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1: In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at t = 0 with the capacitor uncharged. Find values for i, di/dt and d2i/dt2 at t = 0+, for element values as follows: V 100 V R 1000 Ω C 1 µF

1

+ V -

R C

Switch is closed at t = 0 (reference time) We know Voltage across capacitor before switching = VC(0-) = 0 V According to the statement under Q#5.1. VC(0+) = VC(0-) = 0 V V 100 iC(0+) = i(0+) = = = 0.1 Amp. R 1000 Element and initial condition Equivalent circuit at t = 0+ Sc C Switch Drop Rise i(0+) Short circuit Drop

Applying KVL for t ≥ 0 Sum of voltage rise = sum of voltage drop 1 V = iR + ∫ idt

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} C Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ di i R + =0 dt C di(0+) -i(0+) = [eq. 1] dt CR By putting the values of i(0+), C & R di(0+) -(0.1) = dt (1 µF)(1 kΩ) di(0+) = -100 Amp/sec dt Differentiating eq. 1 with respect to ‘t’ d2i(0+) -di(0+) 1 = dt2 dt CR Putting the corresponding values d2i(0+) = 100, 000 amp/sec2 2 dt Q#5.2: In the given network, K is closed at t = 0 with zero current in the inductor. Find the values of i, di/dt, and d2i/dt2 at t = 0+ if R 10 Ω L 1H V 100 V

2

K + V L R

Key closed at t = 0 iL(0+) = iL(0-) = i(0+) = 0 Amp

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} According to the statement under Q#5.2: Drop Rise Open circuit i(0+) Drop

3

Element and initial condition Applying KVL for t ≥ 0 Sum of voltage rise = sum of voltage drop Ldi V = iR + dt Ldi = V – iR dt di V - iR = [eq. 1] dt L di(0+) V – i(0+)R = dt L Putting corresponding values di(0+) V – (0)R = dt L di(0+) V = dt L di(0+) 100 = dt 1 di(0+) = 100 Amp/sec dt Differentiating [eq. 1] d2i d V iR = dt2 dt L L

Equivalent circuit at t = 0+ oc

Solve for i. di/dt.1 µF V 100 V a b V C L K R Equivalent circuit at t = 0+ b sc Applying KVL for t ≥ 0 Sum of voltage rise = sum of voltage drop 1 Ldi Ri + ∫ idt + = 0 [eq. and d2i/dt2 at t = 0+ if R 1000 Ω L 1H C 0.H)} d2i = dt2 Ldt d2i(0+) -Rdi(0+) = 2 dt Ldt Putting corresponding values d2i(0+) = -1. 1] . K is changed from position a to b at t = 0.B. 000 Amp/sec2 dt 2 4 -Rdi Q#5.3: In the network of the figure.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.

1 Amp 1000 Initial condition: VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 Also we know for t ≥ 0 VR + VL + VC = 0 iR + VL + VC = 0 At t = 0+ i(0+)R + VL(0+) + VC(0+) = 0 (0.B.1)(1000) + VL(0+) + 0 = 0 VL(0+) = -100 Volts And di VL = L dt di VL = dt L di(0+) VL(0+) = dt L Putting corresponding values di(0+) = -100 Amp/sec dt Differentiating [eq.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. 1] with respect to ‘t’ Rdi i Ld2i + + =0 2 dt C dt Rdi(0+) i(0+) Ld2i(0+) .U.H)} C dt Equivalent circuit at t = 0a 5 i(0+) sc V iL(0+) = iL(0-) = i(0+) = R = 100 = 0.

R K V1 C1 C2 6 V2 V1 V2 R C1 C2 After switching: V1 2V 1V 1Ω 1F ½F V2 Applying KCL at node 1: V1 – V2 dV1 + C1 =0 R dt V1(0+) – V2(0+) dV1(0+) + C1 =0 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.H)} + + =0 dt C dt2 Putting corresponding values d2i(0+) = 9.4: For the network and the conditions stated in problem 4-3. 00000 Amp/sec2 dt2 Q#5. determine the values of dv1/dt and dv2/dt at t = 0+.U.

H)} R dt Putting corresponding values 2V–1V dV1(0+) + (1 F) =0 1 dt Simplifying dV1(0+) = -1 Volt/sec dt At node 2: V2 – V1 dV2 + C2 =0 R dt V2(0+) – V1(0+) dV2(0+) + C2 =0 R dt Putting corresponding values 1V–2V dV2(0+) + (1/2) =0 1 dt Simplifying dV2(0+) = 2 Volt/sec dt According to KCL “Sum of currents entering into the junction must equal to the sum of the currents leaving the junction” Q#5. NODE R1 R2 V1 R1 R2 C VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 V C 10 Ω 20 Ω 1/20 F + V2 7 .7.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5: For the network described in problem 4.U.B. determine values of d2v2/dt2 and d3v2/dt3 at t = 0+.

