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MasteringPh sics: Assignments

Assignment 04

Due: 11:59pm on Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Note: To understand how points are aw arded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Sw itch to Standard Assignment View ]

Problem 1

Learning Goal:

To introduce contact forces (normal and friction forces) and to understand that, except for friction forces under certain circumstances, these forces must be determined from: net Force = ma. Two solid objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. Indeed, when the objects touch, they exert repulsive normal forces on each other, as well as frictional forces that resist their slipping relative to each other. These contact forces arise from a complex interplay between the electrostatic forces between the electrons and ions in the objects and the laws of quantum mechanics. As two surfaces are pushed together these forces increase exponentially over an atomic distance scale, easily becoming strong enough to distort the bulk material in the objects if they approach too close. In everyday experience, contact forces are limited by the deformation or acceleration of the objects, rather than by the fundamental interatomic forces. Hence, we can conclude the following:

The magnitude of contact forces is determined by

, that is, by the other forces

on, and acceleration of, the contacting bodies. The only exception is that the frictional forces cannot exceed (although they can be smaller than this or even zero). Normal and friction forces Two types of contact forces operate in typical mechanics problems, the normal and frictional forces, usually designated by and (or , or something similar) respectively. These are the components of the overall contact force: contact. perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of

Kinetic friction when surfaces slide When one surface is sliding past the other, experiments show three things about the friction force (denoted ): The frictional force opposes the relative motion at the point of contact, is proportional to the normal force, and the ratio of the magnitude of the frictional force to that of the normal force is fairly constant over a wide range of speeds.

The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of kinetic friction, often designated long as the sliding continues, the frictional force is then (valid when the surfaces slide by each other).

. As

Static friction when surfaces don't slide When there is no relative motion of the surfaces, the frictional force can assume an value from zero up to a maximum , where is the coefficient of static friction. Invariably,

session.masteringph sics.com/m ct/assignments 1/18

. common experience session. is true? ANSWER: The frictional force is always equal to The frictional force is always less than .. which of the following statements about the frictional force between them. is true? ANSWER: The frictional force is always equal to The frictional force is always less than . the actual magnitude and direction of the friction force are such that it. The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . together with any other forces present.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments is larger than . If the magnitude of static friction needed to keep acceleration equal to zero exceeds . will cause the object to have the observed acceleration. or equal to depends on the magnitude of the other forces (if any) as well as the . The frictional force is determined by other forces on the objects so it can be either equal to or less than . . in agreement with the observation that when a force is large enough that something breaks loose and starts to slide. Do not automatically assume that unless you are considering a situation in which the magnitude of the static friction force is as large as possible (i. which of the following statements about the force of friction between them. it often accelerates. Correct For static friction. acceleration of the object through Part C When a board with a box on it is slowly tilted to larger and larger angle.masteringph sics. Part A When two objects slide by one another.com/m ct/assignments 2/18 . less than . The actual magnitude and direction of the static friction force are such that it (together with other forces on the object) causes the object to remain motionless with respect to the contacting surface as long as the static friction force required does not exceed . The magnitude of the force cannot exceed . when determining at what point an object will just begin to slip). Correct Part B When two objects are in contact with no relative motion.e. The frictional force for surfaces with no relative motion is therefore (valid when the contacting surfaces have no relative motion). Whether the actual magnitude of the friction force is 0. The equation is valid onl when the surfaces are on the verge of sliding. then the object will slide subject to the resistance of kinetic friction.

Once the box is moving. Correct At the point when the box finally does "break loose. Part D Consider a problem in which a car of mass Select the best answer. there must be a net force on the box along the board. Each of the answer options is valid under some conditions. is smaller than the force of static friction but larger than the force of kinetic friction. Thus. the component of the box's weight parallel to the board must be greater than the force of kinetic friction. Which of the following is the most general explanation for why the box accelerates down the board? ANSWER: The force of kinetic friction is smaller than that of static friction. Therefore the force of kinetic friction must be less than the force of static friction which implies . In the problem described above. the sliding reduces the normal force.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments shows that the box will at some point "break loose" and start to accelerate down the board. which has a maximum value of . which in turn reduces the friction. Once the box is moving. is on a road tilted at an angle .) For the box to then accelerate.. but in fact none is likely to be correct if there are other forces on the car or if the car is accelerating. there is not enough information given to determine the normal force.masteringph sics. friction. but once the box starts moving. Do not memorize session. equals the force of static is larger than the force of static friction." you know that the component of the box's weight that is parallel to the board is equal to (i. can no longer oppose it. as expected.com/m ct/assignments 3/18 . The box begins to slide once the component of gravity acting parallel to the board equals the force of static friction. but remains the same. When the box is stationary.e. The normal force ANSWER: is found using Correct The key point is that contact forces must be determined from Newton's equation. this component of gravitational force on the box has just reached a magnitude such that the force of static friction.

