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Small Gas Turbines for Distributed Generation Markets
Technology, Products, and Business Issues A Product of EPRIsolutions, Inc., and GTI
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Small Gas Turbines for Distributed Generation Markets
Technology, Products, and Business Issues 1000768 GTI-00/0219 Technical Progress, December 2000
EPRIsolutions Project Manager K.R. Amarnath
GTI Project Manager W.E. Liss
EPRIsolutions • 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 • PO Box 10414, Palo Alto, California 94303 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • email@example.com • www.epri.com
Gas Technology Institute • 1700 South Mount Prospect Road, Des Plaines, IL 60018-1804 847.768.0500 • www.gastechnology.org
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CITATIONS This document was prepared by Steven I. 1000768. Freedman Engineering Consultant 410 Carlisle Avenue Deerfield. CA 92009 P. Bautista This document describes research sponsored by EPRIsolutions and GTI. Palo Alto. Freedman Onsite Energy Corp. 701 Palomar Airport Road. and GTI: 2000. GTI-00/0219. EPRIsolutions. and Business Issues. The publication is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Small Gas Turbines for Distributed Generation Markets: Technology. #200 Carlsbad. CA. IL 60015 S. Products. iii .
good efficiency in some models. Very small gas turbines. 3 MW or less. are lighter weight and more compact. gas turbines have an inherent economic advantage over reciprocating engines in that they process more air per unit volume of machine. very large gas turbines – both heavy-duty industrial and aeroderivative machines I has not yet found its way into the smaller sizes. gas turbines are manufactured in greater volumes. additional sales of small gas turbines should result in manufacturing economies of scale and price reductions. allowing multiple power capacities to be delivered from the same basic engine family or design. The cost of applying known technology is still unjustifiably high considering the limited size of the current market and the manufacturing difficulties involved. consequently. and their power generation efficiencies begin to approach those of reciprocating engines. Gas turbines process more power-generation cycle air per unit size and weight of machine than do reciprocating engines and. low noise and vibration. due principally to low production volumes and low commonality of parts among multiple turbine models. daily cycling applications in competition with deregulated grid prices or reciprocating engine generators. which could allow them to offer customers lower cost power. Distributed generation also benefits utilities by deferring or avoiding costly expansion of the power transmission and distribution system. This size and weight advantage could reduce gas turbine cost relative to reciprocating engines if business conditions warrant production of small gas turbines at volumes equal to or greater than reciprocating engines. high reliability. and their compactness and high power density begin to make them more economically competitive. manufacturing economies of scale could make small gas turbines an economic source of power or combined heat and power to commercial and small industrial customers with high intermediate power prices. However. v . As distributed generation applications increase.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material ABSTRACT Small gas turbines (300 kW to 5 MW) offer an attractive way for utilities and energy service companies to generate electric power within distribution grids and for consumers to generate their own power. and infrequent maintenance and overhaul. small gas turbines are not generally sufficiently economically attractive at the present time for intermediate-duty. compact installed footprint (sq ft/kW). As deregulation progresses and more commercial and light industrial businesses and electric utilities take advantage of distributed generation options. are noticeably higher priced per kilowatt than competing reciprocating engines. The characteristics of gas turbines include clean emissions. The high technology of the newest. In the 3-5 MW size range. Reciprocating engines benefit from their modularity of piston and cylinder configuration. In sizes above 5 MW. a good match with exhaust-fired steam generation boilers.
......................... 2-20 Turbine Blade Cooling ...................................................................................................... 2-7 Simple Cycle...... 2-8 Intercooled Cycle.......................2-1 Basics ........ 2-13 Combined Intercooled and Recuperated Cycle Design ....................................... 2-17 Example of a Tradeoff ......................................................... 2-2 Ratings .................................................... 1-1 Report Objective ..................................... 2-4 Operational Characteristics ....................................................................................................................... 2-12 Intercooled Cycle Design.......... 2-9 Design Considerations............................ 1-4 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-18 The Use of Steam to Increase Efficiency . 2-15 Size Considerations .......................................................................................................... 2-19 High-Temperature Materials and Component Engineering........................................................................................................................................ 1-1 Competitive Positioning of Small Gas Turbines ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2-1 Types of Gas Turbines .................................... 2-3 Fuels................................................ 2-19 Steam Injection.......................................................... 2-6 Thermodynamic Cycles ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-16 Gas Turbine Component Selection.......................... 2-21 Competing Technology – Reciprocating Engines ......................................................................................................... 2-19 Combined Cycles ................ 2-7 Recuperated Cycle .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-22 vii ............................................................................................................................................. 2-16 Gas Turbine Systems ....... 2-12 Recuperated Cycle Design ..........................1-1 Market Background................................................. 2-3 Fuel Pressure Requirements ............................................................................................................................EPRIsolutions Licensed Material CONTENTS 1 2 INTRODUCTION .............................. 2-8 Intercooled Recuperated Cycle .........................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-11 Honeywell................................................................................ 3-3 Alzeta ................ 2-27 Investment in the Development of New Products ............................................................... 4-9 Dresser-Rand .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-16 Ramgen Power Systems ..............3-1 Introduction ................................................ 3-4 PCI .........................................................................................................................4-1 Company Profiles......... 4-20 viii ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4-13 Nuovo Pignone ...................................... 3-6 4 PROVIDERS ................... 2-23 Noise .................................................................................................................... 2-23 Emissions and Environmental Concerns ......... 3-3 Catalytica................ 2-25 Wet Compression .................................................... 4-8 Alstom Power ........................................................................ 2-24 Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles ......................... 4-12 Kawasaki Gas Turbine ................................................................................................... 4-9 Ebara....................................... 4-16 Pratt & Whitney Canada .................. ........................................... 3-1 Emission Control Technology .........................................................EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Heat Recovery and Cogeneration ................................................................................................................. 2-25 Recent Developments in Advanced Cycles................................................................................................................................................... 4-15 Orenda .............................................................................................................. 4-17 Rolls-Royce ............................................................... 2-28 Alternative Fuels.................................................................. 4-18 Schelde Heron B.................................................................. 3-4 Low Emission Gas Turbine Projects ...................... 3-5 Economics ..................................................... 2-29 3 EMISSION CONTROL & CATALYTIC COMBUSTION.........................................................V................................................................................................................ 4-10 GAS Power Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2 Catalytic Combustion System Developers ............................................. 3-1 Catalytic Combustion for Gas Turbines ................... 4-19 Solar Turbines ....................................................................... 4-14 OPRA Optimal Radial Turbine..........................................................
.................................................. 5-8 Switchgear and Utility Interconnection......................................................................................... A-1 Gas Turbine History ................................ 5-13 CHP Market ............................................ Ltd............................................................. 4-21 Turbomeca ...................................... 5-2 Applications ................................................................................................................................................. 5-3 Standby Generation............................A-1 Small Gas Turbines for Automotive and Other Vehicle Applications .............................A-2 Microturbines ......................................................................................................... B1 ix ................................................................................................................ ...............................................................EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Stewart & Stevenson ................................. 4-21 Vericor ........................................................ 5-4 Intermediate Duty ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-9 Total Installed Costs ...................................................................................A-3 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................... 5-14 Intermediate-Duty Market .............. 5-1 Deregulation – The Present Era ............................................................................................................................5-1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-12 Cost of Electricity ......................................................................................................................................... 5-8 Heat Recovery Equipment.... 5-9 Emission Control Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4-21 Yanmar Diesel Engine Co............. 5-11 Fuel .................................................... 5-11 Operation & Maintenance Costs ......... 5-12 Market Outlooks............................... 5-7 Generator Set Equipment........................................................................................................... 5-4 Competitive Positioning of Small Gas Turbines .......................A-1 Early Development .......... 5-1 Regulated Utilities – The Previous Era ............................ 4-22 5 ECONOMICS & BUSINESS ISSUES .................. 5-3 Combined Heat and Power ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5-14 POWER GENERATION HISTORY.................. 5-5 Capital Costs ................................................................................................................. 5-11 Non-Fuel O&M......................................................................................... 5-13 Standby Market ....
compared to traditional power plants. Large combined-cycle systems have efficiencies in the 50-58% range. These are predominantly central station power plants greater than 50 MW. gas turbines in the distributed generation market face greater challenges. in the 2-5 MW size range. this unit has an efficiency of about 40%. Gas turbines in both simple. The size range below 5 MW is dominated by reciprocating engines. between 37% and 42% (LHV). Fundamental market drivers favor large gas turbine power plants because of lower capital costs and shorter construction and permitting lead times than traditional fossil-fueled steam turbines. worldwide sales of gas turbines and reciprocating engines are about equal. Attractive initial capital costs and reduced time and cost for power plant permitting and installation. In the industrial market segment (3. but the reciprocating engines have substantially better efficiencies. is the exception to this relationship. An optimistic outlook for the supply and price of natural gas 2. As gas turbines decrease in size. Technology advances that produced substantial improvements in efficiency and emissions 3. Figure 1-2 shows the price and efficiency of simple-cycle gas turbine products up to 25 MW. versus 32% or lower typical of comparably sized gas turbines (Figure 1-1). Emissions regulations that could favor gas turbine projects over traditional fossil-fueled steam turbines 4. based on the fuel’s lower heating value (LHV). Several factors contribute to the strong position of gas turbine-based power generation: 1. The environmentally clean nature of the these plants is evidenced by their ability achieve 9 ppm of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions without exhaust treatment and lower than 3 ppm with postcombustion control technologies. For example. primarily turbines and reciprocating engines.S. reciprocating engines are priced lower than gas turbines and are considerably more efficient. While the market and business climate is quite favorable for large gas turbines. Competitive Positioning of Small Gas Turbines Gas turbines start to lose their clear advantage at smaller sizes. In short. In the 2-MW and smaller range.5-30 MW). large gas turbines have become the power generation technology of choice. they exhibit higher specific capital costs ($/kW) and lower efficiencies. gas turbines and reciprocating engines have comparable capital costs. both natural gas and diesel fueled. Figure 1-3 compares the 1-1 .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material 1 INTRODUCTION Market Background Continued market growth is expected for natural gas-fueled prime movers. The new Mercury 50™ gas turbine. markets. This trend is expected to continue over the foreseeable future. a recuperated 4-MW machine manufactured by Solar Turbines Incorporated (San Diego).and combined-cycle systems have accounted for the vast majority of power generation capacity added in the last five years in both international and U.
many small gas turbines are currently deployed in combined heat and power configurations where this recoverable energy can be used and higher total fuel efficiency can be achieved. Higher quality recoverable energy allows for a wider range of thermal energy (for example. The distinct advantages of small gas turbines over reciprocating engines include higher quality recoverable energy. and higher power density (kilowatt or horsepower per unit of air flow and machine volume). usually in the form of clean. Consequently. which need periodic oil and spark-plug maintenance. lower emissions. “CT” in the figure) up to 7 MW. lower maintenance requirements. Figure 1-1 Small Gas Turbine Product Positioning Source: GTI 1-2 . high-temperature heat. high-pressure steam) to be generated if needed. Recoverable energy refers to the amount of energy that can be recovered from the turbine exhaust stream. gas turbines often have less frequent requirements for routine maintenance compared to reciprocating engines. In addition.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Introduction capital costs of reciprocating engines and gas turbines (also called combustion turbines.
.. Price ∋ Efficiency . . . ∋ . ∋ ∋ . Source: Gas Turbine World/SFA Pacific/GTI Figure 1-3 Capital Cost Comparison of Small Gas Turbine Products with Reciprocating Engine Products 1-3 .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Introduction Gas Turbine Products Simple Cycle Units 1000 Price ($/kW) Efficiency (%.. . ∋∋ .. . 600 .. ∋ . . ∋ ∋∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ 30 . . 40 800 . thousands) Actual purchase prices may vary due to market conditions and other factors. . 400 ∋∋ ∋∋ ∋ 25 200 0 5 10 15 20 25 Size (kW. .. Prices do not include gas compressors (if required). LHV) ∋ 35 . . ∋ ∋ ∋ . thousands) Actual purchase prices may vary due to market conditions and other factors Source: Gas Turbine World/GTI 20 Figure 1-2 Small Gas Turbine Products 1000 800 600 400 200 Price ($/kW) CT Price RE Price 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Size (kW.
1-4 . Technology characteristics and developments (Chapter 2) Catalytic combustion systems and developers (Chapter 3) Key companies and providers (Chapter 4) Market and business issues (Chapter 5). and market and business issues. manufacturers/suppliers. R&D and technology improvements for small gas turbines have focused primarily on the testing and integration of new components including recuperators. and low emission combustion systems. potential performance enhancements. 3. The next four chapters of the report cover: 1. The size range investigated for this report is 300 kW to 5 MW.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Introduction Manufacturers and providers of small gas turbines have long recognized the competitive positioning of their products and have initiated developments to enhance their position in the evolving power market. products. 4. 2. The report focuses on the status of technology. small gas turbine applications. advanced hot-section materials. products available from key companies. Report Objective This report is intended to serve as a primer on small gas turbine technology. and business issues affecting the use of gas turbines in power markets.
all other things being equal. and expander or power turbine. aircraft. the steam can be injected into the expansion turbine or passed through a separate steam turbine in a combined cycle. 250-MW machines in central power applications. For example. is a continuous flow machine that compresses the working gas (typically air). also referred to as a combustion turbine. Gas turbines serve a wide variety of purposes including electric power generation. These fuels must be pumped or compressed to higher pressures than the compressor discharge pressure to promote rapid fuel/air mixing in the combustor. gas turbines with higher turbine inlet temperatures have higher efficiency and produce more power per pound of air throughput than gas turbines with lower turbine inlet temperatures. from 25-kW microturbines to heavy duty.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material 2 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION Basics Gas turbines vary greatly in size. Gas turbine exhaust is frequently used to raise steam. Because gas volume increases with temperature. For additional power. while intercooling can reduce compressor power consumption. Net power is generated when the expansion turbine produces more power than the compressor consumes. fuel consumption can be with recuperators preheating combustion air. heats it. and expands it in an expansion turbine to its original ambient pressure. Gas turbines have three key subsections – the compressor. and boat propulsion. and other mechanical drive applications such as compressor drives. such combined gas and steam turbine cycles are the highest efficiency power generation systems in commercial service today. helicopter. due to the higher temperature of the expansion gas. (“Turbine” can refer to the entire machine or just to the expansion turbine component. A gas turbine. This occurs when greater volumes of gas pass through the expansion turbine than through the compressor. which can either supply heat or boost the system’s power generation capacity. 2-1 .) Between the compressor and the expansion turbine. combustor. The fuels used most frequently today are natural gas and several types of liquid fuels. Figure 2-1 shows a cutaway of a typical industrial gas turbine machine. the working gas is heated. Heat exchangers can be used in several ways to reduce gas turbine fuel consumption and increase power output. In large sizes. water pumping. The usual method of raising the working gas temperature is to burn fuel in the compressed air stream. raising its temperature enough to increase the system’s efficiency and power to economically attractive levels.
aeroderivative turbine pressure ratios range from below 6.5 to above 14.5.8 to 12. most units of both types have pressure ratios in the 8-10 range. such as blades and vanes with complex internal cooling passages. In the 300 kW to 5 MW size range. aeroderivative turbines have more high-temperature and high-technology components. or turboprop and for helicopter power. and blade and vane profiles that are optimized aerodynamically for maximum performance. Because of these design features. Because a turbine’s optimum pressure ratio increases with increasing turbine inlet temperature. Aeroderivative turbines are engineered for flight services including propulsion via turbojet. give aeroderivative engines higher efficiency and power density (kilowatt or horsepower per unit of air flow and machine volume) than their industrial competitors. Small gas 2-2 . ranging in size from 300 kW to 5 MW.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Figure 2-1 Gas Turbine Cutaway Source: Solar Turbines Types of Gas Turbines Small gas turbines. Both aeroderivative and industrial models offer pressure ratios from 6. aeroderivatives typically cost more than industrial turbines with equal continuous-duty ratings. pressure ratios of aeroderivative gas turbines are somewhat higher those of industrial types of the same vintage. These features. along with higher pressure ratios. hot-section materials capable of higher temperature operation. turbofan. Typically. are frequently categorized as either industrial or aeroderivative.
which complicates generalizations regarding cost and performance. which would correspond to 10. Externally fired primary heaters fueled by the combustion of coal. Industrial turbines. Continuous-duty ratings apply to operations with longer overhaul intervals and lower power and efficiency. even more important than efficiency. thermal distortion of the combustor liner. will result in derating. Higher ambient temperature or elevation. 2 distillate oil. Standard ISO rating conditions are 59oF (15oC). When comparing gas turbines for stationary applications. Some heavy-duty pipeline compressor turbines have accumulated more than 300. several types of refinery off-gas. A new industrial gas turbine could have a higher pressure ratio than an older aeroderivative machine. jet fuel. with their higher turbine inlet temperatures and correspondingly greater power and higher efficiency. while liquid fuels include kerosene.000 miles of service at an average speed of 33 mph.000.000 operating hours. reflecting the deleterious effects of high temperature on the creep of turbine blades. sea-level elevation. landfill gas. after which the manufacturer modifies them for stationary power generation and markets units built around the aeronautical core engine. thus these turbines have pressure ratios that cover a corresponding range. Fuels Both gaseous and liquid fuels are burned in gas turbines today. turbojet and fan-jet engines require fan removal and the addition of a power turbine to drive the generator at proper rotational speed. and no inlet or exhaust pressure losses. Engine weight per unit of power is the most important variable for aeroderivative turbines. and No. 50% relative humidity. for example. For stationary power applications. Turbine life and durability in this application are increased by operating continuously at a set point. heavy-duty industrial gas turbines are designed for long life. which minimizes the injurious effects of thermal cycling. Nuclear heat sources have been considered. In contrast. Aeroderivative gas turbines enter service in aeronautical applications. Emergency turbine generators.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description turbines on the market today were designed over the past 40 years. have been used since the 1950s and have served as natural gas pipeline compressor drives. and degradation of other hot-section parts. which have the longest lives of all gas turbines. Aeroderivative turbines also seek small frontal area to minimize drag. in their primary market applications. and low cost. are designed for a small number of operating hours between overhauls. and 2-3 . The different power ratings reflect the number of operating hours before major overhaul. propane. biomass. high durability. Gaseous fuels include natural gas. as well as solar concentrators for both terrestrial and space applications. as turbine inlet temperatures were advancing appreciably. Ratings Gas turbines are rated for either continuous duty or emergency service (standby or backup). Ratings for gas turbines assume certain ambient conditions that users should be aware of. Ratings correspond to differences in the allowable combustor and turbine inlet temperatures. many features vary from product to product over the wide range of machine vintages. The high-technology components of older aeroderivatives are less advanced and less expensive compared to newer models. due in part due to the dissemination of R&D accomplishments. and gasified solid fuels of several compositions.
Industrial gas turbines of commercial interest for distributed generation applications are expected to burn only clean fuels including natural gas. alkalis. The fuel must be at pressures adequately above combustor pressure for it to flow into the machine through control valves. Large gas turbines have been operated successfully for extended periods of time on gasified coal after the fuel is cleaned of particulate and gaseous contaminants. On an experimental basis.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description other fuels (which usually contain ash. reciprocating. sufficient ash entered the turbine that rapid erosion of the blade profile occurred. Many gas turbines have dual-fuel capabilities. sulfur. Even with the best available ash separation systems. This technology is applicable in an integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) plant. However. and retain enough momentum to mix properly with the combustor air. because available pumps have the appropriate capacity and pressure capability. and other impurities) have also been used historically for research or demonstration purposes. These machines are typically twin-screw. various clean petroleum liquids. Not all of these dual-fuel features are available on combustors designed for low NOx emissions. At present. Figure 2-2 shows a typical booster compressor skid. in particular with lean premixed designs. Fuel Pressure Requirements The combustors of gas turbines operate at elevated pressures. typically 75-200 psig (517-1379 kPa) or higher depending on machine pressure ratio. Gas turbine fuel specifications now limit the permissible concentration of these chemicals in the fuel and instruct operators to avoid sites and inlet configurations that result in the intake of salt and dust. or centrifugal compressors. which chemically attack (corrode) the gas turbine blades at typical surface operating temperatures and form deposits on the blades. Pressure is not a problem with liquid fuels. solid fuels such as coal have been burned in gas turbines for brief periods. Special combustors have been developed to burn gasified coal that has been mechanically and chemically cleaned. This typically requires fuel pressures of 120-350 psig (827-2410 kPa). which contribute to corrosion and deposits. enter the combustor through nozzles. 2-4 . however. gas compressors for this application (low flow and somewhat high pressure) are not in high demand. Some turbines have two sets of nozzles in the combustor and can switch fuels while operating. Gas turbines require clean fuels to avoid the deleterious effects of corrosion and deposits. Combinations of sulfur and alkalis (sodium and potassium) in the fuel create sodium and potassium sulfate. based on a Kobelco twin-screw machine. Some can switch fuels after a brief shutdown for changeover of combustor nozzles. and purified alternative gaseous fuels. while others require that combustor parts be replaced to operate on a second fuel. Table 2-1 lists representative examples of small gas turbines and booster compressors. natural gas fueled combined cycles can produce lower cost electric power than coal gasification-combined cycle plants. Gas turbines of all sizes can use gasified coal technology to burn dilute fuel gas with heat contents as low as 90-100 Btu/SCF. Typically they must be made to order and thus are not inexpensive.
