SYLLABUS FOR THE 2012 BAR EXAMINATIONS

CIVIL LAW

I. Effect and Application of Laws A. When law takes effect (Civil Code, Art. 2) B. Ignorance of the law (Civil Code, Art. 3) C. Retroactivity of laws (Civil Code, Art. 4) D. Mandatory or prohibitory laws (Civil Code, Art. 5) E. Waiver of rights (Civil Code, Art. 6) F. Repeal of laws (Civil Code, Art. 7) G. Judicial decisions (Civil Code, Art. 8) H. Duty to render judgment (Civil Code, Art. 9) I. Presumption and applicability of custom (Civil Code, Arts. 10-12) J. Legal periods (Civil Code, Art. 13, as amended by Book I, Sec. 31 of the Administrative Code of 1987 (EO 292)) K. Applicability of penal laws (Civil Code, Art. 14) L. Conflict of laws (Civil Code, Arts. 15-18) II. Human Relations (Civil Code, Arts. 19-22) Exclude: Independent Civil Actions and prejudicial questions which will be covered by the examinations in Remedial Law PERSONS I. Persons and Personality (Civil Code) A. Capacity to act 1. Civil personality (Art. 37) 2. Restrictions on capacity to act (Arts. 38-39) 3. Birth (Arts. 40-41) 1   

4. Death (Arts. 42-43) a) Compare Art. 43 with Rule 131, Sec. 3 (jj) presumption of survivorship 5. Juridical Persons, Civil Code, Arts. 44-46 B. Domicile and residence (Arts. 50-51) II. Marriage (Family Code) Exclude: Muslim Code (P.D. 1083) A. Nature of marriage B. Requisites 1. Kinds of requisites (Family Code, Arts. 2-3) 3. Effect of absence of requisites (Art. 4) 4. Essential requisites (Art. 5) a) Age b) Consent 5. Formal (Arts. 7, 31, 32) 6. Ceremony (Art. 6) 7. Solemnizing authority (Art. 7-8, 10) a) Exceptions (Art. 35 (2)) 8. License required (Arts. 3 (2), 9, 11, 20, 26) a) Foreign national (Art. 21) b) Exceptions (Arts. 27, 31-32, 34) 9. Marriage certificate (Art. 22) Exclude: Duties of a Civil Registrar under Arts. 12-19, 23-25 B. Effect of marriage celebrated abroad and foreign divorce (Art. 26) C. Void and voidable marriages 1. Void marriages (Arts. 5, 35, 36-38, 52-53) a) Absence of requisites (Art. 35) b) Psychological incapacity (Art. 36) c) Incestuous marriages (Arts. 37-38) 2. Prescription (Art. 39) 3. Subsequent marriage (Arts. 40-44) 4. Annullable marriage (Arts. 14, 45-46) 5. Voidable marriages (Art. 45-47) 6. Presence of prosecutor (Art. 48) 7. Pendency of action (Art. 49) 8. Effects of nullity (Arts. 50-54) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC, Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Void Marriages and Annulment of Voidable Marriages; R.A. 6955, entitled “An Act to 2   

Declare Unlawful the Practice of Matching Filipino Women for Marriage to Foreign Nationals on a Mail Order Basis and Other Similar Practices…”; R.A. 9208 or the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 III. Legal Separation A. Grounds (Art. 55 and R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) B. Defenses (Arts. 56-57) C. Cooling-off period (Art. 58) D. Reconciliation efforts (Art. 59) E. Confession of judgment (Art. 60) F. Effects of filing petition (Art. 61) G. Effects of pendency (Art. 62) H. Effects of legal separation (Arts. 63-64) 1. Reconciliation (Arts. 65-67) Exclude: A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC or the Rule on Legal Separation IV. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife A. Essential obligations (Art. 68) B. Family domicile (Art. 69) C. Support (Art. 70) D. Management of household (Art. 71) E. Effect of neglect of duty (Art. 72) F. Exercise of profession (Art. 73) Exclude: R.A. 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act; R.A. 8187, or the Paternity Leave Act of 1996; R.A. 9710 or The Magna Carta of Women. V. Property Relations of the Spouses 3   

Property regime of unions without marriage (Arts. 50) C. Paternity and Filiation A. What constitutes community property (Arts. 116-120) 4. 134-142) G. 75-85. General provisions (Arts. 147-148) VI. Void donations by the spouses (Art. 124-125) 6. The Family A. Legitimate children (Arts. 87) D. Marriage settlements (Arts. 121123) 5. 91-93) 3. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 1. Dissolution of the regime of Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Absolute Community of Property 1. 102-104) E. Exclusive property of each spouse (Arts. Charges upon and obligations of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. Regime of separation of property (Arts. 99-101) 6. enjoyment and disposition of the community property (Arts. administration. General provisions (Arts. Dissolution of community regime (Arts. 82-83. Liquidation of the absolute community assets and liabilities (Arts. 76-81) B. The family home (Arts. Conjugal partnership property (Arts. Donations by reason of marriage (Arts. 96-98) 5. Liquidation of the conjugal partnership assets and liabilities (Arts. Proof of filiation (Arts. 94-95) 4. Administration of the Conjugal Partnership of Gains (Arts. 152-165) Exclude: Arts. Separation of property of the spouses and administration of common property by one spouse during the marriage (Arts. 88-90) 2. The family as an institution (Arts. 149-151) B. 43(3). 172-174) 4    . Charges upon and obligations of the community property (Arts. 126-128) 7. 161 and 162 VII. Ownership. 109-115) 3. 105-108) 2. 163-171) B. 129-133) F. 157. 143-146) H.A. 86.

