPI based upon IDPA and 1. and excellent stiffness (191). tape and fabric.3-phenylenediamine (473). It provides high thermal stability. and radiation exposure. O O O O Figure 9 Structure of PEEK Poly(arylether ketone ketone) Developed in the 1980s. Thermoplastic polyimides (TPI) include LARCTM-TPI based on benzophenone dicarboxylic dianhydride and 3.. low coef¿cient of expansion. glass. PEEK has good resistance to hydrolysis. can signi¿cantly affect performance. strength. low smoke and toxic gas emission. NR-10 B2 prepared by reacting hexaÀuoro isopropylidene dianhydride with a 95/5 molar ratio of p/m-phenylene diamine. a Tg of 156 °C. chemical. A suggested application is the rigidisation of inÀatable composite structures in space.4´-diisocyanate (254). Poly(ether ether ketone) PEEK or poly(ether ether ketone) (Victrex®) is used for the matrix of TP prepregs containing carbon.3´-4. PEKK composites have been prepared from short and continuous (i. that offers high heat resistance. however.
Figure 15 Structure of PSF 12 . and diaphragm forming (448). Resin Transfer Moulding In the RTM process. The properties of a CF-reinforced heat-crosslinkable PEI (Ultem®) have been reported.2 Fabrication Methods N O NH O Figure 13 Structure of Polyamideimides PPS Current grades of PPS (e. a resin including high-temperature PI is injected into a closed cavity mould ¿lled with ¿bre reinforcement (314). thermoforming. prepared by reacting trimellitoyl acid chloride with a mixture of 70/30 4. CH3 O C CH3 O O S O 5. Fibre reinforcement and matrix resin may be combined in a single step by various processes such as wet layup. automated tape laying/¿bre placement. Forton®) exhibit good resistance to temperatures up to 240 °C (melting point between 280 °C and 290 °C) and are resistant to oils. and to acids/bases in the pH range 2 to 12. press-forming. A ¿bre-tomatrix ratio is typically 60:40 or higher for advanced composite materials (398). compression moulding. UDELTM) and polyphenylsulfone (PPSU. anti-icing agents. Prepregs can be made by using solvent. Resistive heating has been proposed as a route for the rigidisation of inÀatable composite structures in space (189). The mould may be evacuated to assist the moulding process (vacuum-assisted RTM) (253). pultrusion. For some applications. O O O O O S O Figure 16 Structure of PPSU 5. composite properties such as density.Polymers in Aerospace Applications Polyamideimides such as TorlonTM. Combined with other non-destructive evaluation techniques such as thermography and radiography techniques. RTM offers low fabrication cost compared with other alternatives such as autoclaving. solvents. fuels. PPS can be processed by various TP composite technologies. high-pressure method suitable for complex. has some of the properties of polyamides such as toughness and ductility. Forming processes for TP composites include thermoforming. and strength can be determined (280). including pultrusion.g. Other attractive properties include excellent hardness. high-strength glass-mat reinforced TP. RadelTM). matched-die moulding. and bladder moulding. dimensional stability. and RTM. and TP composite applications include bisphenol A polysulfone (PSF. holtmelt. modulus.. and the high heat resistance of PI. Water absorption is near 0. S Figure 14 Structure of PPS Polysulfones Polysulfones that have been used in aerospace applications for aircraft interiors. ¿lament winding. compression moulding. High-temperature composite parts prepared by RTM have been incorporated in many high-performance military aircraft including the F-22 Raptor (314) where a RTM-processed bismaleimide prepreg has been used (467). or powder impregnation techniques. resin-impregnated ¿bres (prepregs) are used.4´diamino diphenyl oxide and phenylene diamine. Use of PPS matrix has been reported for structural applications on the Airbus A340 and A380 (290). Compression moulding is a high-volume.3 Non-destructive Testing Ultrasound techniques were used to monitor the cure of ¿breglass in 1966.04%. welding. and excellent ¿re resistance. signi¿cantly lower than for other TP (including PEI and PEEK) used in aerospace applications.
including thermosetting resins. PEI.g. Table 7 Representative Properties of a Nylon-6 Nanocomposite [a. tensile modulus and strength are signi¿cantly improved without sacri¿cing impact strength. Modi¿cation of the inorganic surface of MMT by organic treatment is used to increase dispersion in the polymer matrix. can also be used to replace Na+. as illustrated in Figure 17. and some TP elastomers such as polyamide silicone copolymer (298).6]. 41. In general. The sodium cation in the gallery can be exchanged with other cations such as lithium. 250.. These platelets have thicknesses of ~1 nm with aspect ratios (i.3 0. cyanate ester. potassium. organic cations. These cations balance the overall charge. nano¿bres. PI. and space mirror substrates (310. Nancomposites contain inorganic reinforcements with high aspect ratio and dimensions of 1–100 nm. Typical properties of nylon nanocomposites are given in Table 7. or silica and various metal oxides. improved resistance to wear. and epoxies. Nanocomposites Several excellent review articles on the properties and processing of nanocomposites are available (3. Particularly noteworthy is the improvement in heat-distortion temperature due to the reinforcement. ultra-light space structures. Applications include fire-retardant coatings. The small size results in properties often superior to traditional composites. The speci¿c alkyl selection can be used to improve miscibility with the nanocomposite matrix. photovoltaic cells.3] Property Coef¿cient of thermal expansion (×105) Heat-distortion temperature (°C) Tensile modulus (GPa) Tensile Strength (MPa) Impact strength (kJ/m2) Water absorption (%) Nylon-6 13 65 1. At higher loading.51 Property improvement can be signi¿cant at small loading. polyhedral oliogomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). elevated heatdistortion temperature.1 Nano-Reinforcements Fillers used for nanocomposites include organicmodi¿ed montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays. and various nanoparticles such as silica and more exotic ¿llers such indium tin oxide (ITO) (298). potential for surface and interface modi¿cation. The silicate sheets in MMT are separated by cations. One of the ¿rst nanocomposites was fabricated from Nylon-6 by researchers at Toyota in the late 1980s. 206.1 69 2. reduced oxygen and water permeability. rocket nozzle ablative materials. Other potential aerospace applications include devices such as light-emitting diodes. For example. Nanocomposite can be made using various ¿llers having at least one dimension in the nanometer range (95). 358. 13 . 331.e.3 145 2. increased thermal stability. typically sodium.5]). The crystal structure of MMT consists of 1 nm thin layers with a central octahedral sheet of alumina fused between two external silica tetrahedral sheets.87 Nancomposite 6. modulus and strength reach a maximum at about 3 wt% organoclay content with little sacri¿ce in elongation at break (461). 450 [a. Examples of TP include polysiloxanes. but a different layer charge. In water-swollen layered silicates. MMT is a naturally occurring 2:1 phylloslicate with the same structure as talc and mica. The use of nanocomposite material has been increasing very rapidly since the 1980s. For a polysulfone organoclay nanocomposite. the distinguishing characteristic of nanocomposites compared with more traditional composite materials is the dimensions of the reinforcing ¿ller. As shown. the modulus of polydimethylsiloxane reinforced by 1% clay can be increased by approximately 100%. and easier processibility. Nanocomposites have been prepared from nearly all commodity and engineering-grade plastics. Isomorphoic substitution within the layers (e. nanotubes. Some of the attractive properties of nanocomposites important for aerospace application include improved electrical and mechanical properties.8 0. and gas sensors [a. 6. rocket propulsion insulation. aerospace structural panels. poly(vinyl acetate)–acrylic copolymer. MMT. Thermosets include phenolic. The US market for nanocomposites is expected to reach 11 billion pounds by the year 2020. nanosilica. such as an alkyl ammonium cation. MMT The commonest form of nano-reinforcement is organoclay.. 180. and calcium. replacing Al3+ by Mg2+) can be used to modify the charge exchange capacity. carbon nano¿bre (CNF). exfoliation decreases and mechanical properties decline. better Àame resistance. carbon nanotubes (CNT).1 107 2. Nylon 11. diameter:thickness) of 10:1 to 1000:1 and are arranged in stacks that can be separated (or exfoliated) during composite fabrication. Nano¿bres are electrospun whiskers with diameters in the range 10–100 nm and length-to-diameter ratios >1000. 312. 298). Fillers include nanoclays. poly(ethylene oxide).Polymers in Aerospace Applications 6.
Their use requires high dispersion. This range is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of typical CF. The typical tensile strength of CNT is 100–600 GPa. Paul and L. 15. CNT also have extremely high stiffness. R. Compressive strengths of CNT are about two orders of magnitude higher than that of any other ¿bre. com)) can serve as multifunctional additives providing molecular-level reinforcement as well as serving as processing aids and flame retardants (298). Possible organic substituents. CNT can also carry large current densities (>100 MA/cm2 for MWNT). Reproduced with permission from D.R. thermo-oxidative resistance. especially for conducting nanocomposite applications. Figure 18 Representation of a typical POSS structure. Densities of CNT are about 1. the use of surfactants. low thermal conductivity. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades of nanosilicas are commercially available. are indicated.3 g/cm3 compared with 1. Silicone rubber nanocomposites can be fabricated by ionexchanging Na+/MMT with dimethyl ditallow ammonium bromide or hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. A problem with the use of CNT is the need for chemical modi¿cation for favourable interaction with polymeric matrices. Other advantages of POSS-filled nanocomposites include increased service temperature. Reproduced with permission from Southern Clay Product. This type of organophilic modi¿cation improves the polymer miscibility of MMT. 2008. Typical diameters of CNF range 50 nm to 200 nm with lengths in the range 50 m to 100 m. Nanosilica Nanosilicas such as Aerosil® are very pure amorphous silica produced by high-temperature hydrolysis of silicon tetrachloride in an oxy-hydrogen gas Àame to produce particles in the range 7–40 nm (298).M. and ageing resistance.Polymers in Aerospace Applications Some examples include dimethyl distearyl ammonium chloride and dimethyl stearyl benzyl ammonium chloride. compared with 750 GPa for CF. Experimental thermal conductivities are about 200 W/(m·K).9 g/cm3 for CF (310). with Young’s modulus in the range 1–5 TPa. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS is a trademark of Hybrid Plastics (www.hybridplastics.4 nm compared with MWNT that have diameters in the range 2–25 nm. Graphite Nanoplatelets An alternative to CNT is the use of graphite nanoplatelets. Elsevier Carbon Nano¿bres CNF are discontinuous graphic ¿laments produced in the gas phase by the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. each carrying an organic group (Figure 18). The chemical composition of POSS (RSiO1. shear mixing. and solution processing (310). Incorporated Carbon Nanotubes CNT provide attractive combinations of high Àexibility and strength combined with high stiffness and low density. is intermediate between that of silica (SiO2) and silicones (R2SiO).8–1. 49. SWNT have diameters as small as 0. low density. Figure 17 Structure of sodium montmorillonite. Polymer. Alkoxysilyl functional groups can improve matrix–silica binding (197). Several forms of nanographite include 14 . The commonest POSS has eight silicon atoms. Techniques used to achieve good dispersion include in situ polymerisation of the matrix. The typical dimensions of POSS particles are 1–3 nm. Carbon nanotubes can be singlewalled (SWNT) or MWNT. 3187. © 2008.5). Robeson. The ion-exchange process also increases the gallery height in relation to the molecular size of the organic cation.
improve Àame retardancy (235). Elsevier 6.R. 17.D. Water resistivity also can be improved by adding reactive inorganic ¿llers. 424). 17. Fornes and D.R. 2008. Exfoliation results in improved mechanical properties. Reproduced with permission from T. 227. Modelling of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials has been given (183. Elsevier 15 . Paul and L. The addition of nano-sized ¿llers (especially organoclays) can increase modulus and tensile strength at signi¿cantly smaller ¿ller content compared with more traditional reinforcing agents such as glass ¿bre.D. POSS and CNT can signi¿cantly reduce the heat release rate and. Polymer.3 Properties of Nanocomposites One of the most signi¿cant effects of nano¿llers on the properties of the matrix polymer is the signi¿cant increase in modulus compared with the neat resin. thereby.82 MPa changes with MMT loading. Exchange of natural Na + counterions with long-chain quaternary ammonium cations results in improved dispersion into hydrophobic polymers (298). exfoliated graphite. 6. Nanocomposite ¿lms of CNT and ITO in polysiloxane have the capability for thermal control in satellite applications (197). 44. The effect of wt% ¿ller on relative modulus (i. 15. Functionalised graphene sheets can be prepared by controlled thermal expansion of graphite oxide.Polymers in Aerospace Applications expanded graphite. Polymer. 3187. the storage modulus. the ratio of the modulus of the nancomposite to that of the matrix polymer) at different concentrations of glass ¿bre and MMT concentration in Nylon 6. Brabender-type mixing for high-viscosity resins. 4993. Whereas nano¿llers have small effects on the Tg. as illustrated in Figure 21. © 2003. the effect on the HDT is signi¿cant due to the large reinforcement effect of the nano¿ller.. 49. and application processing.R. barrier performance. Elsevier Advantages of nanocomposites include improved barrier to fuel and dimensional stability (i. the ratio of composite modulus to matrix polymer modulus) is compared for MMT and glass ¿bre¿lled Nylon 6 in Figure 20. 315. Paul. the oxygen permeability coef¿cients of polyimide nanocomposites have been reported to drop by two-thirds and the thermal expansion coefficient to drop by 20% (301).e. Such nanocomposites provide anti-static properties. Fornes and D. Reproduced with permission from D. 2003. Figure 21 Dynamic mechanical storage modulus of Nylon 6 as a function of temperature and wt% MMT content. The horizontal line illustrates how HDT at an applied stress of 1. © 2008.. Figure 20 Comparison of relative modulus (i.. Robeson. lower CTE) (301). Reproduced with permission from T. 4993. and graphene.e. The process of exfoliation of surface-treated nanoclays under high-shear mixing is illustrated in Figure 19. Higher oxygen barrier performance can increase thermo-oxidative stability (301). As shown. qualitatively related to the tensile modulus.2 Processing Methods to disperse nanoparticles include high-shear mixing for liquid resins and three-roll milling for liquid resins. The result is a signi¿cant increase in the heat distortion temperature. and twin-screw extrusion for solid polymers (298). Figure 19 Mechanism of organoclay dispersion and exfoliation during melt processing. For example.M. 2003. approximately 20 wt% of glass ¿bre is necessary to increase the modulus of Nylon 6 to the same level achieved by addition of 7 wt% of MMT. Paul. As shown. © 2003. Polymer. is increased in the glassy region as well as the rubbery plateau. 44.e.
USA. References a. 2119. Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River. Welsh in Polymer Data Handbook. Schoeppner.6. stiffness. Advances in Polymer Science No.4. 8. 2000. 44. New York. BMI BTDA CE CF CFRP CNF CNT CTE EMI HDT IDPA ITO 16 . Kholodovych and W. 22. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Edition. Godovsky in Biopolymers. a.1.J. Prentice Hall. and relative elongation at break (compared with the neat polyimide). 2009. Mark. PVA Hydrogels.Y. Vaia and E. Tandon. Foams In use since 1971. Tyan. 2000. 5. Nanocomposites.386. G.A. Berlin. New York. 2003. Thermoformed PMI foam has been used in many aerospace applications (252) as an alternative to Nomex® and aluminium honeycomb structures.P. R. Putthanarat and G.E.A. a.2. 394. Oxford University Press Inc.C. Values represent relative modulus. Applications include helicopter rotor blades and structural sandwich cores of fuselage panels. V.J.394. p. Lu. This increase in stiffness is accompanied by smaller improvements in stress and elongation at break. a. polymethacrylimide (PMI) has been fabricated into foam cores offering high strength. As shown. 26.4´-Benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride Cyanate esters Carbon ¿bre(s) Carbon ¿bre reinforced plastics Carbon nano¿bre Carbon nanotubes Coef¿cient of thermal expansion Electromagnetic interference Heat distortion temperature 4. Ed. D. Wei and T-E. Welsh in Polymer Data Handbook. as well as stringer pro¿les in pressure bulkheads. Germany. A similar improvement in tensile modulus and stress with a maximum at 3 wt% MMT has been reported for polysulfone nanocomposites (461). relative maximum stress at break.Polymers in Aerospace Applications The effect of oxydianiline (ODA)-modi¿ed clay on the tensile properties of a BTDA-ODA polyimide is illustrated in Figure 22.. 2009. Ed.E. the modulus is increased by more than threefold at only 7 wt% ODA-modi¿ed organoclay.. Figure 22 Relative tensile properties (property of nanocomposite to that of the matrix polymer) reported for a polyimide (BTDA–ODA) nanocomposite prepared using ODA-modi¿ed organoclay. Anionic Polymerisation. Mark.3´-4. Journal of Materials Science. p. Hsieh. S. K-H.. 2009. NY.5. Giannelis. J. a.P. 153. Fried. NY. J. Springer. 2873. 38. Oxford University Press Inc.163. 2nd Edition. Polymer Science & Technology. USA. MRS Bulletin.4´-Benzophenone isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride Indium tin oxide 7. a. NJ. Data taken from H-L. USA. p. J. and fatigue life.3. Y.R. Kholodovych and W. © 2000. Elsevier Abbreviations for Polymers in Aerospace Applications APPH 4-(Aminophenoxy) phthalonitrile Bismaleimides 3. 2009. 2001.. V.
Polymers in Aerospace Applications MMT MWNT ODA PAN PBI PBO PBZT PEEK PEI PEKK PI PMI PMR POSS PPS PPSU PSF RFI RTM SWNT Tg TGA TGDM TP TPI Montmorillonite Multiwall carbon nanotubes Oxydianiline Polyacrylonitrile Polybenzimidazole Poly(p-phenylene-2.6-benzobisoxazole) Polybenzothiazole Poly(aryl ether ether ketone) Polyetherimide Poly(ether ketone ketone) Polyimide(s) Polymethacrylimide In situ polymerisation of monomer reactants. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes Poly(p-phenylene sul¿de) Polyphenylsulfone Polysulfone Radio frequency interference Resin transfer moulding Single wall carbon nanotubes Glass transition temperature Thermogravimetric analysis Tetraglycidyldiaminodiphenylmethane Thermoplastic Thermoplastic polyimides UHMWPE Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene UV VGCF Ultraviolet Vapour-grown carbon ¿bre 17 .
Polymers in Aerospace Applications 18 .
No. 2008.4. Covina. Tn.. GREECE. No. Wide angle X-ray diffraction results indicated that drawing carried out above the glass transition temperature affected unit cell parameters.4. Gotsis A D Crete.Central Silk Technological Research Institute. The emphasis is given on the various models that have been proposed for the prediction of permeability in polymer-clay nanocomposites. 32 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Memphis. p.. which showed that the polymers possessed better thermal and thermooxidative stability than current commercially available high-temperature thermosetting resins. Dayton. The degree of orientation. 2009. 67 refs. Useful properties were observed at an optimum draw temperature of 200 deg. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.C for short term exposure. Sarojadevi M Anna.8 TAILORING THERMAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND ITS INTERFACES FOR THERMOMECHANICAL APPLICATIONS Roy A K. p. 8-11 Sept. The thermal stability of PEEK yarn under dynamic conditions suggested that PEEK could be used for high temperature applications (up to 250 deg. Some aspects on the methods of improving the barrier properties of the nanocomposite are examined and a few applications of these materials as gas barriers are presented. World Forum on Advanced Materials.1039758 Item 4 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Multifunctional Materials: Working Smarter Together. Research Institute.N-dimethylacetamide/ toluene solvent mixture to form an anhydride terminated oligomeric intermediate. Kumar K India. p. 2009. 15th May 2009. composite joints and the composite material © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 19 .277. spinning process variables and drawing conditions were investigated in order to obtain high modulus PEEK yarns that could be tailored for aerospace applications.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 112. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 2008. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Bangalore. Rao P M D. (POLYCHAR-16.1040402 Item 3 European Polymer Journal 45.190 DEVELOPMENT OF OLIGOMERIC PHTHALONITRILE RESINS FOR ADVANCED COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS Selvakumar P. as well as the procedures for the measurement of the permeability and the diffusivity. Polymerisation of the oligomeric phthalonitrile/diamine mixtures and prepolymers was followed by DSC and the complex viscosity of the prepolymers during polymerisation determined by means of isothermal rheometric analysis. Ca. Kotresh T M.2497 PROPERTIES OF HIGH MODULUS PEEK YARNS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Shekar R I. India.4’-diaminodiphenyl sulphone as curing agent at elevated temperatures. Sangwook Sihn.Defence Materials Stores Research & Development Establishment The effects of the interactions between the rheological properties. Ganguli S. The Accession no. characterised in terms of sonic velocity. Varshney V Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Universal Technology Corp. Lucknow. University.2008) INDIA Accession no. Technical University This is a review of the existing studies on the permeability of gas molecules in nanocomposite materials that consist of inorganic platelet-shaped ﬁllers in polymeric matrices. EUROPEAN UNION. University Phthalonitrile terminated oligomers were prepared in two stages by reacting an excess amount of pyromellitic dianhydride with aromatic diamines in a N.C) for long periods of exposure and 500 deg. (SAMPE) Thermal transport phenomena in aerospace ﬁbre-reinforced composites. We describe the dominant mechanisms for the transport of small molecules in polymers and polymer nanocomposites. Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory. pp. The oligomers were converted to network polymers using 4. which was terminated by reaction with 4-(aminophenoxy)phthalonitrile.1043036 Item 2 Macromolecular Symposia No. was as high as 3 km/s with a sonic modulus of 105 gpd. The crystallinity increased with increasing draw temperature. density and mechanical properties. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Paper 44. 17th -21st Feb.967 PERMEABILITY OF POLYMER/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW Choudalakis G.C (which may be the region of maximum crystallisation rate) and were primarily attributed to the maximum crystallisation temperature and the heat setting effect. 29 refs. INDIA thermal and thermooxidative properties of the polymers were investigated by TGA. Kanpur. The inﬂuence of the characteristics of the inorganic particles on the barrier properties of the composite membrane is discussed and tested using the model and the available experimental data..
high temperature resins and composites. Covina. TN. manufacturing and processing advances. NDE and structural health monitoring. Ca. USA Accession no... 8 refs. 12 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.2009. 8-11 SEPT. The new materials are currently available in the 40-70 Shore A range of durometer and they are expected to play a major role in providing cost-effective options for demanding applications in the automotive and aerospace industries.. Data on the physical properties. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce 2008. electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites..13 LIFE PREDICTION OF CARBON FIBER/PEKK THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR STRUCTURES DESIGN Dan-Jumbo E.12. University (SAMPE) The development of a life prediction technique for characterising the long-term behaviour of composites fabricated from standard modulus carbon ﬁbre and polyetherketoneketone using Miyano’s Accelerated Testing Methodology.1036261 Item 5 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Multifunctional Materials: Working Smarter Together. 8-11 Sept. environmental considerations. processing of nanocomposites. USA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It is shown through ﬁnite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulations that interface impedance plays an important role in dictating thermal transport through the interface and that through materials modelling parameters can be identiﬁed to guide processing for tailoring interface performance. fire behaviour of nanocomposites. p. 158 papers SAMPE FALL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE 2008.1033201 20 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . 2008. Kuraishi A. applications of nanocomposites. No. 2008. testing of composites.References and Abstracts interface are analysed. The accelerated testing is combined with the time temperature superposition principle to relate long-term deformation and strength to shortterm accelerated tests over a series of elevated operating temperatures. composite design and analysis. nano-industrial applications. 3 refs. Tsai S W. nanostructured multifunctional materials. composite fatigue and fracture. Dec. 20 refs. A rise in Tg with ageing time was attributed to an increase in the crosslink density of the polyimide.C IN AIR AND IN ARGON ENVIRONMENTS ON CREEP RESPONSE OF PMR-15 NEAT RESIN Ruggles-Wrenn M B. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD MEMPHIS. ﬂuid resistance and processability of the new LSRs are presented. carbon-carbon composites and foams. and thermoplastic composites USA Accession no. design for multifunctionality.642-646 COMPARISON OF FLUORINATED LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER AND HEAT CURED FLUOROSILICONE ELASTOMER Franssen O. Paper 12. sandwich structures.. thermomechanical multifunctional materials. p. multifunctional materials with integral NDE. Bosshammer S. (SAMPE) The Fall 2008 SAMPE Technical Conference consisted of over 150 papers. including repair analysis. Ca. joints in composite structures. pp. Wang J Boeing Co. 2008 MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS: WORKING SMARTER TOGETHER. 5th Jan.C for up to 1000 hours was evaluated. CNT/CNF alignment of nanocomposites. Toub M Momentive Performance Materials GmbH The development by Momentive Performance Materials of fully ﬂuorinated liquid silicone rubber(LSR) compounds with good fuel and oil resistance and processability equivalent to that of commercial standard LSRs is described. Riley G.1.1034712 Item 7 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 111. analysis and characterisation of nanocomposites. Keller R. Proceedings of a conference held Memphis.1033531 Item 8 Covina.1036229 Item 6 KGK:Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe 61.2008. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. which is based on viscoelastic theory.Air Force Institute of Technology The creep behaviour of PMR-15 polyimide thermoset polymer. composites for the automotive industry. infrastructure applications... GERMANY. Broeckert J L US. Tn. Westerman B. electromagnetic multifunctional materials. Creep master curves are generated from the data for static strength and deformation predictions applicable to a wide range of temperatures and times for design and repair applications.228 EFFECTS OF PRIOR AGING AT 288 DEG. composites from agricultural products. covering topics which focused on nanocomposites and multifunctional materials. resins and adhesives. USA Accession no. No. Stanford. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Papers were presented under the following topics: aerospace structures and applications. aged in air and in argon at 299 deg. Prior isothermal ageing increased the elastic modulus and decreased the capacity to accumulate creep strain.
Air Force Research Laboratory The effects of ageing temperature. The recent development of two new methods for the non-destructive inspection of bond strength. p.References and Abstracts Item 9 Journal of Plastics Technology No. apparent interlaminar shear strength and compression after impact behaviour. which are compared with conventional polyester stitching yarn. Implementation of the method using a ﬁnite-element software package to predict the overall damping value of a sandwich honeycomb panel for each speciﬁc mode is described. 2008. No. Tandon G P. are discussed in terms of their scope of application and limitations. allowing further prestabilisation of the dry preforms by thermobonding and optimised composite performance. AND ENVIRONMENT ON THERMO-OXIDATIVE © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 21 . A brief review on existing methods of adhesive bond strength determination is presented with emphasis on aerospace applications.1032937 Item 10 Advanced Composite Materials 17. 13 refs. Tests are carried out on stitched composite panels to assess panel quality. Oct.301-317 EVALUATION METHOD OF ADHESIVE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS BASED ON DOUBLE CANTILEVER BEAM (DCB) TESTS INCLUDING RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES Yokozeki T. p. 17 refs. Ogasawara T Tokyo. Buchs W Bayreuth.University The inherent damping mechanism in sandwich panels. and the tape peel test. Japan. Hugon J Bristol. p. Sandler J K W. is described. and the residual stress effects on the evaluation of adhesive fracture toughness are discussed in terms of aerospace applications of ﬁbre-reinforced composite laminates. Spanner H. 143 refs. The results are compared with those based on ﬁnite element analysis. TIME.5.Aerospace Exploration Agency The energy release rate associated with crack growth in adhesive double cantilever beam specimens. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 27 refs. compression performance. was formulated using laminate beam theory. including those with both aluminium and carbon ﬁbrereinforced composite plastic skins with aluminium honeycomb cores was analysed using the basic laminate theory. p. No.2008. 2008.University. The innovative yarns.19 NEW YARN MATERIALS FOR HIGHPERFORMANCE FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES MADE OF STITCHED PREFORMS Beier U. No. Roser T. 26 refs.20. The results are discussed in terms of the chemical changes taking place in the polymer during oxidation. Dillingham G Brighton Technologies Group Inc. US.6714-6723 INFLUENCE OF AGING TEMPERATURE.University.20. EUROPEAN UNION. Kerman.3. Oct. including the effects of residual stresses. which is an inexpensive method to determine adhesion potential of a composite surface prior to ﬁnal bond consolidation. USA Accession no. Schoeppner G A Dayton.6682-6694 COMPOSITE BOND INSPECTION Crane R L.1031740 Item 13 Journal of Materials Science 43. Oct. JAPAN Accession no. Adams R D. laser shock preened proof testing to determine joint properties in situ. are shown to reduce ﬁbre undulations in the carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy composites. Accession no.University. Altstaedt V. USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE BEHAVIOR OF PMR-15: NANOMECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION Putthanarat S. GERMANY.1031743 Item 12 Journal of Materials Science 43. No. a ﬁrst-order shear deformation theory and a discretisation method.6604-6618 VIBRATION DAMPING IN SANDWICH PANELS Maheri M R.University.20. and ageing environment on the thermo-oxidative behaviour of a commercial high-temperature polyimide resin with applications in the aerospace industry were investigated by optical microscopy and nanoindentation testing to characterise localised mechanical properties and the development and growth of the oxidative layer. Weimer C. pp. which requires access to two surfaces and expensive instrumentation.1031855 Item 11 Journal of Materials Science 43. Alcatel. Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH The results are reported of a study of the use of innovative low melting temperature polyamide and soluble phenoxy stitching yarns to manufacture cost-reduced textile preforms for liquid composite moulding of high-performance composites for aerospace applications. ageing time.2008. and the results are discussed in comparison with experimental data for typical honeycomb structural panels used in aerospace applications.2008. and the calculation of the correction for temperature effects based on specimen geometry and thermomechanical properties such as coefﬁcient of thermal expansion.
USA Accession no. GERMANY. 74 refs.1031730 Item 15 Polymer Engineering and Science 48. The model is able to satisfactorily describe the effect of processing variables such as temperature and degree of cure during the curing of the composite under different conditions (curing temperature and heating rate). A theoretical kinetic model for epoxy matrix prepregs. have been taken into account in the formulation of an nth-order kinetic model. Current techniques for improving stress recovery and cycle time. Oct.1031732 Item 14 Journal of Materials Science 43. Problems associated with composite design. 12 refs.1031691 Item 16 Polymer Composites 29. No. speciﬁcally the ﬁxation rails of the sidewall panels of the Airbus A330/340.72-74 SERIAL PRODUCTION OF CFRP THERMOPLASTIC PROFILES Spelz U xperion Aerospace GmbH The serial production of CFRP thermoplastic proﬁles for aircraft applications.2008. The effects of ageing on reactivity. by xperion Aerospace GmbH is described. p. The continuous compression moulding process used is outlined. higher shape ﬁxity and recovery. The study has focused on the stability of BMI matrix carbon ﬁbre prepregs. p. 2008.1031432 22 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . UK.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2008.20. are also discussed. The manufacture of the individual components of the ﬁxation rails is discussed and subsequent processing is considered. material design allows for reaching comparable or better properties for all classes of SMPs. No. WESTERN EUROPE its limitations enables one to better deﬁne the development areas for high performance SMPs.University Advances in the design.6578-6585 VERY STIFF FIBRES WOVEN INTO ENGINEERING’S FUTURE: A LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE Kelly A Cambridge.2075-2089 CHALLENGES OF SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS: A REVIEW OF THE PROGRESS TOWARD OVERCOMING SMP’S LIMITATIONS Rousseau I A General Motors Corp. Understanding the relationships between the composition and structure of an SMP and its SM properties as well as The effects of room temperature ageing on the cure kinetics of a bismaleimide (BMI) matrix prepreg have been characterized by different time and storage conditions. and the material and process chain. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.44. has been applied to the cure of both aged and virgin BMI matrix. The effects of diffusion-controlled phenomena on the cure kinetics. and shape memory (SM) properties. and process window have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter through dynamic and isothermal tests. FRANCE. p.UNIVERSITY Accession no. structural. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. especially for aerospace applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. However. This emphasizes that optimisation of SMPs requires application-speciﬁc molecular. carbon and synthetic (such as aramid) ﬁbres for reinforcement. glass transition temperature. Many applications ranging from biomedical to aerospace have been proposed for the use of shape memory polymers (SMPs). when exposed to controlled environmental conditions before being used in composite manufacturing. physical. together with the weight reduction resulting from substitution of aluminium.2008. IRAN.11. it becomes necessary to understand the structure/property relationships in SMPs. It was concluded that covalently crosslinked glassy thermosets appear to be better SMP candidates because of their intrinsically higher modulus. Oct. greater thermal and chemical stability. involving polyether-imide. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and geometrical design. associated with changes in glass transition temperature as a function of the degree of cure. and possibly their longer cycle life.1031684 Item 17 JEC Composites No. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. are extensively discussed. The literature was reviewed and the recent advances made in the development of SMPs were determined to establish guidelines for composition and structure considerations for designing SMPs with targeted chemical. EUROPEAN UNION.1269 EFFECTS OF STORAGE AGING ON THE CURE KINETICS OF T700/BMI PREPREGS FOR ADVANCED COMPOSITES GUO Z SHANGHAI. which compared to shape memory alloys are the two main limitations of SMPs. 2 refs.11. UK. To optimize SMPs properties for appropriately targeting such wide-spreading application requirements. CHINA Accession no. testing for fatigue and damage. and environmental concerns such as recycling of composite structures. No. development and properties of ﬁbre-reinforced composite laminates and the growth in their use since the 1960s are reviewed with emphasis on the use of glass. developed in previous studies.
USA Accession no. Shanghai. GERMANY.bris.2525-2530 FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL POLYPROPYLENE/POLYVINYL ALCOHOL/ALUMINUM HYBRID LAYERED ASSEMBLY FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE FIBROUS INSULATION Wu H.1029181 Item 22 SAMPE ‘08: Material and Process Innovations: Changing our World. medicine. p.Donghua University.Polytechnic University.University) This is a PowerPoint presentation on auxetic materials and structures. No.1030718 Item 20 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 110. Bristol.1030492 Item 21 Advanced Materials 20. held University of Bristol. Ca. Volume 53.543-555 IMPACT OF ND-YAG LASER DRILLING ON THE FATIGUE CHARACTERISTICS OF APC-2A/AS4 THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL Young T M Limerick. 28 refs. 30 refs. perforated sheet to acoustic core bonding and machining. 2nd Oct. Qin X. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Mo S. 13 refs. p. Downloaded from : www.1031249 Item 19 ADVANCED COMPOSITE CENTRE FOR INNOVATION AND SCIENCE. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.University The effect of neodymium-doped-yttrium aluminium garnet laser drilling on the static tensile strength and fatigue life of quasi-isotropic thermoplastic composites APC-2A/AS4 (PEEK thermoplastic composite material in unidirectional form) for aerospace applications was investigated. Nov.Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science. ﬂuorinated polymethacrylates. IR spectral transmission and water vapour transmission through the materials with or without the nanoﬁbre of metal coating were determined. A maximum stress versus cycles to failure was represented by a power law function. Accession no. CHINA. and in the design of aircraft and road vehicles. polystyrene and poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) are discussed in terms of applications of sensor paints in marine research. Cornell University A hybrid layered assembly based on aluminium-coated PVAL nanoﬁbre supported on a PP web was fabricated Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2008. composite laminates and honeycomb structures. Hinestroza J P Hong Kong. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 9th July 2008. EUROPEAN UNION. 2008. sleeping bags. building applications and aircraft are mentioned. paper 2. 18-22 May. Covina. pressure.19.uk/composites (Accessed 23/7/08) AUXETIC MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES Scarpa F (UK. No. Gallman J Spirit AeroSystems (SAMPE) A new. It deals with foams. Kitt B R. Fan J.3759-3763 SENSOR PAINTS Wolfbeis O S Regensburg.9 A NEW NON-METALLIC ACOUSTIC CORE WITH A BURIED SEPTUM FOR APPLICATION IN COMPOSITE ACOUSTIC PANELS Welch J M. No. which respond to a chemical or biochemical parameter with a change in their optical properties are reviewed. A typical production method for fabricating the acoustic panel using the new core involving perforated sheet construction and cure. is described and non-destructive testing of a large area acoustic repair to identify any anomalies incurred during bonding is brieﬂy reported. poly(dimethylsiloxane). WESTERN EUROPE by electrospinning and physical vapour deposition. Paper 194.ac. 012. Potential applications in protective clothing. Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation & Science. Characterisation was carried out using SEM and TEM. IRELAND.6..2008.2008. The use of various polymers such as ethyl cellulose. 15th Nov.. such as pH-. Bristol. 30 cm. EUROPEAN UNION.4.and temperature-sensitive paints. The drilled specimens were inspected using scanning electron microscopy.1028788 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 23 . pp. non-metallic Acousti-Cap honeycomb core with a permeable plastic septum cap for application in composite acoustic panels for nacelle applications is reported and application possibilities associated with the new core are brieﬂy discussed. The holes had diameters of about 120 micrometers and were spaced about 500 micrometers apart. which was used with a reduced coefficient of fatigue strength value to describe the fatigue life characteristics of the laser-drilled specimens. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Some data on properties are included and some applications indicated. pp. Ca.References and Abstracts Item 18 Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials 21. 2008.Universitat Current and future trends in the development of sensor paints. high-throughput screening and combinatorial microbiology. Proceedings of the Annual Conference.2008. USA Accession no. p.5.
References and Abstracts
Item 23 SAMPE ‘08: Material and Process Innovations: Changing our World. Volume 53. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach, Ca., 18-22 May, 2008. Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce, 2008, Paper 191, pp.14 PROCESS AND SIMULATION CHAINS FOR ADVANCED TEXTILE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES Drechsler K Stuttgart,University (SAMPE) Various textile preforms, including braided and stitched textile structures, for composites are described and their use in aerospace and automotive applications is discussed. Methods for simulating the manufacturing process and predicting the mechanical performance of textile-reinforced composites are also considered and some application examples are presented. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE
COMPOSITE STRUCTURE Schmidt R P; Lee S M; Cooke L M Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co. (SAMPE) A report is presented on the development of a new class of three-dimensional woven Pi preform composite joints with highly interlocked three-dimensional weave architecture demonstrating a 250 to 300% increase in out of plane load-carrying capacity as compared to conventional twodimensional composite joint designs. The enabling aspects of the new preforms are described and the advantages of the preforms, which include ease of joining, superior joint strength and process ﬂexibility, are detailed. Structural applications are demonstrated and validation of various aircraft structures (from risk reduction to full scale level) based on the preforms is covered. 12 refs.
Accession no.1028512 Item 26 Composites Part A 39, No.9, 2008, p.1572-1581 MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES BASED ON PREFORMS STITCHED WITH INNOVATIVE LOW-MELTING TEMPERATURE AND MATRIX SOLUBLE THERMOPLASTIC YARNS Beier U; Wolff-Fabris F; Fischer F; Sandler J K W; Altstadt V; Hulder G; Schmachtenberg E; Spanner H; Weimer C; Roser T; Buchs W Bayreuth,University; Erlangen-Nurnberg,University; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH In order to achieve a superior overall mechanical performance of composites based on stitched preforms for demanding aircraft applications, innovative thermoplastic stitching yarns are comparatively evaluated in carbon ﬁbrereinforced epoxy composites. Low-melting temperature yarns based on polyamide and phenoxy in comparison to a standard polyester yarn allow prestabilisation of the dry preforms by thermobonding and lead to signiﬁcantly reduced laminate disturbances following liquid composite moulding; thereby minimising the degradation of the resulting composite strength properties. While the softening polyamide yarns allow partial rearrangement of the carbon ﬁbres during the resin injection process, the dissolution and subsequent phase-separation of the phenoxy can induce a further local toughening of the epoxy matrix. The improvements in overall composite performance when using stitching yarns are partly due to the particular yarn material but also depend on variations in linear yarn density. Last but not least, it is demonstrated that stitching seams close to a bolted joint have only little effect on the bolt bearing strength of the stitched composite whereas seams running directly through the hole and oriented in the load direction induce small degradation of the bolt bearing strength. 32 refs. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
Accession no.1028785 Item 24 SAMPE ‘08: Material and Process Innovations: Changing our World. Volume 53. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach, Ca., 18-22 May, 2008. Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce, 2008, Paper 160, pp.13 ATL DESIGN TOOL FOR TOW PATH OPTIMIZATION Wyatt J; Haj-Hariri H; Gruber M Virginia,University; Accudyne Inc. (SAMPE) An algorithm for automated tape laying is presented and applied to industrial applications, including pad-up geometries in aircraft panels and aircraft cowling, to calculate optimal tow paths, constrained to prevent overlap and to minimise tow gaps. It calculates natural paths, optimises initial conditions for the natural paths, forces tows off natural paths to close remaining gaps and quantiﬁes various design metrics. These metrics include ﬁbre strain, compression wrinkle caused by bi-normally bending trajectories and folding wrinkle created by rapid substrate variations. 5 refs.
Accession no.1028756 Item 25 SAMPE ‘08: Material and Process Innovations: Changing our World. Volume 53. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach, Ca., 18-22 May, 2008. Covina, Ca., SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce, 2008, Paper 228, pp.18 3-D WOVEN PI PREFORM JOINTS: AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR LARGE
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
References and Abstracts
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.1028020 Item 27 High Performance Polymers 20, No.4-5, Aug-Sept.2008, p.461-474 THE PERFORMANCE OF NOVEL POLYETHERIMIDES IN A LOW EARTH ORBIT ENVIRONMENT Stienstra M M; Dingemans T; Van Eesbeek M; Rohr T Delft,University of Technology; ESA/ESTEC The performance of a new series of all-aromatic polyetherimides prepared from either 3,3’,4,4’biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride or 3,3’,4,4’oxydiphthalic dianhydride and diamines consisting of 1,2 or 3 additional aryloxy units with either para, meta or ortho substitutions was investigated under simulated low Earth orbit conditions. The effect of polymer backbone structure on the thermooptical stability of the polyetherimides under simulated UV radiation and atomic oxygen exposure was examined and the performance of these new polymers compared with that of Kapton and Upilex to assess their suitability for space applications. 9 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE
Item 29 Future Materials Sept.2008, p.8-9 ‘NANONET’ MOVES FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS CLOSER TO REALITY Researchers have overcome a major obstacle in producing transistors from networks of carbon nanotubes, a technology that could make it possible to print circuits on plastic sheets for applications including flexible displays and an electronic skin to cover an entire aircraft to monitor crack formation. The so-called “nanonet” technology - circuits made of numerous carbon nanotubes randomly overlapping in a ﬁshnet-like structure - has been plagued by a critical ﬂaw: the network is contaminated with metallic nanotubes that cause short circuits. The discovery solves this problem by cutting the nanonet into strips, preventing short circuits by breaking the path of metallic nanotubes. Illinois University at Urbana-Champaign; Purdue,University
Accession no.1027203 Item 30 Reinforced Plastics 52, No.8, Sept.2008, p.34-39 NEW RECIPES FOR SMC INNOVATION McConnell V P SMC formulations continue to abound in answer to a diverse range of applications. Automotive applications form the largest market for SMC, and over the past ﬁve years, automotive SMC recipes have continued to meet and enhance this segment’s performance requirements. Among those are toughness, low density, low proﬁle, conductivity, in-mould colouring and coating and powder priming. Greener, more environmentally friendly SMCs are deﬁnitely making news, and Ashland has been a pioneer in this regard. Its Envirez 1807 polyester resin made with a 75/17/8% content ratio of petroleum, soybean oil and ethanol has been used since 2002 in Class A exterior styling panels on all John Deere combines, as well as many of the OEM’s tractor models and hay balers. The National Composite Center is looking at reinforcing structural SMC with biomaterials such as natural ﬁbre and recyclate. Hexcel is making big news with its application of HexMC carbon ﬁbre SMC in the large window frames on Boeing’s new 787 Dreamliner commercial aircraft. With base resin and compound prices rising, along with costs for the energy to conduct processing, some moulders are extending their technology grasp by adding in-house compounding.
Accession no.1027810 Item 28 International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 29, No.1, 2009, p.77-90 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE AGEING OF EPOXY ADHESIVE JOINTS Doyle G; Pethrick R A Strathclyde,University Adhesive bonded joints are exposed to a range of different environments in aerospace applications. This paper reports dielectric and mechanical analysis of aluminiumepoxy bonded adhesives joints exposed to de-ionized water, aqueous urea solution and salt water at 65 deg.C. The changes observed are the results of plasticisation and corrosion. In the case of the aqueous urea solution, passivation of the oxide by the urea reduced the rate of corrosion. Sea water contains mobile ions and a new feature is detected associated with ﬁliform corrosion. The non-polar media aviation fuel and hydraulic ﬂuid are able to plasticise the adhesive and there is a consequent reduction in the strength of the joint. Propylene glycol, although it is polar solvent, produces limited plasticisation and degradation of the joints. Dichloromethane was very aggressive and produced a rapid loss of strength of the joints. 23 refs. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
References and Abstracts
Item 31 ANTEC 2008. Proceedings of the 66th SPE Annual Technical Conference held Milwaukee, Wi., 4th-8th May 2008. Brookﬁeld, Ct., SPE, 2008, p.1977-1981 IMPROVING THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF EPOXY HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Movva S; Guerra D; Zhi-qi Cai; Yunior Hioe; Lee L J; Castro J Ohio,State University (SPE) The poor thermal conductivity of polymer based composites has long been a deterrent to their increased use in high end aerospace applications. In this study, the thermal conductivity of Epoxy-Carbon ﬁbre composites is improved dramatically by a novel method of incorporating carbon nanoparticles into the system. A comprehensive study of the preparation and properties of the highly thermally conductive Epoxy-Carbon fibre-Carbon nanoﬁbre composites is presented. 7 refs.
It is brieﬂy reported that a Michigan State University research team has developed a nanomaterial that makes plastic stiffer, lighter and stronger. The material xGnP Exfoliated Graphite NanoPlatelets will be instrumental in the development of new and expanded applications in the aerospace, automotive and packaging industries. The nano-scale material, which is electrically and thermally conductive, has reduced flammability and barrier properties. The graphene nanoparticles are being manufactured by a new startup company, XG Sciences, which has an exclusive licence to manufacture the material. The researchers are already looking ahead to more uses for the product, such as recyclable, economical or lightweight units to store hydrogen for the next generation of fuel cell-powered autos. Attention is being directed to highend applications where substantial changes can be made in the way electronics, fuel cells, batteries and solar cells perform as a result of using the material. Michigan,State University
Accession no.1024374 Item 34 Advanced Materials 20, No.11, 4th June 2008, p.2074-2079 ACTUATING SINGLE WALL CARBON NANOTUBE-POLYMER COMPOSITES: INTRINSIC UNIMORPHS Cheol Park; Jin Ho Kang; Harrison J S; Costen R C; Lowther S E US,National Institute of Aerospace; US,NASA,Langley Research Center An actuating single-walled carbon nanotube(SWNT)/ polyimide (Langley Research Center-Electroactive polyimide) composite was developed that exhibited a large strain (about 2.6%) at a low driving voltage (less than 1 MV/m), while possessing excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The strain energy density was at least an order of magnitude greater than any stateof-the-art polymeric materials reported. The actuating characteristic mainly originated from the electrostrictive contribution, presumably due to interfacial polarisation. The composite intrinsically formed a unimorph during the fabrication process to actuate without the need for additional inactive layers. The tunable multifunctionality and structural reinforcement achieved in these composites could contribute to the design of intelligent and durable components for future aerospace vehicles as well as terrestrial applications. 27 refs. USA Accession no.1024215 Item 35 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 95, No.624, June 2008, p.479-488 Spanish
Accession no.1026196 Item 32 ANTEC 2008. Proceedings of the 66th SPE Annual Technical Conference held Milwaukee, Wi., 4th-8th May 2008. Brookﬁeld, Ct., SPE, 2008, p.1256-1259 IMPROVING ADHESION PERFORMANCE BETWEEN LOW SURFACE TENSION COMPOSITE AND DISSIMILAR SUBSTRATES Wolf R A Enercon Industries Corp. (SPE) The growing demand for high performance plastic components for automobile, aerospace, medical and electronic applications has made the job of formulating paints, adhesives and coatings more challenging. Composite plastics having low surface energies but which deliver high-strength, low-weight performance are becoming more prevalent. Adhesion to the surfaces of these composites, as well as between dissimilar high performance materials, is being solved by atmospheric pretreatment technologies. This paper links speciﬁc atmospheric surface pretreatment improvements in adhesion to an array of composite and dissimilar materials. 2 refs.
Accession no.1025816 Item 33 Chemical Weekly LIV, No.1, 19th Aug.2008, p.174 NEW NANOMATERIAL MAKES PLASTIC STIFFER, LIGHTER AND STRONGER
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
was achieved using an ex-situ resin transfer moulding process with a polyether ketone (PEK)thermoplastic. 5th Aug. EUROPEAN UNION. to increase its range of applications. KADO Corp. Diez S. as used for aerospace applications.2. Fractured samples were examined using scanning electron and optical microscopies. a series of experiments have been designed and implemented to assess how well both conventional and advanced NDI techniques can detect voids. with use expected to increase by 37% over the next four years. Tokyo. and potential applications of new technology for effective NDI on composites-intensive aircraft as they enter commercial service. JAPAN Accession no. Nishi T. some of the results gathered thus far. Iwahori Y. 26 refs.32/34 HIGH-FIBRE DIET Pierce J Carbon ﬁbre is seen as one of the engineering materials of the future. No.7753.2008 p. CHINA Accession no. Aries Complex SA A report is presented on the manufacture of aircraft using the resin ﬁlm infusion process. delaminations and impact damage in honeycomb structure. The structural health monitoring of a carbon fibrereinforced epoxy resin composite laminate panel fabricated via vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding and containing embedded ﬁbre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and optical ﬁbres was investigated by measurement of residual internal strains during curing and post-curing and during four-point ﬂexure by means of reﬂection spectra of the FBG sensors. Zhengping Fang. Leal L. This article discusses the CACRC’s Inspection Task Group’s Probability of Detection experiments. disbonds. Many of the AANC composites activities are conducted under the auspices of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC).1625-1634 “EX SITUÖ CONCEPT FOR TOUGHENING THE RTMABLE BMI MATRIX COMPOSITES.Research Institute of Aerospace Special Materials and Technology Interlaminar fracture toughness of bismaleimide © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 27 . No. Beijing. and samples were evaluated against an untreated base sample using double cantilevered beam tests or end notch ﬂexure test to assess mode 1 or mode 2 fracture toughness respectively. The toughening mechanism was discussed. The test programme. During an update of DuPont’s Accession no. 5 refs. No. The process was brieﬂy described.University. Festo produces electric handling solutions for carbon ﬁbre production and has been carrying out pioneering work with the Textile Composites Group at Manchester University’s School of Materials.Aerospace Exploration Agency. Hirano Y. solid laminates and adhesively bonded structures. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1022924 Item 39 Engineer 293. Xiao-Su Yi.University. Bangming Tang. No.National Key Laboratory of Advanced Composites. Mizutani T. Rockwell Automation has recently worked with DuPont on its Kevlar line.4. operated and staffed by Sandia National Laboratories.1023954 Item 36 High-Performance Composites 16. Poveda J.72-75 ASSESSING CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED NDI FOR COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT Roach D The rapidly increasing use of composites as structural aircraft materials has brought with it the challenge of making sure damage inspection can keep pace. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.125-137 MONITORING OF A CFRP-STIFFENED PANEL MANUFACTURED BY VARTM USING FIBEROPTIC SENSORS Takeda S. Yahong Xu Zhejiang.1023008 Item 38 Advanced Composite Materials 17. Over the last several years. Nagao Y. and it was shown plastic deformation and rupture of the PEK phase was responsible for fracture toughening. p. attempts are being made to improve manufacturing both the material and parts made from it. Xuefeng An. Takeda N Japan. Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC). called Composite Flaw Detection Experiments. 2008. p. Beijing. US. Accurate non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods are a necessity to ensure aircraft airworthiness and passenger safety. SPAIN. 28th July-17th Aug. The results are discussed in comparison with those obtained using conventional strain gauges and ﬁnite element analysis. Uota N.3. PART I: IMPROVING THE INTERLAMINAR FRACTURE TOUGHNESS Qunfeng Cheng. 26 refs. July 2008.2008. The project aims to use Festo’s automation range to cut waste and improve the dimensional strength in carbon ﬁbre products. Although carbon ﬁbre is already a success in its present form. Casado J. De Benito A CIDAUT. p.1023634 Item 37 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 109. was undertaken at the Federal Aviation Admin. and in terms of potential aerospace applications.Federal Aviation Administration USA composites.References and Abstracts RESIN FILM INFUSION FOR AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS Lopez-Quintana S.
including polyphenylsulphone. automotive and ﬂame retardant applications. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. including shape memory materials. other polymer (and composite)-based properties derive beneﬁts from nanoscale ﬁller or ﬁbre addition and these are addressed. high temperature resins and coatings. INDIA Accession no. Both continuous and pulsed microwave heating modes were employed.References and Abstracts Maydown Kevlar production plant in Derry. testing and test methods. impact and damage. Lehigh University In the large field of nanotechnology. structural health monitoring.Federal Aviation Administration.18-22 May 2008 MATERIAL AND PROCESS INNOVATIONS: CHANGING OUR WORLD. No.University at Austin. No. US..1022630 Item 41 Polymer 49. Rao R M V G K India. resins and interfaces. polyphosphonate and poly(arylate-cophosphonate). Exfoliated clay-based nanocomposites have dominated the polymer literature but there are a large number of other signiﬁcant areas of current and emerging interest. 16 refs.15. p. This review will detail the technology involved with exfoliated clay-based nanocomposites and also include other important areas including barrier properties. (SAMPE) Over 250 papers dealing with aspects of materials and process innovations were presented at the SAMPE ‘08 conference. Volume 53. Massachusetts. alternative energy applications. biomedical applications. The important question of the “nano-effect’’ of nanoparticle or ﬁbre inclusion relative to their larger scale counterparts is addressed relative to crystallisation and glass transition behaviour. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. advancements in non-destructive evaluation.1022792 Item 40 Polymers for Advanced Technologies 19.University Strategies for developing ﬁre-proof aircraft cabin materials are reviewed in the light of environmental legislation restricting the use of halogens in plastics. Ca. and tooling. p. p.1021971 28 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . USA Accession no. 284 refs.5. electrical/electronic/optoelectronic applications and fuel cell interests. 257 papers SAMPE ‘08: Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. natural materials.645-652 CURE STUDIES ON BIFUNCTIONAL EPOXY MATRICES USING A DOMESTIC MICROWAVE OVEN Rao S. design and analysis. sandwich cores.1022001 Item 43 Covina. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. durability. 2008. textile and preform technology. Robeson L M Texas. ﬂammability resistance. civil engineering and infrastructure. biomaterials. repair and composites affordability. nanomaterials. 2008. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. thermoplastics. USA Accession no. Emrick T Atlantic City International Airport.National Aerospace Laboratories Three types of bifunctional epoxy-amine matrix systems (two room temperature (RT) cure types and one elevated temperature (ET) cure type). Of course. The studies showed that pulsed microwave-heated samples exhibited greater degree and uniformity of cure (both in terms of temperature attained and the T”g shown across the samples). WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. smart materials. compared to the continuous microwaveheated samples for all the resin systems studied. pressure vessel technology.. aircraft applications technologies. Fire tests for aircraft materials are indicated and ﬁre resistance mechanisms of plastics are outlined and described in terms of their effect on heat release rate in ﬂaming combustion. using the glass transition temperature (T”g) as the index of cure completion.609-619 NON-HALOGEN FIRE RESISTANT PLASTICS FOR AIRCRAFT INTERIORS Lyon R E. Finally. The cure status and cure uniformity were assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal imaging techniques. polymer matrix based nanocomposites have become a prominent area of current research and development. Rockwell replaced the existing dated PLC units with Allen-Bradley ControlLogix PLCs. resin infusion. 2008. polyester carbonate and bishydroxydeoxybenzoin-based polyarylate. EUROPEAN UNION. used for aerospace composite applications. Microwave cure schedules equivalent to vendor-speciﬁed thermal cure schedules were evolved for each resin system. 34 refs. electrical properties of composites and nanocomposites. the results are reported of ﬁre tests carried out on non-halogen polymers. USA Item 42 Polymer Testing 27. UK.3187 POLYMER NANOTECHNOLOGY: NANOCOMPOSITES Paul D R. process development and manufacturing. which are optically clear and potentially useful for aircraft cabin applications. Papers were presented under the following main headings: adhesives and bonding. were cured in a domestic microwave oven.6. metals and ceramics. June 2008.1022152 Accession no. Ca.
compression. are reported.1020710 Item 48 Composites Technology 14.State University An aerogel-like composite material was prepared by casting a conformal diisocyanate-derived polymer coating on the bird-nest like skeletal framework of mesoporous vanadia and its physicochemical and mechanical properties investigated. Zhang Y. density and crush. Oklahoma.28-32 MICROSPHERES: FILLERS FILLED WITH POSSIBILITIES Wood K The most versatile of fillers available to composites manufacturers are microspheres (also called microballoons). Schneider J © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 29 . IRELAND.1020711 Item 47 SAMPE Journal 44. The mechanical properties and burst pressures of composite vessels fabricated using carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin or urethane resin systems with aluminium liners of different thicknesses were investigated experimentally at cryogenic temperatures. The nanoencapsulated vanadia exhibited a highly unusual ductility at cryogenic temperatures and did not fail even under high strain compression. No. April 2008. The results are compared with those for laminates fabricated using thermoplastic in-situ automated tape placement and are discussed in terms of the fabrication of large composite structures such as cryogenic fuel tanks for aerospace applications. This article provides detailed information about these tiny hollow spheres. test methods and tank design. USA Accession no.835-850 AN EXAMINATION OF FAILURE CRITERIA FOR NOTCHED ORTHOTROPIC CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE LAMINATES Yeh H-Y. USA NASA.1020829 Item 46 SAMPE Journal 44. 19 refs. component cost.44-51 DEVELOPMENT OF CRYOGENIC COMPOSITE OVER-WRAPPED PRESSURE VESSELS (COPVS) DeLay T. HyPerComp Engineering Inc. Semprimoschnig C O A Composites Testing Laboratory Ltd. No. cryogenic fuel containers and landing gear for aerospace applications. 28 refs. Churu G. p. TAIWAN. p. USA Accession no.NASA.Glenn Research Center. EUROPEAN UNION.State University The results of a feasibility study on the development of cryogenic composite over-wrapped pressure vessels for aerospace and other applications. European Space Agency The thermomechanical properties of laminates fabricated using a commercially available carbon ﬁbre-reinforced poly(etheretherketone) composite pre-impregnated tape processed under pressure-formed autoclave conditions were investigated by tensile. which can provide a range of product enhancements and process improvements. Taiwan.1021370 Item 45 Journal of Materials Chemistry 18. Lu H Missouri. 3 refs. Hobbs A.3. NETHERLANDS. part processability. Murphy K S. 19 refs.2. in-plane shear and interlaminar shear testing over a wide range of temperatures. Patterson J.University of Science and Technology. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. Noorda J. p.3.. Fabrizio E F. No. O’Bradaigh C M.8. involving the development and evaluation of materials.I-Shou University The application of the Yeh-Stratton failure criterion to newly developed ﬁbre-reinforced orthotropic ceramic matrix composite laminates based on an aluminoborosilicate fabric impregnated with a silica-alumina matrix was investigated analytically in comparison with experimental test data for laminates containing a central crack under tensile loading and with linear elastic stress models. and fracture toughness. such as armour. The high strength of the nanoencapsulated vanadia was attributed to interlocking of skeletal nanoworms and the high ductility to sintering-like melting and fusion of the polymer coating under compression. Mulik S. Eire Composites. and optimised functionality. Additional boxes include Accession no. Dass A. moisture uptake and DSC measurements.State University. 2008. Mississippi.22-34 MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF NEW CARBON FIBRE/PEEK COMPOSITES FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS Kilroy J P.Marshall Space Flight Center.2475-2482 POLYMER NANOENCAPSULATED MESOPOROUS VANADIA WITH UNUSUAL DUCTILITY AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES Leventis N. ﬂexure. p. Luo H. May-June 2008. Yeh H-L California. The results are discussed in comparison with those for graphite ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin composite laminates and in terms of aerospace applications.21. 7th June 2008. Sotiriou-Leventis C. Schnobrich J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. US. The composites are considered suitable for applications.References and Abstracts Item 44 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 27. May-June 2008. No. and the results are discussed in terms of potential savings in weight compared to alternative existing designs. Ohio Aerospace Institute.. under the section headings: chemical composition and construction.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. SCANDINAVIA.University. as well as core. These deviations in mechanical performance are explained on the basis of a fundamental microstructural difference of the composites following resin transfer moulding. Fischer F.5. SWEDEN. English COMPOSITES TO ACCOUNT FOR HALF OF AIRCRAFT WEIGHT Recent advances in composites for aerospace applications are reported.19.2.References and Abstracts information on material alternatives. Jingxia Wang. Altstadt V. Using the thinner meltable but immiscible polyamide yarn in the stitched preforms instead of the standard polyester yarn appears to reduce localised ﬁbre undulations. Yongqiang Wen. SOUTH KOREA. Yanlin Song.40. energy absorption and aerospace applications. comparable composites prepared with a thicker standard unwashed polyester yarn revealed a clear reduction in compression and apparent interlaminar shear strength.Graduate University Closed-cell ﬂuorinated polyimide inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPC)s were fabricated using core-shell poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) colloidal spheres as the template and their heat stabilities. 2008.2262-2267 FABRICATION OF CLOSED-CELL POLYIMIDE INVERSE OPAL PHOTONIC CRYSTALS WITH EXCELLENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND THERMAL STABILITY Xiao Chen. USA. photonic band gaps.1020252 Item 50 Journal of Materials Chemistry 18.1019724 Item 53 Journal of Testing and Evaluation 36. No. p. an effect most likely inducing the observed enhancements in key composite properties relevant for aircraft applications. The closed-cell polyimide IOPCs were thermally and mechanically stably and were considered potentially suitable for use in thermal insulation. EUROPEAN UNION.62-64 30 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH A comparative assessment of the inﬂuence of assembly seams based on two different thermoplastic yarn types on key inplane and interlaminar properties of carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy composite is presented. Yuqi Zhang. p. hardnesses and elastic moduli investigated.705-711 EVALUATION OF PREFORMS STITCHED WITH A LOW MELTING-TEMPERATURE THERMOPLASTIC YARN IN CARBON FIBREREINFORCED COMPOSITES Beier U.1. Lei Jiang. No. Weimer C. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. Daoben Zhu Beijing. Chinese Academy of Sciences.1020128 Item 51 JEC Composites No. No. contact angles. are described. UK. 20 refs. focusing upon products from Hexcel. In contrast. 21st may 2008. Some examples of Hexcel’s products on display at the Farnborough Airshow are included. No. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY.1020309 Item 49 Composite Solutions 2. Jan.Institute of Chemistry. namely high-temperature infusion for composite parts in the aerospace industry and ambient isothermal resin infusion for tooling applications. The mechanism of formation of the closed-cell structure was studied and properties of the closed-cell ﬂuorinated polyimide IOPCs compared with those of open-cell polyimide IOPCs prepared using PS colloidal spheres as a template. with the exact level of degradation depending on the stitch geometry. p. Non-crimped fabric (NCF) composites prepared with a thin low melting-temperature polyamide stitching yarn showed an overall mechanical performance similar to that of the non-stitched equivalent. Beijing. Yan’an. Cara F Huntsman Advanced Materials.69-72 PRESSURE EFFECTS ON OXYGEN CONCENTRATION FLAMMABILITY Accession no. morphologies. The ﬁrst example shows that the resin ﬂow front can be detected during high-temperature infusion even through caul plates and the second one demonstrates that active sensors are needed to detect isothermal infusion. MALAYSIA. acoustic and anti-blast applications. Buchs W Bayreuth. CHINA Accession no. a new kind of costeffective carbon fibre epoxy moulding concept and Hextool composite tooling material based on HexMC. including Hexweb HRH-36 Flexcore honeycomb made from Kevlar paper and reinforced with a high temperatureresistant phenolic resin. March-April 2008.University. FRANCE. SWITZERLAND. Sandler J K W. WESTERN EUROPE RESIN FLOW MONITORING IN THE COMPOSITE INFUSION PROCESS Costantino S. Spanner H. May 2008.1020029 Item 52 Composites Part A 39.2008. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 22 refs.25-27 Italian. HexMC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Hexcel Accession no. independent of the stitch geometry. AUSTRALIA. p. Lihua Wang. MAPE Engineering Switzerland SA The resin infusion process is outlined and two examples of extreme infusion environments.