220 331 – 511 turbine Model M1A 1235 .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Table 2-1 Example Gas Turbine Booster Compressors Source: GTI* Compressor Manufacturer Compressor Outlet Fuel Rate Type Pressure (scfm) (psig) Centrifugal Twin Screw Recip & Centrifugal 360 120 200 625 360-460 490 Prime Mover and Type Prime Mover Size Gardner Denver Sullair. Mycom/ Frick Co.300 305 780-975 Solar Turbines Solar Turbines Mycom Twin Screw 205 – 300 1060-1315 Solar Turbines * Data are representative examples. others General Electric (Nuovo Pignone) Mycom/ Frick Co.4022 kW turbine Saturn .1210 kW turbine Centaur 3515-4600 kW turbine Taurus 5200–6890 kW Twin Screw 200 .1.2000 kW Twin Screw 200 .180 Twin Screw 205 .039 Kawasaki Twin Screw 140 . Figure 2-2 Gas Turbine Booster Compressor Skid Source: Kobelco 2-5 . Gas turbine suppliers work with packagers and customers to accommodate their preferences on booster compressor suppliers. Mycom Mycom Orenda Dresser-Rand General Electric (Nuovo Pignone) Kawasaki turbine 2500 kW turbine 1450kW/1850 kW turbine PGT-2 .220 768 .2065 kW turbine Model M1T 2950 .
In the broad distributed generation market. enabling steam to be generated at medium pressures.650-8. Economic analyses should distinguish between LHV and HHV in fuel price and engine performance. so appreciable derate occurs when the ambient temperature rises. users need to account for pressure losses and the impact of parasitic system loads such as pumps. operators may choose to overfire a gas turbine (fire at slightly higher temperature than continuous-duty design point) to generate more power and improve efficiency. Note that reciprocating engine and gas turbine efficiency is rated on an LHV basis. Gas turbine components. are usually sized for operation in the expected service temperature range. Typical values are: • • Natural gas: HHV = 1. to the use of recovered heat for preheating combustion air and to higher pressure ratios. it is used directly. however. Factors for converting HHV to LHV vary slightly with fuel composition. Lower compressor inlet temperature means that less power is needed by the compressor.106 x LHV Diesel fuel: HHV = 1. so the extent of power augmentation has a practical upper limit because the generator output cannot safely exceed its rating. hence its exclusion in the machine rating. including the electric generator. The exhaust of recuperated turbines (see Recuperated Cycle below) and aeroderivative gas turbines is lower in temperature due. The tradeoff is between the higher energy prices being paid during peaking periods and the cost of shortening the maintenance interval. As mentioned earlier. Gas turbine output and efficiency are quite sensitive to compressor inlet temperature. most products have efficiencies ranging from 25% to 40%. The exhaust of industrial gas turbines typically ranges from 932º to 1112ºF (500º to 600ºC). The difference between these fuel heat content ratings is the heat of condensation of the water vapor in the combustion products. power generation engineers cannot assume the availability of high-pressure fuel at sites with power demand in the 300-kW to 5-MW range. overfiring reduces the interval between scheduled maintenance.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Gas turbine packagers sometimes install two fuel gas compressors to ensure system reliability is not compromised by fuel compressor failure or associated long delivery time for replacement. This heat is unavailable for power generation in reciprocating engine and gas turbine machines. increased output is often valued 2-6 .06 x LHV In addition to the effects of derating caused by high ambient temperatures or other factors (see the previous section. resulting in greater output and higher efficiency. fans. whereas natural gas is sold on a higher heating value (HHV) basis. with a corresponding range in heat rate of 13. The cost and reliability considerations of the fuel gas booster compressor might need to be considered in project economic and performance analyses.530 Btu/kWh (LHV). When high-pressure fuel gas is available. During periods of peak power demand. and compressors. When generating steam. Ratings). During peaking periods. respectively. the standard temperature for rating gas turbine output is 59ºF (15ºC). However. Operational Characteristics In the small gas turbine size range. these lower exhaust temperatures result in a somewhat lower amount of heat recovered and a lower heat recovery efficiency. Gas turbine power can also be increased by inlet air cooling.
Figure 2-3 Schematic of Simple Cycle 2-7 . As air-conditioning loads increase during hot weather. referred to as the simple cycle. temperature rise by heat addition.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description higher than increased efficiency. The simple cycle is shown schematically in Figure 2-3. Inlet air cooling can be accomplished either by a heat exchanger and a cooled fluid or by evaporative cooling. would reduce its output power and efficiency. The basic cycle. often referred to as the bottoming cycle. Adequately demineralized water must be used to avoid deposits in the gas turbine that. Thermodynamic Cycles The thermodynamic cycle on which the gas turbine operates is called the Brayton cycle. In a jet engine. and expansion turbine. At these times. in both capital and operating cost. turbine exhaust-driven absorption. and storing the cooled water for later use during hot-weather peak demand. Using a heat exchanger can be expensive. the value of electricity is greatest. In various compound cycles. or natural gas-fired absorption). or whenever the ambient temperature is adequately low. the gas turbine exhaust is discharged at high velocity by an exhaust nozzle. This configuration is most commonly known as a gas turbine. In such cases the gas turbine becomes the topping cycle. Simple Cycle The simple cycle consists of a compressor. combustor. or compressor blade erosion can result. so it often pays to augment turbine output by cooling inlet air. and expansion. typically a chiller (electric. Several variations in the Brayton cycle are described below. The spray system should not leave sizable drops in the air entering the compressor. Simple cycles may consist of one or more rotating shafts with expansion turbines and compressors on them. consists of compression. over time. because it requires a source of cooling. Variations in the cycle involve adding components for efficiency improvement and power increase. Water at a temperature appreciably cooler than air can also be obtained by operating a small cooling tower at night. the gas turbine exhaust is used as heat input to a second cycle. gas turbines and other peaking equipment are called upon to meet the load. Inlet air evaporative cooling uses an array of spray nozzles in front of the air inlet to create a mist in the flow before it enters the compressor. Jet engines are made into stationary power turbines by adding either a generator and an additional turbine stage to the shaft or adding a second shaft with an expansion power turbine and a generator on it.
Intercoolers are in widespread use for boosting the power of turbocharged diesel and spark-ignited reciprocating engines. Figure 2-4 Schematic of Recuperated Cycle Conventional (solid boundary) recuperative heat exchangers are used most frequently in heating and air-conditioning applications and for industrial heating. as well as analyzing recuperator cost. Intercooled Cycle The intercooled cycle (Figure 2-5) splits the compressor into two or more sections and uses externally cooled heat exchangers to cool the air flowing between the sections. The design of a practical recuperated cycle involves balancing the tradeoffs among the parameters of efficiency. There is no difference between these two designations from a thermodynamic viewpoint. Intercooling reduces compressor work by lowering the temperature of the air in later 2-8 . turbine efficiency is raised by adding a recuperative heat exchanger. thereby reducing the fuel required. Periodic (rotary wheel) regenerative heat exchangers have been tested since the 1950s for use on automotive gas turbines. Similar tradeoffs apply to the regenerative cycle. the high-pressure seals required in the regenerator have not yet achieved adequate life for this application. expansion turbine exhaust side. compressor discharge side to the low-pressure. The fluids in a recuperator do not mix at all. However.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Recuperated Cycle In the recuperated cycle (Figure 2-4). This cycle is also sometimes referred to as a regenerated cycle. A recuperator is a heat exchanger with passage walls through which heat flows by virtue of the temperature difference between the two fluids on either side of the wall. Regenerators have been researched because they could be compact enough for the gas turbine to fit under the hood of a car. In a regenerator. The recuperated turbine cycle produces about 10% less power than a simple cycle of the same compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature. and leakage can occur from the high- pressure. power. A regenerator is a periodic heat exchanger in which hot and cold gas flow alternately in opposite directions through a matrix of fine passages. which uses the hot exhaust gas of the expansion turbine to preheat the air flowing into the combustor. the two fluids mix to a small degree. and cost. This is because an inherent pressure drop is associated with the recuperator and with its connections to the engine and gas turbine exhaust. This is accomplished by analyzing various heat exchanger sizes. dimensions. and configurations to obtain a desired level of pressure drop on each side of the recuperator and interconnecting ducting.
The U. In spite of its added power. thereby enabling them to act on a cooler gas and reducing power consumed in the compressor. these sacrifices are typically quite small. both a recuperator and an intercooler are used. achieving the high efficiency advantage of the recuperated cycle and the high power of the intercooled cycle. Figure 2-6 Schematic of Intercooled Recuperated Cycle 2-9 . with the increases in cycle performance being balanced against the losses caused by the heat exchanger pressure drop and corresponding sacrifices in power and efficiency.S. so additional fuel must be burned in the combustor to reach the expansion turbine inlet temperature. the intercooled cycle’s efficiency is basically the same as that of a simple cycle with the same pressure ratio.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description stages of the compressor. recuperated gas turbine with higher fuel efficiency and turbine power. This increases net machine output and results in a higher power density. Navy is currently sponsoring development of an intercooled. Figure 2-5 Schematic of Intercooled Cycle However. due to the increased fuel required and the losses associated with the intercooler pressure drop. Tradeoffs exist involving heat exchanger pressure drop. Intercooled cycle design involves pressure drop tradeoffs similar to those of recuperated cycles (see Intercooled Cycle Design). Intercooled Recuperated Cycle In the intercooled recuperated cycle (Figure 2-6). In the range near optimum conditions. the compressor discharge temperature is lower with an intercooled cycle.
typical of new gas turbines in the 3-5 MW size range.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Figures 2-7 and 2-8 show the efficiency and specific power (another term for power density) for the four cycles of concern: simple. as are the gains in specific power with intercooling alone 2-10 . recuperated. intercooled. recuperator and intercooler heat exchanger effectiveness of 85%. Figure 2-7 Efficiency of Selected Cycles Figure 2-8 Specific Power of Selected Cycles The gains in efficiency found with recuperators are apparent for both the recuperated cycle and the intercooled and recuperated cycle. and intercooled and recuperated. and recuperator and intercooler pressure drop of 2% on each side) and a turbine inlet temperature of 2100ºF (1150ºC). compressor efficiency of 83%. The graphs cover the pressure ranges of interest to the point where the cycle reaches a diminishing return or crossover point. The data assume typical component performance (turbine efficiency of 88%.
the specific power continues to increase up to a pressure ratio of 10. recuperated cycle has the best of both improvements – high efficiency and high specific power – once the pressure ratio is high enough to overcome the consequences of heat exchanger pressure drop.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description and with intercooling and recuperation. 20-30 for intercooled. however. Increase in efficiency diminishes at pressure ratios above 12. the specific power of the intercooled cycle is head and shoulders above that of the simple cycle for all pressure ratios. only a small drop in efficiency occurs. perhaps at a pressure ratio where the turbine exhaust temperature becomes low enough to allow the use of a lower grade stainless steel in the recuperator. Figure 2-9 Locus of Efficiency for Optimized Cycles 2-11 . recuperated. The intercooled. At low and moderate pressure ratios. and 15-30 for intercooled. these pressure ratios increased with turbine inlet temperature. so a practical machine would balance the benefits of efficiency and power by operating in the 5-10 range. At pressure ratios between 5 and 10. which is the point of maximum specific power. The slightly diminishing advantage at very low and very high pressure ratios is due to the compromising effects of the heat exchanger pressure drops. The efficiency of the recuperated cycle reaches a maximum at a pressure ratio of 5. Figures 2-9 and 2-10 show the efficiency and specific power of these cycles as a function of turbine inlet temperature for pressure ratios that represent a balance between high efficiency and high specific power (12-17 for the simple cycle. The efficiency and specific power of the simple cycle rise with pressure ratio. 8-12 for recuperated. the intercooled cycle’s efficiency is not up to that of the simple cycle because of losses due to pressure drop in the intercooler. As expected. However.
Practical considerations in the design of recuperated gas turbines include flow ducting. which are application-specific. The technology. and viscous pressure drop in heat exchanger cores. December 1999). diffusion of flow to low velocity. economics. GRI-99/0263. thereby increasing efficiency. The pressure drop in the recuperator core is related to the heat exchanger effectiveness in a fundamental manner.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Figure 2-10 Locus of Specific Power for Optimized Cycles Design Considerations Recuperated Cycle Design Recuperators are heat exchangers used for preheating the compressor discharge air to reduce fuel consumption in the combustor.* Recuperated cycle efficiency is highest when the gas turbine pressure ratio is low. the intercooler should be operated at low velocity (actually low Mach Number) which. is near unity (0. flow turning.7 in the case of air). 2-12 . cpµ/k for air and all simple gases. This enables the recuperator to have a high fuel savings and high heat exchanger effectiveness with somewhat modest surface area (and cost and pressure drop). and industrial suppliers of gas turbine recuperators are reported in Gas Turbine Recuperators: Benefits and Status (EPRI TR-113745. The Prandtl Number (diffusivity of momentum divided by the diffusivity of heat). To reduce pressure drop losses. * Readers interested in the relationship between heat transfer and pressure drop in heat exchanger passages are referred to the sections on Reynolds’ analogy in standard college texts on heat transfer. however. status. so that experimental confirmation of Reynolds’ analogy in recuperators is not surprising. adds cost and size to the gas turbine and incurs additional pressure drop in the diffuser. resulting in high temperature differences between the expansion turbine exhaust and the compressor discharge. Recuperators by themselves reduce net power due to the pressure drop incurred in the heat exchanger. The optimum velocity in the intercooler involves consideration of cost and performance.
Intercooling heat exchangers are of appreciable size. The TF-1500 recuperated gas turbine. believed to be associated with differential thermal expansion accompanying thermal cycling. 2-13 . low-cost products. is large compared to the compressor. essentially halfway through the compressor. so the economics of recuperation works out favorably. because the lower temperature air flowing into the combustor requires additional fuel to deliver the combustion products at design temperature. Many natural gas pipeline compressor stations employ recuperators. durability under repeated cyclic operation can be determined only on the basis of experience. This balances the advantage of having a substantial amount of heat to remove (which was put into the air by the first part of the compression process) and having a substantial extent of compression work remaining to be done in the second half of the compressor. low pressure ratio gas turbines. However. is an expensive engine whose recuperator (and resulting fuel economy) was justified by the limited space for fuel onboard a battle tank and by the need to operate under extreme military service conditions. which serves as the main engine on the M1A1 Abrams tank. Intercooling becomes increasingly attractive as the overall pressure ratio increases. Thermodynamically. Detailed studies are required for actual machines in specific cases. Pipeline compressor stations typically have high annual capacity factors on the most efficient units. due to their limited experience in the field. learning from prior experience. page 2-12. it has to be taken off the * Refer to previous footnote. Consequently. Recuperators in pipeline compressor service are known to develop problems with leaks. reducing compressor power consumption can significantly increase net power production and efficiency. The optimum pressure level for intercooling an ideal gas turbine is at the square root of the pressure ratio. have designed and manufactured their products for cycling duty. intercooling appears very attractive for increasing net power by cooling the air flowing in the middle of the compressor and thereby reducing the work absorbed in later stages of compression. especially ones designed for ambient and low-pressure air. Intercooled Cycle Design Typically two-thirds of the gross power produced by gas turbines is used to drive the compressor. Recuperator manufacturers. with one side handling air at modest pressure and the other side often handling ambient air. cycle losses are incurred by pressure drop in the heat exchanger and connections to the cycle. Consequently the intercooler.* A price in terms of performance and economy must be paid for the power gained by intercooling. but only a modest effect on efficiency. For the air being cooled to flow through the intercooler with reasonable pressure drop. because it is largely affected by manufacturing quality control and details (especially the welding or brazing of metal joints). The long-term durability and performance of microturbines and Mercury 50 units are of interest to intermediate-duty gas turbine suppliers who want to offer reliable. Intercooling by itself has a substantial effect on increasing net power from the machine. Whether new recuperators will develop leaks after experiencing significant thermal cycling is not known yet.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Microturbines and the Solar Turbines’ new Mercury 50 are the only gas turbines currently in production that are designed with recuperators and intended for service with high annual capacity factors. Also. high-performance. which were retrofits on older.
Injected water must be fully evaporated to avoid carryover of drops into later sections of the compressor. made in Sweden during the 1950s60s by a predecessor of ABB. Its unusual configuration consisted of three shafts. Also. calcium. such as the W 501 B5 and the GE Frame 7EA. Some systems chill the water during peak periods for power augmentation. and total dissolved and undissolved solids permissible for introduction into the gas turbine. the spray water cannot contain substantial mineral matter. However. To increase power with little increase in net engine cost. 2-14 . which increases output power by 20%. The added cost of the intercooler and turbine design was presumably justified by the system’s economic benefits. The spray is controlled to very fine droplet size so that most of the evaporation occurs between the compressor stages. which changes the direction of flow and creates pressure loss. Large droplets lose enough mass that the risk of carryover and blade erosion is acceptable. The flow passages remove air from the compressor and then return it. Inlet air cooling and spray intercoolers are new technologies being applied first to large machines where the payoff is highest. new gas turbines. because the heat transfer and wall shear forces are coupled by the diffusion of heat and momentum from the wall into the air stream. leaving plenty of space for the diffuser. but they could be applied to small gas turbines as well. boats. using ice that was made and harvested during off-peak hours. which is not in production anymore. The LM 6000 is a two-shaft aeroderivative gas turbine with adequate space for a spray intercooler between the low-pressure and high-pressure compressors. lead. The machine had a split compressor. whether they are introduced by the water or the fuel. either of which would reduce output power and efficiency. trucks. the power output of small gas turbines can be increased on hot days with inlet air cooling and on a more routine basis with wet compression. The same care must be taken to avoid large. The intercooling heat exchanger itself incurs pressure drop. This machine. interconnecting ductwork. but diffusers create pressure loss. Independent engineers have added inlet spray cooling with chilled water. the only commercial gas turbine with an intercooler was the Stahl-Laval GT120.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description compressor and diffused to low velocity. Intercooling can also be accomplished by spray cooling with water at an intermediate condition in the compressor. Water quality for inlet air cooling and wet compression are based on manufacturer’s guidelines for the total amount of sodium plus potassium. took advantage of the low-temperature cooling water available in Swedish lakes and rivers. vanadium. massive droplets (over 20 microns) and excessive mineral matter in the water. General Electric (GE) offers spray intercooling (Sprint) on its LM 6000. Droplet carryover could damage compressor blades upon impact. and automobiles. The chilled-water spray cooling technique is used on other large. with the low-pressure compressor on one end of the machine and the highpressure compressor on the other end. which would deposit in the compressor and turbine sections. With these engineering precautions. and intercooler. which could result in deposits in either the compressor or the expansion turbine. which resulted from the turbine’s intermediate-duty application (high number of operating hours per year) and from high oil prices in interior Sweden at the time. intercoolers are frequently used commercially on turbocharged reciprocating engines in off-highway vehicles.
This research is being conducted for the U. The Navy is interested in fuel conservation to extend the ship’s range with limited onboard fuel storage. The turbine would serve as the main propulsion engine on ships requiring about 30. CA). recuperated turbine at part load in contrast to the efficiency loss of a simple cycle. the WR-21. Highefficiency. gas turbine pressure ratio must not be so high that. the power generation business is focused on two applications. recuperated cycle. The system’s high efficiency offers the major advantage of reducing fuel consumption while cruising at part power. and an intercooled. despite the lowering of the compressor discharge temperature by intercooling. hightechnology. a diesel engine. The industry is interested in using gas turbines for intermediate-duty applications.S. The intercooled. However. development never began because the manufacturers did not see an adequate market for the product to justify their investment.000 hp of shaftpower. These studies examined the use of new. The program focused on an intercooled aeroderivative product. Navy to seek a better gas turbine cycle for performing longer range missions without refueling. Combined Intercooled and Recuperated Cycle Design The combination of intercooling and recuperation is not used on commercial stationary gas turbines at the present time. Fuel cost savings and extended fuel supply during periods of international crises provide incentive for applying the intercooled. Navy (with some European involvement and interest) by Northrop Grumman Marine Systems (Sunnyvale. 2-15 . However. because the benefits of intercooling increase with increasing pressure ratio. The poor efficiency of conventional gas turbines at part power caused the U. and commercial fate of this gas turbine are unknown at this time. large aeroderivative gas turbines in combined cycles and with intercooling. durability. yet retaining the ability to go to high power when necessary. the turbine exhaust temperature is not above the compressor discharge temperature. high-performance. recuperated gas turbine. Studies of advanced cycles by three international manufacturers of large aeroderivative gas turbines were performed as part of the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine program in the early 1990s. Figure 2-11 compares the part-load efficiency of a simple-cycle gas turbine. as possibilities for developing new products for the commercial power generation sector. In power generation service this engine. would produce 24. which incorporated an intercooler and appropriate gas turbine modifications to result in a moderate-cost product of medium efficiency (not quite as high as a combined cycle).EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Most likely.S. One project is underway to develop an intercooled. baseload and peaking power. sponsored by a group of international electric and gas utilities (see Recent Developments in Advanced Cycles).4 MW at its continuous-duty ISO operating condition. recuperated and intercooled industrial gas turbines that are attractively priced could provide power to intermediate-duty customers at lower cost than they are currently paying to regulated distribution companies and could also reduce greenhouse emissions appreciably. Currently. No gas turbine has yet been developed for an application requiring the performance features of such a machine. The cost. intercooling will be applied first on gas turbines with high pressure ratios. recuperated gas turbine. As shown. little efficiency is sacrificed by the intercooled. but few new products (other than the Mercury 50 and microturbines) have been developed specifically for the distributed generation market. recuperated gas turbine is smaller than a diesel engine of comparable power.
the decreasing effects of Reynolds number-related phenomena such as wall frictional pressure drop. and larger units were built to compete favorably with diesel engines. and the ability to produce blade and vane profiles with less aerodynamic flow losses in larger sizes. both industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines have increased in size from the small units built in the 1950s-60s to the larger ones of recent vintage. 2-16 .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Figure 2-11 Comparison of Part-Load Efficiency of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines Size Considerations Gas Turbine Systems Historically. The newer. Several small gas turbines are old models that have recently found a market niche. • • This latter improvement is due to a more favorable ratio of volume to surface phenomena. As sales of gas turbines increased over the years. such as decreased percentage of blade tip leakage. larger turbines employ advanced technology to reach higher efficiency and specific power and lower cost per kilowatt. The progression from small to larger sizes illustrates a combination of three phenomena: • Increasing turbine inlet temperature (via improved high-temperature materials and the introduction of internal blade and vane cooling) with corresponding increases in power and efficiency Increasing compressor and turbine component efficiencies (due to research on the flow of air in turbomachinery passages) over time Increasing turbine efficiency as a consequence of an increase in physical size. manufacturers had cash to develop new products.
efficiency. At low volumetric flow rates. Most of the plot points fall in a broad. Additionally. multi-bladed. typically over 2 MW.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Gas Turbine Component Selection Very small gas turbines. and durability required of a turbine in their application. axial-flow compressor or turbine of comparable overall pressure ratio. in terms of gas turbine products on the market. 2-17 . Other combinations. typically below 250 kW in size. centrifugal compressors are often combined with axial-flow expansion turbines. not on sales of a few units. proportionately higher tip leakage. central band sweeping upward and to the right. In this transition size range. Points above the band are modern aeroderivative engines (signified by an “A”) and the recently introduced recuperated industrial gas turbine (“R”). typically older. Gas turbines have an optimum pressure ratio for maximum efficiency and another optimum pressure ratio for maximum specific power. and the cost and weight of gearboxes for turboshaft and helicopter engine applications. These optimum pressure ratios increase with increasing turbine inlet temperature. where efficiency is not a major product selection criteria. Numerous texts exist on the topic of turbomachinery and turbine system design. Figure 2-12 shows efficiency as a function of machine power rating for commercially available gas turbines in the 300 kW to 5 MW size range. while larger sized gas turbines. the manufacturer presumably has optimized the pressure ratio for the turbine inlet temperature and business application. use axial-flow compressors and turbines. For each gas turbine presented in the figure. Commercial users should focus mainly on the cost. Points below the band are low-cost. the blade heights of axial-flow compressors and turbines become very small. broad market considerations. to increased efficiency with increased size. These designs are most efficient at their respective sizes for a number of technical and economic reasons. which can then operate with higher pressure ratios per stage than possible with axial-flow compressors. from 250 kW to 2 MW. and designers must consider numerous factors including manufacturing and development cost. typically increases over time as technology advances. gas turbines made for emergency power. incurring large viscous surface pressure loss. and other size-related phenomena affecting compressor efficiency. the performance differences of these components compete. such as a few stages of axial-flow compression followed by a centrifugal or mixed-flow stage. use centrifugal (radial-outflow) compressors and radial-inflow turbines. Component selection is also affected by experience with specific components and by part availability. output shaft speed. The specific power maximum occurs at a higher pressure ratio than that for maximum efficiency. the relative cost of a single-stage radial-flow compressor or turbine is much less than the cost of a multi-staged. In the transition size range. which. and manufacturers evaluate these tradeoffs based on long-term. Gas turbine flow path design tradeoffs are complex. have also been used in this size range.