8043) 1. 9523.A. 194) B. Domestic Adoption Act of 1998 (R. Rescission of adoption Exclude: 1. 189 and 190 on successional rights) 4. Attachment (Art. Who can adopt 2. 9255 allowing illegitimate children to use the surname of their father) D. 191-193 of the Family Code IX. What it comprises (Art. Who are obliged (Arts.” B. Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 (R. Illegitimate children (Art. 183-188. No. Rights of an adopted child (include Family Code. R. 06-11-5-SC or the Rule on DNA Evidence VIII. 205) 5    .A. Support A. Options (Art.C. 198) D.M. 195-197. Who can be adopted 3. Arts. entitled “An Act Requiring Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a “Child Legally Available for Adoption” as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings…. Who can adopt 2. Support during marriage litigation (Art.A. Legitimated children (Arts. 201-202) E. 204) G. 8552) 1. 203) F. 177-182) Exclude: A.A. Amount (Arts. 02-6-02-SC ) 2. Rule on Adoption (A. When demandable (Art. 176 as amended by R.M. Adoption A. Who can be adopted Exclude: Arts. No. 199-200. 206-208) C. 175 and Art.

Summary Judicial Proceedings in Family Law Cases XIII. General provisions (Arts. 220-224) Exclude: 1.A. Arts. 43. Effects of parental authority upon the property of the children (Arts. 254-255. Substitute and special parental authority (Arts. No. 305-310) Exclude: Care and Education of Children (Arts. 369-380 (other articles repealed by Family Code) XVI. Funerals (Civil Code. entitled “An Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child…” which will be covered under Labor Law E. 8972) 4. 6809 which lowered the age of majority) XII. 216-219) C. 356-363. 03-02-05-SC) 2. Parental Authority A.A. 228-233)   1. No. Child Abuse Law (R. 8980) D. 41 Family Code) 6    . 234 and 236. 364-369.M.A.M. Art. 9231. Suspension or termination of parental authority (Arts. Retroactivity of the Family Code (Art. Solo Parents' Welfare Act of 2000 (R. 225-227) Exclude: R. Effect of parental authority upon the persons of the children (Arts. Use of Surnames Arts. Rule on Guardianship of Minors (A. The Early Childhood Care and Development Act (R. 256) Exclude: Arts. Rules on Custody of Minors and Writ of Habeas Corpus in Relation to Custody of Minors (A. Absence (Civil Code. Civil Code) XV. Art. 03-04-04-SC) 3. 209-215) B. Emancipation (Arts.X. 257 of the Family Code XIV.A. 7610)  XI.A. as amended by R.

planter. Provisional measures in case of absence (Arts. 387.A. 9048. 448-456) (ii) Builder. Declaration of absence (Arts. 438-439) B. Civil Registrar A.D. Lands adjoining river banks a) Alluvion (Art. sower on land of another in the concept of owner (i) Builder. 415-418) A. 381-383) B. Characteristics II. Hidden treasure (Arts. Administration of the property of the absentee (Arts.389) D. 390-392) Exclude: Arts. Rules of Court Exclude: Act No. 384-386) C. Fruits (Arts. Arts. 9048 PROPERTY I. Rule 108. 375 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. Correction of Clerical Errors (R. 461-462 and P. Right of accession (Art. 440) 1. 449-450) b) Usufructuary (Art. planter.A. 441-444) 2. 1067 or the Water Code) 7    . Classification (Arts. 393-396 on contingent assets XVII. Presumption of death (Arts.”) C. 407-413 B. entitled “An Act Authorizing the City or Municipal Civil Registrar or the Consul General to Correct a Clerical or Typographical Error in an Entry and/or Change of First Name or Nickname in the Civil Register Without Need of a Judicial Order…. sower in bad faith (Arts. planter. 579) 3.A. With respect to immovable property a) Builder. sower in good faith (Arts. 457) b) Change of course of river (Arts.

