BALANCING OF ROTATING BODIES

SUMMARY
In heavy industrial machines such as steam turbines, internal combustion engines and electric
generators, unbalanced rotating bodies could cause vibration, which in turn could cause
catastrophic failure. This chapter explains the importance of balancing rotating masses. It also
explains both static and dynamic balance, i.e. balancing of coplanar and non-coplanar masses.


1. INTRODUCTION

The balancing of rotating bodies is important to avoid vibrations. In heavy industrial
machines such as steam turbines internal combustion engines and electric generators,
vibration could cause catastrophic failure. Vibrations are noisy and uncomfortable and when
a car wheel is out of balance, the ride is quite unpleasant. In the case of a simple wheel,
balancing simply involves moving the centre of gravity to the centre of rotation but as we
shall see, for longer and more complex bodies, there is more to it. For a body to be
completely balanced it must have two things: static balance and dynamic balance.

 Static Balance (Single-plane balance). This occurs when the resultant of the
centrifugal forces is equal to zero and the centre of gravity is on the axis of rotation.

 Dynamic Balance (Two-plane balance). This occurs when there is no resulting
turning moment along the axis.


2. STATIC BALANCE

Despite its name, static balance does apply to things in motion. The unbalanced forces of
concern are due to the accelerations of masses in the system. The requirement for static
balance is simply that the sum of all forces on the moving system must be zero.

Another name for static balance is single-plane balance, which means that the masses which
are generating the inertia forces are in, or nearly in, the same plane. It is essentially a two-
dimensional problem. Some examples of common devices which meet this criterion, and thus
can successfully be statically balanced, are: a single gear or pulley on a shaft, a bicycle or
motorcycle tire and wheel, a thin flywheel, an airplane propeller, an individual turbine blade-
wheel (but not the entire turbine). The common denominator among these devices is that they
are all short in the axial direction compared to the radial direction, and thus can be considered
to exist in a single plane. An automobile tire and wheel is only marginally suited to static
balancing as it is reasonably thick in the axial direction compared to its diameter. Despite this
fact, auto tires are sometimes statically balanced. More often they are dynamically balanced.

Figure l-a shows a link in the shape of a "vee", which is part of a linkage. We want to
statically balance it. We can model this link dynamically as two point masses m
1
and m
2

concentrated at the local CGs of each "leg" of the link as shown in Figure l-b.
These point masses each have a mass equal to that of the "leg" they replace and are supported
on massless rods at the position (R
1
or R
2
) of that leg's CG. We can solve for the required
amount and location of a third "balance mass" m
b
to be added to the system at some location
R
b
in order to satisfy the equilibrium.

 
Figure 1: Static Balancing
Assume that the system is rotating at some constant angular velocity ω. The accelerations of
the masses will then be strictly centripetal (toward the centre), and the inertia forces will be
centrifugal (away from the centre) as shown in Figure 1. Since the system is rotating, the
figure shows a "freeze-frame" image of it. The position at which we "stop the action", for the
purpose of drawing the picture and doing the calculations, is both arbitrary and irrelevant to
the computation. We will set up a coordinate system with its origin at the centre of rotation
and resolve the inertial forces into components in that system. Writing the equilibrium
equation for this system we get:

-m
1
R
1
æ
2
- m
2
R
2
æ
2
- m
b
R
b
æ
2
= u (1 - o)

Note that the only forces acting on this system are the inertia forces. For balancing, it does
not matter what external forces may be acting on the system. External forces cannot be
balanced by making any changes to the system's internal geometry. Note that the ω
2
terms
cancel and equation (1-a) could be re-written as follows.

m
b
R
b
= -m
1
R
1
- m
2
R
2
(1 -b)

Breaking into x and y components:

(m
b
R
b
)
x
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
x
+ (m
2
R
2
)
x
]
(1 - c)
(m
b
R
b
)
¡
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
¡
+ (m
2
R
2
)
¡
]

The terms on the right sides are known. Then one can solve for the magnitude and direction
of the product m
b
R
b
needed to balance the system.

0
b
= ton
-1
_
(m
1
R
1
)
¡
+ (m
2
R
2
)
¡
(m
1
R
1
)
x
+ (m
2
R
2
)
x
_ (1 -J)


m
b
R
b
= _(|(m
1
R
1
)
x
+ (m
2
R
2
)
x
]
2
+ |(m
1
R
1
)
¡
+ (m
2
R
2
)
¡
]
2
) (1 - c)

After the product m
b
R
b
is calculated from equation(1 - c), there is infinity of solutions
available. We can either select a value for m
b
and solve for the necessary radius R
b
at which
it should be placed, or choose a desired radius and solve for the mass that should be placed
there.

