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6 LIBRARY MANAGEMENT and Scientific Principles Basic tasks in library management include the planning of Library Routine Opera tions like acquisitions (which materials the library should acquire, by purchas e or otherwise), library classification of acquired materials, preservation of m aterials (especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts), t he de accessioning of materials, patron borrowing of materials, and developing a nd administering library computer systems. More long-term issues include the pla nning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to existing ones, and t he development and implementation of outreach services and reading-enhancement s ervices (such as adult literacy and children's programming). Thus to develop library and information to a useful resource bank scientific pri nciples of management are applied to the discipline library science Fredrick Winslow Taylor ( March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915) commonly known as ’Fath er of Scientific Management’ started his career as an operator and rose to the pos ition of chief engineer. He conducted various experiments during this process wh ich forms the basis of scientific management. Thus Scientific Management It implies application of scientific principles for s tudying & identifying management problems and application of management tools an d techniques to find probable solutions to the problems. According to Taylor, “Scientific Management is an art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way”. In T aylors view, if a work is analysed scientifically it will be possible to find on e best way to do it. Hence scientific management is a thoughtful, organized, dual approach towards th e job of management against hit or miss or Rule of Thumb. Scientific Principles of Management: Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for e conomical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in t he fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to ea ch and every manger irrespective of his level or status.Different experts have c lassified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fu ndamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to comm and, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stan ds for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-or dination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are fu nctions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staf fing, Directing and Controlling. Role played by the Scientific Management Planning the LIBRARY AFFAIRS routines and procedures According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & h ow to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision makin g. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Organizing the MAN RESOURCES AND TASKS for better effective results According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a library operations is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and perso nnel’s”. To organize a Library involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves: • Identification of activities. • Classification of grouping of activities. • Assignment of duties. • Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Staffing it means Placing Right man at Right place in Library According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the
organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & deve lopment of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Scientific Staf fing involves: 1. Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose th e person and giving the right place). 2. Recruitment, selection & placement. 3. Training & development. 4. Remuneration. • Performance appraisal. • Promotions & transfer. Directing the subordinates in the library It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considere d life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people beca use planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the wo rk. Direction has following elements: • Supervision • Motivation • Leadership • Communication Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers. Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with z eal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used f or this purpose. Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences t he work of subordinates in desired direction. Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc f rom one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding. 2. Controlling the process, procedures and resources According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of perfo rmance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise obje ctives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controll ing has following steps: a. Establishment of standard performance. b. Measurement of actual performance. c. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out devi ation if any. d. Corrective action. 1. It helps in Achieving Group Goals related to library - It arranges the f actors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the reso urces in effective manner to achieve goals. 2. Optimum Utilization of Resources in the Library and information centres Management utilizes all the physical & human resources productively. This leads to efficacy in management. 3. Reduces Costs and employing economy to the concerned unit - It gets maxi mum results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum input & getting maximum output 4. Establishes Sound Organization - No overlapping of efforts (smooth and c oordinated functions). To establish sound organizational structure is one of the objective of management which is in tune with objective of organization and for fulfillment of this, it establishes effective authority & responsibility relati onship 5. Establishes Equilibrium - It enables the organization to survive in chan ging environment. It keeps in touch with the changing environment. 6. Essentials for Prosperity of Library Management - Efficient management l eads to better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of Library 2. Describe the different processes of stock verification. 6