U.1e-t = 0 … (2) 20 dt2 1 d2V2(0+) + + 0.1e-t(0+) = 0 20 dt 2 At t = 0+ 3 dV2(0+) 20 dt .H)} Applying KCL at NODE for t ≥ 0 V2 dV2 V2 – V1 +C + = 0 … (1) R2 dt R1 At t = 0+ V2(0+) dV2(0+) V2(0+) – V1(0+) +C + =0 R2 dt R1 V1 = e-t Volts V2 = VC(0+) = 0 Volts 0 dV2(0+) 0 – e-0+ +C + =0 R2 dt R1 Simplifying dV2(0+) = 2 Volt/sec dt Differentiating eq.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. 1 with respect to ‘t’ 1 dV2 d2V2 1 dV2 dV1 + C + =0 R2 dt dt2 R1 dt dt 1 20 1 20 3 20 dV2 + dt dV2 + dt dV2 + dt 20 dt 2 8 1 d2V2 20 dt2 1 d2V2 20 dt 2 1 dV2 d(e-t) + =0 10 dt dt 1 dV2 1 + 10 dt 10 1 10 d(e-t) =0 dt d(e-t) =0 dt 1 d2V2 d(e-t) = -e-t 3 dV2 + 20 dt 1 d2V2 + 0.

At t = 0.1e-t(0+) = 0 20 dt 20 dt Putting corresponding values and simplifying d3V2(0+) = 26 Volts/sec3 dt3 Q#5. Determine the voltage across the switch.H)} Simplifying d2V2(0+) = -8 Volt/sec2 dt2 Differentiating eq. and dVK/dt at t = 0+.B.6: The network shown in the accompanying figure is in the steady state with the switch k closed. 2 3 d2V2 1 d3V2 + 20 dt2 20 dt3 At t = 0+ 3 d2V2(0+) + 2 3 9 . SOLUTION: VK R L C V Equivalent network before switching 1Ω 1H ½F 2V . the switch is opened.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.0.0.1e-t = 0 1 d3V2(0+) . VK.U.

At t = 0+. dv/dt.7: In the given network. the switch K is opened at t = 0.H)} 10 i(0+) sc V iL(0+) = iL(0-) = i(0+) = R 1 Also VK = VC = C dVK i = dt C At t = 0+ dVK i(0+) = dt C dVK 2 = dt (1/2) dVK = 4 Volts/sec dt ∫ idt = 2 = 2 Amp 1 Q#5.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. and d2v/dt2 if I 10 A R 1000 Ω C 1 µF V .U.B. solve for the values of v.

H)} 11 Switch is opened at t = 0 Equivalent circuit at t = 0- No current flows through R so VC(0-) = VC(0+) = i(0-)R = V(0+) Here i(0-) = 0 VC(0-) = VC(0+) = (0)R VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 Volts For t ≥ 0.U.B. according to KCL at V V dV +C = I … (1) R dt At t = 0+ V(0+) dV(0+) +C =I R dt Simplifying dV(0+) = 107 Volts/sec dt Differentiating (1) with respect to ‘t’ 1 dV +C d2V =0 2 R dt dt At t = 0+ 1 dV(0+) d2V(0+) +C =0 2 R dt dt .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

B. Solve for V.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.8: The network shown in the figure has the switch K opened at t = 0. and d2V/dt2 at t = 0+ if I 1A R 100 Ω L 1H V Equivalent circuit before switching: Because iL(0-) = 0 A iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 A Therefore After switching (t = 0+) V .H)} Simplifying d2V(0+) = -1010 Volts/sec2 dt2 12 Q#5. dV/dt.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. 000.B. 000 Volts/sec dt Differentiating (2) with respect to ‘t’ 1 d2V 1 dV + =0 R dt2 L dt At t = 0+ 1 d2V(0+) + R dt Simplifying d2V(0+) = 1. 000 Volts/sec2 dt 2 2 1 dV(0+) =0 L dt .U.H)} 13 So V(0+) = (I)(R) V(0+) = (1)(100) V(0+) = 100 Volts For t ≥ 0 Applying KCL at node V V 1 + ∫ Vdt = I … (1) R L Differentiating (1) with respect to ‘t’ 1 dV V + = 0 … (2) R dt L At t = 0+ 1 dV(0+) V(0+) + =0 R dt L Simplifying dV(0+) = -10.

H)} 14 Q#5. At t = 0. the switch is closed. Circuit diagram: Vb Va Equivalent circuit before switching: sc . determine the value of Va(0-) and Va(0+). For the element values given.B.9: In the network shown in the figure.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U. a steady state is reached with the switch K open.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. i(0-) = iL(0-) .U.H)} 15 Req = (10 + 20) 10 (10 + 20)(10) Req = (10 + 20) + 10 300 Req = 40 Req = 7.5 i(0-) = 0.B.5 Ω After simplification Req i(0-) 5V V i(0-) = Req 5 i(0-) = 7.667 Amp.

B.H)} 16 Va(0-) 20 Va(0-) = (5) (10 + 20) Va(0-) = 3.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.334 Volts Also equivalent network at t = 0+ t = 0+ Vb Va .U.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Vb Va K . determine the values of Va(0-) and Va(0+).10: In the accompanying figure is shown a network in which a steady state is reached with switch K open.Vb Va + + =0 10 20 10 After simplification we get Vb = 5Va – 10 … (i) Applying KCL at node Vb Vb .H)} 17 Applying KCL at node Va Va – 5 Va . the switch is closed.B.905 Volts Q#5.Va Vb – 5 2 + + =0 20 10 3 9Vb – 3Va + 10 = 0 … (ii) Substituting value of Vb from (i) into (ii) 9[5Va – 10] – 3Va + 10 = 0 45Va – 90 – 3Va + 10 = 0 42Va – 80 = 0 Va(0+) = 1. For the element values given.U. At t = 0.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} Equivalent circuit before switching