Cantwell W J. Early SRM cases were made from ﬁbreglass/ © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 31 . an amount of pressure gradient is frozen into the preform. p. Liang R. Control volume (CV) and volume of ﬂuid (VOF) methods were combined to solve the free surface problem.C. No. p. Typically. polychloroprene and EPDM. to the autoclave temperature of about 177 deg. No. and the results are discussed in terms of engineering applications especially in aerospace components.2. which primarily contributes to the thickness variation. The composites used have to go from the ambient Earth temperature at which they were assembled. thickness gradient and variations result from the infusion pressure gradient during the process and material variations. as elsewhere in the aerospace sector. After infusion. 2008.92-95 SPACE BASES Composite materials are in service on the International Space Station (ISS) and the equipment sent to explore Mars. A relatively new type of composite. featuring a shape-memory polymer matrix. No.References and Abstracts THRESHOLDS OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Hirsch D. 10 refs. PCTFE. A time-dependent permeability model as a function of compaction pressure was incorporated into an existing resin transfer moulding (RTM) code for obtaining the initial conditions for relaxing/curing process. p. One example is the Elastic Memory Composite Hinge created by Composite Technology Development. April 2008. soon might be available to designers of in-space deployment systems for solar arrays. payload and system racks. SBR. The racks were built by Boeing from graphite/epoxy composites by hand layup of a framework of rectangular tubes and I-beam sections as well as skin panels. Pressure gradient is the driving force Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.77-83 LAUNCH VEHICLES One of the earliest applications of space system composites was in strap-on solid rocket motor (SRM) cases for space launch vehicles.2. UK.1019185 Item 55 Polymer Composites 29. is aluminium. Composites’ main competitor in these applications. EUROPEAN UNION.. composites form about 40 storage. Suppl. USA Accession no. USA for resin ﬂow and the main source of thickness variation. and they are in leading contention for a future base on the Moon. May 2008. Experiments were conducted to verify the simulation results. PE. the thickness gradient and variation issues are gaining more attention. PTFE.1018944 Item 57 Composites Technology 14. Zhang C. 25 refs.865-888 INVESTIGATION OF SCALING EFFECTS IN FIBER-METAL LAMINATES McKown S. The proposed model was illustrated with a relatively complex part. Williams J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. US. communication antennae and optical systems. Suppl.NASA.1019591 Item 54 Journal of Composite Materials 42. Beeson H US. mounted externally on the ISS and protected from micrometeoroids by thin aluminium bumpers. USA Accession no. A numerical model was developed to track the thickness change of the bagging ﬁlm free surface. No.Army Research Laboratory As vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) is being increasingly used in aerospace applications. Walsh S Florida A & M University. p.473-482 MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF THICKNESS GRADIENT AND VARIATIONS IN VACUUMASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING PROCESS Li J. Elsewhere on the ISS. PDMS. This study investigates the mechanism of the thickness variation dynamic change during the infusion and relaxing/curing processes. April 2008. aliphatic polyamide. Wang B. 17 refs. Carbon ﬁbre composite technology for unmanned planetary exploration vehicles is well developed.9.University The mechanical properties of scaled specimens of ﬁbremetal laminates consisting of an aluminium alloy and a self-reinforced thermoplastic composite based on polypropylene fibres in a polypropylene matrix were investigated by a series of quasi-static tensile and ﬂexural tests and low-velocity impact tests. Jones N Liverpool. For the range of total pressures tested.Johnson Space Center The results are reported of a study of the effects of pressure on the oxygen concentration ﬂammability thresholds of a range of polymeric materials. the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure ﬂammability thresholds show a near linear dependence on total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure) thresholds.1019147 Item 56 Composites Technology 14. including polyoxymethylene..5. for aerospace applications. nitrile rubber. ﬂuoroelastomer. to the extreme cold in space and on Mars. Twelve composite-overwrapped pressure vessels are currently in orbit. Scaling effects in the laminates were studied by comparison of the test results to a scaling law that predicts response parameters based on a simple geometrical relationship of the input parameters.
Data on the properties of these adhesives are tabulated.5. hand layered rib trusses. CSA Engineering’s expertise is viscoelastic materials. cabin and galley walls. cargo hold liners and ventilation ducts. May 2008. Suppl. or VEMs. 9 refs. composites are used for ﬂoor and ceiling panels.2.2008. Vibration loads are a signiﬁcant design issue for spacecraft. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Suppl. Anikhovskaya L I. one-piece wingskins.1018937 32 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Dement’eva L A. pultruded tail stringers. More recently. It is shown that the adhesives and bonding agents developed ensure efﬁcient operation of adhesively-bonded joints in the temperature range from -196 to 1600 deg C. RUSSIA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1017691 Item 62 Silicone Elastomers 2008.689-699 DIELECTRIC STUDIES OF WATER ABSORPTION AND DESORPTION IN EPOXY RESINS: INFLUENCE OF CURE PROCESS ON BEHAVIOUR McConnell B K.72-75 INTERIORS The continued push for aircraft weight reduction is driving composites growth in cabin applications. 26 refs. Uptake and loss proﬁles for the adhesives are compared and resorption studies performed on Epibond 1590 adhesive. adhesive composite materials based on the adhesive matrix and glass and carbon ﬁllers. The design of launch vehicle structures is driven primarily by stiffness.52-57 CONTROL SURFACES Composites continue to earn their way into ﬂight-critical aircraft components with help from innovative fabrication strategies. Feb. p.State Research Centre. the Constellation. however. Inroads are also being made into seating components such as rails and pedestals. Uptake and loss of moisture are monitored gravimetrically. Petrova A P. DMTA and thickness measurements performed as a function of time at various temperatures. tail structures. Tyumeneva T Y Russia. vacuum-assisted resin-transfer moulded trailing edges. This article presents examples which are representative of many creative applications. The materials include high-strength and high-elasticity ﬁlm and pastelike adhesives for constructional applications. UK. resin transfer moulded wing spars. ATK Launch Systems Group produces the GEM (graphite epoxy motor) family for Boeing’s Delta launch vehicles as well as Orion rocket motors for Orbital. No.2. 2008. a variety of material and process innovations are enabling a dramatic upswing in metal-to-composite conversions. WORLD Accession no. Pethrick R A Strathclyde. lavatory modules.122-129 ADHESIVES AND BONDING MATERIALS FOR COMPONENTS IN AVIATION TECHNOLOGY Lukina N F. and resin transfer moulded prepreg wingtips. 12th13th March. Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. partitions. which are still primarily manufactured of aluminium.. ﬁbreglass-reinforced thermoplastic leading edges. improvements in ﬁbre properties since then have made carbon/epoxy the SRM material of choice. No. WORLD Item 60 Welding International 22.and aminecured epoxy resin adhesives (AF 163-2K and Epibond 1590) used in aerospace applications. Today. April 2008. WORLD Accession no.University The results are reported of a study of the mechanism of water uptake and desorption in dicyandiamide. p.. Proceedings of the Second International Conference held Munich. One successful application was a space truss structure experiment. No.1018940 Item 59 Composites Technology 14. self-bonding materials based on aluminium foil. These include: composite wings. overhead stowage bins. window and door surrounds. a Space Shuttle replacement that is expected to return astronauts to Earth’s Moon by 2020. and protective ﬁlm coatings.2. food and drink trolleys. adhesives for rubber engineering applications). No. which are typically rubbery materials that can reduce vibration amplitudes and peak dynamic stresses. April 2008. payload adaptors and payload fairings. However. aluminium-polymer composite materials based on aluminium alloys and adhesive prepregs. composites have been adopted for ﬁrst-stage boosters. Today.1017799 Item 61 Polymer International 57. p. All-Russia Scientiﬁc Research Institute of Aviation Materials A report is presented on research conducted over many years at the Russian Scientiﬁc Research Institute of Aviation Materials with the aim of developing suitable adhesives and bonding agents for aviation technology. p.References and Abstracts epoxy and later aramid/epoxy. For manned space vehicles with crew modules.1018941 Item 58 Composites Technology 14. adhesives for special applications (including heat-resisting. The incursion of autoclaved prepreg composites into ﬂight control surface structures has a history that goes back several decades. Differences between the adhesives are rationalised in terms of the different abilities of the matrix to interact with the water molecules. composites could eventually ﬁnd use on NASA’s latest initiative. using broad band dielectric. Germany.
held Amsterdam. making them potential candidate materials for aerospace applications (Section 4. hydrophobic or hydrophilic performance.2 and 7). No. POLAND Accession no. Aspen. Industrial and commercial composite applications are discussed. EUROPEAN UNION. physical properties and fuel and solvent resistance. detectors.10/13 OUT OF THIN AIR. Paper 2. p.) The introduction of new ﬂuorinated silicone liquid rubbers having comparable ﬂuorine content to ﬂuorosilicone heat cured elastomers and Shore hardnesses ranging from 40 to 70 is reported and these new ﬂuorosilicone liquid rubbers are compared with ﬂuorosilicone heat cured elastomers in the areas of processability. Carbon-epoxy composites have outstanding properties so it is not surprising that they have become the baseline materials in aerospace and sporting goods. pp. whose specialty is insulation. 185 refs. In this paper we discuss synthetic routes (Section 2) and spectroscopic properties (Section 4) of the principal conjugated polymers with imine groups (C=N) in the main chain. 2007. 11 refs.3.6% of market value in 2006.44/49 STRONGER AND LIGHTER Û COMPOSITES MAKE THEIR MARK Zweben C Most engineers likely know that the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner is made primarily of carbon ﬁbre-reinforced Accession no. The properties of polymer-matrix composites. 2007. March 2008. Other companies like Cabot produce granular products that can be mixed with resins or made into various products. which allows tuning of processability and special desired properties of these polymers.1016947 Item 66 PROTECTING THE SUBSTRATE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. absorption. such as their use as optical pH sensors.14 WATERBORNE EPOXY TECHNOLOGY AND TOP PERFORMANCE: NO LONGER A FAIRY TALE? © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 33 . EASTERN EUROPE. which accounted for 57.3. 2008.1017028 Item 64 Machine Design 80. Aerogels are extremely light and particle size is less than 100nm. p. foam structure that is more than 99% air. Paper 3. Aerogels are supplied in various forms. Proceedings of the International Protective Coatings Conference. Polyazomethines with liquid crystal properties are also considered (Section 5). USA Accession no. Considering that carbon ﬁbres were ﬁrst developed in the late 1960s. No. No. GERMANY. electrochemical and non-linear optical properties. 24th-25th October. USA Accession no. PRA. Additionally. PROCESSING. NEW PRODUCT FAMILY FFSL Franssen O. Smithers Rapra.12 REAL FLUOROSILICONES COMBINED WITH LSR. WESTERN EUROPE epoxy composites. which are installed on products like gas and oil pipelines. carbon matrix composites and ceramic-matrix composites are compared. this is remarkable progress. particular emphasis being placed on requirements for automotive and aerospace applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1017026 Item 65 Progress in Polymer Science 33. such as polyazomethines (Schiff bases) and polyketanils (polyketimines). used in defence and aerospace applications. The Netherlands. Bosshammer S Momentive Performance Materials GmbH (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. fabricates them mainly in ﬁbrous sheets and blankets. 20th March 2008. the polyazomethines and polyketanils are thermally stable.1). The paper is completed by discussion of non-covalent interactions between dopant (Lewis and Bronsted acids) and conjugated polymers (polyazomethines and polyketanils) (Sections 3.translucent window and roof systems that let ﬁltered light into a room with no increase in heating or cooling costs. pp. AEROGELS EMERGE Toensmeier P A An aerogel is a wispy.References and Abstracts Shawbury. 2008. One application in which aerogels provide a unique beneﬁt is "daylighting" .1017671 Item 63 Plastics Engineering 64. metal-matrix composites. Sek D Polish Academy of Sciences Conjugated polymers have attracted widespread interest during the last two decades.289-345 PROCESSIBLE POLYAZOMETHINES AND POLYKETANILS: FROM AEROSPACE TO LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND OTHER ADVANCED APPLICATIONS Iwan A. Special emphasis is put on the molecular and supramolecular engineering approach (Sections 3-7). optoelectronic. so they can be used in parts that require transparency or purity.6. additive and reinforcement beneﬁts in polymers and low dielectric constant. The leading end-use application by far is thermal insulation. or added to cold-weather gear. because of their useful electronic. Selected examples of possible technological applications of conjugated polymers containing imine groups are presented. catalyst carriers or light-emitting diodes (Section 4). Properties include outstanding insulation and acoustic dampening. (Hampton). Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. p.
DEStech Publications.-1st Nov.2007. Carroll T US. Peitso E.1016734 Item 68 COMPOSITES: ENABLING A NEW ERA IN CIVIL AVIATION. 16 refs. Frederix A Hexion Specialty Chemicals (PRA) The development of waterborne epoxy binder technologies as a means of attaining volatile organic compound compliance is described. i. are provided. is reported. EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY. DEStech Publications. Seattle. USA Accession no.S. 2007. The historic development of waterborne binder families. pp.15 UPDATES FOR TRANSITION POTENTIAL OF LIGHT WEIGHT COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT & SPACECRAFT THERMAL MANAGEMENT COMPONENTS Watts R. 2007.2007. The transition to space material applications is considered. Steenwyk M.. Ca. Proceedings of the American Society for Composites:Twenty-second Technical Conference. is discussed. Covina. Stickler P Washington. Chang S. 7 refs. The importance of applying the appropriate ‘formulation knowhow’ in order to achieve top performance in some key market segments. Rans M. 7 refs. Seattle. BELGIUM. held University of Washington. Oh.1015932 34 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . The ultimate goal is to develop ‘advanced composite material’ manufacturing options to double the effectiveness of the existing systems and provide new energy sources for the environmental management systems. such as marine coatings.. Accession no. Wa.Air Force Research Laboratory. The tensile.. which uses the speciﬁc response of a pre-pump pulse Brillouin optical time domain analysis sensing system to non-uniform strain distribution along an optical ﬁbre. Maxwell G. Graves M.2007. Paper 164 CHARACTERIZATION OF DISCONTINUOUS CARBON FIBER/EPOXY SYSTEMS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS: PART I Feraboli P. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Fibre distribution in the composites and the effective random nature of the composites are characterised by means of image analysis and testing of tensile specimens cut at 0.e. Heine F. including the NEW GEN technology. Pa. Paper 90 IMPACT DAMAGE MONITORING OF SANDWICH STRUCTURE BY DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MEASUREMENT WITH CM-ORDER SPATIAL RESOLUTION Minakuchi S. JAPAN Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Paper 116. Wa. Boeing Phantom Works. GE Aviation. Lancaster. Clayes-Bouuaert P.1016911 Item 67 COMPOSITES: ENABLING A NEW ERA IN CIVIL AVIATION. 29th Oct. Cleveland T. Pa. Triton Systems Inc. Proceedings of the American Society for Composites:Twenty-second Technical Conference. such as aerospace applications and transportation coatings and primers for the agriculture.References and Abstracts Vandenberghe D. 2007. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Touchstone. carbon composite heat exchangers and avionic hybrid carbon enclosures. The performance data presented should help waterborne systems ﬁnd applications in the most conservative and difﬁcult market segments. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate is continuing to provide revolutionary lightweight hybrid carbon composite processing technology applied to heat transfer applications for aircraft potential transition and more demanding mega watts direct energy cooling. construction and earth-moving equipment markets. Okabe Y.1016668 Item 69 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering.University (American Society for Composites) The development of an impact damage detection system for composite sandwich structures. WESTERN EUROPE. Van Poppel K. The system is applied to the detection of non-uniform strain distribution along a dent of the CFRP facesheet of a sandwich panel with an aluminium honeycomb core and is considered suitable for inspecting sandwich structures for aerospace applications. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL held University of Washington... Boeing Commercial Airplanes (American Society for Composites) The results are reported of a study of the effect of ﬁbre length on the mechanical properties of a high-performance SMC composed of discontinuous carbon fibre-epoxy panels obtained from high-grade prepreg for aerospace applications. (SAMPE) The U. EUROPEAN UNION. Lancaster. Deleo F.. Updates on two key thermal management component areas for payoff.University. 17th-19th Sept. 45 and 90 degrees from the longitudinal axis. is highlighted. Biels J. USA Accession no. EU. compression and flexural properties of the composites are discussed and comparisons are made with continuous carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy panels. 17th-19th Sept. 14 refs. Takeda N Tokyo.
pp. SAMPE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OFFICE. PAPER 101. 2007. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Oh. COVINA.2007. 2007.1015920 Item 72 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering.-1st Nov... Advantages and disadvantages of one. low viscosity vs. USA Accession no. PP. Predictions on bolted joint performance are presented. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Results showed that the panel gouge depth and perforation limit were predicted with reasonable accuracy. 29th Oct. Ca. low viscosity vs. In this study. USA with panel impact test data with different thicknesses and impact velocities.University. Several opposing property parameters exist such as processing temperature/viscosity vs. where a special user material subroutine was implemented to capture the carbon/epoxy composite material behaviour. GE Infrastructure-Aviation (SAMPE) Damage resistance capability of carbon ﬁbre composite panels subjected to ballistic impact was investigated for potential aerospace applications. Covina.7 DAMAGE PREDICTION OF CARBON/EPOXY COMPOSITE PANELS SUBJECTED TO BALLISTIC IMPACT Zhiqiang Wang.and twopart infusion systems are discussed. high temperature toughness. Ming Xie GE Global Research Centre. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Such an analytical prediction provided the possibility of signiﬁcantly reducing experimental cost in the investigation of composite impact performance. Numerical simulations were carried out to predict impact gouging behaviour and perforation limit with different panel thickness. The effects of ﬁnite element mesh density were also investigated.15 ANALYTICAL PREDICTIONS OF FAILURE OF A BOLTED JOINT IN COMPOSITE PANEL DUE TO DIRECT IMPACT Gagel J.2007.. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Oh.2007.-1st Nov. Reddy V GE Infrastructure-Aviation (SAMPE) Composite materials are used for aerospace applications because of their lightweight and high strength properties. Paper 104. a numerical analysis using LS-DYNA software was performed to simulate a metallic bracket bolted to a composite panel and subjected to a ballistic impact from a metallic projectile..1015917 Item 73 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. but attachment design on a composite structure remains a great challenge. pp. USA Accession no. PAPER 114. A parametric study of the ballistic impact simulation was conducted.12 FORMULATING CHALLENGES IN EPOXY BASED INFUSION SYSTEMS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Hoge J Huntsman Advanced Materials (SAMPE)Formulating challenges related to the development of epoxy-based systems for use with the vacuum infusion process for applications in the aerospace industry are discussed. COVINA. 2007. high toughness. CA.Research Institute (SAMPE) Alkyne-containing monomers are currently used in the manufacture of some polyimide-based composites where a high level of crosslinking and thermal stability is required © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 35 .2007. INDIA. The simulations were conducted with the explicit ﬁnite element code LS-DYNA. 5 refs. Vijayvargiya A. 11 refs.References and Abstracts Item 70 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. Oh. rather than an integral composite ﬂange. often has to be used to attach two structures. which included various impact velocities and impact locations. The ultimate goal is to develop systems which meet all of the processing and performance requirements for complex aircraft parts. Covina.. 29th Oct... and high modulus vs. 29th Oct. Ming Xi.-1st Nov. Gang Qian. Data are presented and comparisons are made with experimental epoxy blends and curing agents by studying one-part and two-part epoxy systems..-1st Nov. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. A challenging balance of processing and ultimate physical properties must be met to qualify these systems for aerospace speciﬁcations. SAMPE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OFFICE.1015930 Item 71 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. 3 refs. high Tg. Paper 96. The numerical results were correlated Accession no. PP. CA.9 ALTERNATIVE ALKYNE-BASED MATERIALS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS APPLICATIONS Morgan A B Dayton. A metallic bracket. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Various difﬁculties arise in formulating aerospace infusion systems to meet the complex requirements of the vacuum infusion process and aerospace structural parts. Ca. 29th Oct. Oh. 2007. pot life.
and different levels of carbon char could be generated. pp. USA Accession no. McDowell D L. strain and temperature. Composite Technology Development Inc.. Eisbrenner E Miami. i. 2007. Paper 67. 6 refs... COVINA.2007. 29th Oct. Sanderson T.References and Abstracts in the end-use application. 29th Oct. i.-1st Nov.6 CHARACTERIZATION OF SHEAR DEFORMATION AND STRAIN RECOVERY BEHAVIOR IN SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS Khan F. The versatility of organic synthesis allows for the creation of multi-alkyne containing structures which are highly soluble in a variety of solvents and whose alkyne crosslinking temperature can be tailored. Oh.1014948 Item 76 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. and can provide a series of set operating shapes.1014978 Item 74 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering... Veriﬂex. Deformation temperatures above or below this optimal value led to lower failure strains in tension and the accumulation of permanent strains in cyclic compression. The materials discussed in this paper were originally designed as high carbon char-forming materials for rocket booster ablative and ﬂame retardancy applications. Jeong-Hoi Koo.12 THERMO-MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ADAPTIVE POLYMER FOAM Di Prima M A. USA Accession no.. Raytheon Missile Systems Co. Campbell D Georgia. 2007. Paper 66. PP. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Tensile strain to failure was measured to probe the foam’s maximum recovery limits in temperature and strain space. Epoxy resin adaptive foams with an average relative density near 20% were examined by deforming them under conditions of varying stress. The synthesis of these materials is described and possible advantages and disadvantages of these materials for the manufacture of new aerospace materials are considered. Covina. As such. Oh.Institute of Technology.. simple multistable cross-ply composite plates and a type of multistable airfoil-like twisting device that is made by combining two pre-curved shells.2007. Two types of structures are considered. in general. It is shown that. 38 refs.11 ACTIVE MULTISTABLE STRUCTURES FOR MORPHING APPLICATIONS Schultz M R Composite Technology Development Inc. 18 refs. Both tensile strain to failure and cyclic compression recovery tests revealed that deforming at 80 deg C minimised damage and maximised macroscopic strain recovery. CA. while compression and tensile tests were performed at temperatures between 25 and 125 deg C. Piezocomposite actuators were shown to be effective in actively transforming both types of multistable structures at frequencies up to 10 Hz. Gall K. (SAMPE) Adaptive (shape memory) polymer foams have potential aerospace applications. PAPER 63. Compression tests were performed to examine material compressibility as a function of temperature.-1st Nov. was investigated in tensile and shear loading conditions with the aim 36 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Covina. the combination of multistable structures with piezocomposite actuators can produce interesting active morphing structures.e. Oh.2007. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. can be beneﬁcial in creating morphing structures because power is only required to transform the structure between shapes. This paper examines the use of piezocomposite actuators to bring about shape change in multistable structures. pp.e. SAMPE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OFFICE. The microCT studies revealed the bending. These structures are both based on graphite-epoxy resin composites. These foams were compacted up to 80% and still experienced full strain recovery over multiple cycles. buckling and collapse of cells Accession no. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Ca. 2007. which may be useful for this application. components that have more than one stable equilibrium shape. Lesniewski M. Monk D. The Tg of the foam was measured to be 90 deg C. A variety of alkyne-based materials are made efﬁciently from brominated aromatic starting materials.-1st Nov. 29th Oct. (SAMPE) Multistable structural components. Ca. but through the control of chemical structure it was found that the alkyne crosslinking reaction could be raised or lowered.University (SAMPE) The large strain deformation behaviour of a styrene-based shape memory polymer(SMP).1014949 Item 75 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. not to hold the structure in the new shape. USA with increasing compression. but their thermomechanical behaviour under deformation conditions is not well understood. consistent with published numerical simulations. the use of multistable structural components can lead to reduced power requirements. Micro-computed tomography(microCT) scans of the foam at various compressed states were used to understand foam deformation mechanisms.
21st Feb. ballistic panels.. 29th Oct.13 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF AN OPEN CELL EPOXY SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER FOAM Sanderson T. USA volumetric material heating systems if shape memory polymers were to be used extensively for morphing aircraft applications. In applications such as these. e. and it was found that the thermal diffusivity increased by an order of magnitude in going from fully expanded to fully compressed. Composite Technology Development Inc. the properties were similar to those of a thermally-insulating material. The data demonstrate that the longterm performance of HiPer-Tex R-glass ﬁbre in corrosive environments should meet or exceed the requirements of these and other applications. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. p.1014945 Item 77 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering.-1st Nov. Arzberger S Arizona. Paper 52.1014934 Item 79 Machine Design 80. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. pressure vessels. inelastic. reticulated PU foams can be © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 37 . which promises to be a cost-effective high-strength reinforcement in numerous application areas. Typical pore sizes for reticulated PU foams used industrially range from 4 to 120 ppi. Di Prima M A. the SMP exhibited a rapid rise in the recovery force following the application of a thermal trigger. Oh. as in gasketing applications. and recovery deformation response of the SMP. Particular attention was paid to the recovery behaviour. USA Accession no. while the thermal conductivity increased by almost as much. A simple transient thermal analysis was then carried out for using this material with an electric resistance heating element as the skin of a morphing aircraft wing.4. Testing of the materials was performed in tensile and shear test conditions at room and elevated temperatures. pp. At steady state. Applications that demand higher tensile strength or modulus. pp. (SAMPE) The thermal properties of an epoxy SMF (shape memory polymer foam) were measured and reported for a foam of 18% density. Reticulated PU foam is strong enough to handle industrial applications ranging from sound and vibration absorption to spark prooﬁng fuel tanks in aircraft and race cars.University. The ﬂexible foams feature an open-pore structure with pore sizes and densities engineered speciﬁcally to suppress explosions and mitigate noise. meeting secondary requirements such as corrosion resistance is absolutely necessary. 2007. USA Accession no.g. No.5 mm thick SMF skin. as expected. is shown to exhibit superior corrosion resistance in a variety of common corrosive media. which was excessive for practical applications. and numerous aerospace applications. and the effect of ﬁller loading. 29th Oct. The production process for PU used as a ﬁlter or gasket can be tweaked to optimise properties for a particular application. Overall. 10 refs. Under the same conditions. Covina. In addition to use as sealants or gaskets.-1st Nov.. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Raytheon Missile Systems Co.. for a 9. Oh. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. 6 refs. The magnetite-ﬁlled samples were prepared to allow the investigation of magnetic induction-based heating to serve as a trigger for the thermally-activated SMP. which was critical for the development of new SMP-based applications. Ca. Spoo K. are discussed. Comparison is made with Advantex boron-free E-glass ﬁbre.2008. the ratio of the maximum to minimum temperature within the material was found to be 21 for the compressed foam and 69 for the expanded foam. The data should provide information on matrixﬁller interaction and permit constitutive modelling through an investigation of the elastic. Hartman D Owens-Corning Science & Technology Center (SAMPE) A new high-performance R-glass ﬁbre (HiPer-Tex). Covina.1014944 Item 78 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. wind turbine blades. Very favourable response times were observed using this technique.2007. Georgia. Gall K.References and Abstracts of characterising the mechanical properties. while the density increased by a factor of about 3. The analytical results presented emphasised the need to develop Accession no.12 STRENGTH AND CORROSION RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF A NEW GENERATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE R-GLASS REINFORCEMENTS Ying Peng. 2007. 17 refs.Institute of Technology. Lamb J.74/76 WHERE RETICULATED POLYURETHANE FOAM’S A FIT Gliganic R Crest Foam Industries Inc. Paper 62.5.. Foam under compression. Full recovery of the plastic strain was observed. The iron-ﬁlled samples were prepared to render the polymer electrically conductive. can be made with a void volume as high as 98%.2007.. Magnetite and iron spherical nanoparticles were used as ﬁllers. A dense network of electric resistance heating elements embedded within the material would be required. the speciﬁc heat increased by less than 50% on average. Ca. Following tensile and shear deformation to lock-in plastic strain.
May 2007. held University of Washington.. 2007. 2007. Research papers are presented by authors from Japan. characterisation and processing. composite repair. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. A special session is devoted to trends in composite education and training. laminate behaviour and analysis.University 38 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . thermoplastics. novel resins and reinforcements). hybrid laminates. composite materials. Toub M Momentive Performance Materials GmbH. multifunctional. No. nanocomposites. applications in aeronautics and wind turbines . propulsion (high temperature technologies.2007 SAMPE FALL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE 2007: FROM ART TO SCIENCE: ADVANCING MATERIALS AND PROCESS ENGINEERING. 16 refs. USA. Oh..184-190 Japanese CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE AND APPLICATIONS OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS Kuramoto N Yamagata.5. electrical and thermal properties of composites of epoxy resin with small proportions of reactive graphitic nanoﬁbres were investigated after curing by surface conductivity. Ca. GERMANY. fuel resistance and solvent resistance of these silicone rubbers. offering technical insights into the design and applications of traditional composite materials. nanocomposites.2007 COMPOSITES: ENABLING A NEW ERA IN CIVIL AVIATION. devices and applications. and new material forms. high performance fibres. the USA and Europe. foam.2008.2008. bonded joints and repairs. education. p. 162 Papers Proceedings of the American Society for Composites: Twenty-second Technical Conference. adhesive bonding. Momentive Performance Materials Inc. USA Accession no.A NEW PRODUCT FAMILY Franssen O.1014031 Item 82 Rubber Fibres Plastics International 3. computational materials science and morphing (morphing and adaptive structures. complex dielectric permittivity (via broadband dielectric spectroscopy) and thermal conductivity measurements.1013962 Item 83 Journal of Materials Science 43.University The dielectric constants.References and Abstracts speciﬁed as dielectric insulators. Stickler P (American Society for Composites) 168 original research papers were presented in September 2007 at the 22nd technical conference of the American Society for Composites.1013512 Item 84 Nippon Gomu Kyokaishi 80. USA Other topics covered include fire protection. resin and process development. and testing methods. 17th-19th Sept. USA Accession no. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. as when providing a ground connection. high temperature resins. Zhong W-H Washington State..34-40 FULLY FLUORINATED LSR .1. natural composites. and impact and dynamic behaviour).1014043 Item 81 Covina. The introduction of a ﬂuorinated liquid silicone rubber with a comparable ﬂuorine content to ﬂuorosilicone high consistency elastomer is reported and a comparison is made of the processability. crashworthiness. K. p. O’Brien Honorary Symposium. synthesis and processing). No.1014163 Item 80 Lancaster. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Bosshammer S. featuring input from Boeing company personnel. aerospace coatings. liquid moulding. Papers are organised under the following headings: T.-1st. 146 papers. held in conjunction with the Materials Science Department at the University of Washington in Seattle. electrical properties.1. (SAMPE) The Fall 2007 SAMPE Technical Conference consisted of over 140 papers focusing on four emerging tracks in the ﬁeld of materials today: nanotechnology (characterisation. Jan.413-416 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A REACTIVE GRAPHITE NANOFIBER-REINFORCED EPOXY Jana S. Edited by: Feraboli P. Seattle. No. damage tolerance. p. physical properties. Riley G. new metallic materials. and emerging hybrids. Jan. 29th Oct. Pa. health monitoring. Wa. textile performing. Accession no.Nov. DEStech Publications. bioapplications. The effects of different proportions of reactive graphitic nanoﬁbres on the properties of the epoxy resin matrix are discussed in terms of potential applications such as aerospace and wind energy. natural composites. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Emphasis is placed on requirements for automotive and aerospace applications and the development of a new self-bleeding grade (FFSL 7286/40) is reported. spacecraft materials. They can be embedded with conductive metal particles in cases where a gasket or seal must also serve as a conductive material.. 11 refs.
References and Abstracts The characteristics and applications of conducting polymers. bonded scarf joint.1011768 Item 89 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. Emphasis appears to be on polyaniline. Germany.2007. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 2007. Baker A Australia. 29th Oct. Paper 11. EASTERN EUROPE. Paper 10. Warsaw. Shawbury. Adhesives evaluated include an epoxy resin with good high temperature strength. surface treatment and adherend moisture levels. GERMANY. JAPAN Accession no. Covina. Covina. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.Defence Science & Technology Org. Oh. silicone rubber. Lodz. Pieczynska D. AUSTRALIA Accession no. a ﬁlm adhesive in paste form with ﬂexibility in curing below 177 degrees C and a new generation bismaleimide ﬁlm adhesive for high temperature composite applications. Paper 20. Paper 10. such as adhesive solvent levels. Rubbers studied were nitrile rubber. polychloroprene. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Oh.Technical University..1011835 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 39 . Germany. (SAMPE) The results are reported of an investigation into a range of candidate structural adhesives for use in the repair of high temperature carbon/bismaleimide composites. 29th Oct.2007. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd...12 INNOVATIONS IN FLUORINATED LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER Franssen O. physical properties.. EUROPEAN UNION. with emphasis on requirements for automotive and aerospace applications. Charon A. Ca. Bosshammer S Momentive Performance Materials GmbH (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. Oh.1011845 Item 86 High Performance and Speciality Elastomers 2007. 11 refs.5 MODIFICATION OF ELASTOMER FRICTION BY ION BOMBARDMENT Bielinski D M. Shawbury.1011769 Item 88 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering.. 16 refs. fuel resistance and solvent resistance. on voiding levels are examined. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference. 29th Accession no. held Frankfurt. bonded patch repair. Comparisons were made with rubbers treated by solution sulphonation and chlorination.1012731 Item 85 High Performance and Speciality Elastomers 2007. 2007. 8 refs. polypyrrole and polythiophene derivatives. pp. 24 refs.14 STRUCTURAL REPAIR TECHNIQUES FOR HIGHLY-LOADED CARBON/BMI COMPOSITES Wang C H.Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. methods of reducing voiding levels are considered and processes to provide reliable adhesion are evaluated. Brack N Australia. Chang P. Types of repairs under consideration are fastened patch repair. (SAMPE) The results are reported of an experimental and analytical investigation carried out to evaluate the performance of mechanically fastened and adhesively bonded repairs to carbon/bismaleimide composites for aircraft applications at an elevated temperature of 177 degrees C when repairs are cured close to the operating temperature. held Frankfurt. POLAND Item 87 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering.18 SURFACE TREATMENT AND APPLICATION PROCESSES FOR EPOXY BONDING TO BISMALEIMIDE COMPOSITES Rider A N. Jagielski J Stomil. thermoplastic PU elastomer and thermoplastic polyetheramide elastomer (Pebax 5533 SN 01)..-1st Nov.) Various elastomers for sealing applications in aerospace and automotive applications were subjected to ion beam bombardment with helium or argon ion beams and the effect of ion beam bombardment on the friction coefﬁcient. Wang C H. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference. Rider A N. Ca. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. pp. such as polyaniline. The effect of factors. multi-row bolted repair and bonded doubler-scarf repair. 11 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. 2007.-1st Nov. wear resistance and microhardness of the surface treated rubbers investigated. 2007. are described. 5th-6th Dec. 5th-6th Dec.2007. surface geometry.) A new line of novel ﬂuorinated liquid silicone rubbers having a comparable ﬂuorine content to ﬂuorosilicone heat cured elastomers is reported and compared with fluorosilicone heat cured elastomer in the areas of processability. The new materials are currently available in the 40 to 70 Shore A range of durometer. pp. AUSTRALIA Accession no. pp. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Chang P. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2007.Defence Science & Technology Org. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati.
SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.. generally.1011765 Item 90 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering.2007. wedge and peel tests) are employed to compare the sandpapers and performance and durability tests are carried out on bonded aluminium specimens to validate the equivalent performance of the two. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. No. Paper 2. USA PREPARATION METHODS FOR METAL BONDING APPLICATIONS Blohowiak K Y.18 LASER PRETREATMENT OF SURFACES FOR ADHESIVE BONDING Walters C T. matrix resins.7 SILYLATED POLYURETHANE ADHESIVES: NEXT GENERATION JET FUEL & HYDRAULIC FLUID RESISTANT PSA’S Griswold R. pp. 27 refs. Tests which measure adhesive durability and strength and are sensitivity to surface changes (crack extension.-1st Nov. Irfan Y Lyon. Pakistan.. 5 refs.-1st Nov. 2007.University. are described.Institute of Space Technology The cure reaction kinetics and rheological properties of a prepreg system based on an aramid fabric as reinforcement impregnated with a toughened bisphenol-A/ epichlorohydrin-derived epoxy resin using an aliphatic amine curing agent were investigated by dynamic DSC. Covina. Paper 1. Fibre reinforcements. nanotechnology. Oh. 2007. Dayton. bridging the gap between conventional organic adhesives and silicone pressure-sensitive adhesives.8. 2007. (SAMPE) Improvements in the use of sol-gel methods. The data obtained revealed that. rheometry and dynamic and isothermal DMA techniques.. Zhe M. EUROPEAN UNION. Berg D Boeing Co. tooling considerations and applications are discussed.15 IMPROVEMENTS IN SOL-GEL SURFACE 40 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology ..2007.6.References and Abstracts Oct.565-582 ANALYSIS OF CURE REACTION KINETICS OF ARAMID/TOUGHENED-EPOXY PREPREG SYSTEM AIMING AT PROCESSING OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS Soahib A. pp. 9 refs.1011585 Item 93 Composites Technology 13. Oh. No. These improvements include the use of four new expanded abrasion sandpaper materials and techniques and use of a two-component sol-gel kit. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. Covina.-1st Nov. Grob J. Substrates tested were aluminium alloys and carbon ﬁbre/epoxy composites. the laser pretreated adherends performed as well as the solvent-wiped and grit-blasted control adherends.. p. which is currently formulated as a four-part kit. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. fabrication methods. Ca.2007. USA Accession no. Smith J A Walters C. pp. FRANCE. 2007. for preparing metal surfaces for bonding with 121 and 177 degrees C-cure epoxy adhesives are discussed.1011759 Item 92 Journal of Polymer Engineering 27. PAKISTAN.1011760 Item 91 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: From Art to Science: Advancing Materials and Process Engineering. These adhesives are isocyanate-free and extend temperature and shear resistance.Universite Claude Bernard.Research Institute (SAMPE) An investigation was carried out into the possible use of short pulse Nd:YAG laser devices for pretreating metal and composite surfaces for aerospace applications prior to adhesive bonding.. Suppl. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Dec. A series of mechanical tests (wedge and lap shear strength tests) were performed on panels bonded after laser pretreatment of their surfaces and the results compared with those pretreated by conventional grit blasting and solvent wipe. which offer unique resistance to jet fuel and hydraulic ﬂuids in aerospace labelling applications. Cejka N. Proceedings of a conference held Cincinnati. USA Accession no. Grace W B. Paper 7. 11 refs. Lyon.6/45 COMPOSITES FLY HIGH AROUND THE WORLD This comprehensive article provides an overview of the composites industry.Associates.Ecole Centrale. The results are discussed in terms of optimisation of the curing process for fabrication of structural components with aerospace applications. Ca. 29th Oct. Frye R Momentive Performance Materials (SAMPE) Typical physical properties. p. Accession no. part design criteria. 29th Oct. adhesive properties and solvent resistance of novel pressure-sensitive adhesives based on silylated PUs.2007. Covina.and four-part sol-gel kits after ageing. Ca.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. based on the Boegel -EPH system.
53-60 HIGH PERFORMANCE 3-D BRAIDED FIBER © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 41 . Germany. The result is an extremely lightweight composite characterised by a very low coefﬁcient of thermal expansion and excellent resistance to the extremely high temperatures generated in braking applications. Meilunas R J NAVAIR An overview is presented of past and recent developments in new material systems based on aligned.References and Abstracts WORLD Accession no. USA Accession no. The focus of the overview is on technical challenges.6. 0 refs.6. Nov. No. Accession no. major producers of friction products and materials have designed and patented a number of process variations. No. process automation. marine and civil engineering applications. health and safety aspects and the markets for nanoclays and nanotubes. Potential applications of the coatings include the prevention of ice formation on the wings of aircraft. Nov. Bogdanovich A 3TEX Inc.1011419 Item 95 Plastics Engineering No. UK. Duke P.17-20 A REVIEW OF ALIGNED DISCONTINUOUS CARBON FIBER SYSTEMS FOR COMPOSITES FORMING Ng S J. which are currently entering an important phase in their product life cycle. ﬁbre orientation. including advancements in antioxidant systems. p. are expected to offer the best opportunity for growth in the North American friction market. Over the past ﬁve years.-Dec. discontinuous carbon ﬁbre forms for advanced composite aerospace and other commercial applications. a process that increases drag and can cause dangerous turbulence during take off and landing.-Dec. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. 17 refs.6. densiﬁcation methods and process ﬂow. according to BCC Research. Candidate material systems considered include LDF thermoplastic composite technology.50-54 NANOCOMPOSITES FAST TRACK TO COMMERCIALISATION Ramasubramanian H Frost & Sullivan Ltd. C/C is a composite made from a carbon ﬁbre reinforcement impregnated with a carbon matrix by a lengthy and expensive process that involves exposure to extreme heat (pyrolysis). Discotex and Schappe Technique. Stretch Broken Carbon Fiber. An overview is presented of Frost & Sullivan’s recent global study on nanocomposites. Production costs associated with the manufacture of C/C friction products are very high.2007. commercialisation challenges and issues. 10 refs. is reported. moving from innovation to growth. thermal shock resistance and extreme strength drive growth of carbon-reinforced friction products and materials in brake applications. p. USA Accession no.6 FROZEN FISH PAINT COULD HOLD KEY TO AIRCRAFT SAFETY The development of antifreeze coatings based on antifreeze proteins found in plants. Nov. p.2007.1010806 Item 96 SAMPE Journal 43. Recent advances in the design and manufacture of three-dimensional braided products fabricated on threedimensional rotary braiding machines are reported. EUROPEAN UNION. carbon-reinforced composites. Driven by growth in the aerospace sector as well as the inherent performance characteristics of the material.1010754 Item 98 Polymers Paint Colour Journal 197.1010756 Item 97 SAMPE Journal 43.1010450 Accession no. No.1011469 Item 94 High-Performance Composites 15.11. Nov.4518. Nov. such as carbon/carbon. all in an effort to reduce manufacturing time and costs while maintaining thermal and strength properties.2007. USA PREFORMS: DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING ADVANCEMENTS FOR COMPLEX COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Mungalov D. Fabrication approaches used for consolidating the three-dimensional braided composites are detailed and some of the basic characteristics of the composites are described.2007.26-30 CARBON FIBER STOPPING POWER Wood K Low weight. focusing upon large cross-section integral carbon ﬁbre Hat-stiffeners primarily intended for aircraft applications and carbon or glass ﬁbre truss-like integral structures for potential aerospace. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2007. p. all of which enable lower touch labour cost manufacturing and fabrication of complex geometric composite parts. No. fish and insects and synthesised at the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology in Bremen.
References and Abstracts Item 99 Reinforced Plastics 51.665-683 USE OF DIELS-ALDER CYCLOPOLYMERIZATIONS IN THE PHOTOCURING OF POLYMERS Meador M A. The security/safety market for personal. (ACS. SAERTEX utilises specially-formulated SAEFIX bonding agent as an option on its standard fabrics to promote self-adhesion. Of the multiple markets utilising composites. Abhu Dhabi.University The synthesis of polyimides and polyesters via photocuring by Diels-Alder cyclopolymerisation of o-methylphenylketone-derived o-quinodimethanes and trapping by a bis(dienophile) such as bismaleimide or bisacrylate. HexForce. No. Oct. Meador M A. p. DSC.11. is described. p.2007. renewable energy systems comprise a strong niche taking advantage of non-crimp fabrics.. wound at an angle of just 15 degrees. Oh. stiffness.2007.12. bulkheads and booms. p. double bias carbon ﬁbre woven fabric. EUROPEAN UNION.5-6.20-25 STITCH IN ITS TIME: FABRICS SEW UP DIVERSE COMPOSITES MARKETS McConnell V P From traditional unidirectional wovens to stitched multiaxials and unique hybrids. and the effects of molecular structure on properties are discussed in terms of potential aerospace applications.14 TAKING THE HITS WITHOUT FLINCHING Shelley T At Reading University in the UK. the company tested its three-ply. aerospace.Glenn Research Center. The failure mechanism when the fabric is loaded in different directions is considered.Rubber Div. East London. Nov. 6 refs. and motor vehicles. regardless of whether impact is fast or slow. Oh. UK. Applications are envisaged in security. reinforcement fabrics deliver the increased strength. p. vehicle and building armour represents another growth area for reinforced fabric. Proceedings of a conference held Cleveland.1008951 Item 103 High Performance Polymers 19.1010355 Item 100 Eureka 27. Reading. No. SAEFIX eliminates spraying up an adhesive. Paper 46. In May. as does glass producer Owens Corning. scientists have discovered that reinforcing plastic with helical ﬁbre tubes. defence. Hexcel is applying advanced materials technology to high-performance yachts. Applications are expected in the automotive and aerospace industries. relative to the inplane shear requirements of thick.2007.University EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Dec.University EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pp. FTIR. Y and Z directions.2007. No. 12 refs.1010036 42 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .1009237 Item 102 172nd ACS Rubber Division Meeting .11..-Dec. TMA. Both SAERTEX and Vectorply list wind energy among their key market segments.2007. contains no solvents and reduces the overall amount of adhesive necessary.NASA.19 COMPARISON OF FLUORINATED LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER AND HEAT CURED FLUOROSILICONE ELASTOMER Riley G. Franssen P. Accession no. UK. 16th18th Oct. Bosshammer S Momentive Performance Materials Inc. TGA and GPC. Both woven and nonwoven fabrics vary in thickness. ACS Rubber Division. weight and cost properties now demanded in composite applications. produces composite materials that can absorb very large amounts of impact energy before they break. WORLD Item 101 Eureka 27. Dec. but still allows rearrangement of the fabric during lay-up. load-bearing marine structure such as hull girders. physical properties and fuel and solvent resistance with emphasis on requirements for automotive and aerospace applications. Toub M. EUROPEAN UNION. 3TEX has received a 2m US dollars appropriation from the US Department of Defense for further development of its trademarked 3WEAVE composite armour technologies in combat vehicles. symmetric. areal weight and may be coated with sizing or binder. Tyson D S.Fall 2007. The products were characterised by proton and carbon-13 NMR. No.28 WEAVING ARAMID WITH CARBON MAKES FOR BETTER COMPOSITES The manufacture by researchers at the University of East London of a composite which combines aramid and carbon ﬁbres in the weave is brieﬂy described. Akron. Full details are provided in this article. USA Accession no. 2007. such as might be used in boat hull manufacture. 3TEX uses patented textile preforming processes to weave its three-dimensional fabric with ﬁbre orientations in the X. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Ilhan F US. Ohio Aerospace Institute.) A fully ﬂuorinated liquid silicone rubber having excellent fuel and oil resistance and processability equivalent to commercial standard liquid silicone rubbers is compared with ﬂuorosilicone heat cured elastomers in the areas of processability.
in such aeronautical applications. Adda Bedia E A Sidi-Bel-Abbes. tensile strength.10 POLYMERS FOR EXO-ATMOSPHERIC SUPERSONIC VEHICLES: A TOUGH LIFE Broughton D. pressure and ﬂuid exposure) to more thoroughly determine whether the new materials will perform in the intended O-ring applications.4.1008294 Item 105 Composite Structures 82. Results indicated that the cure shrinkage rate of BMI-B resin was reduced from original 4. 2008. A high-performance vacuum-bag curable prepreg with promising characteristics is thus being developed. 2007. Shawbury.4’-bismaleimidodiphenyl methane/O. Paper 19. Nov. No.8% and the surface morphology of neat resin casting were changed signiﬁcantly by incorporating 1 wt % WD-01. The present paper aims at assessing an approximate model to evaluate hygrothermoelastic stress in composite laminated plates during moisture desorption taking into account the change of mechanical characteristics induced by the variation of temperature and moisture. France. which have had to be solved.References and Abstracts UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.9170-9175 INFLUENCE OF NOVEL ADDITIVE ON BMI RESIN AND BMI RESIN MATRIX COMPOSITE Zhang B Y. for aerospace applications.Institute of Aeronautical Materials In order to achieve high performance in a bismaleimide(BMI) matrix composite manufactured by the vacuum bag cure only technique. which AWE has built up expertise with for exo-atmospheric supersonic vehicle applications.) The range of materials. Blida. 18th-19th September 2007. ALGERIA Accession no. the material is exposed to severe environmental conditions. elongation and speciﬁc gravity) and changes in Accession no. Shawbury. Chen X B Beijing. e.1008518 Item 104 Journal of Materials Science 42. However. Narbron D AWE PLC (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. Proceedings of an international conference held Toulouse.) The development of new materials (ﬂuoroelastomer and EPDM materials) for aerospace sealing applications is described and examples are presented of the use of testing at actual application conditions (temperature. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. are presented.. potting compounds and rigid and ﬂexible foams. through laminated plates. including adhesives. is described and some specific examples of problems/issues relating to material supply and PU adhesive manufacture. we hope to contribute to the understanding of hygrothermal behaviour of composite laminated plates. CHINA study that the variation of elasticity modulus due to the temperature causes a stress relaxation. Tables are included showing the original properties of the materials (hardness.1007167 Item 107 Polymers in Defence and Aerospace Applications. p. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. Tounsi A.2007.g. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. with no change of chemical cure behaviour of BMI resin being observed. USA Accession no.22. Li M. Proceedings of an international conference held Toulouse.Universite Saad Dahleb Polymer matrix composites are relevant materials for future supersonic aircraft due to their high speciﬁc properties. Paper 14.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The developed method permits us to calculate such stresses during desorption phase without the computation of the moisture concentration. and the properties of WD-01-modiﬁed BMI resin(BMI-WD) and resin matrix/carbon ﬁbre composite were investigated.O’-diallylbisphenol A system. It observed through this © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 43 . pp. No. France. pp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which is expected to ﬁnd use in advanced composite structures. 2007. UK. a novel additive WD-01 (a toluene solution of alkylammonium salt of acrylate-acrylamide copolymer) was selected to modify BMI-B resin based on modiﬁed polyetherketone-toughened 4. 18th-19th September 2007. 22 refs. Examples are also presented where application testing and ﬁnite element analysis were used to avoid potential problems and where testing was not used and problems were observed.0% to 1. EUROPEAN UNION. Vacuum-consolidated BMI-WD/T700 laminates had autoclave cure quality with good mechanical properties.629-635 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON TRANSIENT HYGROTHERMAL STRESSES DURING MOISTURE DESORPTION IN LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES Benkhedda A. p. These stresses have to be taken into account for the design of composite structures submitted to a moist environment. Through the presented study.University.1007487 Item 106 Polymers in Defence and Aerospace Applications.22 DEVELOPMENT OF WIDER PERFORMANCE RANGE RUBBER SEAL MATERIALS AND THE UTILITY OF FEA MODELING Keller R W Freudenberg-NOK General Partnership (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. Yantai Science and Technology Corp. 9 refs.
(Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. Paper 120. p. Covina. No. Henn A Eeonyx Corp. Volume 52. 2007. polyaniline and polyethylenedioxythiophene. Md.411-428 A REVIEW OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 44 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . are also described. (SAMPE) Technical results obtained from recent applications of innovatively-engineered composite cores for bridges and ground matting systems are presented. are described and end-use applications of the coated fabrics in defence and aerospace applications are indicated. effects of the preparation method on the structure and phase distribution of polymer nanocomposites and structure-property relationships. Cracow. high. Examples of a number of potential applications of nanocomposites in aerospace and defence applications.. Shawbury. 18th-19th September 2007. such as polypyrrole. The sandwich core designs are based on patented ﬁbre reinforced cores used in infusion moulding process. 5 refs. EASTERN EUROPE. France.14 ENGINEERED SANDWICH CORES FOR VEHICULAR BRIDGE DECKS Kos E. Ca. POWERED & INTERROGATED USING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS Arms S W.References and Abstracts properties. 9 refs.6 POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES WITH CARBON NANOTUBES IN AEROSPACE AND DEFENCE Njuguna J. Ca. USA SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING Hampson P R.1006277 Item 112 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . Examples include a vehicular bridge deck recently installed in Summit County. including sensors and thermal management systems.. POLAND Accession no. Stoll F WebCore Technologies Inc.9 MULTI-CHANNEL STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING NETWORK. Covina. with emphasis on experimental apparatus and techniques such as drop-weight testing and the implementation of failure criteria in ﬁnite element modelling methods which predict material behaviour. 2007. are given. 3rd-7th June. automotive and aerospace industries are discussed and potential future research topics such as the study of oblique impacts are identiﬁed. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. which consist of polymeric foams coated with conducting polymers.1007163 Item 108 Polymers in Defence and Aerospace Applications. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. The properties and applications of Eeonfoams.) The use of carbon nanotubes and nanocomposites based thereon for the manufacture of structures for aerospace and defence applications is discussed.) The basic properties of EeonTex textiles coated with conductive polymers. Laboratory and ﬁeld test data are presented.1007152 Item 110 International Journal of Crashworthiness 12. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. Ohio.University An overview of recent developments in theoretical. (SAMPE) A report is presented on the EmbedSense network of Accession no. UK. pp.. and an airﬁeld mat development programme in which deployable panels placed on soft soil are subjected to highly concentrated wheel loads. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd... USA Accession no.Coast to Coast and Around the World. 3rd-7th June. Proceedings of an international conference held Toulouse. including compression set. Applications within the marine. Shawbury. EUROPEAN UNION. 2007. pp. USA Accession no. Paper 3. 2007.University of Technology (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. pp. Moatamedi M Salford..4. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Paper 10. 18th-19th September 2007. experimental and numerical methods for low. Townsend C P MicroStrain Inc. Proceedings of an international conference held Toulouse. Volume 52.University.14 DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CONDUCTIVE AND MICROWAVE-LOSSY MATERIALS INVOLVING CONDUCTING POLYMER COATINGS Avloni J.. Marktek Inc. 6 refs. pp. and hyper-velocity impact of composite structures reported in the literature is presented. Md. France. Paper 227. upon air ageing and after ﬂuid immersion. 2007. Hamel M J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1006788 Item 111 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.1007159 Item 109 Polymers in Defence and Aerospace Applications.Coast to Coast and Around the World. 2007. 2007. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd. 1 ref. 158 refs. focusing upon methods of production. Pielichowski K Cranﬁeld.
