PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK

Cessna@
~

1978

Skyhawk
CESSNA MODEL 172N

PERFORMANCESPECIFICATIONS

CESSNA MODEL 172N

PERFORMANCE

- SPECIFICATIONS

PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK

SPEED: Maximum at Sea Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 KNOTS Cruise, 75% Power at 8000 Ft 122 KNOTS CRUISE: Recommended lean mixture with fuel allowance for engine start, taxi, takeoff, climb and 45 minutes reserve at 45% power. 75% Power at 8000 Ft . . 485NM · Range 40 Gallons Usable Fuel Time 4.1 HRS 75% Power at 8000 Ft . . . 630 NM · Range 50 Gallons Usable Fuel Time 5.3 HRS Maximum Range at 10,000 Ft 575NM · Range 40 Gallons Usable Fuel Time 5.7 HRS Maximum Range at 10,000 Ft 750 NM · Range Time 50 Gallons Usable Fuel 7.4 HRS RA TE OF CLIMB AT SEA LEVEL 770 FPM SERVICE CEILING . 14,200FT TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE: Ground Roll . . . . . . . . 805 FT Total Distance Over 50-Ft Obstacle 1440 FT LANDING PERFORMANCE: Ground Roll . . . . . . . . . . . 520 FT Total Distance Over 50-Ft Obstacle 1250 FT STALL SPEED (CAS): Flaps Up, Power Off 50 KNOTS Flaps Down, Power Off . . 44 KNOTS MAXIMUM WEIGHT ..... 2300 LBS STANDARD EMPTY WEIGHT: Skyhawk . 1393 LBS Skyhawk II . 1419 LBS MAXIMUM USEFUL LOAD: Skyhawk . 907 LBS Skyhawk II . 881 LBS BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE 120 LBS 13.2 WING LOADING: Pounds/ Sq Ft 14.4 POWER LOADING: Pounds/HP FUEL CAPACITY: Total 43 GAL. Standard Tanks 54 GAL. Long Range Tanks .. 6 QTS OIL CAPACITY ..... 0-320-H2AD ENGINE: Avco Lycoming 160 BHP at 2700 RPM 75 IN. PROPELLER: Fixed Pitch, Diameter

Cessna.
~

SKYlHAWK
1978 MODEL 172N
Serial No. Registration No. _ _

THIS HANDBOOK INCLUDES THE MATERIAL REQUIRED TO BE FURNISHED TO THE PILOT BY CAR PART 3

COPYRIGHT

@

1977

CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY WICHITA, KANSAS, USA
Change 1

D1109-1-13

CONGRATULATIONS

CESSNA MODEL 172N

CESSNA MODEL 172N

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONGRATULATIONS
••••
GENERAL LIMITATIONS EMERGENCY NORMAL PROCEDURES .'.' SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Welcome to the ranks of Cessna owners! Your Cessna has been designed and constructed to give you the most in performance, economy, and comfort. It is our desire that you will find flying it, either for business or pleasure, a pleasant and profitable experience. This Pilot's Operating Handbook has been prepared as a guide to help you get the most pleasure and utility from your airplane. It contains information about your Cessna's equipment, operating procedures, and performance; and suggestions for its servicing and care. We urge you to read it from cover to cover, and to refer to it frequently. Our interest in your flying pleasure has not ceased with your purchase of a Cessna. World-wide, the Cessna Dealer Organization backed by the Cessna Customer Services Department stands ready to serve you. The following services are offered by most Cessna Dealers: • THE CESSNA WARRANTY, which provides coverage for parts and labor, is available at Cessna Dealers worldwide. Specific benefits and provisions of warranty, plus other important benefits for you, are contained in your Customer Care Program book, supplied with your airplane. Warranty service is available to you at authorized Cessna Dealers throughout the world upon presentation of your Customer Care Card which establishes your eligibility under the warranty. FACTORY TRAINED PERSONNEL to provide FACTORY APPROVED SERVICE EQUIPMENT workmanship. you with courteous to provide expert service. and accurate

PROCEDURES

PERFORMANCE. WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQU IPMENT LIST AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS AI RPLANE\HANDLI NG, SERVICE & MAl NTENANCE SUPPLEMENTS (Optional Systems Description & Operating Procedures)

• •

you efficient

• •

A STOCK OF GENUINE CESSNA SERVICE PARTS on hand when you need them. THE LATEST AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION FOR SERVICING CESSNA AIRPLANES, since Cessna Dealers have all of the Service Manuals and Parts Catalogs, kept current by Service Letters and Service News Letters, published by Cessna Aircraft Company. We urge all Cessna owners to use the Cessna Dealer Organization to the fullest.

9

A current Cessna Dealer Directory accompanies your new airplane. The Directory is revised frequently, and a current copy can be obtained from your Cessna Dealer. Make your Directory one of your cross-country flight planning aids; a warm welcome awaits you at every Cessna Dealer.

This handbook will be kept current by Service Letters published by Cessna Airc~aft Company, These are distributed to Cessna Dealers and. t.o those ~h~ subscr.lbe through the Owner Follow-Up System. If you are not recelv~ng subsc.npt,on servl~e, you will want to keep in touch with your Cessna Dealer fo~ mformat'~n concerrung the change status of the handbook. Subsequent changes Will be ma~e In the f~rm of stickers. These should be examined and attached to the appropriate page In the handbook immediately after receipt; the handbook should not be used for operational purposes until it has been updated to a current status.

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Page 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 14 00 Maximum CertifiCa. . Airplane Performance And Flight Planning Terminology Weight And Balance Terminology . . .eights Standard Airplane yv~ghts . . Baggage Space And Entry Dimensions Specific Loadings Symbols. . . . . . .!~.w. . . . . Cabin And Entry Dimensions . .CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 1 GENERAL SECTION 1 GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Three View Introduction Descriptive Data Engine Propeller Fuel . . . . . 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-6 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-1 . Abbreviations And Terminology General Airspeed Terminology And Symbols Meteorological Terminology Engine Power Terminology . .

3. Number of Blades: 2. Wheelbaselength is 65". and includes the material required to be furnished to the pilot by CAR Part 3. PIVOT POINT PIVOT POINT * PROPELLER Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Accessory Division. horizontallyopposed. It also contains definitions or explanations of symbols. It also contains supplemental data supplied by Cessna Aircraft Company. Propeller ground clearance is 11 3/4".z". Ir--· -36' FUEL Approved Fuel Grades (and Colors): 100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue). Engine Manufacturer: Avco Lycoming. carburetor equipped. and flash-ing beacon Installed. Wing area is 174 square feet. and terminology commonly used. Section 1 provides basic data and information of general interest. direct-drive. 1-3 Figure 1-1. displacement. Propeller Model Number: 1C160/DTM7557. 4. 6. Horsepower Rating and Engine Speed: 160 rated BHP at 2700 RPM. Maximum height shown with nose gear depressed. 100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green).SECTION 1 GENERAL CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION This handbook contains 9 sections. Three View 1-2 . Engine Model Number: 0-320-H2AD. Engine Type: Normally-aspirated. in. air-cooled. 2. Minimum turnmg radius (*pivot pomt to outboard wmg tip) is 27' 5Y. four-cylinder engine with 320 cu. Maximum: 75 inches. abbreviations. DESCRIPTIVE DATA ENGINE Number of Engines: 1. 5. Propeller Diameter. all tires and nose strut properly inflated. Propeller Type: Fixed pitch. NOTES: 1. Wing span shown with strobe lights installed. Minimum: 74 inches.

/sq. NOTE The airplane was delivered from the factory with a corrosion preventive aircraft engine oil.4lbs. Total Usable: 50 gallons. MIL-L-22851Ashless Dispersant Oil: SAE 40 or SAE 50 above 16°C (60°F).5 gallons.2Ibs. See note below. Recommended Viscosity for Temperature Range: MIL-L-6082Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil: SAE 50 above 16°C (60°F). Normal Category: 2300 lbs. Total Capacity Each Tank: 27 gallons. SAE 30 below -12°C (10°F). See note below. Continue to use until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabilized. 1-5 . SPECIFIC LOADINGS Wing Loading: 13. NOTE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 1 GENERAL MAXIMUM CERTIFICATED WEIGHTS Takeoff. 5811bs. Skyhawk II: 1419lbs. Total Capacity Each Tank: 21. Landing. 1-4 STANDARD AIRPLANE WEIGHTS Standard Empty Weight. CABIN AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS Detailed dimensions of the cabin interior and entry door openings are illustrated in Section 6. Weight in Baggage Compartment. Weight in Baggage Compartment. Utility Category: In this category.SECTION 1 GENERAL Fuel Capacity: Standard Tanks: Total Capacity: 43 gallons. To ensure maximum fuel capacity when refueling. MIL-L-22851Ashless Dispersant Oil: This oil must be used after first 50 hours or consumption has stabilized. Utility Category: 2000 lbs. NOTE The maximum combined weight capacity for baggage areas 1 and 2 is 120 lbs. the baggage compartment and rear seat must not be occupied. Baggage Area 2 . SAE 30 between -18°C (0°F) and 21°C (70°F). SAE 20 below -12°C (10°F). Total: 7 Quarts (if oil filter installed). Utility Category: 2000 lbs. ft. place the fuel selector valve in either LEFT or RIGHT position to prevent cross-feeding. POwer Loading: 14. Normal Category: 23001bs. Skyhawk: 8811bs. SAE 40 between -1°C (30°F) and 32°C (90°F).Station 108 to 142: 50 lbs. SAE 40 between -1°C (30°F) and 32°C (90°F). SAE 30 or SAE 40 between -18°C (O°F)and 21°C (70°F)./hp. Maximum Useful Load: Normal Category 9071bs. Skyhawk: 1393lbs. Oil Capacity: Sump: 6 Quarts. This oil should be drained after the first 25 hours of operation. Normal Category: Baggage Area 1 (or passenger on child's seat) . BAGGAGE SPACE AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS Dimensions of the baggage area and baggage door opening are illustrated in detail in Section 6. Skyhawk II: Utility Category 6071bs.Station 82 to 108:120 lbs. OIL Oil Grade (Specification): MIL-L-6082 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil: Use to replenish supply during first 25 hours and at the first 25-hour oil change. Total Usable: 40 gallons. Long Range Tanks: Total Capacity: 54 gallons.

Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is the speed that should not be exceeded except in smooth air. The value shown is not considered to be limiting. AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT PLANNING TERMINOLOGY Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity Usable Fuel Unusable Fuel GPH NMPG Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity is the velocity of the crosswind component for which adequate control of the airplane during takeoff and landing was actually demonstrated during certification tests. Best Rate-of-Climb Speed is the speed which results in the greatest gain in altitude in a given time. g is acceleration due to gravity. Knots Indicated Airspeed is the speed shown on the airspeed indicator and expressed in knots. Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable. Nautical Miles Per Gallon is the distance (in nautical miles) which can be expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a specific engine power setting and/ or flight configuration. Knots True Airspeed is the airspeed expressed in knots relative to undisturbed air which is KCAS corrected for altitude and temperature.92 inches of mercury (1013mb). Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable in the landing configuration at the most forward center of gravity. METEOROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY OAT 1-6 Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature. 1-7 VNE Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be exceeded at any time.SECTION 1 GENERAL CESSNA CESSNA MODEL 172N MODEL 172N SECTION 1 GENERAL It is expressed in either degrees Celsius (formerly Centi- SYMBOLS. ABBREVIATIONS TERMINOLOGY KCAS AND Standard Temperature Pressure Altitude grade) or degrees Fahrenheit. Standard Temperature is 15°C at sea level pressure altitude and decreases by 2°C for each 1000feet of altitude. Usable Fuel is the fuel available for flight planning. then only with caution. Pressure Altitude is the altitude read from an altimeter when the altimeter's barometric scale has been set to 29. Revolutions Per Minute is engine speed. Gallons Per Hour is the amount of fuel (in gallons) consumed per hour. Manuevering Speed is the maximum speed at which you may use abrupt control travel. Unusable Fuel is the quantity of fuel that can not be safely used in flight. Static RPM is engine speed attained during a full-throttle engine runup when the airplane is on the ground and stationary. GENERAL AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS Knots Calibrated Airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for position and instrument error and expressed in knots. Best Angle-of-Climb Speed is the speed which results in the greatest gain of altitude in a given horizontal distance. Knots calibrated airspeed is equal to KTAS in standard atmosphere at sea level. g . VFE Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended position. KIAS KTAS ENGINE POWER TERMINOLOGY BHP RPM Static RPM Brake Horsepower is the power developed by the engine.

Arm is the horizontal distance from the reference datum to the center of gravity (C. including unusable fuel. Center of Gravity Arm is the arm obtained by adding the airplane's individual moments and dividing the sum by the total weight. Its distance from the reference datum is found by dividing the total moment by the total weight of the airplane. or equipment.G. etc. Tare is deducted from the scale reading to obtain the actual (net) airplane weight. Station is a location along the airplane fuselage given in terms of the distance from the reference datum. Center of Gravity Limits are the extreme center of gravity locations within which the airplane must be operated at a given weight.) Center of Gravity is the point at which an airplane. stands. WEIGHT AND BALANCE TERMINOLOGY Reference Datum Station Arm Moment Reference Datum is an imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes.G. Basic Empty Weight is the standard empty weight plus the weight of optional equipment.G. Standard Empty Weight is the weight of a standard airplane.SECTION 1 GENERAL CESSNA CESSNA MODEL 172N MODEL 172N Maximum Landing Weight Tare SECTION 1 GENERAL Maximum Landing Weight is the maximum weight approved for the landing touchdown. Gross (Loaded) Weight is the loaded weight of the airplane. (Moment divided by the constant 1000is used in this handbook to simplify balance calculations by reducing the number of digits. Moment is the product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm.) of an item.G. Arm C. would balance if suspended. Tare is the weight of chocks. full operating fluids and full engine oil. and is included in the scale readings. blocks. Useful Load is the difference between takeoff weight and the basic empty weight. 1-9/(1-10 blank) .) C. Center of Gravity (C. Limits Standard Empty Weight Basic Empty Weight Useful Load Gross (Loaded) Weight Maximum Takeoff Weight 1-8 Maximum Takeoff Weight is the maximum weight approved for the start of the takeoff run. used when weighing an airplane.

. Utility Category Center Of Gravity Limits Normal Category Utility Category Maneuver Limits Normal Category Utility Category Flight Load Factor Limits Normal Category .. Page 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-8 2-8 2-9 2-9 2-10 2-1/ (2-2 blank) . . . . Normal Category . . Airspeed Limitations Airspeed Indicator Markings Power Plant Limitations Power Plant Instrument Markings Weight Limits . .. ..CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction . . .. Utility Category Kinds Of Operation Limits Fuel Limitations Placards . .

2-3 . When applicable. and basic placards necessary for the safe operation of the airplane. Your Cessna is certificated under FAA Type Certificate No. The limitations included in this section have been approved by the Federal Aviation Administration.CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS INTRODUCTION Section 2 includes operating limitations. 172N. limitations associated with optional systems or equipment are included in Section 9. standard systems and standard equipment. instrument markings. If the alternate static source is being used. 3A12 as Cessna Model No. NOTE The airspeeds listed in the Airspeed Limitations chart (figure 2-1) and the Airspeed Indicator Markings chart (figure 2-2) are based on Airspeed Calibration data shown in Section 5 with the normal static source. its engine. ample margins should be observed to allow for the airspeed calibration variations between the normal and alternate static sources as shown in Section 5.

Do not exceed this speed except in smooth air. NOTE The static RPM range at full throttle (carburetor heat off and full rich mixture) is 2280 to 2400 RPM. Do not exceed this speed with flaps down. Maneuvering speeds shown apply to normal category operations. Maximum Oil Temperature: 118°C (245°F). Maximum: 75 inches. Airspeed Indicator Markings POWER PLANT LIMITATIONS Figure 2-1. Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Accessory Division.G. and then only with caution. Lower limit is maximum weight VSo in Upper limit landing configuration.160 VFE Red Line 160 Maximum Window Open Speed 158 160 Figure 2-2. is maximum speed permissible with flaps extended. 2-4 2-5 . Minimum: 74 inches. MARKING White Arc Do not exceed this speed in any operation. Minimum: 25 psi.SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS Airspeed limitations and their operational significance are shown in figure 2-1. Maximum Engine Speed: 2700 RPM. with flaps retracted. VNO Maximum Structural Cruising Speed 126 128 Green Arc 47 . Maximum speed for all operations.128 VA Maneuvering Speed: 2300 Pounds 1950 Pounds 1600 Pounds Maximum Speed Flap Extended 96 88 80 86 97 89 80 85 Do not make full or abrupt control movements above this speed. The utility category maneuvering speed is shown on the operational limitations placard. Engine Model Number: 0-320-H2AD. Propeller Diameter. Yellow Arc 128 . Airspeed Limitations Engine Manufacturer: Avco Lycoming. Lower limit is maximum weight Vs at most fo~w~rd C. Engine Operating Limits for Takeoff and Continuous Operations: Maximum Power: 160 BHP. Do not exceed this speed with windows open. SPEED VNE Never Exceed Speed KCAS 158 KIAS 160 REMARKS AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS Airspeed indicator markings shown in figure 2-2. KIAS VALUE OR RANGE 41 .85 and their color code significance are SIGNIFICANCE Full Flap Operating Range. Normal Operating Range. Upper limit is maximum structural cruising speed. Oil Pressure. Maximum: 100 psi. Operations must be conducted with caution and only in smooth air. Propeller Model Number: 1C160/DTM7557.

Reference Datum: Lower portion of front face of firewall.Station 82 to 108:120 Ibs.5 inches aft of datum at all weights. NOTE The maximum combined weight capacity for baggage areas 1 and 2 is 120 Ibs. in the acquisition of various certificates such as commercial pilot and flight instructor. These include any maneuvers incidental to normal flying. Oil Temperature --- 100°-245°F --- 245°F Oil Pressure 25 psi 60-90 psi - -- 100 psi UTILITY CATEGORY Center of Gravity Range: Forward: 35. 2-7 . with straight line variation to 35. Power Plant Instrument Markings MANEUVER WEIGHT LIMITS NORMAL CATEGORY Maximum Takeoff Weight: 2300 Ibs. UTILITY CATEGORY This airplane is not designed for purely aerobatic flight. Aft: 47. Maximum Landing Weight: 23001bs. Reference Datum: Lower portion of front face of firewall. and their color code significance GREEN ARC NORMAL OPERATING YELLOW ARC RED LINE MAXIMUM LIMIT CAUTION RANGE CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS 2700 RPM Tachometer --- 2200 2700 RPM --- NORMAL CATEGORY Center of Gravity Range: Forward: 35. See note below.3 inches aft of datum at all weights. See note below. or less. or less. Carburetor Air Temperature - -- --- -15° to 5°C --- Figure 2-3. Maximum Landing Weight: 20001bs. Baggage Area 2 . including spins.0inches aft of datum at 1950lbs.0inches aft of datum at 1950lbs. All of these maneuvers are permitted in this airplane when operated in the utility category. RED LINE INSTRUMENT MINIMUM LIMIT MARKINGS UTILITY CATEGORY Maximum Takeoff Weight: 2000 Ibs. The normal category is applicable to aircraft intended for non-aerobatic operations. the baggage compartment and rear seat must be not occupied. stalls (except whip stalls). with straight line variation to 38.5 inches aft of datum at 2300 lbs. lazy eights. certain maneuvers are required by the FAA.Station 108 to 142: 50 lbs. 2-6 LIMITS NORMAL CATEGORY This airplane is certificated in both the normal and utility category. Maxilllum Weight in Baggage Compartment: In the utility category. Aft: 40.5 inches aft of datum at 2000 lbs. and turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°. However. are not approved. Aerobatic maneuvers.SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS CESSNA CESSNA MODEL 172N MODEL 172N SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS POWER PLANT INSTRUMENT Power plant instrument markings are shown in figure 2-3. Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment: Baggage Area 1 (or passenger on child's seat) . chandelles.

.2300 lbs. the structure meets or exceeds design loads. . NOTE Takeoff and land with the fuel selector valve handle in the BOTH position. S. . down. Proper speed control is an essential requirement for execution of any maneuver. . Usable Fuel (all flight conditions): 50 U. place the fuel selector valve in either LEFT or RIG HT position to prevent cross-feeding. and in all cases. Approved Fuel Grades (and Colors): 100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue). +4. No aerobatic maneuvers are approved except those listed below: MANEUVER Chandelles .-1. extended are prohibited. Intentional spins with flaps Total Fuel: 54 U . gallons.): *Flaps Up . FUEL LIMITATIONS FLIGHT LOAD FACTOR LIMITS NORMAL CATEGORY Flight Load Factors (Gross Weight . +3. Usable Fuel (all flight conditions): 40 U. . The important thing to bear in mind in flight maneuvers is that the airplane is 2 Standard Tanks: 21. . . In the execution of all 2 Long Range Tanks: 27 U . NOTE To ensure maximum fuel capacity when refueling. . . UTILITY CATEGORY Flight Load Factors (Gross Weight . . CESSNA MODEL 172N MODEL 172N SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS In the utility category. . . . 2-8 2-9 . . gallons each. .-1.S. gallons. . the baggage compartment and rear seat must not be occupied. gallons.S. . . . . Aerobatics that may impose high loads should not be attempted. gallons.S. clean in aerodynamic design and will build up speed quickly with the nose Total Fuel: 43 U .0g *The design load factors are 150% of the above. The reference to types of flight operations on the operating limitations placard 105knots reflects equipment installed at the time of Airworthiness Certificate 105knots issuance. gallons. .S. . +3. .SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS CESSNA. FAR Part 91 establishes the minimum RECOMMENDED ENTRY SPEED* required instrumentation and equipment for these operations.76g *Flaps Down . and in all cases.0g "The design load factors are 150% of the above. . 95 knots Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.): *Flaps Up . S.S. . . Slow Deceleration Slow Deceleration * Abrupt use of the controls is prohibited above 97 knots.52g *Flaps Down . .4g. +3. and care should always be exercised to avoid excessive Unusable Fuel: 3 U. avoid abrupt use of controls. maneuvers. Lazy Eights Steep Turns Spins Stalls (Except Whip Stalls) KINDS OF OPERATION LIMITS The airplane is equipped for day VFR and may be equipped for night VFR and/ or IFR operations.8g.20001bs. . the structure meets or exceeds design loads. . . . S. speed which in turn can impose excessive loads. Unusable Fuel: 4 U. . gallons each. . .5 U. gallons. 100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green). . .

