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shashwatiki

mvwnZ¨ I ms¯‹…wZi Aa©evwl©Kx
fv`ª 1418, AvM÷ 2011
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m¤úv`K
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mn-m¤úv`K
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gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmvb
m¤úv`bv cwil`
dqmvj ivqnvb
ZvInx` cv‡fj
dqmvjyi ingvb
gvn&dzRyj nK RR©
mvweŸn& †nv‡mb i½b
†iRvDi ingvb wi‡qj
mvsMVwbK m¤úv`K
nvmbvr kvnxb, †g‡n`x nvmvb
Gm Gg AwbK Bmjvg
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gywnZ nvmvb, †ZŠwn` Bgvg
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†gvj−v feb (i“g-132/522), mv‡ne evRvi, ivRkvnx
01717513023, 01717125283, 01726314647
shashwatiki@gmail.com shashwatiki.mywibes.com

A¶iweb¨vm I Aj¼iY
†K.Gg. wUcy, ccyjvi wcÖ›U c¨v‡jm, iv.we.
01718-629300

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bvUK, Abyev` I †jvKms¯‹…wZ welqK msL¨vi ci cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi iex›`ªbv_ msL¨v| iex›`ªbv‡_i mva©kZRb¥evwl©Kx Dcj‡¶
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi GB ¶z`ª cÖqvm| iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q KvR Kivi myweav-Amyweav
`yB-B Av‡Q| myweav n‡”Q †jLv msMÖn Ki‡Z Lye †ewk Kó nq bv, GKUz
ai‡jB wj‡L w`‡Z cv‡ib †h †KD| Avi Amyweav n‡”Q gvbm¤§Z †jLv
†c‡Z h‡_ó †eM †cvnv‡Z nq, hviv wjL‡Z cv‡ib Zuviv Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi gZ
†QvUKvMR¸‡jv‡K wjL‡Z Pvb bv—dvD dvD †j‡Lb bv Avi Kx! Avgv‡`i
B”Qv wQj iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q KvR Kivi| †mwU KijvgI| GLb K‡ZvUv
gvbm¤§Z KvR n‡q‡Q †mUv cvVKivB ej‡e| Avgv‡`i gv_vq A‡bK¸‡jv
wPšÍv wQjÑ cÖ_‡g †f‡ewQjvg m¤ú~Y© msL¨vwU n‡e Abyev`wfwËK|
iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q evB‡i †h me Av‡jvPbv n‡q‡Q †m¸‡jv †_‡K evQvB K‡i
wKQy cÖeÜ Abyev` K‡i msL¨vwU Kivi| A‡b‡K `vwqZ¡I wb‡jb wKš‘ †kl
ch©šÍ e¨¯ÍZvi Kvi‡Y Avi cvi‡jb bv| cieZ©x‡Z wVK Kijvg msL¨vwU n‡e
mv¶vrKviwfwËK| welqwfwËK mv¶vrKvi wb‡q mvRv‡bv n‡e msL¨vwU|
G‡¶‡ÎI A‡b‡K `vwqZ¡ wb‡jb e‡U, †kl ch©šÍ Avi cvi‡jb bv, H e¨¯ÍZvi
Kvi‡YB| Kv‡RB, †kl Aewa msL¨vwU n‡q †M‡jv K‡qKwU wbw`©ó cwiKíbvi
wgkªY| †ek K‡qKwU cÖeÜI _vK‡Q eZ©gvb msL¨vq hvi cwiKíbv Avgiv
A‡bKw`b †_‡KB K‡i AvmwQjvg| iex›`ªbv‡_i mva©kZRb¥evwl©Kx Dcj‡¶
ÔKvwj I KjgÕ, Ô†`kÕ, ÔDËivwaKviÕmn wewfbœ cÎ-cwÎKv iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q
we‡kl Av‡qvRb K‡i‡Q, A‡bK cÖeÜ Qvcv n‡q‡Q †mLv‡b| Avgiv Pvw”Qjvg
wfbœ wKQy †nvK| GB msL¨vq †h cÖeܸ‡jv Qvcv n‡jv Zvi me¸‡jvB †h
Z_vKw_Z aviv †_‡K †ei n‡Z †c‡i‡Q—G K_v Avwg ejwQ bv| Z‡e
†ewkifvM Av‡qvRbB †h cvVK‡`i g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y Ki‡e GB e¨vcv‡i
Avwg h‡_ó Avkvev`x|
mv¶vrKvi¸‡jvi K_v Avjv`v K‡i ej‡ZB n‡”Q| G¸‡jv welqwfwËK
nIqvi Kvi‡Y cvVK‡`i Kv‡Q we‡klfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ cv‡e e‡j g‡b KiwQ|
Abyev‡`i wefvMUvI Avjv`vfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ cvevi `vwe`vi| †mB mv‡_
iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm Ô†Pv‡Li evwjÕ I ÔPZzi½Õ wb‡q wbwg©Z Pjw”P‡Îi mv‡_
Dcb¨v‡mi Zzjbvg~jK Av‡jvPbv `yÕwU †ek wfbœ †gRv‡Ri n‡q‡Q, †m K_v
ej‡ZB n‡”Q| mewgwj‡q P~ovšÍ mgv‡jvPbvi KvRUv cvVK‡`i Ic‡iB †Q‡o
w`jvg| wb‡qvwgZ wefv‡M †ek K‡qKwU eB‡qi Av‡jvPbv cÖKvwkZ n‡jv|
Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb †ek K‡qKRb Zi“Y, D`xqgvb †jLK|
m‡e©vcwi wKQy mxgve×Zv ¯^xKvi K‡iB cvVK‡`i nv‡Z Zz‡j w`w”Q
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi eZ©gvb msL¨vwU|

wewbgq t 60 (lvU) UvKv gvÎ
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m~wPcÎ
welqwfwËK mv¶vrKvi
Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : c~e©e‡½ iex›`ªbv_ /08
Ave`yk kvKzi : wPšÍvwe` iex›`ªbv_ I Ab¨vb¨ cÖm½ /26
nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : Avgvi iex›`ªbv_ /41
RyjwdKvi gwZb : mvwnwZ¨K iex›`ªbv_ /53
Abyev` mv¶vrKvi
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi
AvBb÷vBb, †ivguv †ivjuv I GBPwR I‡qjm /137
Abyev` : bvwRe Iqv`y`
cÖeÜ
Ave`yi iDd †PŠayix
wPi-b~Z‡b‡i w`‡jv WvK, cuwP‡k ˆekvL /62
†gvt nvi“b-Ai-ikx`
iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶vwPš—v : wk¶vwPš—vq iex›`ªbv_ /75
gjq ivq‡PŠayix
iweVvKzi Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z wbwl× wQ‡jb /87
gvmy` ingvb
iex›`ªbv‡_i A_©fvebv : ZvwË¡K ch©vq /92
Avngv` gvhnvi
Avgv‡`i `ytmg‡qi I †i‡bmuv‡mi iex›`ªbv_ /97
Kzj`v ivq I GgGgAvi Rvjvj
XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv Ges iex›`ªbv_ /102
kvk¦wZKx-5

Abyev` cÖeÜ
†gvnv¤§` G. KvBqyg
KwíZ ÔGK wek¦Õ : iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi weiwPZ ... /109
Abyev` : gxi IqvjxD¾vgvb
Kj¨vY KzÊy
gy‡mvwjwb I iex›`ªbv_ /123
Abyev` : ivZzj cvj
AvjdIb‡hv kvn&‡Kvb
we¯§„Z wkjv : iex›`ªbv_ I j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKv cÖm½ /130
Abyev` : wnkvg g. bv‡Ri
wbqwgZ wefvM : Pjw”PÎ
†iRvDj Kwig wmwÏKx
†Pv‡Li evwj : iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm I FZzc‡Y©i Pjw”PÎ /148
AwgZvf bvM
PZzi½ wel‡q cuvPwU K_v /158
wbqwgZ wefvM : eyK wiwfD
†g‡n`x Avãyjv− n
evwjKvg½j : myß ¯§„wZi e¨³ K_v /162
gwkDi ingvb
†RvQbvq cy‡owQj hviv : ¶‡q hvIqv ¯^‡cœi AvL¨vb /163
wZZygxi Flf
wØav : ïׯ^‡i cwic−Z
y Rxe‡bi kãvejx /166
†ZŠwn` Bgvg
Awbe©vY B›`ªaŸwb : ¯^cœhš¿Yv A_ev e„wói ˆbtk㨠/170
m`¨mgy¾¡j
g‡š¿ bv‡g bv wel : bvg gvnvZ¥¨ /171
¯^wPË ¯^wPe
Amgvß A‡c¶v : GKwU nuvwU nuvwU cv cvÕi †ivWg¨vc /172
†Lvjv wPwV /175
kvk¦wZKx-6

Ôiex›`ªbv‡_i A‡bK weL¨vZ †jLvi Rb¥B GB c~e©e½ f~L‡ÊÕ

c~e©e‡½ iex›`ªbv_ cÖm‡½ Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix
welqwfwËK mv¶vrKvi (08-60)

W±i Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix g~jZ cÖvewÜK I M‡elK|
mgvRgb¯‹ I HwZn¨mÜvbx| Zuvi PP©vi I M‡elYvi welq
†dvK‡jvi, Dwbk kZ‡Ki mgvR I mvwnZ¨-e¨w³Z¡,
mvgwqKcÎ, AvaywbK mvwnZ¨ I AvÂwjK BwZnvm|
AbymwÜrmy GB M‡elK mvwn‡Z¨i bvbv `y®cÖvc¨ I wejyßcÖvq
DcKiY msMÖn-D×vi K‡i e¨envi K‡i‡Qb|
W±i †PŠayixi Rb¥ Kzwóqvi gRgcy‡i, 13 Rvbyqvwi 1953|
XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi evsjv wefvM †_‡K weG I GgG wWwMÖ
Ges wcGBPwW Dcvwa AR©b K‡ib| cÖvq ewÎk eQi
Aa¨vcbv-†ckvq hy³|
†`k I we‡`k †_‡K cÖKvwkZ Zuvi MÖ‡š’i msL¨v 70-Gi Dc‡i| iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© Zuvi
MÖš’vewj : Ôiex›`ªbv_ I wkjvB`nÕ (1990), Ôiex›`ªbv‡_i AcÖKvwkZ cÎvewjÕ
(2000), Ôiex›`ªbv_-msM„nxZ jvj‡bi Mv‡bi cvÊywjwc (2009), Ôiex›`ªbv_ I jvjbÕ
(2011), Ôiex›`ªbv_ I †jvKms¯‹…wZÕ (2011), Ôiex›`ªbv_, eyw×i gyw³i Av‡›`vjb I
Ab¨vb¨ cÖm½Õ| W±i Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix †`k I we‡`k †_‡K †hme m¤§vbbv¯^xK…wZ-cyi¯‹vi †c‡q‡Qb Zvi g‡a¨ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ : Ôjvjb cyi¯‹viÕ (cwðge½ ivR¨
jvjb †gjv mwgwZ, 2000), Ôe½xq mvwnZ¨ cwil` cyi¯‹viÕ (2009), Ôevsjv GKv‡Wgx
mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹viÕ (2009)|

10 AvM÷ 2011 ZvwiL ivZ 9Uvi mgq Kywóqvq m¨v‡ii evmfe‡b e‡m
mv¶vrKviwU MÖnY Kwi| Ñ †gvRvd&di †nv‡mb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : m¨vi, Avcwb †Kgb Av‡Qb?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : bv, Avgvi kixiUv †Zgb fv‡jv †bB, Avi †mB m‡½ Kv‡Ri
PvcI Lye †ewk| C` msL¨vi †jLv—KjKvZvi `y-GKwU cwÎKvi kvi`xqv msL¨vi
†jLv wb‡q e¨¯— AvwQ| A‡bK¸‡jv eB‡qi KvRI Gi duv‡K duv‡K Ki‡Z n‡”Q|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avwg AvR g~jZ Avcbvi Kv‡Q G‡mwQ Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi
iex›`ªmsL¨vi R‡b¨ K_v ej‡Z| Avgv‡`i Av‡jvPbvi welq Ôiex›`ªbv_ I c~ee© ½Õ|
ïi“‡ZB c~ee© ‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i Ae¯’vb m¤ú‡K© Avcbvi Kv‡Q Rvb‡Z Pvw”Qjvg|
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : c~ee© ½Ñ hv AvR‡Ki evsjv‡`kÑ GB f~L‡Êi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i
Nwbô †hvMv‡hvM I m¤úK© wQj| Zuvi c~e©ciy “‡li wbevmI wQj GB c~ee© ‡½B| Ges ïay
iex›`ªbv‡_i g„Yvwjbx bq, c~ee© ‡½i h‡kvi-Lyjbv †_‡K Av‡iv †KD †KD †Rvovmuv‡Kvi
VvKzi-cwiev‡i ea~ wn‡m‡e †M‡Qb| †h‡nZz Zuviv wcivwj eªvþY wQ‡jb †mB Kvi‡Y wcivwj
eªvþY cwiev‡iB GKmgq Zuv‡`i we‡qÑ_v A‡bKUvB mxgve× wQj, Aek¨ c‡i †mB
wbqg e`‡j‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ c~ee© ‡½ G‡mwQ‡jb Rwg`vwii KvR †`Lvïbvi R‡b¨| Zuvi
kvk¦wZKx-7

kvk¦wZKx-8

evev †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKzi iex›`ªbv_ †h Lye Kv‡Ri gvbyl G K_v nq‡Zv fve‡Zb bv| GB
KweZv-Mvb †j‡Lb, mvwnZ¨PP©v K‡ib, Zuvi ev¯—eeyyw× wKsev ˆelwqK eyw×i cÖwZ Lye †h
Av¯’v †`‡e›`ªbv‡_i wQj Zv ejv hvq bv| wKš‘ Rwg`vwi †`Lvïbvi †jvK †Zv `iKvi!
VvKzi‡`i Rwg`vwi Qwo‡q-wQwU‡q wQj| c~e©e‡½ †hgb wQj, Dwol¨v‡ZI wKQy wQj|
c~e©e‡½i Rwg`vwii †`Lfvj ØviKvbv_ VvKzi wb‡RI GKmgq K‡i‡QbÑ †m G‡Kev‡i
†Mvovi w`‡Ki K_v| Zuvi nv‡ZB Gme Rwg`vwi-m¤úwË †Kbv| c‡i †`‡e›`ªbv_ wb‡R
†`Lvïbv K‡i‡Qb Ges Zuvi eo †Q‡j w؇R›`ªbv_ VvKziI G A‡jiÑ we‡kl K‡i
mvRv`cy‡ii Rwg`vwi †`Lvïbv K‡i‡Qb| Ab¨ †Q‡j‡`i g‡a¨ †R¨vwZwi›`ªbv_ VvKy‡ii
GKUv fv‡jv †hvMv‡hvM wQj wkjvB`n A‡ji m‡½| w؇R›`ªbv_ cvebvi cÖRv-we‡`ªv‡ni
mgq Lye fv‡jv f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib wb, GUv 1873 w`‡Ki K_v, wmivRM‡Äi mvRv`cyi
A‡j †h K…lK-we‡`ªvn n‡qwQj Zv `g‡bi R‡b¨ VvKzi-Rwg`v‡iiv h‡_ó Rei-Ryjyg I
bvbv K~U-†KŠkjI LvwU‡qwQ‡jb| Avjv‡fvjv w؇R›`ªbv_ cÖRvcxo‡b †h K‡Zv `o n‡Z
cv‡ib Ñ KvOvj nwibv‡_i AcÖKvwkZ Wv‡qwi I ÔMÖvgevË©v cÖKvwkKvÕi cvZvq Zvi bgybv
Qwo‡q Av‡Q| Gi cÖvq †`o hyM c‡i iex›`ªbv_ hLb G‡jb ZLb cÖRv‡`i g‡a¨ ZZUv
Am‡š—vl Avi wQj bv| †Kbbv wKQy wKQy AvBb Rvwii d‡j cÖRv¯^v_© i¶v Avi Rwg`v‡ii
j¤^v nvZ wKQyUv Lv‡Uv n‡qwQj| Z‡e †kvlY-cxob †h G‡Kev‡i D‡V wM‡qwQj †m-K_v
ejv hv‡e bv Ñ bvbv m~² †KŠk‡j cÖRv-R‡ãi e¨e¯’v Pj‡Zv| Avi †mBm‡½ ivqZ-cÖRvi
cÖwZ Ae‡njvÑ Zz”Q-Zvw”Q‡j¨i fve GKUv †_‡KB wM‡qwQj| iex›`ªbv_ wkjvB`‡n G‡m
cÖ_g †mwU `~i Ki‡jb| Rwg`vi‡`i eQ‡i LvRbv Av`v‡qi †h Abyôvb Zv‡K cyY¨vn ejv
n‡Zv| †mB cyY¨v‡n A_ev `iev‡i cÖRviv G‡m Zv‡`i LvRbv †hgb w`‡Zb, Zv‡`i
Av‡e`b-wb‡e`b `vwe-`vIqv Ñ G¸‡jvI †ck Ki‡Zb| wKš—y cÖRv‡`i Avmbe¨e¯’v wQj
Amg| iex›`ªbv_ GB Avmb-ˆelg¨ `~i K‡ib| wZwb mevi R‡b¨ GK Avm‡bi e¨e¯’v
K‡ib| c~e©e‡½ Zuv‡`i Rwg`vwi wQj wkjvB`n, mvRv`cyi Ges cwZm‡i| wkjvB`n wQj
GB wZb Rwg`vwii m`i `ßi Ges iex›`ªbv_ wkjvB`‡nB †ewk mgq †_‡K‡Qb| Zuvi †h
mvwnZ¨m„wó Zvi GKUv e‡ov AskB wkjvB`‡n iwPZ| mvRv`cyi wZwb †M‡Qb, ILv‡bI
wZwb wj‡L‡QbÑ GB †h Ô†cvógv÷viÕ-Gi g‡Zv †QvUMí| cwZm‡i †jLv‡jwLi KvRUv
ZZ nqwb, GB `yB RvqMvi Zzjbvq| Zvi `ywU KviY, GK n‡”Q cwZm‡i wZwb ZZ NbNb
†h‡Z cv‡ib wb ev †ewk mgq a‡i _v‡KbI wb| Avi †h mgqUzKz wZwb †_‡K‡Qb cj−xDbœq‡bi Kv‡RB e¨q K‡i‡Qb| wKš—y ZvB e‡j †h wZwb cwZm‡i wKQzB †j‡Lb wb ev
†mLv‡b mvwnZ¨PP©v †_‡K G‡Kev‡i `~‡i wQ‡jb, Zv †Zv bq| †hLv‡bB †M‡Qb wZwb,
†jLvi KvR †_‡g _v‡K wb| wkjvB`‡n G‡mI Zuvi Rwg`vwi Ges Avmgvb`vwi GKB
m‡½ P‡j‡Q| GB wZb RvqMv‡Z wZwb eûevi G‡m‡QbÑ we‡kl K‡i wkjvB`‡n| Ges
GB wkjvB`n m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv‡_i GKUv we‡kl AvKl©Y I `ye©jZv wQj| wkjvB`‡ni
K_v bvbv cªm‡½ wZwb e‡j‡Qb| cÙv, hv wkjvB`‡ni cvk w`‡q e‡q P‡j‡QÑ †mB cÙv
iex›`ªbv_‡K Mfxifv‡e Uvb‡Zv| ÔwQbœcÎÕi GK wPwV‡Z wZwb wj‡L‡Qb †h, B‡›`ªi evnb
†hgb HiveZ †Zgwb Zuvi evnb cÙv| evDjM‡elK I Ôevsjvi evDj I evDj MvbÕ-Gi
eB‡qi †jLK D‡c›`ªbv_ fÆvPvh© Ges iex›`ªbv‡_i Rwg`vwi Rxeb wb‡q whwb A‡bK¸‡jv
eB wj‡L‡QbÑ †mB kPx›`ªbv_ AwaKvix wkjvB`‡niB gvbyl Avi D‡c›`ªbv_
nwibvivqYcy‡ii †jvKÑ GKmgq Kzwóqv nvB¯‹z‡ji wk¶K wQ‡jbÑ Guiv hLb 1940

mv‡j wbwLj e½ cj−xmvwnZ¨ m‡¤§j‡bi Av‡qvRb K‡ib wkjvB`‡n, ZLb Zuviv
iex›`ªbv_‡K Avgš¿Y Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb| Zuvi c‡¶ ZLb Avmv m¤¢e wQj bv eq‡mi Kvi‡Y|
Dwb fvwi my›`i GKwU wPwV wj‡LwQ‡jb, Zuvi K_vUv wQj A‡bKUv GiKg †h,
cÙvcÖevnPzw¤^Z GB wkjvB`n cj−x‡ZB Zuvi mvwnZ¨-im-mvabvi Zx_©‡K›`ª wQj| AvR
Avi Zuvi hvÎvcÎ †mLv‡b myMg bq, wKš—y †mB cy‡iv‡bv ¯§„wZ Zuvi g‡b Agwjb n‡q
Av‡Q| GB myev‡` wZwb wkjvB`nevmx‡K Zuvi g‡bi †mB K_vwU Rvbv‡Z Pvb| GB wPwV
†_‡KB †evSv hvq †h wkjvB`‡ni m‡½ Zuvi m¤úK© †Kgb gayi wQj! Avi iex›`ªbv‡_i
cyÎ i_x›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zuvi ¯§„wZPP©vq fvwi my›`i K‡i e‡j‡Qb †h, wkjvB`‡n G‡mB
iex›`ªbv‡_i M`¨c`¨ `yB ai‡bi †jLvi nvZB †hb Ly‡j wM‡qwQj, Ggb Avi †Kv_vI
nqwb| wkjvB`‡ni ¯§„wZ iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡bi wfZ‡i Ggb Mfxifv‡e wg‡k wM‡qwQj †h
†klRxe‡b wZwb hLb kvwš—wb‡KZ‡b ZLb GKwU KweZv wjL‡jb ILvbKvi †KvcvB
b`x‡K wb‡qÑ †h b`xwU kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi cvk w`‡q e‡q P‡j‡Q, ¶xY‡mªvZv b`x| KweZv
wjL‡Qb †KvcvB‡K wb‡q, KweZvq †KvcvB‡qi K_v ej‡Z ej‡Z nVvr wZwb †h‡bv
Avbg‡b e‡j †dj‡jb cÙvi K_v| A‡bKUv GB iKg, ÔcÙv †Kv_vq P‡j‡Q GKv GKv/
g‡b g‡b †`wL Zv‡KÕ| b`x‡K wb‡qB KweZv, wKš—y †mB KweZv cÙv‡K wb‡q bq
†KvcvB‡K wb‡q, wKš—y †KvcvB‡qi K_v ej‡Z wM‡q Zuvi g‡b n‡q‡Q, b`x gv‡bB †Zv
cÙvÑ Zuvi †mB †hŠe‡bi cÙv, Zuvi †mB fv‡jvevmvi cÙv| G‡Z †evSv hvq †h GB AÂj
Zuv‡K K‡Zv Mfxifv‡e gy» Ges cÖvwYZ K‡iwQj| Avi c~ee© ‡½i Ab¨ A‡bK RvqMvq
wZwb †M‡QbÑ wKš—y †mme hvIqv, Abyôv‡b-Avgš¿‡Y hvIqv, wVK Ggb gb Ly‡j, †PvL
Ly‡j gvbyl Ges cÖKw… Z‡K †`Lvi R‡b¨ hvIqv bq| XvKv, bvivqYMÄ, Kzwgj−v, wm‡jUmn
AviI †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv RvqMvq wZwb †M‡Qb Ges cwZm‡ii m~‡Î ivRkvnx AÂjI Zuvi
†Nviv n‡q‡Q| ZvB †`Lv hv‡”Q, c~e©e‡½i m‡½ iex›`ªbv_ bvbvfv‡e Rwo‡q Av‡Qb Ges
hw` iex›`ªbv_ c~ee© ‡½ bv Avm‡Zb Zvn‡j iex›`ª-mvwn‡Z¨i iƒcUv †Kgb n‡Zv, iex›`ªbv_
hv n‡q D‡VwQ‡jb Zv wZwb n‡q DV‡Z cvi‡Zb wKbv Ggb cÖkœ KviI KviI g‡b
RvM‡ZB cv‡i| GB cÖ‡kœi Reve wKQzUv †`Iqvi †Póv K‡i‡Qb W. `ymvb Rvwf‡Uj| Bwb
†mB Awef³ †P‡Kv‡¯−vfvwKqvi cÖvM& wek¦we`¨vj‡q fviZZ‡Ë¡i Aa¨vcK wQ‡jb Ges
Avgv‡`i gqgbwmsn MxwZKv wb‡q M‡elYv K‡i‡Qb| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb, iex›`ªbv_ hw`
c~e©e‡½ bv Avm‡Zb, we‡kl K‡i wkjvB`‡nÑ Zvn‡j wZwb gvbyl Ges Kwe wn‡m‡e hv
n‡q D‡VwQ‡jb Zv n‡q DV‡Z cvi‡Zb bv| GB gš—‡e¨i †fZi w`‡qI Avgiv eywS †h
iex›`ªbv‡_i mvwn‡Z¨PP©vi R‡b¨, RbRxe‡bi m‡½ Mfxifv‡e m¤úK© iPbvi R‡b¨ c~ee© ‡½
Avmvi Lye cÖ‡qvRb wQj| iex›`ªbv‡_i Rb¥ n‡qwQj KjKvZvi kû‡i cwi‡e‡k| MÖv‡gi
m‡½ AšÍi½ cwiPq Zuvi †Kv‡bvKv‡jB n‡Zv bv Rwg`vwi †`Lvi my‡hvM bv †c‡j, nq‡Zv
cvwLi †PvL w`‡q MÖvg‡K †`L‡Z n‡Zv| wkjvB`‡n wZwb Av‡MI G‡m‡Qb—GK`g
†Q‡j‡ejvq| †mB md‡ii ¯§„wZ Zuvi KweZvq Av‡Q, Zuvi Ô†Q‡j‡ejvÕi ¯§„wZPviYvq
wek¦bv_ wkKvixi evNwkKv‡ii Mí ïwb‡q‡Qb| wKš—y †mme †Zv `~i †_‡K †`Lv, G‡Kev‡i
Mfxifv‡e wg‡k †Zv bq| wZwb †hgb wkjvB`‡n-cwZm‡i G‡m gy», cvkvcvwk †Zgwb
e¨w_ZI n‡q‡Qb| gy» n‡q‡Qb Gi b`x Ges MªvgxY cÖK…wZi †h †mŠ›`h© Zvi Kvi‡Y, Avi
e¨w_Z n‡q‡Qb †h Zuvi cªRvivÑ MÖv‡gi gvbylRb, `yt‡L-K‡ó Zv‡`i Rxeb P‡j Ges †mB
Rxe‡b Avb›` †bB, myL †bB, weKwkZ nIqvi †Kv‡bv DcvqI †bB| GB e¨vcvi¸‡jv