In selecting a small gas turbine.50/million Btu (MMBtu).EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Figure 2-12 Efficiency of Small Gas Turbines Source: Turbomachinery International Handbook Users concerned with the most advantageous gas turbine for their application should focus on their particular economics. and the corresponding variation in gas turbine cost straddle the price and performance range of many competitive products. and depreciation). a very important parameter is the annual full power capacity factor. 5000 hr/yr of operation. and a capital charge factor of 20% (combined interest.4% (12.000 Btu/kWh) to 31. Generally. Example of a Tradeoff As a simple tradeoff. This 1000 Btu/kWh heat rate decrease. taxes.000 Btu/kWh). higher efficiency equipment costs more to manufacture and carries a premium for the increased benefits to the user. As the power generation machine gets more use per year.50/kW of gas turbine cost.0% (11. The formula for this tradeoff is: dC = –d(HR) x (FP) x (D)/i Where – d = differential operator C = Cost ($/kW) HR = heat rate (Btu/kWh) 2-18 . it accumulates more hours over which to spread its fixed carrying charges and is better able to pay a higher price for a higher efficiency. or increase in efficiency from 28. This calculation assumes a fuel cost of $4. a decrease in heat rate of 1000 Btu/kWh results in the same electricity cost reduction as a decrease of $112. insurance.
EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description FP = fuel price ($/Btu) D = annual duration of use (hr/yr) i = capital charge factor (as a decimal. however. In humidification. it is the most economic system for large units. The Use of Steam to Increase Efficiency Steam Injection Gas turbine exhaust heat can be used to generate steam in a boiler. central station systems before their complexity and cost is reduced enough for them to be economically advantageous in small gas turbines for distributed generation and industrial cogeneration. Combined Cycles Combined cycles use the turbine exhaust to raise steam in a separate boiler. 2-19 . Today the vast majority of new baseload power plants use the combined cycle. carbon monoxide [CO]. larger amounts of steam can be raised in a humidifier than in an HRSG. or the results will be off by a factor of one million. with much larger mass flow in the expansion turbine than through the compressor. such as steam addition by adiabatic saturation (humidification) and reaction of fuel and steam in a catalytic heat exchanger (chemical recuperator) have been considered in analytical studies but have not resulted in commercial development. but to date. Europe. Additional power is then produced by a steam turbine. The steam can be injected into the combustor or turbine. not as a percentage). and carbon dioxide [CO2] per MWh generated). is not possible in existing gas turbines because they are designed for approximately equal mass flows in the compressor and expansion turbine sections. Switching from coal-fired steam to natural gas-fueled combined-cycle plants reduces CO2 emissions by more than a factor of two. but also for their environmental advantages (extremely low emissions of NOx. manufacturers have not invested in it because it lacks the power generation industry’s interest. steam injection into the combustor requires additional fuel to maintain turbine inlet temperature. chemical recuperators and humidifiers are generally considered by gas turbine manufacturer and power generation business executives to be candidates first for large. Combined-cycle plants are being installed in great numbers in the United States. These turbine plants are expected to help industrial nations to meet the Kyoto protocol regarding CO2 emissions. so care must be taken to convert the fuel price to $/Btu. Using such large amounts of steam. or HRSG. compressed air and hot. Fuel prices are usually quoted in $/MMBtu. More complex cycles. With its very high efficiency and modest cost. often called a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). which is more constrained by the heat transfer pinch point consideration. generating additional power by increasing mass flow through the turbine. and Japan not only for economic reasons. Due to their complexity and cost. Using the unfired gas turbine exhaust heat source. Such a turbine could be built. pressurized water are passed in opposite directions in a combined heat and mass exchanger called a humidification tower (see Recent Developments in Advanced Cycles). However.
Fuel chemical purity specifications regarding fuel sulfur and alkalis have been getting tighter as more is learned about the details of oxidation. Performance increases have been obtained with compressor blade coatings that provide a smooth surface. much effort was directed at increasing turbine inlet temperature. Recent progress in high-temperature capability has been made in the field of controlled solidification of gas turbine blades. only as continuous-duty machines). Controlled solidification avoids the weaknesses that exist at grain boundaries due to the polycrystalline nature of conventionally produced materials. each produced by a different controlled solidification technique. Steam cycles cannot economically utilize cycle temperatures over 1050ºF (570ºC). reducing wall shear forces and pressure drop. The turbine’s modest pressure ratio results in a high enough gas turbine exhaust temperature that the steam is generated at high enough pressure and temperature to yield very low-cost electricity. Department of Defense (DOD) and jet engine developers have been pushing materials’ temperature capabilities higher and higher. sulfidation. in the temperature range of 1050ºF (570ºC) down to 750ºF (400ºC). they generate less steam at lower pressures. Note that such high-temperature blades become more expensive as the technology for their manufacture becomes more complex 2-20 . but because of their substantially lower gas turbine exhaust temperature. the Rankine (steam) cycle is more efficient in generating electricity than is the Brayton (gas turbine) cycle. These coatings prevent or delay fouling of the compressor blades and losses in compressor and gas turbine efficiency. while the gas turbine can. In the early days of gas turbines (1950s and ’60s). are obtaining increased creep strength at slightly higher temperatures from available materials. INCO 713 and 713 LC (low carbon). diffusion in metals. modest pressure ratio gas turbines (the same as those used for peaking applications. High-Temperature Materials and Component Engineering Both power output and efficiency increase with turbine inlet temperature. These materials.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Combined-cycle plants use large. The U. using current metallurgy and blade coatings. Turbine blade coatings for protection against metal degradation and overheating were developed and are in use on blades of newer stationary gas turbines. have been around for over 30 years. in one form or another. aeroderivative gas turbines have been considered for combined-cycle applications.S. High pressure ratio. Gas turbine users should be aware of the extent to which they should specify low sulfur and low alkali content in their fuel purchases and the need to select sites and filter inlet air to reduce salt and dust ingestion into the gas turbine. 700 and 710. Alloys used for gas turbine blades and vanes include IN 100. with the exhaust ducted into HRSGs. which provide steam to a separate steam turbine. as well as decades of proprietary development by gas turbine manufacturers and blade and vane suppliers. and Waspaloy. so each is preferred in its own most advantageous temperature range. Directionally solidified alloys and single crystal blades. Simply put. High-temperature oxidation and corrosion also limit turbine durability. with lower overall combined-cycle efficiency. Advances included materials with high strength and creep resistance at increasing temperatures and the development of internal cooling of the turbine blades and vanes. and grain boundary phenomena. Internal cooling technology permits higher gas temperatures in the expansion process while keeping the blade material below the levels dictated by its metallurgy. Udimet 500. Extensive research has been sponsored by the Air Force and the Navy for military jet engines.
small. in terms of performance. thereby obtaining more power and higher efficiency. Ceramic coatings must be kept thin. Corrosion-resistant coatings provide a ceramic layer on the turbine blade. Thermal barrier coatings are most effective with the combination of high firing temperatures and internally cooled blades. Compressor discharge air is passed through the base of the blade and through the core of the active portion of the blade to cool the blade material. some as fine as 0. the differential thermal expansion can cause the coating to flake off. as well as medium to large stationary gas turbines. testing.050 inch in heavy-duty and industrial gas turbines and 0. because the coatings reduce temperature more effectively in the underlying material when high heat fluxes occur through the blade surfaces. The cooling air flows through carefully engineered internal passages inside the blades and is discharged into the exhaust from that stage. and the difficulty in recovering development costs for gas turbines with only modest 2-21 . Designed surface roughness features are contained inside these coolant passages to augment heat transfer. however. Internal cooling involves casting cooling passages in the blades. Thermal barrier and corrosion protection coatings have been developed for turbine blades and vanes. insufficient to recover investment in developing. The additional manufacturing cost. Directionally solidified and single crystal blades appear to be too expensive for today’s industrial gas turbines. and more precise manufacture than is considered to be commercially worthwhile today. use internal cooling. The economic tradeoffs in developing internal blade cooling for small gas turbines include higher manufacturing costs and low production volumes. These cooling flows reduce the amount of air available for power generation via expansion in the turbine section. If made too thick. and tooling cooled blades and accompanying disk and vane cooling. This reduction in power is the price paid. vanes. High-temperature capability also entails internal cooling of the turbine vanes or nozzles and combustor liners.020 inch in aeroderivative models. Many small gas turbines use radial-inflow expansion turbines with a more complex internal flowpath. because manufacturers are aware of the technology but have not yet offered such products. which facilitates their manufacture with internal flow passages. for the higher temperature capability. permitting higher temperatures in the gas stream without exceeding the temperature limitations of the blade material itself. Gas turbine manufacturers are always trying to develop more effective internal heat transfer passages inside the blade core to reduce the consumption of cooling air and increase the flow through the turbine. because of their much lower thermal expansion than blade metal. the cost competitiveness of the product. finer holes. and disks with internal cooling passages for very small gas turbines with radial-inflow turbines would require new passage configurations. which drastically reduces the rate at which alkali metal sulfates and other corrosive species attack blades. whose turbine blades are large and basically straight in the radial direction. however. These large gas turbines typically use axialflow expansion turbines. Thermal barrier coatings provide a thin insulating layer on top of the blade and vane surfaces. The manufacture of turbine blades. the limited market at present. To date it has remained impractical to use this technology in blades for radial-inflow turbines. aeroderivative gas turbines exist that have axial-flow expansion turbines rather than radial-flow turbines and have been equipped with cooled blades.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description and sophisticated. Turbine Blade Cooling The high-temperature sections of current aeroderivative gas turbines.
Industrial gas turbines have to compete with both natural gas and diesel oil-fueled reciprocating engines. Reciprocating engines operating on the diesel cycle with oil as fuel employ higher compression ratios than can be used in spark-ignited engines. compression heat-ignited engines are found in this market. their design and purchasers’ selection criteria favor high durability. which lowers efficiency. Reciprocating engine manufacturers typically use the same basic engine block for both fuel types. 2-22 . engines are typically used as emergency generators.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description levels of sales mitigate against investment in such technology. so they resemble stationary engines more than they resemble vehicular engines. the development cost of technology advances in large machines can be written off against many more kilowatts. Liquid fuel is injected in diesel engines after the inlet valve has closed. from competing aftermarket manufacturers. most natural gas-fueled and other spark-ignited engines have lower efficiency than diesels of the same size. However. Diesel engine manufacturers have been developing staged combustion to reduce NOx emissions. have resulted in lower machine cost per kilowatt delivered and increased machine efficiency. particularly in the turbine hot section. so the fuel does not displace combustion air. are often low-cost. 25 kW to about 300 kW. Diesel emissions are being regulated to a greater degree as time progresses. and high efficiency performance. on a highly competitive basis. The largest bore cylinders are just over 3 feet (1 meter) in diameter. because premature ignition (knock) is not a concern. Below about 25 kW. reciprocating engines have the advantage of being manufactured in large volumes. long life. spark-ignited and diesel oil-fueled. In contrast. reciprocating engines are typically large versions of truck engines. however. These advances. Diesel engines typically have greater emissions of NOx and particulates than do spark-ignited engines due to several factors. Reciprocating engines are available in sizes from under a kilowatt up to about 35 MW. reduces the power capability of the engine and consequently increases the specific cost ($/kW) of spark-ignited engines over that of diesel engines. along with derating due to knock limitation concerns (premature ignition). because output is reduced by throttling the air intake rather than by delivering less fuel. Competing Technology – Reciprocating Engines Reciprocating engines compete against gas turbines in the small to intermediate size ranges. From about 300 kW to 1 MW. Such throttling creates an irreversible pressure drop in the cycle and dissipates available work. The reduced air charge per cylinder stroke with gaseous fuel. making siting is more difficult than with spark-ignited natural gas engines. Large ship engines technically are not “stationary”. In sizes below about 300 kW. When operating at part load. they are uniquely designed stationary engines. Their production equipment and tooling is amortized over large numbers of engines. Both natural gas-fueled. including the higher pressure and temperature of combustion and their need for rapid burning to avoid emission of unburned hydrocarbons. as the natural gas goes into the cylinder as a gas at inlet manifold pressure. it displaces its own volume in air and leaves less air for combustion. Diesel cycle engines consequently have somewhat higher efficiencies than sparkignited engines operated at wide-open throttle condition and built with the same engine block and cylinder size. with corresponding economies of scale. From 1 to 35 MW. and their spare parts are widely available. Intermediate sizes. high-volume automobile and truck engines modified for emergency and portable power and for commercial and industrial cogeneration.
reciprocating engines become purpose designed and manufactured in modest quantities. markets. Although larger reciprocating engine are being built today. Long-life. possibly as infrequently as twice or even once per year. as distinguished from reciprocating engines with two sources of recoverable heat (low-temperature jacket cooling water and high-temperature exhaust). Reciprocating engines create noise when the exhaust valves open with a large pressure differential between the 2-23 . In many applications. or about 3000 hours of operation. Both gas turbines and reciprocating engines are getting to the point where maintenance intervals could become dictated by the need to inspect for degradation of parts due to inherent wear and reliability considerations. In intermediate sizes. the gas turbine exhaust’s high temperature and high mass flow are not of major value for water heating. which gas turbines cannot use without compromising reliability or adding cost for fuel cleanup. and benefits of cogeneration. However. rather than due to oil consumption. gas turbines typically provide about double the recovered heat than that obtained from reciprocating engines. In automotive service. have operated with grossly oversize oil sumps and timed additive injection systems so as to permit long service intervals. Heat Recovery and Cogeneration The exhaust stream of a gas turbine is the single source of heat for cogeneration purposes.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description Reciprocating engines also benefit from a broad technology base resulting from their widespread use over the last 100 years. their market niche appears to be based on the use of low-cost fuel. Noise Gas turbines have different noise characteristics than reciprocating engines. When steam at moderate pressures is the heat recovery medium for cogeneration. Numerous reports have been written on the details. which increases their scheduled maintenance interval. marine “cathedral” diesel engines have separate systems for bearing lubricating oil and piston ring sealing oil. Reciprocating engine repair and maintenance personnel are more readily available than are gas turbine repair and maintenance personnel. This results in higher cost per unit of power and more competitive pricing of reciprocating engines and gas turbines in the 3-15 MW size range. up to a few megawatts. but at sizes of several megawatts. while gas turbines do not directly consume oil. the value of the recovered heat makes the economics favorable for the installation of onsite power generation. ignition system tune-up.000 miles. the shared technology and production system continues to benefit reciprocating engines through economies of scale. Typically intermediate and large gas turbines process more air through a smaller volume of machine and are more compact and lighter weight than reciprocating engines. Reciprocating engines. these plugs have lives in excess of 100. very small cogeneration systems frequently use hot water for heat recovery and distribution. platinumtipped spark plugs are now available commercially for spark-ignited engines. particularly stationary diesel engines. Interested readers are encouraged to pursue such knowledge from commercial system vendors and research reports. These factors present a severely competitive environment for industrial gas turbines. The single source of recovered heat usually makes the heat recovery system installation simpler and less expensive per kilowatt added. including residual oil. Also. Large. or surface wear. engines consume oil for cylinder lubrication.
Care must be taken in trying to achieve ultra-low levels of NOx emissions with SCR. offers the possibility of practical operation at high temperature with extremely low emissions levels. Old. less power is sacrificed in mufflers than is needed to achieve the same end level of quiet. Emissions and Environmental Concerns The first gas turbine combustors were designed to obtain flame stability in an extremely compact flame zone. This worked well. but they also attenuate noise created by the compressor that would otherwise be radiated from the air inlet. premixed air/fuel mixtures on the surface of a catalyst. Recuperators and heat recovery steam generators muffle turbine exhaust. Gas turbine noise comes from the whine of blades passing flow openings in both the compressor and turbine. Catalytic combustion. like the roar of racing car and airplane engines. Catalytic combustion is an alternative to SCR for NOx reduction. More recently. yet much pollution reduction chemistry is based on perfect mixing. to reduce the NOx to molecular nitrogen and water vapor. Because gas turbine noise is of an aerodynamic nature rather than that of pressure waves. which reduce net power somewhat. so they require less muffling than do reciprocating engines to achieve specified levels of noise. or a urea-based reagent. This sound. Catalytic combustion achieves low NOx by reacting lean. obtaining such perfect mixing is difficult. Typical gas turbines produce 85 dB noise at 3 meters. Aircraft jet engine exhaust noise is created by shearing action which exists between exhaust jets and the surrounding (stationary) air. because the sound is broken up while passing through the internal passages of the heat exchange surfaces. Inlet air filters are usually used to remove dirt and mineral matter. gas turbine users often turn to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for additional NOx reduction. In practice. Gas turbines do not have anything like the pressure pulses created when exhaust valves open. fuel was injected as a jet and mixed with combustion air by turbulent diffusion into the air stream. diffusion-flame combustors with high-temperature “hot spots” are no longer used in most areas of the United States with air quality problems. In the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. Additionally. turbine exhaust can be muffled when required for use in commercial applications where noise would be objectionable. NOx emissions were first reduced by lowering hot spot temperature and size by controlling the fuel/air mixing and by injecting water or steam into the hot spots. which can be attenuated further at modest cost.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description combustion products remaining in the cylinders and the atmosphere. In these “diffusion flame” combustors. Additional noise is created by the flow in the compressor and turbine as it is periodically disrupted by the passage of bladed wheels. These newer designs are called lean pre-mixed as well as dry low-NOx. SCR uses a catalyst and ammonia. Typically. requires the use of mufflers. as imperfect combustion gas and reagent mixing can result in the “slip” of unreacted reagent together with the release of a remnant of the original NOx. further reductions were achieved by mixing the fuel and air prior to ignition (lean pre-mixed combustion) so that combustion occurs in zones that are substantially lean with lower adiabatic flame temperature. When emissions must reach levels below those readily achievable with existing combustors. but in some regions the fuel was burning in near-stoichiometric proportions. Turbine exhaust is frequently pointed upwards to reduce the noise level reaching people nearby. the active irritant in smog. creating high-temperature zones that produced high levels of NOx. a promising technology. NOx and unburned hydrocarbons react to produce ozone. catalytic combustors are larger 2-24 .