01 SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS PLACARDS The following information is displayed in the form of composite P Forward of fuel selector valve: BOTH TANKS ON FOR 1 In full view of the pilot: (The "DAY-NIGHT-VFR-IFR" entry..50 GAL.0 BOTH . 27 U.40 GAL.8.52 Flaps Down +3. --------MAXIMUMS-------Normal Category MANEUVERING SPEED (lAS) 97 knots GROSS WEIGHT . ALL FLIGHT ATTITUDES LEFT . . On the fuel selector valve (standard tanks): This airplane must be operated in compliance with the operating limitations as stated in the form of placards. Entry Speed 105knots 105knots 95 knots Maneuver Recm.neutralize controls.) 3.the example below.. markings.. Utility Category 97 knots 20001bs.25 GAL.20 GAL.S.Baggage compartment and rear seat must not be occupied.forward elevator . GRADE AVIATION GASOLINE CAP...No Acrobatic maneuvers including spins approved.4.76 +3.-1. and manuals. LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY OFF On the fuel selector valve (long range tanks): BOTH . Entry Speed Spins " Slow Deceleration Stalls (except whip stalls) Slow Deceleration 4.25 GAL. 2300 Ibs.IFR Near fuel tank filler cap (long range tanks): FUEL 100LL/l00 MIN. Abrupt use of the controls prohibited above 97 knots.180 feet.NIGHT . will vary as the airplane is [--------------------------------------------------------~ shown on equipped.20 GAL. Near fuel tank filler cap (standard tanks): FUEL 100LL/l00 MIN. 2-10 2-11 . LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY RIGHT . Utility Category .idual lacards.-1. GRADE AVIATION GASOLINE CAP. TAKEOFF & LANDING indiv .SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS CESSNA CESSNA MODEL 1721-1 MODEL172N 2. GAL. Intentional spins with flaps extended are prohibited.5 U. FLIGHT LOAD FACTOR Flaps Up +3. 21. LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY RIGHT . Altitude loss in stall recovery -. Spin Recovery: opposite rudder . +4. ALL FLIGHT ATTITUDES LEFT . This airplane is certified for the following flight operations as of date of original airworthiness certificate: DAY .S. Flight into known icing conditions prohibited.VFR . LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY OFF Normal Category ..0. --NO Maneuver Chandelles Lazy Eights Steep Turns ACROBATIC MANEUVERS APPROVED-EXCEPT THOSE LISTED BELOW Recm. GAL.

. .... . Fires .... Airspeeds For Emergency Operation . . Near flap indicator: CESSNi SSNA MODEL 172) ~DEL 172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES L.. . Wing Fire ... . . 3-11 6. . OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS Engine Failures . Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions Over-Voltage Light Illuminates . AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES Engine Failure ... .. ... . . .. . Landing Without Elevator Control F· lres . . Icing . . . .. .. During Start On Ground Engine Fire In Flight . ... Static Source Blockage (Erroneous Instrument Suspected) .. Electrical Fire In Flight Cabin Fire ... Inadvertent Icing Encounter . .. ... . . Ammeter Shows Discharge . . .. . .. Emergency Landing Without Engine Power Precautionary Landing With Engine Power Ditching . . In baggage compartment: 120 POUNDS MAXIMUM BAGGAGE AND/OR AUXILIARY PASSENGER FORWARD OF BAGGAGE DOOR LATCH 50 POUNDS MAXIMUM BAGGAGE AFT OF BAGGAGE DOOR LATCH MAXIMUM 120 POUNDS COMBINED FOR ADDITIONAL LOADING INSTRUCTIONS SEE WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA Page 3-3 . . ..SECTION 2 LIMITATIONS 5.. .... Forced Landings .. . .- AV_O_ID_SL_IP_S_WI_TH_F_LA_P_S E_X_TE_ND_E_D ~ SECTION 3 EM ERG EN CY PR DC ED U RES TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction . . . ... . .. . . . . Engine Failure During Takeoff Run Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff Engine Failure During Flight ... . .. Landing With A Flat Main Tire . .. 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-7 Reading 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-9 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-1 2-12 . Forced Landings .

. associated with ELT and other optional systems can be found III Section 9. Enroute weather emergencres can be mmimby careful flight planning and good judgment when 3-1 unexpected weather is encountered.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CESSN.. Spark Plug Fouling .IDLE. Insufficient Rate Of Charge .10DEL 172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Pag INTRODUCTION Section 3 provides checklist and amplified procedures for coping with Emergency Operation In Clouds (Vacuum System Failure) Executing A 1800 Turn In Clouds . Rough Engine Operation Or Loss Of Power Carburetor Icing . .. 6. 3-1 maintenance are practiced. .. Ignition Switch -. OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS ENGINE FAILURES ENGINE 1. However. Emergency Descent Through Clouds Recovery From A Spiral Dive Flight In Icing Conditions . . 3.. inspections ~nd 3-1' 3-1'. should an emergency arise. . CESSNA MODEL 1721 r. 3~ . Static Source Blocked . 5. FAILURE DURING TAKEOFF RUN 2. Maximum Glide: 2300 Lbs . Engine Failure After Takeoff: 3-1' AIRSPEEDS FOR EMERGENCY OPERATION 65 KIAS 60 KIAS 97 KIAS 89 KIAS 80 KIAS 65 KIAS 60 KIAS 65 KIAS 60 KIAS Wing Flaps Up . Wing Flaps Down Maneuvering Speed: 2300 Lbs 1950 Lbs . . Master Switch -. Mixture -..APPLY. Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions Excessive Rate Of Charge . Emergency. 3-1 ized or eliminated 3-11. . proce~ures 3-1... Precautionary Landing With Engine Power Landing Without Engine Power: Wing Flaps Up .OFF..IDLE CUT-OFF. . .OFF. Wing Flaps -. . Magneto Malfunction .. .RETRACT. 1600 Lbs . 3-1 the basic guidelines described in this section should be considered and 3-1 applied as necessary to correct the problem. . Wing Flaps Down . . . Spins . 3~ Throttle -.. . . Low Oil Pressure . Brakes -. 3-11 3-11 3-11 3-1 emergencies that may occur. 4. Emergencies caused by airplane or engine 3-1 malfunctions are extremely rare if proper preflight..

OFF. Airspeed -.UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.IDLE CUT-OFF. Airplane -.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CESSNJ ESSNA MODEL 172~ ~ODEL 172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ENGINE FAILURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF 1.FLY OVER. Light Winds. Master Switch -. 6. Doors -. Engine -. 3-5 .65 KIAS. 4.APPLY HEAVILY.OFF. 5.60 KIAS. ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT 1. Brakes -. Wing Flaps -.40° (on final approach). 2. 5. LANDINGS EMERGENCY LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER Airspeed -.IDLE CUT-OFF. Heavy Seas -. Airspeed -. Life Vests and Raft -. 2. Ignition Switch -. NOTE If no power is available. If engine fails to start: 4. Mixture -. 7. 4. Mixture -.ESTABLISH 300 FT/MIN DESCENT AT 55 KIAS. Fuel Selector Valve -.IDLE CUT-OFF.SHUTDOWN and inspect for damage. 3. 9. Airspeed -. Master Switch -.ps.CUSHION at touchdown with folded coat.65 KIAS (flaps UP). DITCHING 1. approach at65 KIAS with flaps up or at 60 KIAS with 10° fJ1.OFF.EVACUATE through cabin doors.SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW. 1~. Carburetor Heat -. Mixture -. Airspeed -. to get a start which would suck the flames and accumulated fuel through the carburetor and into the engine.OFF.INTO THE WIND.OFF. Face -. Cabin Doors -. Wing Flaps -. 3-4 Cranking -.APPLY HEAVILY.20°. Fuel Selector Valve -. Touchdown -. giving location and intentions. 2.UNLATCH. Heavy Swells -. Fuel Selector Valve -. 8.40°.65 KIAS (flaps UP). then retract flaps upon reaching a safe altitude and airspeed. 6. 4. Wing Flaps -. Wing Flaps -. 60 KIAS (flaps DOWN). Primer -.TRANSMIT MAYDAY on 121. Mixture -. 3. 3. 5. Radio -.AS REQUIRED. FIRES DURING START ON GROUND 1. Wing Flaps -.SECURE OR JETTISON.20° . Heavy Objects (in baggage area) -. FORCED 1.LEVEL ATTITUDE AT ESTABLISHED RATE OF DESCENT. 60 KIAS (flaps DOWN).AS REQUIRED (40° recommended).PARALLEL TO SWELLS.UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN. 2.INFLATE. Ignition Switch -. Power -. If necessary. 5. 6. Doors -. 10.OFF. 9. 4.RICH. Brakes -. open window and flood cabin to equalize pressure so doors can be opened. Selected Field -. If engine starts: 2. 7. Ignition Switch -. 5.OFF. 8. 6. 10. 6. noting terrain and obstructions.High Winds. 9. Avionics Power Switch and Electrical Switches -.BOTH (or START if propeller is stopped).5MHz.ON.FULL OPEN.1700RPM for a few minutes.OFF. 3. Ignition Switch -.OFF. 5.IN and LOCKED.CONTINUE. PRECAUTIONARY LANDING WITH ENGINE POWER 1. Touchdown -. 8. 3. Power -. 7.BOTH.SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW. 3. Approach -. Touchdown -. 2. 4.60 KIAS. Master Switch -. Throttle -.

OFF. Turn back or change altitude to obtain an outside air temperature that is less conducive to icing.OFF. All Other Switches (except ignition switch) -. Adjust cabin air control to get maximum defroster heat and airflow. Master Switch -.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 6.SECURE. NOTE Perform a sideslip to keep the flames away from the fuel tank and cabin. 9. 2. 3-6 . Open the throttle to increase engine speed and minimize ice buildup on propeller blades. 4. 6. 3. Fire -.EXTINGUISH using fire extinguisher.ON. 7. 5. 5. Cabin Heat and Air -. Engine -. 9. Avionics Power Switch -. Master Switch -. 8. 10. Watch for signs of carburetor air filter ice and apply carburetor 3-7 6. CESSN. Circuit Breakers -. 3. Radio Switches -.CHECK for faulty circuit. Mixture -. repair damage or replace damage components or wiring before conducting another flight. Pull cabin heat control full out and open defroster outlet to obtain maximum windshield defroster airflow.IDLE CUT-OFF.OFF.OPEN when it is ascertained that fire is Cranking -. Fire Extinguisher -. 4. flight: If fire appears out and electrical power is necessary for continuance 0 ICING INADVERTENT ICING ENCOUNTER 1. 3. 1. Avionics Power Switch -. 7. 1.EXECUTE (as described in Emergency Landini 2. Master Switch -.CLOSED. 4.OFF.100 KIAS (If fire is not extinguished.OFF. with delay artei each until short circuit is localized. Fuel Selector Valve -. Fire Damage -.OFF.OFF. c. 2. Airspeed -. After discharging an extinguisher within a closed cabin. completely extinguished. Master Switch -. ELECTRICAL FIRE IN FLIGHT 1. Land the airplane as soon as possible to inspect for damage.ACTIVATE (if available).ON one at a time. I WARNING I ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT 1. Turn pitot heat switch ON (if installed). and land as soon as possible using flaps only as required for final approach and touchdown.ACTIVATE (if available).INSPECT. installed).OFF.OFF.OFF. 3. Fire Extinguisher -. Fire Extinguisher -. ventilate the cabin. WARNING After discharging an extinguisher within a closed cabin. Strobe Light Switch (if installed) -. Without Engine Power). Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -. 2. wool blanket. do not reset.OFF. CABIN FIRE a. Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -. 5. Pitot Heat Switch (if installed) -. Radio/Electrical Switches -.CONTINUE.CLOSED (to avoid drafts). 4. Ignition Switch -. 8. ventilate the cabin. Forced Landing -.OFF (except overhead vents). b.OBTAIN (have ground attendants obtain if n. increase glidi WING speed to find an airspeed which will provide an Incombustibh mixture). Fuel Selector Valve -. CESSNA MODEL 1721 MODEL 172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 11. 2. FIRE Navigation Light Switch -.OFF.OFF.ON. Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -. or dir 3. 10. Master Switch -.

2. 3. 12. Alternator -. 7. Master Switch -. Airspeed -. scrape ice from a portion of the windshield for visibility in the landing approach.OFF. Perform a landing approach using a forward slip. 2. ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS OVER-VOLTAGE LIGHT ILLUMINATES 1. Avionics Power Switch -. An unexplained loss in engine speed could be caused by carburetor ice or air intake filter ice.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CESSNA.NORMAL. 9. if necessary. Over-Voltage Light -. Leave wing' flaps retracted. Master Switch -. 2. select a suitable "off airport" landing site. Plan a landing at the nearest airport. Lean the mixture for maximum RPM. 4. CESSNA MODEL 172N MODEL 172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 6. 5.PULL ON. Touchdown -. With an extremely rapid ice build-up. if carburetor heat is used continuously. again: If over-voltage light illuminates 6.ON.OFF. Avionics Power Switch -. be prepared for significantly higher stall speed. Approach at 65 to 75 KIAS depending upon the amount of the accumulation. 3-9/(3-10 blank) . With an ice accumulation of 1/4 inch or more on the wing leading edges. heat as required. 10. Approach -. STATIC SOURCE BLOCKAGE 1. 3-8 Flight -.ON. Perform a landing in level attitude. Open left window and.OFF. the change in wing wake airflow direction caused by wing flap extension could result in a loss of elevator effectiveness. LANDING WITH A FLAT MAIN TIRE 1. (Erroneous Instrument Reading Suspected) Alternate Static Source Valve -. 2. 3. 8.GOODTIRE FIRST. for improved visibility.OFF.Consult appropriate calibration tables in Section 5.TERMINATE as soon as possible.OFF (both sides).TERMINATE as soon as practical. 11. if practical. AMMETER SHOWS DISCHARGE 1. hold airplane off flat tire as long as possible. With a severe ice build-up on the horizontal tail. Flight -. Nonessential Radio/Electrical Equipment -.

the best glide speed as shown in figure 3-1 should be established as quickly as possible. the most important thing to do is stop the airplane on the remaining runway. Those extra items on the checklist will provide added safety after a failure of this type. Altitude and airspeed are seldom sufficient to execute a 1800 gliding turn necessary to return to the runway. z ~ a: IUJ UJ 8000~--~---+--~~--~1---~"~~=-~ o 10 IJ: <. The checklist procedures assume that adequate time exists to secure the fuel and ignition systems prior to touchdown. After an engine failure in flight. If time permits. a forced landing without power must be completed.CESSNA MODEL 172N EMERGENCY SECTION 3 PROCEDURES AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES ENGINE FAILURE If an engine failure occurs during the takeoff run. Prompt lowering of the nose to maintain airspeed and establish a glide attitude is the first response to an engine failure after takeoff.:l UJ > « 2000t---~*"+---t---t--I * SPEED 65 J: * * PROPelLER flAPS 10 UP 12 KIAS WINDMILLING * ZERO 14 MILES WiND 18 2 4 6 GROUND 8 16 20 DISTANCE . the landing should be planned straight ahead with only small changes in direction to avoid obstructions. While gliding toward a suitable landing area. In most cases. an engine restart should be attempted as shown in the checklist. If the engine cannot be restarted. an effort should be made to identify the cause of the failure. Maximum Glide 3-11J .NAUTICAL Figure 3-1.

select a suitable field and prepare for the landing as discussed under the Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist. To guard against a spiral dive. In addition. at flareout. 6. Avoid a landing flare because of difficulty in judging height over a water surface. execute a forced landing. holding the turn coordinator symbolic airplane wing opposite the lower left index mark for 60 seconds. Check accuracy of the turn by observing the compass heading which should be the reciprocal of the original heading. If necessary. Do not attempt to restart the engine. Consequently. Maintain altitude and airspeed by cautious application of elevator control. initiate a standard rate left turn. 2. control the glide angle by adjusting power excluarvely. a descent through a cloud deck to VFR conditions may be appropriate. The checklist for this problem should result in elimination of the fire. the directional indicator and attitude indicator will be disabled. and that the pilot is not completely proficient in instrument flying. skidding motions rather than rolling motions so that the compass will read more accurately. the steps of the appropriate checklist should be followed if one is encountered. 3-12 If conditions preclude reestablishment of VFR flight by a 180°turn.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CESSNA CESSNA MODEL 172N MODEL172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FORCED LANDINGS EMERGENCY OPERATION IN CLOUDS If all attempts to restart the engine fail and a forced landing is imminent. Avoid overcontrolling by keeping the hands off the control wheel as much as possible and steering only with rudder. Before attempting an "off airport" landing with engine power avarla. keep hands off the control wheel and steer a straight course with rudder Control by monitoring the turn coordinator. (Vacuum System Failure) In the event of a vacuum system failure during flight. EMERGENCY DESCENT THROUGH CLOUDS FIRES Although engine fires are extremely rare in flight. The initial indication of an electrical fire is usually the odor of burning insulation. proceeding as dis.obtain radio clearance for an emergency descent through clouds. adjust heading primarily with. Note the time of the minute hand and observe the position of the sweep second hand on the clock. At flareout. 5. an immediate plan should be made to turn back as follows: 1. one should fly over the landing area at a safe but low altitude to inspect the terrain for obstructions and surface conditions. When the sweep second hand indicates the nearest half-minute. The following instructions assume that only the electrically-powered turn coordinator is operative. and the pilot will have to rely on the turn coordinator if he inadvertently flies into clouds. Note the compass heading. Before descending into the clouds. choose an easterly or westerly heading to minimize compass card swings due to changing bank angles. EXECUTING A 1800 TURN IN CLOUDS Upon inadvertently entering the clouds. Close the throttle at touchdown. the elevator trim control should be adjusted toward the full nose-up position and the power adjusted so that the airplane will rotate to the horizontal attitude for touchdown. LANDING WITHOUT ELEVATOR CONTROL 3. After completion of this procedure. cussed under the Precautionary Landing With Engine Power checklist. Then roll back to level flight by leveling the miniature airplane. If POssible. Trim for horizontal flight (with an airspeed of approximately 60KIAS and flaps set to 20°) by using throttle and elevator trim controls. Prepare for ditching by securing or jettisoning heavy objects located in the baggage area and collect folded coats for protection of occupants' face at touchdown. Transmit Mayday message on 121. the nose-down moment resulting from power reduction is an adverse factor and the airplane may hit on the nose wheel. 4.5 MHz giving location and intentions. set up a stabilized let-down Condition as follows: 3-13 . Then do not change the elevator trim control setting. ble. Occasionally check the compass heading and make minor corrections to hold an approximate course.

thereby supplying static pressure to these For additional information on spins and spin recovery. With window(s) open. Monitor turn coordinator and make corrections by rudder alone. NOTE Use full carburetor heat. PLACE AILERONS IN NEUTRAL POSITION. Adjust rudder trim (if installed) to relieve unbalanced rudder force. JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP. Should an inadvertent spin occur. However. using rudder control to hold a should be used: straight heading. 2. 2. 3. calibration table in Section 5. 1. 6. Adjust the elevator trim control to maintain an 80 KIAS glide. cabin pressure can be supplied to stabilized descent at 70-80 KIAS. 6. of course. Stop the turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder control t( align the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator with tht horizon reference line. HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS. proceed as follows: 1. 30 If a spiral is encountered. AS ROTATION STOPS. resume normal cruising flight. 3. the face of the rate-of-climb indicator. Reduce power to set up a 500 to 800 ft/min rate of descent. 7. 8. Close the throttle. 7.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 1. RETARD THROTTLE TO IDLE POSITION. appropriate to vent/window(s) configuration. Cautiously apply elevator back pressure to slowly reduce thr 5 PI N S airspeed to 80 KIAS. larger variations occur near stall speed. 4. APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIREC8. Check trend of compass card movement and make caution. causing the airplane to be flown at the normal operating speeds. Flight into icing conditions is prohibited. MOVE THE CONTROL WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO BREAK THE STALL. but avoid using enough power tc disturb the trimmed glide. the alternate static source valve should be pulled on. the following recovery procedure 5. TION OF ROTATION. RECOVERY FROM A SPIRAL DIVE Apply full rich mixture. If disorientation precludes a visual determination of the direction of rotation. 4. The best procedure. Full down elevator may be required at aft FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS center of gravity loadings to assure optimum recoveries. Upon breaking out of clouds. is to turn back or change altitude to escape 6. With the alternate static source on. 5. 3. 4. Keep hands off the control wheel. Apply carburetor heat. adjust indicated airspeed slightly corrections with rudder to stop the turn. sion under SPINS in Normal Procedures (Section 4). see the discusinstruments from the cabin. 5. AND MAKE A icing conditions. Clear engine occasionally. In an emergency on airplanes not equipped with an Adjust the elevator trim and rudder trim (if installed) for i alternate static source. during climb or approach according to the alternate static source airspeed Upon breaking out of clouds. Maxim um airspeed and altimeter variation from normal is 4 knots and feet over the normal operating range with the window(s) closed. the static pressure instruments by breaking the gtaes in Keep hands off the control wheel. An inadvertent encounter Premature relaxation of the control inputs may extend the recovwith these conditions can best be handled using the checklist procedures ery. NOTE STATIC SOURCE BLOCKED If erroneous readings of the static source instruments (airspeed altimeter and rate-of-climb) are suspected. resume normal cruising flight. the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator may be referred to for this information. maximum altimeter variation remains within 50 feet of normal. 3-14 3-15 . SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE. NEUTRALIZE RUDDER. CESSNJ1CESSNA MODEL 172~lVIODEL 172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 2.