18

Req

VC(0-) = Va(0-) = 0 V Equivalent network at t = 0+ Vb Va

+ -

Applying KCL at node Va

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} Va – 5 Va - Vb Va + + =0 10 20 10 After simplification we get Vb = 5Va – 10 … (i) At Vb = 5 V 5 = 5Va – 10 Va(0+) = 3 Volts Q#5.11: In the network of figure P5-9, determine iL(0+) and iL(∞ ) for the conditions stated in problem 5-9. Equivalent circuit before switching:

19

sc

Req = (10 + 20) 10 (10 + 20)(10)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} Req = (10 + 20) + 10 300 Req = 40 Req = 7.5 Ω After simplification Req

20

i(0-) 5V

V i(0-) = Req 5 i(0-) = 7.5 i(0-) = 0.667 Amp. i(0-) = iL(0-) iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0.667 Amp. Equivalent network at t = ∞

Va

5-10.6 Amp.H)} 21 Applying KCL at node Va Va – 5 Va Va + + =0 10 20 10 After simplification we get Va(∞ ) = 2 Volts V iL(∞ ) = Va + 10 20 After simplification we get iL(∞ ) = 0. At t = 0-. equivalent network is .12: In the network given in figure p5-10.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. determine Vb(0+) and Vb(∞ ) for the conditions stated in Prob. iL(∞ ) Q#5.U.B.

H)} 22 VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 5 Volts Also equivalent network at t = ∞ is Vb Va According to KCL at Va Va – 5 Va .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.Vb Va + + =0 10 20 10 .B.U.

Solve for (a) V1 and V2 at t = 0+.2Vb + 2 … (i) According to KCL at Vb Vb – 5 Vb – Va + =0 10 20 After simplification we get 3Vb – Va – 10 = 0 Putting the value of Va we get Vb(∞ ) = 4. (d) d2V2/dt2 at t = 0+.286 Volts Q#5.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} After simplification we get Va = 0.13: In the accompanying network. (c) dV1/dt and dV2/dt at t = 0+.B. the switch K is closed at t = 0 with zero capacitor voltage and zero inductor current. (b) V1 and V2 at t = ∞ . CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 23 R1 V1 L C V2 R2 Equivalent network after switching .

13 At t = 0VC(0-) VC(0+) iL(0-) iL(0+) Equivalent network at t = 0+ V2(0+) = iL(0+)(R2) V2(0+) = (0)(R2) V2(0+) = 0 V V1(0+) + V2(0+) = VC(0+) Putting corresponding values V1(0+) + 0 = 0 V1(0+) = 0 Equivalent circuit at t = ∞ V1(∞ ) = iR2R2 V iR2 = R1 + R2 VR2 V1(∞ ) = R1 + R2 VC(∞ ) = V – iR1R1 VR1 VC(∞ ) = V – R1 + R2 After simplification we get VR2 0V 0V 0A 0A .B.U.H)} 24 According to statement under Q#5.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

U.V2(∞ ) VR2 VR2 V1(∞ ) = R1 + R2 R1 + R2 V1(∞ ) = 0 Volts (c) Self justified 25 V1 V2 According to KCL at node ‘V1’ V – V1 dV1 1 +C + ∫ V1 – V2)dt = 0 … (i) R1 dt L Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ 1 dV dV1 d2V1 +C 1 + (V1 – V2) = 0 … (iii) .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.H)} VC(∞ ) = R1 + R2 Since VC(∞ ) = V1(∞ ) + V2(∞ ) VR2 V2(∞ ) = R1 + R2 V1(∞ ) = VC(∞ ) .

H)} R1 dt dt dt2 L 26 According to KCL at node ‘V2’ V2 1 + ∫ V2 – V1)dt = 0 … (ii) R2 L Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ 1 dV2 + R2 dt As V1 = V1 + V2 By putting the value of V1 in (iii) & (iv) 1 R1 1 dV d(V1 + V2) d2(V1 + V2) +C dt dt dt2 dV R1 dt 1 dV2 + R2 dt 1 dV2 + R2 dt 1 dV2 + R2 dt 1 dV2 + R2 dt L L 1 (–V1) = 0 … (Vi) L 1 (V2 – V1 .V2) = 0 L 1 (V2 – (V1 + V2)) = 0 … (iV) dt 1 (V2 – V1) = 0 … (iV) dV1 dt dV2 d2V1 +C dt2 1 + L 1 + L L 1 (V2 – V1) = 0 … (iV) (V1 + V2 – V2) = 0 d2V2 + dt2 (V1) = 0 … (V) From (V) & (Vi) we can find the values of dV1/dt & dV2/dt. .B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U. (d) Refer part C.

14: The network of Prob. 5-13.U. At a new reference time. the switch K is opened. Solve for the quantities specified in the four parts of Prob. t = 0. (a) Equivalent circuit before switching At t = 0V iL(0-) = R1 + R2 VC(0-) = V – iR1(0-)R1 Here iR1(0-) = iL(0-) VC(0-) = V – iL(0-)R1 VR1 VC(0-) = V - .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.H)} 27 Q#5. 5-13 reaches a steady state with the switch K closed.

B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.V2(0-) VR2 VR2 V1(0-) = R1 + R2 R1 + R2 V1(0-) = 0 Volts Equivalent network after switching V1(0+) + VC(0+) V2(0+) .U.H)} R1 + R2 VR2 VC(0-) = R1 + R2 V2 = iR2R2 V iR2(0-) = iR1(0-) = R1 + R2 VR2 V2 = R1 + R2 28 VR2 V2(0-) = R1 + R2 V1(0-) + V2(0-) = VC(0-) V1(0-) = VC(0-) .