kvk¦wZKx-9

kvk¦wZKx-10

iex›`ªbv_‡K fvwi cxov w`‡q‡Q Ges wZwb Zuvi KweZvq GBme g~p-¤−vb-gyK gy‡L fvlv
w`‡Z †P‡q‡Qb Ges Avkv K‡i‡QbÑ Ô†m Kwei evYx jvwM Kvb †c‡Z AvwQ, †h Av‡Q
gvwUi KvQvKvwQÕ| iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi wb‡Ri mxgve×Zv eyS‡Zb| wZwb Mªv‡gi gvbyl‡K
†`L‡jI Zv‡`i m‡½ GKvZ¥ n‡q Mfxifv‡e wg‡k Zv‡`i Rxebhvc‡bi AwfÁZv jvf
Zv †Zv cy‡ivcywi m¤¢e nqwb| †m R‡b¨ Zuvi mvwn‡Z¨ MÖv‡gi K_v Av‡Q, Mªv‡gi gvby‡li
K_v Av‡Q, Zv‡`i myL`yt‡Li K_v Av‡QÑ wKš—y †hfv‡e, Rvwb bv GB Zzjbv wVK nq wK
bv, Zvivk¼i ev gvwbK e‡›`¨vcva¨vq MÖvgxY `vwi`ª¨‡K Rxeb †Qu‡K Zz‡j G‡bwQ‡jb,
K‡Vvi-KwVb Rxeb-ev¯ÍeZv I Rxeb-ˆewP‡Î¨i Qwe Gu‡KwQ‡jb, †mfv‡e iex›`ªbv_ cv‡ib
wb| Z‡e c~e©e½ Zuv‡K Mfxifv‡e gy» Ges AbycÖvwYZ K‡iwQj| wkjvB`n A‡j huviv
evDjmsMx‡Zi c`KZ©v ev mvaK wQ‡jb, Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ g~jZ bvg Ki‡Z nq jvjb
dwK‡ii Ges MMb niKivi| jvjb‡K wZwb †`‡LwQ‡jb wK †`‡Lb wb †m wb‡q †Nvi ZK©
Av‡Q gZ‡f` Av‡Q, wKš—y MMb‡K wZwb Lye KvQ †_‡K †`‡L‡Qb Ges Kv‡Q ewm‡q Zuvi
m‡½ K_v e‡j‡Qb, Zuvi Mvb ï‡b‡Qb| MMb wQ‡jb wkjvB`n WvKN‡ii niKiv|
kPx›`ªbv_ AwaKvix Rvwb‡q‡QbÑ iex›`ªbv_ †Zv †ewki fvM mg‡qB cÙvq †ev‡U
_vK‡Zb| Zuvi Kv‡Q MMb niKivi Avmv-hvIqvi †Kv‡bv mgq-Amgq wQj bv| nq‡Zv
Ab¨ †jv‡Ki R‡b¨ GKUv wbw`©ó mgq _vK‡Zv †`Lv Kivi, wKš—y MM‡bi †ejvq †mB iKg
†Kv‡bv euvavaiv mgq wQj bv| †mB MM‡bi `ivR Mjvi giwg Mvb iex›`ªbv_ gy» n‡q
ïb‡Zb| MMb †h ïay wb‡Ri MvbB MvB‡Zb Zv bq, wZwb jvj‡bi Mvb MvB‡Zb, Ab¨
gnr-gnvR‡bi MvbI Ki‡Zb| iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡b †Mu‡_ wM‡qwQj Hme MvbÑ †mme K_v
Avgiv nq‡Zv c‡i wKQy wKQy ejvi my‡hvM cv‡ev|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Rwg`vi wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv_ †Kgb wQ‡jb?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : Avwg †Zv Av‡MB e‡jwQ †h, VvKzi-Rwg`vi‡`i wKQzUv wb‡›`
wQj `yÕcyi“l Av‡M, ØviKvbv_ I †`‡e›`ªbv‡_i mg‡q| cÖRvwbh©vZ‡bi Awf‡hvM wQj
Ges Gme K_v KvOvj nwibv_ gRyg`vi Zuvi AcÖKvwkZ Wv‡qwi‡Z †hgb wj‡L‡Qb
†Zgwb Zuvi cwÎKv ÔMÖvgevË©v cÖKvwkKvÕ‡ZI wbf©‡q cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| †mB Kvi‡Y
KvOvj‡K Gu‡`i †¶v‡fi gy‡L co‡Z nq Ges Rwg`v‡iiv †jvKj¯‹i-jvwVqvj cvwV‡q
Zuv‡K bvbvfv‡e kv‡q¯—vi †PóvI K‡ib| †mLv‡b G‡m cÖwZ‡iva M‡o †Zv‡jb jvjb
dwKi, GKZviv †d‡j Zuvi wkl¨-kveK‡`i wb‡q jvwV nv‡Z KvOvj nwibv_‡K i¶v
K‡ib| †Zv VvKzi Rwg`vi‡`i GKmgq GBiKg Ryjygev‡Ri f~wgKv wQj| Z‡e ïay
VvKzi-Rwg`vi †K‡bv, †Kv‡bv Rwg`viB AZ¨vPvi bv K‡i ivR¯^ Av`vq K‡i‡Qb Ges
bZzb bZzb Ki Zviv A‡nZzK A‡hŠw³K fv‡e Av‡ivc K‡ib wbÑ Ggb NUbv nq‡Zv
AwZ weij| LvRbv w`‡Z bv cvivq wKsev Aeva¨ nIqvq jvwVqvj cvwV‡q Ni‡K Ni
R¡vwj‡q †`Iqv n‡q‡QÑ Mwie gvbyl¸‡jv G‡Kev‡i wbt¯^ n‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ AZ¨š—
ms‡e`bkxj wQ‡jb Ges Zuvi g‡a¨ GKUv Mfxi gvbeZv I ggZ¡‡eva KvR Ki‡Zv|
wZwb MÖvgxY gvby‡li myL-`yt‡Li m‡½ A‡bKLvwb cwiwPZ n‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| †mB
Kvi‡Y wZwb bvbvfv‡e †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb †h cÖRvcxob hv‡Z bv nq| Zuvi AvšÍwiK wPšÍv
I †Póv wQj cÖRvi g½j wK‡m nq, cÖRviv wK‡m my‡L _v‡K| Mwie MÖvg¸‡jv, iex›`ªbv_
wb‡R e‡j‡Qb, †hb g‡i †M‡Q| †mB k¥kv‡bi g‡Zv MÖvg¸‡jv‡K wZwb RvMv‡Z
†P‡q‡Qb| wKfv‡e RvMv‡bv hvqÑ wZwb †mLv‡b †gjvi Av‡qvRb K‡i‡Qb Ges †mLv‡b