mortgages imposed by contract) 8    . Modes of acquiring ownership 1. Bundle of rights a) Jus utendi. Of private ownership a) Patrimonial property (i) Distinction between private property of individual persons and of state entities E. General limitations: taxation. police power 2. eminent domain. abutendi. not weakness of defendant’s claim 2. vindicandi. accion interdictal (b) Distinction between forcible entry and unlawful detainer (ii) Actions for recovery of possession of movable property (iii) Requisites for recovery of property (a) Proof of right (b) Identity (c) Reliance on strength of own evidence. Personal or movable D. By nature 1. 464-465) C. disponendi (possidendi) (i) Actions to recover ownership and possession of real property (a) Distinctions between accion reivindicatoria. Limitations 1. Islands (Arts. By owner 1. easements voluntarily imposed by owner (servitudes. Right in general 1. Specific limitations: those imposed by law (sic utere tuo. Fungible/non-fungible III. Real or immovable 2.c) Avulsion (Arts. 459-463) 4. Derivative C. Distinction between real and personal rights B. state of necessity). fruendi. Consumable/non-consumable vs. Of public dominion 2. accion publiciana. Ownership A. By object 1. Original 2. nuisance.

civil fruits) and continua (over immovables: artificial/industrial and natural) b) Accession industrial (building. 957. rivers. General rules 1. amendment (iv) Documents to consider (master deed. Distinction between quieting of title and removing/preventing a cloud C. articles and by-laws of the condominium corporation or the association. Realty Installment Buyer Act c) Grounds for partition of common areas. commixtion/ confusion. where applicable) b) Rights and obligations of condominium owners (i) Contributions/dues (ii) P. For movables: a) Accession continua (conjunction. Requirement B. For immovables: a) Accession discreta (natural. sowing in good faith or bad faith) c) Accession natural (accretion. or dissolution of the condominium B.D. Accession A. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree and R. industrial. Right to hidden treasure B.A. Co-ownership A. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. Special rules a) Concept of condominium (i) Condominium corporation (ii) Interest in real property (iii) Concept of common areas. In general 2. avulsion.IV. 6552. Source of co-ownership 9    . islands) 2. adjunction. planting. specification) b) Rules for determining the principal and accessory V. Quieting of Title to or Interest in and Removal or Prevention of Cloud over Title to or Interest in Real Property (Arts. 476-481) A. declaration of restrictions. Prescription/non-prescription of action VI.

531) C. Right to oppose acts of alteration 3. In concept of owner. 544. 1134. 548) 2. 449. Distinguished from voidable title (Art. Effects of possession 1. Finder of lost movable (Arts. 1140. 559. Right to redemption of co-owners share D. 546-547) (ii) Expenses for pure luxury (Art. Rights of the possessor G. Rights of co-owners 1. 1506) E. holder. Characteristics B. Possessor in good faith (Arts. 552) D. taxes) 5. Right to contributions for expenses (necessary expenses. Waiver 6. Possession A. Characteristics B. Period to recover (Arts. Effect of partition 2.C. Right to partition 4. Possessor in bad faith (Arts. Rights against individual co-owners in case of partition 3. 526-527) a) Right to pending fruits (Art. 719-720) 3. Usufruct A. 1133) 2. in one’s own name. Loss or unlawful deprivation of a movable (Arts. Classification 10    . Termination/extinguishment 1. 1132. How acquired (Art. 549. 1505(3)) 1. Loss/termination VIII. in name of another F. Partition in case co-owners cannot agree VII. Distinction between right to property owned in common and full ownership over his/her ideal share 2. 545) b) Right to be reimbursed (i) Necessary and useful expenses (Arts.

Classification C. Definition B. 746) 2. 713) B. Nuisance (Arts. Characteristics B. Modes of Acquiring Ownership (Art. 669-673) D. Remedies XI. Characteristics a) Extent to which donor may donate property b) Reservations and reversions 11    . Rights and obligations of usufructuary D. Voluntary easements (Art. 694-707) A. 712) A. Classification 1.C. Compulsory easements (Arts. Modes of acquiring easements 1. Legal easements a) Right of way 2. Occupation (Art. 688) a) Effect of zoning ordinance C. Donation 1. Rights of the owner E. Rights and obligations of dominant and subservient estate E. How terminated X. 613. Easements (Arts. Definition (Arts. 725-726. 620-624) 2. 615-616) A. Easement of light and view (Arts. Extinction/termination IX.

3. 728) Onerous donation (Art. conditional 4. 1129-1130) 12    . Ordinary a) Good faith (Art. 760-761. Kinds a) b) c) d) e) Donation inter vivos (Art. Revocation or reduction a) Grounds for revocation. 750-752) In fraud of creditors (Art. Acquisitive (Art. 771-773) f) Ingratitude (Arts. Void donations (Arts. 759) 7. 748) (ii) Immovables (Art. 1117) 1. 749) 5. Formalities required a) How made and accepted b) Perfection c) Differences between formalities for donation of real. 765. 86) Donation mortis causa (Art. 82-83. modal. 1106) A. 729) Donation by reason of marriage (Family Code. 1127) b) Just title (Arts. Definition (Art. Effects a) b) c) d) e) of donation/limitations In general Double donations Excessive/inofficious Scope of amount (Arts. Characteristics 2. donee 6. Arts. Qualifications of donor. 769) Exclude: Intellectual creations PRESCRIPTION I. 739-740. grounds for reduction b) How done c) Effects c) Prescription e) Inofficious donations (Arts. 733) Simple. 1027) 8. personal properties (i) Movables (Art.