Throughout the problem. from Problem 2 A small box of mass is sitting on a board of mass and length .2 Find the acceleration of the box in terms of Assume that the coefficient of static friction between the board and the box is not known at this point.you must determine . the constant force with the least magnitude that must be applied to the board in order to pull the board out from under the the box (which will then fall off of the opposite end of the board). less than . What is .1 Condition for the board sliding out from under the box The board will slide out from under the box if the magnitude of the board's acceleration exceeds the magnitude of the maximum acceleration that friction can give to the box. Hint A. use for the magnitude of the friction force between the board and the box.com/m ct/assignments 4/18 . Hint A. Part A Find .2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments values for the normal force valid in different problems -.3. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the board and the box is. Hint A. The coefficient of static friction between the board and the box is . use for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.masteringph sics. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the box in terms of the friction force ? Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and .1 Maximum force on the box Hint not displa ed session.3 Find the largest acceleration of the box Now take the coefficient of static friction between the board and the box to be the largest possible magnitude of the acceleration of the box? Hint A. In the hints. as usual. The board rests on a frictionless horizontal surface.

Take the positive direction to be to the right. . Now. . = Correct Hint A.masteringph sics.4.6 Putting it all together Reread Hint 1. In . session. . .0 (including parachute) jumps off a plane and begins her descent. Hint A. and .1 Friction and Newton's 3rd law Hint not displa ed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: . and any constants necessary.4 Find the sum of horizontal forces on the board Write down the sum of all the horizontal forces acting on the board. and . so that ? . . Hint A. and . find the acceleration of the board when the force of static friction reaches its maximum possible value. you found the acceleration of the board. What is the minimum value of the Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables Do not include ANSWER: in your answer. . . Hint 5. . Correct Hint A.5 Find the acceleration of the board for large In Hint 4 you found the net horizontal force on the board.com/m ct/assignments 5/18 . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct . .2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: = . In Hint 3. constant force. . you found the largest possible acceleration of the box. = Correct Problem 3 A sky diver of mass 80.

Part B At some point during her free fall. Yes and her acceleration is directed downward. For a human body.250 .1 Dynamic equilibrium Hint not displa ed Express your answer in newtons. the numerical value for Using this value for . giving constant speed after a long time. What is the magnitude of the drag force due to air resistance that acts on the sky diver when she has reached terminal speed? Hint B.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Throughout this problem use 9.masteringph sics. Correct This applet shows the sky diver (not to scale) with her position. the drag force acting on it due to air resistance air. ANSWER: = 784 Correct Part C For an object falling through air at a high speed can be expressed as . Yes and her acceleration is directed upward. where the coefficient depends on the shape and size of the falling object and on the density of is about 0. You can see how her acceleration drops to zero over time.com/m ct/assignments 6/18 . speed. . the sky diver reaches her terminal speed.80 for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.1 Free fall Hint not displa ed ANSWER: No.1 Terminal speed Hint not displa ed session. what is the terminal speed of the sky diver? Hint C. does the sky diver have an acceleration? Hint A. and acceleration graphed as functions of time. the sky diver falls at constant speed. Part A At the beginning of her fall.

Part D When the sky diver descends to a certain height from the ground. Correct Part E When the parachute is fully open. a sky diver can reach speeds of about 54 meters per second (120 miles per hour). the effective drag coefficient of the sky diver plus parachute increases to 60. the sky diver keeps falling at constant speed. (Usually the parachute is deployed when the sky diver reaches an altitude of about 900 --3000 . does the skydiver have a nonzero acceleration? Hint D.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Express you answer in meters per second. Yes and her acceleration is directed upward. ANSWER: = 56.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displa ed Hint E.0 ." In this position.) Immediately after deploying the parachute. their terminal speed is typically around 45 meters per second (100 miles per hour). she deploys her parachute to ensure a safe landing. Yes and her acceleration is directed downward.2 Find the speed of the sky diver when the parachute is deployed Hint not displa ed Express your answer in newtons. For maximum drag and stability. What is the drag force acting on the sky diver immediately after she has opened the parachute? Hint E. ANSWER: = 1.88 105 Correct Part F session.0 Correct Recreational sky divers can control their terminal speed to some extent by changing their body posture. When oriented in a headfirst dive.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displa ed ANSWER: No. sky divers often will orient themselves "belly-first.com/m ct/assignments 7/18 .masteringph sics.