Harrison J S. USA Accession no. Rooney M. USA Accession no. pp. p. The coating material is an opaque. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Washington. closed cell polymethacrylimide(PMI) materials manufactured by Degussa.1005296 Item 115 Polymer Preprints. 5 refs. Potential applications include bridges.References and Abstracts versatile. the foam swells on the order of 1.3E-11 cm2/s.3 kJ/mol. p.University. Jinho Kang. Huebert D. Paper 220.1006187 Item 113 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . but sensors may be extended on or within the smart structure to allow data to be sampled from remote.14 ROHACELL FOAM FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS Hogue P. Md. D. Volume 46. dielectric and electrical conductive properties. and it was shown that the addition of carbon nanotubes into this biopolymer allowed the potential of using it as a sensor to investigate shear forces in aerospace vehicles. Wise K E.16 NANOTUBE COMPOSITE SENSING SKIN Michigan. Kokabi M. D. Deming T J. The perimeter of the carbon nanotube skin is lined with electrodes connected to a microprocessor or computer. At 100 deg C. hard-to-access areas.. Cheol Park Virginia. helicopter rotor blade core. NASA Langley Research Center (ACS. such as the pH level of a structure.802-803 SINGLE WALL CARBON NANOTUBE COPOLYPEPTIDE BIONANOCOMPOSITES FOR POTENTIAL AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Lovel 1 C. 2007. Washington. Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAMPE) Rohacell foams. 4 refs..Div. California. 18 refs. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.National Institute of Aerospace. Marinelli B. as well as improving mechanical durability.Coast to Coast and Around the World. June 2007. Ca. TGA and thermal expansion results are also presented. 2005. The requirements for their use in space-based applications are. ACS. this value is 1. USA Accession no. black material made of layers of polymers with networks of carbon nanotubes running therethrough. Webb A. The present study indicates that stiffness remains reasonably ﬂat over the temperature range -160 deg C to +120 deg C. Degussa USA A coating which could be painted or sprayed on structures to sense their stability over time has been developed by researchers at the University of Michigan’s College of Engineering.Div. Behesty M H. Worthington E. 3rd-7th June.1005029 Item 116 Iranian Polymer Journal 16.8E-3 cm per cm under room temperature vacuum and exhibits very slow relaxation in a vacuum at 25 deg C. much more stringent.6. or registering cracks by cracking under the same conditions as the structure. the rate of water diffusion at 23 deg C is only 6.6E-7 cm2/s giving activation energy for diffusion of 93. composite civil structures and composite aerospace structures are described. Covina. August 2005. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. which changes with corrosion.University. The embedded nodes support a wide range of sensors. Stucky G D. August 2005. 2007.. Price D J Johns Hopkins University. Nanotube addition improves both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of the peptide copolymer composites.of Polymer Chemistry) Bionanocomposites were prepared from a random copolypeptide of leucine and phenylalanine and single walled carbon nanotubes. While the PMI foam evaluated meets NASA outgassing requirements when water is subtracted from the total mass loss.of Polymer Chemistry.2007. No. Hydrogen bonding to nitrogen and adjacent carbonyl groups is a possible explanation for the unusually strong bond with water. antenna radome construction and as part of the PHENIX multiplicity detector at Brookhaven National Laboratory.University © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 45 . US. Volume 52. which creates a two-dimensional visual map of the electrical resistance in the nanotube skin. revealing corrosion or fracturing too small for human eyes to detect. US.. Number 2. However. p. Famili M H N Accession no. Daugherty A. are used in terrestrial lightweight construction such as aircraft seating. These materials were evaluated for their mechanical. each layer being capable of measuring different things. It is shown that power for these systems may be provided through one or more inductive ‘coupling points’ where access is less restricted.Naval Air Weapons Center. Monitoring applications in smart medical implants. Fitz-Gerald J M.C.C. embedded wireless sensing nodes that are powered and interrogated by external electromagnetic ﬁelds.1006180 Item 114 Future Materials Sept. buildings and airplanes. and include a factory programmable radiofrequency identiﬁcation code. however.375-387 THERMAL DEGRADATION PROCESS OF RESOL TYPE PHENOLIC MATRIX/KAOLINITE LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITE Bahramian A R.
26-27 CAN WE FIX IT? Jones F Shefﬁeld. pp. 2007. it has become necessary to ﬁnd a way to autonomically heal mechanically induced damage. EUROPEAN UNION.5. and expected application of conducting composites based on polyaniline (PAN). dielectric heating coefﬁcient. such as the Airbus 380 and Boeing 787.229-244 LOW-DENSITY PHENOLIC SYNTACTIC FOAMS: PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES John B. and the ability of changing the electromagnetic properties with nature and amount of dopants. especially the dielectric loss. ﬂexural and compression testing.4. FTIR and SEM. IRAN absorption of the composites were studied at different frequency bands i. Paper 36.e. conductivity. At the University of Shefﬁeld. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore.1004740 Item 119 Materials World 15.1004229 46 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .University of Science & Technology Conducting polymers are excellent microwave absorbers and they show technological advantage when compared with inorganic electromagnetic absorbing materials. p. is described. Mathew K. C. Cyclohexanone soluble conducting PAN composites of microwave conductivity 12. SEM examination of fracture surfaces. ASTM USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. This approach has been developed further to employ continuous hollow glass ﬁbres to encapsulate potential resin systems. easily processable. Iran. 22 refs. dielectric properties. The microwave Accession no. 11 refs. 2007. and penetration depth. No. 27 refs. UK. and DMA. Ninan K N Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre The mechanical properties of low density phenolic resin syntactic foams with different volume fractions of glass microballoons were investigated by tensile.Polymer & Petrochemical Institute The preparation of nanocomposites of a resol-type phenolic resin and kaolinite layered silicate clay reinforced with asbestos cloth and their characterisation by XRF.2007.References and Abstracts Tarbiat Modarres. In this paper we report the synthesis. XRD. Burkitt B.COAST TO COAST AND AROUND THE WORLD. Thermal degradation of the nanocomposites during pyrolysis was investigated using TGA and cone calorimetry. outgas and optical testing and compared with standard materials meeting basic outgassing requirements. S. Covina.1004787 Item 118 Polymer Composites 28. Joseph R Cochin. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. and the effects of layered silicate on thermal stability are discussed in terms of potential aerospace applications as an ablative insulation material. No. etc. propargyl ether novolac resin. 3rd-7th June.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. INDIA Accession no. 2007. 2007. were studied using a HP8510 vector network analyzer. and X bands (2-12 GHz). It comprises a damage detection system that induces the healing effect and a matrix system that employs standard resins that are easily modiﬁed for healing. the need to accredit materials for the aerospace industry has driven the development of a structural health monitoring system for composite materials. being light weight. The released resin would polymerise and heal the damage. The absorption coefﬁcient was found to be higher than 200 m-1 and it can be used for making microwave absorbers in space applications. Nair C P R.University.1004632 Item 120 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . p. absorption coefﬁcient. Oct. synthesis conditions..1004800 Item 117 Cellular Polymers 26. in terms of potential aerospace applications. INDIA Accession no. Jacob J.10. Md.588-592 CONDUCTING POLYANILINE COMPOSITES AS MICROWAVE ABSORBERS John H.5 S/m was synthesised by the in situ polymerisation of aniline in the presence of emulsion grade polyvinyl chloride. 35 refs.University With the introduction of advanced composite materials into many structural applications. Ca. The results are discussed in comparison with those for syntactic foams based on an addition cure phenolic resin. Thomaier R NuSil Technology LLC (SAMPE) Newly developed ultra low outgassing silicone adhesives with total mass loss and collected volatile condensable material one-tenth the previous speciﬁcations and intended for aerospace applications are characterised by physical. No. The dielectric properties of the composites. Thomas R M.9 CHARACTERIZATION OF “ULTRA” LOW OUTGASSING SILICONE MATERIALS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Riegler B. Early work on self-healing used embedded glass capillaries containing a liquid repair resin that would fracture in the path of a propagating crack. Volume 52. p.
USA Accession no. Paper 26. discontinuous carbon ﬁbre forms. The adhesive ﬁlm. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Covina. All four of the technologies enable lower touch labour cost manufacturing and fabrication of complex geometric composite parts for potential aerospace and other applications. Ca. tensile properties. THEIR APPLICATIONS AND PROPERTIES Van Raemdonck J. Ca. elastic modulus. EU. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.12 DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE ADHESIVE FILM FOR AEROSPACE BONDING APPLICATIONS Sang J J. 3rd-7th June. for use in aerospace nacelle bonding applications. exhibits very high toughness at low temperatures and high shear strength up to 121 degrees C and provides a minimum of 30 days outtime at 23 degrees C. BELGIUM.. Paper 17. 2007.Coast to Coast and Around the World. which is dual curing (121/177 degrees C) and uses new toughening technology.University. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.COAST TO COAST AND AROUND THE WORLD. which is based on the use of long ﬁbres producing yarns which are more bulky. Ca. called Hysol EA9658.References and Abstracts Item 121 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . Volume 52. resistance to biological attack. pp. Volume 52. The impact-cure kinetics. pp. 17 refs. 2007. 3rd-7th June. Kohli D K Cytec Engineered Materials (SAMPE) The development. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 6 refs. thereby alleviating in-plane and interply shearing requirements that constitute the principal process limitations of continuous ﬁbre systems. Md. Metal bonding performance and thermal characteristics of the adhesive ﬁlm are evaluated and the effects of primer thickness. Ca. Defoirdt N... 2007. heat ageing performance and primer properties of this adhesive.. is reported. 2007. Van Acker J. Volume 52. peel properties and flatwise tension performance). designed for bonding of metallic and composite monolithic and sandwich structures for aerospace applications. Miao T Y. environmental ﬂuid resistance. USA Accession no... Covina. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore.12 HIGH STRENGTH AND DURABILITY NACELLE FILM ADHESIVE. adhesive performance (tensile lap shear. pp. Bast Fibers LLC (SAMPE) Flax fibre epoxy prepregs were fabricated by in-line technology and their water absorption behaviour.. called FM 320.. 2007. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. different cure cycles and humidity exposure on adhesive performance evaluated. Marsicano J M Henkel Corp.. © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 47 . EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. Paper 7.COAST TO COAST AND AROUND THE WORLD. 3rd-7th June. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. (SAMPE) The development of a state-of-the-art. McKee H IPA Composites. Hybrid carbon-ﬂax epoxy composite tubing was also manufactured and used in the production of racing bicycles and aircraft wings.COAST TO COAST AND AROUND THE WORLD. It is suitable for demanding applications where continuous exposure (6.000+ hours) to temperatures up to 177 degrees C is required.15 EPOXY PREPREGS BASED ON FLAX FIBERS. bulk thermal performance.COAST TO COAST AND AROUND THE WORLD. Volume 52.1004204 Item 124 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . 2007. high temperature and durable epoxy-based ﬁlm adhesive. The material systems considered are LDF thermoplastic composite technology. Cornwell R E. Covina. Paper 11. Covina. are described. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.7 ALIGNED DISCONTINUOUS CARBON FIBER FOR COMPOSITES FORMING Ng S J. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore. processing and applications of a new structural adhesive ﬁlm. which offer additional deformation mechanisms associated with ﬁbre axis stretching. Volume 52. pp. Covina. Ghent. of higher tenacity and which can be produced in a number of blends. Md. flexural strength and dimensional stability investigated.1004200 Item 125 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . Md. Meilunas R J NAVAIR (SAMPE) An overview is presented of past and recent developments in new material systems based on aligned.1004219 Item 122 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . USA Accession no. Discotex and the Schappe Technique. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY. 3rd-7th June. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE. are described. Ca. 2007. USA. 3rd-7th June. 2007. Md. HYSOL EA9658 McKillen J M. 6 refs.. 2007. stretch broken carbon ﬁbre. Md.1004210 Item 123 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . which is a 177 degrees C cure system possessing unusually high toughness and peel strength and controlled flow.
US. 3rd-7th June. The composites were also subjected to tensile testing after impact. coatings for polymeric and carbon ﬁbres and ceramic compositions upon heat treatment. is presented in terms of their preparation by in-situ intercalative polymerisation. Paper 53.State University. DeLay T HyPerComp Engineering Inc.5-6. Paper 85. blends thereof with poly(siloxane-acetylene) s and hydrosilation reaction involving vinyl-containing carboranylenesiloxane.References and Abstracts 2007. 15 refs.768-772 MANUFACTURING INFLUENCE ON THE DELAMINATION FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF THE T800H/3900-2 CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES Zhang J. and AFM of debonded ﬁbres.741-749 ADVANCES IN POLYMER-FILLER COMPOSITES: MACRO TO NANO Ray S. the composite material also serves as thermal insulation. Covina. Data are included on thermal cure behaviours obtained by DSC. double cantilever beam tests. Fronk T. linerless liquid oxygen tanks for propulsion. 1 ref. Kolel-Veetil M K US. Utah. p. oxidative stability of coated carbon ﬁbres upon heating to 1000 degrees C in air and weight retention of networks obtained from the reaction of vinyl-containing carboranylenesiloxane with various crosslinkers obtained by TGA upon heating to 1000 degrees C in nitrogen and air. fuel cell and life support applications are described. Md. Swenson D. barrier. pp. cured under different processing conditions. 3rd-7th June. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. No. which replaces Teﬂon PFA 335. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. The effects of different fracture mechanisms during delamination on delamination resistance during crack growth are discussed. and their mechanical. Easteal A J Auckland. the characterisation of their intercalated or exfoliated structures by techniques such as SAXS and TEM. USA Accession no. 2007.1003664 Item 129 Materials and Manufacturing Processes 22. Ca. The aim of the study was to develop unique high temperature thermosets. Volume 52. Covina. pp. 48 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .University An overview of polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNs) based on layered silicates with or without modiﬁcation by cationic surfactants. USA 2007.10 A NEW THERMOPLASTIC FLUOROPOLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR NONFLAMMABLE TANKS AND STRUCTURES DeLong D..Marshall Space Flight Center (SAMPE) The results are reported of cryogenic Izod impact testing of neat epoxy resins and toughened resin systems typically employed in aerospace and commercial applications and the effects of low and high energy impacts at cryogenic temperatures (speciﬁcally liquid nitrogen) on composites made from aramid and/or carbon ﬁbres and two of the resins. Volume 52. oxygen compatible. 2007.. Ca. pp. 2007. were investigated by mode I interlaminar fracture toughness tests. p.5-6. Paper 52. Patterson J. 19 refs.11 CRYOGENIC DAMAGE TOLERANCE EFFECT ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS Noorda J. The data obtained will be used to design pressure vessels with improved toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Accession no...Naval Research Laboratory (SAMPE) The results are reported of a study of the processability and thermooxidative properties of high temperature materials prepared from poly(carborane-siloxaneacetylene)s. Greason J XCOR Aerospace (SAMPE) Advances which have been made in the manufacture of a ﬂuoropolymer composite material (Nonburnite) suitable for lightweight. indentationdebonding tests.NASA. When used in a skin-foam-skin composite..University The delamination fracture behaviour of carbon ﬁbrereinforced epoxy resin composite laminates for aerospace applications.Coast to Coast and Around the World.1003978 Item 127 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . AUSTRALIA Accession no. The composite material is resistant to microcracking and has a low coefﬁcient of thermal expansion and inherent resistance to combustion.Coast to Coast and Around the World.1003977 Item 128 Materials and Manufacturing Processes 22. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore.13 HYBRID POLYMERS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Keller T M. 5 refs. is also described. Proceedings of a conference held Baltimore.1004011 Item 126 SAMPE ‘07: M&P . No. 2007. SEM examination of fracture surfaces. solution or melt intercalation. Fabrication and test experience with a newly released Teﬂon PFA TE-224 dispersion formula. Md. USA Accession no. 2007. Fox B L Deakin.
Eren T. and biocidal polymers. DuPont.References and Abstracts ﬂame retardant and other properties. held Orlando. 21 papers. in the development of permanently antibacterial surfaces) are discussed as this is an important part of controlling the spread of infectious disease. that can be short oligomers as well as polymeric macromolecules. The issue of lipid type is highlighted and the important role of negative curvature lipids is illustrated. performance and the potential for automation of the process. and polymer processes and applications.. In addition to providing some perspective on HDPs. provide a unique link between these two areas. to enhance the performance of the thermal protection systems used in the Ares I crew launch vehicle. elastomers and rubbers. Klug M. In the U. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. Scientists will speciﬁcally seek to develop a process to incorporate Kevlar ﬁbre into the cells walls of the foam. Kolb M. Our review attempts to bridge the research areas of natural host defence peptides (HDPs). NEW ZEALAND investigated by XPS. 2007.1002544 Item 131 Shawbury. EUROPEAN UNION. p.S. France (Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd.. Tew G N Massachusetts. Scholler J EADS. electronics. A signiﬁcant number of papers are devoted to the use of composites and nanocomposites. 55 refs. NASA USA Accession no. Northbrook. USA Accession no. materials applications (for instance. 2007.) POLYMERS IN DEFENCE AND AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS.1003661 Item 130 Future Materials Aug. 8 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. a component of the innate immune system. food packaging.2007. These mimics have been designed with antimicrobial activity and. importantly.V. 231 refs. Pressure Sensitive Tape Council. Madkour A E. No. selective mimics. Other presentations relate to novel polymer systems. 16th-18th May 2007. Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd.34.2007. Couple these numbers with the appearance of new antibiotic resistant bacterial strains and the increasing occurrences of community-type outbreaks.1001265 Item 134 TECH 30: Global Conference VI. July-Aug. aerospace. The advantages of atmospheric plasma treatment are discussed in terms of durability of surface activation. construction. p. GERMANY. selectivity that rivals natural HDPs.28-64 INFECTIOUS DISEASE: CONNECTING INNATE IMMUNITY TO BIOCIDAL POLYMERS Gabriel G J. An emerging class of these mimics are the facially amphiphilic polymers that aim to emulate the physicochemical properties of HDPs but take advantage of the synthetic ease of polymers.1-6. This conference covers a broad range of subjects relating to the use of polymers in defence and aerospace applications..73 Proceedings of an international conference held 18th19th September 2007. presented by some of the world’s leading authorities and organisations. electrical. Recently discovered peptidomimetics and other synthetic mimics of HDPs. and biocidal cationic polymers.1001679 Item 133 Materials Science & Engineering R 56.1002354 Item 132 JEC Composites No. 2006. Current and potential future applications of PCNs in automobiles. Som A. Fl. Finally.99-106 COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF SILYLATED POLYURETHANE.000 deaths and 5 billion dollars of added healthcare costs. coatings and pigments are discussed. SILICONE AND NONSILICONE PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 49 . alone there are 2 million new cases of hospital-acquired infections annually leading to 90. EADS Military Air Systems The use of corona and atmospheric plasma treatment as alternatives to the surface treatment of carbon ﬁbrereinforced polymer surfaces by manual grinding and grit blasting to remove traces of peel ply release agent prior to adhesive bonding in aerospace applications were Accession no. p. and clearly this is an important problem. WORLD Accession no. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier B. peel tests and visual examination of fracture surfaces. which is intended for applications including the new launch vehicle being designed to replace the space shuttle. Il. focus is given to the arsenal of biophysical techniques available to study their mode of action and interactions with phospholipid membranes.University Infectious disease is a critically important global healthcare issue. Proceedings of the Pressure Sensitive Tape Council.62-63 ALTERNATIVE CFRP SURFACE TREATMENTS: FOR ADHESIVE BONDING REPLACE MANUAL GRINDING Wachinger G.3 KEVLAR BLASTS OFF WITH NASA DuPont has signed a Space Act Agreement with NASA for development of urethane foam insulation reinforced with Kevlar ﬁbre. Toulouse. pp.
pharmaceutical. USA Accession no. FIT can produce up to 10 million pounds/year of 6-denier per ﬁlament yarns and staple ﬁbres from GE’s Ultem 9011 resin using a state-of-the-art meltspinning conversion line especially designed to handle high-temperature resins. Quickstep Technologies Pty. Ponomareva N V. April-June 2007. Balanced pressure. thermal and physical properties of the sealants and their resistance to oils. shear modulus and swelling measurements. 52 refs. p. fuels and other solvents are discussed with regard to their uses in surface and interjoint sealing and in comparison with those for ﬂuorocarbon rubbers. Proceedings of the 65th SPE Annual conference held Cincinnati. June 2007.166-170 STABILITY OF SHEAR MODULUS OF GLASSREINFORCED PLASTICS BASED ON ADHESIVE PREPREG IN A HUMID MEDIUM Startsev O V. removes air and compacts and heats the laminate to cure the part. The mould and laminate are separated from the circulating HTF by a ﬂexible membrane or bladder. 6th-11th May 2007. has commercialised a new ﬁbre technology based on GE’s high-performance. 2007. The mechanical. No. No. marine and construction industries. Using balanced pressure and liquid heating and cooling. with applications in the aerospace. The ﬂuidbased technology is shown to permit the curing. 2 refs. diffusion coefﬁcient. Dement’eva L A Altai. automotive. ﬂame-retardant Ultem polyetherimide resin. Anikhovskaya L I.1606-1611 NEW TRANSPARENT COPOLYCARBONATE Accession no. AUSTRALIA. Krotov A S. Ct.2. Batizat D V. All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials Strength properties and moisture absorption of glass ﬁbreand carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin based on solventfree adhesive prepregs were investigated in a humid atmosphere by ultimate moisture saturation.1000974 Item 135 Polymer Science Series C 49.National Composite Center Quickstep Technologies’ Quickstep composite moulding technology. The effects of a cyclic action of moisture and temperature on shear modulus along the sheet plane were studied and the results are discussed in terms of the sealing of honeycomb structures in aerospace applications. Brookﬁeld.2. p. p.1000603 50 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .. RUSSIA Accession no. allowing the manufacturer to restart the curing cycle of uncured sections to join and bond them to other structures.182-187 FLUOROSILOXANE SEALANTS FOR AVIATION INDUSTRY Donskoi A A.. 3 refs.State University. Baritko N V All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials The properties of commercially available sealants based on fluorosiloxane oligomers containing the gammatriﬂuoropropyl group and their applications in the aviation industry are reviewed. the process works by rapidly applying heat to a laminate trapped between a free ﬂoating rigid (or semi-rigid) mould that ﬂoats in a heat transfer ﬂuid(HTF). Fibres based on Ultem resins are easily dyed using a broad range of colours and offer ﬂame retardance without the use of halogens. p. flame. including medical. partial curing and joining of composite materials. automotive and aerospace applications. USA Item 137 Future Materials July 2007. in partnership with Fiber Innovation Technology. Oh. April-June 2007. RUSSIA Accession no.Ltd. NTF Tekhpolikom. No. USA Accession no.1000206 Item 139 ANTEC 2007.References and Abstracts Griswold R M Momentive Performance Materials (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The adhesive properties and chemical resistance of new pressure-sensitive adhesives based on silylated PUs are discussed and compared with those of conventional high-performance acrylic and silicone adhesives. GE Plastics. Currently. The new fibre is an excellent candidate material for textiles and nonwovens used in aircraft interiors and other applications requiring compliance with strict.20 FR FIBRE FOR COLOURFUL INTERIORS GE Plastics. combined with vibration within the HTF and vacuum on the laminate. smoke and toxicity regulations. The temperature and pressure of the HTF behind the mould and ﬂexible membrane stay the same. The new adhesives offer excellent adhesive properties for applications requiring long-term exposure to chemicals and their properties can be altered for repositionability and permeability for a range of applications. SPE.60/62 NEW MOLDING PROCESS SHOWS PROMISE FOR RANGE OF APPLICATIONS Couch H US.1000607 Item 136 Polymer Science Series C 49.1000535 Item 138 Composites Manufacturing (USA) 23. The composite cure reaction can be stopped at any point.6. p. is described. Fiber Innovation Technology Inc.
University (SPE) Joining and adhesive properties of polymeric composites are of critical importance for emerging applications in the aeronautical. Weimer C. Brookﬁeld. Oh. Ct. USA Accession no. traditional split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPBs) for high strain rates. mirrors and lighting lenses. This study was aimed at generating a solid foundation regarding the overall performance level of stitched NCF composites and at identifying critical property changes.7.4184-4195 COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE Jordan J L. Zhang J GE Plastics. 2007. whereas the tensile and compression strength. Sandler J K W.1655-1663 MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES BASED ON STITCHED PREFORMS Beier U. GE Global Research (SPE) New polyester carbonate copolymers afford the ﬁrst resins with low colour. p.References and Abstracts COMPOSITIONS WITH LOW OSU HEAT RELEASE VALUES Di J. EUROPEAN UNION. Buchs W Bayreuth. Brown E N US. Jones P J. Altstadt V. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the fabricated articles can be hard coated to provide improved levels of scratch resistance. The comprehensive evaluation of the mechanical composite properties includes static as well as dynamic tests of the in-plane properties as well as a characterisation of the interlaminar properties such as apparent interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and compression after impact (CAI). 53 refs. Promising approaches include the use of different yarn materials based on soluble thermoplastics and/or modiﬁed stitching parameters. No. These compositions can be varied to maximise the various mechanical properties depending on the needs of the application. where they experience complex.University. 9 refs. aerospace and marine industries. The excellent clarity combined with OSU 65/65 compliance allow for applications such as interior transportation windows/ dust covers. The samples were tested using an Instron mechanical testing machine for static loading. Mullen B. the material was tested using dynamic mechanical analysis to determine the effects of time-temperature superposition on the strain rate behaviour of the samples. 2007. Sinha M. Accession no... the mechanical © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 51 .14. Jackson K. It is demonstrated that mechanical properties such as the tensile and compression stiffness and CAI strength are not degraded by the chosen stitching parameters. Siviour C R. high transmission and low haze combined with low OSU Heat Release values. Additionally. The results of the experiments are analyzed using the Zerilli-Armstrong model for polymers. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. Fischer F. p. Davis G. USA. A direct comparison to properties of a commonly used 5H satin woven fabric composite veriﬁes that the overall performance of these particular stitched NCF composites must be enhanced with regard to the identiﬁed key criteria to meet the level required for aircraft applications and in order to maintain the performance advantage of NCF composites as compared to standard woven fabrics in general. Tucker S J. El KAssmi A. Sybert P D.1547-1550 NANOMECHANICAL AND NANOTACK PROPERTIES OF POLYMER COMPOSITES Morgan S E. In addition. Foley J R. Nanomechanical and nanotack evaluations utilising advanced nanoprobe techniques of polymer/ﬁbre composites reveal differences in performance at the molecular level. UK. Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH A comparative assessment of the influence of pure assembly seams based on a thin (11 tex) polyester yarn in a zigzag geometry on the resulting mechanical performance of a non-crimped fabric (NCF) carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy composite manufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding is presented. non-static loads. ILSS as well as the tensile fatigue behaviour are reduced as a result of pronounced localised ﬁbre ondulations. partitions.999120 Item 142 Composites Part A 38. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Oxford. SPE. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.999497 Item 141 Polymer 48. The excellent colourability also allows for the fabrication of interior opaque components for the transportation industry. Schultz L. Traditional macroscopic adhesion testing techniques evaluate macroscopic properties of materials.University. Correspondingly. 22 refs. No. 8 refs. which shows good agreement with other PTFE studies. Proceedings of the 65th SPE Annual conference held Cincinnati. 6th-11th May 2007. 2007. Wiggins J S Southern Mississippi. and a miniaturized SHPB for ultra-high strain rates.Air Force Research Laboratory. USA properties at high strain rates are of increasing importance in these applications.999508 Item 140 ANTEC 2007. p. This paper presents an investigation of the properties of Dupont 9B polytetraﬂuoroethylene (PTFE) across strain rates from 10-3 to 105 s-1. with limited information on the molecular level processes that control actual performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory Polymers are becoming increasingly used in aerospace structural applications.
GERMANY. Pa.University (American Society for Composites. Crack densities are taken from experimental measurements and two different models are used to compute interlaminar cross-sectional area.998200 Item 146 Macromolecular Research 15. DEStech Publications. Paper 69 PREDICTION OF GAS PERMEABILITY IN CROSS-PLY LAMINATES USING FINITE ELEMENTS Jianlong Xu. Mi. In transportation. pp. with a uniform diameter of about 50 nm. Ifju P G Florida. MichiganDearborn. act as sealants and also reduce noise and vibration.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and urethanes offer good resilience and ﬂexibility for a range of materials. USA Accession no. No. epoxy dominates. The effects of the duration of the test.University) The permeation model based on Darcy’s law is used to predict gas permeability in cross-ply laminates for such applications as cryogenic propellant tanks under biaxial loading. The thermal expansion coefﬁcient of the composite ﬁlms was slightly 52 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . and to provide good dispersion of the CNTs in the polymer matrix. Finite element modelling demonstrated that the new geometry would allow for accurate permeability measurements. Proceedings of a conference held Dearborn. Lancaster. Kim J H Sung Kyun Kwan University Polyimide/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite films. 2006. evaporation and thermal imidisation.. WORLD and specimen. 17th-20th Sept. An uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a new geometry of specimen developed to achieve a seamless integration between test equipment Accession no.357-362 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYIMIDE/CARBON-NANOTUBE COMPOSITES Kim B S. Twenty-ﬁrst Technical Conference. namely determination of crack density and interlaminar crosssectional area. The modiﬁed CNTs were well dispersed in the polyimide matrix. June 2007. PU and acrylic. Mi. Three basic thermosetting resin chemistries dominate the structural adhesives market: epoxy. followed by casting. Twenty-ﬁrst Technical Conference. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. June 2007. 17th-20th Sept. Proceedings of a conference held Dearborn.4.3. marine and industrial applications.University (American Society for Composites. Park Y H.998952 Item 144 Proceedings of the American Society for Composites. Lancaster. The thermal stability of the ﬁlms containing the CNTs was improved as a result of enhanced interfacial interactions between the polymer and CNTs and good dispersion of the modiﬁed CNTs. Bae S H. 14 refs. The CNTs were modiﬁed by treatment with nitric acid to improve their thermal and electrical properties. type of gas used and magnitude of upstream pressure on gas permeability were evaluated and the relationship between gas permeability and cryo-cycling examined. were prepared by mixing a solution of a polyisoimide solution with a suspension of CNTs in NMP. DEStech Publications.999076 Item 143 Composites Technology 13. EUROPEAN UNION. while in the aerospace sector. epoxies give the highest strength and highest temperature resistance and are a good choice for prepared metals and composites in high-stress environments. The variation of permeability as a function of average stress for three different lay-ups is computed using a specially written MATLAB program and the results discussed.. 4 refs. A structural adhesive must have strength enough to transfer or share loads between highly stressed components.. Acrylics excel at bonding unprepared metals and composites. Paper 73 GAS PERMEABILITY OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE SYSTEMS Van Pelt J. ASTM USA Accession no. Loads induced by launch and landing of vehicles were simulated by subjecting the composites to a given load and tank refuelling simulated by cryo-cycling of the laminates. potential useful in high-performance microelectronics and aerospace applications.2006.32-37 THERMOSETTING STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES Black S When compared to mechanical fasteners and welding. MichiganDearborn. all three types are in common use. p. The problem is decoupled into two parts.2006. Sankar B V Florida. Sankar B V. No.University) The effect of micro-cracking on the gas permeability of composite laminates for cryogenic storage tanks for aerospace applications was investigated using a procedure developed according to ASTM D1434-82 standards. structural adhesives distribute stresses over wider areas. 2006. Pa..998204 Item 145 Proceedings of the American Society for Composites. Case studies are presented that best illustrate the unique beneﬁts of select products. due mainly to very high strength and temperature resistance and compatibility with the sector’s predominately epoxy-based laminates.
automotive. 2006. The tribological properties of several Xytrex materials were studied. CETEX PPS is a semicrystalline polyphenylene sulphide resin offering outstanding toughness and excellent chemical and solvent resistance. USA Accession no. With the same ﬁllers. Lenferink R Ten Cate Advanced Composites (SAMPE) The use and processing of CETEX thermoplastic materials in structural and interior aerospace applications are discussed. autoclave. but the motivations for the related p-aramid works suggest broader interest.. 38. 2006. USA. Kok W. and were analyzed according to Weibull statistics using commercially-available software. The data were obtained using a hydraulic-type universal testing machine.997376 Item 149 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. Tx. Vol. electronic components. p. 30 refs.NASA. 6th-9th November 2006. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Both materials are inherently ﬂame resistant with low smoke emission and Accession no. USA easily meet 35/35 OSU. including hybrid laminates. Covina. Airbus. and has an Arrhenius-type representation that arises from consideration of the failure phenomenon mechanism. SOUTH KOREA Accession no. Henau J F. EUROPEAN UNION. 8 refs. such as PTFE and graphite.. Brookﬁeld... pp. Heider D. Ca. and other industries are considered. The model follows an approach proposed for p-aramid cord in similar applications.16 MEMBRANE BASED VARTM PROCESSING: MODELLING AND CHARACTERIZATION Amouroux S C. two resin systems are primarily used.997522 Item 148 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. Ca. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 2006. the wear factor and coefﬁcient of friction of the composites improved.. Proceedings of the 65th SPE Annual conference held Cincinnati. creep/stretch forming and vacuum forming. Oh. Vol.997846 Item 147 ANTEC 2007. polyphenylene sulphide and polyimide. Potential applications in aerospace. 6th-9th November 2006. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas.Long Duration Balloon and other gossamer spacecraft. Some of the polymers are compounded with property-enhancing reinforcing fillers and lubricants. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. Thermoplastics have the unique capability of allowing parts to be welded or fused and folded..10 TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF XYTREX POLYMERS OF 3P CORPORATION Jiaxiang Ren Performance Plastics Products (SAMPE) Xytrex polymers from Performance Plastics Products (3P) represent a family of high performance thermoplastics and their composites. Lightning strike material can be incorporated and the laminates can be pigmented and/or textured. The results showed that by adding lubricants. 38. Ca.1849-1853 A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR CREEP LIFETIME OF PBO BRAIDED CORD Sterling W J US. 6th-11th May 2007. Paper 83. pp. using thermoplastics such as PEEK. Ct. Tx. which facilitates lower part count structures. orientation and reinforcement. for example. Paper 73. the customer can signiﬁcantly reduce the cycle time required to produce a ﬁnished part by. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. NETHERLANDS. For aircraft applications.References and Abstracts decreased. pump. 15 refs. heated press. whereas the dielectric constants increased linearly with increasing CNT content.997375 Item 150 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. Tx. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. It is qualiﬁed at Airbus and Boeing for both structural and interior applications. The application of concern to the author is NASA’s Ultra.Wallops Flight Facility (SPE) A constitutive model to describe the creep lifetime of PBO braided cord has been developed and ﬁt to laboratory data. 2007. Covina. SPE.11 APPLICATIONS & PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR CETEX THERMOPLASTICS IN AEROSPACE Bernard D. 38. CETEX products are typically supplied in 12ft by 4ft pre-consolidated laminates and sandwich panels using the customer’s designated ply count. Gillespie J W © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 53 . NASA. Vol.. Boeing EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It is qualiﬁed at Airbus and Boeing for multiple structural applications. Covina.Goddard Space Flight Center. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. CETEX PEI is an amorphous polyetherimide resin offering outstanding toughness and high heat resistance.. 6th-9th November 2006. pp. the wear resistance performance of various polymer-based composites differed. valve and compressor components. By utilising pre-consolidated sheets and avoiding hand lamination. Paper 82.
Barlow J P Adherent Technologies Inc. is described. It is demonstrated that very high performance structures can be obtained which can be applied to surfaces in a similar manner to that in 54 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .. to allow improved wetting and provide a means for chemical bonding at the interface with polymers such as epoxy resin. Ca. Vol. 6th-9th November 2006. i. however. Gosau J M.14 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE NANO-REINFORCEMENTS Allred R E. Mechanical properties of the composite. chemical processing. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Lynch A. Phely-Bobin T. 6th-9th November 2006. 38. (SAMPE) The development by Foster-Miller and ARC Technologies of a series of highly conductive polymer-based materials for use in lightweight EMI shielding applications. However. A ﬁrst generation model based on capillary effects and convective ﬂow was developed.. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. 16 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. such as ﬂakes. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Accession no. such as a two-part polysulphide. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. These unique nanoreinforcements are expected to ﬁnd many applications in structural composites for military and commercial aircraft. Covina. oxidative plasma treatments to populate the graphite surface with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Ca. 7 refs.997358 Item 152 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. (SAMPE) Methods are discussed for modifying the surface chemistry and energy of nano-reinforcements of graphite and carbon. Covina. Previous experiments showed empirically that the choice of resin drove the choice of membrane. 2006. Marchand J.. ARC Technologies Inc. The nanoﬁllers used are vapour grown carbon nanoﬁbres and carbon nanotubes. 38. The comparison between predictions and experimental results. Paper 65. the membrane provided a unique multifunctional solution to reduce thickness gradients and volatileinduced porosity and eliminate dry-spots.References and Abstracts Delaware. however. 20 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. Improvements in the experimental method and the model are identiﬁed.. Vol.. 38. Covina.. 2006. aerospace. In this study.. A critical assessment of the experimental set-up and the sensitivity of the model predictions to several input parameters is presented. Carey C. worms and tubes. an electronically conductive PTFE composite with a lower nanoﬁller concentration can be manufactured using the production facility at 3P.997345 Item 153 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. from aerospace to portable electronics.6 DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONICALLY CONDUCTIVE PTFE COMPOSITE BY ADDING CARBON NANOFILLERS Jiaxiang Ren Performance Plastics Products (SAMPE) An electronically conductive PTFE composite has been developed at Performance Plastics Products(3P) by adding nanoﬁllers. and bonding of epoxy oligomers to the nano-reinforcements using reactive coupling agents. The mechanical strength of the composite is shown to be comparable with that of the unﬁlled PTFE. Paper 51. the fundamental mechanisms of the membrane and interactions with the resin needed further study. By ensuring a uniform compaction pressure and a continuous venting over the entire part surface. Vol.997366 Item 151 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. Both of these approaches are shown to be successful with exfoliated graphite nano-ﬂakes. pp. particularly as buckypaper. Two approaches for surface modiﬁcation are presented. USA USA Accession no. Paper 52. and medical structures.University (SAMPE) The use of a nanoporous PTFE membrane as a means of improving the quality and repeatability of the vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding process for affordable high-performance composites for aerospace applications was investigated. 2006. Tx. showed discrepancies. Hess D. pp. Traditionally. pp. Ca. Tx. suffer signiﬁcantly and the viscosity of the mixture is too high to be produced by some PTFE production processes. a high concentration of carbon black or carbon ﬁbre is blended with PTFE to make a realistic electronically conductive PTFE composite. and automotive and aerospace applications are discussed. is shown to offer the advantages of good shielding effectiveness in a lightweight durable polymer. NanoTech Labs Inc. The use of carbon nanotubes in different geometries.5 EMI SHIELDING POLYMERS BASED ON CARBON NANOTUBE HYBRIDS Tiano T.. Tx. USA Accession no. Czerw R Foster-Miller Inc. fuel cells.e. Potential applications of the electrically conductive PTFE composite in batteries. 6th-9th November 2006. it is demonstrated that. by breaking bundles of the nanoﬁllers and dispersing them homogeneously in the PTFE matrix.
2 refs. (SAMPE) The development of suitable materials for lightweight. These applications cover a range of aerospace components such as inﬂatables. 38. Tx. as do other governing factors such as temperature and gas type. including analysis of the gas penetration mechanism through the elastomer. 8 refs. Ryan K. Tomlinson M. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. The primer provides good corrosion protection. 14 refs.. Tx. durability and mechanical performance in combination with 121 deg C and 177 deg C curing adhesives. 2006. A technical review is presented of the gas permeability characteristics of silicone rubber. 4 refs. Cronin J. linerless composite tanks for aerospace applications is discussed. pp. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. Munshi N Composite Technology Development Inc. Cloud A Arlon Silicone Technologies (SAMPE) Some applications which require silicone performance in extreme environments also require low gas permeability. The material development and characterisation of polymer nanocomposites to meet these requirements are considered.11 DEVELOPMENT OF A NEXT-GENERATION NON-CHROMATED ZERO VOC WATER BASED PRIMER FOR ADHESIVE BONDING APPLICATIONS Shah K. Paper 47. 6th-9th November 2006. Ca. 38. Kohli D Cytec Engineered Materials (SAMPE) The development by Cytec Engineered Materials of a water-based non-chromate primer. but its gas permeability is very high.997305 Item 156 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering.. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Brighton Technologies Group Inc. ducting and diaphragms. (SAMPE) The recent development of AFR-PE-4 polyimide composites for large jet engine structures has increased © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 55 . SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. The approach produces large gains in gas permeability reduction without sacriﬁcing excellent low temperature elastomeric ﬂexibility. The chemical structure Accession no.997344 Item 154 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. In particular. Paper 10. The development by Arlon of a proprietary technology to reduce the gas permeability of PVMQ is described. Dow Corning USA Accession no. Covina. Tx. Covina. 6th-9th November 2006. Mallick K. USA of silicone rubber affects permeability. USA Accession no. Covina. Dillingham G Maverick Corp. 2006. phenyl vinyl methyl silicone(PVMQ) has the lowest Tg (-120 deg C) of all elastomers. 38. Paper 11.. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.. Covina. 6th-9th November 2006.. for adhesive bonding applications is discussed. Substantial mechanical and thermal property improvements were demonstrated with Composite Technology Development(CTD)-developed polymer nanocomposites prepared from highly anisotropic nano-reinforcements (vapour grown carbon nanoﬁbres) at loading levels below 3 vol % in CTD’s high-performance. Vol. Ca. US. pp.9 POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES FOR LINERLESS COMPOSITE TANKS Arzberger S C. based on an aminecured epoxy resin. 38. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Ca. pp. These novel materials were shown to offer microcrack resistance over a broad temperature range. Ca. The reconﬁguration of this structure for the preparation of microwave-absorbing materials is also discussed. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. 6th-9th November 2006. 2006. microcrack-resistant epoxy matrix resins. Tx.13 HIGH-TEMPERATURE ADHESIVE DEVELOPMENT Gray R A. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas.10 PERMEABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SILICONE RUBBER Haibing Zhang. The performance of the new BR 6700 primer is comparable with the industry standard primers. Vol. 2006.. The primer. Paper 2.997304 Item 157 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. BR 127 and waterborne BR 6747-1.. Vol. Analytical models are used to identify the best morphology of the nano-reinforcement and to optimise the reinforcement volume fraction to achieve the desired performance.997340 Item 155 SAMPE Fall Technical Conference: Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering. pp... Magato J R. is formulated to meet both the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations and the corrosion and bonding requirements of metallic substrates in the aerospace industry. Vol. Vannucci R. designated BR 6700.Environmental Protection Agency USA Accession no.References and Abstracts which adhesive tape is put down.
eddy-current testing. Techniques..wt. Oct. Reports of dimensional instability in PCTFE semi-ﬁnished articles and ﬁnished parts have raised concerns that leaks or part failure could occur during service. pp. Twenty-ﬁrst Technical Conference. and crystallinity was determined. Washington. DEStech Publications. To gain better control of dimensional stability.Johnson Space Center. annealing method and machining on dimensional stability. No. These concerns culminated in the release of an internal NASA Kennedy Space Center Problem Advisory and a Government-Industry Data Exchange Program Problem Advisory on PCTFE.NASA. Newman J US. Maverick Corp.NASA. A voluntary consensus material speciﬁcation was then implemented to control properties in ﬁnished PCTFE parts used in aerospace applications.2006.2006) US. ﬂash thermography Accession no. Wendell Hull & Associates Inc. USA FINISHED PCTFE PARTS Waller J M. 2 refs. I. Greene N. pp. which have been employed or are under evaluation include ultrasonic testing.2006.Kennedy Space Center.15 PROACTIVE MITIGATION OF PCTFE-RELATED IGNITION HAZARDS IN OXYGEN SYSTEMS. More specifically. ﬂow resonance or kindling chain ignition mechanisms are operative.997296 Item 158 Journal of ASTM International 3. Newton B E. molec. and joint durability. US.NASA. (ASTM Symposium on Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. 17th-20th Sept. adhesion. process route. neoprene. Julien H L. The non-metallic materials considered are nylon-66. Mi. Results of tests conducted to determine the statistical nature of the test procedure. Beeson H D US. are discussed. silicone polymer. Release of the advisories coincided with a task group study examining the factors contributing to property variation in PCTFE.997226 Item 160 Proceedings of the American Society for Composites. in addition to dual-use applications in automotive and the chemical industry.Marshall Space Flight Center. Paper 10 NONDESTRUCTIVE METHODS SUPPORTING NASA COMPOSITE OVERWRAPPED PRESSURE VESSEL ASSESSMENTS Saulsberry R. US. Cornell University. 25 refs.2006.15 MECHANICAL IMPACT TESTING: DATA REVIEW AND ANALYSIS Engel C D. Proceedings of a conference held Dearborn. (ASTM Symposium on Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. The overall goal of the study was to formulate addition-cured polyimide resins and to study the effect of chemical structure on high temperature properties. DC. The impact mechanism is a proven ignition mechanism. This study focuses on the development of a high-temperature adhesive that will allow the market to take full advantage of AFRPE-4 composite systems in aggressive aircraft engine environments.References and Abstracts the need for a high-temperature adhesive system to bond these components to other structures. for example. No.NASA. Yolken T. Herald S D. Teﬂon PTFE and Viton. Sept. 14 refs. Oct.Johnson Space Center. Pa.Langley Research Center. a Biot-Fourier method was developed that allowed calculation of the time needed for PCTFE parts of known geometry to reach thermal equilibrium during annealing.9. It is shown that the current practice of reporting reaction frequency data at dropped energy rather than energy the sample receives does not offer a means of comparing data between facilities. USA. Marshall Space Flight Center A review and evaluation of mechanical impact test data collected by NASA since the 1970s for six non-metallic materials in high-pressure liquid oxygen(LOX) and gaseous oxygen and in ambient LOX environments are presented. (American Society for Composites. Daikin USA Accession no. which must be considered and understood in the design of an oxygen system for aerospace applications. This technology will have a high impact on both space and military launch vehicles. MichiganDearborn. the effect of resin grade. to help establish sample size guidelines for material characterisation. Washington. Grant J..2006) USA Accession no.University) A comprehensive report is presented on the application of non-destructive testing techniques to the pre-test screening of Kevlar and other carbon composite over-wrapped pressure vessels for aerospace applications. Madaras E. Lexan FR 700-701. 2006.997232 Item 159 Journal of ASTM International 3. US. DEVELOPMENT OF A VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARD SPECIFICATION TO CONTROL PROPERTY VARIATION IN 56 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Revilock D.. Thorton S. DC. USA.NASA. Laser Technology Inc. Davis S E Qualis Corp. Texas Research Institute. Cramer E.Glenn Research Center. leading to catastrophic component or system failure. especially in high-pressure gaseous oxygen systems where ﬂow friction. Oct. Lancaster. Beeson H. Thesken J C. Phoenix S L.8. evaluated two candidate polyimide resin chemistries with the goal of developing the ‘next-generation’ high-temperature adhesive technology for AFR-PE-4 composite components.NASA.
lay-up and off-axis longitudinal plies on overall laminate response were evaluated and the advantages of the non-traditional laminates over the traditional laminates for structural applications..2592-2605 MODELING OF PERMEATION AND DAMAGE IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES FOR CRYOGENIC TANKS IN THE PRESENCE OF DELAMINATIONS AND STITCH CRACKS Nair A. 7 refs. mathematical models have been proposed to determine the delaminated crack opening displacement (DCOD) for each ply of a damaged laminate and the permeability associated with it. In addition.Minerals & Mining) This paper discusses the requirements of sealants used in airframe structures. p. Paper 4 DETERMINATION OF DAMAGE PROGRESSION IN NOTCHED NON-TRADITIONAL LAMINATES UNDER TENSILE LOAD Treasurer P. which utilise these composites. 23rd. USA Accession no. A modern civil jet plane is assembled using several hundred kilograms of sealant. Proceedings of a conference held Dearborn. 2007. shows good agreement with two dimensional ﬁnite element analysis.. Razi H Woodruff G.University Composites are extensively used for various aerospace applications and one of its important potential uses is as cryogenic fuel tank material for crew launch vehicles. No. Sher S YLA Inc. Johnson W S. Atlanta. IOM Communications Ltd. The DCOD values predicted for IM7/5250-4 laminate of lay-up [0/45/45/90]”S were used to predict permeability using Darcy’s law for ﬂuid ﬂow through porous media. Twenty-ﬁrst Technical Conference. for aerospace applications are outlined and some examples of aerospace parts. such as aerospace applications. The through-thickness DCOD distribution for a damaged composite under the action of thermal and/or mechanical load is predicted using a five-layer model which is developed based on ﬁrst order shear deformation theory. much of which performs critical functions for the aircraft. MichiganDearborn. London. Nov. Pa. SF-5 (polycyanate syntactic ﬁlm) and RS-4A (polycyanate ﬁlm adhesive).2006. Houghton P.School of Mechanical Engineering.996951 Item 161 Proceedings of the American Society for Composites..References and Abstracts and shearography.19-20 ADVANCED COMPOSITES FOR TERRESTRIAL APPLICATIONS PROVE USEFUL IN SPACE INDUSTRY Johnson S. Hoffman D J. However under structural mechanical loads and/or thermal loads.Institute of Materials. considered. In such applications.996130 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 57 . USA Item 163 Composites Science and Technology 67. In this study. Roy S Alabama. DEStech Publications. Composites offer high speciﬁc strength and stiffness. p. Open hole tension and ﬁlled hole tension tests were carried out on quasi-isotropic (25/50/25) and hard (60/30/10) lay-ups with longitudinal ﬁbre orientations and in-situ die-penetrant enhanced X-ray radiography was utilised to determine damage mode and progression. 17th-20th Sept. a stitch crack model has been proposed to address experimental observations.97-101 FUTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELASTOMERS IN AEROSPACE ENGINEERING Taylor M Airbus (UK. are given. The DCOD predicted by this mathematical model. May 2007.2006. transverse micro-cracks develop in the polymer matrix. 27 refs. USA Accession no.996945 Item 162 Adhesives and Sealants Industry 14. 2006.. Proceedings of a conference held London. These cracks along with interlaminar delaminations produced at the crack tips. The beneﬁts of advanced composite materials based on precision adhesives combined with compatible prepreg resins. A parametric study for permeability conducted with varying stitch crack lengths shows that the permeability of the composite is sensitive to this form of damage in individual plies. USA Accession no.University) Non-traditional carbon ﬁbre/toughened epoxy prepreg laminates with slightly off-axis longitudinal plies were evaluated for damage suppression and compared with laminates with traditional 0 degree longitudinal plies.11-12. and therefore are preferred over many other materials. with and without stitch cracks. The effects of notch constraint. Boeing Commercial Airplanes (American Society for Composites.995898 Item 164 Elastomers for Engineering: Future Trends. 6 refs. Mi.5. p. Lancaster. lead to permeation of cryogenic fuel permeation through the laminates. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. 2006.School of Material Science and Engineering. The analysis results were benchmarked using test data from Air Force Research Laboratory.W. sealants routinely operate under fatigue and Accession no. such as YLA’s RS-3 (modiﬁed polycyanate resin). No.
design and analysis. new advances in resin infusion processing. which means that composite tooling can become viable. with the external surfaces of the component well insulated. where all of the processing on that component is done in one location and parts no longer need to be moved around the factory. which avoids the need to add multiple disposable thermocouples to the edges of the pre-cured laminate stack to monitor temperature during cure. USA Accession no. (SAMPE) Papers are divided into the following main sessions: adhesives.References and Abstracts static loads in hostile environments and in temperatures ranging from -55 deg.4’-oxydianiline. 3. 1st May 2007. and the structure-property relationships are discussed in terms of potential aerospace applications. No. thereby saving time and money. Wang W.995417 Item 165 JEC Composites No. 2006. Proceedings of a conference held Dallas. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS FOR 58 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . in clothing manufacture. The products were characterised by FTIR. joining and bonding. innovative material forms. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. the need to reduce density and weight reduction. coatings and sealants. The company has already manufactured parts up to 2. The development of shape memory polymers (SMPs). SAMPE FALL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE: GLOBAL ADVANCES IN MATERIALS AND PROCESS ENGINEERING. USA Accession no. directly from the tool itself.3-diaminophenoxybenzene as diamines is described. nanocomposites. composites repair. One advantage is that the tooling used to cure the component doesn’t need to be so substantial.Langley Research Center The synthesis of polyimide films with zirconiumcontaining pendant groups derived from pyromellitic dianhydride and 4. Ca. safety and environmental issues. nanomaterials for space applications. are discussed. proton NMR. p. Tong T Cornerstone Research Group Inc. whereas carbon-epoxy composites for aerospace applications are usually cured under a pressure close to seven bars. Siochi E J. Accession no. aircraft materials recycling. natural ﬁbres. The mechanism of the shape memory effect is described and potential applications of SMPs.C to 250 deg.3-12 A REVIEW Û FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS (SMPS) Dietsch B..Institute of Technology. In addition. Dai H. Yang K. US. Energy consumption is reduced. 6th-9th November 2006. No. Chow D. is reviewed. light or chemical exposure. II.994765 Item 168 Covina. GPC. UK. The sealants may be in contact with fuel. high temperature materials.5 m long and weighing 80 kg. April 2007. deployable space applications. EUROPEAN UNION. morphing aircraft and in medical treatment. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Leiston-Belanger J M. water or aerospace chemical ﬂuids. It is claimed that the advantages outlined make out-of-autoclave processing a target technology for a factory of the future. a type of æsmart’ or intelligent materials that function by changing their modulus in response to an external stimulus such as heat.994785 Item 167 Journal of Advanced Materials 39. ﬂexibility. WESTERN EUROPE ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING PENDENT POLYMERS Illingsworth M L. such as actuators.56-57 LARGE-SCALE COMPOSITE COMPONENTS MADE OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE Cornforth J GKN Aerospace Advantages of out-of-autoclave (OOA) processing are discussed with reference to the production of large scale composite components. testing and inspection technologies. solvent resistance and cracking resistance of multilayer ﬁlms. textile and preform. and the need to be able to adhere to a variety of substrates.4’-oxydianiline and 1.9. p. the heat is applied locally. The suitability of polysulphide sealants to meet these requirements is examined. which may exceed 20 years.995380 Item 166 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition 45. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Tx.. ﬁbre reinforcement. EUROPEAN UNION.32. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 80 refs. GKN Aerospace has developed a ﬁbre-optic thermometer based on the Bragg Grating principle of operation. May 2007.4’-oxydiphthalic anhydride as dianhydrides and 4. 38.1641-1652 PENDENT POLYIMIDES USING MELLITIC ACID DIANHYDRIDE. 85 papers VOL. TGA. ﬁre safe materials.C. DSC. Jankauskas J Rochester. OOA can support a cellular-based lean operation. and must be durable for the lifetime of the airframe. OAA processing of composites uses a different resin formulation that permits the component to be successfully cured under vacuum pressure only. since with OOA.NASA. p. UK.2. Key considerations when selecting an aerospace sealant are health. 44 refs.
which seeks to resolve the difﬁculty of producing PP-based ﬂame retardants ﬁlled with magnesium hydroxide particles.University of Science & Technology.Institute of Aeronautical Materials Details are given of the synthesis and characterisation of a novel polytriazole resin. May 2007. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Hu Y. Du L. EUROPE-GENERAL. Beijing. p. No. Cantwell W J Liverpool. p. Polymer Laboratories EU. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.4 ounces per square yard.University The impact properties of laminates of a metal alloy and either carbon ﬁbre-reinforced PEEK or glass ﬁbrereinforced polyetherimide composites were investigated under high and low velocity impact loading conditions with the aim of developing a lightweight hybrid material for high-temperature aerospace applications. Shen X. UK. Polystrand Tri-Ply tape is made in a proprietary process that impregnates continuous ﬁbres with a PP thermoplastic resin. Huang F. planes and ships. 15 refs.0138-1042 PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF A NOVEL POLYTRIAZOLE RESIN Wan L.Bureau of Astronautics.991679 Item 173 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 104. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.References and Abstracts new materials applications and challenges for aircraft.5. Qi H.Key Laboratory for Ultraﬁne Materials. Solubility in acetone was determined. The continuous 25 inch wide tape provides 70% highperformance glass ﬁbres by weight in a thermoplastic matrix.5 FIRE RETARDANT PP FOR TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS Brief details are presented in this small article about a European Union project. WESTERN EUROPE. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. damaged and healed conditions using a commercial two-part epoxy healing agent (Cytec Cycom 823).613-632 THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HIGHTEMPERATURE FIBER-METAL LAMINATES Cortes P. EUROPEAN UNION. 2007.6. Shanghai. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.993176 Item 172 Journal of Composite Materials 41. Xue L. UK. This paper describes the results of four point bend ﬂexural testing (ASTM-D627202) of T300/914 carbon ﬁbre reinforced epoxy with resin ﬁlled embedded hollow glass ﬁbres (HGF) which provided © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 59 . Shanghai.994688 Item 169 Reinforced Plastics 51. 18 refs. p. Microscopic characterisation of the embedded HGF was also undertaken to characterise the effect on the host laminate ﬁbre architecture.994074 Item 171 Composites Part A 38. GERMANY. Potential applications in aviation and aerospace materials are mentioned. The reinforcement weighs only 29. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The study investigated the effect of the embedded HGF on the host CFRP mechanical properties and also the healing efﬁciency of the laminates after they were subjected to quasi-static impact.13 TRIPLE-PLY TAPE DEVELOPED It is briefly reported that Polystrand has introduced a lightweight and balanced reinforcement tape for applications needing a higher strength-to-weight ratio. p. a 20% reduction in weight compared to a three-layer product made with standard tapes. EUROPEAN UNION.2. Tensile and ﬂexural properties are discussed. Chen X East China. co-ordinated by Polymer Laboratories in Germany.1525-1532 A SELF-HEALING CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Williams G. Trask R. Low velocity impact tests were performed using an instrumented impact tower and high velocity impact tests were conducted using a nitrogen gas gun. 2007. and thermoplastic composites. Tian J. Fracture mechanisms were identiﬁed by optical microscopy and a comparison made of the impact properties of the carbon ﬁbre-reinforced PEEK versus glass ﬁbre-reinforced polyetherimide composites. Polystrand Inc.University Self-healing is receiving increasing interest worldwide as a technology to autonomously address the effects of damage in composite materials. The project is called “FLARETPOL”. EUROPEAN UNION. 15th April 2007. USA a self-healing functionality. for use in cars. 26 refs.994543 Item 170 High Performance Plastics March 2007. Accession no.5. Luo Y. The Tg and thermal degradation temperature of the cured resin were investigated. Bond I Bristol. Specimens were tested in the undamaged. No. USA Accession no. Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd.