B.H)} 29 VC(0-) = VC(0+) VR2 VC(0+) = R1 + R2 V iL(0-) = iL(0+) = R1 + R2 V2(0+) = iL(0+)R2 VR2 V2(0+) = R1 + R2 V1(0+) + V2(0+) = VC(0+) V1(0+) = VC(0+) .V2(0+) VR2 V1(0+) = R1 + R2 V1(0+) = 0 Volts (b) Equivalent network at t = ∞ At t = ∞ capacitor will be fully discharged and acts as an open circuit.U. R1 + R2 VR2 Hence VC(∞ ) = 0 V iL(∞ ) = 0 A .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

H)} V2(∞ ) = iL(∞ )R2 V2(∞ ) = (0)R2 V2(∞ ) = 0 Volt (c) For t ≥ 0.U. the equivalent network is 30 V1 V2 V2 Applying KCL at node ‘V1’ 1 dV1 ∫ (V1 – V2)dt + C = 0 … (i) L dt d C dt (V1 + V2) = R2 -V2 … (ii) V1 As V1 = V1 + V2 1 d(V1 + V2) ∫ (V1 + V2 – V2)dt + C =0 L dt 1 d(V1 + V2) ∫ V1dt + C =0 .B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

U. (a) Determine i.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. di/dt. K V0 i V1 Equivalent circuit after switching . and d2i/dt2 at t = 0+.15: The switch K in the network of the figure is closed at t = 0 connecting the battery to an unenergized network. and d2V1/dt2 at t = 0+. (d) Refer part c. Q#5. dV1/dt.H)} L dt Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ 1 V1 + C L dt2 d2V1 d2V2 +C dt2 = 0 … (iii) 31 Differentiating (ii) with respect to ‘t’ d2 C dt2 (V1 + V2) = R2 dt -1 dV2 … (iV) After simplification we get the values of dV1/dt & dV2/dt.B. (b) Determine V1.

B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.H)} 32 Here VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 Volt iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 A i(0+) = 0 A iL(0+) = i(0+) Applying KVL around outside loop di L + iR2 = V0 … (i) dt At t = 0+ di(0+) L + i(0+)R2 = V0 … (i) dt By putting corresponding values we get di(0+) = dt L Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ d2i di L + R2 =0 dt2 dt At t = 0+ d2i(0+) di(0+) L + R2 =0 2 dt dt Simplifying we get d2i(0+) = dt2 L2 Referring to the network at t = 0+ V1(0+) = VR1(0+) = iR1(0+)(R1) V0 iR1(0+) = -RV0 V0 .

5.15 at t = 0+. the switch K is opened.U.B.15 reaches a steady state under the conditions specified in that problem.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. Solve for the quantities specified in Prob. t = 0. Equivalent circuit before switching V0 R2 V0 iL(0-) = R2 VC(0-) = VR2(0-) = iL(0-)(R2) V0 VC(0-) = VR2(0-) = (R2) R2 VC(0-) = VR2(0-) = V0 As . 5.16: The network of Prob. At a new reference time.H)} R1 V0R1 V1(0+) = R1 V1(0+) = V0 (b) Also V1 = V0 for all t ≥ 0 33 dV1(0+) = dt d2V1(0+) =0 dt 2 Q#5.

U.H)} 34 VC(0-) = VC(0+) = V0 Equivalent network at t = 0+ + i(0+) V0 i(0+) = iL(0-) = iL(0+) = R2 V1(0+) = V0 – VR1(0+) V1(0+) = V0 – iL(0+)R1 V0 V1(0+) = V0 – R2 R2 – R1 V1(0+) = V0 – R2 R1 .B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.i(0+)R2 .B.VC(0+) Here VC(0+) = -V0 V0 i(0+) = R2 V0 VL(0+) = V0 R1 R2 R2 V0 VL(0+) = R2 R1 – V0 + V0 R2 – (-V0) .H)} Equivalent circuit for t ≥ 0 35 R1 L i C R2 Applying KVL around the loop 1 di i(R1 + R2) + ∫ idt + L = 0 … (i) C dt Also VR1 + VR2 + VL + VC = 0 i(0+)R1 + i(0+)R2 + VL(0+) + VC(0+) = 0 VL(0+) = -i(0+)R1 .U.

H)} V0 VL(0+) = R2 And R1 36 di VL = L dt di(0+) VL(0+) = dt L Putting corresponding value di(0+) = dt R2L Differentiating eq.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U. (i) with respect to ‘t’ 1 di i(R1 + R2) + ∫ idt + L = 0 … (i) C dt di (R1 + R2) dt At t = 0+ di(0+) i(0+) d2i(0+) (R1 + R2) + +L =0 dt C dt2 Here di(0+) = dt V0 i(0+) = R2 Putting corresponding values and simplifying d2i(0+) = dt2 R2 L V0 R1(R1 + R2) C 1 R2L -V0R1 + C i +L dt 2 -V0R1 d2i =0 .

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.R1 dt2 dt C dt2 Putting corresponding values and simplifying d2V1(0+) V0R1 2 = 2 dt R2L C R1(R1 + R2) L Q#5.R1 dt C dt Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ d2V1 -di 1 d2i = .17: In the network shown in the accompanying figure.B. Show that at t = 0+. the switch K is changed from a to b at t = 0.H)} Also di V1 = L + iR2 dt Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ d2i di =L + R2 dt dt2 dt At t = 0+ dV1(0+) d2i(0+) di(0+) =L + R2 dt dt2 dt By putting corresponding values and simplifying dV1 dV1(0+) dt V0 R12 1 = R2 L C 37 We know -1 V1 = ∫ idt .U. V .R1 dt2 dt C dt2 At t = 0+ d2V1(0+) -di(0+) 1 d2i(0+) = .iR1 C Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ dV1 -i di = .