Once a combination of m
b
and R
b
is chosen, it remains to design the physical counterweight.
The chosen radius R
b
is the distance from the pivot to the CG of whatever shape we create
for the counterweight mass. A possible shape for this counterweight is shown in Figure l-c.
Its mass must be m
b
, distributed so as to place its CG at radius R
b
and at angle 0
b
.

Example 1 (Static Balance)

The system shown in Figure 1 has the following data:
m
1
= 1.2 kg R
1
= 1.1SS m at Ѳ
1
= 11S.4
o

m
2
= 1.8 kg R
2
= u.822 m at Ѳ
2
= 48.8
o


Find the mass-radius product and its angular location needed to statically balance the system.
Solution:

m
|
R
|
Ѳ
|
(m
|
R
|
)
x
= m
|
R
|
cux Ѳ
|
(m
|
R
|
)
y
= m
|
R
|
stnѲ
|

1.2 1.1SS 11S.4 ‐u.S41 1.2Su
1.8 u.822 48.8 u.97S 1.11S

(m
b
R
b
)
x
= -(-u.S41 + u.97S) = -u.4S4
(m
b
R
b
)
¡
= -(1.2Su + 1.11S) = -2.S6S
· 0
b
= ton
-1
_
-2.S6S
-u.4S4
_ = 79.6
o
+ 18u
o
= 2S9.6
o

· m
b
R
b
= ¸(-u.4S4)
2
+(-2.S6S)
2
) = 2.4uS kg · m

This mass-radius product of 2.4uS kg · m can be obtained with a variety of shapes appended
to the assembly. Figure 1 shows a particular shape whose CG is at radius of 0.806 m at the
required angle of 2S9.6
o
. The mass required for this counterweight design is then:
· m
b
= _
2.4uS
u.8u6
_ = 2.981 kg
at a chosen Cu iauius of:
R
b
= u.8u6 m



3. DYNAMIC BALANCE

Dynamic balance is sometimes called two-plane balance. It requires that two criteria be met.
The sum of the forces must be zero (static balance) plus the sum of the moments must also be
zero.
F = u
(2)
H = u

These moments act in planes that include the axis of rotation of the assembly such as planes
XZ and YZ in Figure 2. The moment's vector direction, or axis, is perpendicular to the
assembly's axis of rotation.

Any rotating object or assembly which is relatively long in the axial direction compared to
the radial direction requires dynamic balancing for complete balance. It is possible for an
object to be statically balanced but not be dynamically balanced. Consider the assembly in
Figure 2. Two equal masses are at identical radii, 180
o
apart rotationally, but separated along
the shaft length. A summation of -ma forces due to their rotation will be always zero.
However, in the side view, their inertia forces form a couple which rotates with the masses
about the shaft. This rocking couple causes a moment on the ground plane, alternately lifting
and dropping the left and right ends of the shaft.

Some examples of devices which require dynamic balancing are: rollers, crankshafts,
camshafts, axles, clusters of multiple gears, motor rotors, turbines, and propeller shafts. The
common denominator among these devices is that their mass may be unevenly distributed
both rotationally around their axis and also longitudinally along their axis.

 
Figure 2: Balanced Forces – Unbalanced Moments [1]

To correct dynamic imbalance requires either adding or removing the right amount of mass at
the proper angular locations in two correction planes separated by some distance along the
shaft. This will create the necessary counter forces to statically balance the system and also
provide a counter couple to cancel the unbalanced moment. When an automobile tire and
wheel is dynamically balanced, the two correction planes are the inner and outer edges of the
wheel rim. Correction weights are added at the proper locations in each of these correction
planes based on a measurement of the dynamic forces generated by the unbalanced, spinning
wheel.

It is always good practice to first statically balance all individual components that go into an
assembly, if possible. This will reduce the amount of dynamic imbalance that must be
corrected in the final assembly and also reduce the bending moment on the shaft.