Introduction: Stock verification or physical verification is to periodically check and account for the documents acquired by a library. Stock verification is an insignificant aspect of librarianship as far as teachers, researchers and library experts are concerned. But in practice stock verification is considered as a sensitive, con troversial and unwanted evil activity. Practicing librarians are often perturbed and worried over the process of library stock verification and its results and implications. The spirit and philosophy of librarianship towards books as emotio n filled animate beings dissipates when books are subjected to stock verificatio n. As such some consider stock verification as one of the occupational hazards. The other hazards include mutilation of documents and loss in transit of supplie s. Stock verification is often done like a ritual without clear identification o f aims and objectives and hence a host of confusion surrounds stock verification . If the objectives and procedures of physical verification and responsibilities about loss of documents are clearly enumerated, the process becomes plain and s imple. METHODS OF STOCK VERIFICATION As far as methods of carrying out stock verification are concerned the parent or ganisation may involve or may not involve external persons in the team of stock verification and may decide to exclude certain types of material in the library. The rest of the methodology of verification depends on the provisions already m ade in the design and organisation of library records. There are a number of met hods followed for stock verification. The most crude method is to numerically count the number of documents and it pra ctically does not serve any purpose except to know the number of documents lost. The old and fairly crude method is to physically check and tally documents on s helves with accession register. This method is not only cumbersome and time cons uming but also require the entire register to be kept while checking. It may als o lead to spoiling the register with tick marks. However, with the advent of new ways of reproduction of accession register now the original register can still be saved. Another accession number based scheme which also has the disadvantage of keeping the entire register (or its surrogate) is to have prewriting/typed/printed card s carrying accession numbers in blocks of 100 numbers while physically checking the documents on shelves. In both these methods the simultaneous working of numb er of batches depends on availability of number of copies of accession register or its surrogate and if more than one copy of accession register is used the res ults of checking needs to be consolidated from different copies/batches. All these not only make it cumbersome but also lead to waste of time and efforts . It is also possible now with the proliferation of personal computers to just k ey-in all accession numbers as and when checked to consolidate the loss in terms of missing accession numbers. USING BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY AIDED WITH LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE SYSTEM: The most economical and fast way of entering accession number is to use a mobile bar code/wand reader to scan accession numbers of books from the bar code stick ers in the books. But bar code system is yet to pickup in this country. The most popular and fairly reliable and quick manual method is to verify stock based on shelf list. This method requires an up-to-date shelf list. All these methods pr esuppose closing library for verification purpose. Yet another shelf list based method which does not require closing down the library but ensures reasonably ec onomical, quick and dependable stock checking is to have two (book) card systems . In this method two different color book cards are prepared for each document a
nd one of them is maintained as shelf list card and the other kept in book. At t he time of stock verification these two book cards are exchanged. This method al lows for simultaneous working of many batches as both shelf list and documents a re arranged in the same sequence and also allows for rectifying errors of stock verification at a later date. code/wand reader to scan accession numbers of book s from the bar code stickers in the books. But bar code system is yet to pickup in this country. The most popular and fairly reliable and quick manual method is to verify stock based on shelf list. This method requires an up-to-date shelf list. All these methods presuppose clos ing library for verification purpose. Yet another shelf list based method which does not require closing down the library but ensures reasonably economical, qui ck and dependable stock checking is to have two (book) card systems. In this met hod two different color book cards are prepared for each document and one of the m is maintained as shelf list card and the other kept in book. At the time of st ock verification these two book cards are exchanged. This method allows for simu ltaneous working of many batches as both shelf list and documents are arranged i n the same sequence and also allows for rectifying errors of stock verification at a later date. ADVANTAGES OF STOCK VERIFICATION: A library should also take note of some advantages in carrying out stock verific ation. Firstly, periodic stock verification and write-off of resultant loss help s to reduce unnecessary escalation in book value of assets. Secondly, physical v erification also helps in replacing relevant, useful and on demand documents wit h new copies wherever lost or mutilated. Thirdly, stock verification is the time to introduce new ways of arrangement of stack, modified or new lending system a nd other procedures. Fourthly, if a library calls back all issued out documents for stock verification purpose, it can provide an opportunity for its users to b rowse the entire collection after verification. Fifthly, stock verification hel ps to review the precautionary measures already taken in preventing loss and mut ilation as well as to identify any deficiencies in the existing procedure of mai ntenance of library and vigilance. Above all, stock verification helps as a way of identifying and discarding obsolete volumes. Normally in an active collection of a well organised library, loss of on-demand books are only noticed in day to day working. Other incidental benefits of stock verification include identifica tion of damaged and worn-out documents for repair or rebinding, keeping shelf li st and other records up-to-date, rearrangement and cleaning of stack, better acq uaintance of collection and popular documents by library staff, etc. Conclusion: Library stock verification is not just an unnecessary evil which brings very lit tle benefit to the users and library staff but has some advantages. There are ma ny ways of quickly and effectively completing stock verification depending on th e organisation of records, magnitude of work and availability of tools and men. There are an array of precautionary measures against loss of library documents d epending on the purse of the institution. But the cost of such measures often fa r exceed the saving they may provide to the library. The issue of fixing respons ibility for loss of library documents has created an occupational hazard for lib rarianship. Rationalisation and updation of rules regarding stock verification a nd the prescribed limits regarding writeoff of the loss in service oriented libr aries would go long way to provide better services to users. 3. Write an essay on Personnel Management in Libraries. 6 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT is the management of an organization's employees, human re source management is sometimes referred to as a "soft" management skill, effecti ve practice within an organization requires a strategic focus to ensure that peo ple resources can facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Effective human resource management also contains an element of risk management for an org anization which, as a minimum, ensures legislative compliance.