aromatic polyketanils(PKs) containing p-phenylene and biphenylene linkages in the backbone and electron-donating side-group substitutions. surface resistivity and arc resistance with increasing loading level.990783 60 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . INDIA Accession no. The HOMO/LUMO energy gap of the polymers was in the range of 2.2007.4’diphenylsulphone. These ketanil polymers showed high thermal stability and well-deﬁned Tg. The mechanical properties such as TS.1. ﬂexural strength and Tg in comparison with the unmodiﬁed epoxy.University Anthraquinone dicyanate was prepared by treating CNBr with 1.9168 kJ.C for 1 h. The matrix systems were cured using 4. The polymers emitted either blue radiation or green radiation depending on the mutual presence of conjugated and saturated chain segments. The thermal properties were also studied. All the PKs were solution-processable and thermally stable.1 MPa.C.C. The 10% weight loss temperature of pure epoxy was 358 deg.C for 1 h using diaminodiphenylmethane as the curing agent. 24 h). p. The temperature at which the polymers lost 10% of their weight ranged from 420 to 520 deg.3-20 STUDIES ON THE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIGLYCIDYLETHERTERMINATED POLYDIMETHYL SILOXANEMODIFIED EPOXY-BISMALEIMIDE MATRICES Kumar R S. flexural strength. Kasperczyk J. The photoluminescence properties of the PKs after protonation with DL-camphor10-sulphonic acid(CSA) were tested. The results obtained indicated that these hybrid matrix systems could be used to fabricate advanced composite components for engineering and aerospace applications with better performance and enhanced longevity. p.References and Abstracts CHINA Accession no.19 eV.7671 kJ. SEM micrographs of both BMI-modiﬁed epoxy and BMI-modiﬁed DGETPDMS-epoxy systems exhibited homogeneous morphology. The incorporation of cyanate ester up to a 9% loading level did not affect the Tg to a very great extent. 32 refs. Castings of neat resin and blends were prepared and characterised by FTIR analysis. Depending on the polymer structure. PKs showed Tg values in the range of 133 to 244 deg. No. No. D 790 and D 5528. INDIA Accession no. 13C and “1H-NMR.University Diglycidylether-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (DGETPDMS) toughened epoxy matrix systems w e r e d ev e l o p e d a n d f u r t h e r m o d i fi e d w i t h bismaleimide(BMI).m2 for the 9% cyanate ester epoxy-modiﬁed system.990785 Item 176 High Performance Polymers 19. Kaczmarczyk B. The dicyanate was characterised by FTIR spectroscopy. N. The values of fracture toughness also increased from 0.33-47 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CYANATE EPOXY COMPOSITES Jayakumari L S. Their structures were confirmed by elemental and spectral FTIR. The structure formation of (PKs)1 (CSA)2 complexes is discussed on the basis of 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Thulasiraman V. Janeczek H.e. The introduction of DGETPDMS into epoxy resin improved the impact strength with reduction of TS. EASTERN EUROPE. 17 refs.4-dihydroxy anthraquinone in the presence of triethylamine at -5 to 5 deg.1 to 80. thermal. 24 refs.m2 for the neat epoxy resin to 0. Jurusik J.C. These new cyanate-modiﬁed epoxy composites could have the potential to provide better performance in engineering and aerospace applications. and electrical properties were studied by standard test methods. and 9%) from 52. p. The incorporation of BMI into DGETPDMS-modiﬁed epoxy resin improved thermal stability. The prepared dicyanate was blended with commercial epoxy resin in different ratios and cured at 120 deg.2007. POLAND fabricated from the same composition. Feb.991488 Item 174 High Performance Polymers 19. No. flexural strength and fracture toughness were measured as per ASTM D 3039. and UV-visible analysis.C for 1 h and post-cured at 220 deg. Feb. Sarojadevi M Anna. PROTONATION WITH DLCAMPHOR-10-SULPHONIC ACID Iwan A. i.C with incorporation of cyanate ester resin. Feb.1. 180 deg. whereas the incorporation of BMI into epoxy resin improved TS. respectively.N’-bismaleimido-4. 6. The TS increased with increasing cyanate content (3. Alagar M Anna.78-96 POLYKETANILS: PREPARATION OF PICONJUGATED POLYMER BASES FROM P-DIBENZOYLBENZENE WITH VARIOUS DIAMINES.74-2. Sek D Polish Academy of Sciences New luminescent materials.C and it increased to 381 deg. Mazurak Z.990788 Item 175 High Performance Polymers 19. making them potential candidate materials for applications in microelectronics and aerospace.4’-diaminodiphenylmethane(DDM) as curing agent.C. Tg and heat distortion temperature in comparison with the unmodiﬁed epoxy resin.2007. The composite laminates were also Accession no.1. The mechanical. were synthesised via melt polycondensation (180 deg. dielectric strength.
pp.989554 Item 179 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 45. BRAZIL Accession no. De Paiva J M F. and chemical properties and ﬁre ratings required to provide applications in mass transit vehicles. Silva R A. its properties.1143-1153 STRUCTURAL CARBON/EPOXY PREPREGS PROPERTIES COMPARISON BY THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Costa M L. the kinetics of these systems were very similar. No. SC. Production methods. Botelho E C Brazil. Oct. Composites of polyimide/clay. In addition to thermoforming applications. Nanocomposite hydrogels and liquid crystal/ clay composites are considered and the introduction of a layered microdomain structure in block copolymer by clay is examined. The differences in the curing kinetics mechanisms of both prepreg systems were identiﬁed. and structure and reinforcement mechanism of nylon-6/ clay hybrids. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. c. a French nanotechnology company. UNESP. wet polymerisation methods. No.12 KYDEX THERMOPLASTIC SHEET PRODUCTS IN SPECIALIZED GRADES FOR DEMANDING APPLICATIONS Kleerdex Co. Rezende M C Brazil. it was proved that the curing of both epoxy resin systems followed a cure kinetic of n order. and features are described. Kydex sheet is also used as a protective wall covering. p. compounding methods. It’s properties made it suitable for applications such as aircraft interiors.1 NANO-RESIN HAS BETTER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Nanoledge. USA and rheological testing.Centro Universitario Salesiano.LLC Kydex proprietary thermoplastic was ﬁrst introduced by Rohm & Haas in 1965. Compositec EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. thicknesses and grades.988565 Item 180 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 291. FRANCE.Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco. 8th Dec. p. and a standard grade overview is included giving tabulated technical details for a range of grades. laminating. No.-Dec.References and Abstracts Item 177 Aiken.2006. Based on the thermal analysis techniques.1449 TWENTY YEARS OF POLYMER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Akane Okada. has introduced a carbon nanotube-ﬁlled resin. UNESP Two different carbon ﬁbre/epoxy resin prepreg materials were characterised and compared using DSC. medical products and other demanding applications. Even though their reaction heats were found to be slightly different.247-256 A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FIBER/EPOXY/ ALUMINIUM HYBRID COMPOSITES FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES Botelho E C. Specialised grades satisfy the requirements of thermoforming. July-Sept. applications. A report on the 20-year history of research into polymer/ clay nanocomposites is presented by pioneers in this technology at Toyota Central R & D Laboratories. and mitre folding.2006. Sao Paulo. membrane pressing. as well as general purpose grades which outperform ﬁre retardant ABS and polycarbonate at comparable prices. textures. p. and its intended applications. 30 refs. 112 refs. the use of the rheological analysis revealed small differences in the gel temperatures of the two prepreg systems that were examined.10-12. brake forming. it is announced in this concise article.2006.3. EUROPEAN UNION. and rubber and thermosetting resin/clay are also described. p.Centro Tecnico Aerospacial. TGA. 2007. electrical. Furthermore. Brief details are presented about the new product.12. Arimitsu Usuki Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc. Nanoledge. extruded in a range of colours.2006. electrical enclosures. A prepreg system currently used commercially in the aircraft industry (carbon ﬁbre prepreg/ epoxy resin F584) was compared with a prepreg system that is a prospective candidate for the same applications (carbon ﬁbre prepreg/epoxy resin 8552). JAPAN Accession no. patterns. It is an extremely durable thermoplastic alloy. the Kleerdex company purchased the Kydex product line and developed additional grades to provide the physical. Rezende M C. which it has called “Nano in Res Laminates 1”. Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica The development of lightweight hybrid composite laminates of continuous carbon or glass ﬁbre-reinforced Accession no. DMA © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 61 . post forming. In 1987.989875 Item 178 High Performance Plastics Dec.988479 Item 181 Materials Research 9. DMA measurements of the cured prepregs demonstrated that they exhibited similar degrees of cure and different Tgs. The activation energies for both prepreg systems were determined by DSC analysis. Pardini L C. using Arrhenius’s method. polyoleﬁn/ clay. and were found to be quite similar. Nylon-clay nanocomposites are discussed with particular reference to the dry polymerisation method.
aluminium honeycomb shares the market with aramid and carbon honeycombs in prepreg constructions.290-296 MECHANICS OF POLYMER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES YuanQiao Rao. BRAZIL Item 184 Journal of Materials Science 41. A copolymer latex with functional groups that interact strongly with the surface of the clay nanoplatelet and Tg lower than room temperature is synthesised. testing and evaluation. EUROPEAN UNION. 17th20th Sept. Pochan J M Eastman Kodak Co. aluminium honeycomb became the core of choice.Queen Mary College Impact resistance of thick carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin composite laminates for aerospace applications was investigated experimentally by drop weight impact testing followed by examination of the geometry of the damage by C-scan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY..University. hybrid yarn characterisation. London. Albany Engineered Composites has ramped up production of X-COR. and honeycomb is no longer the only core in town. Papers are divided into the following sessions: fatigue and fracture. DEStech Publications. Padaki N A comprehensive review is presented on thermoplastic hybrid yarns. USA Accession no.986861 62 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Today. manufacture of thermoplastic composites with hybrid yarns and textile preforms. Mi. shear strength and damping properties and the effects of moisture absorption are discussed in terms of the synergistic effects of the combination of metal and polymer composite laminates. and education. The properties of the laminates. automotive/aerospace applications.6718-6724 IMPACT DAMAGE TO THICK CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC COMPOSITE LAMINATES Breen C. foamed composites. Ogale V. analysis. impact/impact damage. 11 refs. 126 Papers Proceedings of a conference held Dearborn. 23rd Jan.987940 Item 182 Lancaster. Guild F. The chain mobility is studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and dielectric thermal analysis. composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV). moulding methods and constraints on labour.984714 Item 185 Textile Progress 38.1-71 HYBRID YARNS AND TEXTILE PREFORMING FOR THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES Alagirusamy R. including tensile and compression strength.University. p.University) Over a hundred papers are presented at this twentyﬁrst technical conference of the American Society for Composites.20.2006 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR COMPOSITES.2006. multifunctional composites. its innovative structural core material. MichiganDearborn. Advanced composite sandwich constructions are employed in a broad range of applications that involve performance demands. Uniformly dispersed nanocomposites are then generated using water as the intercalation agent.5. 30 refs. natural ﬁbre composites. potential applications for thermoplastic composites and trends in thermoplastic composite applications (natural fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. 2006. TWENTY-FIRST TECHNICAL CONFERENCE. textile composites. Oct. which has Accession no. civil structures. Edited by: Mallick P K (American Society for Composites. compaction and consolidation of hybrid yarns. deply and post-impact strength measurements. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4. No. UK. nanocomposites. 73 refs.. hybrid yarn structure-composite property relations. 2006. processing. textile preforming. Pa. USA Accession no. The structure of the nanocomposites is also discussed. The effects of central and edge impacts on the geometry of damage and residual tensile and compressive strengths are discussed. Sept. p. joining. 214 refs. The mechanics of polymer-clay nanocomposites is studied using a designed polymer and solution nanocomposite synthesis. p.References and Abstracts epoxy resin matrix and aluminium layers for aerospace applications and methods for their fabrication are reviewed.983116 Item 186 High-Performance Composites 14. which includes sections on types of hybrid yarns. time and cost that make honeycomb’s open cell structure impractical. in space and aircraft applications. environmental effects. environmental issues and recyclability).28-34 ENGINEERED TO INNOVATE Gardiner G In the 1970s.987883 Item 183 Macromolecules 40 No. p.2. No. Fangueiro R.2007. The modulus of the composite increases signiﬁcantly and this enhancement is studied experimentally and theoretically.2006. Pavier M Bristol. Accession no.
Delamination energies were calculated using various methods and the fracture mechanism was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Proceedings of the 64th SPE Annual conference held Charlotte. glass or aramid continuous ﬁbres for a composite material that can replace metals and thermosets in aerospace.2006.University of Sciences and Technology An investigation was carried out into the effect of moisture on the interlaminar fracture toughness of woven fabric 8H Satin glass ﬁbre and 8H Satin carbon ﬁbre reinforced polyetherimide composites of the type used in aeronautical and aerospace applications. For a jet engine fan case. providing higher thermo-oxidative stability than possible with current technologies. ALGERIA Item 189 Journal of Composite Materials 40. Oct. Edie D D Clemson. double cantilever beam test and Mode II.References and Abstracts been selected for use in the new all-composite tailcone. SWITZERLAND. NC.University. No. WebCore is using a combination of TYCOR core material.981661 Item 187 Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials 19. p. Miller S G Akron.2006. 7th-11th May 2006.979869 Item 190 European Design Engineer Oct. p. The current study explores treatment of clay with reactive surfactants which are thermally stable and participate in crosslinking with PMR resin..10. 22 refs. radiation-resistant. Accession no. Nov.88-89 PEEK-BASED COMPOSITES PEEK is now being used as the polymer matrix for thermoplastic composite prepregs.979107 Item 191 Modern Plastics Worldwide 83. ﬂame retardant epoxy syntactic paste for high strength reinforcement in honeycomb core parts. p. p. 2006. Saadi B A Mostaganem. USA Accession no. are described. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. which is integrally stitched through the thickness of the entire sandwich structure.NASA.Glenn Research Center (SPE) Layered silicate PMR-15 polyimide nanocomposites are being developed for high-performance aerospace applications. USA Accession no. phenylethynylterminated polyetherimide (Ultem) was applied to carbon fibre tows using a powder coating procedure and an electrical current passed across the coated ﬁbre tows to melt the thermoplastic powder and form rigid composites.980944 Item 188 ANTEC 2006. 2006. The results obtained showed that the resistive heating technique was feasible for producing rigid inﬂatable composites for aerospace applications. Jana S C. US. WORLD Accession no. Oran. Brookﬁeld. Interlaminar fracture behaviour was analysed using the Mode I. with carbon ﬁbre reinforcement and rigid 100% PMI closed cell foam. 20 refs. No. SPE. which can meet the requirements of a range of critical and demanding applications for aerospace manufacturing and repair industries. part of a major upgrade of the US Army’s UH60M Black Hawk helicopter. 19 refs. The goal is to achieve full exfoliation under quiescent conditions using a novel approach.. and braided fabric skin.6. p. These developments include an epoxy-based aerofoil syntactic paste for engine vibration damping and a bromine-free.1871-1883 CONSOLIDATION OF REACTIVE ULTEM POWDER-COATED CARBON FIBER TOW FOR SPACE STRUCTURE COMPOSITES BY RESISTIVE HEATING Naskar A K.and extra-gallery modulus and viscosity are engineered to result in a net force pushing clay layers apart during cure.258-62 HARNESSING MOLECULAR FORCES TO EXFOLIATE CLAY IN THERMOSET SYSTEMS Gintert M J.46/48 THE SKY’S THE LIMIT FOR EPOXY ADHESIVES AND SYNTACTICS Christou P Huntsman Advanced Materials (Switzerland) GmbH Some of the latest product developments in the ﬁeld of epoxy resin syntactics and structural adhesives.20.University.2006. suspending carbon. Ct. The melting temperature and speciﬁc heat of the thermoplastic were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. end notched ﬂexure to determine the energy required for initiation and growth of cracks. whereby intra. The power requirement for wetting the ﬁbre tows with the powder on earth and in outer space was determined by measuring the applied current and degree of consolidation and the curing of the composite was monitored by torsional oscillatory rheological measurements.University A crosslinkable.715-729 MOISTURE EFFECT ON THE INTERLAMINAR RESISTANCE OF WOVEN FABRIC THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE Zenasni R. which were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing.980308 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 63 .
2005. compression strength and modulus and notched bend strength. vacuum-assisted RTM.. Covina. ACS. 30th April-4th May 2006. GERMANY. PEEK is able to withstand continuous operating temperatures of up to 260 deg. 1st-5th May 2005. braid.C in aerospace structural applications. Ca. and a good blend of glass transition temperature and toughness. pp. The material comes in viscosities ranging from standard. one-part benzoxazine resins for use in the manufacture of large ﬁbre-reinforced plastic parts for aerospace applications. Victrex USA Inc. including density. demonstrating how new software enables composite designers and manufacturing engineers to more efﬁciently and reliably work together using an integrated Design for Manufacturing process. shrinkage.. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. pp. (SAMPE) To ﬁll the gap in service temperatures for composite structures between the high performance epoxy materials at glass transition temperatures at 140 deg. 30th April-4th May 2006. Ca. glass transition temperature. Kaelani F. 2006. moisture uptake. superior compression strength and modulus.4 BENZOXAZINE RESINS Henkel KGaA of Germany has commercialised a range of low-viscosity. pp. it is brieﬂy reported. resin ﬁlm infusion. two and unidirectional tape. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Long D A NuSil Technology LLC (SAMPE) The chemistries of silicone and film adhesives are described and the characteristics of a new silicone ﬁlm adhesive. 3 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Victrex has partnered with composite producers to create dry and multiaxial fabrics. have a long pot-life. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. are reported.977507 64 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Ca. a new range of benzoxazine resins was developed and is described. Composites were said to be easy to process and have lower cure shrinkage. Paper 3. to very low.978301 Item 192 High Performance Plastics June 2006.977336 Item 196 SAMPE '05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies.8 NEW LOW STRESS FILM ADHESIVE FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS REQUIRING LOW OUTGASSING Riegler B. namely automated deposition methods. p. USA Accession no.977783 Item 193 SAMPE ‘06: Creating New Opportunities for The World Economy: Volume 51.. unidirectional sheet. Ca. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Paper 36. to medium. Lehmann S L. 7 refs. 2006. USA Accession no..12 DESIGNING COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FOR THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS Ungaro P.References and Abstracts offshore. The new ﬁlm adhesive is compared with a low outgas liquid adhesive and is considered suitable for various applications common to satellite manufacturing.C. Accession no. This abstract includes all the information contained in the original article. (SAMPE) Examples of applications in the aerospace and automotive industries are presented.9 ADVANCED COMPOSITE STRUCTURES USING NEW RESIN TECHNOLOGY OFFER WEIGHT AND COST SAVINGS Wei H Li.. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.C and BMI at around 220 deg. Ca. which combines low outgas properties required for space applications with consistent bond thickness. Grape J VISTAGE INC. Wong R S Henkel Corp. WESTERN EUROPE Item 194 SAMPE ‘06: Creating New Opportunities for The World Economy: Volume 51. medical and industrial applications. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. and prepreg applications was discussed. and consolidated fabric. Ca. Three areas of major progress in composite design and manufacturing are covered. 6 refs.. Covina.977488 Item 195 SAMPE '05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies. USA Accession no. and are easy to process. Resin properties were characterised. forming and stamping and assembly design. The resins are stable at ambient temperature. Covina. 1st-5th May 2005. and Vistagy’s Aircraft Design Environment is introduced as an example of a specialised computer aided design environment for efﬁcient and consistent deﬁnition of composite assemblies. paper 82. Use of the resins in resin transfer moulding (RTM). Henkel KGaA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.C in low-stress applications and 120 deg.. Ca. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no.
Bui V T. The high retention of mechanical properties of M40/BADCy-E51 composite after long-term exposure to environmental conditions indicated that the M40/BADCy composite was suitable for space applications. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. solvents. Bonin H W. Epoxy group reacted with triazine ring group and produced oxazolidinone at high temperature.977300 Item 197 Polymer Engineering and Science 46. 7 refs. 1959-1967 MODIFICATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE POLYMER COMPOSITE THROUGH HIGHENERGY RADIATION AND LOW-PRESSURE PLASMA FOR AEROSPACE AND SPACE APPLICATIONS Bhowmik S. radiation.. the resistivity of coatings should be reduced without altering their thermo-optical properties.15 VARTM PROCESSING OF TAILORED COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Loos A C. The carbonﬁbre composites were prepared by autoclave moulding. Grimsley B W. Cano R J.977187 Item 198 Polymer Composites 27.4. 2005. No. © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 65 . EUROPEAN UNION. In geostationary orbit. Weir R D Canada. satellites are exposed to significant thermal variations. with the objective of attaining a high transparency. Martinez-Vega J. followed by impregnation by resin using a modiﬁed vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding process (VARTM). No. Hubert P Michigan. and heat deﬂection temperature (HDT) of cured castings showed that the matrix system containing 95 wt% BADCy and 5 wt% E51 had optimum characteristics. McGill University (SAMPE) Tailored composite structures were prepared using a preform of layers of a uni-weave carbon ﬁbre fabric coated with tackiﬁer. No. 2006. 18 refs. Boudou L. a high emissive. Better mechanical properties were found in the composite than in an equivalent structure prepared by a commercial resin infusion process. p. 2006. which has a high electrical resistivity. The PBI composites were prepared by using an ultra-high-temperature-resistant epoxy adhesive to join the two polymer sheets. In this paper. Liang G. water absorption. 15th Oct. CANADA.References and Abstracts COVINA. The data of mechanical properties. A model developed to predict infiltration times was evaluated visually using a transparent mould and SAE40 engine oil to simulate the resin. can accumulate implanted charges that can give rise to electrostatic discharges and damage the neighbouring electronic systems. NASA Langley Research Center. PP. The Materials and Coatings Laboratory of the Thermal Control Services at CNES has elaborated a cold coating version by using a polysiloxane deposit on a metal substrate (such as polished aluminium or vacuum deposited silver). Zhang Z Xian.State University. SAMPE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OFFICE. polysiloxane.University of Technology. neutral or warm coatings. and was found to be accurate.2.8. Remaury S. FRANCE. CNES In orbit.402-409 EPOXY-MODIFIED CYANATE ESTER RESIN AND ITS HIGH-MODULUS CARBON-FIBER COMPOSITES Ren P. USA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and an antistatic resin. 7 refs.2006. in particular the low solar absorptivity and the high emissivity for cold coatings. the inﬂuence on thermo-optical properties of CNT-Polysiloxane and ITO-Polysiloxane composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of BADCyE51 blend systems showed that polycyclotrimerisation of BADCy primarily took place at low temperature. Nabarra P Toulouse. Xian. corrosives. CHINA Accession no. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of M40 ﬁbre and the fracture surfaces of M40/BADCy-E51 composite displayed that the adhesion between M40 ﬁbre and BADCy was good though the surface of M40 was inert. a thermal control of the spacecraft is necessary using cold. Several methods have been studied. To ensure reliable operation of their on-board systems and equipment.Northwestern Polytechnical University Epoxy E51-modiﬁed bisphenol A dicyanate (BADCy) and its high-modulus carbon fibre (M40) reinforced composites were prepared in this research. alkalis. PAPER 175.Universite Paul Sabatier. The adhesive had a service temperature range of -260 to +370 deg. To prevent any electrostatic discharge problems in geostationary orbit. p. due to the increase in ﬁbre volume obtained in the VARTM process. such as the incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles in the polysiloxane matrix. Accession no.1079-1084 DEVELOPMENT OF NANOPARTICLEPOLYSILOXANE COMPOSITES FOR SPACECRAFT APPLICATIONS Hidden G. pp.C and was highly resistance to acids. ACS.977176 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 102.Royal Military College Attempts were made to modify polybenzimidazole (PBI) by high-energy radiation and low-pressure plasma treatment to permit the preparation of composites with the same polymer. as a function of sample thickness d (micro m) and nanoparticles concentration p (%wt). is reported. CA.
Air Force Research Accession no. and gamma-rays at a dose rate of 37 kGy/h. PAPER 5.C) and high temperatures (+300 deg. US. Ragland W. Microscopic examination of fractured surfaces of the joints showed that the surface-modiﬁed polymer essentially failed cohesively within the adhesive. Sol-gel based surface preparations were evaluated and compared to traditional surface preparations such as phosphoric acid and others treatments.. Alternatively. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. such as air ducts for aircraft. Paper 6. PP. Paper 229. EPTA. Manson R T NAVAIR (SAMPE) Surface preparation presents major problems for bonded repair of aircraft on vessels at sea. 9 refs. Paper 7. the surface of the PBI was ultrasonically cleaned in acetone and modiﬁed by high-energy radiation for 6 h in the pool of a nuclear reactor that produced a mixed ﬁeld of thermal and epithermal neutrons. 2006.University (SAMPE) The effects of processing parameters on the mechanical properties of carbon/polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) thermoplastic composite laminates is described. energetic electrons. Ca.) A report is presented on advances in new cyanate ester chemistries. the joints were exposed to cryogenic (-196 deg. CANADA Accession no. Ca.Research Institute. A further signiﬁcant increase in joint strength occurred when the polymer surface was initially modified by exposure to low-pressure plasma followed by exposure to high-energy radiation. 1st-5th May 2005. requiring vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding.. Test methods involved bonding of samples followed by lap shear testing and peel testing during exposure to various environmental conditions. Before preparing the composite. Northrop Grumman Space Technology. 1st-5th May 2005.977162 Item 200 SAMPE ‘05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies. Hsaiohu Peng. ﬁlament winding and pultrusion. A considerable increase in the joint strength was observed when the polymer surface was modiﬁed by either process. 11 refs.University. Joints exposed to these conditions retained about 95% of their strength. Hoa S V Concordia. with compatibility to several adhesive systems being of further value in applications of this type. Optimum properties for the laminates are established. Primaset PT-15 and Primaset-LECY. It was found that sol-gel methods provided a robust way of chemically treating metallic surfaces. the polymer was subjected to low-pressure plasma treatment with a 13. which have allowed cyanate esters to be used in applications.976910 Item 201 8th World Pultrusion Conference: Emerging Markets: Globalization of the Pultrusion Industry. pp. SEM is used to observe the different microstructures arising from the different processing conditions. and protons. CANADA NOVEL USE OF CYANATE ESTERS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE PULTRUSION APPLICATIONS Das S Lonza Inc. 17 refs. 22nd-24th March 2006. Hungary..14 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CARBON NANOFIBRE-BASED CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES Gibson T. CA. 2005. Covina.976457 Item 202 SAMPE '05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies. catalyst technology and extended pot-life during processing. Covina.References and Abstracts and ﬁre. Moon D Dayton. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. pp. USA Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. The range of parameters can serve as a guide to consolidate carbon/PEKK laminates for high performance aerospace applications. ACS. 11 EFFECTS OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON/ PEKK THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Salek M H. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. pp. 1st-5th May 2005. Flat laminates are processed by compression moulding and the tensile strength and moduli determined. Ca. ACS.56-MHz radio-frequency glow discharge for 120 s at 100-W power with nitrogen as the process gas.SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Ca. 2005. 21 refs. Resins under consideration in this article are Primaset PT-30. Strong K L. which can be toughened and synthesised using snap cure catalysts. Rice B.976144 Item 203 SAMPE '05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies...11 66 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .SAMPE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OFFICE. COVINA.C) for 100 h. USA Accession no. Leusden. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest.8 SURFACE PREPARATION FOR METALLIC BONDED REPAIR: A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR NAVAL FLEET DEPLOYMENT Tillman M S. To simulate conditions in space. Silverman E M. (European Pultrusion Technology Assn.. 2005. Ca.
976142 Item 204 SAMPE '05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies.. 1st-5th May 2005. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. differential scanning calorimetry. for applications requiring electrical conductivity in the aerospace industries.16 LIQUID CRYSTALLINE THERMOSETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE ADHESIVE APPLICATIONS Haight A E H.976134 Item 207 Popular Plastics and Packaging 51. Sarkar A New Delhi. Ca.17. are comprehensively reviewed. Sept..State University The processing. Toyota Technological Institute.Indian Institute of Technology. Viscosity testing of adhesives. is also discussed.2006.. p. health and safety issues and commercial applications of nanocomposites of thermoplastics with various nanoparticles. and for their mechanical properties before and after cure at either 49 or 121 deg. titanium and composite materials. Paper 3. USA Accession no. characterisation. Gorga R E Canada. Adhesives based on MDA showed the most promise. No. pp.9. and adhesives were characterised for their curing characteristics by differential scanning calorimetry and polarised optical microscopy.1511 REVIEW ARTICLE: POLYMER-MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES. 9 refs. which is a two way effect. Tiano T Foster-Miller Inc. Adhesives were compared to current systems using structural adhesives and electrical bonding. Adhesion tests were carried out on a number of substrates including aluminium. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. 350 refs. Temchenko M. The future outlook for polymer-matrix nanocomposites.SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. USA Accession no. but Accession no. Covina..References and Abstracts Laboratory. and formulations containing silver coated carbon nanoﬁbres were found to meet requirements for prevention of static discharges whilst maintaining lap shear strength at joints. (SAMPE) For aircraft applications a shelf stable epoxy film adhesive was developed that incorporated a cure catalyst incorporated within crosslinked gelatin microcapsules. 5 refs. USA EPOXY FILM ADHESIVE FOR ON-AIRCRAFT BONDED REPAIR Kovar R F. or by cooling and heating. No. It was seen that liquid crystalline order was maintained in the cured system. 2005. Hojjati M. ACS. manufacture. 2006.MATERIALS OF THE FUTURE Saroop M. Allred R E Adherent Technologies Inc. which is a one way effect. carbon nanotubes and nanoﬁbres. PROCESSING. JAPAN. 6 refs. structure-property relationships. This phenomenon is based on structural phase transformation.976140 Item 205 SAMPE '05: New Horizons for Materials and Processing Technologies. p. giving high strength and low coefficients of thermal expansion. pp. CANADA.73-78 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS . peel testing and lap-shear strength. North Carolina. is described.C. Shape memory is the ability of a material to recover its original shape. and by lap-shear strength testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Ca. either after mechanical deformation. Ca. Some of these materials showed a wide processing range and excellent thermal stability in air up to temperatures above 400 deg. Cure could be activated by either crushing or by temperature. including layered silicates and organically modified silicates. AND APPLICATION: AN OVERVIEW Hussain F. USA Accession no. graphite nanoplatelets. including biodegradable nanocomposites derived from renewable resources.National Research Council. Ca. ACS. ATK Composites (SAMPE) Developments of epoxy adhesives containing either silver coated or uncoated carbon nanoﬁbres. 2005. Shape Memory Polymers exhibit the same physical phenomenon as Shape Memory Alloys. Covina. scanning electron microscopy of ruptures surfaces and conductivity testing were used in evaluation of the adhesives.C using elemental analysis. Okamoto M. Paper 2. 1st-5th May 2005. Epoxy resins of this type were characterised for their shelf stability at different temperatures. MANUFACTURING.SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. ICI India Ltd. torsion braid analysis. Weatmark C. Monomers were characterised according to normal analytical methods. (SAMPE) Melt processable liquid crystalline thermoset (LCT) adhesives based on ester bismaleimide monomers and liquid crystalline comonomers such as methylene dianiline (MDA) and diaminodecane were prepared by solution or solid state mixing.9 SHELF-STABLE LOW TEMPERATURE CURE © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 67 .976139 Item 206 Journal of Composite Materials 40.
two microstructures in the construction of the core materials. can be easily processed into complex shapes and exhibit larger recovery strains. No. Thomas T. say. In an attempt to evaluate the suitability of certain sandwich structures for use in force protection applications. INDIA Accession no. Jeelani S Florida. Next. and determined their strain rate sensitivities and failure characteristics. will be presented in this paper. In the context of structural load bearing members and absorbing dynamic loads.14. Auburn. eliminate gaps in this conductive path to prevent arcing at attachment points and ignition of fuel vapours. A systematic approach has been taken to study the response of PVC foam materials at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to around 2000 s-1. Of particular interest in this study is to investigate the behaviour of the foam materials and their sandwiches under high strain rate (HSR) loading which are very much prevalent in their actual applications. army. No. Tuskegee.975958 Item 209 Composites Science and Technology 66. which contain pre-embedded woven or nonwoven metal meshes. cables and sensitive equipment from damaging surges. or incorporating strands of conductive material into the laminate. p. advances have been made in the attempt to utilize composite materials as components in protective structures such as those employed by the Air Force to secure critical military assets. composite sandwich constructions offer an attractive solution. A group of thermoplastic core materials have been developed that possess features of both a dense elastic solid and a foam type material.2465-2472 ON THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF SANDWICH COMPOSITES AND THEIR CORE MATERIALS Mahfuz H.University Sandwich composites are being aggressively pursued as structural materials by various defence and commercial industries.Air Force Research Laboratory. In such applications. automotive and sporting industries to name a few. several sandwich constructions with somewhat novel core materials were identiﬁed. USA lightweight materials that exhibit large levels of energy absorption and high strength/stiffness characteristics are desirable. conductive paths in composite structures have been established in one of the following ways: bonding aluminium foil to the structure as the outside ply. The structure of shape memory polymers and shape memory behaviour is discussed. were considered in the investigation. p. Accession no. Applications include: biomedical such as implants and smart sutures. along with the increased surface area connectivity present between cells (produced by the forming process used to create the core materials) integrates surrounding cells into what may be described as an enhanced hexagonal single unit cell structure. lower in cost. air force.975980 Item 208 High-Performance Composites 14. large commercial jets and wind turbines are vulnerable to lightning strike.University In the recent past. These include navy. First.Atlantic University. 2006. Excellent shape memory effect has been observed with trans-polyisoprene. 4 refs. as well as the results of the static and dynamic tests. Unlike their metal counterparts. This class of core materials incorporates sloping cell walls. Next generation technologies include self-repairing structural materials. Hughes M L US. The cellular construction of the foam materials not only provides lightweight capability but also a deformation mechanism that allows efﬁcient absorption of energy. namely linear and cross-linked foams. Lightning strike protection strategies have three goals: provide adequate conductive paths so that lightning current remains on the structure’s exterior.. including composite tooling for ﬁlament winding.2500-2505 FORCE PROTECTION USING COMPOSITE SANDWICH STRUCTURES Sierakowski R L. foam core sandwich composites offer unique advantages over traditional composites. No. room temperature response has been extracted for various density foams. and manufacturing. bonding aluminium or copper mesh to the structure either as the outside ply or embedded one ply down. 37 refs. composites structures in these applications do not readily conduct away the extreme electrical currents and electromagnetic forces generated by lightning strikes. 2006. This feature. Traditionally. A complete description of the novel core materials. a series of static and dynamic tests were conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base.975777 Item 210 Composites Science and Technology 66. MeadWestvaco Corp. and protect wiring. Among the newest developments are “all-in-one” LSP prepregs. rather than the traditional parallel cell wall structure present in.44-50 LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION FOR COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Gardiner G General aviation aircraft. July 2006. p. a regular aluminium honeycomb. where 68 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . styrene-butadiene copolymer and segmented PUs. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd USA Accession no. To develop a preliminary understanding of the response of these enhanced cellular materials to the various loading regimes that could be encountered in a protective structure.References and Abstracts are lighter in weight.14. aerospace morphing systems.4. Rangari V. smart coatings in defence applications and selfrepairing coatings for automotive and marine applications.
20 refs. Werth M © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 69 . Although composite materials offer many advantages in the designing and manufacturing of structures. and shape memory polymers. Dang G. July 2006. No. The oligomers bearing pendant phenyl groups exhibit much lower melt viscosities at low temperatures. This reinforcing can change both stiffness and damping properties of structures.17. 2006. Methods for rendering polymers electrically conductive are described. Most of the industries especially aerospace try to use composite materials together with metal advantages in order to design a safe and optimized structure. p. Several panels are treated with different lay-ups and the modal testing was conducted to evaluate the effect of such treatments. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd USA STABILITY Rao X.HOW CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS ARE BRIDGING OUR DREAMS TO REALITY Hansen G Metal Matrix A review is presented of the literature on the breadth of materials used to create conductive polymers and on the depth of the research on their use as multifunctional materials. The tensile and thermal properties of the cured ﬁlms were evaluated. the next phase of the investigation included HSR tests at elevated and sub-ambient temperatures. The study has established that at room temperature (RT). together with intrinsically conductive polymers and conductive additives for plastics. while the damping properties come from the viscoelastic property of the matrix. high strength.975695 Item 212 Polymer 47. In this research. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd IRAN Accession no. Failure modes however changed as the test temperature changed from RT to subambient. 24 refs. The offshore structure can be reinforced and repaired with composite layers. they cannot replace the wide range of using metallic materials.975385 Item 214 Kunststoffe International 96.472-478 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC PLATES REINFORCED BY POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES Shokrieh M M. 2006.3. This study shows that using composite material can modify both stiffness and damping characteristics.8-naphthalic anhydride (PENA). 35 refs. lightning strike protection of aircraft.4.3’. The thermal curing process of the oligomers was investigated with DSC.4’-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) or biphenylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (s-BPDA) with 2. No.7. The stiffness properties of such reinforced plates can be inﬂuenced by ﬁbre properties.University In continuing studies to develop low melt viscosity phenylethynyl end-capped imide oligomers for aerospace applications. p. Wu Z Jilin. A few brief examples of applications of conductive polymers are given. the effects of composite reinforcement on the dynamic behaviour of metallic plates are studied. Oligomers derived from PENA cured at lower temperatures and the corresponding cured polymers show better hydrolytic stability than those of PEPA. electromagnetic shielding. the delamination at the subinterface zone underneath the actual core-skin interface is the critical mode of failure.975776 Item 211 Composite Structures 75. Results showed that the utilisation of diamine monomer (p-TPEQ) can improve the processability and solubility of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers without sacriﬁcing their thermo-oxidative stability. new kinds of all-aromatic phenylethynylterminated imide oligomers were prepared by the reaction of 3. This sub-interface is characterized by the separation of the dry and resin-soaked cells near the core-skin interface. Modal testing is applied to the specimens and the modal parameters are derived experimentally. elastomers and sensors.6091-6098 NEW KINDS OF PHENYLETHYNYLTERMINATED POLYIMIDE OLIGOMERS WITH LOW VISCOSITY AND GOOD HYDROLYTIC Accession no.References and Abstracts This study revealed that both the categories of foam had direct dependence on temperatures well below the T”g of the base polymer. CHINA Accession no.University of Science & Technology The applications of composite materials have become common in different industries.1-4.54-56 HIGH PURITY PLUS OUTSTANDING RESISTANCE Van der Weide I. Consequently. These materials introduce lower weight. USA Accession no. No.5-bis(4-aminophenoxy)-biphenyl (p-TPEQ) and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or 4-(1-phenylethynyl)1.975595 Item 213 Journal of Advanced Materials 38. p. including controlled conductivity. The use of nanomaterials as conductive additives is considered. and viscoelastic properties. Chen C. 2006. Najaﬁ A Iran. p. and thus provide wide processing window. No. 36 refs. Zhou H.68-74 WHAT WE DREAMT AS CHILDREN .
975342 Item 215 High Performance Plastics April 2006. Lee M. such as light or electricity. Ca. 0 refs. Papers are presented at the ACS meeting held San Diego. Papers are presented at the ACS meeting held San 70 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . The uniaxially relaxation modulus was extracted from the load-displacement curve.of Polymer Chemistry. UK. Oklahoma State University ACS. D. March 2005. 10 refs. was discussed. Washington. WESTERN EUROPE Diego. pp...University. Div. USA Accession no. Data on these properties are included. Roll S. ACS. USA Accession no. ACS.of Polymer Chemistry.of Polymer Chemistry The potential applications of shape-memory polymer nanocomposites are discussed. ACS.556-557 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES. 1995. Paper 3.974648 Item 219 High Temperature Polymers: Advances and Applications.C. The modulus of the SWNT/polymer ﬁlm is much larger than that of a ﬁlm consisting of polymers alone. Volume 46.426-427 LIBRARIES OF NANOSIZED POLYFUNCTIONAL PLATFORMS AND NANOCOMPOSITES FROM SISESQUIOXANES Laine R M. Ca. March 2005. 1995. Number 1. The shape memory effect can also be triggered by other stimuli.975265 Item 216 Polymer Preprints. March 2005. Materials such as Veriﬂex and Veritex can be formed into structures that transform into other structures on heating by an electrical current. 2005.. and also in architecture. Plymouth. scientists are reported to have developed a low-density PU foam which does not need toluene diisocyanate (TDI) .Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Developments in areas of epoxy materials for use in aircraft underﬁlls and epoxy resin coatings for use in anticorrosion applications on aluminium. International Agency for Research on Cancer USA Accession no. be used to produce aircraft parts that change shape when heated by an electrical current to change the ﬂight characteristics of the aeroplane. Fl. USA Accession no. using cubic silsesquioxane networks in epoxy resin networks. 2005.Div.Div. March 2005. Such materials can.. Mamedov A A Nomadics Inc.974786 Item 217 Polymer Preprints... March 2005. 2005. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. chemical and construction industries..974698 Item 218 Polymer Preprints. D. FRANCE. for example.C. Papers are presented at the ACS meeting held San Diego. which is known as “TufFoam”. Mayaterials. Huang G.Div. The resultant foams are shown to combine low weight and insulating characteristics with the resistance to elevated temperatures. p.of Polymer Chemistry. March 2005 Washington.of Polymer Chemistry The properties of nanocomposites of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and polyelectrolyte [poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) or poly(acrylic acid)] assembled layer by layer were examined by nanoindentation testing. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Clearwater Beach. Hood P J Cornerstone Research Group Inc. Volume 46. p. This property proﬁle is shown to open up numerous applications in the aviation. Havens E.48 AURUM: NEW TPI-THERMOPLASTIC POLYIMIDE: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS Sanguigni J A Advanced Web Products Inc. Tailoring of various materials by use of nano-building blocks was considered and materials already prepared were listed. Brief details are given in this short article of possible applications of the new foam. D. Brick C. Asuncion M. Number 1. MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR REVOLUTIONARY APPLICATIONS. Kennedy V Michigan.190-191 CHARACTERIZATION OF LAYER-BYLAYER ASSEMBLED CARBON NANOTUBE/ POLYELECTROLYTE FILMS Gupta S. p.com (ACS. 6 refs. ﬁre and ionising radiation that is typical of PVDF. ACS. Lu H. 20th-21st Feb.Div.C. Mi. Number 1. The measured modulus was veriﬁed by ﬁnite-element simulation. Washington. Sandia National Laboratories. Arkema The manufacture of high-performance foams based on polyvinylidene ﬂuoride in a speciﬁc physical foaming process is described. Volume 46.References and Abstracts Zotefoams PLC. Accession no.12 LOW DENSITY FOAM At Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. Ca..a possible human carcinogen. Tong T H. Sulaiman S. corrosive chemicals. Dietsch B A. p.
295-303 SURFACE CLEANING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REMOVAL OF CROSSLINKED EPOXIDE RESIN Litchﬁeld R E. Paper 2. 1995. Critchlow G W. Cambridge.C before and after ageing at 371 deg. Plymouth. and engine applications for advanced composites are examined. Polymer composite development opportunities in subsonic. 2004. 2004.University (Executive Conference Management Inc. Xiao-Su Yi Beijing. Woodhead Publishing. The electrical potential method showed a poor performance of estimation when the delamination was located near the centre of the charged electrodes. No. 21 refs. 6th-9th July 2004. MITSUI TOATSU JAPAN. 7 refs.References and Abstracts (Executive Conference Management Inc.. The fabrication process is described and involves the use of ﬂexible prepreg fabric. and the latter proved more cost-effective.C are compared and also the mechanical properties at room temperature and at 371 deg. The use of thermoforming and coconsolidation was shown to offer strong potential in the large volume production of three-dimensional composite structural parts for aerospace applications. The chemistry and thermooxidative stability of such polymers are presented. Aurum is an engineering plastic with high performance properties and excellent processability. Cambridge.974309 Item 220 High Temperature Polymers: Advances and Applications. Todoroki A. JAPAN Accession no. Wilson S Loughborough. CHINA Accession no. 6th-9th July 2004. Proceedings of the Fourth Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite Materials (AACM-4). 20th-21st Feb. Shimamura Y. Both fusion welding and consolidation were used in the manufacture of the part. p. 1995. their synthesis and structural similarities.) Very comprehensive property data are presented in the form of technical data sheets for Aurum. 2006.C. commercial. use in aerospace applications. a new thermoplastic semi-crystalline thermoplastic polyimide developed by Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals Inc. Australia. co-woven with carbon ﬁbre and PEEK. This study provides details of the use of laser ablation and sodium hydride cleaning processes for the removal of crosslinked epoxide and other residues from resin © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 71 . or which have the potential for. Bombardier Aerospace.974308 Item 221 Composites Technologies for 2020. held Sydney. the validity of which is demonstrated by means of ﬁnite element method analyses. environmental resistance. held Sydney. 7 refs. mechanical and electrical properties. Australia. Short Bros. Proceedings of a conference held Clearwater Beach.University. Kobayashi H Tokyo.972338 Item 223 International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 26.C in 1 and 4 atmosphere of air are presented. Fl. military and high speed civil transport aircraft propulsion systems are reviewed. p.22 AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS FOR POLYIMIDES AND OTHER HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMERS Scola D A Connecticut. p1018-1024 DELAMINATION MONITORING OF CFRP LAMINATES USING ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL METHOD Ueda M.972349 Item 222 Composites Technologies for 2020. Polymer and composite stability at 371 deg. Mi.Institute of Technology (Asian-Australasian Association for Composite Materials) Accession no.5. USA Accession no. consideration is given to polymers which have the potential for short term applications at 371 deg. The stiffeners were produced either in direct press forming from a prepreg or by thermoforming of pre-consolidated blanks. In particular. pp. Woodhead Publishing. The latter method was found to be more cost-effective and produced a higher quality of product. and its applications in mechanical components and automotive engines.882-887 THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE ACCESS COVER MANUFACTURED BY COCONSOLIDATION AFTER THERMOFORMING STIFFERS Kejian Wang. processability. Information is presented relating to its heat resistance. USA Carbon ﬁbre-reinforced plastic laminates in aerospace applications are monitored using the electrical potential method to detect delamination..Institute of Aeronautical Materials (Asian-Australasian Association for Composite Materials) Details are given of an integrated manufacturing process for the production of a thermoplastic composite aircraft access cover with L-shaped stiffeners of carbon ﬁbre reinforced PEEK. Proceedings of the Fourth Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite Materials (AACM-4).) This paper reviews the most recent high temperature polymers which are currently being considered for. This problem is overcome by introducing the non-symmetric charging concept to the electrical potential method.
aircraft seat cushions and acoustic insulation components.8.2006.1. which are supplied to converters in slabstock form under the trade name Basotect. as used in the aerospace industry. high-power lasers are desirable for industrial scale applications where large areas need to be cleaned quickly. Applications of the foams. 72 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . nickel or CFRP composite materials. particle volume fraction and particle aspect ratio. typically Nd:YAG lasers ﬁnd application in this area. No. 14 refs. 2006. Using a single-step manufacturing technology. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. also is sold in sheets formed from multiple layers of continuous glass/PP with custom-tailored layup and ﬁbre orientation.Aerospace Exploration Agency Developments in science and technology in the ﬁelds of high-performance polymers and composites thereof for space applications are reviewed.847 Accession no. ﬂame resistance. P. laser cleaning can be a very gentle and efﬁcient process. The requirement for removal of such contamination is so that the mould can be re-used. following the subsequent application of an external release agent. Predominantly supplied as a unidirectional prepreg. 35 refs.74/78 LIGHTWEIGHT. Textile coverings or carpets can be easily co-moulded during stamping for automotive interiors. One of the initial targets for FITS is in overhead storage bins on commercial aircraft. The properties of the melamine resin foams are discussed. p. WESTERN EUROPE polymers environmentally stable in space. EUROPE-GENERAL. PART II Gardiner G Structural parts made from thermoformed glass-reinforced PPS panels have been put to notable use on the wing leading edges of both the A340 and new A380 commercial airliners. Wang J. rubbers and adhesives. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. The predictions of the model are discussed in comparison with experimental data for nanocomposites of epoxy resin with montmorillonite clay. compromises the degree of absolute cleanliness that can be obtained. thermal protection for the space shuttle and heat resistant advanced composites for primary structures.970391 Item 227 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 25. UK. However. typically.5. featuring an isotropic PEI foam core bonded to continuous ﬁbre-reinforced PEI faceskins. thermal stability. with particular reference to thermal conductivity.30-34 THERMOFORMABLE COMPOSITE PANELS. The use of sodium hydride was also found to be highly successful in removing crosslinked organic contamination providing that suitable hard rinse and drying operations were also carried out. are considered. GERMANY. In contrast. VERSATILE ALL-ROUNDER Baumgartl H BASF AG The development by BASF AG of elastic melamine resin foams. No. deployable structures. NO. 2006.970978 Item 225 Nippon Gomu Kyokaishi 79. and sound absorption. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. high-strength. fabricated from steel. Twintex commingled PP and continuous glass ﬁbres has reportedly shown promise for thermoformable sandwich structures. JAPAN Accession no. is described.3. p. EUROPEAN UNION. ﬂexible ﬁlms for space applications. FITS Technology produces lightweight. 27 refs.971142 Item 224 Kunststoffe International 96. such as cleaning sponges.Polytechnic University The application of the modified Halpin-Tsai micromechanical model to the calculation of Young’s modulus for nanocomposites of polymers with layered silicates as a function of clay concentration was studied for various parametric variations such as the exfoliation ratio. a PP composite manufactured by Gurit.970859 Item 226 Composites Technology 12. The requirement to clean large surface areas quickly to satisfy commercial restraints. this paper focuses on the use of nickel substrates. Yue T M Hong Kong.22-29 Japanese THE ROLE OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN SPACE APPLICATION AND ITS DURABILITY Yokota R Japan. Plytron has demonstrated its ability to offer Class A surface treatment in automotive applications. Plytron. MODELING YOUNG’S MODULUS OF POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES USING A MODIFIED HALPIN-TSAI MICROMECHANICAL MODEL Yung K C. featuring Twintex skins and either foam or PP honeycomb core. Jan. USA Accession no. chemical resistance. the particle/matrix stiffness ratio. Areas covered include advanced composites for spacecraft primary structures. in applications where cleaning time is not a constraint.References and Abstracts transfer moulding (RTM) tool substrates. June 2006. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In this instance pulsed Co2 lasers can be used. high-stiffness FITS (Foamed In-situ Thermoformable Sandwich) panels. These tools are. EUROPEAN UNION.
University. ﬂuorinated or not. p. On the basis of the scanning electron micrographs of the modiﬁed systems.References and Abstracts CHINA Accession no. FRANCE. and polyhydrosilylation of alpha.968089 Item 230 Polymer Engineering and Science 46.omega-dihydrooligosiloxanes.8. Characterisation of the properties of the polyimide is focused on development of a constitutive law for use in a micromechanical analysis to predict the behaviour of PMR-15 reinforced composites. (Symposium on ‘Hybrid Polymer Systems of Industrial Importance’.22 English. depending on the nature of their backbones or of their side chains.Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie An overview on polysilalkylene or polysilarylene siloxanes.581-7 MODIFICATION OF BISPHENOL A DICYANATE ESTER BY CARBOXYL-TERMINATED LIQUID BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE AND ITS COMPOSITES Jieliang Wang. defence. Guozheng Liang. medium or high temperature) for classical polysiloxanes.2. toughening mechanism of the systems was discussed. 2006. p. computer applications). oxygen concentration and weight loss effects are considered. the results indicate that the addition of CTBN has a great inﬂuence on the curing behaviour of BADCy at lower temperatures. Wen Zhao. Stevens Institute of Technology A multidisciplinary approach focused on models and processes to predict the performance and life expectancy of high-temperature polymer matrix composite (HTPMC) materials used in a variety of aerospace applications is being developed.2005) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. Copyright 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers CHINA Accession no. 22 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2006. but little at higher temperatures.968499 Item 228 Polymer Degradation and Stability 91.968374 Item 229 Polimery 51. synthesis of alpha. Emphasis is on the implementation and extension of hierarchical models to represent the polymer behaviour/properties as a function of the degradation state. One-dimensional simulations illustrate oxidative layer growth for neat resin specimens. i. 2006. In this study. EUROPEAN UNION. Schoeppner G A Dayton. No. Poland. 67 refs. together with the properties of the different polymers. USA hybrid polymers exhibit very high thermal stability and rather low temperature ﬂexibility and.967589 Item 231 Extrusion 12.104-14 ‘HYBRID’ SILICONES . p. The elastomers prepared by crosslinking of these inorganic-organic Accession no. carboxyl-terminated liquid butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) was introduced to improve the toughness of bisphenol A dicyanate resin (BADCy). p.AN OVERVIEW ON POLYSILALKYLENE OR POLYSILARYLENE SILOXANES FLUORINATED OR NOT Guida-Pietrasanta F Montpellier. Data from the thermogravimetric analysis and heat deﬂection temperature analysis showed that the thermal properties of the modiﬁed systems were poorer than that of pristine BADCy resin. No. to avoid the possible depolymerisation observed under certain conditions (acid or base. they can be resistant to solvents or fuels. Sept. No. Hongxia Yan Shanxi. Shenghua Lue. is presented. Comparisons and correlations with experimental observations of oxidation layer growth are presented. a typical kind of the cyanate esters. Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. Pochiraju K V. Two routes are presented in more detail.2. The main synthetic routes to obtain these polymers are described.omegadienes by alpha. 15 refs.omega-dienes). but the drawback of brittleness limits their usage. Mechanical and dielectric properties of the cured resins and glass ﬁbrereinforced composites were also studied.e. i.5.1861-1869 MODELING OF OXIDATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN PMR-15 RESIN Tandon G P. followed by polycondensation of these bis silanols. Thermo-oxidative ageing is simulated with a diffusion-reaction model in which temperature. mainly since the 1970s. 2006.omega-bis silanol monomers (prepared either via an organometallic route or via hydrosilylation of alpha. Neat resin specimens of high-temperature polyimide PMR15 have been evaluated for various ageing conditions. German FIRST THERMOSET FOAM SUITABLE FOR THERMOFORMING . ‘hybrid’ silicones. Warsaw. This new class of polysiloxanes has been developed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to investigate the effects of CTBN on the curing behaviour of BADCy.Northwestern Polytechnical University Cyanate esters with excellent high-temperature properties and easy processing are well known as good resin materials used in aerospace and electrical industries. Modiﬁed systems exhibit attractive properties for the future applications in aerospace industries.e. They can thus ﬁnd applications in advanced technological areas (aerospace.MOVING THE BOUNDARIES BASF AG © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 73 .
greatly simplifying its processing. and the synergistic effects of combining nanoparticles with ﬂame-retardants or plasma treatment are discussed. with montmorillonite clay. The material can be directly compression-moulded under the usual processing conditions. The characterisation of dispersion of nanoparticles by solid-state NMR and TEM. interior walls and cabin racks to wing ﬂaps. e. WESTERN EUROPE DURABILITY OF CFRP LAMINATES UNDER THERMOMECHANICAL LOADING: A MICROMESO DAMAGE MODEL Lubineau G. Jama C ENSCL The flammability properties of nanocomposites of polymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. are discussed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Duquesne S. electric cable conduits. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. Fractured specimens were analysed by X-ray imaging and ultrasonic testing and fracture surfaces and debonded surfaces analysed by scanning electron microscopy. so that making moulded parts is easier and more efﬁcient. Control of costs is considered.233. p. 2006. petrol prices and legislation. 54 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. carpeting and seat liners is also mentioned. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. organically modiﬁed montmorillonite clay. Failure mechanisms were identiﬁed and methods of improving the performance of the copper interconnects in the composites examined. 2006. 2006. DuPont. Violeau D Paris. Airbus USA. No.University A mathematical model for predicting the degradation of laminated composites for aerospace applications under cyclic loading conditions is proposed and applied to a study of the thermal fatigue of CRFP laminates. 31 refs. Applications of Basotect TG in automotive and aircraft construction. for acoustic insulation.References and Abstracts BASF’s Basotect TG thermoset melamine resin-based foam which can be shaped under heat is brieﬂy described. UL-94 testing and limiting oxygen index.3. EUROPEAN UNION.966495 Item 236 Kunststoffe International 96.180 POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES: HOW TO REACH LOW FLAMMABILITY? Bourbigot S. polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and carbon nanotubes are reviewed in terms of heat release rate.966885 Item 235 Macromolecular Symposia No.g. which is affected by customer restraint. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. radomes and leading edges.8 FIBRE PROVIDER A brief report is presented on the use of a honeycomb composite made from DuPont Kevlar paper in the Airbus A350 for applications ranging from ﬂooring. No.966886 Item 234 Composites Science and Technology 66.1010-21 FATIGUE FRACTURE OF EMBEDDED COPPER CONDUCTORS IN MULTIFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Hyonny Kim. to take the potential of lightweight construction far beyond that of the current lightweight metal and GRP applications. polystyrene and poly(ether-b-amide) block copolymer.3. It is shown that the impregnating step that used to be indispensable for thermoforming this material is now unnecessary. p. Myounggu Park. The use of Kevlar as a replacement for traditional heavier solutions with Kevlar honeycomb is said to allow increased structural integrity while enabling significant weight savings of 30 to 50%.983-92 74 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FRANCE.967145 Item 232 Engineering 247.7-8.76-82 THE BLACK GOLD OF LIGHTWEIGHT BUILDING Bittmann E Werkstoff&Struktur The thriving market for CFRP in achieving lightweight constructions for the civilian aviation industry is discussed and the desire of the automotive industry to participate in this development is examined. Ladeveze P.967115 Item 233 Composites Science and Technology 66. on one hand. GERMANY.7-8. structural parts. on the other hand. Resin injection liquid composite moulding processes are Accession no. 2006. USA Accession no. No. p. It takes into account oxidation effects and is a hybrid model based upon continuous damage mechanics and ﬁnite fracture mechanics. March 2006. No. Hsieh K Purdue.University The fatigue fracture of copper strips embedded in a glass ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy composite for aircraft applications was investigated by means of static and fatigue testing. and the cost of using CFRP. FRANCE. 22 refs. The use of Nomex ﬁre-resistant ﬁbre in the A350’s wallcoverings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. There is shown to be a huge disparity between the desire of the automotive sector.