CARBURETOR ICING A gradual loss of RPM and eventual engine roughness may result from the formation of carburetor ice. If conditions require the continued use of carburetor heat in cruise flight. however. although other factors could cause the problem. an over-voltage sensor will automatically shut down the alternator and the over-voltage warning light will illuminate if the charge voltage reaches approximately 31. An obvious power loss in single ignition operation is evidence of spark plug or magneto trouble. If a total loss of oil pressure is accompanied by a rise in oil temperature.5volts. MAGNETO MALFUNCTION A sudden engine roughness or misfiring is usually evidence of magneto problems. If the problem does not clear up in several minutes. proceed to the nearest airport for repairs using the BOTH position of the ignition switch unless extreme roughness dictates the use of a single ignition position. If the problem no longer exists. A leak in the line to the gage is not necessarily cause for an immediate precautionary landing because an orifice in this line will prevent a sudden loss of oil from the engine sump. To do this. EXCESSIVE RATE OF CHARGE After engine starting and heavy electrical usage at low engine speeds (such as extended taxiing) the battery condition will be low enough to accept above normal charging during the initial part of a flight. Use only the minimum power required to reach the desired touchdown spot. The avionics power switch should then be turned on. A broken alternator drive belt or wiring is most likely the cause of alternator failures. Electronic components in the electrical system could be adversely affected by higher than normal voltage if a faulty voltage regulator is causing the overcharging. If not. the battery would overheat and evaporate the electrolyte at an excessive rate. Select different power settings and enrichen the mixture to determine if continued operation on BOTH magnetos is practicable. turn the avionics power switch off. there is good reason to suspect an -ngtne failure is imminent.SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA rJIODEL172N SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ROUGH POWER ENGINE OPERATION OR LOSS OF engine power immediately and select a suitable forced landing field. A damaged or improperly adjusted voltage regulator can also cause malfunctions. Reduce 3-16 INSUFFICIENT RATE OF CHARGE If the ammeter indicates a continuous discharge rate in flight. power must be Conserved for later use of the landing lights and flaps during landing. determine if a richer mixture setting will produce smoother oneration. Assuming that spark plugs are the more likely cause. then remove carburetor heat and readjust the throttle. SPARK PLUG FOULING A slight engine roughness in flight may be caused by one or more spark plugs becoming fouled by carbon or lead deposits. the ammeter should be indicating less than two needle widths of charging current. Assuming that the malfunction was only momentary. apply full throttle and pull the carburetor heat knob full out until the engine runs smoothly. Switching from BOTH to either L or R ignition switch position will identify which magneto is malfunctioning. If not. the cause of these malfunctions is usually difficult to determine. lean the mixture to the recommended lean setting for cruising flight. switch to the good magneto and proceed to the nearest airport for repairs. In this event. However. The following paragraphs describe the recommended remedy for each situation. If the charging rate were to remain above this value on a long flight. normal alternator charging will resume and the warning light will go off. there is a possibility the oil pressure gage or relief valve is malfunctioning. ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS Malfunctions in the electrical power supply system can be detected by periodic monitoring of the ammeter and over-voltage warning light. LOW OIL PRESSURE If low oil pressure is accompanied by normal oil temperature. the 3-17 . If the light comes on again. the flight should be terminated and/ or the current drain on the battery minimized because the battery can supply the electrical system for only a limited period of time. after thirty minutes of cruising flight. Problems of this nature constitute an electrical emergency and should be dealt with immediately. To clear the ice. Electrical power malfunctions usually fall into two categories: excessive rate of charge and insufficient rate of charge. use the minimum amount of heat necessary to prevent ice from forming and lean the mixture for smoothest engine operation. If the emergency occurs at night. an attempt should be made to reactivate the alternator system. This may be verified by turning the ignition switch momentarily from BOTH to either L or R position. To preclude these possibilites. However. a landing at the nearest airport would be advisable to inspect the source of trouble. a malfunction is confirmed. then turn both sides of the master switch off and then on again.

. . Left Wing. . Empennage Right Wing. Trailing Edge Right Wing Nose . Cruise . Left Wing . SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ....SECTION 3 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CESSNA MODEL 172:N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES alternator is not supplying power to the system and should be shut down since the alternator field circuit may be placing an unnecessary load on ths system. All nonessential equipment should be turned off and the fligh1 terminated as soon as practical. Normal Takeoff Short Field Takeoff Enroute Climb . ... Before Landing Landing . 4-11 4-11 4-1 Page 4-3 . Descent .. .. .. . Leading Edge Left Wing. . Takeoff . 4-3 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9 4-9 3-18 .. . . . Speeds For Normal Operation CHECKLIST PROCEDURES Preflight Inspection Cabin . Securing Airplane AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES Starting Engine Taxiing . Trailing Edge Before Starting Engine Starting Engine Before Takeoff .. Normal Landing Short Field Landing Balked Landing After Landing .

.000Feet Landing Approach: Normal Approach. the speed appropriate to the particular weight must be used. Flaps Up Normal Approach. . . Flaps 40° Short Field Approach. 70-80 KIAS 59 KIAS 75-85 KIAS 70-80 KIAS 73 KIAS 68 KIAS 59 KIAS 61 KIAS 60-70KIAS 55-65 KIAS 60 KIAS 55 KIAS 97 KIAS 89 KIAS 80 KIAS 15 KNOTS 4-2 4-3 . 10.. . .. the following speeds are based on a maximum weight of 2300 pounds and may be used for any lesser weight. Best Rate of Climb... Warm-Up Magneto Check Alternator Check Takeoff . .. However. . Wing Flap Settings Short Field Takeoff Crosswind Takeoff Enroute Climb Cruise Stalls . Balked Landing Cold Weather Operation Starting . .. . Flaps 40° Balked Landing: Maximum Power. Flight Operations Hot Weather Operation Noise Abatement 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-13 4-14 4-14 4-15 4-15 4-15 4-17 4-17 4-19 4-19 4-19 4-20 4-20 4-20 4-20 4-22 4-23 4-23 INTRODUCTION Section 4 provides checklist and amplified procedures for the conduct ofnormal operation. .000Feet . . . . Maximum Recommended Turbulent Air Penetration Speed: 2300 Lbs .000Feet Best Angle of Climb. . 1950Lbs . 10.. Sea Level . . 1600Lbs . Flaps Up: Normal Climb Out . . . Flaps 20° . Speed at 50 Feet Enroute Climb. Landing Normal Landing Short Field Landing Crosswind Landing ... 10. Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity: Takeoff or Landing . . Sea Level Best Rate of Climb.. Short Field Takeoff. .. . . Normal procedures associated with optional systems can be found in Section 9. . Power Check . . Flaps Up. Takeoff. . Normal. SPEEDS FOR NORMAL OPERATION Unless otherwise noted. to achieve the performance specified in Section 5 for takeoff distance. Flaps Up: Normal. . .SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CESSNA MODEL 172N OBSSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Before Takeoff . Spins . . . Sea Level Best Angle of Climb..

SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA. MODEL 172N

CESSNA r,40DEL 172N

SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES

CHECKLIST PROCEDURES PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
CDCABIN
1. Control Wheel Lock -- REMOVE. 2. Ignition Switch -- OFF. 3. Avionics Power Switch -- OFF. 4. Master Switch -- ON. 5. Fuel Quantity Indicators -- CHECK QUANTITY. 6. Master Switch -- OFF. 7. Baggage Door -- CHECK, lock with key if child's seat is to be occupied.

®EMPENNAGE
2. 3.

1. Rudder Gust Lock -- REMOVE. Tail Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT. Control Surfaces -- CHECK freedom of movement and security.

® RIGHT WING Trailing Edge
1. Aileron -- CHECK freedom of movement and security.

@)
NOTE Visually check airplane for general condition during walk-around inspection. In cold weather, remove even small accumulations of frost, ice or snow from wing, tail and control surfaces. Also, make sure that control surfaces contain no internal accumulations of ice or debris. Prior to flight, check that pitot heater (if installed) is warm to touch within 30 seconds with battery and pitot heat switches on. If a night flight is planned, check operation of all lights, and make sure a flashlight is available.

RIGHT WING
1. Wing Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT. 2. Main Wheel Tire -- CHECK for proper inflation. 3. Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, use sam~ler cup and drain small quantity of fuel from fuel tank sump quickdrain valve to check for water, sediment, and proper fuel grade. 4. Fuel Quantity -- CHECK VISUALLY for desired level. 5. Fuel Filler Cap -- SECURE.

®NOSE
1: Engine Oil Level -- CHECK, do not operate with less than four quarts. Fill to six quarts for extended flight. 2. Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, pull out strainer drain knob for about four seconds to clear fuel strainer of possible water and sediment. Check strainer drain closed. If water is observed, the fuel system may contain additional water, and further draining of the system at the strainer, fuel tank sumps, and fuel selector valve drain plug will be necessary.
4-5

Figure 4-1. Preflight Inspection 4-4

SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES 3. 4. 5.
6.

CESSNA MODEL 172N

CJi;SSNA MODEL 172N

SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES

7. 8.

Prop~ller ~nd Spinner -- CHECK for nicks and security. Landing Lightts) -- CHECK for condition and cleanliness. Car~uretor Air Filter -- CHECK for restrictions by dust or other foreign matter. Nose Wheel Strut and Tire -- CHECK for proper inflation. Nose Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT. Static Source Opening (left side of fuselage) -- CHECK for stoppage.

STARTING ENGINE
Mixture -- RICH. Carburetor Heat -- COLD. 3. Master Switch -- ON. 4. Prime -- AS REQUIRED (2 to 6 strokes; none if engine is warm). 5. Throttle -- OPEN 1/8 INCH. 6. Propeller Area -- CLEAR. 7. Ignition Switch -- START (release when engine starts). 8. Oil Pressure -- CHECK.
1.

2.

@lEFTWING
1.

2.
3. 4.

Main Wheel Tire -- CHECK for proper inflation. Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, use sampler cup. and drain small quantity of fuel from fuel tank sump quickdram valve. to check for water, sediment and proper fuel grade. Fuel QuantIty -- CHECK VISUALLY for desired level. Fuel Filler Cap -- SECURE.

BEFORE TAKEOFF
2.
3. 1.

0lEFT
1.

WING leading Edge
Pitot Tube Cover -- REMOVE and check opening for stoppage. Fuel Tank Vent Opening -- CHECK for stoppage. Stall Warning Opening -- CHECK for stoppage. To check the system, place a clean handkerchief over the vent opening and apply suction; a sound from the warning horn will confirm system operation. Wing Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT.

4. 5. 7. 8.
6.

2.
3.

4.

@lEFT
1.

WING Trailing Edge
Aileron -- CHECK for freedom of movement and security.

9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
2.
3. 4. 1.

Preflight Inspection -- COMPLETE. Seats, Belts, Shoulder Harnesses -- ADJUST and LOCK. Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH. Avionics Power Switch, Autopilot (if installed), Electrical Equipment -- OFF.

Parking Brake -- SET. Cabin Doors and Window(s) -- CLOSED and LOCKED. Flight Controls -- FREE and CORRECT. Flight Instruments -- SET. Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH. Mixture -- RICH (below 3000 feet). Elevator Trim and Rudder Trim (if installed) -- TAKEOFF. Throttle -- 1700 RPM. a. Magnetos -- CHECK (RPM drop should not exceed 125RPM on either magneto or 50 RPM differential between magnetos). b. Carburetor Heat -- CHECK (for RPM drop). c. Engine Instruments and Ammeter -- CHECK. d. Suction Gage -- CHECK. Avionics Power Switch -- ON. Radios -- SET. Autopilot (if installed) -- OFF. Air Conditioner (if installed) -- OFF. Flashing Beacon, Navigation Lights and/ or Strobe Lights -- ON as required. Throttle Friction Lock -- ADJUST. Brakes -- RELEASE.

TAKEOFF
NORMAL TAKEOFF
2.
3. 4. 1.

CAUTION
The avionics power switch must be OFF during engine start to prevent possible damage to avionics. 5.
6. 4-6

Brakes -- TEST and SET. Circuit Breakers -- CHECK IN.

5.

Wing Flaps -- UP. Carburetor Heat -- COLD. Throttle -- FULL OPEN. Elevator Control -- LIFT NOSE WHEEL (at 55 KIAS). Climb Speed -- 70-80 KIAS. 4-7

SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES

CESSNA. MODEL 172N

CESSNA r,fODEL 172N

SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES

SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF
1.

LANDING
NORMAL LANDING
1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Wing Flaps -- UP. Carburetor Heat -- COLD. Brakes -- APPLY. Throttle -- FULL OPEN. Mixture -- RICH (above 3000feet, LEAN to obtain maximum RPM). Brakes -- RELEASE. Elevator Control -- SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW. Climb Speed -- 59 KIAS (until all obstacles are cleared).

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Airspeed -- 60-70 KIAS (flaps UP). Wing Flaps -- AS DESIRED (below 85 KIAS). Airspeed -- 55-65 KIAS (flaps DOWN). Touchdown -- MAIN WHEELS FIRST. Landing Roll-- LOWER NOSE WHEEL GENTLY. Braking -- MINIMUM REQUIRED.

ENROUTE
1.

CLIMB
NOTE

SHORT FIELD LANDING
1.

Airspeed -- 70-85 KIAS.

If a maximum performance

climb is necessary, use speeds shown in the Rate Of Climb chart in Section 5.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Airspeed -- 60-70 KIAS (flaps UP). Wing Flaps -- FULL DOWN (40°). Airspeed -- 60 KIAS (until flare). Power -- REDUCE to idle after clearing obstacle. Touchdown -- MAIN WHEELS FIRST. Brakes -- APPLY HEAVILY. Wing Flaps -- RETRACT.

2. 3.

Throttle -- FULL OPEN. Mixture -- RICH (above 3000feet, LEAN to obtain maximum RPM).

BALKED LANDING
1.

CRUISE
1.

2. 3.

Power -- 2200-2700RPM (no more than 75% is recommended). Elevator and Rudder Trim (if installed) -- ADJUST. Mixture -- LEAN.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Throttle -- FULL OPEN. Carburetor Heat -- COLD. Wing Flaps -- 20° (immediately). Climb Speed -- 55 KIAS. Wing Flaps -- 10° (until obstacles are cleared). RETRACT (after reaching a safe altitude and 60 KIAS).

DESCENT
1.

AFTER LANDING
2.
1.

2. 3.

Mixture -- ADJUST for smooth operation (full rich for idle power). Power -- AS DESIRED. Carburetor Heat -- AS REQUIRED (to prevent carburetor icing).

Wing Flaps -- UP. Carburetor Heat -- COLD.

BEFORE LANDING
1.

SECURING
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
1.

AIRPLANE
Autopilot (if

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 4-8

Seats, Belts, Harnesses -- SECURE. Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH. Mixture -- RICH. Carburetor Heat -- ON (apply full heat before closing throttle). Autopilot (if installed) -- OFF. Air Conditioner (if installed) -- OFF.

Parking Brake -- SET. Avionics Power Switch, Electrical Equipment, installed) -- OFF. Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF (pulled full out). Ignition Switch -- OFF. Master Switch -- OFF. Control Lock -- INSTALL.

4-9/4-10 (blank)

If the engine is underprimed (most likely in cold weather with a cold engine) it will not fire at all. figure 42)to maintain directional control and balance. When the knob is Pulled out to the heat position. then crank the engine through several revolutions with the starter. Taxiing over loose gravel or cinders should be done at low engine speed to avoid abrasion and stone damage to the propeller tips. After starting. After starting. In warm temperatures. stop engine and investigate. no priming will be required. up to six strokes of the primer may be necessary. Lack of oil pressure can cause serious engine damage. The carburetor heat control knob should be pushed full in during all ground operations unless heat is absolutely necessary. TAXIING When taxiing. If the engine is warm. NOTE Additional details concerning cold weather starting and operation may be found under COLDWEATHER OPERATION paragraphs in this section. if the oil gage does not begin to show pressure within 30 seconds in the summertime and about twice that long in very cold weather.d~SSNA lV10DEL 172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES STARTING ENGINE During engine starting. it may be necessary to continue priming while cranking the engine. and additional priming will be necessary. open the throttle slightly to keep it running. Repeat the starting procedure without any additional priming. it is important that speed and use of brakes be held to a minimum and that all controls be utilized (see Taxiing Diagram. 4-11 . In cold weather. open the throttle approximately 1/8 inch. Excess fuel can be cleared from the combustion chambers by the following procedure: set the mixture control full lean and the throttle full open. avoid the use of carburetor heat unless icing conditions prevail. one or two strokes of the primer should be sufficient. Weak intermittent firing followed by puffs of black smoke from the exhaust stack indicates overpriming or flooding. In extremely cold temperatures. air entering the engine is not filtered. As soon as the cylinders begin to fire.

Also. MODEL 172N @ESSNA NtODEL172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES Taxiing over loose gravel or cinders should be done at low engine speed to avoid abrasion and stone damage to the propeller tips. An absence of RPM drop may be an indication of faulty grounding of one side of the ignition system or should be cause for suspicion that the magneto timing is set in advance of the setting specified. precautions should be taken to avoid overheating during prolonged engine operation on the ground. Avoid sudden bursts of the throttle and sharp braking when the airplane is in this attitude. Move ignition switch first to R position and note RPM. BEFORE TAKEOFF WARM-UP If the engine accelerates smoothly. ALTERNATOR CHECK Prior to flights where verification of proper alternator and voltage regulator operation is essential (such as night or instrument flights). Since the engine is closely cowled for efficient in-flight engine cooling. Then move switch to the L position. Taxiing Diagram 4-12 to check full-throttle engine operation early in the 4-13 . a positive verification can be made by loading the electrical system momentarily (3 to 5 seconds) with the landing light or by operating the wing flaps during the engine run up (1700 RPM). the airplane is ready for takeoff. Next move switch back to BOTH to clear the other set of plugs. MAGNETO CHECK The magneto check should be made at 1700 RPM as follows. The ammeter will remain within a needle width of its initial reading if the alternator and voltage regulator are operating properly. long periods of idling may cause fouled spark plugs. CODE WIND DmECTION • NOTE strong quartering tail winds require caution. If there is a doubt concerning operation of the ignition system. Use the steerable nose wheel and rudder to maintain direction.SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CESSNA. note RPM and return the switch to the BOTH posi tion. RPM checks at higher engine speeds will usually confirm whether a deficiency exists. TAKEOFF POWER CHECK It is important Figure 4-2. RPM drop should not exceed 125RPM on either magneto or show greater than 50 RPM differential between magnetos.

then pulled off abruptly to prevent posstble settling back to the runway while drifting. CRUISE Normal cruising is performed between 55% and 75%power. With 10° flaps. Similar friction lock adjustments should be made as required in other flight conditions to maintain a fixed throttle setting. Any sign of rough engine operation or sluggish engine acceleration is good cause for discontinuing the takeoff. The engine should run smoothly and turn approximately 2280 to 2400 RPM with carburetor heat off and mixture full rich. use an obstacle clearance speed of 55 J{IAS. static runup. use the best rate-of-climb speeds shown in the Rate-of-Climb chart in Section 5.SECTION 4 NORMALPROCEDURES CESSNA.eed slightly higher than normal. When clear of the ground. If an obstruction dictates the use of a steep climb angle. they should be immediately corrected as described in Section 8 under Propeller Care. you are justified in making a thorough full-throttle static runup before another takeoff is attempted. If 10° of flaps are used on soft or rough fields with obstacles ahead. The engine RPM and corresponding fuel consumption for various altitudes can be determined by using your Cessna Power Computer or the data in Section 5. MODEL 172:N j9. it is normally preferable to leave them extended rather than retract them in the climb to the obstacle.performance would be marginal with 10°flaps. For maximum rate of climb. Full-throttle run ups over loose gravel are especially harmful to propeller tips. this advantage is lost if flaps up s~eeds are used. Prior to takeoff from fields above 3000 feet elevation. and the gravel will be blown back of the propeller rather than pulled into it. The lower speeds result in shortening takeoff distances up to approximately 10%. it is very important that the throttle be advanced slowly. If this occurs. to minimize the drift angle immediately after takeoff. After full throttle is applied. Use of 10° flaps allows safe use of approximately 5 KIAS lower takeoff speeds than with flaps up. This allows the airplane to start rolling before high RPM is developed. bstacles when taking into account the turbulence often found near ground ~evel. However. make a coordinated turn into the wind to correct for drift. Use of 10°flaps is reserved for takeoff from soft or rough fields. Climbs at speeds lower than the best rate-of-climb speed should be of short duration to improve engine cooling. Therefore.The takeoff performance data provided in Section 5 is based on the flaps up configuration. This speed provides the best overall climb speed to clear 4-14 .ESSNA lVIODEL 172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES takeoff run. Flap settings greater than 10° are not approved for takeoff. adjust the throttle friction lock clockwise to prevent the throttle from creeping back from a maximum power position. the flaps may be retracted as the airplane accelerates to the normal flaps-up climb-out speed. The airplane is accelerated to a sp. visibility and engine cooling. CROSSWIND TAKEOFF Takeoffs in to strong crosswinds normally are performed with the minimum flap setting necessary for the field length. When unavoidable small dents appear in the propeller blade s. WING FLAP SETTINGS Normal and short field takeoffs are performed with flaps up. ENROUTE CLIMB Normal climbs are performed with flaps up and full throttle and at speeds 5 to 10 knots higher than best rate-of-climb speeds for the best combination of performance. When takeoffs must be made over a gravel surface. NOTE Carburetor heat should not be used during takeoff unless it is absolutely necessary for obtaining smooth engine acceleration. NOTE Cruising should be done at 65%to 75%power until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabil4-15 SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF V an obstruction dictates the use of a steep climb angle. the best angle-of-climb speed should be used with flaps up and maximum power. after liftoff ~~ce erate to and climb out at an obstacle clearance speed of KIAS with 59 ps retracted. The mixture should be full rich below 3000 feet and may be leaned above 3000feet for smoother operation or to obtain maximum RPM. the mixture should be leaned to give maximum RPM in a full-throttle. use of 10° flaps IS not recommended for takeoff over an obstacle at high altitude in hot weather. As soon as the obstacle is cleared. or in high altitude takeoffs at maximum weight where chmb.