Consider the system of three lumped masses arranged around and along the shaft in Figure 3.
Assume that, for some reason, they cannot be individually statically balanced within their
own planes. We then create two correction planes labelled A and B. In this design example,
the unbalanced masses m1, m2, m3 and their radii R1, R2, R3 are known along their angular
locations t1, t2 and t3. We want to dynamically balance the system. A three-dimensional
coordinate system is applied with the axis of rotation in the Z direction. Note that the system
has again been stopped in an arbitrary freeze-frame position. Angular acceleration is assumed
to be zero. The summation of forces is:

-m
1
R
1
æ
2
- m
2
R
2
æ
2
- m
3
R
3
æ
2
- m
A
R
A
æ
2
- m
B
R
B
æ
2
= u (S -o)

Dividing out the æ
2
and rearranging we get:
m
A
R
A
+ m
B
R
B
= -m
1
R
1
-m
2
R
2
- m
3
R
3
(S - b)
Breaking into x and y components:
(m
A
R
A
)
x
+ (m
B
R
B
)
x
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
x
+ (m
2
R
2
)
x
+ (m
3
R
3
)
x
]
(S - c)
(m
A
R
A
)
¡
+ (m
B
R
B
)
¡
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
¡
+ (m
2
R
2
)
¡
+ (m
3
R
3
)
¡
]

Equations (3-c) have four unknowns in the form of mR products at plane A and mR products
at plane B. To solve, we need the sum of the moments which we can take about a point in one
of the correction planes such as point O. The moment arm (z-distance) of each force
measured from plane A are labelled l
1
, l
2
, l
3
, l
B
in the figure; thus

 
Figure 3: Two‐plane Dynamic Balancing [1] 

(m
B
R
B
æ
2
)l
B
= -(m
1
R
1
æ
2
)l
1
- (m
2
R
2
æ
2
)l
2
- (m
3
R
3
æ
2
)l
3
(S - J)

Dividing out the æ
2
, breaking into x and y components and rearranging:
The moment in the XZ plane (i.e., about the Y axis) is:

(m
B
R
B
)
x
=
-(m
1
R
1
)
x
l
1
- (m
2
R
2
)
x
l
2
- (m
3
R
3
)
x
l
3
l
B
(S - c)

(m
B
R
B
)
¡
=
-(m
1
R
1
)
¡
l
1
- (m
2
R
2
)
¡
l
2
- (m
3
R
3
)
¡
l
3
l
B
(S - ¡)

These can be solved for the mR products in x and y directions for correction plane B which
can then be substituted into equation (3-c) to find the values needed in plane A. Equations (1-
d) and (1-e) can then be applied to each correction plane to find the angles at which the
balance masses must be placed and the mR product needed in each plane. The physical
counterweights can then be designed consistent with the constraints outlined in the section on
static balance. Note that the radii R
A
and R
B
do not have to be the same value.

Example 2 (Dynamic Balance)

The system shown in Figure 3 has the following data:
m
1
= 1.2 kg R
1
= 1.1SS m at Ѳ
1
= 11S.4
o

m
2
= 1.8 kg R
2
= u.822 m at Ѳ
2
= 48.8
o

m
3
= 2.4 kg R
3
= 1.u4u m at Ѳ
3
= 2S1.4
o


The z-distances in metres from the plane A are:
l
1
= u.8S4 m l
2
= 1.7u1 m l
3
= 2.S96 m l
B
= S.u97 m

Find the mass-radius products and their angular locations needed to dynamically balance the
system using the correction planes A and B.
Solution:

m
|
R
|
|
|
Ѳ
|
(m
|
R
|
)
x
=
m
|
R
|
cux Ѳ
|

(m
|
R
|
)
y
=
m
|
R
|
stnѲ
|

(m
|
R
|
)
x
|
|
(m
|
R
|
)
y
|
|

1.2 1.135 0.854 11S.4
o
-0.541 1.250 -0.462 1.067
1.8 0.822 1.701 48.8
o
0.975 1.113 1.660 1.894
2.4 1.040 2.396 2S1.4
o
-0.796 -2.366 -1.910 -5.668

(m
B
R
B
)
x
=
-(-u.462 + 1.66u - 1.91u)
S.u97
= u.2S
(m
B
R
B
)
¡
=
-(-u.462 + 1.66u - 1.91)
S.u97
= u.874
· 0
B
= ton
-1
_
u.874
u.2S
_ = 7S.26
o

· m
B
R
B
= ¸(u.2S)
2
+(u.874)
2
) = u.9u4 kg · m

Solving equations (3-c) for forces in x and y directions:

(m
A
R
A
)
x
+ (m
B
R
B
)
x
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
x
+ (m
2
R
2
)
x
+(m
3
R
3
)
x
]