The mechanical and ﬁre properties of the sandwich structures are discussed in terms of aerospace applications. GERMANY. produced using low-density microspheres and a blowing agent. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2006. April 2006.44-9 AUTOCLAVE QUALITY OUTSIDE THE AUTOCLAVE? Mason K F Historically.966215 Item 237 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 100. compared to 62% with autoclaved prepreg.2. most designers of structural composite components for aerospace applications have taken for granted the need for an autoclave cure. AUSTRALIA A research team at Integral Technologies has developed a resin technology to manipulate the molecular structure of virtually any polymer allowing it to fully conduct electricity. Electriplast can be moulded on conventional injection moulding machinery. manufacturability. USA Accession no. about 100. A VARTM’s part’s stiffness. would therefore experience a knockdown of only 3-4% compared to autoclave structures. becomes commercially available and wire applications are developed from the technique. p. No.2-4. This is accomplished through a special concoction of additives and doping technique. The formula developed creates a micron structure in the polymer where electrons can move freely without resistance.2.10 SUPERCONDUCTIVE POLYMER TAKES PLASTICS TO NEW HEIGHTS Reid R Accession no.213-26 PROPERTIES AND MANUFACTURING OF SANDWICH PARTS WITH PHENOLIC FOAM CORES Haberstroh E. Schlumm M Aachen. 10 refs. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. part count. Integral Technologies Inc. Hodgkin J. When the technology. GERMANY. p. and fabric skins by a one-step sandwich moulding process in which a dry textile is impregnated with the foam system to give a sandwich laminate was investigated. a ﬂat panel antenna made from Electriplast. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3. EUROPEAN UNION. processing time. while the simplest and newest method is oven curing of prepregged parts.965680 Item 239 Canadian Plastics 64. EUROPEAN UNION. dubbed Electriplast. 5th May 2006. proportional to ﬁbre volume. USA Accession no.965454 Item 240 High-Performance Composites 14. Using vacuum assisted-resin transfer moulding of aerospace composites.000 lbs/day.965393 Item 241 Composites Technology 12. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The major reaction appears to be oxidation of the carbonyl group adjacent to a nitrogen atom in a tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane group. p. p. Before Electriplast is available to plastic processors.36-41 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 75 . surface quality and cost. Beneﬁts of out-of-autoclave processing include overall weight. VARTM is one of three processing alternatives that proponents claim can achieve aerospace-grade results without resort to autoclave cure. Other ageing temperatures were considered and differences discussed. No. V System Composites is one of a growing number of processors that have begun to question the old assumptions. which makes virtually any polymer electrically conductive. This appears to be particularly the case where this group is attached to an isomer of the diaminodiphenylsulphone hardener. the company reports that 60% ﬁbre volumes have been achieved with unidirectional fabrics.RWTH The manufacture of sandwich structures comprising semi-syntactic phenolic resin foam cores. The use of CFRP for bridge reinforcement is also mentioned. No. Feb. Krstina J. Examples are presented which illustrate that early results for all three methods are more than promising.References and Abstracts described and progress towards a mass-produced CFRP car is considered. 22 refs.-June 2006.2.965868 Item 238 Journal of Polymer Engineering 26. Feb. March 2006. 19 refs. Integral has developed PlasTenna.2210-9 CHEMISTRY OF THERMAL AGEING IN AEROSPACE EPOXY COMPOSITES Bondzic S. Integral must ﬁnd a partner to compound high volumes of the material. airplane manufacturers can replace relatively expensive and heavy copper wire with cheaper and lighter plastic wire. p. The second alternative is resin transfer moulding.C of epoxy composites used in aerospace applications. using prepregs recently developed for out-of-autoclave processing. Mardel J CSIRO Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of selected model compounds was used to study the detailed chemical reactions involved in the thermal ageing at 120 deg.
March 2006. The effects of the physico-mechanical characteristics of various types of hollow glass microspheres on the properties of composites with epoxy resin binders were investigated by SEM. including thermoplastic vulcanisates. body panels.Institute of Aircraft Materials.-Feb. despite challenging business environments. viscoelastic properties and physicomechanical properties investigated by techniques. No. p.Defence Mat. Statistics are included on estimated global carbon ﬁbre production and consumption. RUSSIA Accession no. particularly in aerospace and industrial applications.3. No. biotechnology and environmental engineering applications. 2006. Wee-Eong Teo. No. wound dressings. particularly in the automotive sector. as vibration dampers in aerospace and defence applications considered. p. headliners must be thicker elsewhere to offer increased heat impact protection and maximise noise abatement.References and Abstracts THERMOFORMABLE COMPOSITE PANELS. and on growth in composites consumption for windmill blades for 2004 to 2008. 29 refs. Speciﬁc applications considered include micro engineered scaffolds for tissue engineering. p. is presented. headliners. INDIA Accession no. Yong T. Ramakrishna Ramaseshan Singapore. abrasion.& Stores R & D Est. The effects of blend ratio and dynamic vulcanisation on blend properties were examined and the suitability of the blends. defence and security applications. No. Blends of NR and HDPE in blend ratios of 30:70. It is shown that. CFRP materials are poised to provide a strong source of revenue growth for both material suppliers and composites manufacturers during 2006. A market overview for CFRP composites in 2006. Self-reinforced composites are being marketed for underbody shields. One of the main applications of thermoformable panels in vehicle interiors is headliners. The results are discussed in terms of applications as strengthening ﬁllers for honeycomb panels used in the aviation industry 7 refs. density and compression strength measurements.1.963309 76 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .24/33 AEROSPACE WILL CONTINUE TO LEAD ADVANCED COMPOSITES MARKET IN 2006 Red C Composite Market Reports Inc.965376 Item 242 Materials Today 9. and energy generation applications. SINGAPORE Accession no. Zuwei Ma.2006.40-50 ELECTROSPUN NANOFIBERS: SOLVING GLOBAL ISSUES Seeram Ramakrishna. Stetsenko V Y Moscow. protective clothing and ﬁlters. Setua D K India. Vehicle door liners and door panels are being thermoformed using natural ﬁbre-reinforced thermoplastics. including scanning electron microscopy. by application. Typically quite thin at the edges to facilitate attachment and load transfer. PART 1 Gardiner G The advent of thermoformable panels is driving huge growth in the use of reinforced thermoplastics.964375 Item 245 Composites Manufacturing (USA) 22. WORLD Accession no. Kazutoshi Fujihara. 1999 to 2009. flexural and impact testing. USA. Stekloplastik Research and Production Organisation Co. WORLD and 70:30 were prepared in a Brabender Plasticorder and their morphologies. load ﬂoors and parcel shelves.965089 Item 243 KGK:Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe 59.National University The use of electrospinning to produce highly porous nanoﬁbre meshes from different materials is described and a review is presented of the literature on applications of electrospun nanofibres in healthcare applications. 64 refs.T/31-5 INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICOMECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES ON THE PROPERTIES OF SPHERE-FILLED PLASTICS Sokolov I I. p. commercial jet transport deliveries and business and general aviation aircraft deliveries for 2005 to 2008. 50:50 Accession no. photovoltaic cells and polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cells. Dolmatovskii M G.2006.3. Jan.45-8 STUDY OF DAMPING BEHAVIOR OF RUBBERPLASTIC BLEND Pandey A K. Panel products have been developed from reinforced thermoplastic composites at both ends of the property and cost spectrum. Three different ﬁbreglass-reinforced PP materials have been developed to help fabricators achieve variations in part thickness in a single forming cycle through a mechanical process called lofting. on current North American market demand for carbon ﬁbres. DMTA and hardness. which have become increasingly complex.964782 Item 244 International Polymer Science and Technology 33. Jan. on military ﬁxed wing aircraft deliveries. bumpers. polymer batteries. Deev I S. membranes for water treatment.1.
but tankage for super-cold liquid fuels is still dominated by metals. 2006. WESTERN EUROPE Carbon ﬁbre supplier Toray Industries says that along with the recovery in aircraft demand. Lee J H. Papers are divided into the following sessions: adhesives. Outside of aerospace.) Manufacturing with plastics often involves a bonding step from packaging. concerns still exist about the potential for leaks. Noveon Inc.961578 Item 248 Reinforced Plastics 50. EUROPEAN UNION. which achieves full consolidation between plies using heat and compaction supplied by the ﬁbre placement machine head. The company believes that global demand for PAN-based carbon ﬁbres will grow at over 10% a year. p. USA Accession no. The results clearly demonstrated the potential of these room temperature curing epoxy resin adhesives not only for automotive applications. USA. This is a continually developing ﬁeld and the experts at the Second International Conference on Joining Plastics discussed the best methods and options for different applications. Rapra Technology Ltd.2005. termed in situ ﬁbre placement. mode I fracture energy versus addition level of nano-silica and lap shear performance of thixotropic adhesives versus addition level of nanosilica. such as launch vehicle bodies..Technology & Medicine. resistance welding and hot plate welding. UK. Toray is also seeing increasing demand from large-scale industrial applications requiring carbon ﬁbre. The company’s philosophy is that carbon/ epoxy cryogenic tanks can function successfully without liners or even conventional metallic bosses and ﬁttings. No. Eger C. p. bonding ﬂuoroplastics.3.6. infrared welding. p. Aspects examined included the lap shear strength on untreated aluminium for different rubber concentrations. London. UK. Lacrampe M. deepwater oilﬁeld solutions.000 tons in 2008. No.22-7 UPDATE ON COMPOSITE TANKS FOR CRYOGENS Black S Lightweight and strong composite materials are already deployed in many aerospace applications.962491 Item 247 High-Performance Composites 13. lower cost. p.13 POLYAMIDE-6/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: A CRITICAL REVIEW Gupta B.57-60 ROOM TEMPERATURE CURING EPOXY ADHESIVES: SYNERGY BETWEEN ELASTOMERS AND NANOPARTICLES Sprenger S. pump-fed or gravity-fed tanks of large dimensions for launch vehicles. pretreatment. heat tool welding. relatively low pressure. (UK.22-4 POPULARITY OF CARBON FIBRE Jacob A © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 77 .961510 Item 249 Adhesion 05: Ninth International Conference on the Science and Technology of Adhesion and Adhesives. Proceedings of a Conference held Oxford.961328 Item 250 Polymers and Polymer Composites 14. Despite years of testing. The focus of work at Lockheed Martin Space Systems has been on reusable. The company is currently expanding its carbon fibre and prepreg production capacity and establishing a global supply network. aerospace and construction projects. London. resistance welding.Minerals & Mining) The synergy between elastomeric toughening agents and silica nanoparticles in room temperature curing epoxy resin adhesives was studied. March 2006. Mohammed R D Hanse Chemie AG.2005. reaching 34. adhesive testing. 21 papers Proceedings of a conference held London. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. composite joints.Imperial College of Science. electronic and medical devices to large scale automotive.1.000 tons in 2005. Kinloch A J. the aircraft industry is undergoing a rapid shift to composite materials. rotor blades for wind turbines and automotive projects progressing from test phases into mass production. ultrasonic welding and vibration welding. No. 7th-9th Sept. from around 25. Wilson Composites has developed composite tankage for Air Force space programmes. but also for bonding of composites and for aerospace applications.) 8 refs. laser welding. 25th-26th April 2006 JOINING PLASTICS 2006: 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON JOINING PLASTICS (Rapra Technology Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Engineers have developed a new ﬁbre placement technique. Nov.Institute of Materials. Krawczak P Ecole des Mines de Douai Accession no. 2005. GERMANY. WORLD Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 246 Shawbury. IOM Communications. Taylor A C. These include pressure vessels. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. due to microcracking of traditional carbon/epoxy composite laminates at cryogenic temperatures. Carbon ﬁbre materials also offer the opportunity to enable new. (The printed version is an extended abstract of the conference paper. 2006.
. as the core in foam sandwich constructions in aircraft or automotive parts. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. missiles. In the Delta 2 satellite launch vehicle. GERMANY. advanced polymeric composite materials are replacing metals in high structural applications such as in aircraft. membranes and textiles. are discussed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. polymer/ clay interactions. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. INDIA Accession no. p. Moneke M.University Institute of Chemical Technology Advanced composites consist of high strength reinforcing agents or fibres combined with high performance matrix resin. corrosion-resistant applications.1.2006. compatibilisers. SPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. This leads to oversizing and extended material consumption. spacecraft. GERMANY.124-32 POLYMER COMPOSITES: HIGH PERFORMANCE MATERIALS Shertukde V V.g. 9 refs. Suppl. No.958891 Item 251 ANTEC 2005.957856 Item 254 Popular Plastics and Packaging 51. ﬁbre reinforcement and matrix materials available. p. Ma. with particular reference to preparation.8/49 WORLD OF COMPOSITES: AN OVERVIEW This article provides an overview of the properties of composites. EUROPEAN UNION. wind power and fuel cells.957876 Item 253 Composites Technology 11. They differ from conventional FRPs in the requirements for superior performance under extreme mechanical.957832 78 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .1. ﬂame retardant materials. both thermoplastic and thermoset. EUROPEAN UNION. civil infrastructure. Because of their light weight and superior properties. The preparation and processing of polyamide-6/ clay nanocomposites is discussed with reference to intercalation and exfoliation. and thermal degradation.2005. Dec. organo-modiﬁcation. EUROPEAN UNION. 22 refs. e. the service life of rotor blades was increased from approximately 400-500 ﬂight hours for the initial metal blade.5 LONG-TERM TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER FOAMS Kraatz A. 1st-5th May. automotive.References and Abstracts This review describes the current research situation with regard to polyamide-6/clay nanocomposites. together with high performance ﬁbres and applications. 79 refs. This paper presents experimental results of long-term tests and indicates a theory to take into account the difference of tensile and compressive behaviour of foams. No. processing and application issues.958138 Item 252 Reinforced Plastics 50.6. sporting goods and joint replacements.. aerospace. No. to more than 10.2006. Ct. The proposed method leads to an improved mechanical design and as a consequence a reduction of mass of construction parts. By using the Rohacell foam-cored design. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. This theory is based on a strength hypothesis and can be implemented in commercial ﬁnite-element programs. Therefore the core of sandwich constructions is not taken into consideration for the mechanical design. Rane R Mumbai. electrical or environmental conditions. The excellent resistance to compression creep of the PMI foam. pp. So far the mechanical behaviour of rigid foams has not been precisely determined. oil and gas. plus its ability to fully support the prepreg during the cure results in a high dimensional stability plus a perfect consolidation of the prepreg. construction. The manufacturing of high performance advanced helicopter rotor blades using Rohacell structural sandwich cores is state-of-the-art technology. barrier layers in packaging. Markets include boat building.44-8 APPLICATIONS FOR PMI FOAMS IN AEROSPACE SANDWICH STRUCTURES Seibert H Rohm GmbH The history of aerospace applications using polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam started in 1971.000 ﬂight hours today. fabrication methods and tooling.Technical University (SPE) Polymeric rigid foams are increasingly used for highly loaded mechanical applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Kolupaev V Darmstadt. polymorphism. Properties and areas of end-use application are described for automotive parts. satellites. Fibre demand and supply is brieﬂy discussed. 2005. Proceedings of the 63rd SPE Annual conference held Boston. part design criteria. PMI Accession no. Today. FRANCE. Jan. sports and recreation. p. foam was used as a bi-functional core serving as a mandrel and as a structural member of the sandwich contributing to buckling resistance. Matrix resins. WORLD Brook¿eld. PMI foams are listed in more than 170 aerospace speciﬁcations worldwide. Jan. when the material was successfully introduced as structural sandwich core for helicopter fuselage panels.
The chemistry. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Ca.. 2005.. and current developments. Material development is described with reference to evolution of thermoplastic matrices and to thermoplastic composite material forms. Meyer J NuSil Technology (SAMPE) The need for a low outgas. high performance adhesive has initiated development of a new experimental silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) able to pass ASTM E-595. Covina. A comparison is made of the frames and panels made from the composites with those fabricated from aluminium and the cost of the process is compared with that of a prepreg hand lay-up/autoclave method..15 LOW OUTGAS SILICONE PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVE FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Riegler B. pp.C using traditional RTM techniques. Materials and Processing Technology . NETHERLANDS. This new system is processable at 177 deg. These preforms are resin transfer moulded into I-beam frames and panels using epoxy resin as the matrix polymer and the tensile properties of the frames and panels determined. coconsolidation.4. Paper 125. 10 refs. Process technology and product applications are then considered. It has been actively working in the development of high performance systems for resin transfer moulding (RTM) processes for aerospace and industrial composite applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Nippi Corp. An overview of the manufacturing technologies is given and future prospects are examined. Materials and Processing Technology . The cured composite properties are superior to the traditional epoxy systems.2005. Chaudhari A Huntsman Advanced Materials (SAMPE) Huntsman Advanced Materials’ Structural Composites group is a leading supplier of matrix systems for Accession no. The 177 deg. Yamamoto T Murata Machinery Ltd. Blyakman Y. USA Accession no. JAPAN advanced composites.365-83 CFRP USING BRAIDED PREFORMS/RTM PROCESS FOR AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS Uozumi T.19-27 THERMOPLASTICS IN AEROSPACE. This is supported by the fact that benzoxazine chemistry has very low moisture absorption characteristics. including low-cost processing.956980 Item 258 SAMPE 2004.60 years of SAMPE Progress.C with excellent thermal mechanical properties. Ca. A novel preforming process which utilises a conventional tubular braiding technique and a deformation technique to manufacture near-net-shaped preforms is described and applied to the fabrication of preforms from carbon ﬁbre bundles. The overall composite thermomechanical properties are excellent and comparable to the high performance prepreg resin systems. No. processing and performance of this system as well as the rationale behind the selection of different components and their effect on the overall system properties are described in detail.7. Kito A. thermally stable. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.957585 Item 256 Advanced Composite Materials 14. 16th-20th May 2004. The cured neat resin modulus is signiﬁcantly higher than the traditional epoxy systems. Details of neat resin and composite processing and processing kinetics are discussed. and modulus retention under hot wet conditions is particularly excellent. 10 refs. 2004. USA Accession no. 8 refs.-Dec. Covina. p. 2004. The performance goals are to maintain performance under load at temperatures above 175 deg. p. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. thermofolding and press-forming.C cured composite has glass transition temperatures in excess of 200 deg.. low outgassing requirements of 1% or less total mass loss (TML) and 0. Materials and Processing Technology © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 79 . pp12 NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE RTM SYSTEM Tontisakis A. the advent of welding.60 years of SAMPE Progress. The system has superior thermo-oxidative stability. No. Nov. Ca.. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. shear. Ca.957525 Item 257 SAMPE 2004.References and Abstracts Item 255 SAMPE Journal 41.1% or less collectable volatile condensable materials (CVCM).956976 Item 259 SAMPE 2004. NEW PRODUCTS THROUGH INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY Offringa A Stork Fokker AESP BV The use of thermoplastic composites in aerospace applications is discussed. loop tack. 2 refs. Paper 121. 16th-20th May 2004.C and have similar properties to other low outgassed silicone PSAs as tested by peel. release force and Blunt probe tack. A new RTM system based on a novel benzoxazine/epoxy chemistry has been developed and is in the ﬁnal phase of commercial introduction to the market place.
production runs ranging from ten to two thousand are economical. Materials and Processing Technology .17 MODIFIERS OFFER LOW TEMPERATURE PERFORMANCE The Ultra Low Temperature (-60C) 1500 series of Abust and Mebust impact modiﬁers from PolyChemAlloy are finding increasing success in automotive. Accession no. 2004. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. 16th-20th May 2004. The development.. Because Prometa resins can be processed using low cost tooling. it became clear that they would meet or exceed the physical properties of the ﬁrst generation materials and would offer the beneﬁts of reduced sensitivity to impurities and significantly less odour evolution. pp. Ruthenium based formulations were also demonstrated in VARTM and RIM applications. pp.956975 Item 260 SAMPE 2004. They have less than 0. These include parts for the corrosion industry. 16th-20th May 2004. PolyChem Alloy Inc. USA Accession no. 16th-20th May 2004. Each of these formulations targets speciﬁc applications. (SAMPE) Development of a next generation BMI structural adhesive film for co-cure over core bonding applications is described. Ca. Cymetech began developing polyDCPD formulations based on a new family of ruthenium catalysts. No. it is brieﬂy reported. Conductivity data on cast nanoﬁbre ﬁlled polyimide ﬁlms are presented. McDaniel T. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.. 2 refs. Matuszewski M. high aspect ratio (to form a network).956960 Item 261 SAMPE 2004. impact resistance. Materials and Processing Technology . making them a candidate for this application. marine and cable applications. Covina. Cymetech introduced four Prometa formulations for the resin transfer (RTM) and rotational moulding industry. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. and has been demonstrated in commercial parts.C and is also suitable for bonding of metals and the secondary bonding of composite substrates. The primary challenge in making polyimide ﬁlms is achievement of adequate nanoﬁbre dispersion. Paper 120.References and Abstracts .. Paper 96. Nov. moderate electrical conductivity and excellent dimensional stability (one of the properties for which polyimide is useful in aerospace applications.6 CARBON NANOFIBER FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYIMIDES Jacobsen R L.. including very small diameter (to ﬁt within a thin ﬁlm). 2004. Carbon nanofibres have superior properties. This allows the co-cured structure not to be resin starved and provides very low void content cured honeycomb structures.956907 80 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Walters K R.. Ca. Ca. The new BMI adhesive ﬁlm provides a service temperature of 232 deg. The company adds that the low Tg core enables Mebust and Abust to be used in low temperature applications to create products that will withstand -50C and remain ductile. Trzaskos B. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach.University (SAMPE) Low cost carbon nanoﬁbres have been used to formulate improved versions of conductive polyimide. Ca. have no melting point and can be easily mixed with a wide variety of high temperature engineering resins. Covina.956951 Item 262 Plastics Additives and Compounding 7. Ca.13 DCPD .60 years of SAMPE Progress. 2004. as well as size separation of nanoﬁbre agglomerates to promote adequate dispersion in polyimide. Dayton.05% moisture and are free ﬂowing. p. complicated by nanofibre entanglement and surface wetting problems.THE PROMISE FULFILLED Toner S A M.6. This adhesive ﬁlm is designed to co-cure with the Cycom 5250-4 BMI prepreg but prevent the ﬂow of prepreg resin into the honeycomb cells. are described. Boyd J Cytec Engineered Materials Inc.. with a butadiene content in excess of 50%.7 DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE BMI STRUCTURAL ADHESIVE FILM FOR CO-CURE OVER HONEYCOMB CORE AND OTHER BONDING APPLICATIONS Kohli D K. Glasgow D G. Covina. Wang C-S Applied Sciences Inc. Paper 105. USA Accession no. Methods for surface modiﬁcation of nanoﬁbres. Ca. Parts made with Prometa resins offer superior toughness. Frost J O Cymetech LLC (SAMPE) Three years ago.60 years of SAMPE Progress. relatively cheaply and in quantity. 2 refs. Leslie P. heat distortion temperature and chemical resistance over other materials of construction. aerospace. processing and applications of this new structural adhesive ﬁlm for aerospace bonding applications are described. USA USA Accession no.2005.60 years of SAMPE Progress.) Nanoﬁbres in the diameter range from 60-200 nm (as distinct from smaller nanotubes) are now available. parts for agri-business. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. In 2003. The company says that these virgin pelletised impact modiﬁers. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. tanks for aerospace and industrial components for a variety of applications. As these formulations evolved..-Dec. pp.
2005. 2005. No. Subramanian N. Properties of grades of polysulphone. Volkova T S All-Russia Scientiﬁc Research Institute of Aviation Materials The use of flame retardant injection mouldable thermoplastics in aircraft structures is examined with respect to both structural and decorative applications. polycarbonate. Pardini L C. Sao Paulo. Costa M L. 32 refs.3615-23 PROCESSING AND HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES Botelho E C.952891 Item 267 Materials Research 8. No. Ogisu T Tokyo.3. Sao Paulo. 20 refs. July 2005. Kuwahara J.45-6) RUSSIA three-dimensional finite element analyses to predict energy release rates for a stiffened skin structure with aerospace applications. p. 1st-5th May. Sytyi Y V.Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial. No. Beider E Y. Okabe Y. loaded in bending and containing a delamination between its skin and a hat-shaped stiffener are compared.University The use of three-dimensional crack tip element and Accession no. p. Yu L Syracuse.. Hitachi Cable Ltd.. and PBTP composites are discussed.955497 Item 264 Composites Science and Technology 65. DMA and rheometry. The development of small diameter polyimide-coated optical fibre and its fibre Bragg grating sensor for embedding inside composite laminates for damage monitoring in composite structures is described.9. JAPAN Accession no. Perﬁlova D N. and the effects of lay-up on energy release rate distributions are discussed. Botelho E C. 17 refs. p.953856 Item 265 Journal of Composite Materials 39.1819-42 ENERGY RELEASE RATE PREDICTION IN STIFFENED-SKIN STRUCTURE USING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CRACK TIP ELEMENT ANALYSIS Davidson B D.953765 Item 266 Journal of Materials Science 40.Centro Universitario Salesiano The cure kinetics and rheological properties of a thermoplastic-toughened carbon ﬁbre fabric-reinforced epoxy resin used in aerospace applications were investigated using DSC.2575-87 DEVELOPMENT OF SMART COMPOSITE STRUCTURES WITH SMALL-DIAMETER FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS FOR DAMAGE DETECTION: QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF DELAMINATION LENGTH IN CFRP LAMINATES USING LAMB WAVE SENSING Takeda N. Ct. UNESP.University. p. A damage detection system for quantitative evaluation of delamination length in carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin cross-ply laminates using Lamb wave sensing is discussed in terms of aerospace applications. Abakumova N M. 2005. Rezende M C Sao Paolo. p. Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd.References and Abstracts Item 263 International Polymer Science and Technology 32.15-16. The results are discussed in terms of optimisation of the cure cycle to produce composites suitable for structural components. 2005. Schumacher © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 81 .. BRAZIL Accession no. No.952847 Item 268 ANTEC 2005. No. kojima S. Ma. which are recommended for such application. Nanguneri S R. de Paiva J M F. This paper examines thermoplastic materials that satisfy fire resistance requirements AP-25.University The effects of curing and prolonged hygrothermal conditioning on the dynamic mechanical properties of glass ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resins with aerospace applications were investigated by DSC and vibration damping measurements. BRAZIL Accession no. T/53-4 FIREPROOF INJECTION-MOULDING THERMOPLASTICS Petrova G N. p. 2005. Brookﬁeld. Rumyantseva T V.20.2005. The results are discussed in terms of matrix plasticisation by moisture absorption leading to lower stiffness under damping tests.317-22 CHARACTERIZATION OF CURE OF CARBON/ EPOXY PREPREG USED IN AEROSPACE FIELD Cosat M L. Rezende M C Brazil.Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco. No. and which are recommended for the production of parts by injection moulding. July-Sept.1.4 EXTRUSION RHEOLOGY OF GLASS-FIBERFILLED POLYPROPYLENE MELTS Rao N S. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. SPE. Proceedings of the 63rd SPE Annual conference held Boston. USA Accession no. The results for an isotropic conﬁguration and a variety of graphite ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin layups are considered.14. pp. 38 refs.
INDIA.224-31 Portuguese ESTABLISHMENT OF CURE CYCLE OF AERONAUTIC PREPREGS Costa M L. EUROPEAN UNION. The proposed modelling could be applied to any ﬁlled thermoplastic melt.952246 Item 271 Reinforced Plastics 49.4541-8 ANALYSIS OF PEEL ARM CURVATURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FRACTURE TOUGHNESS IN METAL-POLYMER LAMINATES Kawashita L F. The ﬁlm is co-cured with the panels to deliver a high quality edge ﬁnish. UK. Nov. TAIWAN Accession no. p. 8 refs.17. AF3070 FST is a double-sided. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. EUROPEAN UNION. and also in the manufacturing of furniture and sports goods are well-known. The maximum curvature of the peel arm and the root rotation angle were calculated using a beam on elastic foundation model and high resolution digital photography was utilised to establish the accuracy of the analytical approach employed. 27 refs. ceiling and ﬂoor panels. partition walls and ﬁxed wall.952482 Item 269 Journal of Materials Science 40. Hsu C Y Lunghwa. Transfer Mathematics Technology (SPE) The advantages of glass-reinforced plastics in various branches of industry. foaming ﬁlm with an advanced epoxy adhesive. knowledge of the melt ﬂow of the composite material is required. EU.2005. p. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Item 270 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 15. EU. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. The results are compared with predicted values and the effects of web length and thickness on compressive strength of J-stiffened panels are discussed in terms of failure mechanisms. such as the automotive and aircraft industries. July-Sept. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. An equation was derived to correlate the melt viscosity with the ﬁbre content. PP and a rubber-toughened epoxy adhesive for automotive applications.739-46 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF CO-CURED COMPOSITE PANELS Huang C K. In all these applications.Imperial College of Science. smoke and toxicity (FST) regulations. This paper is a contribution to the quantitative description of the rheology of glass-ﬁbreﬁlled polypropylene melts. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Rezende M C. melt temperature and ﬁbre concentration on the melt viscosity was studied by means of a high-pressure capillary rheometer. Sept. EU. with the aim of establishing a cure cycle for producing high-performance autoclave moulded composites for aerospace applications.5.Technology & Medicine Metal-polymer laminates consisting of various aluminium alloys as the substrate and various polymers as the adhesive were subjected to variable angle fixed arm peel and mandrel peel tests.2005. Williams J G London. Botelho E C The cure kinetics and rheological properties of various prepreg epoxy systems were investigated using techniques.2005. No. and mathematical modelling.950947 Item 273 High-Performance Composites Accession no. splice cores and ﬁll gaps in honeycomb sandwich panels. USA. using a modiﬁed shift factor taking the melt temperature and the ﬁbre content into account. UK.University of Science & Technology The structural strength of co-cured joints in skin and J-shaped stiffeners in carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composite panels used in aerospace applications was investigated by compression testing. a toughened epoxy system for aerospace applications. WESTERN EUROPE. 2005. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE. The effect of shear rate. Indian Institute of Technology. helping to ensure compliance with FST requirements.952252 82 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . AF3070 FST can be used to ﬁnish edges. No. Moore D R.10. BRAZIL Accession no. 3 refs. in order to design machinery for processing the ﬁlled polymer. Plastic bending energy (Gp) and adhesive fracture toughness (Ga) were determined from the mandrel peel tests and a global energy-balance analysis was employed to predict Ga and Gp in the case of the ﬁxed arm tests. p. p.3.18 ADHESIVE FOR AIRCRAFT INTERIORS It is brieﬂy reported that 3M has launched what is claimed to be the ﬁrst adhesive ﬁlm for aerospace sandwich panels that fulﬁls stand alone ﬁre. No. Adhesives employed were a rubber-toughened epoxy adhesive for general engineering applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.951611 Item 272 Materials and Manufacturing Processes 20.References and Abstracts G Plastics Solutions International. Typical applications include overhead luggage compartments. WESTERN EUROPE. including differential scanning calorimetry.
Upcoming applications include sacriﬁcial ablative materials for rocket motor casings.7. No. The resulting benzoxazine polymers have improved thermal properties including higher char yields and glass transition temperatures in excess of 250 deg. Metal Matrix Composites began to make and explore Tier 2 opportunities for metal nanoﬁlaments.15-8 NANOCOMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY Majumdar S Nanocomposites can be polymers of thermoplastics. thermogravimetric analysis. The excellent air retention properties of butyl/halobutyl is well known in the tyre industry and this rubber is extensively used in inner tubes and in inner liners in tubeless tyres. promises not only a better understanding of existing nanomaterials. Three years ago.15.84-7 FIRE RESISTANT POLYMERS Kumar V.5.340-7 LOW PROOF LOAD PREDICTION OF ULTIMATE LOADS OF FIBERGLASS/EPOXY RESIN I-BEAMS USING ACOUSTIC EMISSION Fatzinger E C. p. synthesizing ladder polymers and by eliminating weak thermooxidative links.948909 Item 276 Rubber India 57.5588 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MALEIMIDE AND NORBORNENE FUNCTIONALIZED BENZOXAZINES Ishida H. government and private laboratories. Other applications including automotive fuel systems. domestic and construction. electrical. polymerisation mechanism. In this category.2005. Sept. Recent work by the Air Force Research Laboratory and others has involved using carbon nanotubes in shape memory polymers to make actuators. Florida. Singh A Sant Longowal. These materials provide improvements over other known composites in thermal. Performance of these polymers can be judged numerically by carrying out Limiting Oxygen Index tests. designed and built with precise control of the nanoscale distribution and orientation of the nanoparticles in the matrix.30-6 FROM SPECIALTY FILLERS TO SPACE ELEVATORS Pottish N Considerable research. cost-effective processing techniques and methods for using their unique properties in practical applications. Using butyl and clay as ﬁller with high aspect ratio. INDIA Accession no. 6 refs. The results obtained using a Kohonen self-organising map coupled with multiple linear regression are discussed in comparison with those obtained using a back-propagation network. Currently. p. No. USA Aeronautical University The development of a procedure for the proof testing of composite glass ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin laminated I-beam sandwich structures with polyurethane foam cores as used in aerospace applications by ultimate load prediction based on acoustic emission testing together with statistical analysis is described. and resulting polymers was carried out using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Sept. No. 2005. and capable of polymerisation by different free radical mechanisms than conventional benzoxazines. These could be deﬁned as “true” nanocomposites. mechanical.2005. biomedical and aerospace are outlined. the company is exploring the use of nickel nanoﬁlaments to create conductive paths in polymers such as adhesives. 8 refs. Singh M. Ohba S Case Western Reserve University Synthesis of a two types of monofunctional benzoxazines with maleimide or norbornene functionalities. p. automotive. p.C. together with more efficient. 6 refs. Tier 3 nanocomposites are still very much in the basic research realm right now.948789 Item 277 Polymer 46. electrical and air barrier properties. is described. thermosets or elastomers. No. but new materials as well.. No.2005. coatings and elastomers. stiffness. INDIA Accession no.950743 Item 274 Popular Plastics and Packaging 50. Sept.950599 Item 275 Journal of Testing and Evaluation 33. Characterisation of benzoxazine. and glass Accession no. antioxidants.9. Heat resistance of polymers can be enhanced by incorporating/adding crosslinking. crystallinity. the air retention properties could be improved to the level of 50 times better than that of normal butyl compound. USA Accession no. in progress in university. July 2005. It was observed that monomer viscosity was not signiﬁcantly affected by maleimide or norbornene functionalisation. Lightning-strike materials probably will be one of the earliest applications that will emerge. p. Tier 1 nanocomposites can be viewed as an evolution of ﬁlled polymer technology. and viscosity measurements. nanoclays are expanding into aerospace applications.References and Abstracts 13.Institute of Engineering & Technology Heat or ﬂame resistance of polymers is of vital importance in applications such as aerospace.Embry-Riddle © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 83 .5. differential scanning calorimetry. Hill E K Vector Scientiﬁc Inc.
5. Friedrich L. Various material combinations are analysed and compared to aerospace grade composite materials. (SAMPE) The pultrusion resin transfer moulding (PRTM) process has been developed for the fabrication of high performance structural composite proﬁles. p. Ng D Hexcel Corp.946212 Item 280 Journal of Advanced Materials 37. s presented on the prediction of the dynamic strength of composites for aerospace applications using ultrasound. 12 refs.7. is overcome by developing speciﬁc matrix and textile materials for this process. food. for example in aerospace. Magee Plastics. and thermoformers are now seeking out higher performance resins . GE ADVANCED MATERIALS EU.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION. and greatly reduce he space it occupies. No. Carr M Ensinger-Penn Fibre. electronics. impregnated and cured using a speciﬁcally developed apparatus combining the positive aspects of RTM and pultrusion. Calculations are made of thermal stresses using parameters established by ultrasound and thermography techniques and temperature gradients ﬂuctuating from -8 to 16C predicted using an approximate solution. In PRTM. No. EUROPEAN UNION. July 2005. USA Accession no.61-6 DYNAMIC LOCAL MECHANICAL AND THERMAL STRENGTH PREDICTION USING NDE FOR MATERIAL PARAMETERS EVALUATION OF AEROSPACE COMPONENTS Golfman Y A report presented on prediction of the dynamic strength of composites for aerospace applications using ultrasound. The resulting constant cross-section profiles exhibit excellent dimensional and structural qualities. Ca. 37 refs.946032 Item 281 SAMPE 2004.945700 84 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. digital radiography and thermography as non-destructive testing techniques. USA an example of an aerospace application. it is possible to reduce the weight of standard automotive wiring by a quarter. Ca. 2004. Statistical models are used to predict the probability of local cracking. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Materials and Processing Technology .1.35 FLEXIBLE POLYMER MAKES THINNER CABLES Shelley T By adding elastomeric properties to polyphenylene oxide (PPO) to make it ﬂexible for wire and cable covering applications. Statistical models are used to predict the probability of local cracking. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. USA Accession no.a search which has lead them to polyphenylene sulphide (PPS). X-ray. Kelly S. USA Accession no.946902 Item 278 Plastics Technology 51. high performance textiles are continuously shaped. GE Advanced Materials has now launched “Flexible Noryl” PPO.946225 Item 279 Eureka 25. Paper 73 pp.60 years of SAMPE Progress. UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. p. speciﬁcally with respect to their lower compression strength compared to prepreg tape based composites. These exciting results are encouraging Hexcel to now fully explore the possibilities of this interesting technology. This article looks at the opportunities which this resin offers. Calculations are made of thermal stresses using parameters established by ultrasound and thermography techniques and temperature gradients ﬂuctuating from -8 to 16C predicted using an approximate solution. digital radiography and thermography as nondestructive testing techniques. WESTERN EUROPE. US. A nose cap fabricated from orthotropic carbon-carbon or graphite epoxy is used as Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. May 2005.References and Abstracts transition temperatures were affected by the free radical initiator used for polymerisation. which should be of exceptional interest to automotive and aerospace electrical engineers alike.8 PULTRUSION RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF ADVANCED AEROSPACE MOLDING OF ADVANCED AEROSPACE STRUCTURES Hillermerer R W. A nose cap fabricated from orthotropic carboncarbon or graphite epoxy is used as an example of an aerospace application.. chemical.2005. Jan. Mechanical testing of notched properties as well as of compression after impact properties shows that PRTM materials reach the same level as currently qualiﬁed aerospace RTM and prepreg materials.78/83 THERMOFORMING PPS Gehrig M J. Covina. X-ray. particularly for aerospace applications. Ticona The process of thermoforming has advanced as applications have become increasingly challenging and demanding. 16th-20th May 2004. and transportation applications. UK. The inherent disadvantage of conventional RTM materials.. p. No.
WESTERN EUROPE. 4 refs..60 years of SAMPE Progress. Covina. However. Miyoshi K.11 ELECTRON BEAM CURED RESINS AND COMPOSITES: IMPROVED TWO-STEP CURING MATERIALS FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 85 . The results of the high temperature erosion and vane cascade erosion rig tests. Babow D A Adherent Technologies Inc. 2004. Gosau J-M. USA There has been much interest recently concerning liquid moulding as an alternative process for the fabrication of high performance composite structures. Ca. 16th-20th May 2004. NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) and RollsRoyce have developed erosion resistant coatings that can Accession no. Maskell R Cytec Engineered Materials Inc. are discussed. excellent thermal stability. for many applications in the aerospace and transportation industries. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Haller H S Rolls-Royce Ltd. (SAMPE) extend PMC component life and are applicable to current available and advanced high temperature PMCs. Ca. etc. Cupp R. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. the ability to cure large and irregularly shaped parts. Adherent Technologies has recently been developing a graft polyimide-siloxane system incorporating functionalities amenable to crosslinking under electron beam irradiation. Wesson S P. However. The VARTM process offers signiﬁcant manufacturing advantages but the method requires resin systems displaying low viscosities at ambient temperatures.. Thai B. The use of composites could be even more advantageous if the sand erosion life of the component were extended. Ca. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 2004. recent advances relating to in-situ toughening technology (hybrid fabrics with epoxy soluble thermoplastic ﬁbres) potentially offer a route to primary structural applications using room temperature injectable resin systems. Ca. Tabakoff W. Paper 52. The majority of these liquid moulding processes require resin systems characterised by their low viscosities for extended periods of time.60 years of SAMPE Progress. Materials and Processing Technology . Cytec Engineered Materials Ltd. Covina. 10 refs. The incorporation of these materials into carbon ﬁbre tapes and the fabrication of e-beam cured composite plates from these tapes are discussed. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. A novel approach to toughened composites via the use of a room temperature injectable system is described. USA.. (SAMPE) Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are attractive for use in propulsion engine components due to their high speciﬁc strength. EU. Bowman C L. high strength and high toughness). Covina.g.. pp. The performance of SANPRES and SANRES. Covina. Siefker R G. and the ability to use inexpensive tooling.University. Cincinnati. thereby reducing maintenance costs.NASA. 2004. 16th-20th May 2004.Glenn Research Center.. US. 16th-20th May 2004. Ca. Materials and Processing Technology . 2004. State-of-the-art preform assembly methods are also demonstrated. Ca. Aldridge M. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach.. 16th-20th May 2004.15 DURABLE ANTI-EROSION COATINGS FOR POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Naik S K.. pp. AADC.. Paper 39.945669 Item 284 SAMPE 2004. Materials and Processing Technology . SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach.& Co. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Ca. Sutter J K. USA Accession no. two similar erosion resistant coating systems subjected to engine test conditions on Rolls-Royce AE 3007 engine bypass vanes. vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding. Paper 42. and the ability of the preconditioned coated vanes to withstand the thermomechanical strains after more than 1050 hours of testing on a Rolls-Royce AE 3007 engine are reviewed. coated component shaker (vibratory) table tests to pre-condition vanes to simulate an accelerated fraction of vane life prior to engine tests. EUROPEAN UNION. e-beam processable resins currently available do not meet the performance specifications (e.8 FABRICATION OF ELECTRON-BEAM PROCESSABLE POLYIMIDE TAPES AND COMPOSITES Hoyt Haight A E. UK. including resin transfer moulding.13 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LIQUID MOLDING MATERIALS AND PROCESSES FOR DAMAGE TOLERANT APPLICATIONS Pederson C..60 years of SAMPE Progress.60 years of SAMPE Progress. Materials and Processing Technology .. Lo Faro C.945666 Item 285 SAMPE 2004.S. 2 refs. pp. The resin impregnation of dry ﬁbre preforms can be accomplished by a variety of methods.945679 Item 283 SAMPE 2004. Paper 38.References and Abstracts Item 282 SAMPE 2004. (SAMPE) Electron beam (e-beam) curing of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) is highly desirable from a manufacturing standpoint in that signiﬁcant cost savings may be realised from the reduced cycle times. Ca. Haller H.. pp.
the lower durometer elastomer produces the highest loss factor. 16th-20th May 2004. No. The reinforcements are impregnated with a series of PU elastomers ranging from ﬂexible to rigid in hardness. Chen H Xian Jiaotong. pp. glass ﬁbre cloth and chopped glass ﬁbre mat is considered. The aim is to toughen these resins. Materials and Processing Technology .944662 Item 289 Advanced Composite Materials 14. However. JAPAN Accession no. The results are discussed in comparison with data previously obtained for an alternative carbon ﬁbre-reinforced polyimide material. 9 refs. No. while the cationic epoxies cannot cure under these conditions. can be cured in the presence of nucleophilic compounds present in the formulation or on the ﬁbres. 4 refs.Technology & Medicine Several peel tests. Results of thermal and mechanical testing of both cured resins and continuous ﬁbre composites prepared from the same resins are discussed.945665 Item 286 SAMPE 2004.6. 9 refs. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.References and Abstracts Bykanova L G. p.211-28 IMPACT DAMAGE AND CAI STRENGTH OF MR50K/PET15 CARBON/TOUGHPOLYIMIDE COMPOSITE AT ROOM AND HIGH TEMPERATURES Katoh H.. Byrne C A. fracture toughness and elongation to the range needed. Ca. Hamaguchi Y Japan. UK. Williams J G London. No. Covina.. In general the skin loss factors are inversely proportional to the equivalent axial in-plane stiffness of the composite. the cationic epoxies and the vinyl compounds. and the methods compared. The outputs from the tests were uniﬁed in terms of adhesive fracture toughness using a theory of peeling.C.University (SAMPE) There are two major families of resins that cure with electron beams.945663 Item 287 Journal of Adhesion 81. ﬁxed-arm peel and mandrel peel. climbing-drum.561-86 COMPARISON OF PEEL TESTS FOR METALPOLYMER LAMINATES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Kawashita L F. Ca. Skin loss factors range from 1. June 2005. Ueda A.199-210 MODELING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A COMPOSITE SUPPORTER FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Zhang S. The study provides valuable experimental data useful in developing ﬂexible or rigid lightweight and cost-effective materials that Accession no. Fibre reinforced elastomers (FRE) or elastomer composites are receiving attention because of the ability to tailor their vibration damping. 2005.13 VIBRATION DAMPINGOF FLEXIBLE AND RIGID POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES Sharma A. the stiffest reinforcement produces the highest damping. Toyota Motor Corp. extend the use temperature range and evaluate their properties at temperatures extending from that of liquid hydrogen to at least 120 deg. Moore D R. For a given elastomer stiffness.Aerospace Exploration Agency.Metropolitan Institute of Technology. namely ﬂoating roller. USA Accession no. Peel L D Texas A & M University (SAMPE) It is desirable to obtain materials that have high vibration damping while maintaining other structural properties. p. The vinyl resins. Kobayashi D. USA provide good damping while contributing strength and stiffness. p.5% to approximately 20%. Paper 36.945142 Item 288 Advanced Composite Materials 14. EUROPEAN UNION..2. EU. For a given type of glass ﬁbre. Aerospace quality composite materials typically have greater strength and stiffness to weight ratios than most metals. Komatsu Forklift Co. while providing increased damping. SRL and partner Drexel University are continuing to develop and improve two-step cured resins that utilise low temperature epoxy curing combined with electron beam curing to form thermoset networks for carbon ﬁbre composites. T-peel.60 years of SAMPE Progress. such as acrylates. WESTERN EUROPE.Ltd.. 12 refs. A series of aluminium panels laminated with ‘skins’ of graphite cloth. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Proceedings of a conference held Long Beach. Palmese G R Science Research Laboratory Inc. strength. Tokyo. were performed on two aerospace toughened epoxy-aluminium alloy laminates.University 86 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Drexel. 2004. Shimokawa T. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2005. The impact damage and compression-after-impact properties and strength of a carbon fibre-reinforced polyimide resin composite laminate material developed for aerospace applications were investigated by impact testing and optical microscopy. their passive damping capacities are not enough for some applications.Imperial College Of Science. which accommodates all the above tests.2.
5th-6th April 2005. 4 refs. medical and semiconductor markets.National Aeronautics & Space Administration (Rapra Technology Ltd. p.6. nematic. pp. It is well known that an amide linkage is obtained by reacting an isocyanate with a carboxylic acid. Opportunities for other thermoplastic matrix resins such as PEEK and polyetherimide are considered.) A brief report is presented on past and present studies of the use of thermoplastic matrix structural composites for aerospace applications. 12 refs. Mahanwar P A Mumbai. previously reported polyamide foams were inferior in mouldability and other desirable properties of ﬂexible foams. No. Shibata T. Unlike © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 87 .10 TECAMAX SRP .. Shawbury. so polyamide foam has been used only Accession no. 5th-6th April 2005.944661 Item 290 High Performance Plastics 2005. the most notable are the polyamides. The results of ﬁnite element modelling are discussed in comparison with experimental data. Shapes made from this polymer system by Mississippi Polymer Technologies under the tradename Parmax SRP are shown to have very high strength and modulus with a speciﬁc gravity of only 1.943725 Item 293 Polyurethanes Expo 2004. Main-chain LCPs are formed when the mesogens are in the main chain of the polymer. June 2005. Of the lyotropic MC-LCPs. Shawbury. and that carbon dioxide is generated in this reaction. it is well known that polyamide has excellent heat resistance compared to PU. USA Accession no. Austria. Proceedings of a conference held Vienna. 2005.4 AN OVERVIEW OF THERMOPLASTIC STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Connell J W US.21 g/cc. DiSano L P Mississippi Polymer Technologies. cholesteric and smectic. open up a wide range of possible applications as new materials with excellent properties. This foam is obtained by reacting a polyisocyanate compound with a polyester polycarboxylic acid in the presence of a catalyst. are described. thermal and thermooxidative stability. Paper 2. INDIA Accession no. The high abrasion resistance. 9 refs.. Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry. The rigid rod polymer is amorphous and highly dimensionally-stable. Rapra Technology Ltd. However. Nevada.944195 Item 292 Popular Plastics and Packaging 50. Arlington. Proceedings of a conference held Las Vegas. Austria. which is based on polyphenylene chemistry and is processable into stock shapes via compression moulding and extrusion. Airbus’s recent announcement of its selection of thermoplastic composites using polyphenylene sulphide as the matrix for structural applications on the A380 is discussed. The mechanical properties are shown to be superior to those of other reinforced high performance thermoplastics and to be inherently isotropic. Parmax SRP has good chemical resistance. CHINA amorphous plastics. 18th-20th Oct.. (Rapra Technology Ltd. Ensinger Industries Inc.University The three types of liquid crystal phases. Liquid crystalline polymers are classiﬁed on their synthesis routes and their molecular attachments. LCPs can also be broadly classiﬁed based on their thermodynamic behaviour as lyotropic or thermotropic.509-12 HEAT RESISTANT FLEXIBLE FOAM Iwa T. The properties of LCPs are discussed. VA. Proceedings of a conference held Vienna. p. Also. Ohkubo K Mitsui Takeda Chemicals Inc. together with the readily synthetic accessibility of these polymer types. Rapra Technology Ltd. The high melting points and the high crystallinity of MCLCPs. pp.944204 Item 291 High Performance Plastics 2005. Tabulated information is presented on traditional trade-offs of thermosets versus thermoplastics and on representative thermoplastic/ thermoset composite mechanical properties.) Ensinger’s TECAMAX SRP (self-reinforced polymer) system. (American Plastics Council. toughness and ﬂame resistance are shown to make TEXAMAX SRP shapes suitable for demanding applications such as in the aerospace/defence.77-80 LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS (PART I) Patil V V.References and Abstracts Modelling and vibration analysis of a composite supporter with a sandwich structure developed for aerospace applications and manufactured by hand lay-up using a combination of carbon ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resin laminate face sheets and Nomex honeycombs is presented. is described. of which Kevlar is the best-known example. Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry) A flexible foam with excellent heat resistance and mouldability is described.COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RIGID ROD POLYMER SHAPES Malkovich N. Therefore it is of interest that a polyamide foam can be obtained by reacting a polyisocyanate with a polycarboxylic acid. 2004. 2005.2004. Paper 12. Airbus USA Accession no.
The design of the joint and the surface preparation of the adherends (especially the metal) are often a compromise between achieving reliability and performance.OF DEFENSE.940331 Item 294 Plastics Engineering 61. JAPAN Accession no. However. pp. how it can be used as a manufacturing aid.. military. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL established for conducting this test. UK. Comeld. The strength of the bond is a critical issue as the laminates act as engineering structures. how it works. a critical review of the calculations involved in the ﬁxed arm peel and T-peel procedures.DEPT. Paper 35. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Bristol.939182 Item 296 Structural Adhesives in Engineering VII.. Consequently. the strength of the bond is measured as a requirement for the application.. The article then looks at possible applications. No.3 COMELD TM-A NEW APPROACH IN COMPOSITE TO METAL BONDING Kellar E J C. The joint must be able to sustain high levels of often-repeated loading over a wide range of environmental conditions. In general. marine and automotive sectors.3. Therefore. 13th-15th July 2004.4 THE USE OF PEEL TESTS IN THE SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT OF METAL-POLYMER LAMINATES FOR AEROSPACE ACE APPLICATIONS Kawashita L F.10-1 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS RESHAPE PRODUCT DESIGN Toensmeier P A Shape memory polymers are the subject of this article. pp. The aim of the development work described is to investigate whether the application of a new surface treatment technique. 2004. with a climbing drum peel and a ﬂoating roller peel being two regular approaches. composite tooling. what is going on at a molecular level. This requires the following steps: global energy analysis of the climbing drum peel and the ﬂoating roller peel methods in order to derive expressions for adhesive fracture toughness from the usual peel strength measurement. An attempt is made to provide critical and constructive comment in terms of using peel methods to assess and select adhesives for aerospace applications. LORD CORP. The data generated show that Comeld joints fail at higher loads than control specimens and prevent sudden bond-line failure occurring. such as in aircraft and ships.. called Surfi-Sculpt. Proceedings of a conference held Bristol.. especially in key applications within the aerospace.. EUROPEAN UNION. Comeld joints also give a more progressive. the joining of composite materials to metals in primary structures presents many challenges. USA. Accession no. 13th-15th July 2004. The aim is to apply ﬁve methods to the measurement of peel strength and adhesive fracture toughness for two experimental aerospace laminates. GERMANY. ﬂexibility and sound absorption are equal to PU ﬂexible foam. into a new joining system. would improve the mechanical performance of joints between composite materials and metals. and therefore detectable. Further research demonstrates that the technology described is equally applicable to other metals. this foam can be used for damping foam. Paper 38. biodegradable sutures. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. using polyamide foams presents other practical difﬁculties.References and Abstracts as a rigid foam. CRG INDUSTRIES LLC. i. MNEMOSCIENCE GMBH. Its mouldability.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY EU. IOM Communications Ltd. p. A ﬂexible foam is obtained with excellent heat resistance. What a shape memory polymer is. and application of the mandrel peel test with the aim of providing an alleged credible value of the adhesive fracture toughness that can act as a reference.. WESTERN EUROPE. BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE. 11 refs. This measurement is made by the determination of peel strength.e. sound absorbing material or cushioning material to surround the engine or exhaust pipe of a car. Smith F TWI (IOM Communications Ltd. JAPAN. MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES LTD. London. The material combinations and composite processing route demonstrated are chosen to appeal to certain industry sectors. COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INC. and thermoset and thermoplastic examples are all discussed in detail.939784 Item 295 Structural Adhesives in Engineering VII. 2004.Society for Adhesion and Adhesives) Laminates made of aluminium alloys and epoxy compounds are commonly used in aerospace applications. it can be used widely in applications where heat resistance is required. composite Accession no. as this is a key parameter involved in the analytical methods. failure mode than the control joints and absorb more than twice as much energy before failure than the control joints. the force per unit width required to peel the structure apart. This foam is suitable for high temperature applications where the use of PU ﬂexible foam is problematic. including clothing. and aerospace possibilities. A number of standard methods have been 88 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .Society for Adhesion and Adhesives) The use of composite materials in parts of primary structures can provide signiﬁcant weight savings while also giving performance beneﬁts. and the development of an experimental method for the determination of the radius of curvature of the peel arm. March 2005. London. MASSACHUSETTS. Williams J G (IOM Communications Ltd. Moore D R. Also. 2 refs. US.
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Proceedings of the 62nd SPE Annual conference held Chicago. No. Water distribution across the width of the specimens was predicted using diffusion coefﬁcient measurements and adherend displacement was determined using an optical image correlation method. Adams R D Porto. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no. p.3. USA Item 301 ANTEC 2004. An investigation was carried out into the durability of aluminium joints bonded with epoxy-based (AF163-2K06) and phenolic-based (Redux 775) aerospace adhesives using peel and wedge tests. ductility and stiffness under static and dynamic conditions. No. p. UK. carbon nanoﬁbres and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. No. the polymer composite became superior in its thermo-oxidative stability that is very promising in widening the window of service temperature of polyimides for extremely high temperature conditions where most polymeric composites fail.2005.938699 Item 299 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 19. processing routes and therefore industry sectors. The results showed that at optimal ﬁller loading and characteristics.938734 Item 298 SAMPE Journal 41.935618 Item 302 Modern Polymeric Materials for Environmental Applications. A summary of research work. EU. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL OF TEMPERATURES da Silva L F M. SPE. p. EUROPEAN UNION.247-56 DURABILITY STUDIES FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS USING PEEL AND WEDGE TESTS Sargent J P BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Ltd. EU. 17 refs. (SPE) Selected ﬁllers were incorporated to prepare polyetherimide composite. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL ACCESSION NO. nanostructured materials for propulsion systems. These applications include fire-retardant nanocomposite coatings. under the brand name “Zotek”. is presented. 2005. 39 refs.939179 Item 297 International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 25. Peel strength measurements were performed on small.2. 2005.1558-62 NANOCOMPOSITE POLYETHERIMIDE WITH HIGH THERMO OXIDATIVE STABILITY Lou J.. EU. Bristol. 28 refs. March-April 2005. KAI Inc. Brief details of the properties and intended applications of each are given in this little item. ZOTEFOAMS PLC EU. 22 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.Agricultural & Tech. Pilato L A Texas. Sankar J. Uitenham L North Carolina. Proceedings of a conference held © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 89 .4 PA AND SILICONE CLOSED-CELL FOAMS UK company Zotefoams plc has just introduced two development-grade closed-cell foams. Vol. 2004.7-19 POLYMER NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS Koo J H. WESTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. One is based on polyamide. WESTERN EUROPE. To date Surﬁ-Sculpt has been successfully applied to aluminium. Roberts K.University The mechanical properties in tension and in shear over a wide range of temperatures of a bismaleimide adhesive and two epoxy adhesives were investigated by measuring strength. WESTERN EUROPE.109-41 MEASUREMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES IN TENSION AND SHEAR OVER A WIDE RANGE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 16th-20th May. Brookﬁeld.938172 Item 300 High Performance Plastics Jan.937425 Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. EUROPEAN UNION. 2 mm wide. p. specimens immersed in distilled water at 35C for over seven years. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 1. nanosilica.University. stainless steel and titanium alloys. Harinath V. p. The ﬁndings should prove useful in developing high-temperature polymer composites for aerospace and electronics applications. PORTUGAL. Il. nano-modiﬁed carbon/carbon composites and damage tolerant high performance epoxy systems.2. nanocomposite rocket ablative materials. The nanoparticles employed in the research work are montmorillonite organoclays.References and Abstracts materials. The inﬂuence of ﬁllers on the thermo-oxidative stability of the composite was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The results are discussed in terms of the selection of adhesives for use in a mixed adhesive joint for aerospace applications.State Univ. UK. which has been carried out into the use of polymer nanostructured materials for high temperature applications. 2004. WESTERN EUROPE. Ct.Universidade. and the other is based on silicone.