75% POWER ALTITUDE Sea Level 4000 Feet 8000 Feet KTAS 114 118 122 NMPG 13. The seat belts and shoulder harnesses should be adjusted to provide proper restraint during all anticipated flight conditions. along with the available winds aloftinformation.8 15. STALLS The stall characteristics are conventional and aural warning is provided by a stall warning horn which sounds between 5 and 10 knots above the stall in all configurations. entries should be planned so that recoveries are completed well above the minimum 1500feet above ground level required by FAR 91.G. Power changes should be made cautiously. the recommended entry altitude for a 6-turn spin would be 6000feet above ground level.8 55% POWER KTAS 100 103 106 NMPG 16. Cruise Performance Table 4-16 4-17 . and engines in service following cylinder replacement or top overhaul of one or more cylinders.5 14. figure 4-3. Spins with baggage loadings or occupied rear seat(s) are not approved. the copilot's seat belt and shoulder harness should also be secured. The cabin should be clean and all loose equipment (including the microphone and rear seat belts) should be stowed or secured. This table should be used as a guide. before attempting to perform spins several items should be carefully considered to assure a safe flight. while a 6-turn spin and recovery may require somewhat more than twice that amount.0 14. The selection of cruise altitude on the basis of the most favorable wind conditions and the use of low power settings are significant factors that should be considered on every trip to reduce fuel consumption. I However. where feasible.illustrates the true airspeed and nautical miles per gallon during cruise for various altitudes and percent powers. SPINS Intentional spins are approved in this airplane within certain restricted loadings. Carburetor ice. It is recommended that. For a solo flight in which spins will be conducted. The Cruise Performance Table. entries be accomplished at high enough altitude that recoveries are completed 4000feet ormore above ground level. This is to ensure proper seating of the rings and is applicable to new engines. the mixture should not be leaned more than is required to provide peak RPM. as evidenced by an unexplained drop in RPM.positions are presented in Section 5. to determine the most favorable altitude and power setting for a given trip. For example.1 Zero Wind Standard Conditions Figure 4-3.5 65% POWER KTAS 107 111 115 NMPG 14. I The use of full carburetor heat is recommended during flight in heavy rain to avoid the possibility of engine stoppage due to excessive water ingestion or carburetor ice. Should it be necessary to cruise at higher than 75%power. can be removed by application of full carburetor heat. Power-off stall speeds at maximum weight for both forward and aft C. readjust the mixture setting when carburetor heat is to be used continuously in cruise flight.1 16.3 15. At least 1000feet of altitude loss should be allowed for a 1turn spin and recovery.71. Upon regaining the original RPM (with heat off). MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES ized. followed by prompt adjustment of the mixture for smoothest operation. To achieve the recommended lean mixture fuel consumption figures shown in Section 5. In any case. the mixture should be leaned until engine RPM peaks } and drops 25-50RPM. No spins should be attempted without first having received dual instruction both in spin entries and spin recoveries from a qualified instructor who is familiar with the spin characteristics of the Cessna 172N. The mixture setting should be readjusted for smoothest operation. At lower powers it may be necessary to enrich en the mixture slightly to obtain smooth operation.SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CESSNA. Since the heated air causes a richer mixture. care should be taken to ensure that the pilot can eastly reach the flight controls and produce maximum control travels. use the minimum amount of heat (by trial and error) to prevent ice from forming.6 17. However.

MODEL172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES Another ~eason f. SHORT FIELD LANDING For a short field landing in smooth air conditions. progressively reduce power and maintain the approach speed by lowering the nose of the airplane. the recovery techrrique should always be used and will result in the most expeditious recovery from any spin. However. For the purpose of training in spins and spin recoveries. 5. If this occurs. 2.r than 2. LANDING NORMAL LANDING Normal landing approaches can be made with power-on or power-off with any flap setting desired. Intentional spins with flaps extended are prohibited.rly raP. since the high speeds which may occur during recovery are potentially damaging to the flap/wing structure. Regardless of how many turns the spin is held or how it is entered. the spin will progress to a fai. a 1 or 2 turn spi~ is adeq. During extended spins of two to three turns or more. make an approach at the minimum recommended airspeed with full flaps using enough power to control the glide path. MOVE THE CONTROL WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO BREAK THE STALL. (Slightly higher approach speeds should be used under turbulent air conditions. the spin will tend to change into a spiral.Id rate of rotation and a steep attitude. The nose wheel is lowered to the runway gently . Application of recovery controls wilt produce prompt recoveries (within 1/4 turn). Just prior to reaching the stall "break".sing h~gh altitudes for practicing spins is that a gr~ater ~Ield of VIew IS provided which will assist in maintaining pilot orrentatton. A slIghtly greater rate of deceleration than for normal stall entries application of ailerons in the direction of the desired spin. Both elevator and rudder controls should be held full with the spin until the spin recovery is initiated. retract the flaps. An inadvertent relaxation of either of these controls could result in the development of a nose-down spiral. Actual touchdown should be made with power-off and on the m~in wheels first to reduce the landing speed and subsequent need for braking the landing roll. APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION. JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP. Variations in basic airplane rigging or in weight and balance due to installed equipment or right seat occupancy can cause differences in behavior. Immediately after touchdown.or u. and the use of power at the entry will assure more consistent and positive entries to the spin.) After all approach obstacles are cleared. AS ROTATION STOPS. the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator may be referred to for this information. For maximum brake effectiv~ness. Steep slips should be avoided with flap settings greate. hold the control wheel full back. This will be accompanied by an increase in airspeed and gravity loads on the airplane. sideslip angle. 4. the following recovery technique should be used: 1. recovery should be accomplished quickly by leveling the wings and recovering from the resulting dive. NEUTRALIZE RUDDER. The normal entry is made from a power-off stall. NOTE Carburetor heat should be applied prior to any significant reduction or closing of the throttle.SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CESSNA. lower the nose wheel and apply heavy braking as required. 3. NOTE If disorientation precludes a visual determination of the direction of rotation. Surface winds and air turbulence are usually the primary factors in determining the most comfortable approach speeds. Touchdown should be made with power off and on the main wheels first. reduce the power to idle and return the ailerons to neutral. the elevator control should be smoothly pulled to the full aft position. These difference~ are n0rII?-al~nd will result in variations in the spin characteristics and 10 the spIra!mg tendencies for spins of more than 2 turns. rudder control in the desired direction of the spin rotation should be applied so that full rudder deflectio~ is reached almost simultaneoualy with reaching full aft elevator. MODEL 172N (iESSNA . particularly in extended spins.uate and should be used. As the stall is approached. Up to 2 turns.00d~e to a slight tendency for the elevator to oscillate under certam combinations of airspeed. HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS. and center of gravity loadings. As the airplane begins to spin. and apply maximum brake pressure without sliding the tires. VERIFY THAT THROTTLE IS IN IDLE POSITION AND AILERONS ARE NEUTRAL. ThIS procedure is especially important in rough or soft field landings. particularly to the right. AND MAKE A SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE. 4-19 4-18 .after the speed has diminished to avoid unnecessary nose gear loads.

FULL RI/CsHCH · IN . Continue to prime engine ~n I first 1/4 of total travel.CH . 01' If the engine does not start d~rl~g gth it is probable that if engine firing diminishes s fe~ ov~r Preheat must be the spark plugs have bee~ ros e .ON.CHECK' n after engine has started. 5. the wing-low method gives the best control. f 4-21 . push pruner':Tty of engine drawing fuel locked position to aVOIdPOSSII I through the primer. the position of the master switch is important. Master Switch -. treat it as if the ignition switch is turned on. 4-20 position. 7. Master Switch -. Above 3000 feet. The maximum allowable crosswind velocity is dependent upon pilot capability as well as aircraft limitations. NOTE . to eight strokes as the propeller IS ei NOTE . the first few attempts.~:et'. direct crosswinds of 15 knots can be handled with safety. However. Avionics power Switch -. Oil Pressure -. Propeller Area -. pump throttle rapi yover 10. I d prime the engine four With ignition switch OFF and thro~tl~ c. Use heavy strokes of pr~mer 0 the way in and turn to 11 After priming. With average pilot technique. or alter9. 9. t ice Return to l/S inch open Pump throttle rapidly to full open WI . 6. If obstacles must be cleared during the go-around climb. this does not affect control of the airplane.OFF. 2. Cold weather starting procedures are as followS: With Preheat: . Primer -. nately. . 4. Prior to starting on cold mornings. In extremely cold (-lS0C and lower) weather. 12. Pull carburetor heat knobf u on until engine is running smoothly. while the propeller is being Prime the engine SiXth tthenotsti:o~~ssed to Leave the primer charged turned by hand with er . If flap settings greater than 20° are used in sideslips with full rudder deflection. MODEL 172N SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CROSSWIND LANDING When landing in a strong crosswind. 1. ~: S. the flaps may be retracted as the airplane accelerates to the normal flaps-up climb speed. NOTE When pulling the propeller through by hand. reduce the flap setting to 20° immediately after full power is applied. BOTH when engine starts. Release ignitio~ switch to ttl it is running smoothly. used before another start IS attempted.Sw~t~h-. Mixture -.. When using an external power source. Release IgnItIon S~I~~ 0 Oil Pressure -. Throttle -. Pre-heat will thaw the oil trapped in the oil cooler. 8.!AR. ~: 5. Propeller Area --SC~tEAhR.ON. BALKED LANDING In a balked landing (go-around) climb. Without Preheat: 1.rned over by hand. which probably will be congealed prior to starting in extremely cold temperatures. the use of an external preheater and an external power source are recommended whenever possible to obtain positive starting and to reduce wear and abuse to the engine and electrical system.S. A loose or broken ground wire on either magneto could cause the engine to fire. f r best atomization of fuel. some elevator oscillation may be felt at normal approach speeds.lean the mixture to obtain maximum RPM. reduce the wing flap setting to 10° and maintain a safe airspeed until the obstacles are cleared. Mixture -. COLD WEATHER STARTING OPERATION 2.CLEAR. use the minimum flap setting required for the field length. Although the crab or combination method of drift correction may be used.FULL RICH.LOCK. Ignition Switch -. 3. OFF Avionics power WI c -.BOTH when engine starts. hold a straight course with the steerable nose wheel and occasional braking if necessary. Leave on 11. it is advisable to pull the propeller through several times by hand to "break loose" or "limber" the oil. After clearing any obstacles.START. After touchdown. thus conserving battery energy. Refer to Section 7 under Ground Service Plug Receptacle for operating details. and ready for a stroke.OPEN 1 Ignition .SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CESSNA.

Partial heat may increase the carburetor air temperature to th~?O to 21°C range. the atrplane IS ready for takeoff. After a suit~ble warm-up period (2 to 5 minutes at 1000 RPM). During departure from or approach to an airport. in the pilot's judgment. into.es or instructions. Avoid excessive leaning in cruise. maintain a cranking action to suck flames into the engine. avoid using partial carburetor heat. by application of the following suggested procedures. recreational and park areas. HOT WEATHER OPERATION Refer to the general warm temperature starting information under Starting Engine in this section. If the engine a?celerat~s smoothly and the 011 pressure remains normal and steady. . or where. An outside attendant with a fire extinguisher is advised for cold starts without preheat. and other noise-sensitive areas should make every effort to fly not less than 2000feet above the surface. Carburetor heat may be used to overcome any occasional engine roughness due to ice. We. accelerate the engme several ~imes to higher engine RPM. even though flight at a lower level may be consistent with the provisions of government regulations. weather permitting. climb aft~r takeoff and descent for landing should be made so as to aVOId prolonged flight at low altitude near noise-sensitive areas. or out of.SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CESSNA MODEL 172N 172N 1.8dB(A). During cold weathe~ operations n? indication will be apparent on the gage prior to takeoff If outside air temperatures are very cold. as pilots. can demonstrate our concern for environmental imr:ovement. 011 temperature 2. No determination has been made by the Federal Aviation Administration that the noise levels of this airplane are or should be acceptable or unacceptable for operation at. where icing is critical under certain atmospheric condittons. When operating in temperatures below -18°C. Avoid prolonged engine operation on the ground. NOISE ABATEMENT I~creased emphasis on improving the quality of our environment r~qUlres renewed effort on the part of all pilots to minimize the effect of airplane noise on the public. an altitude of less than 2000 feet is necessary for him to adequately exercise his duty to see and avoid other aircraft. FLIGHT OPERATIONS Takeoff is made normally with carburetor heat off. and ereby tend to build public support for aviation: 4-22 " I 4-23/(4-24 blank) . The certificated noise level for the Model 172N at 2300 pounds maximum weight is 73. creating a fire hazard in the event of a backfir~. If this occu~s. SECTION 4 NORMAL PROCEDURES CAUTION Pumping the throttle may cause raw fuel to accumulate in the intake air duct. any airport. NOTE The above recommended procedures do not apply where they would conflict with Air Traffic Control clearanc. Pilots operating aircraft under VFR over outdoor assemblies of persons.

Rate Of Climb . 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-19 5-20 5-21 5-1/(5-2 blank) . . Takeoff Distance . Takeoff Distance -"2100Lbs and 1900Lbs Figure 5-5. Figure 5-8. Cruise Performance . 'iCESSNA )vl0DEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction . . Figure 5-4... . Range Profile ..40 Gallons Fuel 'Range Profile .50 Gallons Fuel Figure 5-10.Alternate Static Source Figure 5-2.. Figure 5-6. And Distance To Climb Figure 5-7.50 Gallons Fuel Figure 5-9. Stall Speeds .. Fuel.. Airspeed Calibration ...Normal Static Source Airspeed Calibration ... Endurance Profile .40 Gallons Fuel Endurance Profile . Fuel Required Landing . Landing Distance .Maximum . Time.. Temperature Conversion Chart Figure 5-3.2300 Lbs .. Figure 5-1. Use of Performance Charts Sample Problem . Takeoff Cruise .

Therefore.CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE INTRODUCTION Performance data charts on the following pages are presented so that you may know what to expect from the airplane under various conditions. to facilitate the planning of flights in detail and with reasonable accuracy. The following information is known: AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION Takeoff weight Usable fuel TAKEOFF CONDITIONS Field pressure altitude Temperature Wind component along runway Field length 2250 Pounds 40 Gallons 1500Feet 28°C (16°C above standard) 12 Knot Headwind 3500 Feet 5-3 . and also. SAMPLE PROBLEM The following sample flight problem utilizes information from the various charts to determine the predicted performance data for a typical flight. Sufficiently detailed information is provided in the tables so that conservative values can be selected and used to determine the particular performance figure with reasonable accuracy. and air turbulence may account for variations of 10%or more in range and endurance. Some indeterminate variables such as mixture leaning technique. The data in the charts has been computed from actual flight tests with the airplane and engine in good condition and using average piloting techniques. fuel metering characteristics. engine and propeller condition. It should be noted that the performance information presented in the range and endurance profile charts allows for 45 minutes reserve fuel based on 45% power. it is important to utilize all available information to estimate the fuel required for the particular flight. USE OF PERFORMANCE CHARTS Performance data is presented in tabular or graphical form to illustrate the effect of different variables. Fuel flow data for cruise is based on the recommended lean mixture setting.

However. zero wind Decrease in range due to wind (4. figure 5-4.7 hours. The relationship between power and range is illustrated by the range profile chart. zero wind Decrease in ground roll (1075feet x 13%) Corrected ground roll 1075 140 935 Feet The power computer may be used to determine power and fuel consumption more accurately during the flight. The range figure of 523 nautical miles is corrected to account for the expected 10 knot headwind at 5500 feet. Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle.3gallons 5-5 1666Feet . shows a correspondmg 4.. figure 5-9. The cruise performance chart. For this sample problem. and the endurance profile chart presentedm fIgure 5-9. figure 5-6 shows that a climb from 2000feet to 6000feet requrres 1. These values most nearly correspond to the planned altitude and expected temperature cond~tions. for cruise mu~t be determined based on several conaideration s. Considerable fuel savings and longer range result when lower power settings are used. which results in the followmg: Power True airspeed Cruise fuel flow 64% 114 Knots 7. Range. a correction for the effect of wind may be made based on Note 3 of the takeoff chart.is entered at 6000feet altitude and 20°C above standard temperature. altitude and temperature. These include the crUls~ performance characteristics presented in figure 5-7.. in this particular sample problem. Conservative distances can be established by reading the chart at the next higher value of weight.7 hours x 10 knot headwind) Corrected range 523 47 476 Nautical Miles TAKEOFF The takeoff distance chart. figure 5-7. The correction for a 12 knot headwind is: 12 Knots 9 Knots x 10% = 13% Decrease This indicates that the trip can be made without a fuel stop using approximately 65% power. The range profile chart indicates that use of 65% power at 5500feet yields a predicted range of 523nautical miles ~ith no wind. the range prof~le ?hart presented in figure 5-8. A typICa~crursmg altitude and the expected wind enroute have been giv en for thi s sample problem. However.. winds aloft. corrected for wind: Ground roll. The engine speed chosen is 2500 RPM. zero wind Decrease in total distance (1915feet x 13%) Corrected total distance to clear 50-foot obstacle 5-4 1915 FUEL REQUIRED The total fuel requirement for the flight may be e~timated using the performance information in figures 5-6 and 5-7.1 GPH This results in the following distances. For example. MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE 460 Nautical Miles 5500Feet 20°C (16°C above standard) 10 Knot Headwind 2000Feet 25°C 3000Feet CRUISE The cruising altitude should be selected based on a con~iderati?~ of trip length. and the airplane's performan~e. The endurance profile chart. SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CRUISE CONDITIONS Total distance Pressure altitude Temperature Expected wind enroute LANDING CONDITIONS Field pressure altitude Temperature Field length 5fW CESSNA MODEL 172N . pressure altitude of 2000feet and a temperature of 30°C should be used and results in the following: Ground roll Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle 1075Feet 1915Feet These distances are well within the available takeoff field length.i CESSNA . should be consulted. the powe~ setting selection. keeping in mind that the distances shown are based on the short field technique. the takeoff distance information presented for a weight of 2300pounds.

1 gallons/hour = 30. The resultant cruise distance is: Total distance Climb distance Cruise distance 460 -10 450 Nautical Miles A correction for the effect of wind may be made based on Note 2 of the landing chart using the same procedure as outlined for takeoff.2 LANDING A procedure similar to takeoff should be used for estimating the landing distance at the destination airport. the time required for the cruise portion of the trip is: 450 Nautical Miles . standard temperature Increase due to non-standard temperature (1.0 -33.- SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N .3 1.:.3 x 16%) Corrected fuel to climb 1. 1.'5 Gallons 0.5 33. The corresponding distance during the climb is 9 nautical miles.5 30. the fuel estimate would be calculated as follows: Fuel to climb. taxi. With an expected 10 knot headwind.1 Once the flight is underway. and takeoff Climb Cruise Total fuel required This will leave a fuel reserve of: 40.MODEL 172N The total estimated fuel required is as follows: Engine start." lfGESSNA . due to the lower rate of climb.1 6.~~}. ground speed checks will provide a more accurate basis for estimating the time enroute and the corresponding fuel required to complete the trip with ample reserve. In this case. a further correction for the effect of temperature may be made as noted on the climb chart. ours The fuel required for cruise is: 4. fuel. assuming a temperature 16°C above standard. These values are for a standard temperature and are sufficiently accurate for most flight planning purposes.43 H 104Knots -. The distances corresponding to 2000 feet and 30°C are as follows: Ground roll Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle 590 Feet 1370Feet Using a similar procedure for the distance to climb results in 10nautical miles. and distance by 10%for each 10°Cabove standard temperature. the correction would be: 16°C 100C x 10% = 16% Increase With this factor included. However.5 Gallons 5-7 . the ground speed for cruise is predicted to be: 114 -10 104 Knots Therefore.9 Gallons SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE of fuel.3 hours 5-6 x 7. The approximate effect of a non-standard temperature is to increase the time.1 Gallons 1. Figure 5-10presents landing distance information for the short field technique.