¯^‡`kx hvÎv †_‡K ïi“ K‡i MÖvgxY †gjvi me DcKi‡YiB e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Qb| wZwb
A‡bKeviB wkjvB`‡n †gjv ewm‡q‡Qb| KzwUiwk‡íi cÖ`k©bx †hgb, †Zgwb MvbevRbvI n‡Zv †mLv‡b, KxZ©b n‡Zv †mLv‡b, evDjMvb n‡Zv, KweMvb n‡ZvÑ GBfv‡e
iex›`ªbv_ MÖvg¸‡jv‡K RvMv‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb| wb®cÖvY, wbR©xe MÖv‡gi gvbyl¸‡jv‡K wZwb
Avb›` w`‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb Ges A‰bK¨ NywP‡q wZwb Zv‡`i‡K GK mvwi‡Z Zz‡j aivi
†Póv K‡iwQ‡jb| jvjb-MMb †Zv wQ‡jbBÑ GB †h †LvKmvi wkey KxZ©wbqv, †mB
KxZ©wbqv‡KI wZwb h‡_ó mgv`i K‡i‡Qb| iex›`ªbv‡_i mg‡q G‡m wbtm‡›`‡n ejv
hvq, †mB cy‡iv‡bv †kvlY-cxo‡bi K‡ói †h BwZnvm cÖRviv Zv fyj‡Z †c‡iwQj|
iex›`ªbv_ †Kgb Rwg`vi wQ‡jb G m¤ú‡K© GKwU weeiY †g‡j 1916 mv‡ji ivRkvnx
wWw÷ª± †M‡RwUqv‡i| m¤¢eZ GB †M‡RwUqv‡ii msKjK wQ‡jb IÕg¨vwj, †mLv‡b
Rwg`vi wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i K…wZ‡Z¡i K_v, Zuvi Rwg`vwi cwiPvjbvi Avjv`v iK‡gi
c×wZi K_v e‡j Zuvi cÖksmv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Avi mgKvjxb mv¶¨ †_‡K †Zv †ek
fv‡jvB †evSv hvq †h iex›`ªbv‡_i mg‡q wZwb Rwg`vwi e¨e¯’vq GKUv e‡ov iK‡gi
cwieZ©b G‡bwQ‡jb, Zv bv n‡j Zuvi wK‡mi `vq †V‡K‡Q †h †bv‡ej cyi¯‹v‡ii me
UvKv wZwb GB MÖv‡gi Mwie K…lK-cÖRvi R‡b¨ LiP Ki‡eb? Zv‡`i R‡b¨ e¨vsK ˆZwi
Ki‡eb? iex›`ªbv_ ivwkqvq wM‡q †mLvbKvi K…wlwec−e Ges K…wlc×wZ †`‡L Lye
AbycvÖ wYZ nb| ivwkqvi †h KwgDb cÖ_vÑ wZwb †f‡ewQ‡jb Ggb c×wZ hw` Avgv‡`i
†`‡k Pvjy Kiv hvq Zvn‡j nq‡Zv Avgv‡`i †`‡ki K…l‡Kiv AviI DbœZ n‡Z cvi‡e,
AviI mg„× n‡Z cvi‡e| wKš—y GwU wew”Qbœfv‡e wbix¶v Kivi †Kv‡bv welq bq| ivóª
hw` G e¨vcv‡i GwM‡q bv Av‡m, †Kej †QvÆ GKwU Rwg`vwi GjvKvq GUv Kiv m¤¢e
bv, Avi †mLv‡b †Zv ïay Rwg`v‡iiB Rwg‡Z ¯^Z¡ †bB, wKQz e¨w³¯^Z¡I †Zv Av‡Q|
ZvB iex›`ªbv_ cv‡ib wb, Kiv m¤¢e nq wb| wKš—y Zuvi gv_vq G e¨vcvi¸‡jv G‡mwQj|
wZwb K…lK‡`i fv‡jvi R‡b¨ †Póv K‡i‡Qb| †mB †Póvi dj †h Lye cvIqv †M‡Q Zv
bq, wKš—y †Póv AvšÍwiKfv‡eB K‡i‡Qb| †hgb, Zuvi †Q‡j Avi RvgvB‡K Av‡gwiKvq
K…wlwe`¨v †kLvi R‡b¨ cvwV‡qwQ‡jb| i_x›`ªbv_ hLb wd‡i G‡jb ZLb wkjvB`‡n
Zuvi R‡b¨ GKUv K…wlLvgvi K‡i †`Iqv n‡jv, AvjyPv‡li e¨e¯’v Ki‡jb, GgbwK
ivRkvnxi †h †ikg †mB †ikgPv‡li R‡b¨I iex›`ªbv‡_i GKUv AvMÖn R‡b¥wQj
A¶qKzgvi ˆg‡Îq-Gi †mŠR‡b¨| wZwb wQ‡jb iex›`ªbv‡_i eÜz| Zuvi Avmj evwo †Zv
Kzwóqvi KzgviLvwj‡Z, nwibv‡_i wkl¨ wQ‡jb, IKvjwZ Ki‡Zb ivRkvnx‡ZÑ e‡i›`ª
wimvP© wgDwRqg cÖwZôv‡Z Zuvi f~wgKv wQj| wZwb wKQy ¸wU‡cvKv wb‡q G‡mwQ‡jb
wkjvB`‡n| j‡iÝ mv‡ne iex›`ªbv‡_i †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i M„nwk¶K wQ‡jb| wZwbI Lye
†g‡Z wQ‡jb †ikgPv‡li R‡b¨, wKš‘ nqwb| †mB mg‡q Kwe-bvU¨Kvi w؇R›`ªjvj
iv‡qi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i Lye fve wQj| wW.Gj. ivq K…wlwefv‡M wQ‡jbÑ wZwbI
bvbvfv‡e civgk© w`‡q‡Qb K„wli DbœwZi e¨vcv‡i| †h †PóvUv iex›`ªbv_ GLv‡b ïi“
K‡iwQ‡jb Zvi dj cy‡ivcywi cvb wb, Zv wZwb †klI Ki‡Z cv‡ib wb|
kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡bi kªxwb‡KZ‡b wKQyUv mv_©K n‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : bxi`P›`ª †PŠayix e‡j‡Qb, Ôiex›`ªbv‡_i g‡b ¯^v‡`wkKZv I
wn›`yZ¡ wbweofv‡e mswk−ó wQjÕ| ZvB hw` nq, Z‡e Rvb‡Z B‡”Q Ki‡Q, gymjgvb
cÖRv‡`i m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i m¤úK© †Kgb wQj?

kvk¦wZKx-11

kvk¦wZKx-12

•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : bxi`P›`ª †PŠayixi K_vwU GK A‡_© †ewVK bq| hLb
Av`gïgvwi nq iex›`ªbv_ ZLb Zuvi agx©q cwiPq wn›`yB wjwL‡qwQ‡jb Ñ Avi m¤cÖ`vq
wn‡m‡e eªvþ| wKš—y g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e †KD hw` wb‡Ri ag©cvj‡b wbôvevb nb Zvn‡j
Zuv‡K mv¤cÖ`vwqK ejv hv‡e bv hZ¶Y ch©š— bv wZwb Ab¨ a‡g©i gvby‡li cÖwZ we‡Øl
†cvlY Ki‡eb| iex›`ªbv_ AvPvwiK ag© wb‡q Lye gv_v Nvgv‡Zb e‡j g‡b nq bv| wZwb
cÖvwZôvwbK ag©‡K KZLvwb gvb¨ Ki‡Zb, KZUzKz ¯^xKvi Ki‡Zb, KZUzKz Zuvi Rxe‡b
cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q †m¸‡jv wfbœ Av‡jvPbvi welq| wn›`y‡Z¡i AnsKvi Kx DbœvwmK cwÊZ
bxi` †PŠayixi Kg wQj? RvwZMZ e¨w³we‡Ø‡li cwiPq Zuvi †jLvq †Zv cÖ”Qbœ bqÑ
mivmwiB cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| †gvwnZjvj-mRbx `v‡mi †Pjv I †`vmi wn‡m‡e Ôkwbev‡ii
wPwVÕi Ab¨Zg eiK›`vR wQ‡jb wZwb| ZvB GLv‡b, bxi` †PŠayixi K_v w`‡q cÖkœwU
Kivi †Kv‡bv cÖ‡qvRb †bB, mivmwiB cÖkœwU GBfv‡e Avm‡Z cv‡i| Avi hw`
iex›`ªbv‡_i ¯^v‡`wkKZvi m‡½ wn›`yZ¡ wbweofv‡e wg‡kI _v‡K bxi`P‡›`ªi K_v g‡Zv,
Zvn‡jI wKQz hvq Av‡m bv| †Kbbv Zvi welev‡¯ú `~wlZ nqwb mvgvwRK cwi‡ek|
gymjgvb cÖRv‡`i m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i m¤úK© wQj AZ¨š— wbweo-Mfxi-AvwZ¥K|
wkjvB`‡ni P‡ii Aeva¨ cÖRv‡`i †ewki fvMB wQj gymjgvb| Giv LvRbv w`‡Z
PvB‡Zv bv, bvbvfv‡e mgm¨vi m„wó Ki‡Zv| wKš—y iex›`ªbv_ G‡`i‡K ek K‡iwQ‡jb
jvwVqvj cvwV‡q bq, Zuvi fv‡jvevmv w`‡q, ggZv-mnvbyf~wZ w`‡q| G‡`i G‡ZvUvB ek
K‡iwQ‡jb †h hLb wkjvB`‡ni Rwg`vwi iex›`ªbv‡_i nvZQvov n‡q †M‡Q, bZzb gvwjK
Zuvi fvB‡cv my‡i›`ªbv_ VvKziÑ iex›`ªbv_‡K Avm‡Z n‡jv P‡ii cÖRviv Avevi we‡`ªvnx
n‡q‡Q e‡j| P‡ii cÖRv gv‡b gymjgvb cÖRv Avi wK! iex›`ªbv_ 1922 mv‡j †klev‡ii
gZb G‡jb GB P‡ii cÖRv‡`i g‡bi-g‡Zi cwieZ©b NUv‡bvi R‡b¨| Zv‡`i †h
Am‡š—vl, Zviv †h Rwg`vi‡K gvb‡Z Pv‡”Q bv ev my‡ib VvKz‡ii m‡½ Zv‡`i m¤úK© †h
Lye fv‡jv n‡q DV‡Q bv, †mUv †gUv‡bvi R‡b¨ iex›`ªbv_ G‡mwQ‡jb| GKwU Qwe
kPx›`ªbv_ AwaKvixi eB‡Z Av‡Q †h P‡ii cÖRv‡`i m‡½ iex›`ªbv_ K_v ej‡Qb P‡ii
†fZ‡i `uvwo‡q| G †_‡K †evSv hvq gymjgvb cÖRv‡`i m‡½ Zuvi m¤úK© †Kgb wQjÑ
cÖfve KZLvwb wQj| Avi Dwb H †h 1922-G †klev‡ii g‡Zv hLb G‡jb, ZLb
wkjvB`n Rwg`vwii cÖRv‡`i Zid †_‡K Zuv‡K GKwU gvbcÎ †`Iqv n‡qwQj, †mwU
iPbv Ges cvV K‡iwQ‡jb †R‡ni Avjx wek¦vm e‡j Pi Kv‡jvqv MÖv‡gi GKRb
gymjgvb cÖRv| Avevi iex›`ªbv_‡K fvwi my›`i GKwU bKwkKuv_v Dcnvi w`‡qwQ‡jb
wkjvB`‡ni gymjgvb †g‡qiv| Zvn‡j †Zv †evSvB hvq KZUv wbweo m¤úK©
gymjgvbmgv‡Ri m‡½ wQj| Avevi cwZm‡ii GKUv NUbvi K_v Abœ`vk¼i ivq
e‡j‡Qb, ZLb wZwb ivRkvnxi wW.Gg.| iex›`ªbv_ G‡j wZwb cwZm‡i †`Lv Ki‡Z
†M‡Qb| †mLv‡b GKRb e„× gymjgvb cÖRv iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb GBiKg
†hÑ Avgv‡`i a‡g©i gnvgvbe‡K Avgiv †`wLwb, wKš—y iex›`ªbv_‡K †`L‡j †ZgbB g‡b
nq| GBai‡bi GKUv K_v e‡jwQ‡jb Avi wK! iex›`ªbv_ wkjvB`‡n G‡m e‡jwQ‡jb,
mvnv‡`i nvZ †_‡K †kL‡`i i¶vi R‡b¨B Zuvi GLv‡b Avmv Rwg`vwii `vwqZ¡ wb‡q|
Zvi gv‡b wK? mvnviv n‡”Q gnvRb, my`‡Lvi gnvRb Mwie cÖRv‡`i Kov my‡` KR©
w`‡q Zv hLb Dïj nq bv ZLb Zvi Rwg-evwoNi mg¯— †K‡o †bq| iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡Zv
G‡Zv e‡ov K_v Rwg`vi‡`i c¶ †_‡K Avi †KD KL‡bv e‡jb wbÑ ej‡Z cv‡ib wb|