“a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing org anisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationshi p and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled" those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all lev els in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies di rected towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage" Overall, the theory of HRM argues that the goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining e mployees and also to manage them effectively. The key word here perhaps is "fit" , i.e. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organiz ation's employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company (Miller, 1 989). The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines, therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the wor kplace. Fields such as psychology, industrial relations, industrial engineering, sociology, economics, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degr ees in Human Resources Management or in Human Resources and Industrial Pesonnal Management in Libraries The personnel management policies and practices in academic libraries in India n eed thorough restructuring in the present context in order to make fit the libra ry professionals to the modern sophisticated environment and for sustainable dev elopment of library and information systems in universities. Constant reorganisa tion and systematization of librariesis inevitable to achieve better bibliograph ical control over documents and offer efficientservices to the user community. The library and information field acknowledged a dynamic and explosive situation created by modern information technologies. In comparison with many other disci plines, the library and information science has completely revolutionised due to the emergence of computer and communication technologies and their application in information systems. Indian universities and institutions behind in offering the knowledge of advance d technologies to the library and information professionals. There are various r easons ranging from the lack of resources to the non-cooperation of staff which are responsible for this situation. The technical incapacity due to this lacuna is ultimately reflecting in the service efficiency of the information systems wh ich is leading to dissatisfaction among professions and a stage of inertia in s ervices. Semi Academic Status of Library Staff: and Personnnal management policies: Considering the importance and nature of library and information services, most of the advanced countries consider these as academic and research activities. Th e Union Government, some State Governments and the institutions like UGC, ICAR, AICTE, etc., have categorised the library and information activities into academ ic and research work. UGC and ICAR have given directions to the State governments and universities to implement the UGC/ICAR scheme and pay packages for librarians along with those f or teachers of the universities and colleges. Most of the universities have give n pay packages prescribed by the UGC scheme. But as regards the provisions like academic status, recruitment and promotion p atterns, faculty improvement schemes and superannuation remain to be enforced. T his situation forces the librarians to move away from the main stream of education, research and extension processes. And thus, highly qualifie d librarians are not gets motivated to provide quality services to the academic community , as a result the librarians are still considered as SEMI ACADEMIC STAFF. Staffing Policy and Personnal Management:
The staffing policy should be framed with utmost care to ensure maximum producti vity and job satisfaction. The number of staff members should be optimum. The sm ooth flow of work will be affected both by the under estimation and over estimat ion of staff. There were several contributing factors to arrive at the required number of staff, of which the number of users, documents and services are import ant. In the changed situation, it is better to give importance to the number and volume of activities and services in a library. There will be some essential se rvices to be offered by a academic library and so the following departments shou ld be there in a academic library: • • • • • • • • • • Acquisition related task Periodicals and serial management Technical Processing Database Management Maintenance of routine operations Reference services Circulation services Documentation and Publication services Inter Library Services Network and Online services
Implementing Staffing Formula for arranging adequate staff for effective librar y services: It is better to frame a standard for calculating the total number of professiona ls. In the changed technological environment, it is found that adoption of the a vailable standards and formulae for this purpose need to be revised. The publish ing technology has completelyrevolutionised the earlier concept of the number of documents. Now, a single CD-ROM can occupy lakhs of pages of information. Hence , the calculation of quantum of staff based on the number of library documents has become irrelevant. A formula giving weightag e to thecomponents of users, documents and budget for calculating the total numb er of professional Sound Recuritment policy and rules: The recruitment to the various cadres of posts can be done either by direct recr uitmentor by promotion. The following table shows the ration that may be adopted for placement of professionals by direct recruitment promotion to various cadre s Sound Policy for Promotion for employees A Flexible Complementing Scheme (FCS) of promotion is to advocated for the prof essional staff. The total number of professional posts both in UGC and Non-UGC C adres. Timely, promotion related benefits must be given to the staff members to motivate them for good ,better and effective work in the future. Faculty Improvement Programme A sound policy of technical training and faculty improvement programmes is to be framed to continuously induct the staff to the newly emerging technologies and methods. Participation in refresher courses, seminars, symposia, workshop, etc. will offer wide exposure which in turn will enhance the technical competency and efficiency of professionals. There should be a scientific human resources development policy i n higher education sector to create an environment of regular technology updatin g in all institutions. Since library and information science is an area where explosive changes occur d ue to the emergence of new technologies, such a policy can provide greater effec tiveness in