-- 130 133 140 143 25 ---.- --- -- 70 67 77 - ---- --- - - --- - .-.-- HEATER/VENTS OPEN AND WINDOWS CLOSED 50 60 62 70 71 80 81 85 86 ---- - - --- -- .-.-- - - 49 40 55 50 60 62 70 71 80 80 85 85 ---- - -------- ---- - - ---- 38 40 - --- --- - - --.---- ----- Figure 5-1.-- --- ----- ----- --- -- - - Figure 5-1..------- - -.--. Airspeed Calibration (Sheet 1 of 2) 40 36 40 38 40 34 50 48 50 49 50 47 60 59 70 70 70 69 80 80 80 79 80 90 89 85 84 85 81 OPEN 100 99 110 108 --- 120 118 130 128 140 139 60 59 60 57 --- -- - ----. Airspeed Calibration (Sheet 2 of 2) 5-8 5-9 ...- --- ---- - ------- 25 40 .-.SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE AIRSPEED CALIBRATION AIRSPEED HEATER/VENTS CALIBRATION AND WINDOWS CLOSED NORMAL STATIC SOURCE ALTERNATE STATIC SOURCE FLAPS UP FLAPS UP KIAS KCAS FLAPS 10° KIAS KCAS FLAPS 40° KIAS KCAS 40 47 54 NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS 49 40 39 40 40 50 51 50 51 50 50 60 61 60 61 60 60 70 71 70 71 70 70 80 82 80 81 80 79 90 91 85 85 85 83 100 101 110 111 ---- 120 121 130 131 ----- 140 141 ---- 40 50 55 60 62 70 70 80 80 89 90 FLAPS 10° 100 99 110 108 120 118 130 128 140 138 ----- NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS 40° NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS UP NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS 10° NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS 40° NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS UP NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS 10° NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS FLAPS 40° NORMAL KIAS ALTERNATE KIAS -.--- --- ----- WINDOWS 40 26 40 50 43 50 43 50 41 60 57 60 57 60 54 70 70 70 69 70 67 80 82 80 80 80 78 90 93 85 85 85 84 100 103 --- 110 113 120 123 .

2.SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART STALL SPEEDS CONDITIONS: power Off 100 NOTES: 1. Stall Speeds 5-11 . KIAS values are approximate. Maximum altitude loss during a stall recovery may be as much as 180 feet.CELSIUS 40 60 2300 10° 40° I 66 . -20 o DEGREES 20 . Temperature Conversion Chart 5-10 Figure 5-3.. 80 MOST REARWARD 60 WEIGHT L8S FLAP DEFLECTION KIAS 40 UP 2300 20 10° 40° 42 38 36 50 47 44 0° KCAS CENTER OF GRAVITY ANGLE OF 8ANK 30° KIAS 45 40 38 KCAS 54 51 47 KIAS 50 45 43 45° KCAS 59 56 52 KIAS 59 60° KCAS 71 66 62 t: LU J: Z J: <{ u. CJ) a: LU a: LU LU o 0 LU I I 54 51 o MOST FORWARD CENTER OF GRAVITY ANGLE OF 8ANK WEIGHT L8S FLAP DEFLECTION KIAS UP -40 -40 -20 47 44 41 0° KCAS 53 51 47 KIAS 51 47 44 30° KCAS 57 55 51 KIAS 56 52 49 45° KCAS 63 61 56 60° KIAS 66 62 58 KCAS 75 72 . 1 Figure 5-2.

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000 12.FPM -20°C 875 765 655 545 440 335 230 OOC 815 705 600 495 390 285 180 20°C 755 650 545 440 335 230 40°C 695 590 485 385 280 --- PRESSURE ALTITUDE FT S.6 0. Distances shown are based on zero wind.3 2.3 0.-- Figure 5-5.9 DISTANCE NM 0 2 3 5 8 10 12 15 19 22 27 32 38 2300 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 -1 -3 -5 -7 -9 --- . 3.2 4. AND DISTANCE TO CLIMB MAXIMUM CONDITIONS: Flaps Up Full Throttle Standard Temperature NOTES: 1. 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10.6 1. 2. and Distance to Climb 5-14 5-15 .2 1. MAXIMUM RATE OF CLIMB WEIGHT LBS WEIGHT LBS 2300 PRESS ALT FT S. Time.9 2. TIME. Mixture leaned above 3000 feet for maximum RPM.SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE RATE OF CLIMB [ CONDITIONS: Flaps Up Full Throttle NOTE: Mixture leaned above 3000 feet for maximum RPM.7 3.7 4. Fuel.0 0.2 3.L. 2000 4000 6000 8000 10.L.000 CLIMB SPEED KIAS 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 RATE OF CLIMB . FUEL.9 1.000 11. taxi and takeoff allowance. 4. Increase time. Add 1.1 gallons of fuel for engine start.000 TEMP °c CLIMB SPEED KIAS 73 73 72 72 71 71 70 69 69 68 68 67 67 RATE OF CLIMB FPM 770 725 675 630 580 535 485 440 390 345 295 250 200 FROM SEA LEVEL TIME MIN 0 1 3 4 6 8 10 12 15 17 21 24 29 FUEL USED GALLONS 0.000 12. Rate of Climb Figure 5-6. fuel and distance by 10% for each iovc above standard temperature.

. 1-+-+--+-+-+-+-1 RANGE .6 8. 10.7 6.pqo.6 5.2 5.2 5.". takeoff and climb.3 5.3 5.11 f-"i.a.6 6.4 8.4 5.5 8.9 6.4 8.5 7.2 5.5 5.5 5.0 5.9 5..-8.000 f-1!2 114.5 6.2 6.4 20°C ABOVE STANDARD TEMP % BHP 71 63 56 50 45 71 67 60 54 48 44 71 64 57 52 47 42 71 67 60 55 50 45 67 64 58 52 48 44 61 55 51 46 43 KTAS 115 110 105 99 93 118 115 109 104 98 92 120 114 109 103 97 91 122 119 113 108 102 96 121 118 112 107 101 95 117 111 106 100 94 GPH 7..3 6.1 7.-- 8.5 6.9 7.6 5.7 7. Cruise Performance 5-16 Figure 5-8.4 I w w u.8 6.1 gallons.Cf'-LO°I-+-+--+-+-+-+--i LO 0-0 a.3 4000 1-+-+-.r /\90 KTAS-550 600 650 * .5 8.3 5. c- g! --f-f- ~ -r-t-r-t-r-j--- 5 w .9 5.000 72 65 58 52 47 68 62 56 50 46 8.8 6.4 7.8 5..1 6.. and the distance during climb as shown in figure 5-6.1 5. Range Profile (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-17 . w c ::::> I<I: 6000 i= _.5 6.5 5.5 7. 4000 --76 68 60 54 48 - - 8.450 500 ° >R.4 7. ~103 KTAS -0:: >92 KTAS __ W 51-+-+-+-+-+-+-1 ---0 f-f.0 7.1 5.1 6.11 ~-.KTAS S·l.2 6.7 6.6 7..-- .SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CRUISE CONDITIONS: 2300 Pounds Recommended Lean Mixture PERFORMANCE RANGE PROFILE 45 MINUTES RESERVE 40 GALLONS USABLE FUEL CONDITIONS: 2300 Pounds Recommended Lean Mixture Standard Temperature Zero Wind for Cruise PRESSURE RPM ALTITUDE FT 2000 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2550 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2650 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2650 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 20°C BELOW STANDARD TEMP % BHP --72 64 56 5J) STANDARD TEMPERATURE % BHP 75 67 60 53 47 75 71 64 57 51 46 75 67 60 54 49 44 75 71 64 58 52 47 71 68 61 55 50 45 64 58 53 48 44 KTAS 116 111 105 100 94 118 115 110 105 99 93 120 115 109 104 98 92 122 120 114 109 103 97 122 119 114 108 102 96 118 113 107 101 95 GPH 8.5 6.0 5..8 5.0 7.5 8.1 7.8 5.7 5.2 5.7 6.6 --8.5 6.6 6.4 8. This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start.8 6.3 7.8 5.3 6. 1. It) 12.8 5.9 6.000 8000 I- 8000 --76 68 61 55 49 76 120 115 110 104 98 122 120 114 109 103 97 119 114 108 102 96 .9 5..000 ~.1 6.4 7.0 7.2 KTAS --111 106 101 95 -116 111 105 100 94 GPH .0 5.8 6. a.0 7.2 5.96 KTAS _ 6000 64 57 51 46 72 -- --116 110 105 99 93 10.4 7.:::_ ~111 _ KTASo:: KTASo:: 2000 -0:: -_ 'e.9 7.1 6..6 6.4 5.1 6..9 7. * II 10r11t)-_]_q-:::.1 5. taxi.NAUTICAL MI LES Figure 5-7.5 6.7 6.7 5. Reserve fuel is based on 45 minutes at 45% BHP and is 4. 2. _ a.5 6.6 7.0 5.5 7.2 6.K\A?KTAS ..8 6..5 12.9 7.8 --- NOTES: ..

takeoff and climb...I- 3 I-l- 1-1- 3 1-1f-If..CL.L. ~ 6000~~~+-~~4+~-+~~ri~-rt-r1 ::> I~ <l: 4000 f-+-t-t-t-3 i-+-l--+-+ 0: W CL.~--t-JH-t-+-t-+-I-+--1'-++-I tJ 118 ~~~t I.0: f-. f-..-. 4 9 KTAS 115 KTAS 1-= 106 KTAS w 8000~~~~H-+4~+-rt-r~rt1-ti~ 1-+-+-+-+ u: A-+-III-l-.000 rT-r-'-rT'-Tl-r~.t-tr-f-t-+-+-I ~..r-r. Reserve fuel is based on 45 minutes at 45% BHP and IS 4. 3 RANGE . taxi.-r--r'---"""--ITTlTI-'-~ITTI f-4-+--+-t-t---tf-4-t-+--1f-+-f ~96 KTAS f-4-+--+-t-t-O~/4-~-++I-+-~++~~~ 10.. and the distance during climb as shown 'in figure 5-6.1 gallons..·It-l-+-+-HH-+-+tH-t--H 1--+--t-+-t-...-11 10.l+-+-+-t 1-1-1--'£ 1-1. This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start. .1 gallons..-. Reserve fuel is based on 45 minutes at 45% BHP and is 4.J-+-I-++Ht---l-+t-i I w u..:. I.W f-It- I- f-.-J. CL.NAUTICAL MILES H-~ f. ENDURANCE PROFILE 45 MINUTES RESERVE 40 GALLONS USABLE FUEL CONDITIONS: 2300 Pounds Recommended Lean Mixture Standard Temperature for Cruise ~?T~~:iS chart allows for the fuel used for engine start...~1'122TAS K 1\. f-4-t-+-+~ t.:g-.. ...000 ~--'-. t-+-t-t--++--1:f-J+-c'~~ 1---+-+-f-+.1 I- i!'TA--+-+--4-+l--+-+-tt-I--t---r--t--I '-YJl-W--+-1+-+-HH-++~H ~ x~~'I-r~~+4~~~~-+~ Iw w u....SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE RANGE PROFILE 45 MINUTES RESERVE 50 GALLONS USABLE FUEL CONDITIONS: 2300 Pounds Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise Standard Temperature Zero Wind NOTES: 1.... 12.J LI I 8000 1--+--+-..c- 0:1-+--+-+---1 W l-l-+-l--I CL. and the 2. taxi...:. . Endurance Profile (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-19 ..cfi..II-cfi.I-t.._ 12. takeoff and climb.:::.. time during climb as shown In figure 5-6. 4 5 ENDURANCE-HOURS 6 7 Figure 5-8.000 1-I--+-+-l-+!.. 31+-+-+-1 t+-+-+-t 2000~~+4-H~~*-rt-rlTi-rI1-t~ S.. 2.... Range Profile (Sheet 2 of 2) 5-18 Figure 5-9.. ..r ~ Il-t-+--i cfi..0: W I-l- I-+-+~+ cfi..000 KTAS. f-.

>< c o c U 0 0 (') a::en -I«a1 «wo 1--11OUu. io <:t "'00000"'0'" Z-I O')-('I')LOf'.oCO_ a::0 "''''''''''(0(0(0(0'''' (!la:: e a: 0 (/) '" c.0 <n 45 MINUTES RESERVE 50 GALLONS USABLE FUEL > for Cruise ..om-('I')LOCO_('I') a::0 "'''''''(0(0(0(0.a..000 -c c <n U r---r- 10. '" e o <n <0 "''''00'''0'''00 Z-I (000 .... 0 w l- 0 U 0 N l2g~~~~an~g N(')(')(..!!! tl o c '" ~ q- U 0"''''00'''0'''''' (')(OOq-ooN.... 1-00 1-".. (!la:: a::en -I«tD «wo 1--11OUu.$j r--t-'. ~ '" (0 ~ r. -------.000 W W u..Oq-OO(')... r ef..... 1-00 1-"..(O -------..)(.--. ..... . (O (. a::en -I«a1 «wo 1--11OUu..)(..(O(O(O (!la:: 8ogooooo 00000 0 cri~~gSf~g~g _j S. PROFILE . _l_I«/L "/ Z <t ~ 'co . U 0 0 a::en -I«a1 «wo 1--11OUu.. l- en 0 e!) <t .)q-q-q-".. W I.. .. 1-00 1-"..« W«o- Cl I-en "'~ 0 (0 Figure 5-9.o a::0 q-".. Reserve fuel is based on 45 minutes at 45% BHP and is 4.. s: Cl-l 0000"''''0'''0 Z-I MLC)f'-Q)_Mc. (')"'000(')(0 a::0 (!la:: "''''(0(0(0(0''''"""" Cl-l ~. --------- '" l!l ~ 0 Cl-l en en 1-1~~u.. and the time during climb as shown in figure 5-6.. 5 6 7 ENDURANCE-HOURS 8 9 l)..a:: r.....'1_ r--r-- r--t...N N(.....--.~ c o .)(...)q-q-". wl-u..-NN(. Z-I "''''00'''''''''0''' ~c..nO a~ ... 5 u.-- o s ::> c.:... 3: 0 ~ 0 a.Cl .....)q-q-q-".«- " ~.--- -c 2....'0 " NNN(... q-(OCl a::0 "'''''''''''''(0(0(0(0 (!la:: Cl-l i= 4000 2000 a:: r ~u r 3: ~ 0 a.1 gallons.. 1-00 1-".ef...)(.........)q-q-q-".. 5-20 Endurance Profile (Sheet 2 of 2) IIen (!ltD w-l 0 0 N (') ~ 5-21/ (5-22 blank) . a.W a:: UJ 3: a:: UJ 3: 0 a.)(... .J :2 0 :2 _.. "'00"'''''''''''''0 Cl(').. r ID I' r 0 r....~.. takeoff and climb... r.8000 .. SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE ENDURANCE CONDITIONS: 2300 Pounds Recommended Lean Mixture Standard Temperature NOTES: 1.-----..(O(O -------.... "'''''''0'''0''''''0 0(')(00('). o U 0 0 ::I: .. This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start. 1-00 1-". . taxi.SECTION 5 PERFORMANCE CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N a::en -I«tD «wO 1--11OUu....--.O)-~c... Cl-l w 12... u..L..)q-q-q-'" ~l2g~~~t2~Sf Cl 6000 ::> I-I « 00000"'000 Z-I .)(. (')"'.

Airplane Weighing Procedures Weight And Balance Equipment List ..CESSNA NlODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction . 6-3 6-3 6-6 6-13 6-1/(6-2 blank) ........

Procedures for calculating the weight and moment for various operations are also provided. left side. . Deduct the tare. b. 1000pounds each main). Leveling: a. Place all control surfaces in neutral position. Obtain measurement B by measuring horizontally and parallel to the airplane center line. d. A comprehensive list of all Cessna equipment available for this airplane is included at the back of this section.CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE! EQUIPMENT LIST INTRODUCTION This section describes the procedure for establishing the basic empty weight and moment of the airplane. Measuring: a. Place scales under each wheel (minimum scale capacity. to a pl umb bob dropped from the line between the main wheel centers. record the weight shown on each scale. 3. b. Remove the fuel tank sump quick-drain fittings and fuel selector valve drain plug to drain all fuel. Raise flaps to the fully retracted position. from each reading. moment and installed equipment list for this airplane can only be found in the appropriate weight and balance records carried in the airplane. b. if any. from center of nose wheel axle. Weighing: a. With the airplane level and brakes released. 500 pounds nose. AIRPLANE WEIGHING PROCEDURES 1. arm. Preparation: a. Deflate the nose tire and! or lower or raise the nose strut to properly center the bubble in the level (see figure 6-1). f. Repeat on right side and average the measurements. c. the 6-3 2. Inflate tires to recommended operating pressures. Obtain measurement A by measuring horizontally (along the airplane center line) from a line stretched between the main wheel centers to a plumb bob dropped from the firewall. It should be noted that specific information regarding the weight. Using weights from item 3 and measurements from item 4. Move sliding seats to the most forward position. Sample forms are provided for reference. 5. Remove oil sump drain plug to drain all oil. 4. e.

:== ~ "'0 C "":.J « (J) Z c .0 Weight (Lbs.ci E--: ~ e: '0. Zo- ~t:) cot:)w "'0 00 Eo 2::::: :. ~ ~== +->..0 46.0 -14.5 Lbs/Gal) Add Unusable Fuel: Std.) 0 Z ._( __ .I:: U '" r z 0 I ~ u u. Arm (In. Sample Airplane Weighing ~ r 6-5 ..I ~ Cl 2::::: Eo 00 U '" co <Ii c w w . Tanks (3 Gal at 6 Lbs/Gal) ~ (J) « ~ C 0 0 is t= 0 02 a: er:: u0 (f) wW _J Cl u r er:: u.. ~ lJ.) = (Lbs..:== ~ c :£ 0 "'0 Z « ..: w ~ z 2::::: Eo 00 ~ er:: w (f) Cl Cl Sum of Net Weights (As Weighed) 0 ::." '" 0::: ~ Scale Position Left Wheel Right Wheel Nose Wheel Scale Reading Tare Symbol L R N W Net Weight U .: c ~ I u :..0 0 0::: Level at upper door sill or leveling screws on left side of tailcone.R.0 E--: e: ~ x = ARM = (A) . page 6-3) -14.I:: 0> o z r er:: w co 2 _J 0 2 w er:: > ~== "".:_( __ .. ..:i (f) e f--- ~ 0> c :.:== W l.. ~ ~ 0 ::J I 0 _J L.9::J 0W ~ c ~ w :.) = ( ) IN. ..5 Lbs/Gal) With Oil Filter (7 Ots at 7. 0.I .-tn.SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST Datum Sta.J Q. 0> lJ. X = ( ) -. c c w t:) 0 lJ...(N) x (B) .l Moment/l000 X C. « ..:. -c 0t--Q.. Tanks (4 Gal at 6 Lbs/Gal) Equipment Airplane Changes Basic Empty Weight W 0 2 w Z _J Cl 0 Z 2 w ~ er:: '= ~ Cl W E 0- Figure 6-4 6-1.0 CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST ~r (f)I ~ c a: w co 2 ~ z z:..!::: ::J 0 ::J ~ ~ Add Oil: No Oil Filter (6 Ots at 7..G. :.0 46.: '" E ..:_)_x.c ~ I '" c o W Item Airplane Weight (From Item 5.I .: -:>zr ~2 er::w .j'! I ::.

CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST STATION IC.SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST airplane weight and C. to the center oC ** Arm measured areas shown.G.G. Loading Graph. A RMI. STATION IC. NOTE In addition to the basic empty weight and moment noted on these records.-__ -. then list these on the loading problem. 6-6 LOADING ARRANGEMENTS * Pilot or passenger ---------------. passengers and baggage is based on seats positioned for average occupants and baggage loaded in the center of the baggage areas as shown on the Loading Arrangements diagram. and if the loading is acceptable. The moment which is shown must be divided by 1000and this value used as the moment/ 1000on the loading problem.G.G. 6.G. STANDARD SEATING OPTIONAL SEA TlNG Figure 6-3. WEIGHT AND BALANCE The following information will enable you to operate your Cessna within the prescribed weight and center of gravity limitations. For loadings which may differ from these. To figure weight and balance. but need not be used on the Sample Loading Problem.G.entheses indicate forward and aft Itrntts of occupant center of gravity range. Basic Empty Weight may be determined by completing figure 6-1.__ ---. ARMII. arm (fuselage station) of the item being loaded. NOTE Loading Graph information for the pilot. and Center of Gravity Moment Envelope as follows: Take the basic empty weight and moment from appropriate weight and balance records carried in your airplane. Numbers in ~ar. can be determined. range limitations (seat travel and baggage area limitation). based on the actual weight and C.. use the Sample Problem. Total the weights and moments/1000 and plot these values on the Center of Gravity Moment Envelope to determine whether the point falls within the envelope. Additional moment calculations. arm (fuselage station) is also shown. center or gravity on adjustable seats positioned for average occupant. Use the Loading Graph to determine the moment/1000 for each additional item to be carried.. Loading Arrangements 6-7 . and enter them in the column titled YOUR AIRPLANE on the Sample Loading Problem. the C. must be made if the position of the load is different from that shown on the Loading Graph. the Sample Loading Problem lists fuselage stations for these items to indicate their forward and aft C. **95 108**123 142 --'---~ BAGGAGE AREA BAGGAGE AREA 2 I the NOTE: The rear cabin wall (approximate station lOB) or art baggage wall (approximate station 142) can be used as convenient rnte r io r reference pomta Cor deter rrunmg the location of baggage area fuselage stations.

eo cr: <i OJ ~. <z (J)_ CABIN STATIONS 0 (C..~ M o N "'-----1 65.....3 LIJ .. e c: eo ''" '" !!? N eo z « w l- OJ c: Ol '. c: '" S! '" eo c: 5...'~ 0='" Oeo ~ :. eo B o eo OJ Vl '" '" . Internal 6-8 Cabin Dimensions * tri ~~ gJ « .u.~ .. • OJ > ".'J ~-s &i '" c: w wO ~C) m E 'x eo E eo (!) ::J W v .. '" "..~ ar .:." I DIMENSIONS ~ o .~ :2: g ...~ OJ Ol eo 3: M Figure 6-4..0 c..:0 ~!9 E I HEIGHT (REAR) 41" 21" =WIDTH= .J ".... ARMS) 10 20 M c: ~ o en N . c: '" c: eo OJ Ol I o _J I- 30 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 o < '" c: eo c: Ol c.c: ~ o c: OJ OJ '" ...0 «co o "C c.~ .c: I- OJ 6-9 ..J 0- "'_ ...g 'g_ g_... -c: M .!2 o OJ MEASUREMENTS W _J X :'2 '.J -e c::: c::: 0- '0 ..c: O..I u.~ >..- Z MEASUREMENTS . j iii * <6 b I- ~.0 ..l V w :2: N'" 'c: M._ ... LIJ ..0 DOOR CABIN DOOR BAGGAGE DOOR II OPENING WIDTH (TOP) 32" ISV..c: en "C OJ c: ....._ o o .._ . Ol'" .0 Ol.G.c: (1)" o z l- _JD:: a.." I CABIN WIDTH INSTRUMENT PANEL .:..c: .c Q) N"...E--:3:OJ- o >LIJ Z .. OJIZ _...J ug.. '" !!? '- B~ 6~ . ~ eo OJ'" '-N OJ c: 010 eo « co eo e I (!) o '" a:: .. I WIDTH (BOTTOM) 37" ISV..0 on .. a.-co o~ ~N eo~ :2: Cl '" :. u.J '" u OJ c: 'x E ::J E g-g E eo * .>t.......~ ~@--- E o C:c:0 OJ.c: "'''' :.SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST CESSNA MODEL 172N cESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST CABIN HEIGHT .. .LWR WINDOW LINE *CABIN FLOOR ~~ ~~ ~ '" ..c E 8 :is OJ cr: Ol .. ._ 0 -e ::J Ol'" .. I HEIGHT (FRONT) 40" 22" I If) -e 3:- OJ- 8 M N Qj c: W o OJ0.J -e -e c"nO OJC: 0- c::: 48'% ~@--- E·_'00 o .

x/)_ .:( W a: c w c on C C .J ~ '" c..!H913M 0'1101 8 N N 8 N § N 8 " 8 <0 (SONnOdl .:( -t+ l' I z ~iil C» 8 " >-W I-a. . bJJ .J c.. ~ 0 ~ W z ~ ~ 0 '+-< :>. :2. • It) N :E :J .r'- &. -0 ll. ~ I It) N I I a s o -- 8 o -- g Ol I Ol 8 g co I I g " 8 _I " 0 + a It) M . ::J <{ :2.SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST (SV\I'I1~9011)1) .J>- ----0 0 In 0 Vi J: U Q) w :::E <{ cr: (9 -' ...J Q a:~ 01Z« o o ~o «a: Ol on z s co In 6 z 0 0 0 . 0 Q) ~ Q) I=l 0 a: .. rn cr: w Iw :2.. .J 8 .. X -' -' rn ~ rnz ~<{ zl<{w 1-(9 Oz cr:<{ ~cr: z(9 <{z 1-0 rn-' Vi a: I- N 8 w w ~ a In N t: . -c J. . .. w w :E :E w o <{ o -' c::> . ._ ~ 0 ~ a a a It) r~~ ~~- It) :&.-. Q) :> P..lH~13M 3N'v'ldl:ll'v' 030'v'Ol -- 6-10 6-11 ... . :2.J s In 0 ~ Q) ~ on 0 ~~ a a wO g o N U~ N on on o~ 0 on (SONnOdl . M 8 H-t- w -' CD ::J u.. It) CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST (SW'v'H~Ol Dil .Z OW 0::1wZ W IZ~ -( °b «': ') »:v -J"I on " " <0 0 -c .. ~&.. :> .::l - a m In N a a t f-ta In ~ _a. I=l Q) !!:.._ IZ 8 § ~ Z -w ~ S 0 o o :2. . e....._~ .._ ::s a. -' w ::J -c rn :2.lH~13M 3N'v'ldH:'v' 030'v'Ol a It) It) N ~ a a I t-f- I I I" a a It) r-.!H913M 0'1101 a a N r-....2 a a a j:: Z r a N ~ « a: CJ o o . I=l ~ ::J 8 g -(cSt.- IZ w o -c o .

. true values (not net change values) for the weight and arm are shown.LHDI3M 3NVldijiV csovm CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST .-J a.J IJ. Suffix letters identify the equipment as a required item.-Ja: >- 0 c:i This equipment list provides the following - <1:0 a:w :::!:t!) <I: 01- <i. I. o i= <I: o 8 o o Lt) en Lt) N -t' ~ r -\r U ~j_ o . ~ . <I: en w J: U Z :>. NOTE Unless otherwise indicated. f5 co I I 8 I"I I I I J I I I I. The summation of these major components does not necessarily equal the complete assembly installation.. a: z <i: en rt h- )II 1-1:::><1: u z M <I: ."" S .. Each number is prefixed with a letter which identifies the descriptive grouping (example: A. ."" :> aJ ~ o . o l- o o Lt) I"- <I: en a: Iw o O~ t- LLI- C)Ul z<l: o :::!: <I: 0 u. cJ +c t <6 cJ w I"- ~ . Powerplant & Accessories) under which it is listed. accessory kit instructions. Some major components of the assembly are listed on the lines immediately following.-J <6 w l -gt--q ! lIt- +>-~ ::it!) -w --- z 0 0 1-0 ~ ~ ~ 0 cxi Q) i= <I: o . bD <i: o o en Lt) I"- M Lt) co o 0 M N 8 N N N 8 8 en o s o o I"- (SaNnOd) . Positive arms are distances aft of the airplane datum. a standard item or an optional item. NOTE If additional equipment is to be installed.. Columns showing weight (in pounds) and arm (in inches) provide the weight and center of gravity location for the equipment. or a separate FAA approval. negative arms are distances forward of the datum..::1 <I: . it must be done in accordance with the reference drawing. I_ I I I I I I EQUIPMENT The following equipment available for this airplane. The following list and the specific a similar order of listing.-J a.J Z I- ++ u. information: :::> N > c( a: t-~ . NOTE Asterisks (0) after the item weight and arm indicate complete assembly installations.. 0 Q) Q) An item number gives the identification number forthe item.:I w :::!: ::i so~ o Lt) N ~ z .. I~ l- o u.. 0 In ~ .. Suffix letters are as follows: -R ~ required items of equipment for FAA certification -S = standard equipment items -0 = optional equipment items replacing required or standard items -A = optional equipment items which are in addition to required or standard items A reference drawing column provides the drawing number for the item . specific airplane is provided list for your airplane have LIST <i.-J J:. I~ I- o c:i :::!: >ILt) list is a comprehensive list of all Cessna equipment A separate equipment list of items installed in your in your aircraft file.-J I- IJ.LH~13M 3NVldijiV maVOl 6-12 6-13 . a: .. :::> 4 . o o N ."" rr. u."" .SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST (SlI'IIVHD01DO ..J a: .

. New Engine Break-In And Operation Engine Oil System .. a: ZO -U <I I It. . U W~ Z<I) <1)0 ... ..') z OZ 1-<I) Cl WI:KW -W :1:. Engine .. Airframe Flight Controls Trim System Instrument Panel Ground Control Wing Flap System Landing Gear System Baggage Compartment Seats . .. . . . . .. . <1)1- >.. Brake System . . ..0 0'" ON it'lli' .: UJ 0. . .1. Integrated Seat Belt/Shoulder Harnesses With Inertia Reels Entrance Doors And Cabin Windows Control Locks .. . . ... .. Engine Controls Engine Instruments .. Seat Belts And Shoulder Harnesses .. 0' . Seat Belts . ....: w_' Z en UJ o I- I-Q...!) -U r o I0..J en -..: I-u. . ::::E Introduction . Exhaust System .. Fuel System .... . Electrical System Master Switch .. Avionics Power Switch 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-10 7-11 7-11 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-16 7-16 7-17 7-17 7-18 7-18 7-19 7-19 7-19 7-20 7-20 7-20 7-23 7-23 7-25 7-25 7-1 6-24 ... Carburetor And Priming System Cooling System Propeller .. . 0::: (. .!) Z SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 7-3 7-3 "'''I "'..... ....... UJ Z ::e ::::J ILl_' 1-. .. . Shoulder Harnesses . .SECTION 6 WEIGHT & BALANCE/ EQUIPMENT LIST CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS a' 1l'I' 01 I -t..J ow Ie.. o z: . . Ignition-Starter System Air Induction System ..I Z> 0<1) I- U...olt'l 00 c. ..

. The aft spars are equipped with wing-to-fuselage attach fittings. and a bulkhead with attaching plates at the base of the forward door posts for the lower attachment of the wing struts. formed sheet metal ribs and reinforcements. . horizontal stabilizer. . and elevator. a wraparound skin panel. .. Automatic Audio Selector Switch Audio Selector Switches Microphone . and are partial-span spars. The top of the rudder Incorporates a leading edge extension which contains a balance weight. Rate-Of-Climb Indicator Altimeter . and is designed for general utility purposes..SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA rvlODEL172N SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 7-26 7-26 7-26 7-27 7-27 7-27 7-28 7-29 7-31 7-32 7-32 7-32 7-32 7-34 7-34 7-34 7-34 7-35 7-35 7-35 7-35 7-37 7-37 7-38 INTRODUCTION This section provides description and operation of the airplane and its systems. . . . Some equipment described herein is optional and may not be installed in the airplane. The empennage (tail assembly) consists of a conventional vertical stabilizer. . stringer. Vacuum System And Instruments Attitude Indicator '" Directional Indicator . with the exception of the balance weights and the addition of a formed sheet metal leading edge section. AIRFRAME The airplane is an all-metal. Conventional hinged ailerons and single-slot type flaps are attached to the trailing edge of the wings.. Over-Voltage Sensor And Warning Light Circuit Breakers And Fuses Ground Service Plug Recepta'cl~ . rudder.. high-wing. .. . Refer to Section 9. Ammeter . Stall Warning System .Headset . The front spars are equipped with wing-to-fuselage and wing-to-strut attach fittings. formed sheet metal ribs and "V" type corrugated aluminum skin joined together at the trailing edge. Static Dischargers . doublers. The rudder is constructed of a formed leading edge skin containing hinge halves. Lighting Systems .. The entire structure is covered with aluminum skin. formed leading edge skin and a dorsal. are constructed of a front and rear spar with formed sheet metal ribs. Transmitter Selector Switch . containing the fuel tanks. a bulkhead and forgings for main landing gear attachment at the base of the rear door posts.. The ailerons are constructed of a forward spar containing a balance weight. Cabin Heating. and a ground ?-djustable trim tab at the base of the trailing edge. The externally braced wings. . . Supplements. and skin design referred to as semimonocoque. Ventilating And Defrosting System Pitot-Static System And Instruments Airspeed Indicator . The construction of the fuselage is a conventional formed sheet metal bulkhead. Avionics Support Equipment Audio Control Panel . . . an aft wrap-around skin panel which IS joined at the trailing edge of the rudder by a filler strip. and stringers. . . Four engine mount stringers are also attached to the forward door posts and extend forward to the firewall.. ribs. . a center wrap-around skin panel. The flaps are constructed basically the same as the ailerons. single-engine airplane equipped with tricycle landing gear. Exterior Lighting . The vertical stabilizer consists of a spar. Interior Lighting .. 7-2 7-3 . . .. Suction Gage . . four-place. . Major items of structure are the front and rear carry-through spars to which the wings are attached. for details of other optional systems and equipment.

Flight Control and Trim Systems (Sheet 1 of 2) 7-4 Figure 7-1.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N C. Flight Control and Trim Systems (Sheet 2 of 2) .ESSNA MODEL 172N AIRPLANE ELEVATOR & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM CONTROL SYSTEM RUDDER AND RUDDER TRIM CONTROL SYSTEMS ELEVATOR TRIM CONTROL SYSTEM Figure 7-1.

Instrument Panel (Sheet 2 of 2) 7-7 . Instrument 7-6 Panel (Sheet 1 of 2) Figure 7-2.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS Figure 7-2.

installed below the subpanel. torque tube and bellcrank. is approximately 27fe~t 5 and 1/2 inches. A subpanel u. Moving the trim lever to the rrght wilt trrm the arrplane nose-rIght. circuit breakers. left upper and lower "V" type corrugated skins. The minimum turning radius of the airplane. They consist of a rudder pedal face. The control surfaces are manually operated through mechanical linkage using a control wheel for the ailerons and elevator. the airplane may be rotated around either main landing gear ~y. left. Rudder trimming is a~complished by lifting the . and electrical switches on the le!t side. light intensity controls. The gyros are located Immediately in front of the pilot and arranged vertically over the control column. two spacers and two spring clips. cente~. and upper and lower "V" type corrugated skins. and rudder/brake pedals for the rudder. ribs and stlff~ners. The elevator trim tab consists of a spar. moving the lever to the left will trim the airplane nose-left. The airspeed Indicator and 7-8 . and elevator control surfaces. place the clip on the bottom of the extension under the bottom of the rudder pedal a?d s. altimeter are located to the left and right of the gyros. switches.~~ remainder of the flight instruments are located around the basic T. conversely. FLIGHT CONTROLS The airplane's flight control system (see figure 7-1) consists of conventional aileron. never turn the nose wheel more than 30° either side of center or structural damage to the nose gear could result. D~ not us~ the vertical or horizontal surfaces to move the airplane.nd~r. If the arrpfane ISto be towed by vehicle. using differential braking and nose wheel steering during taxi. Forward rotation of the trim wheel will trim nose-down. and map compartment. circuit breakers. Elevator trimming is accomplIs~ed through the elevator trim tab by utilizing the vertically mounted trtm control wheel.Ig~t side of t~e subpanel contains the wing flap switch lever and posrtion indicator.naJ?the t?P clip over the top of the rudder pedal. the degree of turn may be increased up to 30° each side of center. respective~y. Extensions are available for the rudder / brake pedals. and right upper and lower "V" type corrugated skins incorporating a trailing edge cut-out for the trim tab. left rudder pedal. with the right side of the panel contarnmg space for addI~IOnal instruments and avionics equipment. and formed le~dmg edge skms.rlme of the panel.he microphone. Moving the airplane by hand is most easily accomJ?lished by attaching a tow bar to the nose gear strut. 7-9 TRIM SYSTEM A manually-operat~d elevator trim system is provided. a rudder trim system ~ay also be mstalled (see figure 7-1). :?e r. A rudder trim control lever may be installed below the trrm wheel and rmcrophone bracket. When a rudder pedal IS depressed. GROUND CONTROL Effective ground control while taxiing is accomplished through nose wheel steering by using the rudder pedals. conversely. and rtght wrap-around skin panels. and controls on this panel. The ho~izontal stabilizer also contains the elevator trtm ta~ actuator. The leading edge of both left and right elevator tips incorporate extensions which contain balance weights. over the ?ontrol pedestal. aft channel. a forward spar.the p~Imary instrument panel contains the primer. rudder. To install an extension..ate static air control in the center. mounted on the control pedestal. contains the elevator trim control wheel and position indicator. reverse the above procedures. with the engine controls. and ~ltern. or pus~mg IS required. then moving it e~ther l~ft o~right t~ the desired tr~m position. Engine instruments and fuel quantity indicator~ are near the left edg~ of the panel. and the fuel selector valve handle is located at the b~se of the pedestal. Avionics equipment is stacked appro~~ately on the cen~e. use the wing struts as push points. To remove the extensions. By applying either left or right brake. A pedestal.trim l~ver up to clear a detent. master and igmtion switches. If a tow bar is not avatlable.pressm~ down on a tailcone bulkhead just forward of the horizontal stabilfzer to raise the nose wheel off the ground. A parking brake handle is mounted below the subpanel mfront of the pilot. a spring-loaded steering bungee (which is connected to the nose gea: and to the rudder bars) will turn the nose wheel through an arc of approximately 100 each side of center. :. cabm heat and vent controls. cigar lighter. For details concerning the instruments. Construction of the elevator consists of formed leading edge skms.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N :CESSNA 'MODEL172N SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS T~e horizontal stabilizer is c~nstructed of a forward and aft spar. Check that the extenston IS firrnly in place. refer in this section to the description of the systems to which these items are related. avionics power switch. and provides a bracket for t. To obtain a minimum radius turn durmg ground handlmg. INSTRUMENT PANEL The instrument panel (see figure 7-2)is designed around the basic "T" configuration. aft rotation will trim nose-up.to steer left and right rudder pedal to steer right. Rudder trimming is accompl~shed through a bungee connected to the rudder control system and a trtm lever. ribs. rib.

and the seat back angle changed. The seat backs will also fold full forward. Position the seat by lifting the tubular handle. ose w ee. slide the seat into position. providing proper support. then release the lever and check that the seat is locked in place. The seat back is spring-loaded to the vertical position.move the switch lever to the ri ght to clear the stop and position it as desi d AId int th 1 ft .>LANE& SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA.SECTION 7 AIRJ. LANDING GEAR SYSTEM The landing gear is of the tricycle type with a steerable n hIt . . To adjust its position. The seat backs will also fold full forward. unless a child's seat is installed. When loading the arrplane. reposition the back. The pilot's and front passenger's seats are available in two different designs: four-way and sixway adjustable. and any material that might be hazardous to the airplane or occupants should not be placed anywhere in the airplane.s.the straps ~otiedown rings provided in the airplane. a split-backed fixed seat in the rear. Raise or lower the seat by rotating a large crank under the right corner of the left seat and the left corner of the right seat. under the center of the seat bottom. and the seat back angle is infinitely adjustable. Two adjustment levers. adjusted for height. For baggage area and door dimensions. labeled FLAP. For flap settings greater than 100. Shock absorption is provided b the tubular sprtng-steel main Ianding gear struts and the at / 'I Y . under the left and right corners of the seat bottom. an an 7-10 .d re. Wing Flap System The seating arrangement consists of two separate adjustable seats for the pilot and front passenger. Seat back angle is adjustable by rotating a small crank under the left corner of the left seat and the right corner of the right seat. lift the tubular handle under the center of the seat. on the left side of the instrument panel. one extending from the back of the rear passenger seats to the aft cabin bulkhead. and check that the seat is locked in place. and are ~xtended or retracted by positioning the wing flap switch lever on the instrumant panel t<:> desired flap deflection position. and an a. release the lever. or from within the airplane cabin. MODEL 172N aESSNA :N10DEL 172N SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT The baggage compartment consists of two areas. are used to adjust the angle of the respective seat backs. children should not be placed or permitted in the baggage compartment. lift the adjustment lever 7-11 WING FLAP SYSTEM The wing flaps are of the single-slot type (see figure 7-3). alrln?s. refer to Section 6. sea e an porn er on e e SI e of the switch lever iridi cates flap t rave l I degrees. In The wing flap system clrc~lt is protected by a 15-ampere circuit breaker. an wee. and slide the seat into position. lift the lever under the right front corner of the seat. SEATS Figure 7-3. . r 01 nose gear shock stru~. release the handle.ddi ional area aft of the bulkhead. hId h 1f ' . and check that the back is locked in place. Access to both baggage areas is gained t through a lockable baggage door on the left side of the airplane. A baggage net with eight tie-down straps is provided for securing baggage and is attached ?y tying . The swi tch lever is the m~ved up ~r do~~ m a slotted panel that provides mechanical stops at the 10 and 20 P?SltlOns. The six-way seats may be moved forward or aft. To adjust either seat back. Four-way seats may be moved forward or aft. The rear passenger's seats consist of a fixed one-piece seat bottom with individually adjustable seat backs. . The seat bottom angle will change as the seat back angle changes. wo mam w ee . and a child's seat (if installed) aft of the rear seats. . ee. Each mam gear wh~el IS equipped with a hydraulically actuated disc-type brake on the mboard side of each wh 1 d aerodynamic fairing over each brake. To position either seat.