which evaluated what could be accomplished with technology then under development using the newest. degradation and the need for periodic catalyst replacement. for now. high-performance gas turbines appear to have converged with turbine inlet (average) temperature in the range of 2600ºF (1430ºC). and little information has been released for industry-wide use. It is expected that products with low emissions (9 ppm NOx at 15% O2) in most size ranges will enter the market very soon. as progressively less investment is needed to develop them. most advanced. As manufacturers’ experience matures. With lean pre-mixed combustion. and the gas turbine world has since been awaiting the release of commercial high. it becomes easier and less expensive to apply the technology to products with smaller sales volumes. The entire catalytic products field is extremely secretive. Turbine products with the greatest sales volumes have been the first to benefit from such development. large gas turbines. chemical recuperation. The gas turbines considered as starting points were those under development by industry. the turbine and combustor technologies of large. Later advancements included steam and water injection. Manufacturers of small gas turbines. some with DOE support. and other applications became possibilities for power generation as well. humidification. Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles The earliest improvement in the Brayton cycle. Laboratory evaluation catalytic combustion units have shown that in steady operation for modest duration. As technology in chemical engineering and other fields developed. if they are not there already. new aeroderivative turbines (those used on new military and new jumbo passenger jets) and large (250-MW) central station power plants have turbine blade cooling technology capable of utilizing combustion products as hot as 2600ºF (1430ºC). and the newest large 2-25 . have been busy developing lean pre-mixed combustors that can deliver low NOx combustion products in the 2100º-2400ºF (1150º-1320ºC) temperature range for their products. which uses turbine exhaust heat to preheat combustor inlet air. more polluting products will still be made for sites with minimal air pollution control requirements. and the development cost of a product for a geographically limited market. as that is where the greatest profits lie. Issues facing practical catalytic combustion include durability and catalyst life.and medium-temperature catalytic combustors for general use. The results were reported in Evaluation of Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles (GRI-93/0250). new products by about a decade. was the addition of a recuperator. upon which gas turbines are based. this level was reached at least five years ago. emissions close to 1 ppm can be achieved at 15% oxygen (O2) and at turbine inlet temperatures around 2600ºF (1430ºC). Other early advancements were the intercooler and the combined cycle. such as third world and offshore applications. However. Small aeroderivative and industrial gas turbine hot-section technology typically lags behind that of the leading large. NOx formation becomes appreciable at local temperature conditions of 2800ºF (1540ºC). startup operation. Older.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description than diffusion-flame or lean premixed combustors and often require modification of the gas turbine housing. mechanical integrity during transient conditions. the temperature of the combustion products can be controlled so that this limit is not exceeded. both aeroderivative and industrial. Recent Developments in Advanced Cycles In 1992 GRI contracted with Fluor Daniel for an evaluation of advanced gas turbine cycles. Thus. Only large.
typical of central station equipment. This decision. which might be considered for use on small gas turbines. recuperated gas turbine (24. but the actual performance (efficiency and power) and economics would be less favorable in small gas turbines due to economic and engineering advantages of scale. Current stationary gas turbine development. Intercoolers are used in industrial air compressors and on truck and some automobile turbochargers. This engine. rather than “rubber” engines (idealized engines of an arbitrary size to enable comparisons to be made at specific power levels). The other advanced cycles are applicable mainly to large. had a power output about double that of the stationary version of the basic aircraft propulsion engine alone. The range of gas turbine size was 75-250 MW. 2) the intercooled and steam-injected cycle. then during the summer it can be injected into the gas turbine to generate additional power for the air conditioning load. the simplest configurations are the intercooled cycle and the intercooled and steam-injected cycle. Consequently. partially in conjunction with DOE’s advanced turbine system (ATS) program. the plants in the study delivered power outputs of varying capacity. central station baseload power generation. and intercooled and recuperated cycles were described in earlier sections. intercooled. (The recuperated.) Of these cycles. sponsored research on how to adapt these large. large central station generation machines. and 4) the humidified air cycle.4 MW continuous-duty ISO rating) being developed for ship propulsion. The four most promising advanced cycles identified were 1) the intercooled cycle based on an aeroderivative gas turbine. 3) the intercooled and chemically recuperated cycle. as well as on the Navy’s intercooled. These improvements include increasing the pressure ratio and mass flow by adding stages ahead of the first stage (zero staging) and improving the hot-section materials and blade and vane cooling by using recent technology advances. 2-26 . The studies took as their point of departure actual engines. the addition of an intercooler.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description aeroderivative machines. Readers interested in these cycles are referred to the cited report. thereby upgrading the turbine inlet temperature capability. yet turbine manufacturers have expressed little apparent interest in developing any of the options for advanced cycle. new aeroderivative turbines (the type used for propulsion of the Boeing 777 and 747 aircraft) for more attractive commercial use. An interesting fit for steam injection exists in areas where both heating and air conditioning are important applications. the CAGT group focused on the Intercooled Aeroderivative (ICAD) engine. and other modifications. with an increase in pressure ratio. Intercooling heat exchangers are not believed to require substantial development for stationary power applications. called the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine (CAGT) group. The technical conclusions apply to smaller sizes. The cost model was that of the architectengineering profession that designs and builds large central station power plants. Seven years have passed since the advanced gas turbine report was published. 15 cycles were analyzed for efficiency and cost. Additionally during the early 1990s. Steam injection has been used with gas turbines as small as 5 MW in industrial applications for well over a decade. which had the newest technology. After evaluating aeroderivative gas turbine-based combined cycles. In all. to base the analysis of potential future engines on improvements in existing engines. was made because gas turbine development is quite expensive. a private group consisting mainly of electric and gas utility companies. Steam can be used for heating during the winter. and most new models are based on improvements in existing models.
m. the compressor is split into three sections by the addition of two intercoolers. it requires a special expansion turbine engineered for the greater mass flow. this means few droplets 2-27 . Development of humidifiers to operate with gas turbines has been under way. Humidified gas turbine cycles have been discussed and analyzed for at least a decade. As in conventional inlet air cooling. as an option on its large. In the CHAT system. thereby augmenting the mass flow into the combustor and turbine. when the ambient (dry bulb) temperature is 100ºF (38ºC). to 6 a. new. The reported estimated cost for such a CHAT cycle gas turbine is between $700 and $750/kW. These benefits have to be considered in light of the added cost of such a system. and the efficiency is claimed to be 46. Solar manufactures recuperators for microturbines and other turbines. and consequently more power and higher efficiency. 501 gas turbines. but the amount of water sprayed is greater than what is needed to cool the inlet air to saturation. without deleterious effects on the machine. Although this increases cycle efficiency. In addition to the Mercury 50. in addition to evaporative cooling. the wet compression option provides fog cooling of the inlet air. With conventional size distribution of droplets. as has work on a gas turbine specifically engineered for operation with a humidifier. Such a product could well be attractive for distributed generation applications. when baseload plants would be operating at little over marginal cost of production and the transmission lines have plenty of unused capacity. which could also reduce cost. Perhaps the emerging distributed generation market will provide an impetus for developing improved machines of higher power density and increased efficiency. A recuperator is used ahead of the combustor. The compressed air is sent to a humidification tower where water contacts and evaporates into the air.4%. the recuperated cycle is used in the TF-1500 tank engine and in recently commercialized microturbines. Although this is not particularly difficult. only with a greater amount of water vapor in the expansion gas. Recuperated cycles have been practiced for over 50 years in the retrofit of pipeline compressor station gas turbine drives. Humidifiers add a greater quantity of water vapor to the compressed air than do HRSGs. Wet Compression Recently Siemens Westinghouse has offered wet compression. It could be operated at a high annual load factor because it can economically compete with grid power at most times of the day. The inlet fog is controlled so few droplets (measured by mass) are larger than 20 microns in diameter. It has been recently reported that a 12-MW cascaded humidified advanced turbine (CHAT) system is being considered for development. As an example.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description appears to be concentrated in the field of higher turbine inlet temperature to reach lower specific cost and higher efficiency.). so a sufficient market must be perceived to recover product development costs. on a W 501 D5A. Dow Chemical has practiced wet compression on Westinghouse W 501 gas turbines for over five years. The exception is during deep night hours (typically 11 p. The combustion products then pass through an expansion turbine designed for the augmented mass flow. Humidification adds water vapor (steam) to the compressed air flowing into the combustor. it does requires engineering and testing. This is similar to steam injection.m. A slight decrease in heat rate (increase in efficiency) of 1-2% results from the implementation of such combined processes. the power increases from 102 MW to 109 MW with evaporative cooling and to 126 MW with evaporative cooling and wet compression.
which are focused on more effective hot-section (blade and vane) cooling. fixed power plant costs were recovered through the regulatory process in the rate base. the Mercury 50 enjoyed substantial DOE support. Because of the large opportunity for profit in baseload power plant and mobile engine markets. If the market for the new product encroaches upon the existing market. six W 501 D5s have recently been to converted to wet compression. and aircraft).S. This machine’s operating characteristics (efficiency. and concern for minimum maintenance and quick repair) were focused on the requirements of the intermediate-duty market.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description over 10 microns when the size distribution is counted on a number basis. to date there have been insufficient sales to provide major incentive for developing new products for intermediate duty. This difference in how droplets are counted is important. and improved compressor flow path efficiency. The fine fog carries over into the compressor itself. These DOD gas turbine advancements pass down into the utility and industrial gas turbine products via professional society technical papers and the migration of engineers from one gas turbine manufacturer to another as business activity in these sectors waxes and wanes. these applications attracted large investment in advanced technology and new products. Since the energy crises of the 1970s. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported R&D on gas turbines for utility and industrial applications and in several other energy fields that were previously the exclusive domain of the private sector. Fuel cost is the largest variable cost in power production. engineers concentrated on increasing efficiency to reduce fuel cost. The exception to this is the Mercury 50. Substantial decreases in compressor work result from such continuous intercooling of the first few stages of compression. utility power equipment was purchased mainly for baseload and peaking applications. Additionally. truck. While a modest market (in comparison to the baseload market) has existed for industrial power and cogeneration. a 3. the new product would merely displace the manufacturer’s existing product. recuperated gas turbine recently developed and introduced by Solar Turbines. In fact. and the mass of the droplets increases as the cube of the diameter. In the historic market. Most of this effort has concentrated on improving the cycle efficiency of large. the U. evaporating as the air increases in pressure and heats up.8 MW (continuous-duty rating). This economic criterion involves comparing the development cost with the expected increase in profits that can be attributed to the introduction of the new product. baseload. because the large. boat. heavy droplets are the ones that cause the damage to compressor blades. and the circumstances typically do not favor such an investment. price per kW. Consequently. The decision to develop a new or substantially improved piece of power generation equipment for the industrial (and commercial) power market depends on the economics of obtaining an adequate return on investment. Siemens Westinghouse offers wet compression only on its largest gas turbines. central station plants and the efficiency and power of engines (automotive. Investment in the Development of New Products Engineers have been inventing and analyzing innovative power generation cycles since the science of thermodynamics was born. and historically. engineers tended to have an intellectual dislike for wasting resources. Aeroderivative gas turbines benefit directly from DOD R&D programs. 42% efficiency (LHV). The decision to invest in the development of a new gas turbine 2-28 . Based on successful operation and lack of problems. hot-section materials development.
Only when such business analyses show adequate return on investment are development projects begun. leading to much discussion of alternative fuels and new energy conversion technology. Deregulation of domestic natural gas production accomplished a 2-29 . resolvable by political means or by additional petroleum production. During 2000. Extreme petroleum supply variations are mitigated somewhat by OPEC’s concern with the effect that major alternative energy investments might have on petroleum demand. These experiments found that gas turbines work most reliably with very clean fuels. or the cost of high-temperature heat exchangers to operate in a dirty. Due to the high cost of both technology and product development. followed by adaptation for large central station gas turbines. major energy companies are now determining what their options are. solid fuel. were tested. and only a few commercial fluidized-bed clean coal combustion steam plants have been built in the United States. and petroleum discoveries are increasing in non-OPEC locales. and financial analyses of the time profiles of development and market entry costs and future sales and profits. engineering planning of the development activity. It is expected that when adequate market expansion indications are perceived. Today. Petroleum prices of $38/barrel. In the field of alternative energy resources. Not all new industrial products receive the market success of the Xerox dry photocopier machine. Many of those fluidized-bed plants that have been built recently are economic principally because they burn a low-grade. hot gas environment. only one synthetic fuel plant is operating. Business leaders appear to expect that political and free-market forces will restore a comfortable equilibrium in petroleum price and supply. quite inexpensive. Although the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) exerts partial control of petroleum production. which protect the blade surface from corrosion and deposits for an appreciable period of time. No commercial solar electric plants (as distinguished from subsidized demonstration plants) are being built for commodity power generation. diesel fuel. heating oil. after the energy crises of 1973 and 1979. and none is expected to be built in the foreseeable future.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description involves market research. gas turbine technology advancement usually follows a path of initiation for aeronautical application. Gas turbines being made today exclusively burn very clean fuels. substantial amounts are now produced by non-OPEC countries. Prior price spikes and supply shortages caused major inconveniences to individuals and businesses. Gas turbine blade coatings were developed and are in use. and consequential high gasoline. Apparently the business community views the current circumstances of petroleum price volatility as temporary phenomena. was found to be excessive for commercial purposes. the development of new power generation products will be undertaken. Alternative Fuels During the energy crisis several alternative gas turbine fuels. have increased public ire but are insufficient to trigger business decisions to switch to alternatives. and jet fuel prices. should a real need for a replacement of oil as the major energy resource develop. such as heavy (residual) oil and direct and indirect firing of coal and biomass. Development work on the use of solid fuels has essentially ended because the cleanup cost of solid-fuel combustion products. The power equipment and generation industries are traditionally conservative. the high prices of oil and natural gas are a concern. and then diffusion into the medium and small industrial gas turbine products. and their effect on fuel choice for gas turbines is being discussed.
EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Technology Description return to market forces in the 1980s. In the near future major corporations cannot be expected to make substantial investments in alternative energy resources or to develop highly efficient but expensive technology unless they expect economic benefits at petroleum prices below $40/bbl. during this transition from one era to the next. Unfortunately. and business leaders most likely expect this to continue. painful price spikes can be expected from time to time. 2-30 .
nonetheless. This avoids hot spots – regions where the fuel/air mixture burns in near-stoichiometric proportions. low emission gas turbine combustion systems includes diluent injection (water or steam) and lean premixed (LPM) approaches. Emission Control Technology Gas turbine emission control technologies are continuing to evolve. Factors contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology. onsite generation can provide added reliability as well as leverage in negotiating the cost of purchased power. and the environmental impact is minimal in terms of air emissions. 3-1 . the opportunities for small gas turbine installations will grow.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material 3 EMISSION CONTROL & CATALYTIC COMBUSTION Introduction The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly. One of the key issues addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions. LPM combustors. with older technologies being gradually phased out as new technologies are developed and commercialized. can differ in hardware from manufacturer to manufacturer. also referred to as dry low emissions (DLE) or dry low NOx (DLN). such controls have been mandated by stringent regional air quality regulations in many parts of the country. but the principle is the same. operating and siting flexibility – due largely to gas turbines’ clean emissions profile – and low capital cost in medium and large units. LPM combustors are now offered on nearly all new gas turbines and as retrofits for existing popular models. For the customer. the equipment is not visible externally. In the approaching competitive power market. Small. Avoidance of local hot spot conditions inhibits NOx formation through thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. particularly NOx emissions. public opposition to visible signs of industrial activity manifests itself in community resistance to distribution lines and large power plants. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for onsite generation. Beyond the issue of cost. LPM combustors reduce peak flame temperatures by mixing fuel and air before combustion and by keeping the fuel-to-air ratio as low (lean) as possible. a trend predicted to continue well into the future. but the project economics will more than likely be negatively impacted by such regulations. onsite generation can be permitted along with the building itself. In a competitive market. The evolution of cost-effective. It has been recognized that add-on emission control technologies are cost-prohibitive in small gas turbine sizes. creating high-temperature zones that produce high levels of NOx. it could be more cost-effective to install small distributed generation units like gas turbines within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations requiring expansion of the transmission and distribution system. fuel is readily available. Decades of R&D have significantly reduced gas turbine NOx emissions from uncontrolled levels.
with less NOx resulting at specified combustor outlet conditions. Thermal degradation results from loss of surface area caused by sintering and volatilization of active metals. catalytic combustion has the advantage of less severe flame stability problems (less vibration and noise at extremely lean chemical conditions). The primary benefit of LPM gas turbine combustors. only one-tenth to one-hundredth the levels measured in the same turbine equipped with DLN combustors. by reducing combustion instability and acoustics. An additional issue with catalytic combustors is the durability of the catalyst.S. Catalytic combustors are being developed to control NOx emissions down to 3 ppm. single-digit NOx ppm levels but have failed to produce combustion systems with suitable operating lifetimes. lean premixed combustion. 3-2 . Catalytic combustion at atmospheric pressure has a long history of development for industrial. local pockets of rich fuel mixtures can exist near the fuel injector and ignite. Although the air/fuel ratios are well below the lean flammability limit. is to minimize local combustion temperatures. such as platinum. so that combustion occurs at local temperatures below which significant NOx quantities are formed. DOE and the California Energy Commission (CEC). Gas turbine catalytic combustion technology is being pursued by developers of combustion systems and gas turbines and by government agencies.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Ratcheting emissions limitations are driving further improvements in low emission combustion technology. This means that leaner mixtures become practical to burn. Research suggests that the catalyst will deteriorate during prolonged operation at high temperature. Mixing must be achieved quickly to prevent fuel-rich pockets from forming. allowing fuel oxidation to occur at temperatures approximately 1800oF (980oC) lower than those of conventional diffusion-flame combustors. Past efforts at developing catalytic combustors for gas turbines have achieved low. This assures effective use of the entire catalyst area and prevents damage to the substrate due to local high gas temperatures. One problem with catalytic combustors is the potential for autoignition of the fuel upstream of the catalyst. stable combustion stability. Gas turbine manufacturers are pursuing “ultra-lean” premix. composition. This was typically due to high-temperature and cycling damage and to the brittle nature of the materials used for catalysts and catalyst support systems. This reduces thermal NOx production and. Catalytic combustion is a flameless process. which is affected by flame stability (undesirable vibrations and acoustics that tend to occur as the lean limit is approached). and low acoustics without requiring high-cost exhaust clean-up methods. most notably the U. commercial. and in theory should not be susceptible to autoignition. and velocity profile to be completely uniform. and residential applications. both conventional and catalytic. the presence of a catalyst allows fuel to be very lean throughout the combustion mixture. Preliminary test data indicate that catalytic combustion exhibits low vibration and acoustic noise. allows combustion to proceed well below the stability limit of diffusion flames. Catalytic Combustion for Gas Turbines In catalytic combustion. which oxidizes at temperatures above 2010oF (1100oC). Compared to noncatalytic. which pushes the theoretical limits of LPM techniques without compromising efficiency improvements or turbine durability. Optimum catalyst performance also requires the inlet air/fuel mixture’s temperature. The potential benefit for gas turbine catalytic combustors is to allow a lean premixed combustor to achieve ultra-low NOx (low single-digit ppm).
with support from GRI.” builds upon Alzeta’s industrial radiant burner. Catalytic combustors capable of achieving NOx levels below 3 ppm are in full-scale demonstration. Catalytic Combustion System Developers Leading developers of ultra-low emissions systems for gas turbines include: • • • Alzeta Corporation. Periodic catalyst replacement might be acceptable to turbine operators. Small gas turbines can be expected to be turned on and off frequently – perhaps daily or even more often – and catalyst durability must remain uncompromised by the accompanying thermal cycling.. Recent tests funded by CEC and DOE have shown simultaneous emissions of less than 2 ppm for NOx. catalytic combustion small gas turbine would be regarded as a special. these efforts have evolved to the point where practical application of catalytic combustion in gas turbine systems has become feasible. CT (PCI) Alzeta Since the mid-1990s. While each catalytic combustor design is unique. and microturbines. Durability of the catalyst module has not yet been proven and must be achieved in a practical and economic manner for commercialization to be achieved. The technology has potential application to large central station gas turbines. the engineering development costs of gas turbine modification must be acceptable in terms of the expected market size and purchaser action timetable. Solar Turbines. Despite lower emissions being mandated in California and other areas with severe air pollution.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Currently. a higher cost. For gas turbine manufacturers to offer catalytic combustion commercially. such levels are not required in many segments of the world market where small gas turbines are sold. 3-3 . called the “surface stabilized combustor. Although this might be technically feasible. New Haven. Inc. Mountain View. and Westinghouse. product for a market niche. Alzeta has been working with support from CEC and other industry partners on developing ultra-low emission combustors for gas turbine systems. but the cost. CO. Gas turbine partners throughout this development have included Honeywell (previously AlliedSignal). Should periodic catalyst replacement become the norm. Alzeta’s approach. higher priced. CA (Catalytica) Precision Combustion.. Consequently. Although catalytic combustion has yet to be fully commercialized in the marketplace. replacement costs would be handled as an operation and maintenance (O&M) cost. the complete catalyst replacement interval. Santa Clara. Inc. CA (Alzeta) Catalytica Combustion Systems. the cost of such special housings adds to the total to be considered. most are larger than conventional combustors and probably would require enlargement of the gas turbine housing. and the turbine reliability between catalyst replacement must not compromise the turbine’s availability. and investment in its development has to be examined in the perspective of its limited market. Previously. and unburned hydrocarbons. Alzeta had developed fiber matrix radiant burners for industrial applications that provided many of the beneficial features of catalytic combustors without the high cost of conventional precious metal catalysts. catalytic combustor developers and gas turbine manufacturers are testing nonbrittle metal catalytic and “partial catalytic” systems that are intended to overcome the problems of past efforts. industrial size gas turbines.
PCI is also working with other gas turbine manufacturers under shorter term agreements. Catalytically stabilized thermal combustors (generally called catalytic combustors) use catalytic surface reactions to extend the lean stability limit of gas-phase combustion. To avoid damaging the metal substrate. an all-metal catalyst substrate that eliminates the potential problems associated with the limitations of high-temperature ceramic substrates. Catalytica performed a successful 1000-hour test of the Xonon catalytic combustor in a 1. Xonon catalytic combustors have also been tested in large GE turbines at the GE test facility in Schenectady. efficient.5-MW Kawasaki gas turbine that concluded in mid-November 1997. invented the first gas turbine catalytic combustor in 1970. the maximum temperature reached in the catalyst is limited to approximately 1700oF (930oC). Another 1. GE recently announced a Memorandum of Understanding with Catalytica to develop catalytic combustors for all GE turbine models through Frame 7E (78 MW). Approximately 50% of the fuel is oxidized in the catalyst. CA. Pratt & Whitney Canada. and Kawasaki. William Pfefferle. and sell low single-digit NOx catalytic combustors for Siemens Westinghouse’s F. and reliability. G. Catalytica has formed working relations with General Electric (GE). natural gas-fueled combustor operation at air inlet temperatures less than 750ºF (400ºC) with emissions of NOx below 3 ppm and CO below 5 ppm at burner outlet temperatures above 2800ºF (1540ºC). All fuel and air is added upstream of the catalyst. PCI is developing gas turbine catalytic combustors that enable low single-digit ppm emissions along with high combustion stability and a wide operating range. Rolls-Royce. and ATS class combustion turbines. PCI Applications for gas turbines have been under development around the world since Dr. These catalytic combustors are expected to combine clean emissions with efficient high firing temperatures and wide turndown stability. allowing stable and complete combustion to occur at cooler temperatures and shorter average residence times than otherwise required. PCI’s advanced technology catalytic combustor is attracting interest from government agencies as well as from power-generation and industrial gas turbine manufacturers. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation and PCI have a long-term business agreement to develop. Catalytica has developed its Xonon™ catalytic combustion system. NOx averaged less than 3 ppm and CO less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15 percent O2) during a test on a Frame 9E turbine. has been equipped with a catalytic combustor that began operation in October 1998 and operated through mid-2000. The remaining 50% of the fuel is oxidized downstream of the catalyst. Multiple approaches are feasible. These devices can achieve the low emissions levels of exhaust treatment technologies such as SCR or SCONOx™ without the associated cost and reduction in gas turbine efficiency. operability. manufacture. which limits the temperature rise. NY. PCI’s chief scientist. 3-4 .5-MW Kawasaki turbine at a cogeneration plant in Santa Clara. Solar Turbines.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Catalytica Catalytica has apparently evolved the farthest toward a practical catalytic combustion system that is nearing commercial readiness. Current PCI catalytic combustors at pressure have demonstrated sustained. A primary PCI thrust is developing clean. ultra-low NOx catalytic combustors for turbines used in central station plants and distributed power generation. with PCI technology tailoring product development to individual application requirements.