0 ? ANSWER: 5.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displa ed Express your answer in meters per second. these offer the sky divers more maneuverability in the air but increase the terminal speed up to 4 meters per second (10 miles per hour).320 the platform when it is brought up to a rotational speed of 40.61 Correct A typical "student" parachute for recreational skydiving has a drag coefficient that gives a terminal speed for landing of about 2 meters per second (5 miles per hour).2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments What is the terminal speed of the sky diver when the parachute is opened? Hint F. ANSWER: = 3.3 109 8/18 toward the north.82 Part A What is the total work they do on the supertanker? Express your answer using two significant figures. will revolve with . provided the button is Part B How far from the axis can the button be placed.140 Part A What is the coefficient of static friction between the button and the platform? ANSWER: 0.30 10−2 Correct Problem 5 Two tugboats pull a disabled supertanker. session. Problem 4 A small button placed on a horizontal rotating platform with diameter 0. one an angle 18 west of north and the other an angle 18 east of north. ANSWER: 3.masteringph sics.1 106 .251 Correct from the axis. If this seems slow based on video or real-life sky divers you have seen. that may be because the sky divers you saw were using high-performance parachutes. as they pull the tanker a distance 0. if the platform rotates at 65.com/m ct/assignments .0 a distance no more than 0. Each tug exerts a constant force of 2. without slipping.

but there is some friction that you must give the box Hint A.2 Find the total work done on the box Hint not displa ed Hint A. with mass up an incline of constant slope angle distance present. above the bottom of the incline. so that it reaches a stranded skier who is a vertical . and . Hint A. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the plane and the block is . with kinetic friction coefficient Part A Use the work-energy theorem to calculate the minimum speed at the bottom of the incline so that it will reach the skier. session. A force of magnitude is applied to pull the block up the incline at constant speed. .1 How to approach the problem Hint not displa ed .4 What is the final kinetic energy? Hint not displa ed Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables ANSWER: = Correct .com/m ct/assignments 9/18 . Problem 7 A block of weight sits on an inclined plane as shown. The incline is slippery. .masteringph sics.3 What is the initial kinetic energy? Hint not displa ed Hint A.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments = Correct Problem 6 You are a member of an alpine rescue team and must project a box of supplies. .

. ANSWER: = Correct Now the applied force is changed so that instead of pulling the block up the incline.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Part A What is the total work distance up the incline? done on the block by the force of friction as the block moves a Hint A. .com/m ct/assignments 10/18 . . .2 Find the magnitude of the friction force Hint not displa ed Express the work done by friction in terms of any or all of the variables . and . the force pulls the block down the incline at a constant speed. done on the block by the applied force as the block moves a Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables . session. and .masteringph sics. . . ANSWER: = Correct Part B What is the total work distance up the incline? . .1 How to start Hint not displa ed Hint A.

ANSWER: = Correct Problem 8 A particle of mass moves along a straight line with initial speed along the direction of its motion. 11/18 . the final speed of the particle after it has traveled a distance .masteringph sics. Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables .2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Part C What is the total work distance done on the block by the force of friction as the block moves a down the incline? . Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables . and . and .1 Find the final kinetic energy Hint not displa ed Express the final speed in terms of session. . A force of magnitude pushes the particle a distance Part A Find . . . . . . Hint A. . .com/m ct/assignments . and . ANSWER: = Correct Part D What is the total work done on the box by the appled force in this case? . .

1 Correct Part C The particle's change in speed over the distance when it had a mass equal to ANSWER: less than Correct . then the multiplicative factor would be 1.com/m ct/assignments 12/18 . and by what factor does the work done by the force . it would increase by a factor of 2. If a quantity stays the same. while all other does the work done by the force increase (with respect to the case when the particle )? had a mass If one of the quantities doubles. for instance.1 Find the work done Hint not displa ed You should enter the two factors separated by a comma.masteringph sics. = 3. ANSWER: . does the initial kinetic energy increase (with respect to the first situation.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments ANSWER: = Correct Increase in mass For the next two parts. will be ______ the change in speed Increase in initial velocit For the final two parts. with . assume that the initial speed of the particle is increased to the particle's mass once again equal to Part D By what factor with mass increase? session. and by what multiplicative . Hint B. assume that the particle's mass is increased to parameters in the problem introduction remain the same. Part B By what multiplicative factor factor does the initial kinetic energy increase. and speed ).

enter the two factors.1 Correct Part E The particle's change in speed over the distance when it had an initial velocity equal to Hint E. An elegant way to see this is to take the derivative of kinetic energy with respect to velocity: . separated by a comma.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Again.com/m ct/assignments 13/18 .1 Some math help Hint not displa ed will be ______ the change in speed . or . = 9. The suitcase travels a distance 3. ANSWER: less than Correct Make sure you understand this result: The amount of energy needed to increase an object's velocity by a certain fixed amount increases the faster the object is already moving.9 above the horizontal by a force of magnitude 150 up a ramp inclined at an angle 24. This says that when the velocity of an object increases by an amount increases by . Part A Calculate the work done on the suitcase by the force ANSWER: = 585 Correct .0 that acts parallel to the ramp.90 along the ramp. so if you have a very fast moving object (large .masteringph sics. it takes a large amount of work or energy to increase its velocity even just a little bit! Problem 9 A luggage handler pulls a suitcase of mass 16. its kinetic energy ). Part B session. ANSWER: . The coefficient of kinetic friction between the ramp and the incline is 0.254.