In the latest developments. The technology of polyurea has gone through an enormous development and different generations .University of Technology (Cracow.4. An expression for predicting delaminated crack opening displacement (DCOD) is derived based on ﬁrst-order shear laminate theory applied to ﬁve-layer and three-layer models. EASTERN EUROPE. p. Poland. EUROPEAN UNION.935002 Item 303 JEC Composites No.14. Krakow. high shock absorption. and other current coating developments are accompanied by recent performance steps from the so called generations 3 and 4. These performance steps provide long gel times (up to 4 minutes for self-levelling applications) and allow coating preparation with joint or crack ﬁlling polyurea formulations which provide excellent inter-layer material compatibility as well as extremely high shock absorbing multi-level polyurea coatings incorporating viscoelastic polyurea foam layers. 2004. not containing solvents or other viscosity reducers discussed in the past. Lefebure P Dassault Aviation. Major applications are insulation for pipes or pipelines carrying hot materials with temperatures consistently around 180 deg. p. The processing techniques and welding methods considered potentially suitable for the cost-effective fabrication of aircraft parts from high-performance thermoplastic composites are discussed. UK. today’s polyurea formulations fulﬁl 2010 VOC (volatile organic compounds) requirements and have become fairly easy to apply. Aug. polymer matrix resins. European Aeronautic Defence & Space Co. 8 refs. 90 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Politechnika Krakowska. and components for vehicle health systems and electronic appliances are reviewed in terms of structural applications. GERMANY. Pielichowski K. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. p. Jan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Nos. The DCOD obtained using both ﬁve-layer and three-layer model is veriﬁed using 2D ﬁnite-element analysis. permanent adhering). adjustable adhesion (from peelable. polymeric coatings and adhesives. temporary protection to strongly. Accession no.C and applications in the aerospace industry and industrial maintenance. The variety of product selection options such as high temperature resistance.-Sept. these latest developments are a continuation of recently presented oligoamines chemistry which allows controlled cure times and thus makes polyurea suitable for slow cure spray and cast applications. such as cryogenic fuel tanks of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) and expendable launch vehicles (ELVs).City University. Sibois H. piezoelectric polymers. For the conﬁdent application of these materials. Nowadays. p.934102 Item 304 PU Magazin No. WESTERN EUROPE. Developments in polyurea over the past 18 months and state of the art application techniques provide more options and opportunities than those developments of the past 15 years.2051-65 MODELING OF PERMEATION AND DAMAGE IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES FOR CRYOGENIC FUEL STORAGE Roy S.931427 Item 305 Composites Science and Technology 64. Applications of advanced polymers in ultra-lightweight structures and shape memory macromolecular systems are outlined. Cracow. POLAND.2005. Eurocopter.from huge. 2004.184-95 German POLYUREA OF THE FOURTH GENERATION Klockemann K Nitroil Performance Chemicals In the past 20 years. high pressure processing machines towards handy. easy-to-operate equipment and from an extremely fast reaction towards controlled reaction and curing behaviour. EU.References and Abstracts Krakow. it is necessary to evaluate the permeation of cryogenic fuel caused due to transverse matrix cracks in conjunction with interply delaminations resulting in an intersecting network of passages.University of Technology) Polymeric composite structures including ﬁbre-reinforced (nano)composites. polyurea technology has gone through a number of distinct phases. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL Accession no. EU.2004. Consequently. 16th-18th Dec. European companies and institutes involved in the development of these composites for the aerospace industry are listed and other industries interested in thermoplastic composites indicated.2004. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Basically. Banerjee R London.13-4. WESTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN UNION. Benjamin M Oklahoma State University Polymer-matrix composite (PMC) materials are ideal for aerospace structural applications.109-12 RECENT ADVANCES IN POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Njuguna J.59-61 HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS FOR AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS Coifﬁer-Colas C. A mathematical model to predict permeability in graphite-epoxy laminate system (IM-7/ PETI-5) is developed using Darcy’s law for isothermal. the unique advantages of polyurea coatings and foams are combined. due to their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio. all these applications are made from pure polyurea with 100% amine on the resin side. 7 refs.
for the automated processing of carbon ﬁbrereinforced composites are described and the fabrication of composites for aerospace applications therewith is Accession no. Stuttgart. 15th-18th Nov. 2 refs. No. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL Accession no.2004. Covina. Ca. USA The results are reported of an examination of paste and ﬁlm adhesives for aerospace applications with the aim of reducing costs and providing equivalent mechanical performance to adhesives cured in classical autoclave conditions. Proceedings of the 36th International SAMPE Technical Conference held San Diego. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. No.University A review is presented of recent studies conducted on carbon nanotube/polymer composites.6.36. part design criteria.930793 Item 308 Journal of Adhesion 80. providing electrostatic dissipation. such as tooling. The results obtained from both ﬁve-layer and three-layer model are used as input to the permeability model.931389 Item 306 Materials and Processing . Vol. 12 refs. p. p. pp.References and Abstracts viscous ﬂow of gases through porous media.University. Paper 92. aspect ratio and properties of nanotubes are reported to provide advantages in a variety of applications.36. GERMANY.45 GHZ MICROWAVE PROCESSING SYSTEM Feher L.6. 7 refs. including ﬁbres and matrix materials. Using this model.. Filsinger J Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH.930824 Item 307 Materials and Processing . Dec.13 COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING BY USING A NOVEL MODULAR 2. Snap cure systems curing within 30 minutes of being placed in a hot oven are considered promising candidates for cost reduction. 2004. The effects of simultaneous reversible physical ageing and irreversible chemical ageing on adhesive bond performance are discussed for several different bonding systems.2004.930307 Item 310 Polymer Composites 25. the permeability is calculated for an orthotropic laminate lay-up for a given delamination length. cure pressure and cure time.. stiffness and impact properties. Dec.12. The various processing © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 91 .Polytechnic Institute & State University The long-term durability of high-performance polyimide adhesives for bonding titanium alloy for potential aerospace applications was investigated by DMA. 2004.2004. a combination of strength. Vol. Ca. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Tests were conducted on Hysol EA9380 adhesive paste and Hysol EA9696. pp.8/41 WORLD OF COMPOSITES: AN OVERVIEW This article provides an overview of the world of composites. EUROPEAN UNION. The microwave system integrates basic processing steps.8 AN EXAMINATION OF AN ADHESIVE BONDING PORTFOLIO TO SATISFY THE NEED FOR OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE COST REDUCTION INITIATIVES FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURAL BONDING LEGRAND D S HENKEL TECHNOLOGIES (SAMPE) Accession no. Dillard D A Virginia.1153-72 EVALUATION OF THE LONG-TERM DURABILITY OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE POLYIMIDE ADHESIVES FOR BONDING TITANIUM Xu S. Ca. 24 refs.2004. fracture. Sundararaj U Alberta.630-45 BIG RETURNS FROM SMALL FIBERS: A REVIEW OF POLYMER/CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES Breuer O.Sailing into the Future. Paper 56. No. Ca. Covina. WORLD Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE. EU. tempering.06NW adhesive ﬁlm curing at low temperatures and data provided on mechanical performance versus cure temperature.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. fabrication methods and applications. 2004. The size scale.930469 Item 309 Composites Technology 10. called Hephaistos. Drechsler K. Suppl. crack density and loading conditions.. Proceedings of the 36th International SAMPE Technical Conference held San Diego. with curing and can be used as a stand-alone processing system or as an upgrade system for existing autoclaves. impregnation and preforming. p. EADS Corporate Research (SAMPE) The features of a novel industrial microwave system. USA Accession no. USA demonstrated. Guo S. 15th-18th Nov.. tensile. lay-up. flexural and creep testing before and after high-temperature environmental ageing for prolonged periods.Sailing into the Future. Dec.
References and Abstracts
methods for the production of nanocomposites are discussed, in particular, melt mixing, solution processing, and in-situ polymerisation. Key results are summarised relating to the mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and surface properties of nanocomposites. The article also discusses the challenges for the future in terms of processing, characterisation, nanotube supply, nanotube tailoring, and the mechanisms governing the behaviour of nanoscale composites. 253 refs.
FOR ENGINE PANELS The use of stringer proﬁles has proven to be the most suitable method for stiffening thin carbon/epoxy shells, typically used as engine air inlet duct panels or engine cowling panels. The most effective stiffening can be achieved by using A or hat stringer proﬁles. Structural Rohacell sandwich foam cores are successfully used in a number of such kinds of aircraft applications. One of the latest applications for foam ﬁlled stringer proﬁles is the rear pressure bulkhead of the Airbus A340 and A340-600. The use of Rohacell foam as a mandrel and as a structural member of the sandwich design is discussed. Rohm America
Accession no.930128 Item 311 Rubber Chemistry and Technology 77, No.3, July-Aug.2004, p.542-51 NAVAL APPLICATIONS OF ELASTOMERS Roland C M US,Naval Research Laboratory A short review is presented of the literature on selected uses of rubber by the U.S. Navy on surface vessels, submarines and aircraft. The emphasis is on applications which exploit rubber’s capacity for energy transmission, storage and dissipation, including acoustic applications and aircraft tyres. Developing naval technologies are described. 27 refs.
Accession no.928470 Item 314 SAMPE Journal 40, No.6, Nov.-Dec.2004, p.23-31 THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHTEMPERATURE POLYIMIDES FOR RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING Gray R A; McGrath L R Maverick Corp. The development of high-temperature polyimide resin systems, characterised by viscosity and glass transition temperature, for resin transfer moulding (RTM) was investigated and the properties of the resulting laminates with carbon ﬁbres were characterised by mechanical properties including compression strength and interlaminar shear strength. Potential aerospace applications of the resins are discussed. 19 refs.
Accession no.928925 Item 312 Macromolecules 37, No.19, 21st Sept.2004, p.7250 EPOXY-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES AND THEIR GAS PERMEATION PROPERTIES Osman M A; Mittal V; Morbidelli M; Suter U W ETH Zurich The use of organically modiﬁed clay as ﬁller in epoxy resin nanocomposites, and the effect of different ammonium salts as surface treatments on the clay, was examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and gas permeability. In particular the oxygen permeability was related to the morphological structure of the nanocomposites, with intercalation, exfoliation, particle shape and molecular length considered. Transmission of water vapour through the composites was shown to be dependent on the hydrophobicity of the clay inclusions. 41 refs.
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.927649 Item 315 Polymer Testing 23, No.8, 2004, p.903 MODELING YOUNG’S MODULUS OF RUBBERCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING COMPOSITE THEORIES Wu Y-P; Jia Q-X; Yu D-S; Zhang L-Q Beijing,University of Chemical Technology An investigation was carried out to establish whether the Guth, Halpin-Tsai and modiﬁed Halpin-Tsai equations could be employed to explain the superior reinforcing efﬁciency of rubber-clay nanocomposites. A modulus reduction factor for the platelike ﬁllers was established and introduced into the equations and the predictability of the modiﬁed equations evaluated. A comparison of experimental data for nanocomposites based on clay and matrices of SBR, NBR and carboxylated NBR with the predictions of the models revealed that the predictability of the models was improved By the introduction of the modulus reduction factor. 24 refs.
Accession no.928585 Item 313 Advanced Materials and Composites News 26, No.22, 15th Nov.2004, p.1-3 ROHACELL STRUCTURAL FOAM CORES MAKE SUCCESSFUL A-STRINGER PROFILES
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
References and Abstracts
Accession no.927012 Item 316 International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 25, No.1, 2005, p.47-59 ADHESIVE AND COMPOSITE FAILURE PREDICTION OF SINGLE-L JOINT STRUCTURES UNDER TENSILE LOADING Feih S; Shercliff H R Cambridge,University; TWI Ltd. An investigation was carried out into the design of composite single-L peel joints under tensile loading using, as the adherends, high-tensile strength, unidirectional carbon ﬁbre prepreg with an epoxy matrix and, as the adhesives, two epoxy resins suitable for aerospace applications. Repeatable joint designs were guaranteed using an adhesive injection method and joint optimisation was achieved through ﬁllet shape changes. Sub-critical composite failure, composite delamination and adhesive failure were analysed numerically, the failure load best for different ﬁllet shapes was predicted using a zone criterion and crack growth during adhesive failure was simulated using a damage mechanics approach. 25 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE
ADVANCED COMPOSITES Bannister M K Australia,Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures The fabrication of three-dimensional ﬁbre-reinforced polymer composites by the textile processes of weaving, braiding, stitching and knitting and their mechanical properties are reviewed. Current and potential applications of these composites in the aerospace, maritime, automotive, building and biomedical ﬁelds are discussed. 28 refs.
Accession no.924175 Item 319 Advanced Composite Materials 13, No.2, 2004, p.81-8 PRESSURIZATION TEST ON CFRP LINERLESS TANKS AT LIQUEFIED NITROGEN TEMPERATURE Morimoto T; Ishikawa T; Yokozeki T; Hayashi Y; Shimoda T; Morino Y Japan,Aerospace Exploration Agency; Tokyo,University; Tokyo Business Service Co.Ltd. Internal pressurisation tests were carried out on toughened epoxy CFRP liner-less tanks at liquid nitrogen temperatures inside a vacuum chamber, and damage onsets such as transverse cracking and leak path formation, were monitored using helium ﬂow detection, acoustic emission, and pressure-strain monitoring. The results are discussed in terms of aerospace applications. 18 refs.
Accession no.926099 Item 317 Plastics Additives and Compounding 6, No.5, Sept.-Oct.2004, p.4 METALLOCENE WAXES GO INTO PRODUCTION The Pigments & Additives Division of Clariant is building the world’s ﬁrst plant where waxes are produced by metallocene catalysis. The new high-performance polymers produced with metallocene catalysts are known as Licocene. The property proﬁle of Licocene can be optimised for different applications. The company claims that for the ﬁrst time it is possible to design waxes with particular properties, such as hardness, melt behaviour and viscosity, which can be adjusted exactly within a wide range. The family of waxes comprises mainly special PP types, as well as waxes based on PE and copolymers. Applications include dispersion agents in masterbatches and in glass- and natural ﬁbre-reinforced compounds, often in the aircraft and automotive industries. Clariant,Pigments & Additives Div.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.922602 Item 320 Reinforced Plastics 48, No.9, Oct.2004, p.46-8 CHOOSING THE RIGHT CLOSED MOULDING PROCESS Loff A Molding Technologies Selecting the right closed moulding technique to match the application is critical to successful parts production. The National Composite Center, a comprehensive resource for closed moulding technology, is helping manufacturers eliminate the guesswork with its handson practice and application experience. NCC organises closed moulding into the major categories of RTM, RTM Light, structural reaction injection moulding and vacuum infusion processing. Vacuum infusion produces high quality reproducible parts, low void content and near zero emissions of hazardous air pollutants for a cleaner environment. Because the process and its various techniques use a ﬂexible membrane on the top surface, vacuum infusion is well suited to applications involving large structural composites. Low tooling and
Accession no.925637 Item 318 Journal of Materials - Design and Applications (Part L) 218, No.L3, Aug.2004, p.253-60 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF
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References and Abstracts
capital equipment costs are vacuum infusion’s primary advantage. NCC is also expanding closed moulding technology beyond the use of traditional materials by successfully infusing nanocomposite additives in large moulded parts. US,National Composite Center
Accession no.922334 Item 321 Plastics Technology 50, No.7, July 2004, p.27 SELF-REINFORCED” POLYMER IS NOW COMMERCIAL This concise article draws to our attention the first commercial grade of “Parmax SRP” (self-reinforced polymer), known as “Parmax 1201”, from Mississippi Polymer Technologies Inc. in the USA. Details are provided on the properties and the intended applications of the new material. MISSISSIPPI POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES INC.
suitable for use in the manufacture of primary structures for aeronautical applications are discussed and the manufacturing processes used are described. Particular attention is paid to the manufacture by Airbus Espana of components for the A-380, using techniques such as ﬁbre placement, automatic tape lay-up, resin transfer moulding, resin ﬁlm infusion and co-bonding/welding of thermoplastic composites.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE
Accession no.920247 Item 324 Chemical and Engineering News 82, No.35, 30th Aug.2004, p.34-9 COMPOSITE MATERIALS Jacoby M Some 50 years ago, aircraft designers began taking advantage of the high strength-to-weight ratio associated with composites by replacing aluminium parts with others made from the newer materials. In today’s F-22 ﬁghters, carbon ﬁbre composites compose nearly onethird of the jet’s structure. Composites have moved into terrestrial applications rather slowly. The primary obstacles have been the high cost of the materials and the labour-intensive operations and expensive fabrication equipment needed to process them. For various elements of the 500-horsepower Dodge Viper’s fender support, door structures and windshield frame, the carmaker chose parts made from carbon-based SMC or blends of composites. Scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base are studying nanocomposites, focusing on ways of modifying polymer composites with nanoscale materials to produce composites that exhibit unconventional combinations of properties.
Accession no.921841 Item 322 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 18, No.7, 2004, p.751-64 DEVELOPMENT OF METAL-BONDING SPRAY ADHESIVES FOR USE IN AEROSPACE REPAIR APPLICATIONS Tillman M S US,Naval Air Systems Command The results are reported of an evaluation of ﬁve different spray adhesives in aerospace repair applications. The adhesives included two epoxy materials based on diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A and Epon 828, as well as tetraglycidylmethyldianiline (Araldite MY 9512) and a commercial epoxy resin. The lap shear performance and processability of the adhesives with aluminium as the adherent were evaluated and their fracture surfaces analysed by scanning electron microscopy. 14 refs.
Accession no.919852 Item 325 Synthetic Metals 144, No.3, 2004, p.303-7 HEAVY ION IRRADIATION ON CONDUCTING POLYPYRROLE AND ZRO2-POLYPYRROLE NANOCOMPOSITES De A; Das A; Lahiri S Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Conducting polypyrrole and nanocomposites of polypyrrole with zirconium oxide were subjected to C12 and O16 beams of moderate energy to evaluate their suitability for use in space probes. An evaluation was made of the effect of irradiation on the electrical conductivity and physical properties of the pure polypyrrole and nanocomposites, which were also characterised by TGA and X-ray diffraction. The nanocomposites were found to be more suitable than the pure polypyrrole for space applications. 5 refs.
Accession no.920572 Item 323 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 87, No.576, June 2004, p.531-40 Spanish POLYMERS AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES USED TO MANUFACTURE THE PRIMARY STRUCTURES OF AN AIRCRAFT: AN EXAMPLE, THE AIRBUS A-380 Munoz Esquer P L Airbus Espana SA The properties of composite materials which render them
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
References and Abstracts
Accession no.919209 Item 326 165th ACS Rubber Division Meeting - Spring 2004. Proceedings of a conference held Grand Rapids, Mi., 17th-19th May 2004. Akron, Oh., ACS Rubber Division, 2004, Paper 21, pp.30 HI-TECH FLUORO POLYMERS, NOW USED IN INCREASING VOLUME PRODUCTION, GAIN IMPORTANT BENEFIT FROM HI-TECH PROCESS ADDITIVES Bruhn J; Bertrand J; Clarke C; Hensel M Schill & Seilacher Struktol AG (ACS,Rubber Div.) Steadily increasing requests from many industries regarding technical performance of a rubber part in meeting severe technical speciﬁcations and regulations has an important inﬂuence on the increasing consumption of high tech elastomers in the rubber industry. Fluoroelastomers play an increasingly important role. Due to its outstanding proper-ties like excellent heat and weather resistance, possible use in a wide temperature range from -45 deg.C up to 275 deg.C and its resistance to a broad variety of ﬂuids including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and strong acids, FPM is often the polymer of ﬁrst choice. Automotive, aerospace and chemical industries are the main customers for FPM based parts as seals, O-rings, hoses, gaskets and rubber linings. As elastomers are speciﬁed in a variety of industrial, automotive and aerospace applications, the need for efﬁcient part manufacture is imperative to achieve the required balance of part quality and production economy. Ease of processing also impacts part quality since processing difﬁculties like mould sticking and fouling, or problems with mould ﬁlling or extrusion performance, can result in surface defects in e.g. O-rings and tubes. Such processing problems can result in lower productivity and increased production costs because of higher scrap material rate. The advantages of high tech processing additive Struktol HT 290 are demonstrated by showing improvement during processing of different ﬂuorinated polymers. Injection and extrusion results are shown and processing problems such as insufﬁcient compound ﬂow, compound sticking and mould fouling are solved. A new concept to rate occurring level of mould fouling and to judge the effectiveness of processing additives related to this problem is introduced and explained. 1 ref.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE
Mirchandani G; Shertukde V V Matunga,University The classiﬁcation of polyimides is explained, including condensation polyimides and copolyimides, addition polyimides and thermoplastic polyimides. Polyimides exhibit excellent properties at elevated temperatures, thus qualifying them for use in applications experiencing high service temperatures. In the aerospace industry, material demands are ever increasing. Researchers have met this challenge primarily with polyimides, which can be modiﬁed to meet processing conditions while maintaining several of their advantageous properties. Polyimides have been utilised for the fabrication of composites of carbon, quartz, glass, boron and graphite. The Mars Exploration Rovers currently in space include almost 70 yards each of ﬂexible cable circuits made of thin polyimide laminates and composites. In electronics, applications of polyimides include optical waveguides, roll-up displays, liquid crystal displays and adhesives. 20 refs.
Accession no.917856 Item 328 Advanced Materials and Composites News 26, No.15, 2nd Aug.2004, p.4 CRYOGENIC LIQUID STORAGE DEVELOPED USING ALL-CFRP COMPOSITE TANKS It is brieﬂy reported that, in an extensive Broad Area Announcement study for the Air Force, Wilson Composite Technologies concluded that liner less CFRP composite tanks offer promise for lightweight containment for the long-term storage of liquid hydrogen in space. A manufacturing innovation has been developed for the ﬁlament winding method for cryo use. WCT also has a second Air Force-sponsored programme to determine the compatibility of various carbon ﬁbre/epoxy composites with liquid oxygen (LOX). It is hoped to be able to develop composite tanks as replacement for metals for containment of LOX for launch vehicle applications. Wilson Composite Technologies Inc.
Accession no.917810 Item 329 JEC Composites No.10, June-July 2004, p.72-3 NEW SELF-ADHESIVE PREPREG SYSTEM Scott M Hexcel Hexcel’s self-adhesive epoxy prepreg system for use in the construction of sandwich panels for aerospace applications is described. The self-adhesive nature of HexPly M50 is shown to allow for the elimination of the adhesive ﬁlms required to bond the skins to honeycomb, giving weight savings of up to 10%. The peel strength is equal to or
Accession no.918065 Item 327 Popular Plastics and Packaging 49, No.7, July 2004, p.63/86 POLYIMIDES - TRENDSETTERS IN AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
References and Abstracts
better than those currently obtained for sandwich panels relying on standard adhesive plies. An additional beneﬁt of the system’s rheology is the virtual elimination of corecrush problems.
Accession no.917482 Item 330 JEC Composites No.10, June-July 2004, p.46-7 AUTOMATED PREFORMS: THE NEXT STEP IN REINFORCEMENTS FOR DIRECT PROCESSES Girardy H Hexcel The development by Hexcel of automated preforms with functionalised materials for use in direct processing of composite materials for aerospace applications is discussed. Binders for preform consolidation and functionalisation are described and the manufacture of the preforms is outlined. Hexcel’s RTM 6 monocomponent premixed epoxy resin system, which produces composite parts operating at service temperatures between -60 and 180C, is mentioned.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE
primary contact bonding at the bimaterial interface, i.e. simple wet lay-up of glass/polyester to aluminium. The second is based on secondary adhesive bonding where the aluminium and pre-cured laminates are manufactured in a simple stamping process with a hot-melt thermoplastic adhesive at the interface. The results demonstrate that a simple heating-stamping manufacturing process has potential for high volume production of relatively low cost thermoset-based FMLs with a tough ethylene-based thermoplastic ﬁlm adhesive at the bimaterial interface to ensure interfacial fracture toughness. 7 refs.
Accession no.916034 Item 333 Eureka 24, No.5, May 2004, p.31-2 COMPOSITES GO FROM STRENGTH TO STRENGTH
This article reports on some of the latest enhancements in ﬁbre-reinforced plastic composites, for use in aerospace and military applications. Details of these breakthrough developments were recently presented at the symposium entitled “Composites - the Cutting Edge”, which was part of the Materials Congress 2004 hosted by the UK Institute of Materials, Minerals & Mining.
UK,INSTITUTE OF MATERIALS,MINERALS & MINING; LEEDS,UNIVERSITY; LONDON,UNIVERSITY,QUEEN MARY COLLEGE; BOLTON,INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION; BRISTOL,UNIVERSITY EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL
Accession no.917480 Item 331 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 43, No.2, 2004, p.427 POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW Maniar K K Massachusetts,University A brief review is presented on nanocomposites beginning in 1951 but paying particular attention to post-1996 studies. It is based upon technical publications, which are mostly obtained from ANTEC and SAMPE proceedings and patents. 103 refs.
Accession no.914679 Item 334 Polyurethanes Expo 2003. Proceedings of a conference held Orlando, Florida, 1st-3rd Oct.2003. Arlington, VA, Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry, 2003, p.79-85 HOT STUFF - THERE IS ANOTHER HURDLE TO TAKE FOR POLYUREA: FROM COATINGS AND SEALANTS TO MICRO CELLULAR FOAMS Klockemann K; Bader M Performance Chemical International Corp.; Institute for Polyurethane Technology GmbH (American Plastics Council; Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry) Polyurea technology has experienced enormous development. From huge, high pressure processing machines to handy, easy-to-operate equipment and from an extremely fast reaction towards controlled reaction and curing behaviour. In Nitroil Performance Chemicals’ latest developments the unique advantages of polyurea coatings and foams are combined. Major applications are insulation for pipes or pipelines carrying hot materials with
Accession no.916739 Item 332 Journal of Materials Science 39, No.8, 15th April 2004, p.2855-9 INTERFACIAL FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF POLYESTER-BASED FIBER-METAL LAMINATES WITH PRIMARY CONTACT AND SECONDARY ADHESIVE BONDING Burns M J; Compston P Australian National University Results are presented of preliminary studies of the characterisation of interfacial fracture toughness for two fibre-metal laminates(FMLs) based on materials and manufacturing techniques suitable for non-aerospace and relatively low cost applications. The ﬁrst FML is based on
© Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology
Two recent examples include applications for the heavyduty truck market and earth-orbiting space structures. NCC is looking to license the technology to companies which want to implement a reliable joining solution at the design or production phase. whereas the current range of polyurea foams prepared without any additive package is limited in variability but of excellent homogeneity in cell structure and elastic properties. Litecast offers a ﬂexible option to mechanical fastening and adhesive systems which can add extra labour costs and reduce the strength of composite products. No.g. April 2004. The University of Sydney’s UAV Brumby was developed for ﬂight research. No.4. These latest developments are a continuation of the recently developed oligoamines which allow controlled cure times and thus make polyurea suitable for cast applications. USA Accession no. The vast majority of carbon ﬁbre is still incorporated into standard. as dust sealant for switch boxes or fuse cabinets as well as protective soles for shoes exposed to extreme conditions in the workplace.909690 Item 338 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 91. p. 3 refs. Completely synthetic composite propellers are beginning to be used because they provide both high performance and durability. June 2004. for which sizing and surface treatment “recipes” are so well established and reliable that choice of ﬁbre is typically based on economics. Molten metals.References and Abstracts temperatures consistently around 350 deg. the fuselage is constructed with a sandwich composite of glass ﬁbre/Nomex resin and the wings are a composite of glass/Nomex resin. GERMANY. p. qualiﬁed epoxy resin systems via well-known fabricating processes. No.38-43 SIZING AND SURFACE TREATMENT: THE KEYS TO CARBON FIBER’S FUTURE? Fisher Mason K Surface treatment and sizing. No. the National Composite Center’s patented Litecast process offers a robust joining solution.910935 Item 337 High-Performance Composites 12. Surface treatment produces additional bonding sites on the ﬁbre surface. like aluminium and magnesium. but they can also be used in a variety of civilian applications such as monitoring and controlling trafﬁc ﬂow and search/rescue operations.F or applications in the aerospace industry and industrial maintenance. e. polyimide or PEEK. March 2004.2. Litecast produces a mechanical joint that requires no application of adhesives.3096-106 ENHANCEMENT OF PHENOLIC POLYMER PROPERTIES BY USE OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL AS DILUENT © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 97 . while sizing enhances ﬁbre processability with a protective coating on the ﬁbre surface and can provide a coupling agent for the ﬁbre/resin bond.42-3 FLEXIBLE WAY TO JOIN COMPOSITES Scott Reeve US. USA. heat stability and excellent physical properties. In a signiﬁcant and growing number of new applications the risk of fibre/resin incompatibility is increasing. To help companies overcome this production obstacle. density or resilience can easily be manipulated through the use of an additive package. are cast directly onto the composite structure in a die casting operation. The relationship between surface treatment and sizing is complex. WESTERN EUROPE Unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs are of growing interest to military operations. p. In combination with these amines and blowing agents like HFC 245 fa or HFC 365 mfc. It is demonstrated that properties such as hardness. USA Accession no. USA Accession no.National Composite Center Manufacturers face challenges when it comes to joining composites to other materials. making it possible to manufacture complex shaped parts. p. These are typically comprised of carbon/glass fabric impregnated with high-temperature epoxy resin. Due to their good chemical resistance. Thermosets are used more than thermoplastics because the resin readily impregnates ﬁbres. and the effectiveness of each depends on its compatibility with both the ﬁbre and the resin. 5th March 2004.5. Use of lightweight advanced composites is essential in increasing UAV ﬂight time. microcellular foams are achieved. cell structure.28-31 UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES SPUR COMPOSITES USE Borchardt J K Accession no. AUSTRALIA. typically consisting of a blowing agent and a silicone surfactant. Controlled vapourisation of the outer resin layer leaves metal interlocked with the ﬁbres in the composite to create a mechanical bond. especially impact and abrasion resistance.913572 Item 336 Reinforced Plastics 48. microcellular polyurea foams offer a new dimension of protective materials with alternative uses. are the subject of notable trade secrecy. the ﬁnal two steps in the carbon fibre manufacturing process.6. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The main gear of the undercarriage is a carbon ﬁbre/Kevlar ﬁbre composite. as “off-the-shelf” carbon reinforcements are introduced to applications for which the matrix will be highly modiﬁed epoxy resins or non-epoxies such as vinyl ester.914051 Item 335 Reinforced Plastics 48.
The advantages over honeycomb design are considered. Covina. post cure temperature. The phenolic resins usually contain water as a diluent to facilitate moulding. 2003. Kim K-S. DAMAGE TOLERANT COMPOSITE SANDWICH STRUCTURES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT ENGINE COMPONENTS Sheppard M.University. 10 refs. but its evaporation from the resin during cure has caused microvoids to appear in the cured resin which are believed to adversely affect the properties of the ﬁnal product.Enabling Flight: Our Legacy And Our Future. where ﬁre resistance is essential. Campbell G S. The glass transition temperature.KG (SAMPE) The use of polymethacrylimide(PMI) foams in large sandwich components for the Delta family of satellite launchers is described and the reasons for selection of PMI sandwich technology instead of the traditionallyused aluminium honeyconb-cored sandwich design are discussed.35. Structural applications for civil aircraft such as the front landing gear door of the FD 728. Foam and resin studies were conducted to determine appropriate materials for use in composite fan case and inlet guide vanes. Vol. pp. Prototype TYCOR sandwich panels were fabricated and tested for both the fan case and hollow inlet guide vanes. melting point and thermal stability were determined. Two components.. (SAMPE) A programme was conducted to evaluate TYCOR sandwich panels moulded using a vacuum infusion process(VIP) for use as lightweight. Baek S. Oh. an engine fan case and an inlet guide vane. Vol. Stoll F WebCore Technologies Inc.. catalyst concentration and the use of ethylene glycol as a replacement diluent were studied on the water loss.2004. Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE Technical Conference held Dayton. Palmese G R Delaware. polyazomethines with ﬂuorene and carbazole moieties in the main chain and solubility improving groups such as dibutyl.University of Science & Technology The synthesis and characterisation is described of a series of novel. an increase in density and a signiﬁcant improvement in the ﬂexural modulus and fracture toughness. thienylethoxy. Solution casting was used to prepare ﬁlms. Paper 105. This resulted in a decrease in the void content.References and Abstracts Singh K P. obtained by resin infusion. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.908059 Item 341 Materials And Processing . 28th Sept.visible spectra were red shifted compare to the monomers.2003.909460 Item 339 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition 42. 22 Refs.4. Full body of revolution VIP moulding was evaluated as a means of processing engine case components. without sacriﬁcing thermal stability. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 35TH INTERNATIONAL Accession no.908023 98 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Features in the UV.825-34 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF NEW SOLUBLE POLYAZOMETHINES BEARING FLUORENE AND CARBAZOLE UNITS IN THE BACKBONE AND SOLUBILITY IMPROVING MOIETIES IN THE SIDE GROUP Kim H-C.. indicating that they might be suitable for doping to produce opto-electronic devices.11 PMI FOAMS FOR STRUCTURAL AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Seibert H F Rohm GmbH & Co. soluble. were studied. are described. Park H-K. The side groups were found to improve solubility. pp. Replacing the initial water with ethylene glycol had the most signiﬁcant effect on the microvoids and the properties of the polymer. ethylhexyl. KOREA Accession no. p. microvoid distribution and hence the mechanical properties of the polymer. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. furyl and ﬂuorenyl in the side group.-2nd Oct. designed for use in the resin infusion process.No. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.2003.Enabling Flight: Our Legacy And Our Future. 2003.908774 Item 340 Materials And Processing . EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and the pressure bulkheads and ailerons of the Airbus A340-600 and A380 are reported. EUROPEAN UNION. 28TH SEPT. TYCOR sandwich cores used low density foam coupled with structural ﬁbres to create core material with speciﬁc structural properties. Paper 50.-2ND OCT. Ca. The effects of processing parameters such as cure temperature. damage-tolerant structures for aircraft engine components. The products are candidate materials for applications in micro-electronics and aerospace. Water controls the viscosity. USA SAMPE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE HELD DAYTON.University Phenolic resins are used for the inner linings of GRP composites in applications such as aircraft or armoured tanks. with emphasis on manufacturing costs and life cycle costs. cost-effective.9 LIGHTWEIGHT. Drexel.35. Covina. 9 refs. Ca. Ree M Pohang. 15th Feb. USA Accession no. Kim J-S. Two recentlylaunched grades of PMI foams.. GERMANY. OH.
Potential applications of these resins in commercial and military aircraft. EUROPEAN UNION..Enabling Flight: Our Legacy And Our Future. manufacturing methods. Tan B. Vol. Paper 38. blowing agents having undergone considerable change and development in recent years in order to meet the requirements of the Montreal Protocol in relation to the reduction and elimination of chloroﬂuorocarbons (CFC) and other ozone depleting agents. 28th Sept. (SAMPE) An overview is given of the curing. launch vehicles and satellites and dual use applications in the automotive and chemical industry are considered. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2003. A chapter is also included on microcellular foams .35.1.Enabling Flight: Our Legacy And Our Future. which apply to all polymer foams.9 DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOSETTING POLYIMIDE COMPOSITE MATRIX SYSTEMS McGrath J E.University.. Ramulu M. Oh. cork).Polytechnic Institute & State University.g.906372 Item 345 Shawbury. Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE Technical Conference held Dayton. Watanabe Y Virginia. Loos A C.22-7 NICHE ADHESIVES PROFILERATE FOR SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS Daggett S S This article discusses the development of structural adhesives for aerospace applications. USA Accession no. The development of a new polymer has usually been quickly followed by its production in an expanded or foam form owing to the unique and useful properties.2003. Proceedings of the 35th International SAMPE Technical Conference held Dayton. Tuttle M E. No. which can be realised in the expanded state. p. These resin systems were speciﬁcally designed to be cost competitive and free of mutagenic or carcinogenic materials. Jan. 2004. SAMPE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OFFICE.3-11 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDED T-300/PR520 LAMINATE PROPERTIES Stickler P B.a relatively new development where applications are still being explored. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Coguill S L Boeing Co.-2nd Oct. All the candidate systems that exhibited potential were physically and mechanically tested. 2003. ﬁlms and pastes.906056 Item 346 Journal of Advanced Materials 36. (e. properties and applications of the synthetic polymer foams used in most applications. PP. sponges.References and Abstracts Item 342 Materials And Processing . Laminates were fabricated using commercial RTM equipment and found to be free of voids and microcracks. This Handbook reviews the chemistry. An RTM resin was identiﬁed that had a dry Tg of 305C and good property retention up to 260C.. physical behaviour and stability of arylene ether imide oligomers for polymer matrix composites based on well-known available monomers and functionalised with phenyl ethynyl end groups. pp. Covina.wt..x.35. a chapter is included on the fundamental principles. Oh.. are examined. 290 HANDBOOK OF POLYMER FOAMS Rapra Technology Ltd. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. UK..908014 Item 343 Materials And Processing . There is also a chapter on the blowing agents used to expand polymers. Rapra Technology Ltd. 28th Sept.908012 Item 344 High-Performance Composites 12. No. p. Monomer stoichiometry and oligomer molec.2004. Eastman Kodak Co.-2nd Oct. PAPER 40. USA high performance aerospace applications is examined. The phenylethynyl curable arylene ether imide oligomers based on structures analogous to the well-known thermoplastic material Ultem are shown to be suitable for use as the basis of chemically-resistant thermooxidativelystable materials at 200C for long durations (up to 5000 hours). COVINA.University © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 99 . Wyoming.15 DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE POLYIMIDES FOR RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING Gray R A. Jan. synthetic polymer foams have only been introduced to the market over the last ﬁfty years or so. The two basic forms of structural adhesives. USA Accession no. McGrath L R Maverick Corp. CA.1.2004. Vol. (SAMPE) A series of addition-cured. Washington. pp. Bullions T. Ca. were balanced in order to produce RTM polyimides that exhibited low melt viscosity. The possibility of using these materials in future Accession no.2003. 19 refs. polyimide resin systems was developed for high-temperature resin transfer moulding(RTM) applications. 14 refs. Edited by: Eaves D Although naturally occurring polymer foams have been known for a long time. In addition.
The physical properties included ﬁbre.Langley Research Center. The complete substitution of hexafluoropropylene (HFP) in ‘traditional’ FKM fluoroelastomers through PAVE type co-monomers lowers the glass transition temperature and offers a good balance of low temperature flexibility while maintaining ﬂuid and chemical resistance useful for harsh industrial environments. In-plane elastic properties were estimated using a micromechanical analysis and laminate effective properties were calculated using laminated plate theory. to allow the formation of a crosslinked network using an organic peroxide system. The resins were processed using resin transfer moulding. 100 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . Currently available ﬂuoroelastomers designed for low temperature service applications are typically tetra-polymers of tetraﬂuoroethylene (TFE). is presented. Thermal stability parameters were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Van Gool G.1. a perfluoro alkylvinylether (PAVE). Potential applications on advanced aerospace vehicles and as aircraft engine components are mentioned.2004. diffusion coefﬁcient and alpha. Proceedings of a conference held Nuremberg. 37 refs. Three commercial epoxy systems were used as matrices: diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA). The results were used in subsequent experimental and numerical analyses of structural T-joints fabricated using these materials and processes.KG (Deutsche Kautschuk Gesellschaft eV) Low temperature ﬂuoroelastomers for use in automotive. Signiﬁcant observations of the experimental test methods. A commercial organoclay. Steffens J Dyneon GmbH & Co.2003. Water sorption was decreased relative to neat epoxies however the rate of water diffusion remained the same. Predicted in-plane elastic properties were compared with experimentally-determined values.4. It was found that the nanocomposites showed a slight decrease in thermal stability of 5-10 centigrade at 10% clay concentration.g. Dec. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. octadecyl ammonium ion-modified montmorillonite layered silicate. was used in concentrations between 0 and 10%. 30th June-3rd July 2003. Both in-plane and out-of-plane elastic and strength properties were determined.87-90 NEW FLUOROELASTOMERS WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PERFORMANCE Bach D. compression and shear elastic and strength properties were developed using standard test methods. high thermostability and unmatched low temperature properties.NASA. A new class of low temperature ﬂuoroelastomers. No. Hergenrother P M. Out-of-plane shear elastic and strength properties were developed using a standard v-notch beam method and out-of-plane tension properties were experimentally determined using a draft ASTM speciﬁcation.905787 Item 347 IRC 2003. GERMANY. vinylidene ﬂuoride (VF2). p. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was used to determine equilibrium water uptake.University The water uptake and thermal stability of a range of nanocomposites have been studied since they have potential in high performance applications such as aerospace.375-94 HIGH TEMPERATURE TRANSFER MOLDING RESINS. vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding and resin infusion. The chemistry of the compounds and carbon fabric laminate properties are presented. In-plane tension. p. LAMINATE PROPERTIES OF PETI-298 AND PETI-330 Connell J W. 24 refs. p187-95 THERMAL STABILITY AND WATER UPTAKE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE EPOXY LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES Becker O. Deutsche Kautschuk Gesellschaft eV. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts The physical.905554 Item 348 European Polymer Journal 40. 6 refs. M & P Technologies Inc. 25 refs. aerospace and chemical processing sealing applications are a class of true ‘specialty’ within the commercially available group of ﬂuoroelastomers (FKM). Simon G P Monash. triglycidyl p-amino phenol (TGAP) and tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM). variations in experimental data and specimen failure modes were provided. Varley R J.and beta-transition peak temperatures before and after water sorption. matrix and void volumes.905513 Item 349 High Performance Polymers 15. USA resistance. Dyneon’s new class of low temperature FKMs demonstrate superior chemical Accession no. Two phenylethynyl terminated oligomers were developed as candidates for composite applications requiring high temperature performance combined with the ability to be readily processed into composites. Compared to currently commercial available PMVE containing FKMs. EUROPEAN UNION. 2003. Jan. where the historic properties of PAVEs are complemented by perﬂuoro alkoxy alkylvinylethers (PAAVEs). Smith J G. Frankfurt. e. mechanical and strength properties of resin transfer moulded T-300/PR520 graphite fibre/epoxy resin laminates for use in aerospace primary structural applications were investigated. AUSTRALIA Accession no. Criss J M US. perfluoro methylvinylether (PAVE) and a cure site monomer (CSM).
from Akzo/Alcoa) to provide background information for the other technical articles in this journal. 8 refs.2003. use of Glare at Airbus. Unlike previous transparent plastics. a closed cell foam of density 30kg.FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION. 30th Oct. No. Other potential applications include cargo containers.2003. Every sector of the economy pays the price. ballistic Arall. with support from NACE International (National Association of Corrosion Engineers). AIRBUS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Nov.276 billion UD dollars/ year. pipelines. as documented by countless case studies. is available from Zotefoams.References and Abstracts USA Accession no. some of which are outlined. other characteristic properties. p. No.better inspection methods.one of the most obvious solutions is to replace corrosion-prone metal materials with composites. Aug. The direct cost of metallic corrosion in the USA is staggeringly high . ships and aircraft industrial plants and military installations. including civil infrastructure (highways and bridges).900973 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 101 . USA Item 352 PEplus No. CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES INC.901085 Item 351 Future Materials Nov. The first grades of Parmax SRP (self- Accession no.2003.900874 Item 353 Applied Composite Materials 10. p. water and sewer systems. electrical utilities. GILL M. and disadvantages.CORP. EUROPEAN UNION. allowing visual inspections of goods in transit without their removal. AKZO.903237 Item 350 Composites Technology 9. Glare laminates are then examined with emphasis on impact properties. USA Accession no. p. Gillite 1401 Transparent Laminate offers improved strength using ﬁbreglass reinforcement and exceptional flammability properties including compliance with burn through requirements.C. p.189-205 AN HISTORIC OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIBRE METAL LAMINATES Vermeeren C A J R Delft.41 NEW RIGID-ROD POLYMER JUMPS TO MARKET Mapleston P First commercial samples of what is said to be the ﬁrst thermoplastic “rigid-rod” polymer should be available in November from start-up company Mississippi Polymer Technologies. EUROPEAN UNION. according to a 2002 report entitled Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States. residual strength properties.4. fuselage. Fibrereinforced polymer composites made with chemicalresistant resins are virtually corrosion-free and can provide decades of maintenance-free performance. or about 3% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). unsinkable ﬂoats in chemical tanks and other situations where ﬂameretardant behaviour.2003.3 CLOSED CELL FOAM SUITABLE FOR HARSH ENVIRONMENTS Zotek F 30.11. A brief overview is presented of the history of the ﬁbre metal laminates Arall (aramid-reinforced aluminium laminates) and Glare (glass reinforced. While there are many strategies for ﬁghting the problem . ZOTEFOAMS PLC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.-Dec.2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. NETHERLANDS.m3 made from Kynar PVDF with applications in aircraft insulation or in air conditioning ducts. p.University of Technology Fibre metal laminates are hybrid laminates consisting of thin alternating bonded layers of aluminium and ﬁbre/ epoxy resin. laminates for high temperature applications and cost estimation of Glare parts. improved management practices and life-prediction computer models . It is also suited to applications such as high and low closure force seals in chemically harsh environments. ALCOA. equipment housings and architectural uses.25 ADDED TRANSPARENCY M.4-5. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. UK. No. ceiling panels in commercial transport vehicles. July/Sept. Glare in the fuselage. The history of Arall is discussed with reference to application of Arall in the wing structure of F-27. it is brieﬂy reported. issued by the US Federal Highway Administration and written by CC Technologies Laboratories.34.899403 Item 354 Modern Plastics International 33. Gill has developed a transparent laminate for use as a see-through aircraft cargo liner.C.26-9 VINYL ESTERS MAKE TOUGH PARTS FOR HIGHLY CORROSIVE APPLICATIONS Black S An array of case studies showcases the growing acceptance of glass ﬁbre/vinyl ester composites in harsh industrial environments. US. chemical resistance or high purity are essential. burnthrough properties. repair with Glare. space structure and tubes.
4 refs.343-8 USE OF PERMAPOL P3.897438 Item 356 Synthetic Metals 135-136. DSC and TMA). structural foams.23-4 CONDUCTING POLYMER (CP) INFRARED ELECTROCHROMICS IN SPACECRAFT THERMAL CONTROL AND MILITARY APPLICATIONS Chandrasekhar P. p. No. and their properties were characterised by emittance. USA USA Accession no. solar absorptance. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. electronic and specialty industrial applications. defence.5. and the experimental heat distortion temperatures were in reasonable agreement with those predicted by modelling Accession no. as well as for ovenbaked coatings. Birur G C.4-phenylene). 2003. Cosman M A Airbus UK. McQueeney T. MPT also anticipates applications in solvent-cast ﬁlms for electronics. 2003. Waterborne FEVE has excellent weatherability and it can be blended with acrylic emulsions. Increasing the number of platelets per stack and the gallery spacing between platelets as a consequence of incomplete exfoliation dramatically decreased the reinforcing effect. 4 refs. In the 1980s. UK. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. PPG Aerospace The performance of polythioether polymers in aerospace sealant applications including oxidative and epoxy resin curing systems is reviewed. No. In recent years.2003. The rigid-rod backbone imparts strength and stiffness and the substituents allow melt processability and solvent casting. MISSISSIPPI POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES INC. FEVE coatings as bridge topcoats. Douglas D Ashwin-Ushas Corp. Asahi Glass developed a copolymer of ﬂuoroethylene and vinyl ether as a solventsoluble ﬂuoropolymer.898697 Item 355 International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 23. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Ltd. US. The results were compared with experimental data for nanocomposites containing organically-modiﬁed montmorillonite and glass ﬁbre. known as FEVE. DMA. p. p. waterborne ﬂuoropolymer coatings have been developed and their sales are increasing mainly in architectural applications. Scara A. Swanson T. Sept. Haapanen S. Kauder L. This required the development of an experimental procedure for the determination of aspect ratio.References and Abstracts reinforcing polymers) will be for compression moulding and extrusion. Paul D R Texas. Zay B J.Goddard Space Flight Center The use of advanced conducting polymer far-infrared electrochromics in spacecraft and defence applications is described.4993 MODELING PROPERTIES OF NYLON 6/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES USING COMPOSITE THEORIES Fornes T D.895770 Item 358 Polymer 44. 2003.9.896257 Item 357 Paint and Coatings Industry 19. they were used as a topcoat and protected under-layer basecoats and substrates from UV attack. The characteristics of the epoxy-cured sealants are discussed in terms of glass transition temperatures (by thermal retraction. Fluoropolymer coatings are known as highly durable coatings that can maintain their initial performance for a long period.56/64 PERFORMANCE OF DURABLE FLUOROPOLYMER COATINGS Asakawa A Asahi Glass Co. No.University at Austin The composite theories of Halpin-Tsai and Mori-Tanaka were used to show that the reinforcement of polyamide-6 by exfoliated aluminosilicates was superior to that provided by glass ﬁbre. When these ﬂuoropolymer coatings were applied as protective coatings. making it possible to design coatings in which weather resistance and cost is between that of ﬂuoro. attributed to the aluminosilicate’s high modulus. on-line coatings and clearcoats are discussed. coatings for aerospace. followed soon by injection moulding grades. each being composed of conducting polymer (aniline/diphenylamine copolymer)/ gold/microporous membrane (poly(vinylidene ﬂuoride)). JAPAN Accession no.1 POLYMERS AND EPOXY RESINS IN THE FORMULATION OF AEROSPACE SEALANTS Clark L J. p. Ross D. and composites. The stiffness behaviour predicted by the composite theories was in agreement with the experimental observations. FEVE could be used on-site for applications such as heavy-duty architectural and aerospace coatings.Inc. thermal stability (tensile strength at elevated temperatures). cure properties and adhesion. and specular and diffuse IR reﬂectance. USA. 3 refs.. The polymers are based on a substituted poly (1. EUROPEAN UNION. 102 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .NASA. Devices comprised a solid electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes.17. and compared with those for a manganese dioxide-cured polysulphide sealant.and acrylic polymers. high aspect ratio. and the ability to provide reinforcement in two directions.
892333 Item 360 Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 34A. Oh. van Herpt E C F C.. p. BRITISH AIRWAYS.) A new range of peroxide curable specialty ﬂuoroelastomers. PERATECH LTD. Paper 24. Tests of sealing performance. ROLLS-ROYCE. Akron. Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco. of a quantum tunnelling composite consisting of conductive Accession no. It involves detecting the tiny high-frequency sounds which arise at the very beginning of composite micro-damage.6.Spring 2003. 28th-30th April 2003. 21 refs. Secondly. PROCESS ANALYSIS & AUTOMATION LTD. GLAXO SMITHKLINE..53 FLEXIBLE APPLICATION Ward J A report is presented on the chance discovery by David Lussey of Peratech. No. CORUS UK LTD.. EUROPEAN UNION. while researching electricallyconductive adhesives for the defence industry. 2003. Two examples of successful developments of large applications are described: a 20m rotor blade and a 16m long boat hull for a sailing yacht. No.889979 Item 364 Pitture e Vernici 79. USA Accession no. The strength-to-weight ratio.894474 Item 359 Popular Plastics and Packaging 48. April 2003. which only occur very shortly before complete failure. including heat ageing resistance.. were carried out in comparison with existing ﬂuoroelastomers and the results are discussed. The resistance of the composite is very high in the quiescent state but it is conductive after stretching or squeezing. USA Accession no.891178 Item 362 Eureka 23. retained elongation.891910 Item 361 Engineering 244. 2003. No. No. 56 refs. ski apparel and the automotive sector are mentioned. UNILEVER RESEARCH. p. UK. equipment and clothing that are able to withstand the extreme conditions outside the Earth’s atmosphere.40 COMPOSITES WHISPER THEIR PROBLEMS Shelley T This article reports in detail on a new technique that will allow composites to be used more conﬁdently in safetycritical commercial aerospace applications. temperature sensors.67-8 BENEFITS OF PLASTICS IN SPACE Gupta T K S P Sant Longowal.Rubber Div. First.Institute of Engineering & Technology Plastics play a key role in space.32 NEW FLUOROELASTOMER DEVELOPMENTS FOR AEROSPACE SEALING APPLICATIONS Thomas E Dupont Dow Elastomers (ACS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. BRUNEL UNIVERSITY. it is explained how the injection strategy can be optimised by using resin ﬂow simulation software.Centre of Lightweight Structures This paper describes ways to improve reliability and predictability of the VARTM technology in order to decrease development cost and to make risk of failures during production as small as possible. 1st-15th April 2003. p. p. Ca.6. UK.551-8 VACUUM INJECTION MOULDING FOR LARGE STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS Brouwer W D. chemical detection sensors. 8 Refs. June 2003. pp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.ROYAL AIRFORCE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. long before there any visible signs such as cracks. p. No. Applications of the technology in switching. strong and durable nature of polymers has meant that space technologists have been able to develop vehicles. INDIA metal particles held apart by extremely thin layers of non-conductive polymer. ACS Rubber Division. EUROPEAN UNION.7. adaptable yet incredibly temperature-resistant. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Examples of the use of polymers in aerospace applications are given.References and Abstracts the dynamic mechanical properties.4. volume swell and hardness change. with new plastics materials constantly being researched to survive the harsh environment of space. appropriate methods to achieve void free processing of the composite material are described. Labordus M Delft. NETHERLANDS. utilising Advanced Polymer Architecture technology.55-65 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 103 . EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. was reviewed to evaluate their compatibility with advanced gas turbine engine lubricants and reference fluids.890979 Item 363 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting . July 2003.6.
It is a high- Accession no. The synthesis. 2002. To describe the technological versatility of adhesives based on epoxy systems. printed media and structural welding.889282 Item 365 Journal of Composite Materials 37.2002. two-step reaction. polymerisation and preliminary thermal analyses on the monomers and polymers are described. ACS. 18th-22nd Aug. 20 refs. This article provides full details of the new material.4’-bis(3. and they have been formulated to be used for a wide range of applications: metal/metal. The range of properties versus the formulations proves the numerous structural applications of epoxy resins.OF DEFENSE USA Accession no. properties. p991-2 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW MELTING. their safety and reliability under high temperature and ﬁre environments must be assured. EUROPEAN UNION. It is shown that for a given material. based on a general procedure for the formation of diaryl ethers from the reaction of aryl bromides or iodides with hydroxyaryl compounds. glass/glass.of Polymer Chemistry) In a continuing investigation of high temperature polymers with good thermal properties. STIFFER WITHOUT ADDED FIBERS “Parmax SRP” (self-reinforcing polymer) is the sole product of US research and development company Mississippi Polymer Technologies Inc. DC. Div. The parameters that affect their critical buckling loads and the buckling strengths under these circumstances are investigated. and also provides us with background information on its producer. 4. No. The hydroxy-terminated diarylether is then reacted with 4-nitrophthalonitrile to obtain the oligomeric phthalonitrile monomer. In an extension of work on aromatic ethercontaining phthalonitrile resins. storage and application conditions. A study of structural integrity of composite structures exposed to fire or intensive heat is presented.DEPT. MISSISSIPPI POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES INC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.687-700 STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF COMPOSITE LAMINATED COLUMN EXPOSED TO HIGH TEMPERATURE OF FIRE Anilturk D..8. The initial. and potential applications.University With the increasing use of composite materials in applications of aerospace and civil structures.889275 Item 366 Plastics Technology 49. USA Accession no.C. 8 refs. English EPOXY ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS Grandi A Adhesives have been one of the major application ﬁelds for epoxy resins since their introduction in 1946. 2003. Ma. Washington. The data listed are obtained from a previous test by Carson. The new phthalonitriles complement the current phthalonitrile. oligomeric phthalonitrile monomers has been developed in which multiple aromatic ether linkages interconnect the terminal phthalonitrile units. a new class of low melting. These materials are designed to address the need for processable resin systems for composite fabrication below 150 deg. It is also concluded that a symmetric lay-up of laminate exhibits a higher buckling strength than the one of an unsymmetric lay-up. USA Accession no. wood/wood bonding. US. Number 2. No.References and Abstracts Italian. including its structure.of Polymer Chemistry.6. The synthetic method. Main applications are found in ﬁeld of structural adhesives for metal bonding.. and also for small metal or plastic component assembly operations. a series of low melting. STRONGER. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston. ITALY. GE PLASTICS.887913 104 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . as well as the working temperature and the shear strength rate of various formulated products are presented. is a modiﬁcation of the traditional Ullman ether synthesis. oligomeric phthalonitrile monomers with different chains lengths has been prepared and various curing additives have been used to affect polymerisation of these materials to thermosets. Synthesis of the oligomeric phthalonitrile monomers has been achieved in a novel one-pot. increasing the ply thickness will increase the buckling strength of the laminate. which is initially processed at temperatures between 250-300 deg. especially in the aeronautical and aerospace industry. OLIGOMERIC PHTHALONITRILE MONOMERS FOR AEROSPACE AND SHIP APPLICATIONS Dominguez D D. for military equipment. p. Fall 2002. p.Div. June 2003. Volume 43. WESTERN EUROPE performance readily-processable rigid-rod thermoplastic with a striking list of advantageous properties.Naval Research Laboratory (ACS. Chan W S Texas.4-dicyanophenoxy) biphenyl.C. key step of the reaction takes place under mild conditions and results in a high yield of a hydroxy-terminated oligomeric diarylether.888351 Item 367 Polymer Preprints. Keller T M US.37/41 “SELF-REINFORCING” THERMOPLASTIC IS HARDER.
5.Imperial College of Science. EUROPEAN UNION. p.2 psi. Full details are presented.4. p. for aerospace applications. 6 refs.329-36.28-32 BALANCING PROPERTIES FOR CORE SUCCESS Simpson K Sandwiching a lightweight core material between skins of ﬁbre reinforced plastic can signiﬁcantly increase the stiffness of a laminate without adding much to its overall weight.PART I: EXPERIMENTS Falzon B G. Airbus France successfully introduced TP ribs for the all-composite keel beam primary structure. p. With many fabricators turning to closed moulding processes to reduce emissions and improve part quality. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2.Technology & Medicine The results are reported of an investigation into the failure © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 105 .886608 Item 369 Adhesive Joints: Formation. 2003. EUROPEAN UNION.C in one of three different environments: atmospheric air. GEORGIA. No.885207 Item 372 Reinforced Plastics 47. The three main core types are foam. A380 wing slat components and A380 fuel tank access covers.INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. No. researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are assisting NASA to shorten the process of selecting the right polymer to use in nanocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes. Dillard D Dow Chemical Co.885336 Item 371 Advanced Materials and Composites News 25. UK.381-400 THE BEHAVIOR OF COMPRESSIVELY LOADED STIFFENER RUNOUT SPECIMENS .9/10 MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE AIDS NANOCOMPOSITE RESEARCH By adapting the tiny cantilever and position measurement systems used in atomic force microscopy. NASA USA of thick-sectioned stiffener runout specimens for aircraft applications loaded in uniaxial compression. Some impressive new applications are in the pipeline for composite sandwich structures. one of the latest developments in foam cores is the introduction of cores that are specially modiﬁed to aid vacuum infusion.C and 204 deg. The specimens tested had different nominal skin thicknesses and were made from carbon ﬁbre reinforced plastics. Strain gauge results for the different specimens are presented and details of the failed specimens are illustrated. No. p. although thermoplastic (TP) materials still play a rather minor role in aircraft structures. AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. including heavily loaded structures for Airbus’ latest aircraft. April 2003. The criterion for selection is based on the bonded system exhibiting sufﬁcient durability for over 60. Aileron ribs for the A340-600 were successfully developed and put into production by Airbus France using both glass and carbon fabric reinforced PPS composites.4-5 AIRBUS THERMOPLASTIC APPLICATIONS PRESENT AND FUTURE Turner G F Today’s Airbus primary and secondary structures utilise a signiﬁcant amount of advanced composites. vol. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. Ti-6A1-4V/FM-5 bonds and neat resin samples were aged at 177 deg. in order to measure the critical strain energy release rate as a function of temperature and environment. In the automotive sector. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts Item 368 High Performance Plastics May 2003. The bonded specimens and neat adhesive ﬁlms were conditioned in ageing ovens for 24 months and selected samples were periodically removed and tested at ageing times which were logarithmically separated. Tests were carried out on eight different specimen conﬁgurations. NETHERLANDS. 6A1 DURABILITY OF STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES AND THEIR BONDED JOINTS FOR HIGH SPEED AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Parvatareddy H. USA.000 hours in service environment conditions. and reduced air pressures of 2 psi and 0. 12 refs.7. Characteristics and Testing. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Other developing applications include TP auxiliary ribs for Airbus elevators. honeycomb and cellulose. EUROPEAN UNION.State University Edited by: Mittal K L (VSP BV) This study aims to evaluate the durability of structural adhesive joints for application in the proposed Mach 2.4 high speed civil transport aircraft.885675 Item 370 Journal of Composite Materials 37. in the process achieving a weight saving of 500kg versus the metal baseline version of this large and unique structure. 25 cm. Virginia. p. Utrecht. 7th April 2003. foam cores are currently being used in a project to develop technology Accession no. GERMANY. Davies G A O London. The adhesive used in the study was a polyimide.. Shuangyang X. The key to choosing the most appropriate core material is to ﬁnd the right compromise between performance and manufacturability. VSP BV.