B.H)} i1 = i2 = R1 + R2 + R3 i3 = 0 38 a b V + C3 L2 R2 R3 i1 R1 Equivalent circuit before switching L1 i2 i3 C1 C2 + - At t = 0-.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. iL1(0-) = iL1(0+) = 0 A iL2(0-) = iL2(0+) = 0 A VC1(0-) = VC1(0+) = 0 V VC2(0-) = VC2(0+) = 0 V Equivalent circuit after switching . L2 becomes and other two capacitors also fully charged. capacitor C3 is fully charged to voltage V that is VC3(0-) = V and behaves as an open circuit. so current in L1.U.

When R1 2 MΩ .18: In the given network. Q#5.B. the capacitor C1 is charged to voltage V0 and the switch K is closed at t = 0.U.H)} 39 + - After simplification we get + i2 i1 Hence -V i1 = i2 = R1 + R2 + R3 C1 behaves short circuit being uncharged at t = 0.& L1 behaving open circuit since iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 A and i3 = 0 [L2 behaving open circuit].Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

U. 1000 V 1 MΩ 10 µF 20 µF 40 + C1 V0 i1 C2 i2 R2 R1 Equivalent circuit before switching i2 VC1(0-) = V0 VC2(0-) = 0 V Equivalent circuit after switching .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.H)} V0 R2 C1 C2 2 2 solve for d i2/dt at t = 0+.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.H)} 41 K + V0 i1 i2 VC1(0+) = V0 VC2(0+) = 0 V For t ≥ 0 For loop 1: 1 R2(i1 – i2) + ∫ i1dt = 0 … (i) C1 For loop 2: 1 R2(i2 – i1) + ∫ i2dt + R1i2 = 0 … (ii) C2 1 R2(i1 – i2) = .U.∫ i1dt C1 1 R2(i2 – i1) = ∫ i1dt … (iii) C1 Taking loop around outside i2R1 = V0 V0 i2 = … (a) R1 In loop 1 According to KVL: R2(i1 – i2) = V0 R2i1 – R2i2 = V0 Putting the value of i2 and simplifying .

R1R2 Putting corresponding values we get i1(0+) i2(0+) Substituting value of R2(i2 – i1) in eq. (ii) 1 1 ∫ i1dt + ∫ i2dt + R1i2 = 0 C1 C2 Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ i1 di2 i2 + R1 + = 0 … (iv) C1 dt C2 At t = 0+ i1(0+) di2(0+) i2(0+) + R1 + =0 C1 dt C2 By putting corresponding values we get di2(0+) = -8. 5(10-4) Amp.75(10-5) Amp/sec. dt Differentiating eq. dt Differentiating eq.B.R2 = dt dt C1 By putting corresponding values and simplifying di1(0+) = -2.H)} V0(R1 + R2) i1 = … (b) 1. (iv) with respect to ‘t’ 1 di1 d2i2 1 di2 + R1 + =0 C1 dt dt2 C2 dt At t = 0+ 1 di1(0+) d2i2(0+) 1 di2(0+) 42 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5(10-3) Amp.R2 = dt dt C1 At t = 0+ di2(0+) di1(0+) i1(0+) R2 .U. (iii) with respect to ‘t’ di2 di1 i1 R2 .375(10-4) Amp/sec.

U. the switch K is closed at t = 0 connecting a voltage. Find (a) di1/dt and (b) di2/dt at t = 0+. dt2 43 Q#5.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. + - i1 i2 Equivalent circuit after switching + - At t ≥ 0 Applying KVL around outside loop di2 Ri2 + L = V0sin ω t … (i) dt Applying KVL around inside loop 1 . to the parallel RL-RC circuit. V0sin ω t.19: In the circuit shown in the figure.H)} + R1 + =0 C1 dt dt2 C2 dt Putting corresponding values and simplifying d2i2(0+) = 1.40625(10-5) Amp/sec2.

B. (ii) with respect to ‘t’ 1 Ri1 + ∫ i1dt = V0sin ω t … (ii) C di1 i1 .U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} ∫ i1dt = V0sin ω t … (ii) C Equivalent circuit at t = 0+ Ri1 + 44 + - iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0 A VC(0+) = 0 V V0sin ω t i1 = R At t = 0+ V0sin ω (0+) i1(0+) = R V0sin 0 i1(0+) = R i1(0+) = 0 A From (i) At t = 0+ di2(0+) Ri2(0+) + L = V0sin ω (0+) … (i) dt By putting corresponding values we get di2(0+) = 0 Amp/sec dt Differentiating eq.

(a) Write the integrodifferential equations for the network after the switch is closed.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.20: In the network shown.B.H)} + = V0ω cos ω t dt C At t = 0+ di1(0+) i1(0+) R + = V0ω cos ω (0+) dt C By putting corresponding values & simplifying we get R di1(0+) = dt V0ω R 45 Q#5.U. the switch is closed. (e) What is the value of di1/dt at ∞ ? Circuit diagram: i . (b) What is the voltage V0 across C before the switch is closed? What is its polarity? (c) Solve for the initial value of i1 and i2(t = 0+). (d) Solve for the values of di1/dt and di2/dt at t = 0+. At time t = 0. a steady state is reached with the switch K open with V 100 V R1 10 Ω R2 20 Ω R3 20 Ω L 1H C 1 µF .