1529) C. Void contracts (Art. Distinguished from laches G. Interruption (Art. Periods II. By offender (Art. Prescription or limitation of actions A. 4. Property of public dominion III. Action legal to demand a right of way (Art. 1134. Extinctive 1. 1118-1125) Period (Arts.D. To recover movables (Art. Action to quiet title if plaintiff is in possession E. 1142-1149) IV. Extraordinary (Arts. Other actions (Arts. To abate a nuisance D. Requisites 3. Registered lands (P. 1140) B.3. 1138) What cannot be required by acquisitive prescription B. 1410) F. 1141) C. 494) 1. Action to demand partition (Art. 6. 649) 2. second par. No Prescription Applicable A. Characteristics 2. 1132. Definition 13    . To recover immovables (Art. 1137 and 1132. Civil Code 1. 1133) B. Art.) Requisites (Arts. 1155) OBLIGATIONS I. 5. 1143.

Fraud in the performance of obligation a) Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. Default. A single act or omission can give rise to different causes of action B. Negligence (culpa) in the performance of obligation a) Diligence normally required is ordinary diligence or diligence of a good father of a family b) Exception: common carriers which are required to exercise extraordinary diligence 5. Breaches of obligations 1. Elements of an Obligation III. Natural obligations C. 1156-1157) A. An indeterminate or generic thing B. Specific performance 14    . Obligation to give 1. exceptions (Art. Nature and Effect of Obligations A. Contravention of the tenor of obligation 6. Obligation to do or not to do C. delay or mora – no default unless creditors makes a demand. requisites D. A determinate or specific thing 2. Complete failure to perform 2. 1169) a) Mora solvendi b) Mora accipiendi c) Compesatio morae 3. Extra-contractual obligations VI.II. Sources of obligations (Arts. Different Kinds of Prestations IV. Remedies available to creditor in cases of breach 1. Legal excuse for breach of obligation: fortuitous event. Classification of Obligations V. 1171) 4.

Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor 3. Resolutory condition 3. in any event 4. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) 3. par. 1190. Suspensive condition 2. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations 2. loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. 1187) a) Extent of retroactivity 5. loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. Obligation with a period or a term (Art. 1189) 6. Alternative or facultative (Art. 1179-1180) B. 1893) VII. 1182) 4. unless a purely personal act 2. Effect if given to debtor alone a) Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. Damages. Resolutory period 3. Effect of improvement. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. 1198) 2. through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events 15    . 1197) b) Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment D. 1177) a) Accion subrogatoria a) Accion pauliana c) Accion directa (Arts. Pure (Arts. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. 1196) 2. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement. Definite or indefinite period a) Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. 1193) 1. Kinds of Civil Obligations A.a) Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do. 1199) 1. 1181) 1. Conditional (Art. 1608. 3) C. 1729. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative. 1652. Potestative: casual or mixed a) Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art.

Solidary obligation 1. Form of payment (Art. Concurrence of two or more creditors and or two or more debtors a) Joint obligation is presumed. confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor D. 1274) 16    . Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. 1272. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly 2. Payment (Arts. Joint indivisible obligation 1. unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. 1256-1261) B. 1266-1267) C. 1236-1238) 1. there is default but only the guilty debtor shall be liable for damages C. 1226. 1270) 1. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. 1249) 3. 1209) d) Insolvency of a joint debtor. therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor. 1214. Obligations with a penal clause (Arts. Dation in payment (Art. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. 1209) B. 1228-1230) IX. 1262. Application of payment (Art. Implied (Arts. 1250) 4. Divisible and indivisible (Art. but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. others not liable for his share (Art. Joint (divisible) obligation 1. 1252-1254) 5.VIII. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share). Joint and Solidary Obligation A. 1271. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. although he may pay if he wants to (Art. Condonation or remission of debt (Art. Extinguishment of Obligations A. 1222) 3. 1207) b) Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors c) Each credit is distinct from one another. 1212). 1245) 2. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1217. 1270) 2. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. 1216. compensation. a) Effect of any novation. 1215) 2. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others. 1225) E.