.DIV. p. Ma. Schalek R.3. great cohesiveness and a tendency to form ﬁbrils.884615 Item 374 Polymer Preprints.. Han M H. or used by itself as the polymer matrix. The hydrophilic polymer matrix of an epoxy and a biodegradable polymer. Unfortunately. The ﬁbre/matrix interfacial behaviour is based on mechanical principles with the assumptions made at either the level of ﬁbre/matrix adhesion or using the chemistry approach. Michigan. These possibly include chemical bonding.884446 Item 375 Materials Today 6. They absorb much more energy than brittle ﬁbres and are widely used in aircraft. chain scission. KOREA. April 2003. No. Studies for the development of biocomposites using natural fibres are actively performing to widen applications to aerospace industries. These disadvantages are the main reason why biocomposites are mostly used in car interiors without an option for outside applications.C. Number 2.783-4 STABILITY OF A HYDROPHILIC POLYMER MATRIX IN A WET ENVIRONMENT Han S O.4. 2002. One of the major reasons for the active growth on the research of biocomposites is an increased environmental awareness. INDIA Washington. Biocomposites have similar properties to traditional glass-ﬁbre composites. The weak interfacial adhesion of Kevlar/polymer makes the composite more sensitive to environmental exposure.of Polymer Chemistry. Popular biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydrosuccinate (PHS) contain a relatively high concentration of hydrophilic groups in their structure. Stability of the hydrophilic polymer matrix in a wet environment is examined as a function of curing temperature. aerospace and ballistic applications.885186 Item 373 Journal of Materials Science Letters 22. microcracks.References and Abstracts for the high volume manufacture of car. Drzal L T Korea. It is reasonable to assume that the interfacial shear strength is the net result of a number of contributions to the ﬁbre/polymer adhesion. Volume 43. USA Accession no. The hydrophilic properties of the biodegradable polymers can provide better adhesion to natural ﬁbres compared to the classical hydrophobic polymers such as PP. The comparative mechanical behaviour of Kevlar/epoxy and Kevlar/polyester composites with thermal and cryogenic conditionings and combined effects of thermal shock is studied. The high radial expansion coefﬁcient of the Kevlar ﬁbre also causes an unfavourable tensile stress state at the interface.National Institute of Technology A better ﬁbre/matrix adhesion/bond will impart better properties such as interlaminar shear strength.State University (ACS. 106 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . but offer Accession no. Biodegradable polymers could be incorporated into a classic polymer such as an epoxy or PP. so-called “biocomposites” which are derived from renewable resources. delamination resistance and corrosion resistance to a polymeric composite. No. D. 1st Feb.Institute of Energy Research. High water absorption ability can significantly compromise the composite physical properties compared to synthetic polymers. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Boston.201-2 STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL SHOCK ON INTERFACIAL DAMAGE IN THERMOSETTING MATRIX ARAMID FIBRE COMPOSITES Ray B C India. 9 refs. p. Div. in addition to classic composites reinforced with carbon or glass. WORLD Accession no. The interfacial adhesion between the aramid ﬁbre surface and the polymer matrix is of major inﬂuence on the response of the composite to stress. This increased adhesion results in a higher performance of biocomposites. p. 6 refs. residual thermal compression forces due to differential shrinkage and also mechanical interlocking between the ﬁbre and matrix.OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY) The use of biocomposites for automotive applications has gained a lot of momentum in recent years.2003. Fall 2002. Aramid ﬁbre is a generic term for aromatic polyamide ﬁbres which have high speciﬁc strength. degradation of ﬁbre and matrix interface bonding. The unique chemistry and morphology of Kevlar aramid ﬁbre is also manifested in its composite behaviour. glucose based copolymer. secondary forces of attraction. the abundant hydrophilic functional groups of the biodegradable polymer and the natural ﬁbres can easily react to the water molecules in a wet or humid environment. reﬂected in phrases such as ‘protection of resources’. Changes in physical properties include a decrease of the mechanical properties. ‘CO2 emission reduction’ and ‘recycling’. is prepared and characterised for the application of biocomposites. truck and trailer assemblies. The interface-sensitive properties are weaker in polyaramid-reinforced composites than in their glass or graphite counterparts. 18th-22nd Aug.44-8 ACTIVITIES IN BIOCOMPOSITES Nickel J. ACS.2002. These aerospace materials frequently experience this kind of severe environmental exposure during their service life. This interfacial bonding is further weakened by exposure to active environments. Reidel U DLR German Aerospace Centre The German Aerospace Centre (DLR) is developing.
SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. This detailed article reports on the latest developments in the ﬁeld. 4th-7th Nov.Naval Air Warfare Center. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.Ideas to Reality. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL DETECTION OF MOISTURE IN ADHESIVE BONDS USING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY Davis G D DACCO SCI Inc. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. despite its formation mechanism remaining largely uncertain.MIN.References and Abstracts additional environmentally-friendly recovery options. (SAMPE) Poly(ether-ketone-ketone) (PEKK) is a semi-crystalline polymer which offers an attractive balance of properties. With a glass-rubber transition temperature of 156 deg. p. The specimens are exposed to high humidity/ temperature and EIS measurements are taken periodically. Vol. Possible dual-use applications include composite reinforcement of bridges and other infrastructure.e.1168-79 MECHANISM OF MARCEL FORMATION IN THICK TAPERED COMPOSITES Ng S J. Vol. GERMANY. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore.University (SAMPE) Fibre distortions (marcels) or layer waviness is a signiﬁcant manufacturing defect found in thick. LOWER SAXONY. 18 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. Vizzini A US. glass and boron composite adherends. The moisture uptake is calculated from the circuit capacitance. p.949-58 POLY(ETHER KETONE KETONE) MATRIX COMPOSITES Pratte J F.Ideas to Reality.. (SAMPE) The use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensors to track moisture intrusion into aluminiumaluminium bond lines is investigated. 34. Ca. 2002.OF FOOD. The capacitance and other circuit parameters are correlated with bond performance (pull strength or crack growth).1086-97 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 107 ..2002.Ideas to Reality. Leach D Cytec Engineered Materials Inc. and used for prediction of marcelling...883348 Item 376 Materials and Processing . Ca. USA Accession no. Maryland. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. 4th-7th Nov. Bai J M. Ca. Md. DEUTSCHE BAHN AG.882833 Item 378 Materials and Processing .882840 Item 377 Materials and Processing .C. The EIS data are modelled with an equivalent circuit. 34. 34.. Enhanced diffusion of moisture along the strained adhesive/FPL oxide interface is detected. WESTERN EUROPE. but are applied to the pre-existing structure). It is thus suitable for input to a condition-based maintenance or predictive assessment scheme. Pad sensors are mounted on opposite adherends after bonding (i. This combined with its excellent ﬂuid resistance due to its semi-crystalline morphology and very low ﬂammability make it an attractive option for a variety of aerospace and industrial uses. 2002. Carina. The sensor system is sensitive to low levels of moisture absorption and gives advance warning of potential environmental degradation of the bond. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. Possible applications include bonded repair patches and composite structures on aircraft. the sensor electrodes are not embedded in the bond line. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. The veriﬁed process model results illustrate clear indication of out-of-plane deformation arising from tool/laminate interaction during material compaction as the basic mechanism which causes marcelling in two distinct regions in the tapered section of the composite structure for the test case condition. 14 refs. complex composite parts. Other work has shown that the sensor system is also suitable for graphite. PEKK has been used for some time in aircraft interiors in the form of Accession no. USA Accession no. Vol..2002. The model provides an indication of the location of marcel. Marcels can cause significant degradations in mechanical properties and fatigue life in primary structural aircraft applications. Md. 2002. and on new biocomposite applications. 3 refs. COGNIS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH EU. Combinations of semi-empirical cure kinetics and process model are also developed to describe the in-situ deformation behaviour of thick composite processing. it provides easy processing with good performance for most commercial applications. The objective is to investigate the basic mechanism(s) which causes marcelling in thick linear tapered laminates. The technique is generic and can be applied to any geometric or material type structure susceptible to marcelling. Md. A ﬁbre optic based in-process measurements techniques is adapted to interrogate and determine the time and external compaction pressure at which marcelling occurs.2002.C and a melting temperature of 300-310 deg. 4th-7th Nov.AGRICULTURE & FORESTRY. Carina. Lap shear and wedge test specimens are prepared using Forest Products Laboratory (FPL)-etched or phosphoric acid anodised (PAA) aluminium bonded with Cytec FM73 or FM300 adhesives. Carina. The process model shows good correlation with the in-process measurement data. p.
in order to reduce energy consumption in cars.. Herren C W. Smith J G. aimed at determining whether these shortcomings could be overcome by chemical modiﬁcation of textile acrylics. and service related tests such as open-hole tension and compressions. An important aspect with glass composites is the glass-polymer interface and several different glass sizing are evaluated to provide the optimum interface in ‘dry’ and ‘hot-wet’ conditions. p. ballistic limit and damage evolution of each laminate are studied. Carina. 2002. The Department of Energy (DOE).Ideas to Reality.References and Abstracts unreinforced sheet. Composites have been developed in a variety of forms to meet speciﬁc application requirements.2002. p. Frame A C.NASA Langley Research Center (SAMPE) As part of an ongoing materials development activity to produce high performance polymers durable to the space environment. 8 refs. Ca. 172 GPa (25 Msi) modulus and a minimum 1% strain to failure at less than 11 US dollars/kg. A series of ballistic impact tests is performed on satin weave carbon/epoxy laminates of different thickness with projectile geometries representing hemispherical. A novel dianhydride is prepared from 2. Md.Ideas to Reality.882804 108 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . marine and automotive structural applications is steadily increasing. Vol. Watson K A. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.University at Birmingham. Tape materials with carbon and ﬁbre reinforcement are evaluated for mechanical performance compared to current industry standard materials.772-80 EFFECT OF PROJECTILE SHAPE DURING BALLISTIC IMPACT OF VARTM CARBON/ EPOXY COMPOSITE PLATES Ulven C. The perforation and damage evolution created by various projectile geometries in carbon/epoxy laminates are evaluated. Ca.. The continuous fibre forms include tape and fabric materials. These include short and continuous ﬁbre composites with glass and carbon fibres.University (SAMPE) The use of carbon/epoxy composites in aircraft.882783 Item 381 Materials and Processing . SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Smith S B. 34. Burleson T. Connell J W US. Results show that the chemical modiﬁcation of the textile acrylics in the spinning process changes the ﬁbre chemistry. 2002. 4th-7th Nov. Schimpf C. p. An example of a low-cost process is the out-of-autoclave.. The results of work performed by Hexcel. conical. Properties of interest include lamina properties. Carina. The laminates are produced from eightharness satin weave carbon fabric with an epoxy matrix processed using VARTM. Carbon Fibers R&T. 2002. commercial textile acrylics were not considered suitable for CF manufacturing due to poor carbon ﬁbre processing characteristics. Research groups in industry and academia were challenged to provide a technology road map for producing CF with tensile properties of 2760 MPa (400 ksi) strength. carbon ﬁbre (CF) manufacturers worldwide have been producing high performance CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor ﬁbres for aerospace and other industrial applications. 34.5-dihydroxyphenyldiphenylphosphine oxide in Accession no. fragment simulating and ﬂat tip. are presented. accelerates the stabilisation step and improves CF properties. Hosur M V Alabama.Ideas to Reality. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. Ca. USA Accession no. The perforation mechanism. Vol.. A gas-gun with a sabot stripper mechanism is employed to impact the samples with 50-calibre projectiles. The properties of CF processed from the modiﬁed textile acrylic ﬁbre exceed the programme targets for low cost carbon ﬁbre. technical challenges to achieve desired mechanical properties and high cost associated with the conversion process... Fabric-reinforced PEKK. and compression after impact.531-45 LOW COST CARBON FIBER FROM CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ACRYLICS Dasarathy H. Md.882820 Item 379 Materials and Processing . Md. phosphine oxide containing polyimides have been under investigation. Carina. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. Properties evaluated include moisture uptake open-hole compression and glass-rubber transition temperature. 34. Tuskegee. Robust composite structures processed using low-cost techniques with the purpose of sustaining high velocity impact loads from various threats are of great interest. Heatherly P W Hexcel Composites. 16 refs.377-88 POLYIMIDES CONTAINING PENDENT PHOSPHINE OXIDE GROUPS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS Thompson C M. (SAMPE) For over three decades.2002. vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) technique.2002. Advanced Fiber Technologies Inc. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. 4th-7th Nov. USA Accession no. Vaidya U K. Vol. Until now. funded research activities to replace metals with lightweight materials such as CF composites. including S-2 and E-glass fabrics are evaluated. 6 refs. USA Item 380 Materials and Processing . 4th-7th Nov.
Martian regolith is considered to be an economic resource for this purpose. High solar absorptance is needed to collect solar energy as efﬁciently as possible while low infrared emittance is needed to minimise radiant energy loss at operating temperature. Connell J W US.323-32 DURABILITY OF SOLAR SELECTIVE COATINGS IN A SIMULATED SPACE ENVIRONMENT Jaworske D A US. Wilkins R. In neutron exposures. p. are used. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. solar sails. A slightly increase in the numbers of errors in the electronic chips is noticed when the regolith panels. Md.cm can shield 19% of the ﬂuence while the one containing 80% regolith with a thickness of 2. 2002. Several examples possess electrical conductivity sufﬁcient for ESD. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. large lightweight space optics and second surface mirrors. The physical and mechanical properties.. p.Glenn Research Center (SAMPE) Solar selective coatings are being considered for heat engine and thermal switching applications on minisatellites. 14 refs. The chemistry. electronic chips are placed behind regolith panels and the numbers of errors that occur on the electronic circuits are recorded to characterise the shielding effectiveness. The results show that the material containing 60% regolith with a thickness of 1. space environmentally stable polymeric materials possessing sufficient electrical conductivity for electrostatic charge dissipation (ESD) are of interest for potential applications on spacecraft as thin ﬁlm membranes on antennas. 34.2002.01 g/sq.References and Abstracts good yield. USA Accession no.2002.Ideas to Reality. Carina. particularly thermal and optical properties. Solar selective coatings having a solar absorptance to infrared emittance ratio of 9 are successfully deposited using a mixture of nickel Accession no. it does not cause a strong secondary radiation. However. either with 60% or 80% regolith.cm. high tensile properties and low solar absorptivity.. One material exhibits a high glass transition temperature. Ardlan S. Vol. Ca. 4th-7th Nov. 6 refs. of the polymers are determined. It indicates that although the regolith materials with thickness about 2 g/sq. 4th-7th Nov.2002. p. 2002.882768 Item 384 Materials and Processing . Thompson C M. Ca. Ca.365-76 CARBON NANOTUBE/SPACE DURABLE POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE FILMS FOR ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE DISSIPATION Smith J G. SWNTs are difficult to disperse. Md. Moore J. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 4th-7th Nov.cm are not adequate in protecting chips from neutron radiation. and high-energy neutron radiation.358-64 STUDY ON REGOLITH MATERIAL FOR STRUCTURAL AND SPACE RADIATION SHIELDING APPLICATIONS Zhou J. 34. Carina. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. USA Accession no.Applied Radiation Research Center (SAMPE) Convenient in-situ materials are used to construct bulk © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 109 .. Compression testing and thermal analysis are performed on the regolith materials before and after each type of radiation exposures.882769 Item 383 Materials and Processing . 2002. USA shields for human inhabitant and electronic devices on Mars in order to avoid excessive launch weight. Vol. The objective is to study the radiation shielding effectiveness and radiation effects on properties of this potential habitat material. 9 refs. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Polyimide bonded Martian regolith is exposed to 55 MeV proton. Several preparative methods are employed to disperse SWNTs into the polymer matrix. Huff H. One method of imparting electrical conductivity while maintaining low solar absorptivity is through the use of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore.NASA.NASA Langley Research Center (SAMPE) Low solar absorptivity. Fogauty T. physical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite ﬁlms are presented.882770 Item 382 Materials and Processing . Vol. Carina.cm reaches an effectiveness of 33%. 34.89 g/sq... These properties are achieved in sputter deposited thin ﬁlms through the use of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric. Watson K A. The dianhydride reacts with commercially available diamines.Ideas to Reality. physical and mechanical properties of these resins are discussed. Zhong Y US.. Such coatings must have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. The radiation ﬂuence shielded by the regolith panels is measured in the 55 MeV proton radiation tests with an incident ﬂuence of 1 x 10 6 pronton/sq. 800 MeV proton.Nasa. The chemistry.Ideas to Reality. but the sample containing 60% regolith shows some drop in modulus after high-energy exposures. Md. No noticeable compression strength deterioration and glass transition temperature changes are found. and a previously reported diamine reacts with commercially available dianhydrides to prepare isomeric polyimides.
A lengthy development program was conducted at APL to provide assurance that the materials and processes chosen were capable of performing under such a demanding thermal environment. 4th-7th Nov. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. the solar arrays were required to be constructed of conventional. 110 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . p. p. Kennedy C F. 4th-7th Nov. USA Accession no. cure cycle modiﬁcations and ‘aeration’. Carina.C.. 4th-7th Nov.. A statistical method for determining rain ﬁeld environments for a given geometry is presented. To address these concerns.308-22 DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPOSITE SOLAR ARRAY SUBSTRATE PANELS FOR THE MESSENGER SPACECRAFT Wienhold P D. 2002. A general background discussion of rain damage (or erosion) on aerospace components. Ca.2002. Md. The results of this parametric study and the associated recommendations regarding intelligent RTM with the candidate material systems are discussed.C curing cyanate ester composite material resin system with extensive ﬂight heritage was chosen. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce.. The water jet test method is discussed in depth and a method Accession no. Carina...A PARAMETRIC EVALUATION Graf N A. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. 2002. Space. thermal analysis and mechanical testing. A liquid impact damage theory. US. 2002. computer controlled RTM process. The optical properties of the coatings are monitored as a function of time to evaluate their performance over long-term exposure to the simulated space environment. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. particularly composite material components is given. injection temperature. Vol. In order to reduce cost and schedule of this NASA Discovery Mission. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. 177 deg. Meeker B Raytheon Electron Systems. The space environment.Ideas to Reality.University.Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Div. USA Accession no. Persons D F Johns Hopkins University (SAMPE) The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface.2002.222-35 AUTOMATED RTM OF A MULTI-COMPONENT RESIN SYSTEM .References and Abstracts and aluminium oxide. 10 refs. Md. Ca. Emphasis is placed on the need for rain durability on several current high-speed missile applications. Vol.882757 Item 387 Materials and Processing . university and industry partners to demonstrate the viability of resin transfer moulding (RTM) for the manufacture of primary structural components for naval aviation applications. GEochemistry and Ranging) spacecraft will be the ﬁrst spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. Md. several candidate solar selective coatings are exposed to atomic oxygen in a plasma asher and to UV radiation in a vacuum facility equipped with calibrated deuterium lamps. Ca. however. 3 refs. is presented. along with a number of liquid-impact test methods and their advantages and disadvantages. A study is performed to examine the effects of major process parameters including variations in the resin component mix ratio. space-qualiﬁed materials. 34. with a post-cure used to extend the glass transition temperature closer to the maximum predicted temperature. the spacecraft will orbit the planet for one year. Carina.Naval Air Systems Command. The goal is to evaluate the feasibility and process error tolerance of this intelligent RTM process applied to two candidate resin systems. including durability to atomic oxygen and vacuum UV radiation. supervisory. This involves ﬂat panel fabrication and a wide array of testing including physical evaluation. System thermal. p. The results of this program will be applicable to other high temperature spacecraft applications of advanced pitch ﬁbre cyanate ester composite structures. Cambridge. A toughened. Several coatings are found to be durable to both the atomic oxygen and the vacuum UV environments. USA Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore. (SAMPE) A method to evaluate high-speed composite radomes for rain durability is discussed. Vol.882765 Item 385 Materials and Processing . US.Ideas to Reality. demonstration and evaluation of an intelligent. 4 refs.. One objective of this research includes the design. A second objective involves the selection and characterisation of candidate materials. ENvironment.2002. 34. mass and stiffness requirements dictated that the panel facings be fabricated from a high thermal conductivity and stiffness pitch ﬁbre composite material capable of withstanding short-term temperatures as high as 270 deg.Naval Academy (SAMPE) The Polymers and Composites Branch of the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) has teamed with fellow Navy. presents some challenges for the use of materials on the exterior of spacecraft. with a focus on two-part resin systems with textile reinforcement. Joyce P J US. Designed and built by the Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory (APL).Ideas to Reality. 34.12-26 RAIN DURABILITY EVALUATION OF HIGH SPEED COMPOSITE RADOMES Willardson R P.882764 Item 386 Materials and Processing .
33-45 EMERGING MATERIALS FOR REVOLUTIONARY AEROSPACE VEHICLE STRUCTURES AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS Harris C E. Carina. Nov. 107 refs. No. including their initial discovery. Polymer chemistries also improved to be able to handle higher operational temperature requirements during this time period too.882741 Item 388 Materials and Processing . called Modular Tooling.2002. Gray H R US. Proceedings of the 34th International SAMPE technical conference held Baltimore.61/82 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS Pillai C K S Thiruvananthapuram.Ideas to Reality. ﬁrst with boron and then with carbon reinforcements. Finally. Md. Limited is an innovative developer and manufacturer of high quality Araldite. A parallel of the evolving nature of composites to the evolution of metals in aerospace applications is presented. The 1980s saw a signiﬁcant increase in PMC usage to meet performance requirements primarily for weight and special structures.1. 2002. to other RTM affordability challenges is also considered. 30 refs. Materials already under development that could be available in 5 to 10 years and those that are in the early research phase and may not be available for another 20 to 30 years are identiﬁed and the results of several systems analysis studies. SAMPE International Business Ofﬁce. Shuart M J. The synthesis of polyaniline is examined in some detail. which highlight the potential of carbon nanotubes are presented. Accession no. USA Accession no. Also during the 1990s. doping of organic conjugated polymers.881612 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 111 . Jan.880133 Item 392 RP Asia 2002: Composites in the global market. 2002.2002. Paper 8.. applications of conducting plastics are outlined.Langley Research Center A comprehensive survey is presented of emerging materials with applications to aerospace vehicle structures and propulsion systems aimed at assisting NASA’s long-term mission planning and providing an appropriate research investment strategy. 4th-7th Nov. band theory. p.1-11 EVOLVING NATURE OF AEROSPACE COMPOSITES Grifﬁth J M (SAMPE) Organic or polymer matrix composites (OMC or PMC) entered aerospace production applications and use during the 1950s for areas with electrical requirements such as radomes using ﬁbreglass reinforcements.2003.) The Adhesives and Tooling Division of Vantico Pty.167-74 USE OF ARALDITE ADHESIVES TO BOND COMPOSITE MATERIALS Bieniak D Vantico Pty. Vol.-Dec. Malaysia.2. The 1990s showed an increased emphasis on trades of acquisition cost to performance with an associated reduction of composites usage on military airframes.2003. Structural features of conjugated polymers.-Feb. Future trends of composites are examined. p. Feb. USA Accession no. The challenge facing the resin transfer moulding (RTM) industry to develop affordable RTM tooling for aerospace and defence applications is addressed and the development of a new approach. p.Ltd. Oxford. USA Accession no. The applicability of this new approach.References and Abstracts for determining water jet testing parameters for missile radome geometry is outlined. 46 refs. many of which are speciﬁcally used as adhesives.38-43 MODULAR TOOLING FOR AFFORDABLE RTM Davenport D Advanced Technical Products Inc.882740 Item 389 Popular Plastics and Packaging 48. there was an increase of composites usage on helicopters for weight reductions..NASA. Elsevier Science Ltd. PMC usage expanded in the 1960s and 1970s. p. water jet test results are presented for a composite laminate and two laminate coating systems. 34.880182 Item 391 SAMPE Journal 39.6. Proceedings of a conference held Kuala Lumpur.Regional Research Laboratory This comprehensive article discusses electrically conducting polymers.. INDIA Accession no. p. USA Item 390 SAMPE Journal 38. (Elsevier Science Ltd. No. Ca. No. general methods of preparation of conducting polymers and attempts to improve the processability of conducting polymers are discussed. which has been employed to make helicopter fuselage sections for the AH64 Apache Longbow Helicopter. which offers the potential to dramatically reduce non-recurring tooling costs of production by enabling multiple parts to be moulded from a single mould is reported. Finally. Epibond and Epocast epoxy resins systems. 5th-6th Sept.2002.
Samples prepared by this cure cycle exhibit 270 deg.879306 Item 393 RP Asia 2002: Composites in the global market. Typical applications will be discussed to characterise the performance of these particular foam plastics and to show that they signiﬁcantly contribute to weight and cost savings. Volume 84. due to their ease of processing and excellent high-temperature properties.. Washington. p.and spacecraft.University.Div. Mather P T... Proceedings of a conference held San Diego. 2001. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Rao V. The longterm durability in terms of disbond of composite patch. 31 refs. No.University In recent years there has been a considerable interest in the design and application of bonded composite repairs to restore cracked or corroded metallic airframes. 20 refs.293-308 CYANATE ESTER COMPOSITES CO-CURED WITH A SILICON-BASED THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM Ganguli S.878219 Item 395 High Performance Polymers 14. air.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Sept. railway rolling stock and ships.2002. Oxford. Oct. The mode shapes of the test structure are obtained analytically using linear elastic ﬁnite element analysis and experimentally with a laser vibrometer.2002. fracture at the bond-lines.Air Force Research Laboratory (ACS.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) The paper introduces the properties of a family of already very well established rigid sandwich foam cores based on polymethacrylimide (PMI). Connecticut. No. there still exist some problems for applications in bonded repair systems such as the high sensitivity of these systems to model and Accession no. Interfacial fracture toughness tests reveal a very robust interface. Cyanate esters (CE) have emerged as attractive materials for aerospace applications. The objective is to develop a co-cure cycle for a cyanate ester/silicon polymer (SM8000) hybrid composite system. p. Elsevier Science Ltd.) Aromatic polyimides (PIs) are well known. USA Accession no. Malaysia. The chemorheology and cure kinetics of the CE along with the thermochemical behaviour of the SM8000 resin are used to develop a co-cure cycle. Div. Paper 7. Paper 401.2.879305 Item 394 Structural Health Monitoring 1. validating the cure cycle. GERMANY. It will be shown that PMI is widely used as core material for demanding sandwich structures in many ﬁelds of application.3. WESTERN EUROPE measurement errors. delaminations in composite patches and structural crack growth is to be thoroughly investigated before the aerospace industry adopts composite repair technology. Using a thermal protection system can increase the service temperature even further.C increase in the onset of thermal decomposition. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. These adhesives can be used to bond a wide variety of substrates including composite materials which are being used widely in a variety of applications. 1st-5th April 2001. a new PMI grade has been launched which will also be discussed. The developed algorithms are successfully utilised for detecting and quantifying damage in bonded repair systems using simulation and experimental results. AUSTRALIA Accession no. Tan L-S Dayton.References and Abstracts and also the Uralane PU adhesive systems. The results obtained are satisfactory. These methods can also be used to detect damage at multiple locations in a bonded repair system. 5th-6th Sept.2002.C. Ca. Two algorithms are presented. Many have investigated the use of structural modal response (natural frequencies and mode shapes) for assessing the integrity of structural systems. Dean D. ACS. Raytheon Systems Co. D. Wavelet maps and neural networks are used to detect and quantify damage in composite bonded repair systems. one for the location of damage in both single and multiple locations and the other for quantifying the damage. p. some of which are discussed in this paper.877792 Item 396 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering.150-66 USE OF PMI-FOAMS IN DEMANDING SANDWICH STRUCTURES Seibert H F Rohm GmbH (Elsevier Science Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Kuala Lumpur. Although these methods have been successfully employed in some practical systems. US. Aglan H. highperformance materials with widespread applications 112 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .University. Most recently. for example.742-3 SYNTHESIS AND CHAIN-END FUNCTIONALIZATION OF A NEW HYPERBRANCHED POLY(ARYLENE-ETHERKETONE-IMIDE) Baek J-B. p.161-84 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MONITORING OF BONDED COMPOSITE PATCH REPAIRS OF AGING AIRFRAMES USING WAVELET TRANSFORMS Amaravadi K. Spring Meeting.University.. Jordan K Tuskegee. 2002. Derriso M Missouri-Rolla.
low temperature properties. End-use applications examined. electrical properties. It was recently demonstrated that they are useful as optical materials based on their optical anisotropy when cast in directions parallel (in-plane) and perpendicular (out-ofplane) to the ﬁlm surface.876286 Item 398 High-Performance Composites 10. there is a clear trend towards the uptake of higher-skill. Germany. vol.. 29 cm.2002. strength retention at high temperature. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. hyperbranched polymers have several important advantages such as better solubility compare to their linear counterparts. linear geometry of the macromolecules to 3D. NALOAN NATURAL AND WOOD FIBRE REINFORCEMENT IN POLYMERS Bledzki A K.31-2 COMPOSITE FUTURE Bishop G NetComposites Ltd. Solubility is sought to allow processing polymers with preformed imide units and. Large quantity of hyperbranched polymers can be easily produced from ABx (x = or is greater than 2) monomers. WESTERN Accession no. p. properties. post-polymer reactions of soluble aromatic polyimides would also allow better control in the introduction of desirable functional groups. Rapra Review Report 152. No.2003. 485 refs. 2002. 2002. Another viable alternative to attaining solubility in aromatic PIs is to change the traditional. Numerous research efforts have been focused on organo-soluble PIs from the modiﬁcation of the structure without substantially decreasing rigidity of their backbone. In manufacturing. Shawbury. NORTH AMERICA. more capital intensive processes such as resin infusion and resin transfer moulding. In addition. which involve tedious multi-step synthesis. Rapra Technology Ltd. chemical resistance. UK. and applications. pp. building industry. Nov. WORLD Accession no.139-50 LIQUID PERFLUOROETHER ELASTOMER Uritani P. Rapra Technology Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. European Rubber Journal) Liquid perfluoroether elastomers are discussed with reference to chemical structure (perfluoropolyether backbone with vinyl silicone end-caps at each end). thus restricting the choice in their processing options. As a subset of dendritic polymers.Review Report No. Such reactive hyperbranched polymers may be useful as toughening additives for high-temperature thermosets. processing.877485 Item 397 Design Engineering Dec. Thermoset composites still take the lion’s share of the composites market and these are used in all areas of application.144. p. when fully imidised.13. Some statistics are included for the consumption of natural ﬁbres in Europe by the automotive industry 1996-2010.2002-Jan. highly branched (dendritic) architecture. However. No. Sperber V E. Design considerations and tooling options. carbon ﬁbre is forecast to exhibit the highest growth.) Rapra.152 The use of natural and wood ﬁbre reinforcements in polymers is reviewed with respect to types. 13th-14th Nov. most aromatic PIs have limited solubility in common organic solvents. USA EUROPE Accession no.6. The objective of this research is to synthesise self-polymerisable AB2 monomer and functionalise the resulting hyperbranched polyether-ketone-imide with reactive chain ends.. especially in lower performance applications. with the automotive industry acting as the major pull due to the twin drivers of recyclability and weight. thermoplastic composites are experiencing a growth rate approximately twice that of thermosets. However. a complete discussion of manufacturing methods and market applications are also covered. 13 refs. and easier synthesis than their analogous dendrimers.Ltd.8.874698 Item 399 Shawbury.References and Abstracts in the aerospace and electronics industries due to their excellent thermomechanical and dielectric properties.. and there is also an increased trend to natural ﬁbres due to their perceived lower environmental impact. Paper 14. include the automotive industry.Universitat Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd.2002.874532 Item 400 HPE 2002. 2002. surface treatment of fibres.7-19 HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPOSITES: AN OVERVIEW This article provides a brief technical introduction to the composites industry. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. In the ﬁbres market. reviewing the various types and combinations of composite materials and the forms in which they are used. permeability and © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 113 . Faruk O Kassel. (Rapra Technology Ltd. homogeneous. furniture and panels and aerospace applications. p. Kishita H Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. properties of composites. many problems associated with handling polyamic acid (PAA) precursors can be avoided. especially in Europe. Proceedings of a conference held Cologne. curing conditions. crosslinking mechanism.
5. EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Nov. seals and hoses found in automotive or aircraft fuel lines. p. It is.868298 Item 405 Chemical and Engineering News 80. Both DuPont Dow and Ausimont have new product lines that they say make ﬂuoroelastomers easier to work with. Autonomic healing does not require any mechanical intervention.39.University Structural polymeric composites are susceptible to cracks which may develop deep within the structure. No. and is today employed in a diverse range of products that includes dental implants. the polymer is solidiﬁed to hold the mould shape. dedicated to ﬂuoroelastomers that incorporate its new advanced polymer architecture Accession no. ultrasonic transducers. The properties are considered in relation to the potential use of these elastomers in applications such as O-rings. p.662/72 Italian PLASTICS FROM DEEP SPACE Zargani C Space applications of plastics are examined. In July. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.2002. No. which then bonds the crack face. 5 refs. Oct. improved properties and novel compositions. the microcapsules rupture and release the healing agent into the damaged region by means of capillary action.1149-56 EVALUATIONS OF AN ARAMID FIBER IN NONWOVEN PROCESSES FOR HONEYCOMB APPLICATIONS Wu Y-J. Subsequently.871791 Item 403 Popular Plastics and Packaging 47.2001. When the material cracks. diaphragms and semiconductors. Details are given of the relationships between material requirements in making a honeycomb core material for aircraft interior applications using an aromatic polyamide.871697 Item 404 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86. method of microcapsule preparation and conﬁrmation of self-healing are discussed. USA Mumbai. microscopy and mechanical analysis are presented. This is because they can withstand acids. FRANCE. Data from thermal analysis. NETHERLANDS. ceramic or inorganic powder. The characterisation and processing of a model aramid ﬁbre into nonwoven samples were investigated. oil. USA Accession no.10. aircraft wing weights. No. Rhodia Kermel Co. USA. The self-healing process. Seferis J C. essential to design smart materials that can repair themselves while in service. gaskets. but the powder polymer mixture has little strength beyond that required for injection. Details are given. solvents or catalysts and the powder is sintered to nearly full density. INDIA Accession no. solvents and other chemicals at temperatures ranging from -30 to 250C. Sintering is a heat treatment that is applied to the powders to strengthen and densify the particles. with growth of 3-5%/year. ceramic turbochargers and golf clubs. the Netherlands. the polymer (binder) is removed using heat.2002.2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. bases. Lorentz V Washington. rocket nozzles. After mould ﬁlling.References and Abstracts silylation treatment for improvement of compression set.66-9 SINTERING: A CRITICAL STEP German R Penn State University Powder injection moulding (PIM) takes advantage of the ﬂuid-like behaviour of a heated powder-polymer feedstock to form complex shapes. p. p. Many of the modern applications are justiﬁed by factors such as manufacturing economy. The sintering process has been known for thousands of years. 21 refs. It can be performed with wax-like polymers and any sinterable alloy. p. 2 refs. Healing of cracks in structural polymers is accomplished by incorporating a healing agent and a catalytic chemical trigger in the polymer matrix.University. therefore. No. 30th Sept.67-72 SELF-HEALING PLASTICS Singh B. Nov.11. DuPont Dow Elastomers puts the value of the global market at 450m US dollars in 2002. Tamboli S 114 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . No. Mhaske S.2002.873301 Item 401 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 66. automotive valve seats. and some ways in which the transfer of space technology is contributing to developments in everyday applications of plastics are discussed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 31st Oct. DuPont Dow ﬁnished a new unit in Dordrecht. Mehta N. polymerisation is initiated.872613 Item 402 Injection Molding 10. It is very difﬁcult to determine or observe cracks or damages in composites used in crucial applications such as infrastructure and aerospace.15-6 RENAISSANCE IN FLUOROELASTOMERS Tullo A H The largest applications for ﬂuoroelastomers are O-rings.12. As the healing agent comes into contact with the embedded catalyst.
RAW MATERIAL FOR HIGHPERFORMANCE COMPOSITES Marsh G Prepregs have become accepted where performance. p. Part of that was constant over a wide-range Accession no.University. Shefﬁeld. In desorption studies it was found that some of the water molecules remained entrained in the polymer. and so is certiﬁed as such by various aircraft original equipment manufacturers.10. Hexcel chemists have moved in this direction with M21. p. Regular and intermittently applied thermal spikes during moisture conditioning caused enhanced absorption of the cyanate ester modiﬁed epoxy resins. slip-rings or races. N. Sept.868223 Item 407 Composites International No. Aerospace engineer Bert Weteringe and colleagues Harald Bersee and Adriaan Beukers performed their experiments over the past two years with carbon/PPS laminate (made with Ticona FORTON 0214C PPS resin) trademarked as Cetex and supplied by Ten Cate Advanced Composites in The Netherlands.UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The spiking of the samples above or below this temperature resulted in lower moisture content. A major contribution to this would be to reduce cure temperature. high-temperature adhesive. No.5209-18 MOISTURE ABSORPTION BY CYANATE ESTER MODIFIED EPOXY RESIN MATRICES. French RP46: NEW THERMOSET RESIN SYSTEM Originally seen as a safe alternative to existing prepregged polyimides in the aerospace industry.2002.2002.53. WORLD Accession no.24-8 PREPREGS . WORLD RESEARCH INTO REDUCING MICROCRACKS Technical researchers at the Aerospace Engineering Department’s Structures and Materials Laboratory of Delft University of Technology (DUT) have conducted innovative research with thermoplastic composites. RP46 has a continuous operating temperature of 700C. The amount of the entrained water increased with a spikingtemperature. A more recent development has resulted in the formulation of a coating version that is the core of a superstrong. with a ﬁbre volume fraction in the laminate of 49. EUROPEAN UNION. In composite form.. Five harness carbon fabric was used. No. but can be cured at 130C rather than the more usual 180C. RP46 from Unitech now sees utilisation across a broad spectrum of applications subject to extreme operating conditions. and determine a non-destructive test method in order to more accurately and fully detect microcracks. No. Oct. Prepregs would ﬁnd greater market acceptance if the costs of acquiring. resin permeates the ﬁbres laterally and cure takes place.References and Abstracts technology. These new material systems have sheets of pre-catalysed resin ﬁlm interleaved into dry ﬁbre fabric stacks so that when heat is applied. Another noteworthy development is the growing availability of thermoplastic prepregs. DELFT. BAE Systems The moisture absorption of cyanate ester modiﬁed epoxy resin matrices has been studied under thermal spiking conditions.868279 Item 406 Reinforced Plastics 46.2%. Ausimont started up a plant at its complex in Thorofare. Attracting much attention currently is the extension of the “semi-preg” approach. Prepregs can be manufactured by the solvent impregnation and hot-melt impregnation methods. Jones F R. to make its new Tecnoﬂon HS line of ﬂuoroelastomers. Improved moisture absorption was observed at spike-temperatures above 120 degree C. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. A maximum moisture enhancement spike-temperature exists for the resin. The relationships were evaluated between material behaviour and variables such as maximum and minimum temperatures during a thermal spike.-Oct.J. material qualification and product consistency are paramount requirements. a tough third-generation epoxy matrix that has the mechanical properties required for demanding aerospace applications. Also in July.2002.20 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 115 . it is brieﬂy reported. Sept.867412 Item 409 Polymer 43. The researchers intend to study different types of infrared heaters in their next level of research into thermoplastic composites.19. EFFECT OF SPIKING PARAMETERS Karad S K. 2002. PART I. dry spiking and number of spikes. NETHERLANDS. UNITECH LLC USA Accession no. p. the duration of the spike. Details are given. Powder versions are available for compression moulding into virtually indestructible bearings. Attwood D Maharashtra Institute of Technology. with excellent mechanical properties and resistance to Skydrol. p. The results indicate some promising behaviour in terms of greatly reducing or eliminating microcracking in continuously-reinforced carbon ﬁbre/PPS laminates by using rubber forming and special heating techniques. Weteringe says a key advantage of working with the Ten Cate material is that it was especially developed for aeronautical applications. storing and processing them could be reduced.9.868142 Item 408 Reinforced Plastics 46.89 English.
F heat cure cycles. On isothermal resorption. INDIA. and small bubbles of the injected gas about ﬁve microns across formed around the nanoparticles. and multiple 120 deg. Variation of the tape from batch to batch or within a batch often results in intermittent and unpredictable failures.7. 23 refs. p. With a foam that contains 5% clay particles. WESTERN EUROPE OHIO. Tests are conducted with the same materials used in production and the actual production process is followed. boards were made that are just as strong as typical foam..913-34 SELECTION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING ROUTES FOR COSTEFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE Bader M G Surrey. No. For this reason. July 2002. Variation during manufacture of the tape can change the expected performance causing adhesive residue. EUROPEAN UNION. The Ohio State researchers added nanometre-size clay particles to the molten plastic. Ga. the moisture concentration was found to be similar to that achieved through thermal spiking.19-20 NANOCOMPOSITE DENSE PLASTIC FOAM REPLACES SOLID PLASTIC It is briefly reported that researchers at Ohio State University claim to have developed nanocomposite plastic foam that is strong enough to replace solid plastic in structural applications such as car or airplane panels. 25 Years of Tape Innovations. p. p. p. However. 1st-3rd May 2002. UK. remove cleanly. 2002.6. exposures to solvent. Samples were subjected to the effects of cycling between the extremes of 25 and 150C and to temperature environments commonly encountered by aircraft in ﬂight. The tape may remain on the airplane for several days before removal. and ultimately rework and delays. The cost and schedule impact when the masking tape fails is signiﬁcant on commercial aircraft. No. abrasives. Andrews S M Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) Masking tape is a critical component of the painting process for commercial aircraft. UK.. 2002. Non-prepreg and non-autoclave processes were shown to offer many cost and production advantages. No. Accession no. these tests cannot guard against variability and manufacturer changes in the production of the masking tape. Northbrook. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.863711 Item 413 Journal of Advanced Materials 34. difﬁculty applying or removing the tape. The tape may pass the lab and shop tests only to fail in production on the airplane. A simple methodology was introduced for a comparison on the basis of cost-performance efﬁciency.864095 Item 412 Tech XXV. USA Accession no. poor paint lines. The materials and routes selected covered the range of composites from those appropriate for general engineering applications to those for aerospace applications. IL. showing that the entrained water at the lower spike-temperatures can also be achieved under mild conditions. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.21-6 WATER ABSORPTION OF MODEL PHENOLIC RESIN SYSTEMS FOR COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS Guionnet S. Boeing performs several qualiﬁcation tests prior to accepting a masking tape for use in the paint hangar.University The effects of water absorption and thermal cycling on the thermomechanical properties of glass ﬁbre-reinforced phenol-formaldehyde resins were investigated using TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis. These matrices are useful for aerospace applications. adhering to them.865934 Item 411 Advanced Materials and Processes 160. manufacturers inject gases into hot liquid plastic. 8 refs. To make foam. It was shown that more economic solutions could often be realised by selection of ‘expensive’ carbon rather than ‘cheaper’ E-glass as the reinforcing ﬁbre. Rework and delay costs easily ran into thousands of dollars per day. Proceedings of a conference held Atlanta. Several components of the tape construction are considered.866532 Item 410 Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 33A. The tape must withstand. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The tape must adhere to several different substrates. and provide a sharp paint line.313-22 BOEING PAINT HANGAR PRESSURE SENSITIVE TAPE APPLICATIONS Ungerecht C. but sometimes at the expense of poorer mechanical properties. EUROPEAN UNION. Seferis J C Washington.University A study was conducted with the aim of estimating the costs of manufacture of a simple component in a number of different composite materials and by different manufacturing routes. but two thirds as thick. June 2002.STATE UNIVERSITY USA Accession no.References and Abstracts of conditions and may be attributable to hydrogen bonded water of to the reaction with isolated cyanate ester groups. It was found that water 116 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .3. The performance of the tape must be consistent and predictable. Paper 24. water.
These polymers may be useful in microelectronic applications. Liu B. Jiang Z Jilin. that are useful in the automotive. In addition. 4 refs.14 COMPOSITE STRUCTURE FOR CAMERA ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE A graphite epoxy bench. p. and the reasons are identiﬁed. p. 10 refs. No. A Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar facility is used to study the effect of absorbed moisture in high strain rate tests (2001200/s) of a unidirectional IM7/8551-7 graphite/epoxy composite.University Many applications of structural materials involving composites include impact or dynamic loading in a humid environment.859105 Item 417 Advanced Materials and Processes 160.of Polymer Chemistry. very little is known of the effect of absorbed moisture on the high strain rate properties of polymer matrix composites. March 2002. Composite materials are known to degrade when subjected to humid conditions.C. 603-4 METHYLATED AND TRIFLUOROMETHYLATED AROMATIC POLY(ETHER ETHER KETONE DIPHENYL KETONE)S Hu W. aerospace and naval applications of composite structures.861969 Item 415 Polymer Preprints. ALLIANT TECHSYSTEMS USA Accession no. Vinson J R Louisiana. gas separation membranes and matrix resins.862203 Item 414 Journal of Materials Science 37. May 2002. CHINA Accession no. Tough. which serves as a high-precision stable truss for the Advanced Camera for Surveys.27 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 117 . polymer ﬁlms and coating materials. Novel PEKs are prepared via aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction. The study into this type of polymer continues.13 CARBON NANOFIBER COMPOSITES REDUCE WEIGHT FOR AIRCRAFT The Air Force Research Laboratory’s Materials and Manufacturing Directorate at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base has developed vapour grown carbon ﬁbre technology.. which caused freezing or evaporation of the absorbed free water. Washington D. All the polymers showed higher Tgs and good thermal stability. Several researchers have found that water absorption by composites causes degradation of matrix dominated quasi-static properties. Wang G. Spring 2002.. light weight and heat stability required for applications in space. which can be used in the cost-effective manufacture of composites with high stiffness and thermal conductivity for military and aerospace applications. May 2002. No.University (ACS.859101 Item 418 High-Performance Composites 10. a better understanding of the effect of the matrix and ﬁbre/matrix interface on the high strain rate properties of composites is achieved. 1st July 2002.of Polymer Chemistry) Aromatic polymers are known for their usefulness in meeting the high-performance requirements for structural Accession no. Volume 43. PEKs containing hexaﬂuoroisopropylidene units have been widely studied.13.860437 Item 416 Advanced Materials and Processes 160.5. p.State University.2693-8 DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE EFFECTS ON IMPACT PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Woldesenbet E. Fl. USA resins. and therefore the humidity confounds the difﬁculty of determining the high strain rate behaviour of composites. 13 refs. The ﬂuorine-containing polymers have been prepared for applications as advanced optical and microelectronics materials. Considerable attention has been devoted to the preparation of ﬂuorine-containing polymers. ﬂexible films can be obtained by compression moulding and good solution casting.5. USA Accession no. 2002. The tests show signiﬁcant variation of high strain rate properties from static properties. The study includes dry. Div. Due to these advantages. No. However. medium and saturated moisture conditions. physical and mechanical properties. The bulky pendant groups are incorporated into the main chains containing diphenyl moieties. Wu Z. Chen C. p. WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE USA Accession no. The mechanical properties of 3FPEEKDK are discussed. Delaware. Polyaryl ether ketones (PEKs) are examined for use in aerospace and electronics applications due to their combination of chemical.References and Abstracts absorption followed a Fickian diffusion model and that most of the changes in the properties of the composites occurred when they were exposed to extreme conditions. 7th-11th April 2002. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Orlando.2. No. Zhao S.Div. ACS. is made by Alliant Techsystems and provides the strength. Gupta N. Number 1.
Sept. May 2002. No. Vasile C This handbook provides an overview of the theory and practice of polymer blends and composites. Preforms are most economical when the cost of designing. AEROCOMPOSITES INC. functional polymer composites. According Aero Composites. use of advanced composite materials in the construction of suspension push-rods for a Formula One racing car.855271 Item 421 High-Performance Composites 9.. including less moisture uptake. Its design reduces noise. with up to ﬁve times centrifugal load capacity than aluminium blades.5. less frequently.856080 118 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .. Details are given. pp. Rapra Technology Ltd. composite materials in the nuclear and space industries. glass or aramid ﬁbres and can be produced by either 2D or 3D techniques. advanced composes for offshore developments. EDAC TECHNOLOGIES CORP. polymer blends and composites in liquid environments. INDIA. The aerospace industry has investigated preform use during the last 20 years and has.. a short-range cruise missile. EASTERN EUROPE. usually made of aramid or aluminium. the ﬁrst aramid paper. a unique preform and a vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process. USA Accession no. enabling optimum temperature control.Ltd. is now the preeminent core material in sandwich construction for aerospace applications. p. STEPAN CO.2001.20-6 THERMOPLASTICS PROVIDE ATTRACTIVE OPTIONS Black S Accession no. DuPont has developed improved precursor materials . Ultracor has developed and patented a new carbon/carbon honeycomb core panel for use as ﬁrewall protection in helicopters. 428 HANDBOOK OF POLYMER BLENDS AND COMPOSITES. or. The ﬁrst choice for many structural aerospace applications is phenolic-impregnated aramid paper. TEXTILE PRODUCTS INC. its new blade is strongest in the GA market. Advanced ﬁbre preforms are made using textile technologies such as weaving. p. The material requires no heat treatment during or after machining.56-60 IMPROVED CORE MATERIALS LIGHTEN HELICOPTER AIRFRAMES Black S Honeycomb.Korex and N636 Kevlar ./Oct.. 2002. new approaches to reduce plastic combustibility. in critical regions. in general. It comprises a collection of monographs on the subject of polymer blends and composites from over 50 professionals from academia and industry with chapters covering the following topics: overview of composite fabrication.. The composite’s low weight and natural damping characteristics also reduce vibration. Indian Petrochemical Corp.x. is still widely used by many OEMs. USA Accession no. found many applications in which preforms meet quality and price criteria. Demoulded parts have consistent geometry. ﬁbre reinforced plastic composites for biomedical applications. July/Aug. Edited by: Kulshreshta A K. using a vacuum cast aluminium alloy called Alpase M-1 Mold Plate. design and cost. rather than the 440 stainless steel or steel alloy typically used in such applications. ACI’s 7 lb problade is 20-50% lighter and. VOLUME 2 Petru Poni. CYTEC ENGINEERED MATERIALS USA Item 420 High-Performance Composites 10.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry. knitting and braiding of carbon.41-5 EVOLVING PREFORMS ARE THE CORE OF COMPLEX PARTS Carter K Composites researchers have touted near-net preforms as a cost-effective answer to production of composite parts since the 1980s. Nowhere is honeycomb’s high strength and low weight more important than in helicopters. better strength in hot/ wet environments and much less expansion/deformation during autoclave processing. Lockheed used braided preforms to great advantage in the design of JASSM. p. liquid moulding processes.with better properties.2001.3. stall ﬂutter and results in more even load distribution on the propeller hub’s blade retention. While Nomex. extremely low void content and require minimal post-mould processing. conducting polymer composites. Apex Machine Tool machined the mould from and ACI design.References and Abstracts COMPOSITE PROPELLER BLADE OUTFLYS COMPETITION AeroComposites set out manufacture a composite propeller blade that would outperform existing blades on high-performance aircraft engines for the General Aviation (GA) market.855262 Item 422 High-Performance Composites 9. No. More than 90% of preforms are manufactured by liquid moulding processes such as resin transfer moulding and vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding.4. testing and manufacturing them can be spread across a large number of parts. No. 10-15% thinner. and can be quickly preheated. A & P TECHNOLOGY. resin ﬁlm infusion. and recycling of automotive composites. At less than half the thickness of wood-core blades used on many aerobatic craft. RUMANIA Accession no.856521 Item 419 Shawbury. it met the challenge with a new mould material. corrosion resistance of polymers.
carbon ﬁbre composite and a promising new Spray Accession no. cylinder. slurry impregnation and electrostatic powder coating. Interest in thermoplastic composites is currently even stronger in Europe than in the US. 7th March 2002. Thermoplastic prepreg forms made using traditional prepregging approaches are hard to work with. p. Particulate-to-matrix modulus ratio and a parameter describing a linear gradient change in modulus between the matrix and the surface of particle both had a minor inﬂuence on tensile modulus.5. May 2002. Developments by Demag Ergotech in processes and machinery for the injection moulding of natural ﬁbre-reinforced plastics are examined. DEMAG ERGOTECH. Engineering thermoplastic resins offer fairly high-temperature in-service capabilities under severe hot/wet operating conditions and good damage tolerance. EUROPEAN UNION. This issue is published within Engineering. landing gear doors and access panels on the Northrop Grumman F-5 and the ﬂoor panels in the EH Industries EH-101 helicopter. Wei Jiang.51-9 METAL SPRAY TOOLING FOR COMPOSITE FORMING Gibbons G J Warwick.63 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF NATURAL FIBREREINFORCED PLASTICS The advantages of natural ﬁbres such as hemp and ﬂax as replacements for glass ﬁbres in plastics composites are discussed. for example. USA was also assumed that the ﬁllers (sphere-.983 TENSILE MODULUS OF POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES Xiang Ling Ji. p. Plastics & Rubber Weekly) The results are reported of a research programme.. 2002. at Ohio State University of dense foam material reinforced with very small clay particles and on the use of such nanocomposites to replace solid plastics materials in structural applications such as car or aeroplane panels.854894 Item 424 Polymer Engineering and Science 42. Rapra Technology Ltd. developed different approaches to produce more workable intermediate forms. The effects of dispersed particle size.854708 Item 426 Rapid Tooling 2002. a three-phase model including the matrix. the IMI Spray Mould programme.or plate-shape) were randomly oriented in a matrix.855103 Item 423 Plast’ 21 No.Institute of Applied Chemistry Based on Takayanagi’s two-phase model. however. GERMANY. It © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 119 . especially in aerospace and offshore oil applications.5. CHINA Accession no.Lee et al. Shawbury. the inﬂuence of interfacial region was neglected and the deduced equation was reduced to Yakayanagi’s model. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. backing and support. May 2002. A cost comparison for the manufacture of a composite forming tool by traditional fabrication and machining of Invar (nickel/iron alloy).107. aimed at developing a method of manufacturing tooling for the production of large primary composite structures. shape and thickness of the interfacial region exhibited a dominant inﬂuence on tensile modulus.2001. Dec. FOAM OF ONE’S OWN A brief report is presented on the development by L.References and Abstracts Thermoplastics have maintained a foothold in aerospace. the industry has. A linear gradient distribution of modulus of the interface was assumed. p. The composites were assumed to be composed of three independent segments connected to one another. Proceedings of a conference held Coventry. Paper 6.. Jiao Kai Jing. interfacial region and ﬁllers was proposed to calculate the tensile modulus of polymer nanocomposites. Work areas covered include spray methods and materials. the smaller particles provided an increasing modulus for the resulting composite as compared with the larger particles because the interfacial region markedly affected tensile modulus. As a result. as evidenced by use of thermoplastic composites for the wing leading edge on the Airbus A340-500/-600.854767 Item 425 Engineering E2 May 2002. over time.15. The team has also developed techniques to eliminate the use of chloroﬂuorocarbons in foam production. for aerospace applications. in particular. 243. and applications of such composites are reviewed with particular reference to components for automotive and other transport applications. p. pattern material development. When the size of the ﬁllers was in the scale of micrometers.University (Rapra Technology Ltd. No. Bing Zheng Jiang Changchun. OHIO. post-treatment and automation. FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUT FUER CHEMISCHE TECHNOLOGIE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. especially for complex shapes. At a ﬁxed volume fraction of dispersed phase. Developments in manufacturing methods and resin formulations are discussed. 47 refs. in a series or a parallel manner.J.STATE UNIVERSITY USA Accession no. No.
DMA. Jiang Z. Seferis J C Washington. ASSOCIATION OF PLASTICS MFRS. ﬂexural and tensile testing techniques.University (ACS. The void content of the cross-section of specimens was evaluated by means of optical microscopy and the fracture morphology of specimens after interlaminar fracture testing was analysed by scanning electron microscopy.4-phenylene). UK.141-52 HYGROTHERMAL CYCLING EFFECTS ON THE DURABILITY OF PHENOLIC BASED COMPOSITES Chung K. The effect of a siliconebased modiﬁer with phenolic end groups on the fracture performance of the composites was examined and the properties of the phenolic composites compared with those of epoxy composites. Il.000-lbs/year unit for its polymer. No. dielectric constant and moisture absorption. Hu W. yet can be fabricated and machined using conventional methods. The company has completed a 100. Fall 2001.854557 Item 427 Polymer Composites 23.14. excellent thermal stability and good solubility. 25 refs.University The thermal and mechanical properties of resin transfer moulded. MISSISSIPPI POLYMER TECHNOLOGIES USA Accession no. MPT has received a total of about 4. The preparation of novel aromatic polyether is accomplished via aromatic nucleophilic substitution of Accession no.22 NEW PLASTIC TAKES ON A TOUGH MARKETPLACE Wood A Mississippi Polymer Technologies has started semicommercial production of its proprietary ultrahigh-strength Parmax thermoplastic at Port Bienville. The polymer has high Tg. IMI EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. while also leading to decreased colour. Zhang W. CHINA Accession no. No.70 TRANSPORT INTERIORS BENEFIT FROM NEW ADHESIVE TECHNOLOGY WHICH OFFERS REDUCED WEIGHT ADVANTAGE Permabond has launched a fast setting two-part epoxy resin.References and Abstracts Mould Invar metal spray process is made. Yoshioka K. 5 refs. Volume 42. ﬂame resistance and thermal stability.850363 Item 431 European Design Engineer April 2002. SOLUTIONS FOR OUR PLANET Some of the applications likely to form part of the K2001 presentation. which deals with the uses of plastics in aerospace technology and their potential applications on Earth.853453 Item 429 Chemical Week 164. Fall 2001. Parmax polymers are based on a substituted poly(1. MESSE DUSSELDORF..9m US dollars in R&D contracts from the US military to develop defence applications for Parmax. WESTERN EUROPE activated aromatic halide with alkali metal bisphenate.Div.. carbon fibre-reinforced phenolic resins subjected to hygrothermal cycling were investigated as engineering materials for aerospace applications using DSC.2. VERBAND KUNSTSTOFFERZEUGENDE INDUSTRIE EV USA Accession no. A type of ﬂuorine-containing monomer is synthesised and characterised. the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe and the Association of the Plastics Producing Industry.471 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF FLUORINATED POLYETHER CONTAINING BIPHENYL Liu B. Wu Z Jilin. are listed and brieﬂy discussed. E3300. This presentation was jointly launched by Messe Dusseldorf. Chen C. These polymers are studied for use in aerospace and electronic applications because of their unique combination of chemical. 3rd April 2002. USA Accession no. April 2002.’ Considerable attention has been devoted to the preparation of ﬂuorine-containing polymers because of their unique properties and high temperature performance. Conference proceedings. IN EUROPE. Zhao X. EUROPEAN UNION.24-5 PLASTICS IN OUTER SPACE. The incorporation of ﬂuorine atoms into the chain leads to polymers with increased solubility. Chicago.of Polymer Chemistry) Aromatic polyethers have long been known for their high performance. p. p. TGA and double cantilever beam.2.852368 Item 430 Plastics News International May 2001. physical and mechanical properties. the European Space Agency. p. p. which is as strong as steel. which can be rapidly applied from one litre sticks and is particularly suitable in aircraft interiors and 120 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .. EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY. MS. crystallinity. p.853501 Item 428 Polymer Preprints. The ﬁrst commercially available products have benzoyl-substituted units. No.