session. The 20.0. ANSWER: = -263 Correct Part C Calculate the work done on the suitcase by the normal force.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Calculate the work done on the suitcase by the gravitational force.block moves 75.52 Correct Problem 10 Two blocks are connected by a very light string passing over a massless and frictionless pulley (Figure ).com/m ct/assignments 14/18 .masteringph sics.0. ANSWER: = -150 Correct Part E Calculate the total work done on the suitcase. what is its speed after it has traveled 3. ANSWER: = 172 Correct Part F If the speed of the suitcase is zero at the bottom of the ramp.90 along the ramp? ANSWER: = 4.block moves 75.0 to the right and the 12.0 downward. ANSWER: = 0 Correct Part D Calculate the work done on the suitcase by the friction force.

= 3. = 2.38 Correct block if there is no friction between the table and the ANSWER: Part C Find the total work done on 20.020.masteringph sics.0block.58 Correct block if =0.325 between the table and Part D Find the total work done on 12.com/m ct/assignments 15/18 .0ANSWER: block.0ANSWER: block. = 5.0block.0the 20.54 Correct block if and between the table session.62 Correct block if there is no friction between the table and the ANSWER: Part B Find the total work done on 12. = 1.0and the 20.500 and =0.020.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Part A Find the total work done on 20.

ANSWER: = 5.50 on a horizontal surface when. but instead had the constant value of 0. To keep the spring stretched or compressed an amount .11 Correct past point P Part B What is the coefficient of friction at the stopping point? ANSWER: = 0. On the rough section.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Problem 11 A box is sliding with a speed of 4.304 Correct Part C How far would the box have slid if the friction coefficient didn't increase. Here .3 Correct past point P Problem 12 Consider a spring that does not obey Hooke's law very faithfully. Part A Use the work-energy theorem to find how far this box slides before stopping. One end of the spring is fixed. Note that . when the spring is stretched and Part B How much work must be done to compress this spring by 0.11 Correct from its unstretched must be applied to the free end.100? ANSWER: = 10.masteringph sics.5 past point P.com/m ct/assignments 16/18 from its unstretched . reaching a value of 0.600 at 12. Part A How much work must be done to stretch this spring by 0.050 length? Express your answer using two significant figures. at point P. but starts at 0.050 length? session.100 at P and increases linearly with distance past P. a force along the -axis with -component . the coefficient of friction is not constant. ANSWER: = 0. and when it is compressed. it encounters a rough section.

3 ) on a level road.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments Express your answer using two significant figures. what power will drive the truck at 30.17 Correct Part C Is it easier to stretch or compress this spring? ANSWER: to stretch to compress Correct Problem 13 You are asked to design spring bumpers for the walls of a parking garage. Part A What should be the force constant of the spring? Assume that the spring has negligible mass. a constant velocity of magnitude 60. A freely rolling 1300 car moving at 0. If the force of rolling friction is independent of speed.0 Part A What is the resisting force acting on the truck? ANSWER: = 1680 Correct Part B Assume that 65% of the resisting force is due to rolling friction and the remainder is due to air resistance. and the force of air resistance is proportional to the square of the speed.com/m ct/assignments .1 10−2 before stopping.3 17/18 session.6 104 Correct Problem 14 A truck engine transmits 28. Express your answer using two significant figures.masteringph sics.5 ) to the driving wheels when the truck is traveling at ( 37.66 is to compress the spring no more than 8. ANSWER: 10.0 (37. ANSWER: = 0. ANSWER: = 8.0 ? Give your answer in kilowatts .

and the force of air resistance is proportional to the square of the speed.0 ? Give your answer in horsepower. session. what power will drive the truck at 30.0 ? Give your answer in horsepower. You received 130.com/m ct/assignments 18/18 . ANSWER: = 13. what power will drive the truck at 120. If the force of rolling friction is independent of speed.0 ? Give your answer in kilowatts.08 out of a possible total of 140 points. ANSWER: = 154 Correct Score Summary: Your score on this assignment is 92. If the force of rolling friction is independent of speed. and the force of air resistance is proportional to the square of the speed.8 Correct Part D Assume that 65% of the resisting force is due to rolling friction and the remainder is due to air resistance.masteringph sics. and the force of air resistance is proportional to the square of the speed.2/14/12 MasteringPh sics: Assignments = Correct Part C Assume that 65% of the resisting force is due to rolling friction and the remainder is due to air resistance. ANSWER: = 115 Correct Part E Assume that 65% of the resisting force is due to rolling friction and the remainder is due to air resistance.9%. If the force of rolling friction is independent of speed. what power will drive the truck at 120.

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