Consensual B. 1283) e) Facultative 2. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1287-1288) F. 1282) c) Voluntary (Art. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. 1279) a) Legal compensation (Arts. Kinds of Contracts A. Essential Requisites (Art. 1744) 7. 1390-1402) 17    . 1874) 5. Rescissible contracts (Art. Kinds (Arts. Real C. Formal or solemn 1. 1328-1344. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. Antichresis (Art. 1282) d) Judicial (Art. 1356. Chattel mortgage 8. 1357. 1286-1290) b) Agreement (Art. 1358) IV. 2134) 4. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. 1771. 1191 B. Formality (Arts. Compensation 1. Novation (Arts. 1275. 1956) 6. Obligations not compensable (Art.D. Defective Contracts A. 1278. 1272) E. 748-749) 2. Donations (Arts. 1381) 1. Sale of large cattle III. 1291-1304) CONTRACTS I. 1773) 3. Voidable contracts (Arts. 1261) II. Stipulation limiting common carrier’s duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts.

1799) V. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. 1311) SALES I. 1491-1492) III.C. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. Obligations created (Art. 1489-1492) B. Absolute incapacity (Arts. Special disqualifications (Arts. Introduction A. Effect of contracts (Art. 1327. Pactum commissorium (Arts. 2088. 1459-1465) 18    . Pactum leonina (Art. 1505) C. Subject Matter A. 2130) 3. 2130. Contract of sale/contract to sell II. Pactum de non alienando (Art. Definition of sales (Arts. 1390) 2. 1397. Void contracts (Arts. Stages of contract of sale D. Capacity of parties (Arts. 1403-1408. Parties to a Contract of Sale A. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1165) E. 1470) B. 1409. Sale distinguished from other contracts H. Relative incapacity: married persons D. Characteristics of a contract of sale F. 1458. Sale is title and not mode G. 1346) 1. 1399) C. 1317) D.

Right of first refusal 4. 1403 (d) (e) VII. 1506. 1325. When delivery does not transfer title 19    . 1326) C. 1470) E. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. 1479) 1. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. Offer (Art. 1475. Manner of transfer (Arts. Preparatory (Art. 1474) F. 559) V.B. 1319. How price is determined D. Option money (Art. Formation of Contract of Sale A. 1505. Art. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. 1479) B. Particular kinds IV. Perfection (Arts. When no price agreed (Art. 1355. Exceptions B. Transfer of Ownership A. 1324) 3. Meaning of price (Arts. 1479. Earnest money vs. 1477. Requisites for a valid price C. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership A. 1496-1501) B. 1459) 1. Manner of payment must be agreed upon G. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1462.1482) VI. 1469-1474) B. 1475) 2. Option contract (Arts. Price A. Formalities of the contract.

Definition of unpaid seller (Art. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 2. Property Registration Decree 1. 1189) B. 1520) X. Definition (Art. 1514. Remedies of unpaid seller XI. 1263. Risk of Loss A. When ownership is transferred (Art. payment of capital gains tax. Documents of Title A. Purpose of documents of title C. 1525) B. Negotiable documents of title D. 1493 and 1494) D. When loss occurred before perfection C. Double sales (Art. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery E. Performance of Contract 20    . Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts.C. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. Non-negotiable documents of title E. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller A. Accompanied by vendor’s duplicate certificate of title. 1516) F. 1636) B. Kinds of delivery D. 1504) IX. and documentary tax registration fees VIII. 1544) E. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1519. General rule (Arts.

Sale of immovables (Arts. 957. 1547) C. Inspections and acceptance B. Effects of waivers E. 1601) C. Sale of immovables XIV. 1480) 2. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 1537. Causes (Arts. Express warranties B. 1606) 21    . Remedies of the seller (Arts. Implied warranties (Art. 1484-1486) C. 1231) B.D. 1636. Sale of movables B. Period of redemption (Art. Buyer’s options in case of breach of warranty (Art. 1594) 1. P. 1539. Distinguished from option to buy (Art. Sale of movables (Arts. Sale of movable 2.A. Sale of immovables 1. 1602) E. Payment of price XII. Warranties A. 1599) XIII. 1522. Extinguishment of the Sale A. 1600. 23. Sale of immovables on installment (Maceda Law) D. 24 2. Conventional redemption (Art. Remedies of the buyer 1. Equitable mortgage (Arts. Secs. Breach of Contract A. Effects of warranties D. 1602-1604) D. 1543) 3. Delivery of thing sold 1.

legatees (Art. General Provisions (Arts. 8792). Bulk Sales Law (Act No. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 787) (a) Exception (Art. 957) XVI. 797) b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 1619) H. 3952) and SUCCESSION I.F. 784-785. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. devisees. When succession occurs (Art. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. 776. 781) B. The Condominium Act (R. 783-787) (i) Act of making a will a strictly personal act (Arts. 1619) XV. Public Land Law. 774-780) A. 4726) Exclude: Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (R. In general a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree (P. 795) 2. 777) C. 788-794) (iii) Law governing formal validity (Art. 782) II. 786) (ii) Rules of construction and interpretation (Arts. Legal redemption (Art. Wills 1.D. Testamentary Succession A.A. 1616) G. Kinds of successors: heirs. 798-801) (i) When testator is deemed to be of sound mind (ii) Presumptions (iii) Supervening incapacity 22    . 796-803) a) Age requirement (Art.A. Age redemption (Art. 774. Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts.