Thus , personnel employed in the field of information processing and management requires scientific attention and leadership which brings the most conducive atm osphere for the adoption of modern technologies. The phenomenon of surpassing of the number of workers in the information sector with that in production and oth er service sectors in some of the developed countries has evolved a scientific p ractice of personnel managementin the field 4.Difference between Management and Administration. 2 According to Theo Haimann, “Administration means overall determination of policies , setting of major objectives, the identification of general purposes and laying down of broad programmes and projects”. It refers to the activities of higher lev el. It lays down basic principles of the enterprise. According to Newman, “Adminis tration means guidance, leadership & control of the efforts of the groups toward s some common goals”. Whereas, management involves conceiving, initiating and bringing together the va rious elements; coordinating, actuating, integrating the diverse organizational components while sustaining the viability of the organization towards some pre-d etermined goals. In other words, it is an art of getting things done through & w ith the people in formally organized groups. Management and Administration: Difference Basis Management Administration Meaning Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies. Nature Management is an executing function. Administration is a decision-mak ing function. Process Management decides who should as it & how should he dot it. Administ ration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done. Function Management is a doing function because managers get work done un der their supervision. Administration is a thinking function because plans & po licies are determined under it. Skills Technical and Human skills Conceptual and Human skills Level Middle & lower level function Top level function 5. Acquisition process of Non-book material. 2 The acquisition process of Non Book Material requires inputs and efforts from t he librarian, faculty member, subject experts, libraries face serious problems in the acquisition of NON BOOK MATERIAL due there fragile and scarcity in the ma rket despite of information and communication technologies, libraries still find it hard to acquire current NBM s through vendors or direct purchase. The major steps of NBM acquisition are: A Selecting and evaluating sources of supply. In relation to Non Book Materia l • The NBM must supplements and amplifies class text • The NBM must be approved by the subject experts and faculty members • The NBM must be in current production • If Possible The NBM should be previewed if possible, but it is not possible in m ajority of cases as they are not provided to libraries on approval basis Continuing Resources. Because subscriptions to electronic resources involve exte nsive and long-term financial commitments to the Library new subscription ld mee t the following criteria: accessible via the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web resource that supports the instructional objectives of a specific discipline is available for a trial demonstration is reviewed favorably in literature reviews or compares favorably to similar pr oducts B Ordering, claiming, receiving, the NBM by acqusition department. • It include s the following
• • • • •
Making orders Receiving the supplies Matching it with orders for bibiliographic details and cost Checking the items physically Sending reminders and asking the dealer if any discrepancy arises in the order
6.Types of Budget? 2 A budget (from old French bougette, purse) is a list of all planned expenses and revenues. a plan for saving, borrowing and spending A budget is an important concept in microeconomics,. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan s tated in monetary terms Budget Methods : Line-item budgets : Basically, there is a line for every type of expendit ure (library materials,services etc ), and a numbering system to keep track of t hem.thus, budget estimates are decided adding the items with certain increase in percentage compared to prior estimates (e.g. 6% across the board)with no real a ccountability for the consequences. Program Budgets: A program relates with the costs associated with doing somethi ng. For example, Addition of library management software is a program thus, budget estimates rela ted to it will must account all the possible expenses on the LMS Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) is in effect an integration o f a number of techniques in a planning and budgeting process for identifying, co sting and assigning a complexity of resources for establishing priorities and st rategies in a major program and for forecasting costs, expenditure and achieveme nts within the immediate financial year or over a longer period, it is used in t he libraries for long time budgetting. ZERO BASE BUDGETTING This method is widely used in the library and information centres, in this budgeting all expenses must be justified for each new period. Z ero-based budgeting starts from a "zero base" and every function within an organ ization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Formula Budget: the Budget estimates are derived out by adding the various hea ds of possible