B.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} 46 i2 i1 Equivalent circuit before switching: R2 R1 R3 Simplifying i VC(0-) VC(0-) = iR2(R2) = VR2 Here V iR2 = R1 + R2 VR2 VR2 = R1 + R2 .

667 V V iL(0-) = R1 + R2 iL(0-) = 3.667 Volts Putting corresponding values & simplifying i2(0+) = 1. 3 V – VC(0+) i2(0+) = R3 Here VC(0+) = 6.667 Amp.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (i) At t = 0+ di1(0+) R2i1(0+) + L = V … (i) dt .H)} By putting corresponding values we get VC(0-) = VR2 = 66.B. From eq.U.334 A For t ≥ 0 47 i2 i1 Applying KVL around outside loop di1 R2i1 + L = V … (i) dt Applying KVL around inside loop 1 R3i2 + ∫ i2dt = V … (ii) C Since 10 iL(0+) = iL(0-) = iR2(0-) = i1(0-) = i1(0+) = Amp.

dt Differentiating eq. dt From eq. Equivalent circuit after switching: + - .334 Amp/sec.H)} Putting corresponding values we get di1(0+) = 33.334(104) Amp/sec.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (i) At t = ∞ di1(∞ ) R2i1(∞ ) + L = V … (i) dt Here di1(∞ ) = 0 Amp/sec dt i1(∞ ) = 5 Amp.B.U. 2: di2 R3 + i2 =0 C 48 dt At t = 0+ di2(0+) i2(0+) R3 + =0 dt C Putting corresponding values di2(0+) = 83.

find the following quantities at t = 0+: (a) V1 (b) V2 (c) dV1/dt (d) dV2/dt Circuit diagram: V1 V2 L i(t) K R1 R2 C Initial conditions: iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 A VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 V Applying KCL at node ‘V1’ 1 V1 ∫ (V1 – V2)dt + = i(t) … (i) L R1 Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ (V1 – V2) 1 dV1 + L R1 dt At t = 0+ (V1(0+) – V2(0+)) 1 dV1(0+) di(0+) + = L R1 dt dt Putting corresponding values we get dV1(0+) di(t)(0+) V1(0+) R1 di(t) = dt .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. If the switch K is opened at t = 0.U.B.H)} 49 iL(0+) VC(0+) Q#5.21: The network shown in the figure has two independent node pairs.

then: di1(0+)/dt. dt Equivalent circuit at t = 0+ V1(0+) =0 V2(0+) Q#5.22: In the network shown in the figure.B.H)} = dt dt L 50 Applying KCL at node ‘V2’ 1 V2 dV2 ∫ (V2 – V1)dt + +C = 0 … (ii) L R2 dt At t = 0+ (V2(0+) – V1(0+)) 1 dV2(0+) dV2(0+) + +C L R2 dt dt Putting corresponding values we get dV2(0+) = 0 V/sec. connecting an unenergized system to a voltage source. di2(0+)/dt =? L1 L2 R1 L3 + i1 i2 R3 .U. Show that if V(0) = V.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. the switch K is closed at the instant t = 0.

B.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.M31 dt dt dt dt After simplifying i2(R3 + R2) – i1R2 + At t = 0+ di2(0+) i2(0+)(R3 + R2) – i1(0+)R2 + (L2 + L3 + 2M23) dt di2 + M32 =0 dt di2 di1 (L2 + L3 + 2M23) (L3 + M13 + M23) = 0 … (iii) dt dt di1(0+) (L3 + M13 + M23) = 0 dt .H)} R2 51 iL1(0-) = iL1(0+) = 0 A iL2(0-) = iL2(0+) = 0 A For t ≥ 0 According to KVL Loop 1: di1 R1i1 + L1 + L3 d(i1 – i2) + R2(i1 – i2) + M13 d(i1 – i2) di1 + M31 dt dt di2 + (-M32) = V(t) dt dt dt After simplification di1 i(R1 + R2) – i2R2 + (L1 + L3 + 2M13) dt i1(0+) = i2(0+) = 0 At t = 0+ di2 (L3 + M13 + M23) = V(t) … (i) dt di1(0+) (L1 + L3 + 2M13) dt Putting corresponding values we get i(0+)(R1 + R2) – i2(0+)R2 + di1(0+) (L1 + L3 + 2M13) dt di2(0+) (L3 + M13 + M23) = V(t) dt di2(0+) (L3 + M13 + M23) = V … (ii) dt According to KVL Loop 2: di2 d(i2 – i1) d(i2 – i1) di1 R3i2 + L2 + L3 + R2(i2 – i1) + M23 .