. The pilot's and front passenger's seats are also equipped with separate shoulder harnesses. HARNESS '. Tighten the belt to a snug fit.. the seat should be stowed.IlIJ!i\OW RELEASE STRAP (Pull up when lengthening " harness) "FREE END OF HARNESS >(Pull down to tighten) . I) --. To stow the seat. and then lengthen the link half of the belt as needed by grasping the sides of the link and pulling against the belt. fold it and place it behind the sheath. CONN ECTING LINK (Snap onto retaining stud on seat belt link to attach harness) (PILOT'S SEATSHOWN) SEAT BELTS AND SHOULDER HARNESSES SEAT BELT/SHOULDER HARNESS WITH INERTIA REEL All seat positions are equipped with seat belts (see figure 7-4).. Seat belts for the rear seats and the child's seat (if installed) are used in the same mariner as the belts for the front seats. The buckle half is inboard of each seat and the link half is outboard of each seat. To use the seat belts for the front seats. The seat backs are spring-loaded to the vertical position. grasp the top of the buckle opposite the link and pull outward. Headrests are available for any of the seat configurations except the child's seat. apply enough pressure to it to raise or lower it to the desired level. When not in use. To release the seat belts.•/ : _. To adjust the headrest. '\:\/ \. Each rear seat harness is stowed behind a 7-12 SEAT BELT/SHOULDER HARNESS ADJUSTABLE LINK (Position link Just below shoulder level. Insert and lock the belt link into the buckle.. shoulder harnesses are available for the rear seat positions. SHOULDER HARNESS ------.:••. "~"I """" SHOULDER HARNESSES Each front seat shoulder harness (see figure 7-4) is attached to a rear doorpost above the window line and is stowed behind a stowage sheath above the cabin door. and is held in place by two brackets mounted on the floorboard.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N >(. Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses 7-13 . rotate the seat bottom up and aft as far as it will go." Figure 7-4. Integrated seat belt! shoulder harnesses with inertia reels can be furnished for the pilot's and front passenger's seat positions if desired. position the seat as desired. '-. f~'i FREE END OF SEAT BELT (Pull to tighten) / . To stow the harness.::ESSNA ''MODEL172N STANDARD SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS SHOULDER and reposition the back. pull link and harness downward to connect to seat belt buckle) SEAT BELT BUCKLE (Non adjustable) /~ . The rear seat shoulder harnesses are attached adjacent to the lower corners of the rear window. The seat is designed to swing upward into a stowed position against the aft cabin bulkhead when not in use. The headrest may be removed at any time by raising it until it disengages from the top of the seat back. SEAT BELTS All of the seat belts are attached to fittings on the floorboard. A child's seat may be installed aft of the rear passenger seats.i .

The seat belt/ shoulder harnesses extend from inertia reels located in the cabin ceiling to attach points inboard of the two front seats. Lengthen the harness as required by pulling on the connecting link on. 7-15 INTEGRATED SEAT BELTISHOULDER INERTIA REELS HARNESSES WITH Integrated seat belt/shoulder harnesses with inertia reels are available for the pilot and front seat passenger. use the combination door handle and arm rest. The cabin top windows (if installed). The best procedure is to set up the airplane in a trimmed condition at approximately 75 knots. An openable WIndow IS also available fOrthe right door. 7-14 . Snap the connectI~g Hnk firmly onto the retaining stud on the seat belt link half. Removal is accomplished by releasing the seat belt buckle. and insert t~e link into the seat belt buckle. a key-operated door lock (left door only). and allowing the harness. utilize the recessed door handle near the aft edge of either door by grasping the forward edge of the handle and pulling outboard. lock the right cabin door with the inside handle. in the event of a sudden deceleration they will lock automatically to protect the occupants. lock it by rotating the door handle forward to the LOCK position (flush with the arm rest). and rear windows are of the fixed type and cannot be opened. aft to the OPEN position and pushing the door open. This location requires that the shoulder harnesses cross near the top so that the right hand inertia reel serves the pilot and the left hand reel serves the front passenger. but prevent excessive forward movement and contact with objects during sudden deceleration. and should not be opened intentionally during flight. When the handle is rotated to the LOCK position. a conventional interior door handle. When the door has been pulled shut and latched. When fastening the harness. Also. the shoulder harness may be removed by releasing the seat belt first. To lock the airplane. pull the link and harness downward. Removing the shoulder harness is accomplished by pulling upward on the narrow release strap. The inside door handle has three positions and a placard at its base which reads OPEN. Inertia reels allow complete freedom of body movement. To open the doors from outside the airplane. Iink on the harness . close the left cabin door. momentarily shove the door outward slightly. and hold it there. Then adjust to length. To close or open the doors from inside the airplane. NOTE Accidental opening of a cabin door in flight due to improper closing does not constitute a need to land the airplane. The WIndowIS equipped with a spring-loaded retaining arm wh~ch wil~ help rota~e the Window outward. Both cabin doors should be locked prior to flight. still attached to the link half of the seat belt. Exit from the airplane is accomplished by rotating the door handle ftom the LOCK position. either window may be opened at any speed up to 160 knots. ' NOTE The inertia reels are located for maximum shoulder harness comfort and safe retention of the seat occupants. check to ensure the proper harness is being used. To use the seat ~elt/ shoulder harness. past the CLOSE position. lock the door. a door stop mechanism. However. and functions in the same manner as the left window. The doors thcorporate a recessed exterior door handle. rotate the latch upward. An openable right door window is also available. and using the ignition key. the ~nd ~f the harness and the narrow release strap. The left cabin door is equipped with an openable window which is held in the closed position by a detent equipped latch on the lower ed!?eof t~e Window frame. the pilot will want the freedom to reach all controls easily.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N $ESSNA N{ODEL172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS st~wage sheath above an aft side window. If required. to drop to the side of the seat. which will allow the inertia reel to pull the harness inboard of the seat. Adjust belt tension across the lap by pullmg upward on the shoulder harness. and forcefully close and lock the door. one on each side of the cabin at the front seat positions (refer to Section 6 for cabin and cabin door dimensions). and removing the harness connecting link from the stud on the seat belt link. and an open able window in the left door. an over-center action will hold it in that position. and LOCK. A properly adjusted harness will permit the occupant to lean forward enough to sit completely erect. A separate seat belt half and buckle is located outboard of the seats. and exit from the airplane is accomplished through either of twO entry doors. position the adjustable metal Just below shoulder level. To open the window. ENTRANCE DOORS AND CABIN WINDOWS Entry to. No harness is available for the chIld's seat. To use a front or rear seat shoulder harness fasten and adjust the seat belt first. CLOSE. rear side windows. In an emergency. The handle is spring-loaded to the CLOSE (up) position.

The II_lixturecontrol: mo~nted above the right corner of the control pedestal. MILL-6082.rotating the knob clockwise. The gage is marked in 5° increments from -30°C to +30°C. and aft by rotating the knob counterclockwIse. The instrument is calibrated in increments of 100 RPM and Indicates both engine and propeller speed. which is a round knurled disk. Is operated by oil pressure. and a tachometer. Oil temperature is indicated by a gage adjacent to the oil pressure gage. The throttle operates in a conventional manner. Instrument markings include a normal operating range (green arc) of 2200 to 2700 RPM. is located. In areas where high or gusty winds occur. and in the full aft position. ENGINE CONTROLS Engine power is controlled by a throttle located on the lower center portion of the instrument panel. ENGINE INSTRUMENTS Engine operation is monitored by the following instruments: oil pressure gage. a control surface lock should be installed over the vertical stabilizer and rudder.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA :MODEL172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CONTROL LOCKS A control lock is provided to lock the ailerons and elevator control s~rfaces in. o. 65% to 75% power until a consumption has stabilized.wheel.and has a yellow arc between -15°Cand +5°Cwhich indicates the temperature range most conducive to dcing in the carburetor. 7-16 NEW ENGINE BREAK-IN AND OPERATION The engine underwent a range of use. air-cooled. To install the control lock. overhead-valve. IS a red knob with raIsed points around the circumference and is equipped with a loc~ butt0!l in the end of the knob. the knob may be moved forward.viation grade straight mineral oil conforming to Specification No. If. it is closed. It is. during the first 25 hours.. Proper installa tion of the lock will place the red flag over the ignition switch. four-cylinder.. at th~ base of t~e . A friction lock. Major accessories include a starter and belt-driven alternator mounted on the front of the engine. the control may be moved forward by. carbureted engine with a wet sump oil system. the normal operating range is 60 to 90 PSI (green arc). The gage is operated by an electric~l-resistance t~pe temperatu~e sensor which receives power from the airplane electncal system. The control lock and any other type of locking device should be removed prior to starting the engine.ra~tby depressing the lock button in the end of the control. oil temperature gage. run-in at the factory and is ready for the full suggested that cruising be accomplished at total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil This will ensure proper seating of the rings. and maximum pressure is 100 PSI (red line). use only a. and dual magnetos and a vacuum pump which are mounted on an accessory drive pad on the rear of the engine. The oil pressure gage. . 7-17 .throttle and is operated by rotating the lock clockwise to mcrease fnctIOn or counterclockwise to decrease it. A carburetor air temperature gage is also available. ENGINE The airplane is powered by a horizontally-opposed. A direct pressure oil line from the engine delivers oil at engine operating pressure to the oil pressure gage. and full aft ISthe Idle cut-off position. Provisions are also made for a full flow oil filter. REMOVE BEFORE STARTING ENGINE. a neu~ral pos~tion and prevent damage to these systems by wmd buffe~mg while the aIrplane is parked. and a maximum (red lfne) of 2700 RPM. A carburetor air temperature gage may be installed on the right side of the instrument panel to help detect carburetor icing conditions. align the hole in the top of the pilot's control wheel shaft with the hole in the top of the shaft collar on the instrument panel and insert the rod into the aligned holes. For small adjustments. The engine is a Lycoming Model 0-320-H2AD and is rated at 160horsepower at 2700 RPM. The airplane is delivered from the factory with corrosion preventive oil in the engine. A placard on the lower half of the gage face reads KEEP NEEDLE OUT OF YELLOW ARC DURING POSSIBLE CARBURETOR ICING CONDITIONS. The engine-driven mechanical tachometer is located near the lower portion of the instrument panel to the left of the pilot's con~rol. The flag is labeled CONTROL LOCK. 011 temperature limitations are the normal operating range (green arc) which ts38°C (lOO°F)to 118°C(245°F). oil must be added. located on the left side of the instrument panel. The rich position is full forward. and the maximum (red line) which is 118°C (245°F). and then posttiontng the Control as desired. An hour meter below the center of the tachometer dial records elapsed engine time in hours and tenths. For rapid or large adjustments. the throttle is open. however. Gage markings indicate that minimum idling pressure is 25 PSI (red line). in the full forward position. The lock consists of a shaped steel rod with a red metal flag attached to it.

Use of full carburetor heat at full throttle will result in a loss of approximately 100 to 225 RPM. ••• For easy starting in cold weather. Residual oil is returned sump by gravity flow. AIR INDUCTION The engine air induction system recei ves ram air through an intake in the lower front portion of the engine cowling. is equipped with a lock and. and START.operated by the carburetor heat control on the instrument panel. The switch is labeled clockwise. For extended flight. After draining. an idle cut-off mechanism. slip a hose over the end of the valve and push upward on the end of the valve until it snaps into the open position. float-type. The engine should be operated on both magnetos (BOTH position) except for magneto checks. on the instrument panel.<>' SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N QESSNA ~ODEL 172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS ENGINE OIL SYSTEM Oil for engine lubrication is supplied from a sump on the bottom of the engine. R. Oil is drawn from the sump through an oil suction strainer screen into the engine-driven oil pump.. and a manual mixture control. oil is routed to a bypass valve.an £ir filter which removes dust and other foreign matt~r from the mduct~on ~ir. The filler cap/dipstick is accessible through an access door in the engine cowling.der engine. alternate heated air can be obtained from a shroud around an exhaust riser through a duct to a valve. The right magneto fires the lower right and upper left spark plugs. It WIll automatieallY return to the BOTH position. refer to Section 8 of this handbook. ositions are for checking purposes and emergency use only. and the left magneto fires the lower left and upper right spark plugs. must be rotated either left or right until the knob cannot be Pulled out.ri. and is then ducted to the engme cylmders through ~ntake the ifil:i. cleaner draining of the engine oil. Heated air from the shroud is obtained from an unfiltered outside source. To drain the oil with this valve. fixedjet carburetor mounted on the bottom of the engine.ctor IS en~rgI. and delivered to the cylinders through intake manifold tubes. Fuel IS delivered to the carburetor by gravity flow frc m the fuel system.¢Ylinder intake ports when the plunger is pushed back in. fill to six quarts (dipstick indication only). The carburetor is equipped with an enclosed accelerator pump. induction air enters the in~et in t~e carburetor W~lChIS B. The Rand L 7-18 . OFF. the bypass val ve routes the oil out of the accessory housing and into a flexible hose leading to the oil cooler on the lower right side of the firewall. EXHAUST SYSTEM Exhaust gas from each cylinder passes through riser assemblies to a muffler and tailpipe. proportionally IT ixed with intake ai~. within limits. The primer is actually a small pump ~hI. CARBURETOR AND PRIMING SYSTEM Theengineis equipped with an up-draft. When the ~witch is rotated to the spring-loaded START posit~on.ch d~a~s fuel !rom the fuel strainer when the plunger is pulled out.e starter will crank the engine. To minimize loss of oil through the breather. Normal operation is conducted with both magnetos due to the more complete burning of the fuel-afr mixture with dual ignition. In the Carburetor. The intake is cov~red by. An oil filler cap/oil dipstick is located atthe rear of the enginenearthe center. fuel is atomized. The capacity of the engine sump is six quarts (one additional quart is required if a full flow oil filter is installed). by the mixture control on the instrument panel. and two spark plugs in each cylinder.zed and th. When the SWItchISreleased. After pa~slI~g ~hrough the airbox. if installed).. (wit~ the master switch in the ON position).nifold tubes. Ignition and starter operation is controlled by a rotary type switch located on the left switch and control panel. The filter oil then enters a pressure relief valve which regulates engine oil pressure by allowing excessive oil to return to the sump while the balance of the oil is circulated to various engine parts for lubrication. If the oil is hot. and injects It mtothe . BOTH. Spring clips will hold the valve open. 7-19 IGNITION-STARTER SYSTEM Engine ignition is provided by an engine-driven dual magneto. fill to five quarts for normal flights of less than three hours. The muffler is constructed with a shroud around the outside which forms a heating chamber for cabin heater air. In the event carburetor ice is encountered or the mtake filter becomes blocked. ~he proportion of atomized fuel to air is controlled. From the pump. The engine should not be operated on less than four quarts of oil. the engine is eq~ipped with a manual primer. L. the starter ~ont?. If the oil is cold. the bypass valve allows the oil to bypass the oil cooler and go directly from the pump to the oil pressure screen (full flow oil filter if installed). The plunger ~nob. in the airbo:x. use a suitable tool to snap the valve into the extended (closed) position and remove the drain hose. Airflow passing through the filter enters an ai rbox. For engine oil grade and specifications. An oil quick-drain valve is available to replace the drain plug on the bottom of the oil sump. and provides quicker. simplified fuel passages to prevent vapor locking. after bemg PUshed full in. Pressure oil from the cooler returns to the accessory housing where it passes through the pressure strainer screen (full flow oil filter.

insulation for the crankcase breather line.5 Gal.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSN. This equipment should be installed for operations in temperatures consistently below -7°C (20°F). A winterization kit is available and consists of two baffles which attach to the air intakes in the cowling nose cap. Each) LONG RANGE (27 Gal.Both systems consist of two vented fuel tanks (one in each wing). and a placard to be installed on the instrument panel. Refer to figure 7-5forfuel quantity data for both systems.l. TO • ENGINE FUEL STRAINER FUEL SYSTEM The airplane may be equipped with either a standard fuel system or long range system (see figure 7-6). GALLONS) TOTAL UNUSABLE FUEL TOTAL FUEL VOLUME -.. The cooling air is directed around the cylinders and other areas of the engine by baffling. a four-position selector valve. Once installed. I SELECTOR VALVE PROPELLER The airplane is equipped with a two-bladed. S. PLACE THE FUEL SELECTOR VALVE IN EITIIER LEFT OR RIGHT POSITION TO PREVE NT CROSS. The propeller i~ 75 inches in diameter. No manual cooling system control is provided. Figure 7-5. manual primer. FUEL QUANTITY TOTAL USABLE FUEL ALL FLIGHT CONDITIONS 1401 DATA (U.-DJ MIXTURE CONTROL KNOB 3 4 43 o 50 54 TO ENSURE MAXlMUM FUEL CAPACITY WHEN REFUELlNG. Fuel Quantity Data 7-20 Figure 7-6. Fuel System (Standard and Long Range) 7-21 . a restrictive cover plate for the oil cooler air inlet in the right rear vertical engine baffle. and is then exhausted through an opening at the bottom aft edge of the cowling. fuel strainer. fixed-pitch.t).- -- rIl'r--1:ll ---t. Each) UIt\Jtl TO ENGINE . and carburetor.FEEDING.A MODEL 172N ~ESSNA ~ODEL 172N TILLER CAP SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS COOLING SYSTEM Ram air for engine cooling enters through two intake openings in the front of the engine cowling.---~ r---- THROTTLE TANKS COD E ---... the crankcase breather insulation is approved for permanent use in both hot and cold weather. FUEL SUPPLY VENT MECHANICAL LINKAGE STANDARD (21. one-piece forged aluminum alloy propeller which is anodized to retard corrosion.

re operated by applying pressure to the top of either the left (pilot's) or right (copilot's) set of rudder pedals. The left fuel tank is vented overboard through a vent line. and excessive travel and weak braking action. When the airplane is parked. or unusual attitudes. 14-amp hour battery (or 17-amp hour battery.ri10DEL172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS Fuel flows by gravity from the two wing tanks to a four-position selector valve. The indicators cannot be relied upon for accurate readings during skids. braking action decreases. With the selector val. and maneuvers that involve prolonged slips or skids. The manual primer draws its fuel from the fuel strainer and injects it into the cylinder intake ports. Venting is accomplished by an interconnecting line from the right fuel tank to the left tank. and 2 gallons remain in a long range tank as unusuable fuel. therefore. If. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Electrical energy (see figure 7-7) is supplied by a 28-volt. direct'Current system powered by an engine-driven. both main wheel brakes may be set by utilizing the parking brake which is operated by a handle under the left side of the instrument panel. slips.brakes with heavy pressure. pumping the pedals should build braking pressure. noisy or dragging brakes. The fuel tanks should be filled after each flight to prevent condensation. If the brakes become spongy or pedal travel increases. pull the handle aft. Resulting wing heaviness can be alleviated gradually by turning the selector valve handle to the tank in the "heavy" wing. The right fuel tank filler cap is also vented. to offset the good brake. during taxi or landing roll. or RIGHT position. For maximum brake life. The primary bus is 7-23 The fuel system is equipped with drain valves to provide a means for 7-22 . labeled BOTH. Fuel quantity is measured by two float-type fuel quantity transmitters (one in each tank) and indicated by two electrically-operated fuel quantity indicators on the left side of the instrument panel. equipped with a check valve. mixed fuel and air flows to the cylinders through intake manifold tubes. hydraulically-actuated brake on each main landing gear wheel. unequal fuel flow from each tank may occur if the wings are not maintained exactly level. and. and by utilizing the fuel strainer drain under an access panel on the right side of the engine cowling.":ein either the BOTH. soft or spongy pedals. use the other brake sparingly while using opposite rudder. NOTE It is not practical to measure the time required to consume all of the fuel in one tank. and minimize brake usage during taxi operations and landings. To apply the parking brake. approximately 1. let up on the pedals and then re-apply the . The 'System should be examined before the first flight of every day and after each refueling. fuel flows through a strairiar to the carburetor.5 gallons remain in a standard tank. to a master cylinder attached to each of the pilot's rudder pedals. after switching to the opposite tank. Power is supplied to most general electrical and all avionics circuits through the primary bus bar and the avionics bus bar. An empty tank is indicated by a red line and the letter E. by a hydraulic line. LEFT. LEFT. the brake system is in need of immediate attention. the examination of fuel in the system for contamination and grade. RIGHT. which are interconnected by an avionics power switch. If any of these symptoms appear. by using the sampler cup provided to drain fuel from the Wing tank sumps. 60-amp alternator and a 24volt. as required. Some of the symptoms of impending brake failure are: gradual decrease in braking action after brake application. landing. From the carburetor. The brakes a. Fuel system venting is essential to system operation. Blockage of the system will result in decreasing fuel flow and eventual engine stoppage. and OFF. NOTE When the fuel selector valve handle is in the BOTH position in cru iaing flight. When an indicator shows an empty tank. BRAKE SYSTEM The airplane has a single-disc. If one brake becomes weak or fails. The fuel selector valve should be in the BOTH position for takeoff. Operation from either LEFT or RIGHT tank is reserved for cruising flight. some sloshing offuel between tanks can be expected when the tanks are nearly full and the wings are not level. expect an equal duration from the remaining fuel. if installed) located on the left side of the firewall. The airspace in both fuel tanks is interconnected by a vent line and. keep the brake system properly maintained. which protrudes from the bottom surface of the left wing near the wing strut. climb. which are interconnected. set the brakes with the rudder pedals. Each brake is connected.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N QESSNA . and rotate it 90° down.