Depending on the combustor design. The companies are also participants on awards to gas turbine manufacturers under this solicitation. as well as other gas turbine manufacturers. (Partners: Haynes International. Phoenix. (Partners: CEC. Chevron.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion PCI has other development programs related to catalytic-based enhancements to gas turbine combustion. catalytic gas turbine combustion system with closedloop control. CA. “Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion. • “Demonstration of the Surface Stabilized Combustor for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines. AZ.5-MW.” led by Alzeta. providing a low-cost design upgrade for new machines and the potential for a retrofit product for installed machines.. Solar Turbines. PCI sells catalytic liners for new combustion turbines and for retrofitting existing gas turbines to reduce CO and other emissions. and University of Connecticut). Catalytic combustion must be integrated with the combustor design of individual gas turbine models. (Partners: Rolls-Royce Allison and Solar Turbines. Siemens Westinghouse. Siemens Westinghouse. with DOE funding of $660. and Solar Turbines. with DOE funding of $1. Low Emission Gas Turbine Projects All three of these companies have been awarded contracts under a recent DOE solicitation for Low Emission Gas Turbine Technologies for Distributed Generation. Honeywell Engines & Systems.000. and Vericor Power Systems. A summary of awards is listed below. and increased market acceptance of gas turbines. These small devices are being developed to fit into existing DLN combustor envelopes. fuel-flexible. National Energy Technology Center. are supporting this development. The system will offer low emissions.” led by Catalytica. PCI catalytic combustor technology is also being developed for both liquid-fueled and natural gasfueled gas turbines. Early data indicate high potential for low emissions and cost-effectiveness.” led by Honeywell Engines & Systems. Texas A&M University. wide low emissions turndown. The project partners will research extending the catalyst longevity for use with other turbines and lowering the cost of emissions prevention. Applications include distributed power and mobile sources. grid-connected industrial turbine at Silicon Valley Power in Santa Clara. “Catalytic Combustor for Ultra-Low NOx Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines.4 million. PCI proposes to advance the development of a new catalytic combustion technology that 3-5 • • • . Honeywell Power Systems Manufacturing Resources Inc. (Partners: PCI. with DOE funding of $2 million. with DOE funding of $1. and good operability. development costs and subsequent modification costs to the turbine can vary significantly among models and the various gas turbine manufacturers. PCI is developing catalytic pilot burners to allow conventional state-of-the-art natural gas-fired DLN gas turbine engines to achieve lower NOx emissions with high combustion stability.) Catalytica is commercializing catalytic combustion technology on a 1. fuel flexibility.) The team will develop a novel stabilized combustion technology for industrial gas turbines. “Fuel-Flexible Ultra Low-Emissions Combustion System for Industrial Gas Turbines.” led by PCI.) Honeywell seeks to develop an innovative.6 million. air-staged. DOE and other agencies.
652 6. and 150-MW output ranges.117 0. NOx can be controlled to within a feasible limit for a specific control technology. Table 3-1 Cost Impact Factors for Selected NOx Control Technologies Source: ONSITE Energy Turbine Output Median value NOX EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY DLN (25 ppm) Catalytic Combustion (3 ppm) Water/Steam Injection (42 ppm) Conventional SCR (9 ppm) High Temperature SCR (9 ppm) SCONOx (2 ppm) 5 MW Class $/ton ¢/kWh 25 MW Class $/ton ¢/kWh 150 MW Class $/ton ¢/kWh 260 957 1. to obtain a meaningful comparison.327 0.075 0.841 11.894 * 9-25 ppm "¢/kWh" based on 8.000.202 0.938 2. with DOE funding of $200.240 0.317 0.221 0.146 0.) Solar Turbines proposes a fully integrated catalytic combustion system for the new Mercury 50 gas turbine. and University of California-Irvine. Therefore.054 * 0.541 3.274 7.215 0.124 0.148 16.847 1. This value is determined by dividing the ownership (capital and O&M) cost of the control technology by the tons of NOx removed. Economics This section compares the projected catalytic combustion costs with the costs of the principal emission control technologies being employed or nearing commercialization for reducing NOx in stationary gas turbines. 25-MW.060 210 692 984 3. A relatively lower $/ton value means that the technology is more cost-effective in removing NOx than alternative control technologies.134 0.410 0. the uncontrolled NOx exhaust concentrations must be considered when evaluating the costeffectiveness in terms of $/ton applied to different turbines makes and models.” led by Solar Turbines.530 0.469 0.938 0.000 full load hours The $/ton value is a useful comparative indicator when the inlet and outlet concentrations are the same for each group of technologies being evaluated. “Near Zero NOx Combustion Technology for Advanced Mercury 50 Gas Turbine. (Partners: Catalytica. This limit is largely independent of a gas turbine’s uncontrolled NOx emission rate. The $/ton value indicates the typical cost of a control technology to remove a ton of NOx from the exhaust gas. Combustion Systems Inc. PCI.359 6.204 0.429 122 * 371 476 1. 3-6 .554 2.289 Low Temperature SCR (9 ppm) 5..462 0.152 0.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion • promises many advantages over existing systems. Cost data (Table 3-1) are expressed in dollars per ton of NOx removed ($/ton) and cents per kilowatt-hour (¢/kWh) for gas turbines in the 5-MW.
The majority of base-loaded gas turbines typically operate at lower full-load hours. so actual cost impacts could be significantly higher. This value represents a unit cost for NOx control that must be added to other ownership costs associated with a gas turbine project.2 5 MW Cost of Power Impact (¢/kWh) 1 0.2 0 Low Temp SCONOx SCR (2ppm) (9ppm) High Temp SCR (9ppm) Conv. Figure 3-1 compares the cost of power impact (¢/kWh) for various control technologies. which prevented an equitable comparison in some cases. 1. capital and operating costs provided by manufacturers were restricted to turbine projects readily available at the time of the inquiry. capital and operating costs might need to be adjusted to perform the analysis on an equivalent basis. some manufacturers considered certain cost numbers as proprietary. The ¢/kWh is determined by dividing the ownership cost of the NOx control technology by the amount of electricity generated by the gas turbine. which resulted in various gas turbine models and inlet/outlet NOx emission rates. The cost impact factors are based on 8000 full-load operating hours.4 0. In this study. A comparison between ¢/kWh values is most meaningful for technologies that control NOx to an equivalent ppm level. In general. SCR (9ppm) W/S Inj (42ppm) Catalytic (3ppm) DLN (9-25ppm) 25 MW 150 MW Figure 3-1 Cost Impact of Emissions Control Technologies Source: ONSITE Energy 3-7 .6 0. Controlled NOx concentrations are indicated below each technology in the figure.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion The ¢/kWh value indicates the electricity cost impact of a particular NOx control technology and is independent of the tons of NOx removed. the results shown are ordered from highest cost to lowest cost impact.8 0. Also. When performing cost comparisons among technologies that control NOx with different inlet/outlet emission rates.
the capital cost of adding catalytic combustion to a turbine combustor will be a strong function of individual turbine designs and therefore will vary significantly. the DLN-equipped turbine requires postcombustion NOx control devices such as SCR or SCONOx. however.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Prospective catalytic combustion technologies exhibit lower cost impacts than add-on controls for both small and large gas turbines.5-MW gas turbine at Silicon Valley Power (Figure 3-2) is intended to address this issue. Catalytic combustion is not yet fully commercialized. The longterm (8000-hour) durability test of Catalytica’s Xonon technology on a 1. 3-8 . To achieve NOx levels below 5 ppm. Projected costs for catalytic combustors indicate that the ¢/kWh cost is 2 to 3 times higher than for a DLN combustor alone. catalyst life is currently being tested at several gas turbine installations. The cost estimates assume catalyst replacement on an annual basis. Catalyst durability is an important milestone towards commercialization that has not been currently demonstrated. while the most advanced DLN combustor reaches down to only 9 ppm. and catalyst durability is still being proven through demonstrations. The catalytic combustor can achieve NOx levels of less than 3 ppm. Catalytic combustion cost estimates presented in Table 3-2 are based on the anticipated performance of the Catalytica Xonon™ catalytic combustion technology. In addition.
EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Figure 3-2 Catalytica Installation at Silicon Valley Power Source: Catalytica 3-9 .
426 3 77.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Table 3-2 Catalytic Combustion Cost Comparison (Incremental Annual Cost Compared to Conventional Uncontrolled Diffusion-Flame Combustor) Source: Onsite Energy 5 MW Class Gas Turbine Output (MW) Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) Heat Content (Btu/lb) Fuel Flow (Btu/hr) Hours of Operation (hr) Fuel Flow (MMBtu/yr) CAPITAL COST ($) ANNUAL COSTS Equipment Life (yrs) Interest (%) Capital Recovery Factor Capital Recovery ($) Catalyst Replacement ($) Other Parts and Repairs ($) Annual Maintenance Contract ($) Major Failure Impact ($) Taxes and Insurance ($) TOTAL ANNUAL COSTS ($) Uncontrolled Emissions (ppm) Uncontrolled Emissions (tons/yr) Controlled Emissions (ppm) Controlled Emissions (tons/yr) NOx Removed (tons/yr) COST EFFECTIVENESS ($/ton) ELECTRICITY COST IMPACT (¢/kWhr) 15 10 0.425 57.100 25 MW Class Frame 26.052 20.5 5348.840 5.000 265.745 1.9 9.3 12.131 28.8 957 0. based on a guarantee offered by Catalytica.000 15.8 137. The cost does not include development costs.000 61. 3-10 .952 451.626 523.799 1.610 78.940 150 140. 240 20.886.610 2.836 8.564. The costs provided by Catalytica do not imply that its technology will be applied to the turbines represented in the comparison.215 15 10 0.2 11.554 8.320 5.5 3 15.189 20.575 1. in a recent study by ONSITE Energy for DOE.6 3 2.000 467.808 150 MW Class Frame 169.131 68.543 66.131 189.157 8.740 42.481 20.000 12.486 210 5.080 5.684 131.000 2.3 371 0.100 8. Catalyst life is estimated at one year.146 Representative 5.443.193.676 271.293 8.584 217.0 692 0.867 253. Costs based on Catalytica Combustion Systems Xonon technology Catalytica provided production-run cost estimates of its catalyst module.629 Note: O&M costs for LM2500 used for large Frame as default.983.317 15 10 0.691 130 688.610 15. which could be substantial for turbine manufacturers depending on specific turbine and combustor designs. including an allowance for turbine package modifications.4 653.
and alliances. applications. Virtually all gas turbines in this size range are also used as prime movers in other applications including aviation. presence in the 300-kW to 5-MW market. partners. The current demand for gas turbines for the power generation market exclusively is relatively small in the gas turbine size range reviewed for this report (300 kW to 5 MW). The manufacturers are discussed in alphabetical order. oil and gas production and distribution. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of generator sets (gensets) and genset packagers are also briefly discussed. The somewhat universal strategy for most companies appears to include: • Maintain and grow market share in their traditional market sectors • Gain more of a presence in markets where their products have a competitive advantage • Maintain or increase R&D • Create strategic alliances • Be receptive to potential acquisitions that can add expertise or enhance product offerings. 4-1 . and marine propulsion. acquisitions. and market shares. A summary of the predominant small gas turbine providers. and market positioning are discussed. market emphases. Because packagers are somewhat ubiquitous and packaging is also in some cases handled by regional partners. other mechanical drive purposes. this section focuses on selected leading North American packagers. Specific information that is generally not published for competitive reasons includes annual sales by gas turbine type. The overall company strategies are reflected in their R&D. size range. Other applications are needed to justify the costs of production.S.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material 4 PROVIDERS This chapter provides an overview of the predominant small gas turbine manufacturers. The power generation market represents just a portion of targeted applications for small gas turbine providers. Their products. and product service. R&D. emphasizes predominantly those providers with a U. both manufacturers and packagers (Table 4-1). This chapter covers providers of gas turbines in the 300-kW to 5-MW size range.
4 MW Ebara Design. The new company includes the previous ABB power generation capabilities with the exception of nuclear power plants. Now 100% owned by Halliburton. Former joint venture between Halliburton and Ingersoll-Rand. Dresser-Rand (Halliburton) Design. Installation. JV’s. and Operations/Maintenance Industrial KG2: 1.3 MW 4-2 . Past and current strategic partners include engineering firms Kellogg and Brown & Root for facility management in the oil and gas market. Installation. Installation.3-5. packages. Package.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Table 4-1 Key Providers of Small Gas Turbines (300 kW-5 MW) Company Alstom Power (ABB. and distributes various power generation equipment. Packager of GE aeroderivative engines.6 MW PW36: 3. Ruston) Services Design. Alstom recently acquired ABB’s 50% share of their joint company ABB Alstom Power. The gas turbine product line includes models from 1.4-1. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative PW4: 420 kW PW6: 585 kW PW7: 715 kW PW12: 1. Alstom also packages larger GE aeroderivatives. The product line includes the former European Gas Turbine (Ruston) gas turbines in the size range of interest for this report. Manufacture. Recently completed transaction making Elliot Corporation a wholly-owned subsidiary. Package.3 MW Background. Manufacture.2 MW PW14: 1.9 MW Typhoon: 4. Strategic Partners. In this size range.4 MW PW18: 1. EGT. Markets are primarily oil and gas. packager of Pratt & Whitney Canada aeroderivative gas turbines. and Operations/Maintenance GT Type Industrial Models and Size TB-5000: 3. etc.6 to 265 MW. The KG2 is an older model (Kongsberg) that is employed primarily in as a standby generator. Japanese conglomerate that manufactures.8 MW DR990: 4. Package.
8 MW Kawasaki Gas Turbine Design.0 MW M1T-13: 2. TX. and Operations/Maintenance Industrial S1A-03: 222 kW S1T-02: 430 kW S2A-01: 646-681 kW M1A-01: 1.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Table 4-1.2 MW GAS Power Systems is a division of G. Honeywell (AlliedSignal) Design. Provider the test-bed engine for catalytic combustion testing by Catalytica. Recently opened US operations to market. Major Japanese manufacturer of industrial duty gas turbines for standby and continuous-duty.32:1 gearbox in 1.3 MW M1T-03: 2.9 MW M1T-06: 3. The first unit is being field tested at a rural cooperative in Lubbock. Over 170 units in North America. Created Vericor Power Systems.3 MW M1A-23: 2. GE has announced planned acquisition of Honeywell.4-2. Mitsubishi Nagoya Works (Japan) packages AlliedSignal gensets and mechanical drive systems in Japan. Manufacture. in 1999.1% efficiency. US presence historically through dealers.5 MW M1A-11: 1.0 MW M1T-01: 2. Package.A. and a 3. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative Avco Lycoming T-53: 1. GAS Power Systems Design.4 MW M1A-06: 1. Installation. Developer of 300 kW ceramic engine that has demonstrated 42. proprietary control system. Sizable market for standby gas turbines (both mobile and stationary) of this size in Japan. (General Aviation Services) Capital.2 MW M1A-03: 1. a joint company between Honeywell Engine Systems and MTU Aero Engines (DaimlerChrysler). a holding company of international aviation companies.2 MW M1A-13: 1. The genset is reported to be multifuel capable. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative ASE8: 548 kW ASE40: 3.S.1 MW 4-3 . package and service Kawasaki gas turbine gensets in the US.2 MW Innovator Genset package. The current Honeywell company was created with the merger of AlliedSignal and Honeywell Inc. Package. Installation. Manufacture. cont’d. The product concept utilizes an overhauled helicopter turboshaft engine.9 MW M1T-23: 4.3 MW ASE50: 3.
Has licensed combustor to AlliedSignal (Honeywell/GE). under license. Orenda has over 90 gas turbines in oil and gas and electric generation applications. cont’d. Nuovo Pignone (GE) Design.9 MW Subsidiary of GE since 1993. Manufacturers industrial gas turbines in the 2-10 MW range. and Operations/Maintenance Industrial PGT2: 2 MW PGT5: 5. OPRA has a low emission combustion development program based on combustion system for vehicle applications. It partners with Ukrainian turbine manufacturer SPE Mashproekt to package OGT2500 generator set. Installation. Orenda (Canada) is an aerospace firm that historically manufactured various gas turbine models. to the Canadian government for aircraft engine applications. but still service OT2. Manufacture.2 MW PGT5B: 5. Manufacture Industrial OP-16: 1. and OT5 gas turbines. and GE10 rather than PGT). Installation. OPRA has plans to partner with Daihatsu Diesel Manufacturing Company (Japan). Packager of GE aeroderivatives.8 MW 4-4 .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Table 4-1. Dutch company developing and manufacturing a 1. Package. Manufacture. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative OGT2500: 2. Package. OPRA Optimal Radial Turbine Design. These same gas turbine models are sold and packaged by GE Stewart & Stevenson in the US (under the model designation GE2. OT3. GE5.6 MW gas turbine. They no longer produce.6 MW Orenda Design.
Part of a development team with DTE Energy and TurboGenset (U. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative and Industrial 501KB5: 3.3 MW 4-5 . Package. Works with a network of specialized international packagers. Now works with several regional packagers in the US. Ramgen is in the design.0 MW) Rolls-Royce (Allison & Rolls Royce Energy Systems) Design. Nedalo (Netherlands). Pratt & Whitney Canada Design. and Testing Aeroderivative Ramgen Prototype: TBD (0.4 MW A subsidiary of United Technologies that is a leading manufacturer of small gas turbines for aviation applications. and marine applications. cont’d. Ebara (Japan). Installation. Tecnoenergia (Italy). oil & gas production and distribution. In 1999.K. Until recently UNC Industrial Power was its US OEM packager.3-4. development. US Turbine had been a packager of Allison and Kawasaki gas turbines. It is the only company working with ramjets for stationary applications. Bazan Motores (Spain). Manufacture. Primary markets are industrial power generation. Ramgen Power Systems Design. Japan has had Stewart & Stevenson as past packager of their Allison product line. Allison has a network of worldwide packagers (Centrax (U. and test phase of a power generation system based on ramjet technology. Manufacture. Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry (Japan). Acquired Vickers (including the former Ulstein group of companies).3 MW ST30: 3.) for a 400-kW mini-turbine system based on the ST5 engine. and Hitachi Zosen (Japan)).2-2.75-2. Rolls-Royce acquired Allison and US Turbine in 1995-96. completed purchase of the rotating products interests from Cooper Energy Services. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative ST6: 500-560 kW ST18: 1. PW Canada has in the recent passed worked with Catalytica on a catalytic combustion system for its ST18 and ST30 models.K). Manufacture.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Table 4-1.9 MW ST40: 4.0-5.9 MW 501KB7: 5. part of Cooper Cameron Corp.
9 MW 501KB7: 5. Partnered with Ulstein (Norway) and Volvo (Sweden) to develop the Eurodyn gas turbine Solar Turbines Design. Part the Snecma Group. Package. Manufacture Industrial Heron: 1.0-4. mechanical drive and marine applications.4 MW gas turbine. Packagers the Nuovo Pignone line of small industrial gas turbines and GE aeroderivatives for industrial power generation. intercooled. Installation. and marine applications. Installation. distribution.4 MW Schelde Heron (Netherlands) was formed in 1996 as a result of joint venture between Heron Exergy and Royal Schelde. Works with packagers in overseas markets (Tuma Turbomach in Europe and Nigata in Japan).2 MW Stewart & Stevenson (GE) Design. oil &gas applications. Current development efforts are focused on ultrahigh efficient (43%) two-shaft.3 MW 4-6 . Has a vertically integrated packaging. Prior to acquisition by GE had been a packager of Allison and Ruston gas turbines at various times. Product line ranges from 1. sales.2 MW Centaur: 3. and Operations/Maintenance Industrial and Large Aeroderivative) GE2: 2 MW GE5: 5 MW Turbomeca Design. Package. recuperated 1. Schelde Heron B. Major design. Subsidiary of GE. Manufactures recuperators and has a business arrangement wit Capstone Turbines to provide recuperators for its microturbine.1 MW TM2500 Eurodyn: 2.5-4. Recently developed the Mercury 50 recuperated gas turbine under the US DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. manufacturer.5 MW 501KB5: 3. and Operations/Maintenance Industrial Saturn: 1. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative TM1000 Mikala T1: 1. cont’d. Package.7 MW Mercury: 4.2 to 15 MW. Packages the RollsRoyce Allison 501KB5 and 501KB7 under the names TM4000 and TM5000 respectively.V. and service network. and packager of industrial gas turbines for power generation. Manufacture. Installation.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Table 4-1. Design.
and Korean Aerospace Industry (Korea).5 MW AT900S: 0.9 MW AT1200S: 1. Installation Industrial AT270S: 0.7 MW AT2700S: 2. Vericor Design. Design.1 MW AT1800S: 1. US packaging partner is Mendenhall Technical Services.3 MW ASE50: 3. sales and services organization to market the AlliedSignal line of aeroderivative gas turbines. Industua de Turba Propulsores (Spain).EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Emission Control & Catalytic Combustion Table 4-1. Package.2 MWAT360S: 0. A major Japanese manufacturer of diesel engines. Yanmar also producers a line of gas turbines primarily for standby. The company is a marketing. Yanmar Diesel Engine Co.4 MW 4-7 .8 MW A jointly owned company of Honeywell Engines and MTU (DaimlerChrysler). cont’d.3 MWAT600S: 0. Package. and Operations/Maintenance Aeroderivative ASE8: 548 kW ASE40: 3. For VOC destruction packages Vericor teams with North American Energy Systems (Canada). International partners include MTU (Germany). Mitsubishi (Japan). Installation.