23: For the network of the figure. show that if K is closed at t = 0. the mutual induced voltage and self-induced voltage terms will have opposite signs. MASHAALLAH BHAI’S REFERENCE: In order to indicate the physical relationship of the coils and.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U. the fluxes produced by these currents will add.H)} Putting corresponding values we get di2(0+) (L2 + L3 + 2M23) dt di1(0+) (L3 + M13 + M23) = 0 … (iv) dt 52 From (ii) & (iv) we can determine the values of di1(0+)/dt & di2(0+)/dt. If one current enters a dot and the other current leaves a dot.B. d2i1(0+)/dt2? CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: L R1 i1 V(t) + Initial conditions: iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 A = i2(0+) VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 V Equivalent circuit after switching C i2 R2 + - . Q#5. simplify the sign convention for the mutual terms. we employ what is commonly called the dot convention. therefore. Dots are placed beside each coil so that if currents are entering both dotted terminals or leaving both dotted terminals.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.H)} 53 V(t) i1(t) = R1 At t = 0+ V(0+) i1(0+) = R1 For t ≥ 0 Loop 1: 1 R1i1 + ∫ (i1 – i2)dt = V(t) … (i) C Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ R1 di1 (i1 – i2) dV(t) + = … (ii) dt C dt At t = 0+ di1(0+) (i1(0+) – i2(0+)) dV(0+) R1 + = dt C dt Putting corresponding values we get di1(0+) = dt dV(0) dt V(0) 1 R1C R1 Differentiating (ii) with respect to ‘t’ d2i1 1 di1 di2 d2V(t) R1 + = dt2 C dt dt dt2 At t = 0+ d2i1(0+) 1 di1(0+) di2(0+) d2V(0+) R1 + = 2 dt C dt dt dt2 .U.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: M K a + V(t) Va Equivalent circuit at t = 0+ + - .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.24: The given network consists of two coupled coils and a capacitor. At t = 0. the switch K is closed connecting a generator of voltage.H)} 54 From here we can determine the value of d2i1(0+)/dt2. Q#5. V(t) = V sin (t/(MC)1/2). dVa(0+)/dt = (V/L)(M/C)1/2.U.B. and d2Va(0+)/dt2 = 0. Show that Va(0+) = 0.

U. according to KVL di 1 L + ∫ idt = V(t) … (a) dt C At t = 0+ di(0+) L + VC(0+) = V(0+) dt Here VC(0+) = 0 V V(t) = V sin (t/(MC)1/2) V(0+) = V sin ((0+)/(MC)1/2) V(0+) = V sin (0) V(0+) = V (0) V(0+) = 0 V Putting corresponding values we get di(0+) = 0 Amp/sec. dt iL(0-) = iL(0+) = i(0+) = 0 A Now di(0+) Va(0+) = VC(0+) + M … (i) dt Putting corresponding values we get Va(0+) = 0 Volt Now Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dVa dVC d2i = +M … (b) .H)} 55 After simplification diL(0+) Va(0+) = VC(0+) + M dt We know for t ≥ 0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.

B. apply KCL 1 dVC L dt Rearranging dVC(0+) iL(0+) + C =0 dt dVC(0+) 0+C =0 dt dVC(0+) =0 dt d2i = +M … (b) dt dt dt2 At t = 0+ dVa(0+) dVC(0+) d2i(0+) = +M … (b) 2 dt dt dt Putting corresponding values we get dVa dVC dVa(0+) = dt L C V M ∫ (VC – V(t)) + C = 0 … (c) 56 .U.H)} dt dt dt2 Differentiating (a) with respect to ‘t’ d2i i dV(t) L + = … (a) dt2 C dt Here V d(V(t)) = cos (t/(MC)1/2) 1/2 (MC) At t = 0+ d2i(0+) i(0+) dV(0+) L + = … (c) dt2 C dt Putting corresponding values we get d2i(0+) V = dt2 L(MC)1/2 At node a.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.H)} 57 Differentiating (b) with respect to ‘t’ d2Va d2VC d3i = +M dt2 dt2 dt3 Differentiating (c) with respect to ‘t’ d3i(0+) 1 di(0+) d2V(0+) L + = … (c) dt3 C dt dt2 d2V(0+) =? 2 dt V d(V(t)) = (MC) -V d2(V(t)) = (MC) -V d2(V(0+)) = (MC) -V d2(V(0+)) = (MC) -V d2(V(0+)) = (MC) d2V(0+) =0 dt2 d3i(0+) = 0 Amp/sec3 dt Differentiating (c) with respect to ‘t’ (VC – V(t)) d2VC +C = 0 … (c) 3 1/2 cos (t/(MC)1/2) sin (t/(MC)1/2) sin (0+/(MC)1/2) sin (0) (0) L dt2 At t = 0+ (VC(0+) – V(0+)) +C d2VC(0+) = 0 … (c) .

25: In the network of the figure. (a) Find an expression for the voltage across the switch at t = 0+. dVK/dt (0+) ? CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: + VK 2 R2 R1 V i L C Initial conditions: i(0+) = 1 di(0+) = -1 dt .H)} L dt2 Putting corresponding values d2VC(0+) = 0 V/sec2 dt 2 58 d2Va d2VC d3i = +M dt2 dt2 dt3 At t = 0+ d2Va(0+) d2VC(0+) d3i(0+) = +M dt2 dt2 dt3 d2Va(0+) = 0 Volt/sec2 dt Q#5.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. the switch K is opened at t = 0 after the network has attained a steady state with the switch closed. (b) If the parameters are adjusted such that i(0+) = 1 and di/dt (0+) = -1.U.B. what is the value of the derivative of the voltage across the switch.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.H)} 59 Equivalent network after switching: VK sc V iL = R2 V iL(0-) = iL(0+) = R2 At t = 0+ VK(0+) = VR1(0+) VR1(0+) = iL(0+)(R1) Putting corresponding value we get .B.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: R1 Va K C1 V C2 R2 L .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. the switch K is closed at t = 0 connecting the battery with an unenergized system.U. (a) Find the voltage Va at t = 0+. (b) Find the voltage across capacitor C1 at t = ∞ .H)} 60 V VR1(0+) = R2 For t ≥ 0 VK = iR1 + 1 R1 ∫ idt C Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ dVK di i = R1 + dt dt C At t = 0+ dVK(0+) di(0+) i(0+) = R1 + dt dt C Putting corresponding value we get dVK(0+) = dt 1 -R C Q#5.B.26: In the network shown in the figure.