805-806 (ii) Special rules for handicapped testators (Arts. devisees only entitled to completion of legitime 2. 825-826) a) Definition and formal requirements 5. Concept – Art. 855. Preterition vs. 854 3.15. 811) e) Joint wills (Arts. 906-918 23    . 840-856) 1. 815-817. Codicils (Arts. 814) (ii) Witnesses required for probate (Art. 839) B. 827) 6. Revocation (Arts. Disposition less than legitime/donation inter vivos – Arts. 820-824) d) Holographic wills (i) Requirements (Arts. 1039) b) Common requirements (Art. 804) (i) In writing (ii) Language/dialect requirement c) Notarial wills (i) Arts. res judicata on formal validity b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. Form a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 828-834) a) Kinds (Art. 810-814) (a) Requirements in case of alterations (Art. 819) (i) See law governing substantive validity (Arts.3. 854) a) Definition b) Requisites c) Effects (i) Effects of preterition. 17. Preterition (Art. Institution of heirs (Arts. 809) (iv) Witnesses to wills(Arts. Compulsory heirs in the direct line 4. 838) (i) Issues to be resolved in probate proceedings (Art. 838-839) a) Probate requirement (Art. Incorporate by reference (Art. 830) 7. 839) (a) Exceptions: when practical considerations demand the intrinsic validity of the will be resolved (ii) Effect of final decree of probate. 807-808) (iii) Substantial compliance (Art. Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. 818-819) 4. 16.

918) 5. 857-870) 1. 963-969) 2. Substitution of heirs (Arts. Simple substitution (Art. Right of accretion (Arts. 1104-1105) 24    . Right of representation (Arts. Partition and distribution of estate (Arts. 1097. 992) IV. Unworthiness vs. 1091. Disinheritance C. Order of intestate succession (Arts. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1061-1062) E. 863-866. 960-969) 1. 922) (ii) Rights of descendants of person disinherited (Art. Fideicommissary substitution (Arts. General provisions (Arts. Collation (Arts. Legacies and devisees (Arts. 1015-1023) 1. Partition (Arts. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. 908-910. 869) D. 1027. 923) b) Disinheritance without cause (Art. 857) 2. Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 887-903) 3. Partition inter vivos 3. Reserva troncal (Art. 886) 2. 859) 4. 1080) 2. Effects of partition (Arts. 919) (i) Reconciliation (Art. 1079. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. Disinheritance a) Disinheritance for cause (Art. 739. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 960-1014) A. 1024-1040) 1. Kinds (Arts. 1100. Definition and requisites (Arts. Compulsory heirs and various combinations (Arts. 886-914) 1. 924-959) III. 891) 4. 871-885) E. 970-977) B. Definition (Art. 1015-1016) B. 1032) 2.1041-1057) D. Conditional testamentary dispositions and testamentary dispositions with a term (Arts. Relationship (Arts. Legitime (Arts. 978-1014. Definition (Art. 1078-1105) 1. 858-860) 3. 1015-1105) A.C.

Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves IV.Exclude: Executors and administrators (Arts. Definition B. Partnership v. Particular. Definition 25    . Partnership by estoppel H. Professional partnership J. 1830) VI. Partnership term F. Elements C. Limited Partnership A. Obligations of Partnership/Partners to Third Persons V. 1058-1060). Management (Arts. which will be covered under Remedial Law PARTNERSHIP I. General vs. Limited G. How partnership is formed E. Rules to determine existence D. Dissolution (Art. Contract of Partnership A. Universal vs. 1800-1803) II. Rights and Obligations of Partnership III. Joint venture I.

Definition of Agency II. Modes of Extinguishment 26    . To bind principal (Arts. 1897-1902) B. Rights and obligations of a limited partner Exclude: Questions requiring application of SEC opinions or regulations AGENCY I. Express vs. Implied Agency IV. General vs. Exception (Art. Rights and Obligations of Principal X. Agency by Estoppel V. 1877-1878) A. 1927-1930) XI. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney VIII. How limited partnership is formed/amended C. 1883) III. Special Agency VI. Agency Couched in General Terms VII. Irrevocable Agency (Arts. Powers (Arts. Agency by Operation of Law IX.B.

Pledge 27    . Void Compromise (Art. Obligations of bailor and bailee C. Effect (Arts. Loan A. Mutuum B. 2041) CREDIT TRANSACTIONS I. Necessary deposit C. Effects of guaranty C. Guaranty and Suretyship A. Legal and judicial bonds IV. Deposit A. Voluntary deposit B.COMPROMISE I. Definition (Art. Extinguishment of guaranty D. 2028) II. Interest and the suspension of usury law II. Judicial deposit III. Commodatum vs. 2035) III. 2037. Nature and extent of guaranty B.