Solar Turbines’ introduction of the recuperated Mercury 50 gas turbine.S. manufacturer. Solar Turbines. but oil and gas is still larger. Kawasaki Gas Turbines. Ebara acquiring full ownership of Elliott Company 9. GE’s acquisitions of Stewart & Stevenson and full ownership of Nuovo Pignone 6. and strategic alliances. The announced acquisition of Honeywell by GE. ABB and Alstom forming ABB Alstom Power and Alstom’s subsequent purchase of ABB’s interest in the venture 8. GE. Eastern European manufacturers are just starting to emerge. GE/Nuovo Pignone. Vericor Power Systems. 4-8 . A joint venture. Solar Turbines and Rolls-Royce Allison are the leading suppliers of gas turbines in the North American market. Rolls-Royce’s acquisitions of Allison Engine Company and US Turbine 3. From a worldwide perspective. including: 1. The competitive nature of the gas turbine business and the capital required to develop and produce successful products have resulted in several noteworthy acquisitions. Alstom. which resulted from the cooperative U. Kawasaki’s demonstration of 42% efficiency on a 300-kW ceramic gas turbine 11. and Allison evaluating catalytic combustion technology with Catalytica 5. Honeywell’s merger with AlliedSignal in 1999 12. GE. mergers.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers Company Profiles In terms of market activity. marine. Dresser-Rand (Kongsberg). DOE Advanced Turbine System Program 7. and oil and gas production and distribution applications combined outnumber power generation installations in this size range. Pratt & Whitney Canada teaming with DTE Energy Technologies and TurboGenset to jointly develop a “miniturbine” system 13. with its pending acquisition of Honeywell coupled with its current subsidiaries Stewart & Stevenson and Nuovo Pignone. Both companies have a strong presence in nonpower generation markets such as oil and gas production. with a large majority of its sales in oil and gas markets. being formed between Honeywell Engine Systems and MTU Aero Engines (a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace) 10. Kawasaki has a line of standby gas turbines that has been successful in Japan. and Honeywell (through its international partners) all have notable market share. seems to be in prime position to compete with Solar Turbines if development of the small gas turbine market for power generation accelerates.S. Rolls-Royce and Allison jointly developing and transferring low emission combustion technology 4. The successful development of a new generation of low emission combustion technology by virtually all manufacturers 2. The relative split between oil and gas and power generation markets shows a recent increase in power generation. Solar Turbines is the dominant U. Mechanical drive.
and petrochemical industries. or 20% of all capacity installed worldwide. has been a leader in energy conversion equipment for almost a century. Figure 4-1 Alstom’s Single-Shaft 5-MW Typhoon Gas Turbine Dresser-Rand Dresser-Rand. Both of these gas turbines are available in single-shaft (power generation) and twin-shaft (mechanical drive) packages. the former joint 4-9 . and turnkey power plants. fluidized-bed systems. low-NOx burners.000 MW. This product line includes the TB-5000 and the Typhoon. processing. fossil fuel handling systems. Alstom acquired ABB’s 50% share of the joint company ABB Alstom Power.S. and transportation). steam turbines. NY. These includes gas turbines.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers The following company profiles discuss selected leading providers of gas turbines in the 300-kW to 5-MW range. U. Alstom Power provides virtually every type of power generation and air pollution control equipment and service. The new company includes the previous ABB power generation capabilities with the exception of nuclear power plants. offices are in Midlothian. and Windsor. Alstom also packages larger GE aeroderivatives. storage. VA. headquartered in Olean. hydro turbines.6 to 265 MW. The Typhoon single-shaft gas turbine is shown in Figure 4-1. generators.6 billion (10 billion euros) of revenues in 1999. Gas turbine sales provided 24% of Alstom’s $8. Its primary markets are the oil and gas (production. headquartered in France. The gas turbine product line includes models from 1. boilers. The providers are discussed in alphabetical order. Alstom Power Alstom Power. It claims to have the world’s largest installed base of power generation equipment – approximately 640. is one of the world’s largest providers of power generation equipment. In May 2000. The gas turbine product line includes the former European Gas Turbine (Ruston) and ABB gas turbines in the size range of interest for this report. heat recovery steam generators. CT. Dresser-Rand. chemical.
fans. and refrigeration equipment. Ebara Established in 1920. in particular for the treatment of water and waste as well as waste utilization. The KG2 gensets have found international acceptance as standby power systems. is now 100% owned by Halliburton. and other environmentally clean energy systems. 4-10 . the Japanese Ebara Corporation is one of the world’s major manufacturers of fluid and gas transfer systems. The KG2 is manufactured and packaged in Norway. Ebara is actively developing new energy sources. Ebara also provides precision machinery for various industries. A KG2 genset package is shown in Figure 4-2. compressors. Its markets are primarily oil and gas. renewables (wind and solar). A Houston office of Dresser-Rand provides sales and support for KG products in North America. Its market includes strong positions in pumps. Past and current strategic partners include engineering firms Kellogg and Brown & Root for facility management in the oil and gas market. which is the current Kongsberg operations of Dresser-Rand. including fuel cells. all-radial turbine with a single can combustion. One of Kongsberg’s primary products was the KG2 gas turbine. DresserRand notes that the radial design allows for high operating and starting reliability.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers venture between Dresser Industries (Halliburton) and Ingersoll-Rand. Figure 4-2 Kongsberg Dresser Power’s KG2 Genset Dresser-Rand has discontinued production of its DR-990 gas turbine but continues to service it. Dresser-Rand is also a packager of GE and Rolls-Royce aeroderivative gas turbines. Ebara is also a prominent provider of environmental systems. Dresser joint-ventured with Kongsberg Vapenfabrikk (Norway) to form Kongsberg Dresser Power. a singleshaft. In 1985.
The gearbox. ID. The gas turbine has a speed of 6300 rpm. PA) as a wholly owned subsidiary.S. including development of microturbine products (not emphasized in this report). GAS Power Systems GAS Power Systems. military. GAS Power Systems has packaged a 1. is used to produce low-speed (1800-rpm) output. turbocompressors. The rebuild process includes modifications to fuel manifolds and combustion chambers. Ebara will spin out its compressor and turbine operations and integrate them with Elliott. Figure 4-3 GAS Power’s 1. This group provided $1. In this size range of gas turbines. Ebara hopes to accelerate new product development through the integration of R&D activities. The T-53 engine has more than 40 years of service and is used extensively by the U. which provides a reduction of 3. Elliott has been a supplier of turbocompressors to the oil and gas industry.32:1.6 billion of sales revenues. Capital Inc.S. and a proprietary control system. This group also includes pumps. The Innovator Genset package uses the T-53 engine.2-MW generator set based on an overhauled Avco Lycoming helicopter turboshaft gas turbine engine (Figure 4-3).. and refrigeration and cooling products. Ebara is a packager of Pratt & Whitney Canada aeroderivative gas turbines. General Aviation Services is probably the best known of its current holdings. LLC (Lake Zurich. IL) is a division of G. a Cotta Transmission gearbox.2-MW Innovator Genset 4-11 .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers Gas and steam turbines have been a part of Ebara’s Machinery and Equipment Group. and new coatings are applied to the compressor and turbine sections. fans. The engine is overhauled and packaged at a GAS production facility in Bonners. Ebara had previously owned 50% of Elliott and in April 2000 purchased all remaining shares. Ebara recently acquired Elliott Corporation (Jeanette.A. which is a holding company of international aviation corporations. approximately 30% of Ebara’s total sales revenues.
headquartered in Phoenix. and Texas Tech University. The larger ASE40 and ASE50 gas turbines are two-spool models with a seven-stage axial compressor plus a single-stage centrifugal compressor. Its gas turbine applications are predominantly military. GTI. The first Innovator package is being testing in a project to accommodate peaking conditions in Lubbock. and ASE50 – are aeroderivatives of popular turboshaft helicopter engines. 4-12 . and AlliedSignal merged. and business aircraft engines and auxiliary power units. Honeywell Engines and Systems. TX. much less than other products in the 1-MW size range.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers This unique product concept was pursued by GAS under the premise that the overhauled engine could be packaged and mass-produced more quickly and at a lower capital cost (projected by GAS to be $400/kW). Initially targeting an exclusively international market. Honeywell Inc. commercial. The 548-kW ASE8 is a single-spooled gas turbine with a two-stage centrifugal compressor and three-stage axial turbine. Honeywell Honeywell Engines and Systems is part of New Jersey-based Honeywell. The project is being conducted with participation from South Plains Electric Cooperative. ASE40. GAS has seen opportunities open up domestically due to deregulation and to what GAS considers to be an obvious gap in competitive gas turbine products in this size range. These machines have both axial and centrifugal turbomachinery. In 1999. Honeywell’s stationary gas turbines in the 300-kW to 5-MW size range – the ASE8. claims to be the world’s largest manufacturer of small and medium gas turbines. The power section of the ASE8 is shown in Figure 4-4.
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Figure 4-4 Power Section of the Honeywell ASE8
Vericor Power Systems, a joint venture between Honeywell Engine Systems and MTU Aero Engines (DaimlerChrysler), was formed in 1999 to market and sell power generation sets with Honeywell gas turbines. Mitsubishi Nagoya Works (Japan) packages AlliedSignal gensets and mechanical drive systems in Japan. Another part of the Honeywell, Honeywell Power Systems, develops and manufactures microturbine packages and has been awarded a contract with the U.S. DOE under the Advanced Microturbine System Program. An advanced, high-efficiency system at the low end of the 300kW to 5-MW size range had been proposed. In October 2000, GE announced its planned acquisition of Honeywell, including both Honeywell Engines and Systems and Honeywell Power Systems. This acquisition will augment GE’s already strong Power Systems and Aircraft Engine businesses. Kawasaki Gas Turbine The Kawasaki Gas Turbine Division of Kawasaki Heavy Industries produces standby generator sets in the 220-kW to 4-MW size range and cogeneration systems ranging from 640 kW to 30 MW. Kawasaki has over 5000 units installed worldwide. Standby units include a line of truckmounted mobile packages. Kawasaki states that gas turbine standby systems are popular in Japan due to their power density and resistance to damage in the event of an earthquake. Kawasaki has always been a leader in gas turbine research and development. For example, Kawasaki offered the first Cheng Cycle cogeneration system on the M1A-13 in 1988. By injecting superheated steam into the combustor of a gas turbine, electrical output is variable from 1.3 to 2.3 MW. In addition, process steam produced can be variable. A cross-section of an M1A-13CC gas turbine is shown in Figure 4-5.
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Figure 4-5 Cross Section of Kawasaki’s M1A-13 Cheng Cycle
In 1999, Kawasaki demonstrated a 42.1% efficiency on a 300-kW ceramic turbine. This is the highest simple-cycle efficiency achieved. The M1A-13 was the test-bed engine for catalytic combustion testing by Catalytica in a long-term (8000-hour) test at a utility in northern California. The U.S. presence of Kawasaki has historically been accomplished through American packagers and distributors. There are over 170 units in North America. Kawasaki recently opened a U.S. office (Kalamazoo, MI) to market, package, and service Kawasaki gas turbine generator sets in the U.S. Nuovo Pignone Nuovo Pignone (Florence, Italy), a part of GE Power Systems since 1993, designs and manufactures equipment for the oil and gas, petrochemical, and power generation markets. Compressors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are its main products. Nuovo Pignone’s gas turbine product line ranges from 2 to 124 MW. The gas turbines in the size range of this report
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are the 2-MW PGT2, the 5-MW PGT5, and the 5.9-MW PGT5B. These gas turbines are also sold and packaged by Stewart & Stevenson under the names GE2 and GE5. The PGT2 is a single-shaft machine with two stages of centrifugal compression, a single combustion can, and a two-stage axial turbine. It is used primarily in cogeneration (5 MW of thermal power available), mechanical drive, and emergency standby power applications. The PGT5 has a 15-stage axial compressor (9.1:1 pressure ratio) and a single combustion can; it comes in single-shaft (power generation) and two-shaft (mechanical drive) versions. The 5.9MW PGT5B (Figure 4-6) is significantly different from the two smaller engine designs. It is much closer to an aeroderivative than the previously mentioned heavy-duty PGT class turbines.
Figure 4-6 Nuovo Pignone PGT5B
The eleven-stage axial compressor has three stages of variable geometry stators, the combustor is annular, and the first stage of the turbine is cooled. It also comes in single-shaft and two-shaft versions. Nuovo Pignone is reported to be working with Catalytica on developing an ultra-low emission catalytic combustion option for the 5-MW PGT5. Nuovo Pignone also packages the LM aeroderivative product line and the frame gas turbines of GE. OPRA Optimal Radial Turbine OPRA (Netherlands) is developing plans to manufacture a line of completely radial gas turbines. Initiated by Jan Mowill, formerly of Kongsberg (Norway), OPRA has built and demonstrated its first gas turbine, the 1.6-MW OP16. Development efforts have focused on low emission technology development. Honeywell has licensed its low emission technology for utilization on the 10-MW ASE120. OPRA has plans to partner with Daihatsu Diesel (Japan) for manufacturing and packaging.
Quebec). Tecnoergia (Italy).5 MW-OGT2500 Power Generation Package in cooperation with SPE Mashproekt (Ukraine). palm shells. The Industrial and Marine Division of Pratt & Whitney Canada has more than 600 units in the field worldwide for electric generation. straw and grasses. Orenda also supports other models of SPE Mashproekt gas turbines up to 27 MW. and the production of aviation reciprocating engines. Its roots stem back to the former Hawker Siddeley. packager of Pratt & Whitney Canada industrial gas turbines. In power generation applications. component manufacturing. and oil pumping applications. and can be packaged for power generation.4 MW) gas turbines. a subsidiary of United Technologies. ST18 (1-2 MW).EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers Orenda Orenda Aerospace (Ontario. Pratt & Whitney Canada Pratt & Whitney Canada (Longueuil. and OT5. It markets its products internationally with a network of specialized packagers including Ebara (Japan). Pratt & Whitney. the part-load efficiency remains high. It operates independently from Pratt & Whitney (Hartford. and marine applications. UNC Industrial Power was the licensed U. cane trash. Bazan Motores (Spain).S. Orenda’s business is comprised of four elements: repair and overhaul of industrial and aviation gas turbines. The company precisionmanufactures parts for other engine manufacturers such as GE. a constant output speed is generally required. OT3. Approximately 90 Orenda-designed industrial units remain in service today in electrical generation. and several regional packagers in the U. 4-16 . with major customers worldwide. have axial and centrifugal compression stages and free power turbines. the high-pressure gas generator rotors are free to maintain their own optimum speed regardless of output power demand. Canada). market conditions led to the decision to leave the large aeroderivative packaging/project development business and concentrate on the Pratt & Whitney product line. Until 1998. Addressing a potential increasing demand for waste-to-energy technology. ST30 (3-4. has been one of the leading producers of small aircraft propulsion engines. The ST18 is shown in Figure 4-7. cogeneration. In the mid-1960s. Pratt & Whitney Canada entered the market for industrial and marine gas turbines as a packager of large aeroderivative gas turbines (the Pratt & Whitney FT4 and FT8).S. pipeline and process gas compression. research and development. gas compression. and RollsRoyce. lignin and cellulose. Orenda has packaged stationary gas turbine packages under the model names OT2. Nedalo (Netherlands). is a manufacturer of gas turbines for aviation and industrial applications. All of the gas turbines are derivatives of popular turboprop aircraft engines. marine and mechanical drive systems. and waste paper. As a result. an operating division of Magellan Aerospace Corporation. CT). Because the engines incorporate a free power turbine. The product line includes several versions of ST6 (500-kW). agricultural residues. Orenda has modified the OGT2500 to fire biomass fuel derived from potential feedstocks such as wood or wood residues.9 MW). The ST series of industrial and marine gas turbines are derivative of established PT6 and PW100 aircraft engines. and ST40 (4-5. By the late 1990s. Orenda introduced the 2.
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Figure 4-7 Pratt & Whitney Canada’s ST18
In late 1999, Pratt & Whitney Canada launched development of a stationary, aeroderivative gas turbine, the 250-500 kW ST5, derived from the recently announced PW6xx aircraft engine. The new engine will be offered in both simple and recuperated versions for peaking and baseload applications. The new engine is called a miniturbine as it is aimed at power demands slightly largely than those offered by current microturbine manufacturers. In August 2000, Pratt & Whitney Canada announce it had signed an agreement with DTE Energy Technologies for the development of a 400-kW gas turbine package for the distributed generation market. The ST5 gas turbine will drive a high-speed generator supplied by TurboGenset (U.K.). The new package, called the ENT 4000, is targeted at medium-sized commercial and industrial customers and “mini-grids” serving new residential and commercial developments. The ENT 4000 is planned to be commercially available in 2002. DTE will be responsible for packaging and marketing the ENT 4000. TurboGenset has designed a unique, high-speed generator that is reported to weigh just one-tenth as much as traditional generators. The company’s expertise has resulted in the development of power electronics that enable the high-speed generator to deliver power with less voltage variation and better harmonics than conventional designs. TurboGenset has an affiliation with Imperial College in London. DTE is investigating the potential development of other packages with non-gas turbine-based distributed generation technologies using the TurboGenset technology. Ramgen Power Systems Ramgen is a privately held company that has been engaged in the design, development, and testing of a power generation system based on ramjet technology. The company appears to be the only one currently conducting R&D with ramjets in stationary applications. Ramjets, which are internal combustion engines, have been used quite extensively in aerospace applications. In
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particular, they have been used in linear flight applications such as missiles and highperformance aircraft. In the Ramgen engine concept, well-known compressible gas dynamics phenomena (oblique shock wave and related supersonic processes) are used to compress and expand the working fluid, rather than the traditional mechanical methods. In the Ramgen, the thrust of the ramjet is used to create a rotary force. The prototype engine uses a 6-foot diameter, tapered rotor approximately 9 inches thick at it outer diameter. The engine’s two thrust modules are mounted in opposition to each other on the perimeter of the enclosed rotor, which reaches localized speeds exceeding a Mach number of 2.5. This creates significant centrifugal forces and requires advanced aerodynamic design and highperformance materials. One potential advantage of the Ramgen is that it may not require a separate fuel gas compressor. The fuel and air mixture is compressed as it enters the thrust modules. Ramgen has benefited from continued support from the U.S. DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in proof-of-concept testing of the Ramgen engine. The potential to burn a variety of fuels (for example, coalbed methane) is one of the main drivers for DOE’s interest. Until recently, all development had proceeded internally to Ramgen. Now that proof of concept has been demonstrated, Ramgen is soliciting partners, in particular companies with existing manufacturing, distribution, marketing, and service channels, to participate in commercialization of its product. Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce (U.K.), a leader in aeroderivative gas turbines, offers gas turbine products ranging from 4 to 150 MW and also sells diesel engines down to 1 MW. Rolls-Royce’s current strategy has been to grow its global energy business by providing a full line of products and services for customers in power generation and oil and gas markets. This has been done primarily through acquisitions. Rolls-Royce acquired Allison Engine Company and US Turbine in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Rolls-Royce Allison produces industrial gas turbines in the 3-8 MW size range. US Turbine had been a packager of Kawasaki and Allison gas turbines. Now called Rolls-Royce Energy Systems, it packages the full line of Allison and Rolls-Royce aeroderivative gas turbines and reciprocating engines. In 1999, Rolls-Royce completed the purchase of the rotating products interests from Cooper Energy Services, part of Cooper Cameron Corporation. Rotating compression and control equipment is widely used in the oil and gas industry. The business, based in Mount Vernon, OH, is now part of Rolls-Royce Energy Systems. The 501K series of engines is the only one in the size range reviewed for this report. A 501Kbased electricity generation package is shown in Figure 4-8. The 501K engines are available in both single-shaft (power generation) and two-shaft (mechanical drive) configurations and range from 2.5 to 5 MW in power output. The most recent addition to the 501K line is the 501KB7. This is a boosted (high pressure ratio) version that produces just over 5 MW.