(m
A
R
A
)
x
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
x
+ (m
2
R
2
)
x
+ (m
3
R
3
)
x
+ (m
B
R
B
)
x
]
(m
A
R
A
)
x
= -|-u.S41 + u.97S - u.796 + u.2S] = u.1S2

(m
A
R
A
)
¡
+(m
B
R
B
)
¡
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
¡
+ (m
2
R
2
)
¡
+ (m
3
R
3
)
¡
]

(m
A
R
A
)
¡
= -|(m
1
R
1
)
¡
+ (m
2
R
2
)
¡
+ (m
3
R
3
)
¡
+ (m
B
R
B
)
¡
]
(m
A
R
A
)
¡
= -|1.2Su + 1.11S - 2.S66 + u.874] = -u.871

· 0
A
= ton
-1
_
-u.871
u.1S2
_ = -81.S8
o

· m
A
R
A
= ¸(u.1S2)
2
+ (-u.871)
2
) = u.881 kg · m

These mass-radius products can be obtained with a variety of shapes appended to the
assembly in planes A and B. Many shapes are possible. As long as they provide the required
mass-radius products at the required angles in each correction plane, the system will
dynamically balanced.
4. EXERCISES

4.1 A shaft carries four masses 200 kg, 300 kg, 240 kg and 260 kg respectively. The
corresponding radii of rotation are 20 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm respectively and
the angles between successive masses are 45
o
, 75
o
and 135
o
. Find the position and
magnitude of the balance mass required, if its radius of rotation is 20 cm [2].
Anx. (m
h
= 11û kg, 0
h
= 2û1
u
)

4.2 A shaft carries four masses A, B, C and D placed in parallel planes perpendicular to
the shaft axis and in this order along the shaft. The masses of B and C are 36 kg and
25 kg respectively and both are assumed to be concentrated at a radius of 15 cm,
while the masses A and D are both at radius of 20 cm. The angle between the radii of
B and C is 100
o
and that between B and A is 190
o
, both angles are being measured in
the same sense. The planes containing A and B are 25 cm apart and those containing
B and C are 50 cm apart. If the shaft is to be in complete dynamic balance, determine
[2]:
a) The masses of A and D;
b) The distance between the planes containing C and D, and
c) The angular position of the mass D.

Anx. (m
A
= 19. 5 kg, m
D
= 1ó. 5 kg 0
D
= 252
u
, x = 13. 2 cm)


5. CONCLUSION

Balancing of rotating masses in heavy industrial machines is very essential to reduce the
unpleasant and dangerous vibration. Two balancing techniques have been introduced in this
chapter, namely, static and dynamic balance. Two illustrative examples have been
demonstrated in order to understand the two different techniques. Two exercises are left to
the students to train themselves on solving balancing problems with final answers given to
guide them.


6. REFERENCES

[1] Norton, R.L. (1999): “DESIGN OF MACHINERY”, 2
nd
Edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN: 0-
07-048395-7, 1999.
[2] Khurmi, R.S., Gupta, J.K. (1976): “THEORY OF MACHINES”, Eurasia Publishing
House Ltd, 1976.

and thus can be considered to exist in a single plane. a bicycle or motorcycle tire and wheel. which is part of a linkage. static balance does apply to things in motion. and the inertia forces will be centrifugal (away from the centre) as shown in Figure 1. Some examples of common devices which meet this criterion. Since the system is rotating. The requirement for static balance is simply that the sum of all forces on the moving system must be zero. The common denominator among these devices is that they are all short in the axial direction compared to the radial direction. The accelerations of the masses will then be strictly centripetal (toward the centre). STATIC BALANCE Despite its name. It is essentially a twodimensional problem. an individual turbine bladewheel (but not the entire turbine). for the purpose of drawing the picture and doing the calculations. is both arbitrary and irrelevant to . The unbalanced forces of concern are due to the accelerations of masses in the system. an airplane propeller. We want to statically balance it. Figure l-a shows a link in the shape of a "vee". The position at which we "stop the action". are: a single gear or pulley on a shaft. Another name for static balance is single-plane balance. and thus can successfully be statically balanced. More often they are dynamically balanced. which means that the masses which are generating the inertia forces are in. Figure 1: Static Balancing   Assume that the system is rotating at some constant angular velocity ω. a thin flywheel. Despite this fact.2. We can solve for the required amount and location of a third "balance mass" to be added to the system at some location in order to satisfy the equilibrium. auto tires are sometimes statically balanced. These point masses each have a mass equal to that of the "leg" they replace and are supported on massless rods at the position (R1 or R2) of that leg's CG. We can model this link dynamically as two point masses m1 and m2 concentrated at the local CGs of each "leg" of the link as shown in Figure l-b. An automobile tire and wheel is only marginally suited to static balancing as it is reasonably thick in the axial direction compared to its diameter. the figure shows a "freeze-frame" image of it. or nearly in. the same plane.