2121-2122) I. Definition and characteristics B. Registration VIII. Negotiorum gestio B. 2115) H. Quasi-contracts A. Chattel Mortgage A. Definition B. Foreclosure (Arts. Definition and characteristics B. 2093. Real Mortgage A. Foreclosure VI. Obligations of antichretic creditor VII. 1484) V. Essential requirements D. Essential requisites C. Pledge by operation of law (Art. Obligation of pledge E. Antichresis A. Kinds C. Solutio indebiti 28    . 2112. Perfection (Arts. Definition and characteristics B. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. 2096) G. 2140.A. Rights of pledgor F.

Involuntary insolvency Exclude: Warehouse Receipts Law. Voluntary insolvency D. Qualified persons B. Prohibitions 29    . Suspension of payments C. Preferred credits on specific movables C. Order of preference of credits X. Insolvency Law A. Definition of insolvency B. Registration C.IX. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands A. Concurrence and Preference of Credits A. Usury Law LEASE I. Exempt property D. Meaning of concurrence and preference B. Lease of Things II. Lease of Work or Services III. Classification of credits E.

Contract for Piece of Work LAND TITLES AND DEEDS I. Obligation in case of death/injury of laborers VIII. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee V. Under P. Individuals and corporations IV. Who may apply 1. Certificate of title II. Regalian Doctrine A. Effects C. Contract of Labor A. Citizenship Requirement A.D. Special Rules for Lease of Rural/Urban Lands VI. Concept of native title. Torrens System A. Household Service VII. 1529 30    . time immemorial possession III.IV. Concept B. Original Registration A. Concept and background B.

Registration of judgments. Abuse of right. Remedies sufficiently covered under Remedial Law 3. Subsequent Registration A. Remedies D. Consultas. Acts contrary to law 31    .2. Registration process and requirements C. Voluntary dealings B.A. 8371 B. Cadastral registration V. Non-registrable Properties VII. Liability without fault D. Assurance fund 5. Under R. Involuntary dealings VI. Under C. Administrative structure of the Register of Deeds 7. TORTS AND DAMAGES Book I--Torts I. Registration of patents 6. 141 3. elements B. History of land laws 2.A. orders and partitions 4. Dealings with Unregistered Lands Exclude: 1. Principles A. Unjust enrichment C.

In particular a) Parents b) Guardians c) Owners and managers of establishments and enterprises d) Employers (i) Meaning of employers (ii) Requisites (a) Employee chosen by employer or through another (b) Services rendered in accordance with orders which employer has authority to give (c) Illicit act of employee was on the occasion or by reason of the functions entrusted to him (d) Presumption of negligence (iii) Employer need not be engaged in business or industry (iv) Defense of diligence in selection and supervision (v) Nature of employer’s liability e) State f) Teachers and heads of establishments of arts and trades C. According to manner of commission: intentional. In general a) Quasi-delicts under Art. Classification of Torts A. 2180. definition (ii) Distinguished from culpa contractual and culpa criminal b) Indirect liability for intentional acts c) Presumption of negligence on persons indirectly responsible d) Nature of liability. The Tortfeasor A. Persons made responsible for others 1. 218-219. Acts contrary to morals II. Natural persons 2. negligent and strict liability B. 2194.E. Joint tortfeasors (Art. Arts. The direct tortfeasor 1. joint or solidary? 2. and the Family Code. 221 (i) Elements. According to scope: general or specific III. Juridical persons B. Civil Code) 32    .

Intentional Torts 33    . Elements of right C. Classes of injury 1. Test 3. Substantial factor test 2. Foreseeability D. Injury to relations VII. Distinguished from intervening cause 5. Natural and probable consequences 2. Distinguished from immediate cause 4. Injury to persons 2. Act of Omission and Its Modalities A. Proximate Cause A. Violation of right or legal injury D. Concurrent causes C. Condition F. Cause vs. Cause in fact 1. Definition 2. Concept B. Concept 1. Injury to property 3. Legal Injury A. Last clear chance VI. Efficient intervening cause E.IV. Distinguished from remote and concurrent B. Concept of act V. Legal cause 1.

Intentional non-physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of personal dignity c) Infliction of emotional distress d) Violation of privacy (i) Appropriation (ii) Intrusion (iii) Public disclosure of private facts (iv) False light in the public eye e) Disturbance of peace of mind f) Malicious prosecution g) Defamation (i) Defenses (a) Absence of elements (b) Privilege h) Fraud or misrepresentation (formerly deceit) i) Seduction j) Unjust dismissal C. 33.A. Civil Code) (i) Battery (physical injury) (ii) Assault (grave threat) c) False imprisonment (illegal detention) d) Trespass to land (i) Concept (ii) Elements e) Interference with personal property (i) Trespass to chattels (ii) Conversion 2. Classes a) Interference with persons and property (i) Physical harms (ii) Non-physical harms b) Interference with relations B. Intentional physical harms a) General (i) Concept (ii) Kinds b) Violation of persons security. General 1. physical injuries (Art. Interference with relations 1. General 34    . Interference with rights to persons and property 1. Concept 2.