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Figure 4-8 Rolls-Royce Allison’s 501KB5 Gas Turbine Generator Package
Gas turbine development, design, and manufacturing is done at Rolls-Royce Industrial and Marine Gas Turbines Ltd. (Ansty, Coventry, U.K.) and Rolls-Royce Allison (Indianapolis, IN). Marketing and packaging are conducted by Rolls-Royce Energy Systems. North American Offices of Rolls-Royce Energy Systems are in Maineville, OH; Houston; Oakland, CA; and Markham, Ontario, Canada. Schelde Heron B.V. Schelde Heron (Netherlands) was formed as a joint venture between Heron Exergy and Royal Schelde, a Dutch industrial group, in 1996. Schelde Heron has focused on developing the 1.4MW Heron gas turbine, a two-shaft unit with intercooling, heat recuperation, and two-stage (reheat) combustion. The machine has reportedly achieved, at ISO conditions, an electrical efficiency of 42.9% with NOx emissions below about 10 ppm (20 g/GJ) at 15% O2. Relatively low turbine inlet temperatures and low pressure have resulted in simplicity of design, in that no blade cooling is required. A robust, conservative design is intended to reduce maintenance frequency and cost and increase availability and reliability. This is important because the cycle approach is notably innovative. The turbine consists of modular components that can be easily replaced. Installation of the unit requires a footprint of about 29 ft by 7 ft 7-½ in. (9.5 m by 2.5 m) for the complete system. The standardized package can be installed outdoors and is easily transportable, facilitating relocation if site economics change. Targeted applications include standalone power generation and combined heat and power. Schelde Heron plans to build five preproduction units and is soliciting investment partners. The company projects commercial availability in 2002.
located in San Diego. In international markets.5-4. The Centaur family of engines entered commercial service in 1968 and is pervasive in pipeline compression installations throughout the world. Six to eight units will be installed by mid-2001. It has been called the only industrial gas turbine optimized from its conception for the distributed generation market.2-MW Saturn. a wholly owned subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc. DOE under the Advanced Turbine System Program.S. This is the first new centerline gas turbine designed by Solar in over a decade. The electric generator sets range from 1. and the 4. In 1997.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers Solar Turbines Solar Turbines. primarily in oil and gas applications.0-4. the 3. It offers fully factory-assembled and tested gas turbine packages. The Saturn engine is the most widely used industrial gas turbine. 4-20 . is the largest domestic producer of industrial gas turbines.7 MW Centaur. Figure 4-9 Solar Turbines Mercury 50 Recuperated Gas Turbine A Mercury 50 unit has been installed at the municipal utility of Rochelle. with over 4800 units in 80 countries.2 to 13. which include gas compressor sets. Solar works with licensed packagers including Tuma Turbomach in Europe and Niigata in Japan.2 MW Mercury. The Mercury is revolutionary in that it was designed primarily for intermediate-duty cycle operation.5 MW. The Mercury 50 was developed in cooperation with the U. CA. pump-drive packages. The recuperated cycle allows for 40% efficiency to be achieved. Solar unveiled the recuperated Mercury 50 gas turbine (Figure 4-9). Gas turbines in the size range reviewed for this report include the 1. IL. and electric gensets.
S. Vericor markets. SoLoNOx equipment is available for all Solar gas turbines but the Saturn. It has participated with Catalytica. Stewart & Stevenson has seen much more market activity in its larger packages. part of the Snecma Group. ASE40. Its primary business is packaging GE’s larger aeroderivative LM line of gas turbines. The joint venture was formed to help ensure investment for product development and growth. Solar field tested the first industrial gas turbine equipped with ceramic components in place of standard metal components. Gas turbines currently offered in packages include the ASE8. Stewart & Stevenson Stewart & Stevenson Energy Products. ASE50. PCI. Stewart & Stevenson now packages a “spray-intercooled” version of the LM6000 designated as the LM6000 Sprint. Solar continues to invest in advanced component technology for its smaller gas turbines. Turbomeca partnered with Volvo (Sweden) and Ulstein (Norway) on the design of the 2. is a joint company of Honeywell and MTU Aero Engines (a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace). it is suitable for electricity generation and combined heat and power applications. leverage the technology competencies of Honeywell and MTU. In their primary U. It produces a complete range of turboshaft gas turbine engines. which require internal cooling. if proven durable. Ceramic components. and Alzeta in an advanced combustion development program. Rolls-Royce). a subsidiary of GE located in Houston. provides power generation packages ranging from 2 to 50 MW. To meet a perceived growing need for larger packages. Solar introduced its low emission SoLoNOx combustion technology. When integrated with a gearbox. Stewart & Stevenson had packaged European Gas Turbine/Ruston gas turbine models and Allison gas turbines in this size range. than the smaller packages that are the subject of this report. Stewart & Stevenson packages the Nuovo Pignone PGT2 and PGT5B gas turbines under the names GE2 and GE5 (see the previous section on Nuovo Pignone). Prior to being acquired by GE. can allow for higher efficiency and power output. a two-spool unit used initially in high-speed marine applications. is a world leader in small aviation gas turbines.3 MW. Turbomeca Turbomeca (France). In the size range reviewed for this report. In 1992. specifically the LM6000. which generates 47. and focus resources 4-21 . Currently Solar continues to invest in ultra-low emission technologies such as catalytic combustion.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers With regard to R&D. headquartered near Atlanta. and the ASE120 (see the previous section on Honeywell). and the company packages industrial gas turbines for marine and land applications. The test engine is a Centaur 50 installed at an oil company cogeneration facility. and services gas turbines and genset packages using Honeywell gas turbines. Power generation applications include standby generation and combined heat and power. In 1997. market. sells. Turbomeca currently packages the RollsRoyce Allison 501KB5 and 501KB7 under the product names TM4000 and TM5000 (see the previous section.5-MW Eurodyn gas turbine engine. Vericor Vericor Power Systems.
1-MW plant. Yanmar Diesel Engine Co. which are used in all applications – marine. Figure 4-9 North American Energy Systems’ VOC Destruction Installation with Five Gas Turbine Units Vericor recently started up a new ASE40 gas turbine-based cogeneration plant in Nevada. Ltd. QDI INC developed the 3. Yanmar developed and began marketing its AT product line of centrifugal gas turbines for standby power generation. This installation consumes output gases from carbon vapor deposition furnaces used to manufacture aircraft carbon brakes. Distribution partners include North American Energy Systems (Canada). 4-22 . Korean Aerospace Industry (KAI).EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers on highly competitive and changing markets. All steam and electricity generated from the cogeneration plant is provided to Quebecor Printing Nevada by QDC under a power purchase contract. Industria de Turbo Propulsores (Spain). The total energy efficiency of the plant is over 90%. the venture is intended to reduce risk to both Honeywell and MTU in highly competitive industrial power markets. Super Precision Heat Treatment Co. In effect. and Tiveni Engineering & Industries (India). (Taiwan). In 1983. It is unknown at the time of writing this report how GE’ acquisition of Honeywell will impact the Vericor joint venture. A VOC destruction installation is shown in Figure 4-9. Yanmar (Japan) is a leading producer of diesel engines.4 MW. industrial. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan). mechanical drive. which ranges from 280 kW to 2. North American Energy Systems designs and packages volatile organic compound (VOC) destruction packages. OH). AIDC Aero Engine Factory (Taiwan). MTU (Germany). Motoren and Turbinen Union Munchen (Germany). and power generation. and Shimadzu (Japan). Strategic partners associated with the venture include Mendenhall Technical Services (Fairfield. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan).
and Vancouver.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Providers The gas turbines are made in Japan and sold and serviced in North America through Yanmar offices and partners in Illinois. California. New York. 4-23 . Florida.
packagers. regulated utilities provided peaking capacity because of their obligation to serve and typically used their oldest. installed price is their most important economic attribute. current market supply and demand conditions.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material 5 ECONOMICS & BUSINESS ISSUES This chapter provides an overview of representative equipment. and capability to run on various fuels are factors in the equipment decision. Older baseload plants that have been superseded by newer. so peaking plant economics is dominated by equipment cost and recovery of investment. installed plant. specifically catalytic exhaust gas treatment methods. more generally. and project developers. Peaking power is generated for only a few hundred to perhaps a thousand hours each year. because peaking plants operate for the purpose of system reliability. there have been two markets for stationary gas turbines and. 5-1 . as their use is largely determined by uncontrollable circumstances such as the intensity and duration of hot weather and the vagaries of the business cycle. Not included in this review of small gas turbine economics is power generation at oil and gas exploration and production sites. As might be expected. distributors. Finally. In those applications the footprint. this has negatively impacted project economics and could inhibit R&D in combustionbased pollution prevention technologies. Recovery of the investment in peaking plants is highly uncertain. small gas turbines in power generation applications have been used primarily in continuous-duty combined heat and power applications and to a lesser extent standby generation. In the case of small gas turbines. with little regard for efficiency. Peaking is a nearly separate market from the baseload and intermediate-duty markets. The cost information is based on published information and contacts with manufacturers. is presented. Regulated Utilities – The Previous Era In the history of power generation. and other factors. Equipment costs are presented as budgetary prices. Installation costs are discussed in ranges of representative estimates. Introduction Historically. Traditionally. in the era of regulated utilities. power density. Traditionally. and O&M costs for small gas turbines in the 300-kW to 5-MW size range. these prices can vary considerably depending on competitive pressure among manufacturers. Representative equipment costs are presented for both combined heat and power and standby applications. higher efficiency plants traditionally served intermediate-duty applications. a regulated utility owns generation and distribution systems and recovers its investment on fixed assets through the regulatory process. the cost impact of emission control equipment. Because the economics of peaking plants is dominated by capital recovery. for power generation equipment: baseload and peaking. low-efficiency units for such service because these required the least investment.
With rising interest in distributed generation and the advent of deregulation. power generation is like an a-lacarte menu. together with business preparation for electricity deregulation. and peaking that had been bundled together in historic utility rates. with most of its investment already recovered. Similarly for electricity suppliers. The usual case is that demand for intermediate-duty power has also risen. not national. which. both utility and non-utility.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues The emergence of distributed generation and microturbines at this time appears to be initiating an era of new technology and new applications. so that the old baseload plant becomes available for intermediate duty. so that the excess capacity could be economically used. Thus 5-2 . High peaking prices for electricity are the system’s way of handling the equivalent of the market for freeway space during rush hour and for tickets to rock concerts or Super Bowl games. Power economics is local or regional. Often. typically 1000 to 4000 hours per year. older. Purchasers can buy exactly what they want and need not buy the complete mix of baseload. will be very expensive. Electricity deregulation seems to be resulting in shortages and price spikes in peaking power. Deregulation – The Present Era In the deregulated electric utility environment now upon us. resulted in current local shortages of peaking and intermediate-duty power. so it is not surprising that shortterm shortages. and limited capacity exists for longdistance transmission of bulk power. in turn. The economics of baseload plants is based on obtaining the lowest cost of power for the annual duration of operation expected from the unit. deregulation allows them to provide power for specific applications. investment in peaking power generation is risky. intermediate load. baseload plants has been the most economic option for intermediate-duty operation. constraints exist on individual power distribution lines and not on adjacent lines. Electricity can also be purchased from an energy service company. generators and certain loads can be turned on and off automatically as determined by business agreements. because at present power can be economically moved only a modest distance. Long-distance transmission lines were built primarily for power supply security. Small gas turbines are attractive candidates for such applications. Plants move from baseload to intermediate-duty application when baseload demand grows and an additional plant is built with better economic performance. The excess capacity in power generation equipment built in the 1970s and 1980s led to less power plant construction in the 1990s. This could lead to investment in power generation equipment intended for intermediate-duty distributed generation. the question of how to supply intermediate-duty power needs to be examined in light of the economics and competitive nature of a deregulated power supply. Such use of existing. Long-distance transmission for economic reasons is a relatively recent development. depending on variables beyond the investors’ control. like transportation space during rush hour. However. With modern meters and computer control via telephone and radio links. would own and operate distributed generation equipment. This shortage of peaking power is viewed by some as forcing consumers to think about the economic consequences of their use of electricity at instants of high demand. Customers with the interest and dedication to make the effort can reduce their power costs. This reduction in power plant construction.
Risk can be averted by contracting for the sale of the power. or shopping center. care must be taken to operate the gas turbine at power levels consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendation for a specific life. scheduled. as simple-cycle gas turbine efficiency typically decreases at decreased load. when a dedicated power generation unit is built to supply a well-defined load such as an industrial plant. In the arena of intermediate-duty power. the question arises whether or not it is a worthwhile investment to build intermediate-duty plants. The cost of maintenance and periodic overhaul should be allocated over the operating hours at the corresponding power level so that operating and maintenance costs can be planned for.50/MMBtu (HHV). fuel costs amount to 4. higher efficiency products are favored at higher annual capacity utilization. With an additional 1 cent/kWh for operation and maintenance. When a cogeneration plant is economically advantageous. while higher cost.000 Btu/kWh (an efficiency of approximately 34% HHV). With this in mind. operate. Uncertainty still remains regarding forced outage of the generation unit and the means and cost of backup power and utility grid interconnection. Applications Combined Heat and Power Power generation systems create large amounts of heat in the process of converting fuel into electricity. Operation at the high emergency and standby ratings can severely shorten gas turbine life.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues both peaking and intermediate-duty electric energy are commanding unusually high prices in several areas. and power industry investors disfavor such business uncertainties.5¢/kWh – a modest amount compared to the cost of intermediate-duty power in some regions. 5-3 . For the average power plant. a customer with significant thermal and power needs can generate both thermal and electrical energy in a single combined heat and power system located at or near its facility. and budgeted. The extent to which intermediate-duty plants (and even more so peaking plants) that supply power to the grid will be utilized by distribution utility customers is uncertain. and maintain it. the electric utility sometimes offers to build. the capital recovery on the plant amounts to 2¢/kWh. over two-thirds of the energy content of the input fuel is converted to heat and wasted. Power generation economics can appear differently to utility grid power providers and commercial and industrial onsite power consumers. In a case where an intermediate-duty power plant’s installed cost is $500/kW. finance. Lower cost. Combined heat and power (CHP).5¢/kWh with natural gas delivered at $4. the total cost of electricity amounts to 7. and the plant is used 5000 hr/yr. gas turbines compete with reciprocating engines and the grid for the market. but considerably greater than the cost of baseload power from a large gas turbine combined-cycle plant. In contrast. either for certain hours or for specified amounts of electrical energy. Care must be taken to examine whether the unit will operate at constant or varying load. finance charges are 20%. also called cogeneration. Various combinations of price and efficiency can compete. Similarly. with appropriate provisions for use. This simple calculation makes the case for more exact economic analysis of directly serving intermediate-duty loads rather than letting them fall to the successful bidder in hourly supply auctions. As an alternative. office building. With a heat rate of 10. the investment uncertainty is greatly reduced. lower efficiency products are more attractive for peaking loads.
Standby generation can be part of an optimal customer strategy that minimizes power costs through combinations of firm and interruptible service and onsite standby capability. and process industries. decreasing the value of power generated onsite. Total fuel efficiency and operating costs are the primary economic parameters with baseload CHP. the customer base for economic. Standby Generation Some energy customers operate critical processes that are sensitive to electric service outages.000 MW. standby applications require very few hours of operation per year. retail. intermediate-duty power requirements have been met by older central station power plants with lower efficiencies than newer plants. and water pumping stations. and lower the user’s operating costs. For other customers such as the telecommunications. The outlook for CHP systems in the restructured environment has changed. In certain areas. utilities recruit customers with standby generation for peak load reduction programs.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues can significantly increase the efficiency of energy utilization. elevators. Intermediate Duty The evolving market and power consumption patterns reveal that in between high usage (CHP) and low usage (standby) extremes may lie a potential market of moderate size and intermediate annual usage. CHP is typically a baseload application with high annual hours of operation. In this market. Distributed 5-4 . These customers have standby generators to supply power when utility service is interrupted. In contrast with CHP. These older plants have higher variable costs and are dispatched after high-efficiency plants are fully deployed. With technology improvements and pending policy initiatives aimed at encouraging CHP due to its overall efficiency and environmental benefits. Intermediate duty is defined as approximately 1000-4000 hours of annual operation. Installed standby capacity in the United States is estimated to be over 40. offering payments or rate relief for limited operation during peak periods (typically fewer than 150 hours per year). small to medium sized industrial plants and commercial/institutional facilities could see their electricity rates increase. utilities are providing standby generators to customers for a fee. which resulted from the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) will have to compete with other wholesale generators that might have advantages in terms of dispatchability or cost. with short duration usage. Large installations depending on excess power sales (commonly referred to as PURPA machines. increasing the value of CHP. and competition may reduce retail electricity rates for large industrial users. the installation of standby generators is an economic choice based on the high costs of outages to their operations. Traditionally. Some standby installations are required by law to maintain public health and safety in such applications as hospitals. “within-the-fence” (onsite) CHP systems has the potential to expand considerably as an important subset of distributed generation. low capital cost is much more important than operating costs and other variable costs. not only to ensure continued electric service during system outages but also to dispatch the generators for system peak needs. reduce emissions of criteria pollutants and CO2. The primary equipment selection criteria are low capital costs and starting reliability. At the same time. In other areas. Customer choice among competitive power suppliers could stimulate economic preference for standby generators and increase the run-hours for units in the field.
The competitive positioning of small gas turbines relative to reciprocating engines is shown in Figures 5-1. The Solar Turbines Mercury 50 recuperated gas turbine with its high simple-cycle efficiency was developed primarily for this market.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues generation resources can compete in the intermediate-duty power market. recuperated small gas turbines. and microturbines. Using distributed generation for intermediate duty could reduce the customer’s overall power costs as well as reduce the energy service provider’s need to generate or purchase very high-cost power. 5-2. optimal intermediate-duty strategies could depend on distributed generation resources for 1000-4000 hr/yr. 5-5 . the greater the economic benefits of developing an intermediate-duty strategy. customers typically do not. These figures clearly identify the competition that small gas turbines face from reciprocating engines and the unique positioning of the Solar Turbines Mercury 50 recuperated gas turbine. With the advent of wholesale and retail competition. The costs for power vary by hour depending on demand and the availability of generating assets. to both the customer and energy service provider. off-peak. but in the regulated market structure. Competitive Positioning of Small Gas Turbines Gas turbines start to lose their clear advantage over other generation technologies at smaller sizes. or shoulder rates. The more that the price paid for power is based on actual hourly costs. Utilities see these variations in costs. Depending on rate schedules and peak power costs. Likely distributed resource technologies to play in this market include gas reciprocating engines. Large customers often pay time-of-use (TOU) rates that convert these hourly variations into seasonal and daily categories such as on-peak. more of these cost variations will be transmitted directly to the customer as price signals. and 5-3.
40 800 . ∋ ∋∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ ∋ 30 . . ∋ . .EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues Figure 5-1 Product Positioning Source: GTI Gas Turbine Products Simple Cycle Units 1000 Price ($/kW) Efficiency (%.. . Price ∋ Efficiency . ∋ ∋ . ∋ ∋ ∋ . ∋∋ . ... . ∋ . LHV) ∋ 35 . . . thousands) Actual purchase prices may vary due to market conditions and other factors Source: Gas Turbine World/GTI 20 Figure 5-2 Small Gas Turbine Products 5-6 . . . 600 . . 400 ∋∋ ∋∋ ∋ 25 200 0 5 10 15 20 25 Size (kW...
specific price and 5-7 . allows for a wider range of thermal energy (for example. but the reciprocating engines have substantially better efficiencies. many small gas turbines are currently deployed in CHP configurations where this recoverable energy can be used and higher total fuel efficiency can be achieved.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues 1000 800 600 400 200 Price ($/kW) CT Price RE Price 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Size (kW. As gas turbines decrease in size. gas turbines and reciprocating engines have comparable capital costs. reciprocating engines are priced lower than gas turbines and are considerably more efficient. Another distinct advantage of gas turbines is low emissions. in the 2-5 MW range. high-pressure steam) to be generated if needed. For example. versus 32% or lower typical of comparably sized gas turbines. Source: Gas Turbine World/SFA Pacific/GTI Figure 5-3 Capital Cost Comparison of Small Gas Turbines with Reciprocating Engines In the industrial market segment (3. The cost components are representative and are intended to illustrate the approximate costs of components and installation. high-temperature heat. Consequently. and installation. In the 2-MW and smaller range. The size range below 5 MW is dominated by reciprocating engines. usually in the form of clean. utility interconnection. switchgear. however. Capital Costs The next sections provide representative costs for generator set equipment. worldwide sales of gas turbines and reciprocating engines are about equal. “Higher quality” recoverable energy. both natural gas and diesel fueled. Reciprocating engines’ lowest NOx emissions levels without exhaust treatment are currently two to six times the lowest levels achieved by gas turbines. they exhibit higher specific capital costs ($/kW) and lower efficiencies. These figures might be useful in developing preliminary budget estimates. thousands) Actual purchase prices may vary due to market conditions and other factors.5-30 MW). One distinct advantages of small gas turbines over reciprocating engines is the amount of energy that can be recovered from the turbine exhaust stream. emissions control. between 37 and 42% (LHV). Prices do not include gas compressors (if required).
Table 5-1 Representative Capital Costs for Small Gas Turbine Generator Sets Source: ONSITE Energy Gas Turbine Type Industrial Industrial Industrial Industrial Aeroderivative Aeroderivative Aeroderivative Size Range (MW) 0.800 600 . These ranges underscore the uncertainties in budget level pricing and the need to contact respective providers for actual price quotes.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues performance information from equipment providers and specifying engineering firms is needed to develop site-specific plant cost estimates. load synchronization with the grid.650 320 . Interconnection equipment includes protective relays. Generator Set Equipment A summary of genset capital costs is shown in Table 5-1.500 Notes Turbine Cooling Turbine Cooling Single Spool Two Spool Two Spool.0 – 2. These figures do not include switchgear. back-end emissions control.5 – 5.5 1.0 1.5 Capital Cost ($/kW) 450 .800 380 . The prices are for basic generator set packages with standard control and starting systems. Turbine Cooling The range of prices shown represents the spread in budgetary prices provided over the size range of that particular class of equipment.9 – 5.2 – 1.4 – 1.5 3.5 – 3.5 0.0 2.700 330 . and basic grid interconnection equipment is shown Table 5-2.1 – 3.8 3. Switchgear and Utility Interconnection A summary of capital cost estimates for paralleling switchgear.420 600 .900 440 . utility interconnection. transfer switches (in the case of grid-isolated standby units). and integration with the genset control system. 5-8 . or a fuel gas compressor if needed. The cost estimates do not include installation or the potential for price discounting.
due to more efficient designs and lower design costs.0 100 40 40 2. The cost estimate shown below (Table 5-4) does not include the cost to retrofit the HRSG. For this reason. by ONSITE Energy for U. since this cost is highly project.000 300.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues Table 5-2 Estimated Representative Switchgear and Interconnection Costs Source: ONSITE Energy Generator Set Output (MW) Automatic Transfer Switch ($/kW) Switchgear ($/kW) Utility Interconnection ($/kW) * Low Voltage (less than 600 volts) 0.5* 20 60 60 1. Conventional SCR must be placed between sections of the HRSG so that the catalyst is not damaged by excessive exhaust gas temperature.000 – 60. 1 MW and 5 MW.000 – 160.S.000 100.000 390 – 510 5 MW Gas Turbine 300.000 – 400. according a leading manufacturer.000 – 150. Operating costs have also been reduced through innovations such as using hot flue gas to preheat ammonia injection air to lower the power requirements.000 – 300. This is due to the integration of the generation equipment into customer industrial processes or heating systems. especially in smaller capacity gas turbines.” November 1999. Installation of such systems can be a significant cost impact.000 – 400. SCR costs have dropped considerably in the last two years. 5-9 .000 148 – 192 Emission Control Equipment SCR (selective catalytic reduction) is a commonly employed emission control system for gas turbines where NOx emissions below 10 ppm are mandated by local air quality districts. Customer-specific engineering is required. DOE. These capital and annual costs are based on “Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines.000 140. the cost of SCR systems is treated separately in this report.000 50. Table 5-3 Range of Heat Recovery Cost Estimates for Representative CHP Systems Source: ONSITE Energy 1 MW Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators ($) Water Treatment Systems ($) Other Materials & Engineering ($) TOTAL COST IMPACT ($/kW) 240.0 50 25 25 5.0 20 12 12 Heat Recovery Equipment The cost of heat recovery equipment in of CHP systems varies significantly from site to site. Table 5-3 lists equipment and engineering costs for CHP installations in two representative sizes.and design-dependent.