expenditure, this method of deriving the budget estimates is base d on the pre-decided norms of formula, This method is also, used in the librarie s 7. MIS 2 Management Information Systems are tools designed to improve management decision s. A changing userpopulation, technology enhancement transformation of scholarly communication system, digital libraries, new approaches to management, renewed commitment toplanning and assessment, financial constraints, declining budget, i nformation gluts, constant change in IT ,webservices, reader’s expectations for 24 x 7 services, time shortage etc are compelling MIS to be mandatory in libraries . The present Study offers measures to library effectiveness & automation, offer s tools for better reader services through integrated & collaborative working of neighboring libraries, and projects Management Information System as the tool f or realizing expectations from libraries of modern world Management Information Systems in Libraries The contemporary approach casts academic librarians as managers within the highe r education system. What academic librarians need, now much more than ever befor e, is the information which will allow them to plan properly, to know whether or not the library service is meeting the needs of the academic community. The in
troduction of computers into academic libraries was largely a response to the pr oblem of information management . The four main objectives for Management Information systems have been defined as : (1) to facilitate thedecision making process in the library by providing the man agers with accurate, timely, and selective information that assists them in dete rmining a specific course of action. (2) to provide for the objective performance measurement and assessment of selec ted relevant areas of the library. The areas are to be determined during strateg ic planning. (3) to provide pertinent information about the library’s internal and external env ironment and, (4) to provide information on alternative strategies and contingency plans. 7. Serial Control. 2
In a Library PERIODICAL SECTION holds the responsibility of managing and contro lling the periodicals. The major operations in the serial control are: A Processing functions : • Receipt and distribution of incoming Periodicals • Missing and replacement issues: claiming and back issue dealers • Bindery control: commercial binders and binding incomplete B Access management • Maintaining and updating Catalog records • Holdings records • Preparing the In-house serials lists • Compiling the Union lists • Integration with the Library’s web site C Storage and public use • Organization of paper formats • Integrated with other collections • Shelved in separate sequence (classed or alphabetical by title; implications of title changes) In library the widely used systems for Serial Control are • Ledger System: the record of the periodical is kept in the bounded register, wi th each page assigned to a specific journal , having all the bibliographic detai ls . used in small libraries where the collection is limited. • The Card System : It is very much like the Bounded Register, only difference is that each of the periodical is provided a Unique Card of 5”x 3” size with a number and Bibliographic details • The Three Card System :The three card system was devised by the S R Ranganathan, three different cards are used for a periodical namely.
-- –REGISTER CARD it is the frist part records the Bibiliographic details of the publication ----CHECK CARD It records the frequency of the periodical to the library ----THE CLASSIFIED INDEX CARD This third part records the volume and avail ability of the volumes in the library.
• The Kardex: Introduced by the REMINGTON RAND, It is a steel filing cabinet with record visible , Each unit contains seven trays to hold more han 500 card holder s; each holding two crest , one bottom and other top, The top card is placed opp osite the bottom card in the next card holder so that both cares are visible sid e by side. 9. Meaning of Human Resource Development. 2 Human Resources Development (HRD) Employing, inducting the desired qualitative and quantitive persons in an insti tution and continuously making efforts to develop the man power in terms of comp etencies. Human Resources Development is the framework that focuses on the organizations c ompetencies at the first stage, training, and then developing the employee, thro ugh education, to satisfy the organizations long-term needs and the individuals’ c areer goals and employee value to their present and future employers. “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. The same sta tement applies to organizations themselves, but it requires a much broader field to cover both areas. How HRD is important in LIBRARY AND IC’s: The whole operations, systems, routines and procedures are carried out by the Hu man Resources Thus, Quality needs to be there among the Human Employed in the sy stem thus HRD is essential in the following manner: • Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effec tiveness. • HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to pe rform current and future jobs through planned learning activities. • Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage change. Also, HRD ens ures a match between individual and organizational needs • The Human Resources Development framework views employees as an asset to the ent erprise whose value will be enhanced by development: “Its primary focus is on grow th and employee development it emphasizes developing individual potential and sk ills” Human Resources Development is a series of organized processes, “with a specific l earning objective” The development of the individual will benefit both the individ ual and the organization,this continuous development is must for the institution . Education and training will develop the individual in the unit to become a trade sman or a professional in the future.
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