Functional Grammar Elements of clause structure: 1 Subject (S) Traditionally, S also a noun. E.g. (1)Mary had a little lamb.

But, out of context, noun is not a S. e.g. Mary alone not a S; lamb alone is not a S - Being a S is not an intrinsic feature of the word Mary but only a function which it sometimes realizes. - Mary is always a noun and in this example it is a S. However, it is not always a S, for instance: (2)He knows Mary. Mary is a noun but not a S. - It is only in some specific instance of a clause that an item can be labelled S. - In SFG, Mary in (2) is said to be the Complement, and the pronoun He is the S. - Not all personal pronouns can function alone as S. - I, she, he, we, they nearly always realize the function of S. One exception is intensive structures like It is I. # S is a function which is realized by a nominal group. How we decide whether some word or group of words is the S? a. it often determines the form of the verb / Subject-Finite agreement probe e.g. the verb be He is obsessed with money; They are obsessed with money; I am obsessed with money. So, the verb be is in agreement with the S. e.g. third person singular & plural. For singular S, the verbs require an –s. e.g. The computer chip uses this battery of information. For plural S, there is no –s inflection on the verb. E.g Computer chips use this battery of info. Most past tense main verbs & modal operators (can, may, should) do not vary according to S. - other probe: The S is the item in the clause which is picked up in the pronoun in a mood tag (aka question tag). From the mood tag, we can determine the S as well as the gender of the person the S refers to. E.g (4) The computer chip uses this battery of information, doesn’t it? It is the pronoun refers to the computer chip. (5) Computer chips use this battery of info, don’t they? They refers to computer chips. (6) The doctor prescribed these pills, didn’t she? She reflects the gender of the doctor. In interrogative mood, S is the nominal group which immediately follows the finite operator. The S changes place with the finite operator. e.g. (7) Does the comp chip use this battery of info?

- passive clauses the inverted form of corresponding active clause. E.g (8) Loewi was obsessed by the idea. - passive (9) The idea obsessed Loewi. – active S for (8) is Loewi; S for (9) is the idea ‘dummy subjects’ ‘empty’ S. e.g. (10) … it was a mystery why some nerves stimulate an organ and others depress it. The pronoun it refers to the same concept as the nominal group in the previous examples. The S it here is simply a sort of stand-in, holding the S position until the meat of the S comes along, which is the 2nd it which is a fully referring noun, and is co-referential with an organ. 2 Finite (F) - part of the verbal group which encodes primary tense or the speaker’s opinion. It has 2 main interpersonal roles in the verbal group:1) can be a sign of TIME in relation to the speaker, 2) a MODAL sign of the speaker’s opinion. E.g. a) sign of time He is eating the puff. – is  present He ate the puff. – ate  past He will eat the puff. – will  event will take place sometime after the talk b) sign of opinion He could eat all the puffs. – could  opinion about ability 3 Predicator (P) The rest of the verbal group, including any other auxiliaries, is simply described as the Predicator, because, it is the basis for the prediction, or validation, of the rest of the clause.

3.1 Finites and Predicators Verbal groups realize the functions of F and P, and the two are often combined in a single word. Where the verbal group consists of one word, the F and P are said to be fused. E.g. (9) – obsessed is analyzed as a simple verbal group realizing the functions of F and P at the same time. For unfused F and P, each of these falls into two part. E.g.(8) – was obsessed The first part, was – the finite operator, being finite The second part, obsessed – the lexical verb, i.e Predicator So, in might have been writing, only might realizes the F function Whereas, have been writing realizes the P

In has been writing, Has is F, been writing is P 4 Complements (C) Other nominal groups may be regarded as C because they complete the argument set up in the clause. A C is the part of a sentence which answers the question “Who or what?” after the verb. (Berry, M. 1975, p.64) e.g. (11) Loewi awoke in the night. in the night does not answer the question ‘who or what’. e.g. (12) Loewi woke in the night with an idea. This also fails to meet the who or what? Criterion, therefore there is no C e.g. (12) He awoke his wife. If we ask who or what?, the answer is his wife. Thus, his wife is the C.

4.1 C subcategorization - a) direct object Complements (C) Normally follow transitive verbs e.g. (13) … some nerves stimulate an organ and others depress it. So, an organ is the C - b) intensive Complement (C) A C which follows a copular (linking) verb (such as be, seem, appear, become) e.g. (13) Kuala Lumpur is the capital city. (14) She seems a brilliant woman. c) indirect object Complement (C) A C which follows ditransitive verbs (verbs that permit C) like give, send,offer. In a simple independent declarative clause the C normally comes immediately after the verb and the C follows it. e.g. (15) Mandel promptly sent him 140 packets. d) oblique Complement (C) The to-phrase. e.g. (16) Mandel promptly sent 140 packets to him. Adjuncts (A) Adverbial groups, nominal groups and prepositional phrases which acted as Circumstances for the experiential meaning (concerned with content/ideas) of a clause are now simply known as Adjuncts because they are added on to the interpersonal meanings(communicative acts).
Something ‘joined to’; slightly peripheral (at the edge/not significant) in the clause

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For the most part grammatically optional in a way others (S, F, P, C) are not.

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a) circumstantial A (A)

Deal with the circumstances of the events or states described in the text. Convey information such as place, time, manner, the associated participants (with whom? with what?). Thus, part of the ideational (experiential) meaning of the clause. e.g. Loewi was obsessed by the idea. b) conjunctive A (A) Helps to show the link between a clause and what precedes it. e.g.(17) For instance, the vagus nerves slow down the rate of heartbeat , while the accelerator nerves increase it. The expression For instance signals the nature of that relationship. c) modal A The function of A is to indicate some aspect of the speaker/writer’s attitude to the message or her comment on its relevance, reliability, interest, and so on. e.g. (18) …it was probably the same substance … The adverb probably can be taken as the prototypical item realizing the function of A . It represents the degree to which the speaker/writer is committed to the proposition being made. Modal Adjunct comprises of Mood Adjunct and Comment Adjunct (see Halliday for the list). 5.1 Adjuncts and conjunctions Conjunctions are word class within the same system as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, determiner, preposition, and numeral. Adjunct is a function in the clause and is realized by such word classes as adverbs and nominals as well as by prepositional phrases. Conjunctive adjunct (adverb) moreover, furthermore, also however, nevertheless, alternatively meanwhile, simultaneously thus, therefore, consequently conjunction and but, yet or, whereas when, while so that

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In SFG, conjunctions are just connectors and do not have any significant function.

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