000 $20.000 $15. Insurance..000 $11. For the past several years. SCR capital costs can add more than $80/kW to the unit capital costs of a 5-MW project – representing 10-20% of the installed cost. $410. As shown in this section and referred to in Chapters 3 and 4.a. Costs are so prohibitively high for SCR to be applied to a 1-MW system that at this time. gas turbine manufacturers have focused significant R&D on pollution prevention combustion approaches such as lean premix combustion as a method of complying with regulations cost-effectively. $82 As shown in Table 5-4.0037 * Assuming 6.000 Not economic .000 5. Labor & Material Cost ($) SCR Electric Penalty ($) SCR Ammonia. If applied to gas turbines in the size range reviewed in this report. Taxes Costs ($) SCR Total Annual Costs ($) SCR Total Annual Costs* 1. costs to operate and maintain SCR systems can be a significant addition to the annual non-fuel operating budget. The cost impact is even greater for smaller gas turbine projects. Emission control regulations significantly influence technology development and capital costs for all gas turbines.000 $40.000 $26. 5-10 . In a similar manner.a. This practice is starting to be applied to smaller and smaller gas turbine projects.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues Table 5-4 Representative Capital Cost Estimates for SCR on Small Gas Turbine Systems Source: ONSITE Energy Electric Capacity (kW) 1.000 SCR Capital Cost ($/kW) n. the cost impacts of post-exhaust control systems are most severe for small gas turbines.000 5.000 SCR Capital Cost ($) n.000 hours ($/kWh). Table 5-5 Representative O&M Costs for SCR on Small Gas Turbine Systems Source: ONSITE Energy Electric Capacity (kW) SCR Operating Cost ($) SCR Maint. capital costs become prohibitive and can stifle market activity. Catalyst Costs ($) SCR Overhead. as shown in Table 5-5.000 $112. no projects of this size have been installed or proposed with SCR. depending on the specifics of the project. Recent gas turbine permit rulings by environmental regulatory agencies indicate that BACT (best available control technology) and LAER (lowest achievable emissions rate) could require postexhaust pollution control technologies (SCR) to be installed regardless of the emission levels produced by the gas turbine.
and often overlooked “soft” costs.0013 0. complete project installation costs typically include labor. manufacturers might possibly discontinue advanced combustion R&D and accept the inevitability of SCR. permitting costs. Operation & Maintenance Costs Non-Fuel O&M The O&M costs in Table 5-6 are based on gas turbine manufacturer estimates for service contracts consisting of routine inspections and scheduled overhauls of the turbine generator set. The combustion path is inspected for fuel nozzle cleanliness and wear.0096 0. vibration analysis. A typical overhaul 5-11 . and land costs. fuel consumption.0001 10 0. Table 5-6 Estimated O&M Costs for Representative Small Gas Turbine Systems Source: ONSITE Energy O&M Costs 1 MW Gas Turbine 5 MW Gas Turbine Variable (Service Contract) ($/kWh) Variable (Consumables) ($/kWh) Fixed ($/kW-yr) Fixed ($/kWh) Total O&M ($/kWh) 0.0045 0. rotors. legal costs. performance testing.0045 0. Given the trend toward higher turbine inlet temperatures (to improve efficiency) and the challenge of controlling NOx at these conditions.0001 40 0. heat rate. Soft costs include project development costs.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues Gas turbine manufacturers recognize this and have openly questioned the value and costs of the next generation of pollution prevention technologies (such as catalytic combustion) if regulators will still require SCR regardless of gas turbine emissions. Routine maintenance practices include on-line running maintenance. A gas turbine overhaul is typically a complete inspection and rebuild of components to restore the gas turbine to its original or current (upgraded) performance standards. engineering and fees. Inspections generally include onsite hot gas path borescope inspections and nondestructive component testing using dye penetrant and magnetic particle techniques to ensure the integrity of components. and damaged blade tips. For the small projects considered for this report.0050 0. financing costs. and preventive maintenance procedures. general facilities. these soft costs can be as high as 30-50% of the total installed cost if considerable development and permitting efforts are required. contingencies.0059 Routine inspections are required to ensure that the turbine is free of excessive vibration due to worn bearings. along with the integrity of other hot gas path components. Total Installed Costs In addition to the equipment costs identified above. plotting trends. predictive maintenance.
the value of thermal energy ranged from 2. Gas turbines that operate for extended periods on liquid fuels will experience higher than average overhaul intervals. At the higher capacity factors (70% and above) for the 500-kW. maintenance costs can triple for a gas turbine that is cycled every hour versus a turbine that is operated for intervals of a 1000 hours or more. 5-1. The calculation assumes a $4. operating the turbine over the rated capacity for significant periods of time will dramatically increase the number of hot path inspections and overhauls. rotor removal. capital recovery over a 15-year life.5 to 2. Four representative gas turbine packages of different outputs are presented (500 kW. 5-12 . 1-MW. and setting packing seals. Various gas turbines have different part-load efficiencies and experience other performance degradations with ambient conditions. Note that manufacturers often quote efficiency based on LHV (the fuel’s lower heating value). the cost of electricity was estimated for various small gas turbine systems as a function of capacity factor (Figure 5-4). customer load profile data. The calculations assume a higher capital cost and credit the system with the value of thermal energy generated. In these cases. Fuel Fuel costs are determined by the net electric efficiencies (heat rates) of the gas turbines. 4 MW. inspection of thrust and journal bearings. Cost of Electricity Using the representative estimates presented above. blade inspection and clearances. state-of-the-art. and 5-2 for the range of simple-cycle electric efficiencies for this gas turbine size range. and 5 MW). simple-cycle gas turbines. Gas turbine maintenance costs can vary significantly depending on the quality and diligence of the preventative maintenance program and operating conditions. product upgrades and testing of the turbine and compressor. The 4-MW system represents a high-efficiency recuperated-cycle turbine package. while fuel consumption is normally calculated based on HHV (higher heating value). a CHP mode of utilization was assumed. Although gas turbines can be cycled.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues consists of dimensional inspections. The other three configurations represent commercial.8¢/kWh.) Most small gas turbine power generation installations operate at full load most of the time. and 5-MW systems. 1 MW. In addition. should be obtained to estimate fuel costs. If a unit is expected to run at less than full load during its planned operation. (Refer to Figures 2-12. and 10% return on investment.50/MMBtu gas price. as well as the part-load efficiency of equipment.
and interconnection have all been identified and are likely to be addressed as part of industry restructuring.3500 0. and. The other products are most competitive in high duty cycle CHP applications where their thermal energy offers value.0000 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Capacity Factor Figure 5-4 Cost of Electricity for Representative Small Gas Turbine Systems Source: ONSITE Energy The calculations confirm the relative advantages of each of these systems.3000 0. Market Outlooks CHP Market Positive: The potential for CHP is very large. Unless small gas turbines can offer siting and environmental advantages. means. most 5-13 . In all representative cases. One of the most positive factors is the emergence of well-financed utility affiliates.0500 0.2000 4 MW 5 MW 0.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues Cost of Electricity for Representative Small Gas Turbines 0. permitting.1000 5 MW w / HR 0. The high efficiency 4-MW product offers the most benefit in intermediate-duty applications. capital costs would need to improve for their utilization to be enhanced in low capacity factor applications such as standby generation. they are at a distinct disadvantage relative to other standby options.2500 500 kW 1 MW COE ($/kWh) 0. The barriers of siting. These new energy service providers will have the ability.1500 500 kW w / HR 1 MW w / HR 0.
Actual activity in this market will be stable or decline for the next few years until the previously identified issues related to restructuring are sorted out. Overall Assessment: Concerns about reduced power reliability will drive this market. siting. more motivation than regulated utilities to promote CHP and distributed generation as part of their overall customer service strategies. permitting.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues importantly. Onsite storage is a requirement for many health-care applications. the market is likely to expand. Utilities have been able to do this because prevailing power rates on the wholesale market up until recently have been relatively low. It will continue to be dominated by diesel fuel for the most part. driven by an emerging energy service provider industry. The market will see a greater need to secure peak power. After this transition period. and interconnecting CHP facilities continues to be difficult and expensive. Negative: The CHP market has been stagnant in recent years due primarily to incumbent utilities’ ability to negotiate lower rates even in areas with high average retail prices. In many states. unless siting of diesel units become tougher due to environmental regulations. this is the largest single market for diesel-fueled reciprocating engine generator sets. Small gas turbine systems compete with diesel systems where they offer siting and environmental advantages. Standby Market Positive: Historically. Current markets exist in locations where 5-14 . effectively locking customers into their current rates and usage until the transition period is complete. Diesel options have a sizable cost advantage for this application. Negative: The vast majority of standby generator sets are diesel fueled. More movement toward time-of-day and time-of-use rates will increase the value of peak generation. Intermediate-Duty Market Positive: Growth potential is high due to restructuring. Finally. CTCs and exit fees are applied to customers that generate their own power. restructuring has included competitive transition charges (CTCs). Customers have taken a “wait and see” attitude toward restructuring. Overall Assessment: The potential of for CHP is very large. Other diesel advantages that are well-suited for standby applications are quicker start-up to full load and onsite fuel storage.
Initially. 5-15 . this is a speculative market. Its growth depends on the evolution of price signals in energy rates that reflect the differential value between on-peak and offpeak electricity. Negative: While potentially large.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Economics & Business Issues customers peakshave due to significant differences between on-peak and off-peak rates in published tariffs. lower annual hours of operation will favor lower capital cost systems. If the on-peak/off-peak spread occurs over a short time period. the market will develop in some geographical areas sooner than others. Overall Assessment: Generation for peaking purposes should grow as customers develop an overall energy strategy focused on minimizing total facilities cost and thus maximizing capacity utilization (hours of operation). This will present a service and distribution challenge if concentrated markets spring up throughout the country. Integration of gas-fueled generator sets into this strategy will favor high simple-cycle efficiency gas turbine systems due to their low operating costs and environmental advantages. giving diesel engines an advantage.
interest developed in the possibility of hot air engines.C. which placed pumping engines in mines under business terms calling for payments to the engine providers based on the shared benefit of reduced fuel costs. Parsons invented the steam turbine. In the late 19th century. the same principles as were used for the design of the expansion turbine were applied to the design of air compressors. This was of extremely low efficiency. as well as much profit to the firm of Bolton and Watt. initially with the compressor consuming more power than the expansion turbine produced. D. In the mid-19th century. then power generation. Indeed in the late 19th century.” externally fired (reciprocating) engines. Experimental reciprocating piston Brayton cycle engines were built. the steady flow turbomachinery Brayton cycle combustion turbine was built and operated. thereby lowering the engine efficiency as steam was consumed in merely rewarming the cylinder walls. as steam engines became larger and larger. In addition to steam engines. For the next 50 years. Gas Turbine History Early Development After the steam turbine was scientifically understood. the water used for condensation cooled the cylinder walls. Soon thereafter. James Watt first invented the external condenser to increase engine efficiency. Additionally. The efficiency of this technology grew by a factor of 10 in the first half of the 20th century. Newcomen built and operated the first (reciprocating) steam engine. culminating in an efficiency of nearly 40% HHV in the 1960s. large river boats were built with “hot air. This A-1 . modern industrialization began to spread with the invention of the steam engine. which first revolutionized naval ship propulsion. he invented the above-atmospheric pressure steam engine. as it was a (partial) vacuum engine that used atmospheric pressure to move the piston against the vacuum created by condensing steam into water in the cylinder by water injection. the science of thermodynamics developed – the study of the conversion of heat to power in engines. a small version of which was used by farmers for water pumping 100 years ago and was even featured in Sears Roebuck catalogs of the time.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material A Brief History of Power Generation and Gas Turbines Power Generation History While the industrial revolution had its roots in the waterwheels of the Middle Ages. In 1712. With these two design improvements came major increases in efficiency and power density. This led to the Stirling engine. then in 1775. and a few are on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. Interest developed in both steady flow and reciprocating hot air engines. power generation was dominated by the coal fired steam turbine system.
At the same time. Such plates may be corrugated. Government sponsored R&D on automotive gas turbines began with the energy crises of the 1970s and continued until the mid-1990s. Around the end of World War I in 1918. turbofan. very low pollutant emissions. for vehicular propulsion. and turboprop aircraft and helicopter and boat propulsion systems. a short time later. Frank Whittle in England and Hans von Ohain in Germany built gas turbines as the source of pressurized hot air for use with an exhaust jet for aircraft propulsion. Recuperators are the type of heat exchanger most often encountered in industrial practice. These all perform on the same set of thermodynamic and fluid mechanic principles and have become ubiquitous. and performance-enhancing turbochargers are in widespread use on reciprocating engines. Small Gas Turbines for Automotive and Other Vehicle Applications In the 1950s and 1960s. considered too expensive for commercial use a century ago. or finned to increase the surface area exposed to the hot and cold gases. none of which were commercialized. which has a gas turbine as its core. the first centrifugal compressor turbochargers were built for use on military airplanes. Some of the larger development units. folded. having the walls give up this heat to the cold stream flowing in the opposite A-2 . with the hot stream first transferring heat to the walls and then. the walls act as temporary heat storage materials. oil-fired industrial turbines. originally intended for truck and bus propulsion. Recuperators transfer heat through fixed boundaries. This is because of their combination of low cost. generally of the size now referred to as microturbines. high efficiency. The first commercial machines were Swiss heavy-duty. Today gas turbines power turbojet. Regenerators are matrices of fine holes in high-temperature materials. Automotive gas turbines use regenerators rather than recuperators to recover heat from the turbine exhaust for preheating the compressed air flowing to the combustor. Regenerators can be more compact than recuperators and offer the opportunity to fit a high efficiency gas turbine under to hood of an automobile. and high reliability. placed in the flow paths of the hot and cold gas streams such that the hot and cold gases pass through the passages alternately in opposite directions and periodically heat and cool the walls. The temperature limit on the expansion process was due to the limited capability of alloy steels that were commercially available at that time. were later used to get over the temperature barrier. The first practical gas turbines were built in the late 1930s and early 1940s. were produced as military aviation “start carts” and auxiliary generators. Nickel based alloys. A startling breakthrough in airplane speed was then achieved in the early 1940s by the jet engine. as is the case with tube bundles and flow separation plates. In this manner. and in secret. The high efficiency centrifugal (radial flow) compressor and the axial flow compressor (a reverse steam engine expansion type of device) set the stage for the modern gas turbine. usually ceramics. Most central station power plants recently built or expected to be built in the commercial planning future in the United States and western Europe are gas turbine combined cycle plants. several major automobile companies experimented with small gas turbines. about 100 years ago.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material low (actually negative) performance was due to the poor efficiency of the compressor and expander and the low expander inlet temperature. These continued to be used for aircraft and high performance automobile propulsion in the 1920s and 1930s and are in such use today. The first experimental gas turbine to operate at positive efficiency was built just after the turn of the prior century.
In the future somewhat larger versions. Microturbines with oil lubricated bearings do not exhibit any oil consuming process. Much difficulty still exists in obtaining automatic acceptance of the electrical interconnection with the grid and for environmental siting permits. To date. Entrance and exit manifolds duct the flows to the proper sections of the regenerator. microturbines are expected to have major penetration of the market for electricity in the light commercial sector. Recuperators enables microturbines to reach efficiencies in the 25-30% range. The life of both types of microturbines is expected to be competitive when manufactured with good quality control. so the life of the oil is limited only by evaporation. which could reduce periodic maintenance. If the seal is loose.” Microturbines Today’s microturbines had origins in several fields including: Automotive gas turbine programs of the automobile and gas turbine industries of the 1950s Closed cycle gas turbine products of the Swiss and Germans (Brown-Boveri) before and after World War II • Space power program of the U. and long term chemical degradation. The challenge in the use of regenerators is the seals that prevents leakage of pressurized air into the exhaust stream. which rotates somewhat slowly between the inlet and exhaust manifolds. 100-250 kW.000 miles at about 35 mph) demanded as a minimum for automotive applications. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960s-70s and the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency automotive gas turbine development programs of the 1980s-90s. in practice the flow geometry is straightforward. The microturbine is a low pressure ratio (3:1 to 5:1). gas turbines are considered small rather than micro. compressed air leaks through the seal surface. which might make them sufficiently attractive for use in intermediate duty power generation.S. Above this size. To compete. the microturbine is expected to be ultrareliable. Regenerators are used in industrial heat recovery processes to preheat incoming air for combustion using the furnace exhaust gas as the source of otherwise wasted heat.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material direction through the same passages. some of which have found application in industrial regenerators known as “heat wheels. If the seal is tight. In this service. may be produced. seal designs and materials have not been found even for the modest life (3000 hours or 100. it wears and subsequently leaks. While this may sound somewhat complex. • • A-3 . imperfect sealing. Some microturbines have air bearings. The most promising regenerator materials identified to date are ceramics. This is of particular concern in gas turbines as the air stream is high pressures of 30-60 psig (3-5 atmospheres) in the case of automotive gas turbines and microturbines and 75195 psig (6-14 atmospheres) in the case of industrial and small aeroderivative gas turbines. This means installed costs below $1200/kW to $500/kW. depending on local electric utility rates and the hours per year of use planned. With the resolution of these issues and with lower installed costs. a sliding contact between the seal and the regenerator results. recuperated gas turbine in the 25-75 kW size range. as down time for repairs would seriously compromise the attractiveness of the product and the overall economics. the installed cost of microturbines should result in power costs lower than those of the grid or of competing reciprocating engines. with “appliance-like” reliability. As the regenerator rotates between the manifolds.
. Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery.. Norwalk. L. Ed. W.. B-1 . Boca Raton. Turbomachinery International Handbook 1998.. 1998... January 2000. Dixon. January 1998.” Prepared for DOE Office of Industrial Technologies and Gas Research Institute.” Diesel & Gas Turbine Worldwide. Editor-in-Chief. FL: CRC Press. DOE/ORE 2096. GRI-96/0439. November 1998. Collaborative Report and Action Agenda. S.. W. Barker..” in The CRC Handbook of Mechanical Engineering.J. Gas Turbine World 1999-2000 Handbook. G. Bautista. Thomas V.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material B Bibliography “Annual Survey of Engine Sales. California Alliance for Distributed Resources. 1978. and Davidson. Freedman. 1998. Pequot Publishing. GRI-99/0263. F.” Power Gen ’95 Conference. October 2000.” PowerGen International ’99. “Gas Turbine Power Generation Combined Heat and Power Environmental Analysis and Policy Considerations. Hay. November 1999. Kreith.” Oil & Gas Journal. December 1999. Resource Dynamics Corporation. Low Emission Combustor for Allison Gas Turbines. K. S. GRI-98/0025. CN: Turbomachinery Publications. New Orleans. Major.. August 12. “Gas Turbines. January 1998. 1996. P. Gas Turbine Recuperators. Butterworth-Oxford. Fluid Mechanics. “Small Gas Turbines for Distributed Generation Strategies.I.A.. “Rise in Gas-Fired Power Generation Tracks Gains in Turbine Efficiency.. Liss. Distributed Generation Guidebook for Municipal Utilities. Industrial Applications for Micropower: A Market Assessment. December 1995. et al. “Natural Gas Power Systems for the Distributed Power Generation Market.
Norwalk. Razdan. “An Evaluation of Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles. GRI94/0501... DE-FC02-97CHIO877.. A. International Gas Turbine Institute. V. December 1999. Proceedings for the International Workshop on Catalytic Combustion.. April 1994.. Bach. Cambridge.. Rao.J.G. Sawyer. MA: The MIT Press..J. Arthur D.” ASME Asia ’97 Congress. January 1999..” DOE Contract No. W. Wilson. D. Reciprocating Engines for Stationary Power Generation. 1999 IGTI Technology Report and Product Directory. and Francuz.” ASME 98-GT-287. January 2000.W. and Bautista. Ed.. December 1993.S. W. November 1999. Bautista. and Powers.EPRIsolutions Licensed Material Major. “Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines. GRI-99/0271. Solt. October. DOE/ORE 2095. SRI International.. Sawyer's Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook.D. J. C. C. Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Systems in Industrial Applications.J. “Field Experience of a Dry Low Emission Combustion System for Allison 501-K Series of Engines. Little. P. 1985. M. 1997. “The Ultimate NOx Solution for Gas Turbines.K. CN: Turbomachinery International Publications.” Power Gen ’93 Conference.. 1989.. B-2 . P. The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines.. Inc.
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