Standard of care 1. Social relations a) Meddling with or disturbing family relations b) Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends 4. Economic relations a) Interference with contractual relations b) Unfair competition 5. Family a) b) c) relations Alienation of affection Loss of consortium Criminal conversation (adultery) 3. Art. Unreasonable risk of harm E. Emergency rule D. Negligence A. Civil Code. press. 32) b) Violation of other political rights (freedom of speech. 1173 2. Defenses a) Absence of element b) Privilege (i) Consent (ii) Self-defense and defense of others (iii) Necessity (Civil Code. Art. Evidence 35    . Art. Good father of a family or reasonably prudent man C. 429) (iv) Defense of property (v) Authority of law c) Prescription d) Waiver e) Force majeure VIII. etc.) 6. Concept B. Political relations a) Violation of right to suffrage (Civil Code.a) Concept b) Kinds 2. assembly and petition.

Nuisance per se and nuisance per accidence 2. cities and municipalities G. Proprietor of building or structure or thing I. Violation of civil liberties E. Res ipsa loquitur G. Art. Manufacturers or processors a) Elements b) Consumer Act [R. General 1. 1)] C. 1146. Owner of motor vehicle H.F. Legal provisions 2. Concept B.A. Secs. Presumption of negligence 1. Arts. Attractive nuisance D. Public nuisance and private nuisance 3. 694-707) 1. Complete a) Absence of element (i) Due diligence (ii) Acts of public officers b) Accident or fortuitous event c) Damnum absque injuria d) Authority of law e) Assumption of risk f) Last clear chance g) Prescription (Civil Code. 2177) IX. 1144. and 1150) h) Waiver i) Double recovery (Civil Code. 7394. Violation of rights committed by public officers F. Products liability 1. Head of family 36    . Special Liability in Particular Activities A. Defenses 1. (Ch. Provinces. 92-107. Nuisance (Civil Code. Violation of constitutional rights 1. Arts.

Alleged and proved with certainty 2. Under Art. unrealized profit 2. Possessor and user of an animal B. Special and ordinary II. Classes a) Per se or per accidents b) Public or private 2. 2197 of the Civil Code 2. Strict Liability A. Products liability (supra) 1. Moral Damages 37    . Consumer act Book II--Damages I. Interest D. In contracts and quasi-contracts 2. Not speculative C. Component elements 1.X. Requisites 1. Easement against nuisance C. According to manner of determination 4. Nuisance (supra) 1. Classification 1. In crimes and quasi-delicts III. Value of loss. Concept B. General Considerations A. Actual and Compensatory Damages A. Animals 1. According to purpose 3. Extent or scope of actual damages 1. Attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation 3.

Civil Code. Graduation of Damages 38    . Nominal Damages A. In death caused by breach of conduct by a common crime IX. 3. 2219-2220) 1.A. When recoverable (Arts. When awarded VI. Concept (Civil Code. In quasi-delicts (Civil Code. 2230) 2. Exemplary or Corrective Damages A. In cases of malicious prosecution IV. Temperate or Moderate Damages A. In crimes and quasi-delicts causing death 1. abduction. 32. 2233. Art. 27. 28. Art. 26. 2226) B. Concept (Arts. Art. 34 & 35. 2231) 3. In acts referred to in Arts. 2232) C. In contracts and quasi-contracts (Civil Code. Rules governing in case of breach of contract VII. 29. Art. Requisites 1. 2234 VIII. In seduction. When awarded V. Concept B. Liquidated Damages A. rape and other lascivious acts 2. Concept (Civil Code. 2217-2218) B. When recovered 1. 2229) B. Concept B. 21. Damages in Case of Death A. Arts. Art. In criminal offenses (Civil Code.

2223) Exclude: Distinction between tort and quasi-delict Include: Pertinent Supreme Court decisions promulgated up to January 31. Nominal damages (Art. Damages that must co-exist 1. 4. 2203 B. Art. Miscellaneous Rules A. Nominal with other damages (Art. Actual and liquidated (Art. 2012. Exemplary with moral. 39    . 2227) Compromise X. 2214) In contracts. temperate. 2215) Liquidated damages (Civil Code. It has been drawn up for the limited purpose of ensuring that candidates reviewing for the bar examinations are guided on what basic and minimum amounts of laws. In crimes In quasi-delict (Civil Code. Damages that must stand alone 1. 5. liquidated or compensatory C. More is required for excellent and distinguished work as members of the Bar. doctrines. 3. Important note: This bar coverage description is not intended and should not be used by law schools as a syllabus or course outline in the covered subjects. quasi-contracts and quasi-delicts (Civil Code. Art. Duty of injured party 1. and principles they need to know and be able to use correctly before they can be licensed to practice law. Damages that cannot co-exist 1. 2223) 2.A. 2. Rules 1. 2226) B. Art. Art.

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