Rwg`vi wn‡m‡e Ges gvbyl wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv_ ïay Amv¤cÖ`vwqK bb, Zuvi g‡a¨ Mfxi
gymwjgcÖxwZI wQj Ges Zvi cÖKvk Avgiv bvbvfv‡e †`‡LwQ| †hgb, gymwjg
†jLK‡`i wZwb †hfv‡e AbycvÖ wYZ K‡i‡Qb, †hfv‡e Zuv‡`i mgv`i K‡i‡Qb, †hfv‡e
Zuv‡`i Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb, Zuv‡`i weL¨vZ nIqvi c‡_ GwM‡q w`‡q‡QbÑ Zv Avi †KD
K‡ib wb| iex›`ªbv‡_i mg‡q AviI huviv weL¨vZ Agymwjg †jLK wQ‡jb Zuv‡`i
A‡b‡KB bxie f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Qb Avevi KL‡bv ev Zvw”Qj¨-we‡Øl †cvlY
K‡i‡Qb| g‡b ivLv `iKvi †h iex›`ªbv_ GKUv mgq ch©š— Zuvi h‡Zv eB †ei n‡q‡Q
†mB eB¸‡jv wZwb DrmM© K‡i‡Qb nq Zuvi cwievi-cwiRb A_ev eªvþ ev Zuvi Lye
wcÖqfvRb Kv‡Qi Kwe-†jLK‡K| Gi evB‡i cÖ_g KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg‡K Zuvi Ôemš—Õ
bvwUKv DrmM© Ki‡jb| bRi“j ZLb †RjLvbvq, wZwb cweÎ M‡½vcva¨vq-Gi nv‡Z
†mB eB Zz‡j w`‡q ej‡jb †h, ÔZzwg KvRx‡K e‡jv my‡hvM _vK‡j Avwg wb‡R wM‡q
Zuv‡K eBwU w`Zvg|Õ GB †h ¯^xK…wZ, bRi“j hLb †Kej Kwe wn‡m‡e L¨vwZ AR©b ïi“
K‡i‡Qb, iex›`ªbv_ ZLb Zuv‡K eB DrmM© K‡i‡Qb| Ges ïay ZvB bB, bRi“j †R‡j
Abkb Ki‡Qb, Zuvi Rxebmskq| iex›`ªbv_ Zv Rvb‡Z †c‡i Zuv‡K Zvi cvwV‡q Abkb
fvOvi AvnŸvb Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb, †KbbvÑ ‘our literature claims you.’
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : jvjb Ges evD‡ji cÖfveUv iex›`ªbv‡_i Ic‡i KZLvwb c‡owQj?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : H †h Av‡M e‡jwQ MMb niKivi Kv‡Q wZwb evD‡ji Mvb,
jvj‡bi Mvb ï‡bwQ‡jb| wkjvB`‡n wZwb MMb niKiv, jvj‡bi wkl¨-m¤cÖ`vq Ges
Av‡iv †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv evD‡ji m‡½ cwiwPZ nb Ges Zuv‡`i Mvb †kv‡bb| wKš—y mevi
cÖfve †Zv iex›`ªbv‡_i Ic‡i mgvbfv‡e c‡owb| MMb niKivi Mvb ï‡b wZwb Lye gy»
nb| ¯^‡`wk Av‡›`vj‡bi mgq Zuvi Mvb¸‡jv ÔevDjÕ bv‡g †QvÆ GKwU cyw¯—Kvq
†ewi‡qwQj| †mB mg‡q †jLv ÔAvgvi †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwmÕ MvbwU‡Z
MMb niKivi ÔAvwg †Kv_vq cv‡ev Zv‡i, Avgvi g‡bi gvbyl †h †iÕ GB Mv‡bi ûeyû
myiUvB wb‡q‡Qb| ïay ZvB bq, GB †h Ôgwi nvq nvq †iÕ-GB AvLiwUI wZwb MM‡bi
Mvb †_‡KB MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| †evSvB hvq †h MM‡bi Mvb Zuvi Ic‡i K‡ZvUzKz cÖfve
†d‡jwQj! Avwg jvj‡bi K_vq c‡i Avm‡ev e‡j Ab¨‡`i wel‡q e‡j wbw”Q|
iex›`ªbv_ GB MvbwUi K_v A‡bK RvqMvq D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb, †hgb gyn¤§`
gbmyiDÏx‡bi ÔnvivgwYÕ msKj‡bi f~wgKv wjL‡Z wb‡q MM‡bi GB Mv‡bi cÖm½ wZwb
Zz‡jwQ‡jb| Zvici my`i~ divwm †`‡k wM‡q hLb fviZxq †jvKag© m¤ú‡K© e³…Zv
w`‡jb †mLv‡bI wZwb †Qv‡Uv K‡i MM‡bi cwiPq w`‡q GB MvbwUi D‡j−L K‡ib| GB
MvbwU iex›`ªbv_‡K GKUv bZzb giwg fv‡ei RM‡Z evievi wb‡q hvq| Ges GB †h
g‡bi gvbyl‡K mÜvb Kivi GKUv e¨vKzjZv mva‡Ki †fZ‡i _v‡K Zv iex›`ªbv_‡K
¯úk© K‡i‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ Mv‡b †Zv e‡UB GgbwK KweZv‡ZI evD‡ji K_v G‡m‡Q| H
†h, ÔKZw`b †`‡LwQ I‡`i mvaK‡KÕÑGB †h KweZvi K‡qKwU cO&w³ Av‡Q †h,
cÙvb`xi avi w`‡q †mB mva‡Kiv hv‡”Qb Mfxi wbR©b c‡_ g‡bi gvbyl‡K mÜvb Kivi
R‡b¨| G¸‡jv iex›`ªbv‡_i G‡Kev‡i †Pv‡L †`Lv evD‡ji K_v| Avgiv Av‡iKUz `~‡i
hvB| wm‡j‡Ui nvmb ivRvi w`‡K ZvKvB| nvmb ivRv‡K wVK evDj ejv hvq bv,
evD‡ji mgvbag©v giwg c`KZ©v I wkíx| †mB nvmb ivRvi Mvb iex›`ªbv‡_i nv‡Z
hLb co‡jv ZLb wZwb G‡ZvUvB gy» n‡jb †h fviZxq `k©b gnvmfvi Awa‡ek‡b †h

kvk¦wZKx-13

kvk¦wZKx-14

fvlY w`‡jb Zv‡Z nvmb ivRvi Mv‡bi D‡j−L Ki‡jb| Avevi A·‡dvW© wek¦we`¨vj‡q
hLb ÔThe religion of man’ bv‡g wnevU© †jKPvi w`‡jb †mLv‡bI wZwb nvmb ivRvi
Ôgg AuvwL nB‡Z cq`v Avmgvb I RwgbÕ GB MvbwUi D‡j−L K‡i Zvi PgrKvi
`vk©wbK e¨vL¨v †`b| nvm‡bi GB MvbwUI Zuv‡K †cÖiYv RywM‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ GKwU
KweZvq e‡j‡QbÑ ÔAvgvwi †PZbvi i‡O cvbœv nj meyR, Pzwb DV‡jv ivOv n‡q/ Avwg
†Mvjv‡ci w`‡K †P‡q ejjyg Ômy›`iÕ/ my›`i nj †m|Õ GB GKUv `vk©wbK fvemZ¨‡K
iex›`ªbv_ Lyu‡R †c‡qwQ‡jb nvm‡bi Mv‡b| nvmb ivRvi Mvb‡K wb‡Ri m„wó-cÖwµqvi
†fZ‡i wb‡q wM‡qwQ‡jb| Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi jvj‡bi K_v| ej‡Z cvwi wK, jvj‡bi
K_vB †Zv Avmj K_v! iex›`ªbv‡_i Ic‡i evD‡ji cÖfv‡ei K_v ej‡Z †M‡j †Zv
jvj‡bi K_vB me‡P‡q †ewk K‡i ej‡Z nq| Ges jvjb‡K wZwb K‡Zvfv‡e †`‡L‡Qb,
Avwe®‹vi K‡i‡Qb Zv fvev hvq bv| jvj‡bi Mvb msMÖn K‡i‡QbÑ jvj‡bi Mvb cÖKvk
K‡i‡Qb| ÔnvivgwYÕ e‡j GKwU wefvM cÖewZ©Z n‡jv ÔcÖevmxÕ cwÎKvq, †mLv‡b wZwb
ïi“‡ZB MMb niKivi ÔAvwg †Kv_vq cv‡ev Zv‡iÕ GB MvbwU Qvc‡jb| Gici G‡K
G‡K jvj‡bi KzwowU Mvb wZwb GLv‡b cÖKvk K‡iwQ‡jb †gvU Pvi wKw¯Í‡Z| jvj‡bi
Mv‡bi `yywU LvZv wZwb †QuDwoqv †_‡K msMÖn K‡iwQ‡jb Ges Zv GLb wek¦fviZxi
iex›`ªfe‡b Av‡Q| GB g~j¨evb Mv‡bi LvZvi cÖwZwjwc msMÖn K‡iwQ‡jb evDj‡cÖgx
jvjb-M‡elK AKvj-cÖqvZ W. K¨vij m‡jvgb, c‡i wZwb Avgv‡K GwU Dcnvi †`b|
ZLb †_‡KB Avwg †Póv K‡i AvmwQjvg iex›`ªbv‡_i msM„nxZ GB LvZvi ûeû
cÖwZwjwcÑms¯‹iY cÖKv‡ki Ges †kl ch©šÍ †mwU Ôiex›`ªbv_-msM„nxZ jvj‡bi Mv‡bi
cvÊywjwcÕ bv‡g K‡qK eQi Av‡M †ewi‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv‡_i Ic‡i jvj‡bi cÖfve †h
K‡ZvUzKz Zv †`L‡Z n‡e Df‡qi Mvb cvkvcvwk †i‡L, Zvn‡j Zzjbv K‡i ejv hv‡e †h
cÖfveUv GBfv‡e G‡m‡Q| †mB Av‡jvPbvi mgq †Zv GLv‡b †bB| jvj‡bi myi, Zuvi
fvlv, Q›`, Dcgv, wPÎKí, iƒcK iex›`ªbv_ D`vi nv‡Z MÖnY K‡i‡Qb Ges b›`‡Mvcvj
†mb¸ß‡K †jLv GK wPwV‡Z wZwb e‡j‡Qb †h Gme Ôiex›`ªevD‡jÕi iPbv| †`Lv hvq,
iex›`ªbv‡_i †cvkvK-Avkv‡KI evD‡ji GKUv Qvc Av‡Q| Zuvi †h AvjLvj−v nq‡Zv ev
Zv evD‡ji †h †Lj&Kv †mB †Lj&Kvi †`Lv‡`wLB ˆZwi| evDjmgv‡Ri Ggb wewPÎ
kv¯¿xq †cvkvK Avi †KD c‡ib wb| Avi iex›`ªmvwn‡Z¨ evD‡ji cÖfv‡ei K_v ej‡Z
†M‡j †m †Zv A‡bK mg‡qi e¨vcvi| `yÕPvi‡U D`vniY w`‡jB †evSv hv‡e †h
iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi iPbvq jvj‡bi wkíFY wKfv‡e MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| ÔivRvÕ e‡j Zuvi weL¨vZ
GKwU bvUK Av‡Q, †mB ÔivRvÕ bvU‡Ki g~j MíwU wZwb avi K‡iwQ‡jb †eŠ×
AvL¨vwqKv †_‡K Ges Gi Ic‡i wZwb Av‡ivc K‡iwQ‡jb jvj‡bi GKwU Mv‡bi
fvemZ¨| Ô†K K_v Kq‡i †`Lv †`q bv, b‡o P‡o nv‡Zi Kv‡Q LuzR‡j Rbg-fi †g‡j
bvÕ| Zvn‡j †evSv hv‡”Q jvj‡bi Mvb Zuvi m„wó-cÖwµqvq wKfv‡e wg‡jwg‡k †M‡Q|
bvbv RvqMvq iex›`ªbv_ jvj‡bi K_v e‡j‡Qb| GB †h GKevi 1909 mv‡j g‡b nq
e½xq mvwnZ¨ cwil` GKUv Av‡jvPbvmfvi Av‡qvRb K‡i, †mLv‡b iex›`ªbv_ Qv·`i
D‡Ï‡k fvlY †`b Ges †mLv‡b wZwb cÖm‡½i †LB a‡i jvj‡bi K_v e‡jb Ges
jvj‡bi Rxe‡bi †jvKcÖPwjZ GKUv cwiwPwZI †`b| Zvici Avgiv †`L‡ev BwÛqvb
wd‡jvmwdK¨vj Ks‡MÖ‡m wZwb †h fvlY w`‡qwQ‡jb †mLv‡b H ÔLvuPvi wfZi AwPb cvwL
Kg‡b Av‡m hvqÕÑ G MvbwUi D‡j−L K‡i Zzjbv K‡ib Bs‡iR Kwe †kwji KweZvi