2  1. it remains to design the physical counterweight.the computation.822  at Ѳ 48. We can either select a value for it should be placed. Writing the equilibrium equation for this system we get: 0                          1   Note that the only forces acting on this system are the inertia forces.                         1 Breaking into x and y components: 1 The terms on the right sides are known.135  at Ѳ 113. Then one can solve for the magnitude and direction of the product  needed to balance the system. We will set up a coordinate system with its origin at the centre of rotation and resolve the inertial forces into components in that system. it does not matter what external forces may be acting on the system. A possible shape for this counterweight is shown in Figure l-c.4 1. Its mass must be  . Once a combination of and is chosen. Note that the ω2 terms cancel and equation (1-a) could be re-written as follows. For balancing. External forces cannot be balanced by making any changes to the system's internal geometry.8 Find the mass-radius product and its angular location needed to statically balance the system.                        1            1 After the product  is calculated from equation 1 . . or choose a desired radius and solve for the mass that should be placed there. there is infinity of solutions and solve for the necessary radius at which available.8  0. distributed so as to place its CG at radius and at angle  . The chosen radius is the distance from the pivot to the CG of whatever shape we create for the counterweight mass. Example 1 (Static Balance) The system shown in Figure 1 has the following data: 1.

363     79.403  · can be obtained with a variety of shapes appended to the assembly. clusters of multiple gears. 180o apart rotationally.975  1.250  1. The . but separated along the shaft length. is perpendicular to the assembly's axis of rotation.135 113.363 2.6 . A summation of -ma forces due to their rotation will be always zero.113  Ѳ   0. crankshafts.434 1. Some examples of devices which require dynamic balancing are: rollers.6 0. This rocking couple causes a moment on the ground plane.806 at a chosen CG radius of:  0. 0 2 0 These moments act in planes that include the axis of rotation of the assembly such as planes XZ and YZ in Figure 2. in the side view. camshafts. and propeller shafts. motor rotors.Solution: Ѳ 1. It requires that two criteria be met. Consider the assembly in Figure 2. The moment's vector direction. The sum of the forces must be zero (static balance) plus the sum of the moments must also be zero.250 1. axles. Two equal masses are at identical radii. alternately lifting and dropping the left and right ends of the shaft.981    0. Figure 1 shows a particular shape whose CG is at radius of 0.822 48.2  1.975 0. However. or axis.363 2.434 2.541 0. turbines.8    Ѳ ‐0.403  ·     This mass-radius product of 2. their inertia forces form a couple which rotates with the masses about the shaft. DYNAMIC BALANCE Dynamic balance is sometimes called two-plane balance.541  0.8  0.806 m at the required angle of 259. It is possible for an object to be statically balanced but not be dynamically balanced. The mass required for this counterweight design is then: 2.6 180 259.113 2.403     2.806   3.4  1.434 0. Any rotating object or assembly which is relatively long in the axial direction compared to the radial direction requires dynamic balancing for complete balance.

if possible. Note that the system has again been stopped in an arbitrary freeze-frame position. m3 and their radii R1. We then create two correction planes labelled A and B. R2. It is always good practice to first statically balance all individual components that go into an assembly. This will create the necessary counter forces to statically balance the system and also provide a counter couple to cancel the unbalanced moment. We want to dynamically balance the system. they cannot be individually statically balanced within their own planes. This will reduce the amount of dynamic imbalance that must be corrected in the final assembly and also reduce the bending moment on the shaft. t2 and t3. R3 are known along their angular locations t1. Consider the system of three lumped masses arranged around and along the shaft in Figure 3. Figure 2: Balanced Forces – Unbalanced Moments [1]   To correct dynamic imbalance requires either adding or removing the right amount of mass at the proper angular locations in two correction planes separated by some distance along the shaft.common denominator among these devices is that their mass may be unevenly distributed both rotationally around their axis and also longitudinally along their axis. the unbalanced masses m1. When an automobile tire and wheel is dynamically balanced. In this design example. spinning wheel. Correction weights are added at the proper locations in each of these correction planes based on a measurement of the dynamic forces generated by the unbalanced. the two correction planes are the inner and outer edges of the wheel rim. Angular acceleration is assumed to be zero. A three-dimensional coordinate system is applied with the axis of rotation in the Z direction. for some reason. Assume that. m2. The summation of forces is: 0             3 Dividing out the   and rearranging we get:                                             3 Breaking into x and y components: .