should be turned off to prevent any harmful transient voltage from damaging the avionics equipment. If the circuit breaker opens again. and prevent alternator restart. remove power from the alternator field. With this switch in the off position. the avionics power switch. If this occurs. starting the engine. CAUTION OVER-VOL WARNING UNIT TAGE WARNING LIGHT Prior to turning the master switch on or off. AVIONICS POWER SWITCH PILOT BATTERY AVIONICS MAGNETOS BREAKER ION LEFT CONTROL POWE A SWITCH/CIRCUIT SWITCH AND CODE PANEL) 0) • CIRCUIT fUSE UEA. 7-25 . If an electrical malfunction should Occurand cause the circuit breaker to open. no electrical power will be applied to the avionics equipment. Both bus bars are on anytime the master and avionics power switches are turned on. MASTER SWITCH The master switch is a split-rocker type switch labeled MASTER. allow the circuit breaker approximately two minutes to cool before placing the toggle in the on position again. both sides of the master switch should be used simultaneously. do not reset it.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYST EMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N @ESSNA MODEL 172N SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS on anytime the master switch is turned on. the BAT side of the switch could be turned on separately to check equipment while on the ground. The avionics power SWitch should be placed in the off position prior to turning the master SWitchon or off. removes the alternator from the electrical system.RESETI DIODE TO AVIONICS BUS w. Electrical 7-24 System Electrical power from the airplane primary bus to the avionics bus (see figure 7-7) is controlled by a toggle-type circuit breaker-switch labeled AVIONICS POWER. regardless of the position of the master SWitch or the individual equipment switches.. To check or use avionics equipment or radios while on the ground. The ALT side of the switch. however. With the switch in the off position. the avionics power switch must also be turned on. The avionics power switch also functions as a circuit breaker. The right half of the switch.lfSrSTOR Figure 7-7. and is ON in the up position and off in the down position. Continued operation with the alternator switch in the off position will reduce battery power low enough to open the battery contactor.~H -++ [PUSH. The switch is located on the left side of the switch and control panel and is on in the up position and off in the down Position. electrical power to the avionics equipment will be interrupted and the switch toggle will automatically Illove to the off position.IO. labeled BAT. and is not affected by starter or external power usage. labeled AVIONICS POWER. starting the engine or applying an external power source. The left half. the entire electrical load is placed on the battery. when placed in the off position. labeled ALT. controls all electrical power to the airplane. controls the alternator. STARTE:R t Normally. or applying an external power source.

normal alternator charging has resumed. Electrical circuits which are not protected by circuit breakers are the battery contactor closing (external power) circuit. or from the battery to the airplane electrical system. The ground service plug receptacle circuit incorporates a polarity reversal protection. The receptacle is located under a cover plate. the ammeter indicates the battery discharge rate. The cigar lighter is protected by a manually-reset type circuit breaker on the back of the lighter.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS in place of the individual CESSNA MODEL 172N avionics equipment $t'JESSNA . Do not crank or start the engine with the avionics power switch turned on. If maintenance is required on the avionics equipment. adjacent to the ammeter. When the engme IS operating and the master switch is turned on. In either case.f«ODEL 172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS and may be utilized switches. A special fused circuit in the external power system supplies the needed "jumper" across the contacts so that with a "dead" battery and an external power source a.ttery cart). In addition to the individual circuit breakers. The red warning light will then turn on. the ammeter indicates the charging rate applied to the battery.pplied. labeled AVIONICS POWER. an external OVER-VOLTAGE SENSOR AND WARNING LIGHT If no avionics equipment NOTE is to be used or worked on. AMMETER The ammeter indicates the flow of current. no power will flow to the electrical system. the avionics power switch should be turned off. thereby preventing any damage to electrical equipment. a malfunction has occurred. GROUND SERVICE PLUG RECEPTACLE A ground service plug receptacle may be installed to permit the use of power source (generator type or battery cart) for cold weather starting and during lengthy maintenance work on the airplane electrical system. If the warning light does not illuminate. a toggle-type circuit breaker-switch.labeled HIGH VOLTAGE. If the plug is accidentally connected backwards. flight hour recorder circuit. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND FUSES Most of the electrical circuits in the airplane are protected by "push-toreset" circuit breakers mounted on the lower left side of the instrument panel. however. from the alternator to the batt. it is advisable to utilize a battery cart external power source to prevent damage to the avionics equi pment by transient voltage. and the master switch on. turning on the master switch will close the battery contact or. clock circuit. the over-voltage sensor automatically removes alternator field current and shuts down the alternator.ery. In the event the alternator is not functioning or the electrical load exceeds the output of the alternator. the avionics power switch may be turned on again if required. The over-voltage sensor may be reset by turning off the avionics power switch and then turning the master switch off and back on again. and 7-26 LIGHTING SYSTEMS lOR LIGHTING Conventional navigation lights are located on the wing tips and top of 7-27 . In the event an over-voltage condition occurs. and a fuse behind the instrument panel. The battery and external power circuits have been designed to completely eliminate the need to "jumper" across the battery contactor to close it for charging a completely "dead" battery. on the left switch and control panel also protects the avionics systems. Power from the external power source will flow only if the ground service plug is correctly connected to the airplane. on the lower left side Of the cowling. and the flight should be terminated as soon as practical. if the light does illuminate again. The airplane is equipped with an automatic over-voltage protection system consisting of an over-voltage sensor behind the instrument panel and a red warning light. the avionics power switch should be turned off. The warning light may be tested by momentarily turning off the ALT portion of the master switch and leaving the BAT portion turned on. These circuits are protected by fuses mounted adjacent to the battery. . The control wheel map light (if installed) is protected by the NAV LT circuit breaker and a fuse behind the instrument panel. indicating to the pilot that the alternator is not operating and the battery is supplying all electrical power. in amperes. Just before connecting an external power source (generator type or ~a.

The instrument panel may be equipped with 'post lights which are mounted at the edge of each instrument or control and provide direct lighting. OFF. turn off the light switch of the affected Iights.t lighting is installed). The most probable cause of a light failure is. integral lighting.nob Pulled out and the CABIN AIR knob pushed full in. VENTILATING AND DEFROSTING SYSTEM The temperature and volume of airflow into the cabin can be regulated to any degree desired by manipulation of the push-pull CABIN HT and CABIN AIR control knobs (see figure 7-8). the flashing light reflected from water droplets or particles in the atmosphere. fog or haze. Instrument and control panel flood lighting consists of a single red flood light in the forward part of the overhead console. LIght intensity of the engine instrument cluster and radio lIghtmg IS controlled by the RADIO LT 7-28 CABIN HEATING. Additional heat IS avai labl e by pullmg the knob out farther.' & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA. move the switch to the rrght. All exterior lights. The light illuminates the lo~er portion of the bin just forward of the pilot and is helpful when checkmg maps and other bight data during night operations. Pla~I~g the switch in the top position will provide a red light. and a fl ashing beacon is mounted on top of the vertical fin. In the center pOSItIOn. and WHITE. Additional lighting is available and includes a strobe light on each wing tip and two courtesy lights. A single landing light or dual landing/taxi lights are installed in the cowl nose cap.bottom of the pilot's control wheel. To use the flood lighting. just outboard of the cabin door. first turn on ~he NAV LT switch.ESSNA t\IODEL 172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS the rudder. In ~~ebottom posI~lOn. the CABIN HT knob is pushed full in. or a combination of post and flood lighting in the BOTH position. lIg?tm~. By placing the PANEL LIGHTS selector switch in the BOTH position.~tandard white lighting is provided. labeled PANEL LT and RADIO LT. control intensity of the instrument and control panel lighting. A control wheel map light is available and is mounted on the. MODEL 172N ·~. The integral compass light intensity is controlled by the PANEL LT rheostat control knob. A cabin dome light. A slidetype switch (if installed) on the overhead console. then adjust the map Iight s Intensity WIththe knurled disk type rheostat control located at the bottom of the control wheel. The lights are operated b~ pl~cin~ the. is ope~ated by a switch near the light. ~o o~e~ate t~e lig~t. maximum heat is available with the CABI~ HT k. rotate the PANEL LT rheostat control knob clockwise to the desired intensity.ave I~tegral lighting and operate independently of post or flood. can produce vertigo and loss of orientation. labeled PANEL LIGHTS. For cabin ventilation. one under each wing. the lights should be turned off when taxiing in the vicinity of other aircraft. in the aft part of the overhead con~ole.p ANEL LIGHTS selector switch in the POST position and a~Justmg Iight Intensity with the PANEL LT rheostat control knob. and magnetIc compa~s h. To raise th~ ail' temperature. 7-29 . The courtesy lights are operated by the dome light switch on the overhead console. check the appropriate circuit breaker. except the courtesy lights. radio equipment. and there is no obvious mdlCatlO? of a short circuit (smoke or odor). If the breaker opens agam. INTERIOR LIGHTING Instrument and control panel lighting is provided by flood lighting.urne~ out bulb. however. It contains both red and ~hite bul. reset the breaker. The Iight IScontroll~d by a sWI~ch.the map Iight IS turned off. The engine instrum~nt cluster (if pos. a b. below the light. do not reset it. The flashing beacon should not be used when flying through clouds or overcast. particularly at night. To turn the light on. and turn the switch on again. and post lighting (if installed).bs a~d may be posltlOn~d to illuminate any area desired by the pi. The switches are ON in the up position and OFF in the down position. If the Clrc~It ~re~er has opened (white button popped out). post lighting in the POST position. is used to select flood lighting in the FLOOD position.y 1/4 to 1/21I~ch for a small amount of cabin heat.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE :iII-. rheostat control knob. Light intensity is controlled by the PANEL LT rheostat control knob.lot. The high intensity strobe lights will enhance anti-collision protection. Two concentric rheostat control knobs below the engine controls. pull the CABIN HT knob out approx~matel. A doorpost map light is available. When no heat IS desired in the cabin. pull the CABIN AIR knob out. However. the post lights can be used in Combination with the standard flood lighting. in the event any of the lighting systems fall t~ Ill~mmate when turned on. are controlled by rocker type switches on the left switch and control panel. and is located on the lef~ ~orward doo'rpoat. or during night flight through clouds. which is labeled RED.

Separate adjustable ventilators supply additional air. refer to Section 9. When the pitot heat switch is turned on. and can be used if the external static source is malfunctioning. the alternate static source valve should be pulled on. ~--HEATER VALVE VENTILATING AIR DOOR .. 7-31 . Supplements. and Defrostl'n 7-30 g S ystem Pressures within the cabin will vary with open cabin ventilators and Windows. and the associated plumbing necessary to connect the instruments to the sources. one near each upper corner of the windshield supplies air for the pilot and copilot.. Cabin Heating. a rocker-type switch labeled PITOT HT on the lower left side of the instrument panel. For operating instructions and details concerning this system. and associated wiring. one extending down each side of the cabin to an outlet at the front doorpost at floor level. Refer to Section 5 for the effect of varying cabin pressures on airspeed and altimeter readings. Windshield defrost air is also supplied by a duct leading from the cabin manifold. ' CABIN AIR CONTROL ADJUSTABLE DEFRa3TER OUTLET CABIN HEAT-CONTROL PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM AND INSTRUMENTS The pitot-static system supplies ram air pressure to the airspeed indicator and static pressure to the airspeed indicator. The system is composed of either an unheated or heated pitot tube moun ted on the lower surface of the left wing. Rear cabin heat and air is supplied by two ducts from the manifold. Ventilating. an external static port on the lower left side of the forward fuselage.. The heated pitot system consists of a heating element in the pitot tube. <Il(.. If erroneous instrument readings are suspected due to water or ice in the pressure line going to the standard external static pressure source.. Two knobs control sliding valves in the defroster outlet and permit regulation of defroster airflow.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DES CRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N CESSNA ivIODEL172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS EXHAUST--MUFFLER SHROUD FRONT CABIN AIR OUTLET Front cabin heat and ventilating air is supplied by outlet holes spaced across a cabin manifold just forward of the pilot's and copilot's feet. a 5-amp circuit breaker on the switch and control panel.ur Figure 7-8. ~ ~ ~ o CODE RAM AIR FLOW VENTILATING AIR HEATED AIR BLENDEDAffi MECHANICAL CONNECTION A static pressure alternate source valve may be installed adjacent to the throttle. rate-of-climb indicator and altimeter. Pitot heat should be used only as required. This valve supplies static pressure from inside the cabin instead of the external static port.. The airplane may also be equipped with an air conditioning system. and two ventilators are available for the rear cabin area to supply air to the rear seat passengers. the element dn the pitot tube is heated electrically to maintain proper operation in possible icing conditions.

The system consists of a vacuum pump mounted on the engine. A knob near the lower left portion of the indicator provides adjustment of the instrument's barometric scale to the current altimeter setting. read true airspeed on the ring opposite the calibrated airspeed. To operate the indicator. Vacuum System 7-33 . yellow arc (128to 160knots). the indicated airspeed should be corrected to calibrated airspeed by referring to the Airspeed Calibration chart in Section 5. VACUUM SYSTEM AIR FILTER VACUUM SYSTEM AND INSTRUMENTS An engine-driven vacuum system (see figure 7-9)provides the suction necessary to operate the attitude indicator and directional indicator. it is equipped with a rotatable ring which works in conjunction with the airspeed indicator dial in a manner similar to the operation of a flight computer. MODEL 172N 'tCESSNA MODEL 172N CODE AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS AIRSPEED INDICATOR The airspeed indicator is calibrated in knots and miles per hour.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA. a vacuum relief valve and vacuum system air filter on the aft side of the firewall below the instrument panel. read the true airspeed shown on the rotatable ring by the indicator pointer. If a true airspeed indicator is installed. and a red line (160knots). To obtain pressure altitude. Having set the ring to correct for altitude and temperature. Knowing the calibrated airspeed. Pressure altitude should not be confused with indicated altitude.:::::j:. and instruments (including a suction gage) on the left side of the instrument panel.:J ~ INLET AIR VACUUM DISCHARGE AI R OVERBOARD VENT LINE I~\ VACUUM PUMP VACUUM RELIEF VALVE RATE-OF-CLIMB INDICATOR The rate-of-climb indicator depicts airplane rate of climb or descent in feet per minute. The pointer is actuated by atmospheric pressure changes resulting from changes of altitude as supplied by the static source. momentarily set the barometric scale on the altimeter to 29. For best accuracy. first rotate the ring until pressure altitude is aligned with outside air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.92 and read pressure altitude on the altimeter. SUCTION GAGE ALTIMETER Airplane altitude is depicted by a barometric type altimeter. Limitation and range markings include the white arc (41to 85knots). c::::J ffi:. green arc (47to 128knots). Be sure to return the altimeter barometric scale to the original barometric setting after pressure altitude has been obtained. 7-32 Figure 7-9.

The amplifier is automatically selected.20 . The operation of this switching system is described in the following paragraphs. When one or more radios are installed. an air-operated horn near the upper left corner of the windshield. and associated plumbing. This low pressure creates a differential pressure in the stall warning system which draws air through the warning horn. labeled AUTO. The stall warning system should be checked during the preflight inspection by placing a clean handkerchief over the vent opening and applying suction. . labeled XMTR SEL. as evidenced by loss of all speaker audio and transmitting capability of t~e selected transmitter. the pilot should be aware that. by the transmitter selector switch. microphone-headset. 7-34 A toggle switch. To utilize this automatic feature. TRANSMITIER SELECTOR SWITCH A directional indicator displays airplane heading on a compass cardin relation to a fixed simulated airplane image and index. and static dischargers. be equipped with various 'types of avionics support equipment such as an audi~ control panel. The numbers 1. This should re-establIsh speaker audio and transmitter operation.4 inches of mercury. A rotary type transmitter selector switch. To select a transmitter. 0 . Since headset audio is not affected by audio amplifier operation. This can be verified by switching to the speaker function. The desired suction range is 4. is calibrated in inches of mercury and indicates suction available for operation of the attitude and directional indicators. The attitude indicator gives a visual indication of flight attitude. The followmg paragraphs discuss these items. In the event the audio amplifier in use fails. a transmltter/uudio switchirig 'system is provided (see figure 7-10)..is ha~dbo. the compass card should be set in accordance with the magnetic compass just prior to takeoff. and place the AUTO selector switch in eithe~ the SPEAKER or PHONE position. and functions as the am plifier for ALL speaker audio.ok. 0 DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR AUDIO CONTROL PANEL Operation of radio equipment is covered in Sect~on 9 of th.30 60 and 90 either side of the center mark. A knob on the lower left edge of the instrument is used to adjust the compass card to correct for precession. located on the left side of the instrument panel. SUCTION GAGE The suction gage. AUTOMATIC AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH STALL WARNING SYSTEM The airplane is equipped with a pneumatic-type stall warning system consisting of an inlet in the leading edge of the left wing.2 and 3 above the switch correspond to the top. Bank attitude is presented by a pointer at the top of the indicator relative to the bank scale which has index marks at 10 . select another transmitter. the only indication of audio an-p lifier failure is loss of the se~ected transmitter. is provided to connect the microphone to the transmitter the pilot desire~ to use. A sound from the warning horn will confirm that the system is operative. The indicator will precess slightly over a period of time. at the owner's discretion. 0 0 0 . the low pressure on the upper surface of the wings moves forward around the leading edge of the wings. A knob at the bottom of the instrument is provided for in-flight adjustment of the miniature airplane to the horizon bar for a more accurate flight attitude indication. A suction reading below this range may indicate a system malfunction or improper adjustment. Therefore. and occasionally re-adjusted on extended flights. while utilizing a headset. rotate the switch to the number corresponding to that transmitter. the pilot may then select any transmitter and its associated NAV/COM receiver audio simultaneously with the transmitter selector 7-35 . along with the transmitter. leave all NAV/ COMreceiver switches in the OFF (center) position. Pitch and roll attitudes are presented by a miniature airplane in relation to the horizon bar. second and third transceivers in the avionics stack. As an example. can beused to automatica~lymatch the appropriate NAV/ COM receiver audio to the transmitter bemg selected. resulting in an audible warning at 5 to 10 knots above stall in all flight conditions. the indicators should not be considered reliable.6 to 5. the audio amplifier in the associated NAV/ COMreceiver is also selected. The audio amplifier in the NAV/ COMradio is required for speaker and transmitter operation.:If!. if the number 1 transmitter is selected. Once the AUTO selector switch is positioned. and in this case. SECTION 7 AIRPLANE ATTITUDE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSNA MODEL 172N ~ESSNA ~l\10DEL172N AIRPLANE & SECTION 7 SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS INDICATOR AVIONICS SUPPORT EQUIPMENT The airplane may. as desired. As the airplane approaches a stall.

AUTOMATIC AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH (TYPICAL) AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCHES The audio selector switches. If another audio selector switch is placed in e~ther the PHONE or SPEAKER position. If the pilot wants only ADF audio. If simultaneous ADF and NAV/ COM audio is acceptable to the pilot. and utilizing the individual radio selector switches. sidetone may be eliminated by placing the AUTOselector switch in the OFF position.umber 1 NAV/COM receiver is in the PHONE position.1. Place the ADF 1 or 2 switch in either the SPEAKER or PHONE position and adjust radio volume as desired. If desired. MODEL 172N . Sidetone will be heard on either the airplane speaker or a headset as selected with the AUTO selector switch.: ibESSNA ~MODEL172N SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS . for station identification or other reasons.tches are in the OFF position. INDIVIDUAL AUDIO SELECTION AUTOMATIC AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH (TYPICAL) ~s illustrated. To listen to a specific receiver. to the selected transmitter is in the PHONE position with the AUTO selector switch in the SPEAKER position. place that switch in the OFF (center) position. while the passengers are listening to the ADF audio through the airplane speaker. To turn off the audio of the selected receiver. and then individually select and listen to any receiver or 'combination of receivers. With the switches set as shown. no change in the existing switch positions is required. With the switches set as shown. the AUTO selector I . allow the pilot to initially pre-tune all NAV /COM and ADF l/receivers. and the number 1 ADF IS In the SPEAKER position. 7-36 Audio Control Panel . itwill be heard simultaneously with either the number 1 NAV/COM or number 1 ADF respectively. the number 1 transmitter is selected.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS AUTOMATIC AUDIO SELECTION CESSNA. first check that the AUTO selector switch is in the OFF (center) position. th~ n.~switchshould be placed in the OFF (center) position. the audio Selector switches can be positioned to permit the pilot to listen to one "receiver on a headset while the passengers Iistento another receiver on the 'airplane speaker. 2 and 3 and ADF 1 :'and 2.2 and 3 and ADF 1 and 2 audio se. the pilot will transmit on the number 1 transmitter and hear the number 1 NAV/COM receiver on a headset. NOTE As illustrated. the AUTO selector switch is In the OFF position. f automatic audio selection is not desired. NOTE Cessna radios are equipped with sidetone capability (monitoring of the operator's own voice transmission). If the NAV/ COM audio selector switch corresponding MICROPHONE-HEADSET The microphone-headset combination consists of the microphone and headset combined in a single unit and a microphone keying switch located 7-37 Figure 7-10.. the AUTO selector switch (if in use) and all other audio selector switches should be in the OFF position. and the NAV/COM 1. The ADF 1 and 2 switches may be used anytime ADF audio is desired. the AUTO selector switch is in the SPEAKER position.switch. the number 1 transmitter is selected. then place the :audio selector switch corresponding to that receiver in either the SPEAKER (up) or PHONE (down) position.lector swi. labeled NAV/ COM 1. all audio selector switches placed in the PHONE position will automatically be connected to both the airplane speaker and any headsets in use. the pilot will transmit on the number 1 transmitter and hear the number 1 NAV /COM receiver through the airplane speaker.

installation of wick-type static dischargers is recommended to improve radio communications during flight through dust or various forms of precipitation (rain. snow or ice crystals). STATIC DISCHARGERS If frequent IFR flights are planned. Under these conditions. rudder. but it is possible to encounter severe precipitation static conditions which might cause the loss of radio signals. propeller tips and radio antennas can result in loss of usable radio signals on all communications and navigation radio equipment. avoid known severe precipitation areas to prevent loss of dependable radio signals.SECTION 7 AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS CESSWl\ MODEL 172W on the left side of the pilot's control wheel. Usually the ADF is first to be affected and VHF communication equipment is the last to be affected. minimize airspeed and anticipate temporary loss of radio signals while in these areas. Whenever possible. If avoidance is impractical. 7-38 . I Installation of static dischargers reduces interference from precipitation static. even with static dischargers installed. The microphone-headset permits the pilot to conduct radio communications without interrupting other control operations to handle a hand-held microphone. elevator. Also. the build-up and discharge of static electricity from the trailing edges of the wings. The microphone and headset jacks are located near the lower left comer of the instrument panel. passengers need not listen to all communications.

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