mv‡_| Zvici gšÍe¨ K‡ib, †kwji KweZv mxgve× wkw¶ZR‡bi †fZ‡i mgv`„Z Avi
MÖvgxY evsjvi wbi¶i cj−xKwei GB Mvb me©Rbxb mvaviY gvby‡li †fZ‡i cÖPvwiZÑ
†gv‡Ui Ici G ai‡bi K_vB wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb| Avevi iex›`ªbv‡_i Ô†MvivÕ Dcb¨v‡m
ÔLuvPvi †fZi AwPb cvwL Kg‡b Av‡m hvqÕ GB MvbwUi K‡qK QÎ e¨envi K‡i‡Qb|
Kv‡RB Dcb¨v‡m †h jvj‡bi ev evD‡ji cÖm½ Av‡m wb Zv wKš—y bv, M‡íI G‡m‡QÑ
Ô†cv÷gv÷viÕ ev Ô†ev÷gxÕ M‡íi K_v PURjw` ¯§iY Kiv hvq| GLv‡b evDjˆeò‡ei K_v Av‡Q| Zuvi ÔRxeb¯§„wZÕ‡Z wZwb Mvb m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z wM‡q GB †h ÔLvuPvi
†fZi AwPb cvwLÕ GB MvbwUi fvwi my›`i giwg e¨vL¨v w`‡q‡Qb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : KvOvj nwibv_ I gxi gkviid-Gi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i wK
KLbI †`Lv-mv¶vr n‡qwQj Ges Zuv‡`i m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv_ KLbI †Kvb gšÍe¨
K‡i‡Qb wK bv ?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : iex›`ªbv‡_i m‡½ KvOvj nwibv_ I gxi gkvii‡di †`Lv
n‡qwQj wKbv Zvi †Kv‡bv weeiY †g‡j bv| hw`I 1890-91-G Rwg`vwii `vwqZ¡ wb‡q
iex›`ªbv_ wkjvB`‡n hLb G‡jb KvOvj nwibv_ ZLbI †eu‡P, g„Zz¨ nq 1896 mv‡j|
AZGe †`Lv nIqvi m¤¢vebv †Zv wQjB| wKš—y †Kv‡bv c‡¶iB nq‡Zv G e¨vcv‡i †Zgb
AvMÖn wQj bv| Z‡e iex›`ªbv_ nwibv‡_i †jLvi e¨vcv‡i wKQyUv Drmvn †`wL‡qwQ‡jb|
bv‡qe‡K cvwV‡q wZwb av‡i KvOvj nwibv‡_i wKQyy eB KzgviLvjxi g_yivbv_ gy`vª hš¿
†_‡K Avwb‡qwQ‡jb| H †cÖ‡mi 1300 mv‡ji cÎbK‡ji LvZvq GKUv wPwV Av‡Q
VvKzi-G‡÷‡Ui bv‡qe‡K †jLv, KvOvj nwibv‡_i eo †Q‡j mZxkP›`ª gRyg`vi eB‡qi
`vg †P‡q GB ZvMv`vcÎ †j‡Lb, Zv‡Z D‡j−L wQj wK wK eB K‡Zv `vg BZ¨vw` Ñ
welqwU Avgvi KvOvjRxebx eB‡Z D‡j−L K‡iwQ| G †_‡K †evSv hvq, †`Lv hw` bvI
nq Zey iex›`ªbv_ KvOv‡ji †jLv‡jwLi e¨vcv‡i GKev‡i D`vmxb wQ‡jb bv| Z‡e
KvOv‡ji eB m¤ú‡K© gš—e¨ GKUz Lvivcfv‡eB K‡iwQ‡jb, †mwU n‡jv m¤¢eZ
ew¼gP‡›`ªi Dcb¨vm m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z wM‡q GB ai‡bi GKUv gšÍe¨ iex›`ªbv_
K‡iwQ‡jb, Ô†Kv_vq †Mj †mB †Mv‡j eKvIqvwj Avi weRqem‡šÍi AjxK MíÕ, gv‡b
GB †h iƒcK_vwkªZ Kvwnwb ÔweRqemš—Õ †Zv nwibv‡_i †jLv| hw`I ÔweRqemš—Õ bv‡g
GKai‡bi Kvwnwb cÖPwjZ wQj, GwUi hvÎv-UvÎvI n‡q‡Q| Gi evB‡i Avi †Kv‡bv Z_¨
†g‡j bv| Z‡e KvOvj nwibv‡_i Mvb eªvþmgv‡R cÖ‡ek K‡iwQj| KvOvj wb‡R
eªvþmgv‡R Mvb †M‡q‡Qb, XvKvq Mvb †M‡q gvwZ‡q‡Qb| weRqK…ò †Mv¯^vgx, whwb
GKmgq eªvþa‡g©i cÖPviK wQ‡jb, wZwb nwibv‡_i Mvb Lye cQ›` Ki‡Zb|
eªþmsMx‡Zi †hme eB †ewi‡qwQj eªvþmgv‡Ri Zid †_‡K ev evB‡i †_‡K Zv‡ZI
†`Lv hvq †mLv‡b KvOvj nwibv‡_i Mvb `yÕPvi‡U Av‡Q| Avi Avgvi Lye we¯§q I
†e`bv Rv‡M †h iex›`ªbv_ gxi gkviid m¤ú‡K© G‡Kev‡i bxie wQ‡jb, A_P
iex›`ªbv‡_i Rwg`vwi‡ZB gkvii‡di evm| Aek¨ gkviidI wKQy e‡jb wb iex›`ªbv_
m¤ú‡K©| AvZ¥Rxebx wj‡L‡Qb gxi gkviid ÔAvgvi RxebxÕ bv‡g, †mLv‡b wZwb
A‡b‡Ki K_v wj‡L‡Qb, ew¼gP‡›`ªi K_v A‡bKLvwb wj‡L‡QbÑ Aek¨ †m-Ask Qvcv
nqwb, wKš—y iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v †Kv_vI D‡j−L K‡ib wb| Z‡e gkviid iex›`ªbv‡_i eB
c‡o‡Qb †mwU †evSv hvqÑ Zuvi msMª‡n wK wK eB wQj Zvi AvswkK ZvwjKv Av‡Q Zuvi
†L‡iv LvZvq, Zv‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i wZb-PviLvbv eB‡qi bvg cvIqv hvq| Ôwelv`-wmÜzÕi

kvk¦wZKx-15

kvk¦wZKx-16

cÖ_g LÊ †ei nq 1885-†Z, †kl LÊ 1891 mv‡j, ZLb †Zv iex›`ªbv_ ÔfviZxÕ‡Z
wjL‡Qb Avi ÔfviZxÕ †Zv VvKzievwoiB cwÎKv| GgbwK bech©v‡q iex›`ªbv_ Ôe½`k©bÕ
cwÎKvI m¤úv`bv K‡i‡Qb| †mB Ôe½`k©‡bÕi cÖ_g c‡e© gkviid-Gi `ywU eB‡qi
mgv‡jvPbv †ei nq, GKwU ÔRgx`vi `c©YÕ Ab¨wU Ô†MŠix †mZzÕ| ÔRgx`vi `c©YÕ-Gi
Av‡jvPbv ¯^qs ew¼g K‡iwQ‡jb, AmvaviY mgv‡jvPbv| wKš—y H †h †kªYx¯^v_© hv‡K
e‡j! ZLb cÖRvwe‡`ªvn ïi“ n‡q‡Q mvRv`cy‡i| wZwb GB eBwUi cÖksmv Ki‡jb †h
Av`vj‡Zi `„k¨wU cwicvwU n‡q‡Q| Zvi gv‡b †LuvPv w`‡jb †h Bs‡i‡Ri wePvie¨e¯’v
KZUv †mB e¨vcv‡i| mvRv`cy‡i ZLb K…lKwe‡`ªvn ïi“ n‡q‡Q, 1873-Gi K_v, Zv
ï‡b ew¼g K…lK‡`i AvPi‡Y eo wei³ nb| †mB Kvi‡Y †jLK‡K civgk© w`‡qwQ‡jb
GB eB‡qi wewµ Ges cÖPvi eÜ ivL‡ZÑ ÔZvnv bv nB‡j AwMœ‡Z N„ZvûwZ †`Iqv
nB‡eÕ e‡j gšÍe¨ K‡ib| G‡KB e‡j †kªYx¯^v_©! ew¼g †Zv Rwg`vi wQ‡jb bv, wKš—y
Zuvi Rwg`vicÖxwZ h‡_ó cwigv‡Y wQj, †mB Kvi‡Y GB K_v wZwb ej‡Z cv‡ib| gxi
gkviid †nv‡mb-Gi GKvwaK eB‡qi Av‡jvPbv cÖKvwkZ nq ÔfviZxÕ cwÎKvq|
iex›`ªbv‡_i †Pv‡L Ôe½`k©bÕ wKsev ÔfviZxÕ wKsev Ô†mvgcÖKvkÕ wKsev ÔMÖvgevË©v
cÖKvwkKvÕ wKsev ÔXvKv cÖKvkÕÑ †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv cwÎKvq †jLv gxi gkviid-Gi
eB‡qi mgv‡jvPbv †Pv‡L bv covi K_v bv| Aš—Z ÔfviZxÕ Avi Ôe½`k©‡bÕi K_v †Zv
Avgiv ej‡ZB cvwi| Avi Ôwelv`-wmÜzÕi g‡Zv eB hvi cÖksmv †ei“‡”Q KvM‡R
KvM‡R, GB ai‡bi Dw³ Kiv n‡”Q gkvii‡di M`¨ixwZi cÖksmv K‡iÑ ÔGgb my›`i
mvejxj M`¨ evOvjx wn›`y wjwL‡Z cvwi‡j K…Zv_© †eva Kwi‡ebÕ| ZLb iex›`ªbv‡_i
†K‡bv AvMÖn RvM‡jv bv GB eBLvbv c‡o †`Lvi Zv e‡ov we¯§‡qi, A_P iex›`ªbv‡_i
¸YMÖvwnZvi †Zv ZzjbvB nq bv| Ave`yj Kwi‡gi ÔfviZe‡l© gymjgvb ivR‡Z¡i BwZe„ËÕ
GKUv †QvU cyw¯—Kv, ¯‹zjcvV¨ eB| †mB eB‡qi ch©š— wZwb `xN© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb
ÔfviZxÕ cwÎKvq| Avi `yf©vM¨ Avgv‡`i †h wkjvB`‡ni GKev‡i Kv‡Qi mvov-RvMv‡bv
†jLK gxi gkviid †nv‡mb wKsev KvOvj nwibv_ m¤ú‡K© AÁvZ Kvi‡Y iex›`ªbv‡_i
AvMÖn Rv‡M wb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi †jLvi ga¨ w`‡q c~e©e½‡K KZLvwb aviY
Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Qb?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : iex›`ªbv‡_i A‡bK weL¨vZ †jLvi Rb¥B GB c~e©e½ f~L‡Ê|
c~e©e‡½i cÖK…wZ I gvbyl iex›`ªbv‡_i iPbvq bvbvfv‡e G‡m‡Q Ges hw` †mB A‡_© awi,
Zvn‡j †Zv Zuvi ÔMí¸‡”QÕi †ewkifvM MíB c~e©e‡½ †jLv A_ev c~e©e‡½i cUf~wg‡Z
†jLv| Avi evD‡ji fve Zuvi Mv‡b I Ab¨vb¨ †jLvq †h G‡m‡Q ZvI c~e©e‡½i
Kvi‡YB †Zv| Zuvi cÖe‡ÜI c~e©e‡½i K_v D‡V G‡m‡Q| wZwb ¯^‡`kx fvebv wb‡q hLb
wjL‡Qb, cj−xDbœqb wb‡q hLb wjL‡Qb, cj−xcÖK…wZ m¤ú‡K© hLb wjL‡Qb, Zvi g~‡j
†Zv Av‡Q GB c~e©e‡½iB AwfÁZv| Ges D`vniY wn‡m‡e GB c~e©e‡½i MÖvg¸‡jvi
K_vB †Zv wZwb Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| hw` Avgiv Hfv‡e wn‡me Kwi Zvn‡j iex›`ªbv‡_i
iPbvi Lye ¸i“Z¡c~Y© Ask ev Zuvi Lye weL¨vZ †jLvi A‡bK¸‡jvB c~e©e‡½ †jLv| hw`I
ÔAvgvi †mvbvi evsjvÕ mgMÖ evsjv‡KB †evSvq, wKš‘ GB MvbwU‡K hw` we‡k−lY Kiv
hvq Zvn‡j wKš‘ Avgv‡`i g‡b n‡e †h c~e©e‡½i QvcUv GB Mv‡bi †fZ‡i A‡bK †ewk