3 Equations (3-c) have four unknowns in the form of products at plane A and products at plane B. about the Y axis) is:          3        3 These can be solved for the products in x and y directions for correction plane B which can then be substituted into equation (3-c) to find the values needed in plane A.   .e.   . in the figure. breaking into x and y components and rearranging: The moment in the XZ plane (i.. Equations (1d) and (1-e) can then be applied to each correction plane to find the angles at which the balance masses must be placed and the product needed in each plane. Note that the radii and do not have to be the same value. . The moment arm (z-distance) of each force measured from plane A are labelled   . thus   Figure 3: Two‐plane Dynamic Balancing [1]           3 Dividing out the  . we need the sum of the moments which we can take about a point in one of the correction planes such as point O. The physical counterweights can then be designed consistent with the constraints outlined in the section on static balance. To solve.

854 113.871 0.541 0. Many shapes are possible.894 -5.822  at Ѳ 48.796 0.23 0.23 3.701 48.097 0.132 1.874 0.8 0.874 3.701  2.4 The z-distances in metres from the plane A are: 0.904  · Solving equations (3-c) for forces in x and y directions: 0. As long as they provide the required mass-radius products at the required angles in each correction plane.132 0.250   0.462 1.250 1.874       75.910 1.91   0.366 -0.660 1.660 -1.113   2.975 0.396 251.4 1. Solution: Ѳ 1.132 1.8 2.975 -0. .135 0.23 0.135  at Ѳ 113.097  Find the mass-radius products and their angular locations needed to dynamically balance the system using the correction planes A and B.871   0.067 1.660 1.8 2.822 1.2 1.874 81. the system will dynamically balanced.4  1.366 0.462 Ѳ 1.2  1.796 0.854  1.396  3.881  0.040  at Ѳ 251.4 1.23 0.4   Ѳ -0.040 2.668 1.462 1.541 0.113 -2.097 0.Example 2 (Dynamic Balance) The system shown in Figure 3 has the following data: 1.38 0.4 1.26 0.8  0.910 0.871 · These mass-radius products can be obtained with a variety of shapes appended to the assembly in planes A and B.

1 A shaft carries four masses 200 kg. C and D placed in parallel planes perpendicular to the shaft axis and in this order along the shaft. 1999.                                . namely. . CONCLUSION 6. while the masses A and D are both at radius of 20 cm.     . The planes containing A and B are 25 cm apart and those containing B and C are 50 cm apart. Eurasia Publishing House Ltd. determine [2]: a) The masses of A and D.                                                                                          .4. B. [2] Khurmi. static and dynamic balance.   . 1976. 240 kg and 260 kg respectively. If the shaft is to be in complete dynamic balance. 2nd Edition.L. R. The angle between the radii of B and C is 100o and that between B and A is 190o. 15 cm. McGraw-Hill. Two exercises are left to the students to train themselves on solving balancing problems with final answers given to guide them. Two balancing techniques have been introduced in this chapter. Gupta.. REFERENCES   [1] Norton.   . both angles are being measured in the same sense. and c) The angular position of the mass D. Two illustrative examples have been demonstrated in order to understand the two different techniques.  . The masses of B and C are 36 kg and 25 kg respectively and both are assumed to be concentrated at a radius of 15 cm. 4. if its radius of rotation is 20 cm [2]. 25 cm and 30 cm respectively and the angles between successive masses are 45o. (1999): “DESIGN OF MACHINERY”. EXERCISES 4.K. b) The distance between the planes containing C and D. Find the position and magnitude of the balance mass required. 300 kg.     Balancing of rotating masses in heavy industrial machines is very essential to reduce the unpleasant and dangerous vibration. (1976): “THEORY OF MACHINES”. R. .2 A shaft carries four masses A. ISBN: 007-048395-7. .S. J. 75o and 135o.      5. The corresponding radii of rotation are 20 cm.

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