National Aerospace Laboratory. Lee Y-C.. 2001.C.4’-amino-phenoxy hexane cured biphenol epoxy. and t-butyl substituents have already been prepared. Pan W-P Taipei. Hu W. automotive. PERMABOND USA Accession no. JAPAN Accession no. p. Washington.4. To obtain different properties and for different applications. Jin Y. The selection of phthalic anhydride is based on its good electrical insulation and low cost. 300 mm diameter ﬁlament wound tank and 600 mm diameter lay up tanks are fabricated and tested. Shimoda T. Biphenol epoxy was also cured with trimellitic anhydride and diamino diphenylsulphone. 6 refs. PEK-type polymers with methyl. Ishikawa T. Proceedings of a conference held Chicago.. Washington D. toughened CFRP materials. expected to show good cryogenic properties. 5 refs. p.. Chen C. etc. Fall 2001. Aoki T Japan. Introduction of pendant groups onto the main chain is an efﬁcient way. Zhang W. The choice of phenolic resin is for its good thermal stability.of Polymer Chemistry) Rigid rod epoxy resins have been developed as a high performance polymer for electronic and aerospace applications due to their good thermal properties. Volume 42. M-TPEEK and m-TPEEKK have excellent thermal stability and good solubility. Good mechanical and electrical properties are also obtained.Div. This kind of advanced material is currently receiving considerable attention for its potential application in aerospace. and the cured epoxies exhibit good thermal and electrical properties. Proceedings of a conference held Chicago. crystallinity. Jiang Z. and modify solubility.339-47 APPLICABILITY OF CFRP MATERIALS TO THE CRYOGENIC PROPELLANT TANK FOR REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Morino Y. Recent work has led to the preparation of new PEEK and PEEKK with (3-methyl)phenyl side group. The effects of structure of cured epoxy resin with the same curing agent on thermal properties are investigated. including Y-joint structural models. are considered promising candidates for these kinds of applications. ACS.849842 Item 433 Advanced Composite Materials 10.849017 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 121 . Wu Z Jilin.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyaryl ether ketones (PEKs) are a class of high performance engineering thermoplastics known for their good thermal stability.849953 Item 432 Polymer Preprints. Introduction of the big pendant group would affect glass transition temperature.University (ACS. transparent and ﬂexible ﬁlms are readily obtained. USA Accession no.849323 Item 434 Polymer Preprints. electronics and other high technology ﬁelds. 26th-30th August 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. Il.National Taiwan University. A monomer with high reactive activity is synthesised and characterised. Western Kentucky. number 2. structural changes have been introduced to the basic chain. 2001. TAIWAN. phenyl. excellent electrical and mechanical properties.Div. The cryogenic properties of candidate materials and structural elements. CHINA materials of cryogenic propellant tanks in order to realise the drastic weight reduction needed for efﬁcient reusable space transportation systems. The novel m-TPEEK and m-TPEEKK are prepared and characterised based on the monomer. 26th-30th August 2001. To modify solubility and processability. p.276-7 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE AND PHENOLIC RESIN CURED RIGID ROD EPOXY RESINS Su W-F. ﬁlm formation. processability. Recently-developed. much current work on PEKs is directed toward the synthesis of more soluble materials. DGEBA has more ﬂexible structure than TMBP. Good high-temperature resistance has also been observed for methylene dianiline or 4. Number 2. Strong.University (ACS. Volume 42.References and Abstracts other transport applications. Morimoto T. are investigated. dielectric constant.University It is essential to utilise CFRP for the main structural Accession no. 2001. No.. Functioned PEKs may be obtained due to existence of methyl group (-CH3). ACS. Japan. D.Div. 3 refs.of Polymer Chemistry. Fall 2001. Il. Based on experimental data. This research is conducted under the co-operation contract between the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL).C. the feasibility of a CFRP cryogenic tank is discussed and future research tasks proposed.National Space Development Agency. Tokyo. The diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and tetramethyl biphenyl (TMBP) are cured with phthalic anhydride and phenolic resin. Improved thermal properties for sulphanilamide or methyl cyclohexane cured epoxies bearing azomethine or biphenol rigid rod group have been demonstrated.377-8 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF NOVEL SOLUBLE POLYARYL ETHER KETONES Liu B.Div.
2213-24 STUDY OF THE PROCESSING CHEMISTRY OF POLYIMIDES WITH THERMOGRAVIMETRY/ FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED/MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUES Wei Xie. Washington. by reaction with the phenylethynyl-containing anhydride. Hay J N. The monomer was characterised fully and the thermal 122 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . The effect of water ingress in these specimens on the strength value is measured. Despite of ongoing research activities. Fall 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. cyanate esters and thermoplastic polymers such as PP.. PE. many natural fibre-filled polymer composites have been reported. Lee C.2002.2002.C. Proceedings of a conference held Chicago. p. p. 7th March 2002. USA Accession no. Jana S C Akron. INDIA Accession no.847951 Item 437 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. many issues need to be resolved to expand the use of natural ﬁllers in polymer products for diverse applications in automotive. water ingress increases and compressive strength decreases.C. The processing chemistry of high-temperature polyimide prepregs was investigated using thermogravimetry. ACS. The epoxy coating layers around wood ﬂour particles provide good adhesion and stronger interfaces with the PPE phase. The thermal curing of the polyimides studied proceeded by: (1) the elimination of methanol from amic acid prepolymer formation.Div. 10th Jan. Wei-Ping Pan Western Kentucky. p. The introduction of small amounts of less adherent layers of material at speciﬁc locations causes a decrease in the load-carrying capability of the composite. The monomer can be made either from N-(2-biphenylene)acetamide or 2-aminobiphenylene.6. PVC and PS have been compounded with wood ﬂour. CURE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF RESULTING HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER Georgiades A.NEW MONOMER SYNTHESIS. USA combining wood ﬂour particles with a high temperature thermoplastic polymer PPE with the aid of liquid epoxy.of Polymer Chemistry) In recent years. Bangalore.p. Number 2. which contains both phenylethynyl and biphenylene reactive functional groups. Khan B. One such issue is poor polymer-ﬁbre bonding in the ﬁnal composites.10. A novel methodology is developed for Accession no.Div. Han-Xu Li. therefore. 26th-30th August 2002. QinetiQ A synthetic route is described to a new monomer. This precludes many engineering polymers.23-4 NATURAL FIBRE REINFORCEMENT OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES BY REACTIONINDUCED PHASE SEPARATION Prieto A. wood pulp and cellulose ﬁbres to form composites. No. 11 refs. Hamerton I. New technologies.848107 Item 436 Polymer Preprints. architecture and failure mode. Heltsley R. 11 refs. The FTIR/MS data obtained suggested that alternatively the elimination of water from amide ester formation may be followed by the release of methanol from subsequent imidisation.Aeronautical Development Establishment The compression behaviour is investigated of laminated carbon-epoxy composites with inserted interleaved polytetraﬂuoroethylene-coated fabric material at different locations either continuously or discontinuously. The composite material performs better than many engineering polymer composites in terms of mechanical properties.. from consideration. D. Signiﬁcant differences were noticed in the trend of the strengths for different architectural arrangements in dry and water-immersed samples. The curing time and temperature for off-gas productions were determined. 2001.1717-25 N-(2-BIPHENYLENYL)-4-(2’-PHENYLETHYNYL) PHTHALIMIDE . Viswanath B Indian Institute of Science.2.University. Thermosetting polymers such as polyesters.References and Abstracts Item 435 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. FTIR and mass spectrometry evolved-gas analysis techniques. N-(2biphenylenyl)-4-(2’-phenylethynyl)phthalimide (BPP). A correlation was seen between the observed strength values.No. With an increase in the number of buffer/ delaminating strips insertions.University (ACS. and (3) thermal crosslinking. mainly due to hydrophobic nature of the polymers.C. (2) the release of water from subsequent imidisation.University Carbon ﬁbre-reinforced composites of polyimides are used in aircraft engines and in space applications. No. epoxy. aerospace and building industries.408-16 STUDIES ON COMPRESSION BEHAVIOUR OF CARBON-EPOXY LAMINATES WITH AND WITHOUT BUFFER-STRIP LAYERS IN DRY AND WATER-ABSORBED CONDITIONS Kishore. Volume 42. The composite materials can be used in aerospace or other technologically advanced applications. whose processing temperatures often exceed 250 deg. are needed to reduce the gap between processing temperatures of engineering polymers and decomposition temperatures of natural ﬁbres. Shaw S J Surrey. Another issue is low decomposition temperatures of natural ﬁbres which seldom exceed 200220 deg. Il. 11 refs.846627 Item 438 Polymer 43.
but now the system is showing signs of joining the reinforced-plastics fabrication mainstream. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. it is argued that although material suppliers are inevitably caught up in this aftermath. and considers some of its applications.2. resin ﬁlm infusion had not found widespread use. (International Conference on materials for Advanced Technologies. p. DuPont is reported to be increasing production capacity. and lists applications for the elastomers so produced. military and security markets will provide growth sectors.10. Jan. p.846141 Item 439 Reinforced Plastics 46. suppliers to the aerospace industry. and in particular. and in particular. 2002.845237 Item 442 Composite Structures 55.22-4 AEROSPACE COMPOSITES DOWN BUT NOT OUT Marsh G The effect of the September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center is discussed. of the USA has developed PBTP-based elastomers. This article brieﬂy describes the technology. DSC showed the polymerisation exotherm of BPP centred at 379C. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. with reference to the composites industry. 2002.University A two-stage study was carried out into the strength and stiffness of braided composites intended for aerospace applications.2’- Accession no.845185 Item 443 Reinforced Plastics 46. making it a candidate for possible high temperature applications. 1-6 July. Despite many airline companies going out of business and suffering severe losses.845700 Item 440 High Performance Plastics Feb. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. 2001).1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 23 refs. In comparison with the PETI systems. No. USA. 31 refs. aerospace. EU. No. AUSTRALIA. This article describes the process. Feb.References and Abstracts cure of the material was studied by IR spectroscopy and DSC. Singapore. USA Accession no. p. FRANCE.2002. GERMANY.3 PBT ELASTOMERS MADE BY ONE-STEP EXTRUSION PROCESS Cyclics Corp. ITALY. 6 refs. reviews its beneﬁts.44-9 RESIN FILM INFUSION . In the ﬁrst stage. explains its unique advantages. Rubber and Composites 30.Technological University High-performance interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) containing various ratios of cyanate ester and 2. 2001 INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS BASED ON MODIFIED CYANATE ESTER RESIN Fan J. the Tg of cured BPP was about 100C higher. CYCLICS CORP. tests were carried out on specimens with a certain degree of damage in order to establish the incidence of damage.217-23 EXPERIMENTS ON SINGLE LAYER TEXTILE COMPOSITES D-Amato E L’Aquila.2002. UK. using a novel reactive extrusion technique in which polymerisation and processing are carried out in a continuous one-step process. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL diallylbisphenol A having two phenolic hydroxy groups with added bismaleimide were synthesised. UK. until recently. The IR spectra showed that the phenylethynyl group reacted completely within 1 hour at 370C. The dielectric properties of these IPNs were also determined and their potential applications in the aerospace and microelectronics industry considered. and marine sectors. The second stage focussed on geometrical characteristics and specimen preparation in order to examine stress decay processes and reduce scattering in the data and involved the characterisation of strength concentration on the side edge and in the outlet areas of tabs. Hu X. with commercial applications emerging in the automotive. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. with reference to supplies of Kevlar for use in reinforcing aircraft installations and in ballistic applications.843843 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 123 . WESTERN EUROPE.COMPOSITES COST REDUCER Marsh G It is explained that. Feb. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. The catalytic effect of the hydroxy phenolic groups and reactivity of the IPNs were investigated by DSC and their Tgs and mechanical properties determined by DMA and ﬂexural and impact testing. EUROPEAN UNION. SINGAPORE Accession no. Yue C Y Nanyang. EUROPEAN UNION. lower than two NASA-developed phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) resins.845659 Item 441 Plastics. p.
The goal of this research is to develop a method for the suppression of damage growth in CFRP laminates. p.18 SAFETY IN THE AIR Telair International has begun production of a ballisticstested and flammability qualified “hardener” panel material for aircraft cockpit doors and other cabin security applications. Nomex and phenolic materials. The software is designed to provide a simulation process for the optimisation of moulding parameters.843717 Item 446 Composites International No. Takaki J.57/68 English.2002. but that other solutions are also appearing in response to the constraints of mass markets. Okabe T. It is found that treatment by 10% NaOH is the most effective treatment for improvement of bonding properties. No.842380 Item 448 Macplas International Dec. 4 refs. Some surface treatments are performed on SMA foils. Nov. The treated surface is found to be porous and rough. Peel resistance and single lap shear strength tests are performed using surface treated SMA foils. 2001. The new material is said to be highly resistant to material fatigue and retains most of its structural integrity.843842 Item 445 Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 12.48. FRANCE. sport and automotive applications. EUROPEAN UNION. automotive and consumer goods. April 2001. The panel is a multilayer composite that uses a patent-pending construction of Kevlar.Universita The forming techniques currently available. BELGIUM. Quasistatic load-unload tests are performed using the optimum treatment to investigate the damage behaviour of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils. Its capabilities and typical applications are brieﬂy described. USA. vacuum assisted RTM and resin ﬁlm infusion. Accession no. Micromechanisms of fracture behaviour and the correlation between the crack density and the residual strain are discussed. No. p.11. diaphragm moulding and deep drawing. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No.University Research and development studies have been conducted on some applications of embedded SMA foil actuators in CFRP laminates for weight reduction and improvement of reliability for next generation aircraft. Ando N. where weight savings and stiffness have always been a priority. p. EUROPE-GENERAL. ESI GROUP USA USA JAPAN Accession no. p. Tokyo. Improvement of bonding properties between SMA foils and CFRP and conﬁrmation of suppression effects of damage growth are described.265-70 IMPROVED SURFACE TREATMENT OF SMA FOILS AND DAMAGE SUPPRESSION OF SMAFOIL EMBEDDED CFRP LAMINATES Ogisu T. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Feb. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. matched die moulding. French SUCCESS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS We are told that honeycomb has already proved itself in the aviation industry.841800 Item 449 Materials World 9.22-4 124 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . even after repeated ballistic impacts. is also covered. ITALY. Nov.. which is supposed to provide anchoring effects of SMA/CFRP interfaces. USA Accession no./Dec. It is certified that one of the key technologies is bonding properties between SMA foils and CFRP laminates. military.4. LCMFLOT 2001 has been developed by ESI Group USA speciﬁcally for liquid composite moulding processes. This article provides an up-to-the-minute report on the techniques and applications involved. Jan. The recovery stress of the SMA foil generated at over Af temperature shows capability of suppression for onset of transverse cracks in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates with embedded SMA foils. are described and polymers. The utilisation of these processes to make a range of applications.1. including aerospace. EUROPEAN UNION. Takeda N Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. Strano M Cassino. 2002. and aims to help users decrease part weight and improve quality in composite components used in industries such as aerospace.65-9 FORMING PROCESSES FOR THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES Carrino L. No. 2001. reinforcements and semi-ﬁnished structures employed to make formed parts are discussed. including compression moulding.References and Abstracts Item 444 Reinforced Plastics 46. medical.843341 Item 447 European Plastics News 29.2001.2.17 SIMULATING LIQUID MOULDING Details are given of a computer software package for use in the design of composite parts made using processes such as resin transfer moulding. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Napolitano G.
15. It was found that the clay spacing in the composites was markedly inﬂuenced by the type of polymer used.20.2036 PROCESSING AND PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC NANO-COMPOSITES Hua Wang. Their strength and durability enable them to replace bolts and welding and automotive and aerospace applications. Nano-clay (montmorillonite) was mixed with either a polymer (nylon-6. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. DuPont O Surrey. p. 2001. Elkovitch M. The capabilities of current industrial modelling procedures for aerospace applications are summarised and the shortcomings of these methods are considered. Melt viscosity and mechanical properties of the composites and the blends were also measured. The addition of the nanoclay could greatly increase the viscosity of the polymer when there was a strong interaction between the polymer and the nano-clay. p. 22 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. Lee L J. p. No. Applications in the aircraft industry are mentioned. The water absorption of nylon 6 was decreased in the presence of nano-clay.References and Abstracts TECHNOLOGICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES ON ADVANCED ADHESIVES Keddie J.Federal Ofﬁce Defense Technology & Procurement High-performance compound materials with carbon ﬁbre plastic reinforcement are important materials in technical air travel applications because of their outstanding speciﬁc toughness.840535 Item 450 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. UK. Luigart F. Wang J Y Shaanxi. CHINA Accession no.State University Polymeric nano-composites were prepared by melt intercalation. Shen Z.11. No. The clay-spacing in the composites was measured by X-ray diffraction. WESTERN EUROPE 35. Data are given for graphite ﬁbre-reinforced epoxy resins. 7 refs. yet have the necessary adhesion to stay in place for as long as necessary.33-7 German ADHESIVE TECHNIQUES FOR REPAIRING CONTAMINATED CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC LIGHTWEIGHT TYPES (PART I) Wolfrum J. strength and rigidity. The mechanical test showed that the presence of 5 to 10 wt % nano-clay signiﬁcantly increased the elastic modulus of the composites and blends.839568 Item 452 Composites Science and Technology 61.7/8. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no. The ability of PSAs to remain transparent under a variety of conditions enable them to be used in applications requiring aesthetic properties.2337-44 NEW ADVANCES IN DAMAGE MECHANICS AND COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR COMPOSITES: FROM RESEARCH TO INDUSTRY FOR SPATIAL APPLICATIONS Aubard X SNECMA Advances in the mechanical modelling of composites for aerospace applications aimed at reducing costs are discussed and examples of these advances in the modelling of carbon fibre-reinforced phenolic composites for aerospace applications propellant booster nozzles. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. and when used as components of wound dressing.1815-43 DAMAGE TOLERANCE ANALYSIS OF CRACKED STIFFENED COMPOSITE PANELS Chen P.2001. p. are able to be easily removed when required. BELGIUM.University. The effect of nanoclay on polymers and polymer blends was compared with that of kaolin clay under the same experimental conditions. Changchun Zeng. 2001.840103 Item 451 Journal of Composite Materials © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 125 . Nov. This article reviews storage conditions and treatment of Accession no. Mallegol J. 2001. Improvements on the damage tolerance analysis of the stiffened composite panels were made. EUROPEAN UNION. while signiﬁcantly decreasing the impact strength.839361 Item 453 Adhasion Kleben und Dichten 45. carbon/ carbon composites produced by densiﬁcation and nozzle bearings made from multi-layer composites incorporating ﬂexible rubber pads are presented. With regard to a planned 30 to 40 year cycle of use. FRANCE.Aircraft Strength Research Institute An approach based on a displacement compatibility model was developed for stiffened composite panels with a crack. It could also change the morphology and morphology development of nylon 6/PP blends. Boelingen M. 17 refs. Koelling K W Ohio. Czarnecki J Germany. UCB Chemicals Developments in pressure-sensitive adhesives are examined as the industry responds to environmental and technological challenges which enable them to be increasingly used in high-performance applications. PP or PS) or a polymer blend by twin-screw extrusion. new aircraft can only sensibly be operated if suitable repair procedures are available. The morphology of the composites and its development during the extrusion process were observed by SEM.
22. GERMANY. Efforts to reduce the costs linked to the application of ﬁlm adhesives have led to the development of cold-bonding and a two-component paste adhesive suitable for this on an epoxy base.18.11. penetration-resistant glass laminate.9. EUROPEAN UNION.INNOVATORY LEAP FORWARD IN AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION (PART I) De Wit F.8 CAUSE OF PLANE CRASH SOUGHT Tullo A A report is presented on the crash of an Airbus A-300600 series aircraft in Queens. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. GERMANY.8 MC GILL OFFERING COCKPIT ARMOUR PANELS M. Sept. which investigators consider may have been contributed to by a defect in the carbon ﬁbre/epoxy composite tail ﬁn. USA Accession no.C. Gillfab ballistic panels are reported to include fabrics made of Kevlar aramid ﬁbre. WESTERN EUROPE acid(Nipol 1472) rubber was selected to control processability and mechanical properties of a tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy resin formulation for aerospace composite applications.Gill of El Monte. The advantages of carbon ﬁbre reinforced plastic in aircraft structures are examined alongside adhesive applications in ﬁbre-bonded materials in the Airbus A319 and A320. Doubts have since been cast on the safety of composite materials. Spadaro G Palermo. Carter J T. materials with different resin flow characteristics. No.2001.wt. 1 ref. IR-spectroscopy including DRIFT tests. USA Accession no. The physical blend of rubber and epoxy resin. No. distinctive morphologies and mechanical properties after curing were obtained. achieved by dissolution of all the components in a common solvent. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Y. Some consider that composites may be subject to fatigue like metals.1486-96 REACTIVE BLENDING OF FUNCTIONALIZED ACRYLIC RUBBERS AND EPOXY RESINS Dispenza C. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. acrylonitrile-butadiene-methacrylic 126 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . A marked improvement of rubber-epoxy resin miscibility was achieved by reactive blending of the epoxy oligomer with the functional groups present in the rubber. p.10-2 German COLD-BONDING .839192 Item 454 Adhasion Kleben und Dichten 45. Sauer J Airbus Deutschland GmbH.University. aromatic benzoxazole polymers containing a perﬂuoroisopropyl unit.7/8. SWITZERLAND.837118 Item 456 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. California. and specially woven glass fabric. 19th Nov. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2001.12 LOW-DIELECTRIC POLYMERS SPEED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Wright-Patterson Air Force Base The Wright-Patterson Air Force Base has reported the development of polymers with ultra-low dielectric constants for high-speed integrated circuits. McGrail P T. p. UK. Nov. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. while others refute this theory. resulting in delamination and part failure. Applications include space-based radar. and also after compounding with the curing agent. The effect of ‘pre-reaction’ on the resin cure reaction kinetics was also investigated. The epoxy-rubber adduct thus obtained appeared as a homogeneous system at room temp.836023 Item 458 Advanced Materials and Composites News 23. 2001. formed a heterogeneous system after solvent removal and exhibited coarse phase separation during cure that impaired any practical relevance of this material. 24 refs. Vantico AG Structural bonding and gluing used in aircraft construction are traditionally applied with hot-curing ﬁlm adhesives on an epoxy base. N. which entered ﬂight-critical applications 15 to 20 years ago. No. shear-tension tests and analysis of surface fracturing. EUROPEAN UNION. Depending on the nature and extent of interactions developed between the rubber and the epoxy resin during ‘pre-reaction’. p. No. the potential of contamination-tolerant adhesive systems. is reported to be nearing federal certiﬁcation on three ballistic laminate panels for aircraft cockpit protection and other armoring applications. 2001. 26th Nov.839187 Item 455 Advanced Materials and Processes 159. Very brief details are noted. moisture adsorption.. ITALY. These polymers are ﬂexible. p.836148 Item 457 Chemical and Engineering News 79. smoke and heat release required for use in commercial aircraft interior applications and are said to be among the few to meet these requirements simultaneously.References and Abstracts laminated plates. The laminates have undergone tests for ﬂammability. satellite communications and high-speed computers. which are thermooxidatively stable and have a low moisture uptake. ICI Technology A high molec.2001. EUROPEAN UNION. p.
. No systematic study appears to have been carried out of the thermal behaviour and post-treatment of Zenite 8000B (Z8000B). Three levels of clay addition were used.9783 SYNTHESIS. Volume 41. p. Cyanate esters form a family of new generation thermosetting resins whose performance characteristics make them attractive competitors to many current commercial polymer materials for such applications. Hendren G L. p.CORP. Aramid ﬁbres have a tensile strength comparable with that of carbon ﬁbre and the modulus between those of glass and carbon ﬁbre aramid ﬁbre based composites are of interest due to the close match of coefﬁcient of the thermal expansion to that of the matrix. An attempt is made to fabricate new aramid ﬁbre composites based on Accession no.C. Rapra Industry Analysis Series © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 127 . Ninan K N Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre The search for advanced. No. pp. Lyu S G. A brief account is given of the overall scenario of the developments in this area. AND THERMAL STABILITY OF SOME POLYSULFONE/ORGANOCLAY COMPOSITES Sur G S.C. DuPont Fibers (ACS.2000. STRUCTURE. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Nair C P R.835681 Item 459 Polymer Preprints.C. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. These materials should be considered in applications requiring high temperature performance. 1997.24. 15 refs.835414 Item 460 Polymer Preprints. chemical resistance and excellent electrical properties. Number 2.. Volume 41. 1. INDIA Accession no. The effects of thermal post-treatment on the crystallisation behaviour of Z8000B using differential scanning calorimetry are reported.Polytechnic Institute & State University. Recent developments in the chemistry. 20th-24th Aug. telecommunications and aerospace industry. Shih P. USA Accession no. D.816043 Item 463 Shawbury. Rapra Technology Ltd. dimensional stability. transmission electron microscopy.References and Abstracts GILL M. Conference proceedings.3 and 5 weight percent. Both Nomex and Kevlar mats are used for reinforcements. 2001. 155. Chung T S Singapore. in skins and core of advanced radomes and as laminate substrates for high speed computer circuit boards.132. Singapore.2000. technology and applications of cyanate esters are analysed. ﬁbre optics.National University (ACS. 4 wrefs. Emphasis is placed on advances in research and development related to fundamental and applied aspects of cyanate esters during the last few years. p. USA Accession no.of Polymer Chemistry) Aramid ﬁbre composites ﬁnd wide applications in many areas including the sandwich structures for military aircraft. Sun H L.University A solution-dispersion method was used to prepare polysulphone/organoclay nanocomposites which were then characterised using X-ray diffraction. thermogravimetric analysis and tensile measurements. D.University. p. improvements in tensile and thermal properties were reported. Mark J E Yeungnam.831803 Item 462 Advances in Polymer Science 2001. Cincinnati. In addition to the use of epoxy as matrix resins. SINGAPORE cyanate ester as the matrix resin and evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties of the composites.1391-2 STUDY OF CRYSTALLISATION KINETICS IN ZENITE THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER Pramoda K P. USA Accession no.of Polymer Chemistry) Zenite liquid crystalline polymer resins are wholly aromatic polyester resins and are easily melt processed. high temperature resistant polymers is on the increase due to growing demand for polymer matrix composites that are to meet stringent functional requirements for use in the rapidly evolving high-technology area of aerospace.Institute of Materials Research & Engineering. retention of properties over a wide temperature range. high performance. 382 refs.835387 Item 461 Polymer 42. Conference proceedings.Div.. 206 refs KOREA. McGrath J E Virginia. Number 2. Loos A C. 20th-24th Aug.Div. electrical/electronic.1342-3 FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OF NEW ARAMID FIBRE-CYANATE ESTER COMPOSITES Sankarapandian M. Gabara V. Washington. studies have also been performed using phenolic resin and elastomers as matrix materials for aramid ﬁbre reinforced composites. Washington. They are well suited for use in automotive. prior to discussing recent trends in detail. and compared to the pure polymer.1 CYANATE ESTER RESINS.. Mathew D.
automotive. The resin transfer moulding process is playing an important role in increasing the use of advanced composites.C in the aerospace and electronics industries. Since this coupling agent is not tailored for high temperature applications. Emphasis is placed on assessing the thermooxidative stability of composites comprised of a polyimide resin. and new product developments are reviewed with reference to speciﬁc companies. EUROPE-GENERAL modiﬁed montmorillonite and polyamic acid. chemically aggressive conditions and applications requiring resistance to weathering. sulphone polymers.2873 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAYPOLYIMIDE NANOCOMPOSITES VIA ODAMODIFIED ORGANOCLAY Tyan H-L. Tensile properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. and research currently being conducted. thermoplastic elastomers. polyamides. this system provides a baseline for evaluating high temperature coupling agents. PU elastomers.22. They offer design engineers enormous opportunities for introducing new concepts into their designs while reducing costs. No. This report on the use of polymeric materials in aggressive environments covers materials for high and low temperature environments. polyp-phenylobenzobisthiazole ﬁbres. p. physical. polyketones.1998. Parmer M. carbon-based structures.References and Abstracts POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS. p.C for up to 200 hours leads to substantial reductions in ﬂexural strength and short beam shear strength. Thermal ageing at 343 deg. PEEK. The loss in strength occurs more rapidly in the smaller short beam shear samples.2. MATERIAL IN USE AND THEIR MARKETPLACE Drake N Rapra Technology Ltd. The degradation is dependent on the relative proportion of cut surfaces where ﬁbre ends are exposed in the samples subjected to ageing. liquid crystal polymers.State University A review is presented of the authors’ present and future studies of the use of polymer matrix ﬁbrous composites for aerospace applications. 33 companies involved with polymeric materials for aggressive environments are identiﬁed.and polyimidecarbon ﬁbre composites. March/April 2001.797643 Item 466 Materials Challenge . 40. USA Accession no. Symposium proceedings HIGH TEMPERATURE PERFORMANCE OF GLASS FABRIC/POLYIMIDE COMPOSITES Chen X. include aerospace. Jiang Zhou Michigan. Properties relevant to polymers used in aggressive environments are discussed. and thermosets. Shin E E. 15th Aug-30th Sept.70 HIGH PERFORMANCE RTM AND RESIN DEVELOPMENTS FOR AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Francomb J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Taylor A Pera Technology Continuous ﬁbre reinforced composites are now ﬁrmly established engineering materials for the manufacture of components with high added value.696236 128 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . thermal and chemical properties. 6 refs. Lincoln J. The layered silicates of organoclay were intercalated by polyimide and examined by X-ray diffraction and TEM. electrical/electronic.698012 Item 467 Composites-French/English No. 25 refs TAIWAN Accession no.815491 Item 464 SAMPE Journal 37. End-use applications examined. This comprehensive article highlights the latest high performance resin transfer moulding and resin developments with particular emphasis on applications in the aerospace industry. No. p. polyimides.Diversiﬁcation and the Future. USA Accession no. 15th Nov. Muzzy J D Georgia. and development of low cost.2000. HNBR. polymer blends.National Chiao Tung University Clay-polyimide nanocomposites were synthesised from Accession no. No. accelerated test methodologies. Wei K-H. in particular. Aspects covered include structureproperty relations of polybismaleimide. syndiotactic polystyrene. UK.Institute of Technology Polyimide composites have been used at temperatures exceeding 300 deg.102 OVERVIEW OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES PERFORMANCE AND MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Morgan R J. 14 refs.28. with S-glass and quartz as fabrics treated with A-1100 coupling agent. Materials considered include polychloroprene. performance and materials development of electron beamcured cryogenic containment composites.2. Hsieh T-E Taiwan. Avimid N. and medical applications. ﬂuoroelastomers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.810322 Item 465 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition 38.
No. Unidirectional IM7 prepreg was made from each of the ﬁve resin solutions. welding.0. US.0.Ltd The high temperature properties of poly(p-phenylene2. p. JAPAN Accession no. were synthesised.1031 HEAT RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF POLY(PPHENYLENE-2. St Clair T L Lockheed Engineering & Sciences Co. together with their properties and advantages. Applications of the different techniques are considered. of a foaming agent.% of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer having an ethylene content of 1.6-BENZOBISOXAZOLE) FIBRE Kuroki T. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 9 refs.585371 Item 471 Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 129 . USA Accession no. an isomeric variation of LARC-TPI and based on 4. dimethylacetamide and chloroform.. Preferably. and (d) 1-30 pbw. Kitagawa S. 9 refs. toluene. JAPAN Accession no. March 1996.RAPID PROCESSING APPLICATIONS Offringa A R Fokker Special Products BV Processing techniques for continuous ﬁbre-reinforced thermoplastic composites are discussed. a mixture of metaphenylenediamine and para-phenylenediamine is reacted with biphenyl dianhydride in N-methyl pyrrolidinone solvent and heated to between about 50 and 150C under nitrogen while stirring for a time sufﬁcient to produce a polyamic acid polyimide precursor coating solution having a Brookﬁeld viscosity of from about 500 to 5. (b) 10-60 wt.3phenylenediamine. Prybyla S G Ohio Aerospace Institute The service life of ﬁbre-reinforced polyimide composites in a high temperature oxidative environment is extended by coating with a polyimide precursor solution prepared by reacting an aromatic dianhydride with an aromatic diamine in a non-reactive solvent. 1994.000 cP and a solids content of from about 5 to 35 wt.NASA Langley Research Center LARC-ITPI. In particular. p. The composition described. 4. Siochi E J. NETHERLANDS.535371 Item 473 Polymer 35. Tanaka Y.2-1.650299 Item 470 Advanced Materials and Processes 149. creep-forming and membrane-forming.References and Abstracts Item 468 PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR POLYIMIDE COMPOSITES Patent US 5716677 A 19980210 Mazany A M. The reactive solution is heated to a temperature sufﬁcient to reduce its viscosity prior to its use as a coating. Five 30% poly(amide acid) solutions in N-methylpyrrolidone. MEK.23. with stoichiometric offsets of 2.%. Nakayama T. with particular attention to thermofolding. p. No. the temperature dependence of tensile strength of the PBO ﬁbre was reported for the ﬁrst time. press-forming. was evaluated as a matrix for high performance composites. Information is included on the different reinforcing ﬁbres employed and the functions of the matrix resin materials. Kuno T Tonen Chemical Corp. capable of forming foams with excellent mechanical properties and heat resistance. per 100 pbw of the above resin composition. All ﬁlms failed solvent resistance tests with acetone. No.5% in favour of the diamine and end-capped with phthalic anhydride. The various types of thermosetting resins are described.3. p. is made of (a) 14-80 wt.0. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. USA 27A.%.% of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer having an ethylene content of 0. 4. 1996.4’-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride and 1. Solvent/volatile depletion rates were carefully determined on thermally imidised ﬁlms of the ﬁve compositions and were an important part of the composite consolidation studies.75 and 5.4956 IM7/LARC-ITPI POLYIMIDE COMPOSITES Hou T H.6-benzobisoxazole)(PBO) ﬁbre were examined and compared with those of p-aramid ﬁbre.688132 Item 469 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65.5. with emphasis on aerospace applications. 3. A Accession no. This patent is a reissue (RE 34607). Hokudoh T.0 wt. (c) 10-60 wt.582869 Item 472 CROSS-LINKABLE FOAMABLE POLYOLEFIN RESIN COMPOSITION Patent Number US 5091435 Suzuki T.% of a linear low-density polyethylene.329 THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES . Molecular weight and MWD data showed high concentrations of low molecular weight species in all the offset compositions. EUROPEAN UNION. Johnston N J.%.4. Yabuki K Toyobo Co. 1st Aug. No.5-6 wt.37 POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AEROSPACE This comprehensive article supplies a detailed assessment of the different types of polymer composites used in aerospace applications.1997.
NJ. ﬂex and compression failure. Noyes Publications. USA. shear. Economic aspects of these materials are discussed. machinery and other engineering components. ﬂexural strength. 22nd-25th Nov. C-scans. Broderick J. (Presented at ACS Polym.177 HIGH PERFORMANCE THERMOPLASTIC RESINS AND THEIR COMPOSITES Authors. EUROPEAN UNION. mechanical properties of composites of these polymers with carbon ﬁbre. including aircraft. interlaminar fracture toughness. UK. while a ﬁnal summary presents general conclusions and recommendations for future research and development work in the ﬁeld.535040 Item 474 Broadening Horizons with Advanced Materials & Processes. USA properties and environmental/chemical resistance. It was concluded that LARC-ITPI will be an excellent high temperature matrix material for aerospace applications where solvent resistance is not a key requirement. Chem. pp. Div.1993. including new developments in lower cost materials.ix. 1992). shear strength. The inter-relationships between morphology and properties of semicrystalline thermoplastic composites are addressed and the various techniques for combining ﬁbres and matrix are described. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. impact strength. space and submersible structures. p. Palm Springs. polyphenylene sulphide. 20 refs. Data are shown for moulding cycle optimisation. Birmingham. polyethersulphone). A penultimate section looks at the costs and typical applications of thermoplastic composites in the aerospace industry. and the economics of ﬁnished parts and current applications are considered. An examination is made of the performance of neat and continuous ﬁbre reinforced thermoplastic resins in terms of their 130 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology .521908 Item 475 Park Ridge. USA Accession no. helicopter.468658 Accession no. 17th Biennial Symposium on Advances in Polymerisation and High Performance Polymeric Materials. resin-ﬁbre adhesion. GERMANY. Leach D Fiberite Europe GmbH. polyetherimide. 19th20th Oct.301 ECONOMIC THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES FOR AEROSPACE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS Stepprath K. Tabulated information is given on typical properties of matrix polymers (PEEK. and interlaminar fracture toughness. ﬂexural modulus. California. and evaluates the beneﬁts and limitations of these materials for aerospace and other applications. USA. compression strength after impact and open-hole compression testing.References and Abstracts workable composite consolidation cycle was developed for the 3% offset solution and used for all the compositions. compression strength and ﬂexural properties of the composites. ICI Fiberite Continuous ﬁbre-reinforced thermoplastic composites are being used in a wide range of applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Belend S National Research Council of Canada This book describes recent developments in high performance thermoplastic resins and their composites. 36 refs. Proceedings of the 14th International European Chapter Conference. morphology.
THERMOPLASTIC 129 COMPRESSION AFTER IMPACT 51 COMPRESSION MOULDING 12. 80 CARBON NANOFILLERS 54 CARBON NANOTUBES 13-44. CARBOXYL-TERMINATED LIQUID 73 C CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 30 CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED EPOXY RESIN 29. 79. 112. 5-8 AEROSPACE FIBRES 3 AIR AGEING 44 AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION. 44. 67. 50 COMPOSITE LAMINATE PANEL 27 CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTICS 7. CYCOM 5250-4 80 RESIN MATRIX COMPOSITE 43 THERMOSETTING RESIN 8 BISPHENOL A DICYANATE RESIN 73 BRABENDER PLASTICORDER 76 BRABENDER-TYPE MIXING 15 BRAGG GRATING PRINCIPLE 58 BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE. AEROGEL-LIKE 29 COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 44 COMPOSITES. 70. 115-116 CYANOACRYLATE ESTERS 8 B BASOTECT TG 72. 65. MARCEL FORMATION 107 COMPOSITES. DESIGN TOOL 24 AUTONOMIC HEALING 114 AUXETIC MATERIALS 23 LAMINATES 71 THERMOPLASTIC PROFILES 22 CARBON FIBRES 3-4 COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY 31 SELF-HEALING 59 STOPPING POWER 41 CARBON NANOFIBRES 14. 20. 6 CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE 66 CRYOGENIC COMPOSITE 29 CRYOGENIC FUEL TANK 57 CRYOGENIC IZOD IMPACT TESTING 48 CRYOGENIC STORAGE TANKS 52 CRYOGENS 77 CRYSTALS. 105 FILLED RESIN 61 HYBRIDS 54 MULTIWALL 4 SKIN 45 SINGLE WALL 26. 66. 72. POLYIMIDE 56 COMPOSITES. 69 COPOLYMERISATION 8 CORONA PLASMA TREATMENT 49 CORROSION 25 FILIFORM 25 CORROSION-RESISTANT GLASS 4 COUPLING AGENT 5. UNMANNED 97 AEROGELS 33 AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 3. 74-75. 44-45. 47 AERIAL VEHICLES. 74 BENZOXAZINES 8. OPAL PHOTONIC 30 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION 7 CURE PROCESS 31-32 DUAL 47 CYANATE EPOXY COMPOSITES 60 CYANATE ESTER RESIN 123. INFRARED ELECTROCHROMICS 102 CONDUCTING POLYMERS 38. 124 COMPRESSION TESTING 82 CONDUCTING POLYMER. 124 COMPOSITES 76 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 131 . 114 COMPOSITES 127 ARRHENIUS’S METHOD 61 ATMOSPHERIC PLASMA TREATMENT 49 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY 105 AURUM 70 AUTOMATED TAPE LAYING. 43 COMPOSITES 39 MATRIX PREPREG 22 PREPREG. GLUING 126 ARALDITE ADHESIVES 112 ARAMID FIBRE 5-6. 109 CARBON/EPOXY PREPREGS 61 CELLULAR FOAMS 96 CETEX THERMOPLASTICS 53 CLOSED MOULDING TECHNOLOGY 93-94 COCKPIT ARMOUR PANELS 126 COLD-BONDING 126 COLLECTABLE VOLATILE CONDENSABLE MATERIALS 79 COMPOSITE FLAW DETECTION EXPERIMENTS 27 COMPOSITE MATERIAL.Index Index A ABRASION RESISTANCE 11 ACOUSTIC EMISSION 93 ACOUSTI-CAP HONEYCOMB CORE 23 ACRYLIC RUBBERS 126 ADHESIVE FILM. 127 CYANATE ESTERS 8. STRUCTURAL 3. 64 BIOCIDAL POLYMERS 49 BIOCOMPOSITES 107 BIONANOCOMPOSITES 45 BIOT-FOURIER METHOD 56 BISMALEIMIDES 8.
43. HI-TECH 95 FLUOROSILICONE ELASTOMER 20. 120. 6-BENZOBISOXAZOLE 5 ULTRAHIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE 6 FICKIAN DIFFUSION MODEL 117 FILAMENT WINDING 9. MODELLING 43 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS. 100. 42. 95. 54. 128 FLUOROPOLYMER COATINGS 102 FLUOROPOLYMERS. 102. 51 132 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . 47 DISCRETISATION METHOD 21 DISPLACEMENT COMPATIBILITY MODEL 125 DOUBLE CANTILEVER BEAM TESTS 21. 95 FILM. 65. 75. 58GLASS FIBRES 6. NON-CRIMPED 30. INTERLAMINAR 48 FRACTURE TOUGHENING 27 G GAS PERMEABILITY 52. 28. 81-83. 40. 42 FLUOROSILOXANE SEALANTS 50 FOAMS 16 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY 42. 121. 32. 22. 2D 90 FIBRE BRAGG GRATING SENSORS 27. 90 DELAMINATED CRACK OPENING DISPLACEMENT 57. 43 EPOXY ADHESIVE JOINTS 25 EPOXY BONDING 39 EPOXY HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITES 26 EPOXY MATRIX 24 TOUGHENED SYSTEMS 60 EPOXY OLIGOMERS 54 EPOXY RESIN 9. 76 ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE DISSIPATION 109 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCED SHIELDING POLYMERS 54 ENGINEERED SANDWICH CORES 44 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE DIENE TERPOLYMER 31. 120 E EDDY-CURRENT TESTING 57 EEONFOAMS 44 E-GLASS 4 ELASTOMERS 57 FRICTION 39 ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL METHOD 71 ELECTRIPLAST 75 ELECTRON BEAM CURING 85 ELECTROSPINNING 23.Index D DAMAGE TOLERANCE ANALYSIS 125 DARCY’S LAW 52. 126 ADAPTIVE FOAMS 36 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED 81 EPOXY SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER FOAM 37 EPOXY THERMOSET 8 EPOXY-BASED SYNTACTIC PASTE 3 EPOXY-BASED SYSTEMS 35 EPOXY-CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITES 26 EXFOLIATION 15. 114-115. 81 FIBRE DRAWING 6 FIBRE METAL LAMINATES 101 FIBRE REINFORCED ELASTOMERS 86 FIBRE REINFORCEMENT 12 FIBREGLASS 7 FIBRE-METAL LAMINATES 96 FIBRE TYPES 3 CARBON-BASED FIBRES 3 CARBON FIBRES 3 HYBRID FIBRES 6 RESIN-IMPREGNATED FIBRES (PREPREGS) 12 THERMOGRAPHY 12 INORGANIC FIBRES 4 BORON FIBRE GLASS FIBRE 4 QUARTZ FIBRE 4 POLYMERIC FIBRES 5 ARAMID FIBRE 5 POLYARYL ETHER ETHER KETONE 6 POLYBENZOTHIAZOLE 5 POLYPHENYLENE-2. 48. 61. 81. 67. 62 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS 46. 67. 61. ONE-STEP PROCESS 123 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS. 29. 103-104. 46. 78 EXTRUSION. 50 HOLLOW 59 F FABRICATION METHODS 12 FABRIC. 38-39. 92 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY 42. 104. POLYCYANATE SYNTACTIC 57 FIREPROOF INJECTION-MOULDING THERMOPLASTICS 81 FIRST-ORDER SHEAR DEFORMATION THEORY 21 FIXED ARM PEEL TEST 88 FLAME-RETARDANT EPOXY PASTE 3 FLASH THERMOGRAPHY 57 FLAX FIBRES 47 EPOXY PREPREGS 47 FLUOROCARBON RUBBERS 50 FLUOROELASTOMERS 31. 48 DROP WEIGHT IMPACT TESTING 44. 60. 122 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED ANALYSIS 9 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TESTS. 58. 90 DIAPHRAGM FORMING 12 DIAPHRAGM MOULDING 124 DICYCLOPENTADIENE 80 DIELS-ALDER CYCLOPOLYMERISATION 42 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY 19. 123 DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY 84 DIGLYCIDYLETHER-TERMINATED 60 DISCOTEX 41. 83.
MODIFIED MONTMORILLONITE 13-14 NANOCOMPOSITES 13 CLAY-POLYIMIDE 128 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER 70 NANOFIBRE. 124 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 82 MATLAB PROGRAM 52 MATRIMID 11 MATRIX POLYMER 7. 126 INJECTION MOULDING 101. BLADDER 12 MOULD PLATE. GRAPHITE 54 NANO-SCALE MATERIAL 26 NANOSILICA 14 L LAMB WAVE SENSING 81 LAMINATE THEORY 21 LAP SHEAR STRENGTH TESTING 66-67 LAUNCH VEHICLES 31 LAUNCH VEHICLES. ALUMINIUM-COATED POLYVINYLALCOHOL 23 NANOFIBRES. EXPENDABLE 90 LICOCENE 93 LIFE PREDICTION TECHNIQUE 20 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 133 . 15 MATRIX RESIN 12 MATRIX SYSTEMS.Index GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE 28 GLOBAL ENERGY-BALANCE ANALYSIS 82 GRAPHITE-EPOXY LAMINATE SYSTEM 90 GRAPHITE EPOXY MOTOR 32 GRAPHITE-EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES 36 H HALPIN-TSAI EQUATIONS 92 HALPIN-TSAI MICROMECHANICAL MODEL 72 HEAT DEFLECTION TEMPERATURE 65 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE 6 HELIUM FLOW DETECTION 93 HEPHAISTOS 91 HEXFORCE 42 HEXMC 30 HIGH STRAIN RATE LOADING 68 HXPLY M50 95 HYBRID POLYMERS 48 HYBRID SILICONES 73 HYBRID YARNS 62 HYDROSILATION 48 HYGROTHERMOELASTIC STRESS 43 HYSOL EA9658 47 LIGHTNING STRIKE PROTECTION 68 LIQUID COMPOSITE MOULDING PROCESSES 124 LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMERS 128 LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS 87 LIQUID CRYSTALLINE THERMOSET 67 LIQUID MOULDING PROCESSES 118 LIQUID PERFLUOROETHER ELASTOMER 114 LIQUID SILICONE RUBBER 20 FLUORINATED 33. ELECTROSPUN 76 NANOINDENTATION TESTING 70 NANONET 25 NANOPLATELETS. BIFUNCTIONAL EPOXYAMINE 28 MELAMINE RESIN FOAMS 72 MELT MIXING 92 MELT PROCESSING 15 METAL SPRAY TOOLING 119 METALLOCENE WAXES 93 METAL-TO-METAL BONDING 3 MICRO-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCANS 36 MICROSPHERES 29 MIYANO’S ACCELERATED TESTING METHODOLOGY 20 MODULAR TOOLING 111 MONOMERS. ALPASE M-1 118 I IMI SPRAY MOULD PROGRAMME 120 IMPACT TESTING 86 INDENTATION DEBONDING TESTS 48 INDIUM TIN OXIDE 13 INFRARED SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION 23 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY 123. 42 LIQUID-IMPACT TEST METHODS 111 LOAD-DISPLACEMENT CURVE 70 LOW EARTH ORBIT ENVIRONMENT 25 M MAGNESIUM ALUMINOSILICATE GLASS 4 MANDREL PEEL TESTS 82 MASKING TAPE 116 MATCHED DIE MOULDING 12. GRAPHITE 14 NANO-REINFORCEMENTS. 38-39. ALKYNE-CONTAINING 35 MORPHING 36. 38 MOULDING. 119 INSTRON MECHANICAL TESTING MACHINE 51 INTERLAMINAR SHEAR STRENGTH 51 INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS 123 ION BOMBARDMENT 39 ISOTHERMAL RHEOMETRIC ANALYSIS 19 K KAPTON 25 KEVLAR 5 ARAMID FIBRE 106 FIBRE 49 KYDEX THERMOPLASTIC SHEET PRODUCTS 61 N NANOCLAYS.
60 POLYMER BLENDS 118 POLYMER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES 48-49. 8 DRY 61 IN SITU 14. 31. 66-6786. 104 PEEL AND WEDGE TESTS 89 PEEL TESTS 49. LOW-DIELECTRIC 126 POLYMETHACRYLAMIDE 16. 112 134 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . AROMATIC 5 POLYANILINE COMPOSITES 46 POLYARYL ETHER KETONE KETONE 7. FLEXIBLE 84 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY 58. 65 POLYBENZOTHIOZOLE 5 POLYBENZOXAZOLES 8 POLYCHLOROPRENE 31. THERMOPLASTIC 39 POLYETHERIMIDE 11.127 PHENOLICS 8 PHENYLETHYNYL-TERMINATED POLYETHERIMIDE (ULTEM) 63 PHENYLETHYNYL-NAPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 69 PHENYL VINYL METHYL SILICONE 55 PHOTOCURING 42 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 121 PHTHALONITRILE RESINS 8-9 OLIGOMERIC 19. 95. 11. 88 PERMAPOL P3. 5. 78. 87. SELF-REINFORCED 87. 8. 92 IN SITU. INTERCALATIVE 48 WET 61 POLYMER-MATRIX COMPOSITE 90 POLYMERS. AROMATIC KETONE 7 POLYMERS. AROMATIC 117 POLYMERS.1 POLYMERS 102 PHENOLIC POLYMER 98 PHENOLIC RESIN 9. HIGH-TEMPERATURE 73 POLYMER NANOTECHNOLOGY 28 POLYMER. 121 POLYARYLATES 10 POLYAZOMETHINES 33 POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE 3. 46. 25 POLYETHER ETHER KETONE 11 POLYETHER KETONE KETONE 7. HYDROPHILIC 106 POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITES 96. 11 POLYARYL ETHER KETONES 117. AROMATIC 120 POLYETHYLENE 31 POLYHEDRAL OLIOGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANE 13-14 POLYIMIDES 3. 121. 121. 128. 73 POLYACRYLONITRILE PRECURSORS 4 POLYAMIDEIMIDES 12 POLYAMIDES. 7 PLASTICISATION 25 PLASTICS. SELF-HEALING 114 PMR-15 RESIN 20. 11. 122 AROMATIC 113 CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE FILMS 52 CLOSED-CELL FLUORINATED 30 COMPOSITES 128-129 ELECTROACTIVE 26 FILMS 58 HIGH-TEMPERATURE 92PREFORM JOINTS 24 RESINS 10 THERMOPLASTIC 11 POLYKETANILS 33. 63-64. 7-9. 57. NON-HALOGEN 28 PLASTICS. 43. 52. 30 POLYETHERAMIDE ELASTOMER. 64 OXYDIANILINE-MODIFIED CLAY 16 P PARMAX SRP 87. 105. 114. 94 POLYMERS. ADAPTIVE 36 POLYMER MATRIX 13. 83-84. 30. FIRE RESISTANT 83 POLYMERS. 56 POLYCONDENSATION 9-10 POLYCYANATE FILM ADHESIVE 57 POLYCYANATE RESIN 57 POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE 31 POLYESTER CARBONATES.Index NANOSILICA CARBON NANOFIBRE 13 NANOTECHNOLOGY 38 NATURAL FIBRE 122 NITRILE-BUTADIENE RUBBER 92 ND:YAG LASER DEVICES 40 ND-YAG LASER DRILLING 23 NEURAL NETWORKS 112 NEW GEN TECHNOLOGY 34 NITRILE RUBBER 31. 123 CONDENSATION 5. AROMATIC 10 POLYESTER YARN 24. 107-108. 130 POLYETHER KETONE. RIGID-ROD 101 POLYMER. 94. 66. 128 COMPOSITES 85 COMPOSITES. 83 O OPTICAL ANISOTROPY 113 OPTICAL IMAGE CORRELATION 89 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY 86 OUTGASSING 46. 19. FIRE RESISTANT. 104 PHYSICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION 23 PIEZOCOMPOSITE ACTUATORS 36 PLASMA ETCHING 5 PLASMA TREATMENT 3. 125 POLYMERISATION 8. THERMOPLASTIC 27 POLYETHERS. 102. 106. 71. 74. 19. 61-62 POLYMER COATING 29 POLYMER COMPOSITES 129 POLYMER FOAMS 99 POLYMER FOAM. 39 NOMEX 5 NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION METHODS 27 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING 12 NORYL POLYPROPYLENE OXIDE. 39 POLYCHLOROTRIFLU-OROETHYLENE 31.
100. 94. ELECTRON BEAM CURED 85 RESINS. 112 POLYOXYMETHYLENE 31 POLYPHENYLENE-BENZOBISOXAZOLE 3. 129 POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE 12 THERMOFORMING 84 POLYPROPYLENE. 65. 46. 12. 55 SKIN-FOAM-SKIN COMPOSITE 48 SKYDROL HYDRAULIC FLUID 11 SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY 48 SNAP CURE SYSTEMS 66. 51 COMPOSITE 54 POLYTRIAZOLE RESIN 59 POLYUREA 90 POLYURETHANE 50 FLEXIBLE FOAM 88 RETICULATED FOAM 37 SILYLATED 40 POLYURETHANE ELASTOMER. 58. 63. THERMOPLASTIC 10. SELF-ADHESIVE 95 PREPREGS 9. ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE 107 SPLIT HOPKINSON PRESSURE BARS 51. 19. 130 REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE 90. 58. CRYOGENIC COMPOSITE OVER-WRAPPED 29 PRESSURISATION TEST 93 PROCESSING OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE 58 PROMETA RESINS 80 PROPARGYL ETHER NOVOLAC RESIN 46 PULTRUSION 6. 42. 67. 125 SCHAPPE TECHNIQUE 41. 94. EXO-ATMOSPHERIC 43 SURFACE CLEANING 71 SURFACE OXIDATION 5 SURFACE TREATMENT TECHNIQUE 88 SURFI-SCULPT 88 SYNTACTIC FOAMS 46 R RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE 3 RADIOGRAPHY 12 RESIN FILM INFUSION 27. 25. 88 SHEAR MIXING 14 SHEAROGRAPHY 57 SHEAR-TENSION TESTS 126 SHEET MOULDING 9 SILICON-CONTAINING COUPLING AGENTS 7 SILICONE RESINS 3 SILICONE RUBBER 39. 94 FOIL ACTUATORS 124 SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS 22. 128-129 EX SITU 27 RESINS. 64. 34. 31. 121 R-GLASS FIBRE (HIPER-TEX) 37 RHEOMETRY 81 ROHACELL FOAM 45 STRUCTURAL FOAM CORES 92 STRUCTURAL SANDWICH CORES 78 ROTATIONAL MOULDING INDUSTRY 80 T TAKAYANAGI’S TWO-PHASE MODEL 119 TAPE LAYING 12 TAPE PEEL TEST 21 TENSILE LOADING 93 TEXTILE COMPOSITES. 124. 46 S SAEFIX 42 SAERTEX 42 SCANNING ELECTION MICROSCOPY 23. © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology 135 . 98. 117 STRUCTURAL REACTION INJECTION MOULDING 93 STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER 31. 120. 79 PRESSURE-STRAIN MONITORING 93 PRESSURE VESSELS. 5 BRAIDED CORD 53 FIBRES 5. 67. 94. 117. 92. 36. 113 RESIN INJECTION LIQUID COMPOSITE MOULDING PROCESSES 74 RESIN INJECTION PROCESS 24 RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING 9. 91 SOLAR SELECTIVE COATINGS 109 SOL-GEL METHODS 40. 83. 94. 66 SPECTROSCOPY. FOAMED IN SITU 72 THERMOFORMING 12 THERMOGRAPHY 84 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS 8. 61. 46. 115 PRESS-FORMING 12. 7980. 123 RESIN INFUSION 30. 12 RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING PROCESS 84 PYROLYSIS 14. 99. SINGLE LAYER 123 T-GLASS 4 THERMAL AGEING 75 THERMAL CYCLING 117 THERMAL IMAGING 28 THERMAL TRANSPORT PHENOMENA 19 THERMO-FOLDING 79 THERMOFORMABLE SANDWICH PANELS. 76. 127. 72. FIRE RETARDANT 59 POLYQUINOLINES 8 POLYSULFIDES 3 POLYSULFONES 12 NANOCOMPOSITES 16 POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE 31. THERMOPLASTIC 39 POWDER INJECTION MOULDING 114 PREPREG SYSTEM. 74. 110-111. 120. 65. 66-67. 64. 47 SEALANTS 104 SENSOR PAINTS 23 S-GLASS 4 SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY. BROADBAND DIELECTRIC 38 SPECTROSCOPY. 113. 92 SUPERSONIC VEHICLES.Index POLYMETHACRYLIMIDE FOAMS 78.
SELF-REINFORCING 104 THERMOSET COMPOSITES 113 THERMOSET MELAMINE FOAM 74 THERMOSET RESIN SYSTEM 115 THERMOSETS 8 THERMOSETTING MATRICES 8 THERMOSETTING RESINS 13. 75. 48. 94. 101. 92. 125. 118. 124 VACUUM INFUSION PROCESS 93. 98 MOULDING 99 VACUUM INJECTION MOULDING 103 VANE CASCADE EROSION RIG TESTS 85 VAPOUR-GROWN CARBON FIBRE 4 VARIABLE ANGLE FIXED ARM PEEL 82 VIBRATION DAMPING 21 MEASUREMENTS OF 81 VISCOSITY. 19 THREE-DIMENSIONAL BRAIDED PRODUCTS 41 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CRACK TIP ELEMENT ANALYSIS 81 THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIBRE-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES 93 TITANATE COUPLING AGENTS 7 TORSION BRAID ANALYSIS 67 TOUGHENING 47 TOUGHENING AGENTS 9 TOW PATH OPTIMISATION 24 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 23. BROOKFIELD 129 136 © Copyright 2008 Smithers Rapra Technology . 80. 99 ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE 5. 85. 127-128 TRIPLE-PLY TAPE 59 TUBULAR BRAIDING 79 TUFFOAM 70 W WATER JET TEST METHOD 111 WATER VAPOUR TRANSMISSION 23 WATER-BASED NON-CHROMATE PRIMER 55 WAVELET MAPS 112 WIDE ANGLE X-RAY DIFFRACTION 19 X X-COR 62 X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY 49 X-RAY DIFFRACTION 46. 103. 7 ULTRASONIC TESTING 57 UPILEX 25 URETHANE RESIN 29 V VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING 27. 92. 127-128 X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY 57 XYTREX 53 YAKAYANAGI’S MODEL 119 Y YOUNG’S MODULUS 72 Z ZENITE 127 ZERILLI-ARMSTRONG MODEL 51 ZYLON 5 U ULTEM RESINS 50.Index THERMOGRAVIMETRY/FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED 122 THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS 42 THERMO-OXIDATIVE AGEING 10 THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY 41 THERMOPLASTIC MATRICES 10 THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS 8 THERMOPLASTIC RESINS 7-8 THERMOPLASTIC. 74. 31. 65-66. 54. 108.
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