cwigv‡Y Av‡Q| GgbwK g‡b n‡ZB cv‡i †h, Zuvi †jLvq †h cÖvK…wZK, ˆbmwM©K weeiY
G‡m‡Q Zv †Zv c~ee© ‡½iB| †m R‡b¨ Zuvi iPbvq I eY©bvq c~ee© ½ bvbvfv‡e cÖKvwkZ|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv Rvwb, iex›`ªbv_ c~ee© ½‡K wb‡q Mí, KweZv, Mvb iPbv
K‡i‡Qb| Dcb¨v‡m †mUv N‡Uwb †Kb ?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : wej¶Y N‡U‡Q| Avgiv †Zv ej‡Z cvwi Zuvi bvgKiv †ek
KwU Dcb¨vm GB c~ee© ‡½ e‡mB †jLv| Gi †Kv‡bvUv wkjvB`‡n †jLv ïi“ K‡ib ev
†Kv‡bvUv GLv‡b †kl K‡ib| †hgb, Ô†Pv‡Li evwjÕ, Ô†MvivÕ, ÔN‡i evB‡iÕ, ÔPZzi½Õ
G¸‡jv †Zv c~ee© ‡½ ev‡miB dmj| nq‡Zv ev cy‡ivUv GLv‡b †jLv nqwb, wKš‘ GLv‡bB
g~jZ †jLv¸‡jv ïi“ K‡iwQ‡jb| GLv‡b wZwb bvUKI wj‡L‡Qb, †hgbÑ ÔwPiKzgvi
mfvÕ, Ô†Mvovq Mj`Õ, ÔwPÎv½`vÕ, ÔivRvÕ| c~ee© ‡½i b`x I cÖKw… Zi K_v me‡P‡q †ewk
G‡m‡Q Zuvi ÔwQbœc‡ÎÕ| †mR‡b¨ †Zv Avgiv ej‡ZB cvwi †h Zuvi mvwnZ¨PP©vi cÖavb
avÎx GB c~ee© ½|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgvi Kv‡Q GKUv wRwbm †ek B›Uv‡iw÷s jv‡M, Dwb
Bsj¨v‡Û wM‡q _vK‡Z cvi‡jb bv, A_P KjKvZvi Av‡qwk Rxeb ev` w`‡q
wkjvB`‡ni g‡Zv AR-cvovMuv‡q w`we¨ KvwU‡q w`‡jb| ejv hvq GLv‡b G‡mB †h‡bv
Dwb †ewk ¯^v”Q›`¨ †eva Ki‡jb|
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : G¸‡jv Hfv‡e wePvi Kiv hvq bv| Av‡qwk Rxeb ej‡Z
Avgiv wK eywS? Av‡qwk Rxeb ej‡Z †gv‡Ui Dci Avgiv eywSÑ fv‡jv LvIqv-civ Avi
cÖvq Kg©nxb wbwðšÍ wejvmx Ajm Rxebhvcb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : bv, Avwg Avm‡j G `y‡Uvi †Kv‡bvUvB †evSv‡Z Pvw”Q bv| Avwg
ej‡Z Pvw”Q my‡hvM-myweavi K_v|
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : iex›`ªbv_ †h GLv‡b kvKv‡bœ RxebaviY Ki‡Zb Ges
KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvq wZwb cjvbœ Qvov wKQy †L‡Zb bv, Zv †Zv bv| †Rvovmuv‡Kv ev
kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡bI Zuv‡K KL‡bv KL‡bv K‡ó Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q| MÖv‡g G‡m
bvMwiK my‡hvM-myweav wZwb cvbwb, wKš‘ Ab¨fv‡e wZwb Zv cywl‡q wb‡qwQ‡jb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : bv, Zv bv| e¨vcviUv n‡”Q KjKvZvi ev bM‡ii AZ my‡hvMmyweav †Q‡o wZwb MÖv‡gi H K…lK †kªYxi gvbyl¸‡jvi m‡½ _vK‡jb wK K‡i! †hLv‡b
†hvMv‡hvM-e¨e¯’v fv‡jv bq, Av‡iv KZ mgm¨v!
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : nu¨v, †mUv †Zv wVK, Ab¨ †KD n‡j nuvwc‡q DV‡Zb|
iex›`ªbv_ w`‡bi ci w`b H MÖv‡gB †_‡K‡Qb, b`x‡ZB †_‡K‡Qb| †mw`K †_‡K †Zv
iex›`ªbv_ e¨wZµg| A‡bK wKQy‡ZB †Zv wZwb Avjv`v iK‡gi, †hgbÑ wZwb A‡a©K
Rxe‡b wecZ¥xK n‡jb, Zvici AviI cÖvq 40 eQi †eu‡P wQ‡jb| wKš‘ evOvwj Pwi‡Îi
cÖwZdjb †Zv Zuvi g‡a¨ N‡Uwb| wZwb cybivq ¯¿x MÖn‡Y AvMÖn †`Lvb wb| iex›`ªbv_
evOvwj n‡jI evOvwji †h ¯^fve ev PwiÎ mPivPi Avgv‡`i †Pv‡Li mvg‡b †f‡m I‡V,
wZwb †mBiKg wQ‡jb bv| we`¨vmvMiI †Zv evOvwjmgv‡R Rb¥ wb‡qI Kv‡R-K‡g© wPšÍvfvebvq wfbœ iK‡gi wQ‡jbÑ cy‡ivcywi ¯^Zš¿ wQ‡jb| GB ai‡bi D`vniY †Zv †g‡jB
bv! iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡a¨I evOvwjZ¡ wQj, wKš‘ evOvwji †h †bwZevPK w`K †m¸‡jv Zuv‡K
†Zgb ¯úk© K‡iwb| iex›`ªbv_ wbtm½Zv †hgb †P‡q‡Qb, Avevi †Zgwb cwievi-

kvk¦wZKx-17

kvk¦wZKx-18

cwiRb‡`i m‡½ _vK‡ZI PvB‡Zb| ZvB †Zv eD-†Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i wkjvB`‡n wb‡q G‡m
msmviI †c‡ZwQ‡jb| wKš‘ bvbv ARynv‡Z g„YvwjbxB †Zv _vK‡Z PvB‡jb bv| wK Avi
Kiv! Z‡e gb PvB‡jB Kwe QyU‡Zb KjKvZvq| ÔLuvPvi cvwLÕ Avi Ôe‡bi cvwLÕi Ø›Ø
wKQyUv GLv‡bI wQj|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : wZwb Zuvi †g‡qi evj¨weevn w`‡”Qb| Avevi Zuuvi cwiev‡i
weaev wQj, wZwb Zuv‡`i we‡qi e¨vcv‡i Abyrmvn cÖKvk Ki‡Qb| GUv GKai‡bi
¯^we‡ivwaZv n‡q †Mj bv ?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : gnr gvbyl Ges gnr wkíxi wfZ‡iB wKQy Avðh© ai‡bi
¯^we‡ivwaZv _v‡K| Zywg evB‡ii w`‡K ZvKvIÑ Zj¯Íq-Gi †jLvq Avgiv ivwkqvi
Rxe‡bi AšÍi½ wPÎ Luy‡R cvB, Zuvi †jLv cÖMwZi c‡_ Av‡jv †d‡j‡Q| hvRKZ‡š¿i
cÖwZ GKUv †gvn ev `ye©jZv m‡Ë¡I Zj¯Íq ivwkqvi gnvb mšÍvb| iex›`ªbv‡_i
¯^we‡ivwaZvi K_v A‡bK Av‡Q| Zzwg †Zv †Kej GKUv ej‡j †h iex›`ªbv_ bvixi
weKv‡ki K_v e‡j †eov‡jI wb‡Ri cwiev‡i Zvi PP©v K‡ib wb| Zuvi †g‡q‡`i KvD‡K
wZwb †Zgbfv‡e †jLvcov †kLvb wb| cvkvcvwk Zuvi fvB‡qi †g‡qiv ixwZgZ evB‡i
wM‡q †jLvcov K‡i‡Q| me‡P‡q e‡ov Awf‡hvM †hUv Av‡m, wZwb G‡Zv †h bvixgyw³i
K_v e‡j‡Qb A_P wZwb wb‡R evj¨weevn K‡i‡Qb| †mUv bv nq Aby‡gv`b Kiv hvq
GB Kvi‡Y †h †mB mgqUv wQj Dwbk kZK| wKš‘ mgvR hLb A‡bK`~i GwM‡q †M‡Q,
†mB mg‡q G‡m wZwb Zuvi meKwU †g‡qi evj¨weevn w`‡q‡Qb| GQvovI iex›`ªbv‡_i
e¨w³Rxe‡b A‡bK ¯^we‡ivwaZv wQj| mgv‡jvPbv Ki‡jI †m¸‡jv Avgiv KLbB e‡ov
K‡i †`L‡ev bv| wKš‘ GI Avgiv PvB‡ev bv †h iex›`ª¯‘wZ‡K Ggb GKUv ch©v‡q wb‡q
†h‡Z hv †`L‡j-ïb‡j iex›`ªbv_ wb‡RB weeªZ n‡Zb| AwZfw³ ev ¯‘wZ memgq
KvÊÁvb‡K Pvcv w`‡q iv‡LÑ wePvieywׇK Av”Qbœ K‡i †`q| Avi hv‡K wb‡q Gme
K_v †mB gvbylwU‡K fyj c‡_ wb‡q hvq ev weZwK©Z K‡i †Zv‡j| iex›`ªbv_ KL‡bv
KL‡bv Gi wkKvi n‡qwQ‡jb| †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi cvIqvi ci kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡b Zuv‡K †h
msea©bv †`Iqv nq, †mLv‡b Zuvi e³e¨ ï‡b mevB ¶zä n‡q bv †L‡qB KjKvZvq wd‡i
hvb| GB e¨vcvi¸‡jvi ga¨ w`‡q Avgiv eyS‡Z cvwi †h wZwb KL‡bv KL‡bv Amwnòz
n‡q co‡Zb| hw`I iex›`ªbv_ A‡bK AvNvZ †c‡q‡Qb evOvwj mgv‡Ri KvQ †_‡K †h
Kvi‡Y Zuviv hLb m¤§vb w`‡Z hv‡”Qb ZLb Zuvi wfZ‡i GKUv Awfgvb I cÖwZwµqv
†R‡M‡Q| wKš‘ †mB cÖwZwµqvUv †kvfb wQj bv| hvB †nvK, w؇R›`ªjvj iv‡qi m‡½
cÖ_g w`‡K Zvui m¤úK© Lye gayi wQj, wKš‘ c‡i bvbv Kvi‡Y GB m¤úK© GZUvB Lvivc
n‡q co‡jv †h wZwb †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †jLvq iex›`ªbv‡_i Mvb m¤ú‡K© Ggb ev‡R gšÍe¨
K‡ib †h, hv ixwZgZ AvcwËKiÑ †hgb, Ô†Kb hvwgbx bv †h‡Z RvMv‡j bv, †ejv n‡jv
gwi jv‡RÕÑ wW.Gj. ivq GB MvbwU m¤ú‡K© gšÍe¨ Ki‡jb †h GwU GKwU
jv¤úU¨MxwZ| Zvic‡i G‡Kev‡i †klRxe‡b wZwb iex›`ªbv_‡K bMœfv‡e AvµgY K‡i
ÔAvb›`we`vqÕ wjL‡jb, †mwU hLb g¯’ nw”Qj ¶zä `k©K Zv eÜ K‡i w`‡qwQj| †mB
wW.Gj. ivq hLb 1913-†Z gviv †M‡jb, ZLb K…òbM‡i GKUv †kvKmfvi Av‡qvRb
Kiv nq| Av‡qvR‡Kiv iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡Q wPwV †j‡Lb †kvK-Abyôv‡b cvV Kivi ev
¯§iwYKvq Qvcvi R‡b¨ evYx †P‡q| †Zv iex›`ªbv_ bvwK GB iKg Reve w`‡qwQ‡jb,
whwb mvivRxeb a‡i Zuv‡K Aegvbbv K‡i‡Qb Zuvi g„Zz¨‡Z †kvKcÖKv‡ki g‡Zv D`viZv