U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} 61 Equivalent network at t = 0+ After simplification: R2 Va(0+) = V Equivalent network at t = ∞ .B.

H)} 62 VC1(∞ ) = V. Q#5.B.U. and V3. the switch K is closed at t = 0. V2. Three node to datum voltages are identified as V1.27: In the network of the figure. (a) Find V1 and dV1/dt at t = 0+. all capacitor voltages and inductor currents are zero. (c) Find V3 and dV3/dt at t = 0+. At t = 0-.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (b) Find V2 and dV2/dt at t = 0+. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: V1 V3 + V2 Using KCL at node ‘V1’ For t ≥ 0 (V1 – V(t)) R1 dV1 (V1 – V2) 1 + C1 + + ∫ (V1 – V3)dt = 0 … (i) dt R2 L Using KCL at node ‘V2’ (V2 – V1) + C2 dV2 + 1 ∫ V2dt = 0 … (ii) .

B. capacitor C1 becomes short circuit as a result of which V1(0+) 0V V2(0+) 0V V3(0+) 0V At t = 0+ 1 dV3 ∫ (V3 – V1)dt + C3 = 0 … (iii) L1 dt dV3(0+) iL1(0+) + C3 =0 dt After simplification we get dV3(0+) = 0 Volt/sec dt Here iL1(0-) = iL1(0+) = 0 A At t = 0+ (V2(0+) – V1(0+)) dV2(0+) + C2 + iL2(0+) = 0 … (ii) R2 dt iL2(0-) = iL2(0+) = 0 A Putting corresponding values we get dV2(0+) =0 dt iL3(0+) At t = 0+ eq.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (i) reveals (V1(0+) – V(0+)) dV1(0+) (V1(0+) – V2(0+)) 1 + C1 + + ∫ (V1(0+) – V3(0+))dt = 0 R1 dt R2 L Putting corresponding values we get .H)} R2 dt L2 63 Using KCL at node ‘V3’ 1 L1 dV3 ∫ (V3 – V1)dt + C3 dt = 0 … (iii) At t = 0+.U.

and at t = 0.U. dt Q#5. (a) Find the voltage across the switch. a steady state is reached. the switch K is opened.H)} 64 dV1(0+) = 0 Volt/sec.28: In the network of the figure.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. VK at t = 0+.B. (b) Find dVK/dt at t = 0+. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: VK + - Equivalent network before switching .

U.B.H)} R1 R2 i(0-) 65 R3 At t = 0VC1(0-) = i(o-) R2 V i(0-) = R1 + R2 + R3 VR2 VC1(0-) = R1 + R2 + R3 VC1(0-) = i(o-) R2 VR3 VC1(0-) = R1 + R2 + R3 VC2(0-) = V – VR1(0-) Equivalent network after switching V1 K .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. according to KCL d dVk VK – V1 C1 (VK – V1) + C3 + =0 dt dt R2 After simplification we get dV1 1 dVK (VK – V1) = (C3 + C1) + dt C1 dt R2 … (i) At node ‘V1’ according to KCL (V1 .VK) (V1 . Find: (a) V2(0-) =? (b) V2(0+) =? (c) (dV2/dt)(0+).B. a constant.VK) + C2 + C1 + =0 R1 dt dt R2 After simplification we get dV1 1 dVK (VK – V1) (V – V1) = C1 + + dt (C1 + C2) dt R2 R1 Equating (i) & (ii) we get dVK/dt at t = 0+.V) dV1 d(V1 . switch K. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 1 2 R2 + … (ii) .29: In the network of the accompanying figure.U.H)} 66 At t ≥ 0 At node K. At t = 0. is opened. a steady state is reached with the switch K closed and with i = I0. Hint: V1(0+) = VC2(0-) = V – VR1(0-) Here VR1 VR1(0-) = R1 + R2 + R3 VR2 + VR3 V – VR1(0-) = R1 + R2 + R3 Q#5.

U.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} 67 V2 C I0 R1 R3 L Equivalent network at t = 0- I0 After simplification we get I0 R1 R2 .

H)} 68 Now According to current divider rule: R1I0 iR2 = R1 + R2 We know V2(0-) = VL(0-) = 0 Equivalent network at t = 0+ + I0 R1 + iL(0+) + I0R1 VC(0+) .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

U.H)} 69 After simplification V2(0+) + VC(0+) + I0R1 At node ‘V1’ V1 +C R1 dt At node ‘V2’ V2 +C R3 dt From eq.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (ii) d(V1 – V2) V2 1 C = + ∫ V2dt dt R3 L d(V2 – V1) + L 1 ∫ V2dt … (ii) d(V1 – V2) = I0 … (i) .

(i) we get dV2(0+)/dt. Hint: In eq. (iii) with respect to ‘t’ and from here putting the value of dV1(0+)/dt in eq.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (i) V1(0+) I0R1R2 = R1 (R1 + R2)R1 dV2(0+) = dt C(R1 + R2)(R1 + R3) dV1(0+) -R1 dV2(0+) = dt R3 dt -I0R1R3 THE END. .H)} 70 Substituting the value of Cd(V1 – V2)/dt in (i) we get V2 1 V1 + ∫ V2dt + = I0 R3 L R1 At t = 0+ V2(0+) 1 V1(0+) + ∫ V2(0+)dt + = I0 … (iii) R3 L R1 Putting corresponding values we get I0R1R2 V1(0+) = R1 + R2 Differentiating eq.U.B.

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