# 3 – Dot Product (Chapter 2.

9, pages 69-73)
Occasionally in statics one has to find the angle between two lines or the components of a force parallel and perpendicular to a line.

Definition

The dot product of vectors as:

A

and B , can be written

B
A.B=A.B. cosθ
Where 00 ≤ θ ≤ 1800
The result of the dot product is a scalar (a positive or negative number).

A
Cartesian Vector formulation

( )( ) A.B=(A i.B i+A i.B j+A i.B k )+(A j.B i+A j.B (A k.B i+A k.B j+A k.B k )
A.B= Ax i +Ay j+Az k . Bx i + B y j+Bz k
x x x y x z y x y z x z y z z
Z

y

j+Ay j.Bz k

)

Since,

i.i=1 j.i=0 k .i = 0
Then,

i. j=0 j. j=1 k. j = 0

i.k=0 j.k=0 k .k = 1
X

k
j

i

Y

A.B=Ax Bx +Ay B y +Az Bz
The units of the dot product will be the product of the units of the two vectors.
1

Angle formed by two vectors B A A.u=F cosθ F .u. F . AB cosθ =Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz θ = cos−1   Ax Bx +Ay By +Az Bz    A.u FP + FN = F FN =F−FP 2 FP + FN =F 2 2 FN = F −F 2 2 P Pythagorean Theorem 2 .B=AB cosθ A.B=Ax Bx +Ay B y +Az Bz Solving for θ. cosθ FP θ FN F F .u=F .B   Where 00 ≤ θ ≤ 1800 Projection of a vector on a given axis u Fp =F .u=FP and also FP = Fp . cosθ From vector triangle.

Class Example #1 3 .

Class Example #2 4 .

Class Example #3 5 .