Zuvi †bB| G‡Z A‡b‡K ¶zä nb Ges Av‡qvR‡Kiv †Zv Rvwb‡qB †`b †h wZwb hw`
†Kv‡bv †jLv bv cvVvb Zvn‡j GB wPwVwUB Zuviv †kvKmfvq c‡o †kvbv‡eb ev †Q‡c
†`‡eb| c‡i Aek¨ iex›`ªbv_ K‡qK QÎ wj‡L cvwV‡qwQ‡jb| Gme K_v Avgv‡K
e‡jwQ‡jb K…òbM‡ii †jLK-M‡elK †gvwnZ ivq| fve‡Z n‡e, iex›`ªbv_I GKRb
gvbyl| wW.Gj. iv‡qi KvQ †_‡K wZwb †h AvNvZ †c‡qwQ‡jb Zv nRg K‡i Zuvi
m¤ú‡K© fv‡jv K_v ejv fvwi KwVb| Z‡e cÖZ¨vkv †Zv iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡Q GKUz †ewkB
_vK‡e, GwUB ¯^vfvweK| myZivs iex›`ªbv_ hv, Zv Avgv‡`i ejv DwPr ev Zz‡j aiv
cÖ‡qvRb| fv‡jv-g›` wgwj‡qB gvbyl| Avgiv iex›`ªbv_‡K gvbyl wn‡m‡e †`L‡Z PvBÑ
ÔwcÖ‡q‡i †`eZvÕ evbv‡Z PvBbv|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv Rvwb, cvK-kvmbvg‡j iex›`ªbv_‡K c~e©e‡½ wbwl× Kiv
nq| †`k ¯^vaxb nIqvi ciciB iex›`ªcxÖ wZi †Rvqv‡i cy‡iv †`k fvm‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q|
iex›`ªbv‡_i mva©kZevwl©Kx D`&hvcbB Zvi cÖgvY enb K‡i| GLb cÖkœ n‡”Q, Avgiv
cÖKZ
… c‡¶, iex›`ªbv_‡K KZLvwb aviY, enb I we‡k−lY Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ e‡j
Avcwb g‡b K‡ib ?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : evOvwjPwi‡Î GKUv w`K †`L‡e †h evOvwj fvwi DrmewcÖq|
G‡K Avwg wKš‘ wb›`v ev mgv‡jvPbvi `„wó‡Z †`L‡Z PvB bv| mva©kZRb¥e‡l© GB Drme
bv n‡jB eis e¨w_Z nIqvi KviY NU‡Zv| G‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i †h †`o‡kv eQi c~Y© n‡jv
GwU RbM‡Yi †PZbvq weivU GKUv av°v †`q †h †`o‡kv eQi a‡i GKRb †jLK †eu‡P
Av‡Qb, wZwb GLbI cwVZ nb, gvbyl Zuv‡K GL‡bv ¯§iY K‡i| GI †Zv GKUv we¯§‡qi
e¨vcvi †h iex›`ªbv_ Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q GLbI cÖvmw½K, Zuvi KvQ †_‡K GLbI Avgv‡`i
A‡bK wKQy †kLvi-†bIqvi Av‡Q| Avgiv GB Drm‡ei wec‡¶ bB, wKš‘ iex›`ªbv_‡K
ïay †bwZevPKfv‡e Zz‡j aiv wKsev †gwK iex›`ªPP©v †mUv‡K †Zv Avgiv cQ›` Ki‡ev bv|
Avi †Rvqv‡ii R‡j †Zv A‡bK wKQyB †f‡m Av‡mÑ Avevi fvUvi Uv‡b wgwj‡q hvq|
iex›`ªbv_ wb‡RB GKRvqMvq e‡j‡Qb, ÔLuvwU wRwb‡mi cwigvY †ewk nIqv Am¤¢eÕÑ GB
K_vi Abymi‡Y ejv hvq, ÔLuvwU iex›`ª‡cÖgxi msL¨v †ewk nIqv Am¤¢eÕ|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : K_vcÖm‡½ P‡j Av‡m, iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q c~ee© ‡½ cÖPiz
Av‡jvPbv n‡q‡Q I n‡”Q| GLb †Zv ej‡Z †M‡j, iex›`ª-Av‡jvP‡K f‡i †M‡Q †`k|
Gme Av‡jvPK I Av‡jvPbv wb‡q Avcwb KZUv Avkvev`x?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : G-ch©šÍ iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© K‡Zv eB †jLv n‡q‡Q Avgvi
Kv‡Q Zvi †Kv‡bv Z_¨ ev cwimsL¨vb †bB| wKš‘ g‡b nq kÕcuv‡PK wKsev KvQvKvwQ
n‡Z cv‡i| Avi hw` eB cuvP‡kv nq Zvn‡j Zvi cÂvk¸Y n‡e cÖeÜ| Gme wKš‘
Avgiv Abygvb K‡i ejwQ| I¸‡jvi g‡a¨ †`Lv hv‡e, A‡a©K eB †jLv n‡q‡Q
A¨vKv‡WwgK cÖ‡qvR‡b, Avi A‡a‡©Ki A‡a©K gv‡b wmwK fvM n‡”Q AbwaKviPP©v| Avi
_v‡K wmwK fvM †mB wmwK fv‡Mi †fZ‡i Avgiv hw` bvg a‡i a‡i ej‡Z cvwi Zvn‡j
Avgiv wK †`wL, gvÎ K‡qKR‡bi bvg Av‡m| KvRx Ave`yj I`y`, ûgvqyb Kwei,
eyׇ`e emy, bxnviiÄb ivq, Abœ`vk¼i ivq, Avey mqx` AvBqye, k•L †NvlÑ GB
KqR‡bi bvgB g‡b Avm‡jvÑ hw` g~j¨vq‡bi w`K awi Avi wK! Avi hw` ¯§„wZPP©vi
K_v ewj, Zvn‡j ˆg‡Îqx †`ex, wbg©jKzgvix gnjvbwek ev cÖwZgv †`exi eB¸‡jvi K_v

kvk¦wZKx-19

kvk¦wZKx-20

†Zv ej‡ZB nq| iex›`ª¯§„wZ wb‡q †jLv Av‡iv K‡qKwU eB I †jL‡Ki K_v Avgvi
ejv DwPr wQj Ñ wKš‘ G¶zwYœ †Zgb Avi g‡b Avm‡Q bv| A‡bK eB‡qi bvg nq‡Zv ev
ev` P‡j †Mj †m R‡b¨ gvR©bv PvIqv Qvov Avi wK Dcvq! GQvov iex›`ªbv‡_i Rxebxi
g‡a¨ cÖfvZKzgvi gy‡Lvcva¨vq-Gi Ôiex›`ªRxebxÕ, cªkvšÍKzgvi cv‡ji ÔiweRxebxÕi K_v
†Zv ej‡ZB nq| iex›`ªiPbv msKjb-m¤úv`bvi †¶‡Î cywjbwenvix †m‡bi bvg
D”PviY Ki‡Z nq| cÖvwZôvwbK ch©v‡q wKQy wKQy fv‡jv eB †ewi‡q‡Q| †U‡Mvi wimvP©
Bbw÷wUDU bv‡g KjKvZvq GKwU cªwZôvb Av‡Q| Av‡iv Av‡QÑ me †Zv e‡j †kl
Kiv hv‡e bv| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki K_v hw` ewj Zvn‡j Lye fv‡jv KvR Zuvi Rb¥kZe‡l©
Aa¨vcK Avwbmy¾vgv‡bi m¤úv`bvq †h eBwU †ewi‡qwQj Ôiex›`ªbv_Õ bv‡g †mwU, Avwg
g‡b Kwi GwU GKwU AmvaviY ¯§viKMÖš’| eQi we‡kK Av‡M cwðge½ †_‡K
†ewi‡qwQj mb&Rx`v LvZz‡bi ÔaŸwb †_‡K KweZvÕÑ GwUI Lye D‡j−L‡hvM¨ eB| Zuvi
Avi-GKwU eBÑ Ôiex›`ªmsMx‡Zi fvem¤ú`Õ| Avgv‡`i GLv‡b wePvicwZ gynv¤§`
nvweeyi ingv‡bi K‡qKwU eB‡qi K_v ej‡Z nq| Avng` iwdK, whwb cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb
iex›`ªPP©v‡K›`ª, Zuvi eB¸‡jvI D‡j−L‡hvM¨| nvqvr gvgy‡`i K_v ej‡Z cvwi|
iex›`ªwelq wb‡q Qwo‡q wQwU‡q _vKv wewfbœ cÖeÜ wb‡q †ewi‡q‡Q Avwbmy¾vgv‡bi
Ôiex›`ªbv_ : GKv‡ji †Pv‡LÕ| ûgvq~b AvRv‡`i Aíeq‡m †jLv Ôiex›`ªcÖeÜ : ivóª I
mgvRwPšÍvÕ eBwUi K_v ¯§iY Ki‡Z nq| fv‡jv eB wKš‘ †ewk cÖPvi cvqwb GiKg
wKQy eB Av‡QÑ †hgb ÔwecixZ †mªv‡Z iex›`ªbv_Õ, Avn‡g` ûgvq~‡bi GB eBwUi K_v
Lye †ewk †jvK Rv‡bb bv| †Mvjvg gyiwk‡`i Ôiex›`ªwe‡k¦ c~e©e½ c~e©e‡½ iex›`ªPP©vÕ
¸i“Z¡c~Y© eB| Ave`yk kvKz‡ii iex›`ªwelqK eB¸‡jvI we‡kl g‡bv‡hvM cvIqvi
†hvM¨| Aveyj dRj, ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb, †gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠayix, Av‡bvqvi cvkv,
†gvnv¤§` gwbi“¾vgvb, gbRy‡i gIjv, ˆmq` AvKig †nv‡mb, Avng` Kwei, gyn¤§`
gwRiDÏxb wgqv, fu~Bqv BKevjÑ Avgv‡`i †`‡k iex›`ªPP©vi †¶‡Î PURjw` GB
bvg¸‡jv g‡b Av‡m| Gfv‡e ej‡Z wM‡q A‡bK ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †jL‡Ki fv‡jv eB‡qi K_v
nq‡Zv ev` c‡o †M‡jv| iex›`ªPP©vq evsjv GKv‡Wgxi f~wgKvi K_vI Avgv‡`i f~‡j
†M‡j Pj‡e bv| Avi Avgv‡`i GLv‡b ÔQvqvbUÕ wbtm‡›`‡n ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i
P‡j‡Q| GQvovI Ggb Av‡iv wKQy wKQy msMVb ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb huviv Zvi g‡a¨ Kwjg
kivdxi bvg kª×vi mv‡_ ¯§iY Ki‡Z nq| Avi Avgv‡`i †`‡k iex›`ªbv‡_i Mvb huviv
K‡ib iex›`ªPP©vq Zuv‡`i GKUv eo f~wgKv Av‡Q| bvU‡Ki K_vI †Zv ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z
nq| iex›`ªmva©kZe‡l© ÔKvwj I KjgÕ-Gi †h iex›`ªmsL¨v †ewi‡q‡Q `yB evsjv wgwj‡q
Zv‡K mvgwqKc‡Îi †kªô cÖKvkbv ejv hvq|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv_ †h Ôcj−xmwgwZÕ ¯’vcbvi K_v e‡j‡Qb| †mB Ôcj−xmwgwZÕ
eZ©gvb mg‡qi MÖvgxY †cª¶vc‡U K‡ZvUv cÖvmw½K n‡e e‡j Avcwb g‡b K‡ib?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : eZ©gvb †cÖ¶vc‡Ui m‡½ wgwj‡q g~j aviYvUv‡K Avgiv MÖnY
Ki‡Z cvwi| bZzb GKUv avivq Avgiv †mUv‡K wb‡q †h‡Z cvwi| g~j K_v n‡”Q hviv
MÖv‡gi †Q‡j, MÖvg wb‡q wPšÍv K‡i, ZvivI MÖvg †P‡b bv| hv‡`i Rb¥ MÖv‡g ev hv‡`i
GKcyi“l ev `yÕcyi“l Av‡MI MÖv‡g evm wQj, Zv‡`iI MÖvg m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv aviYv †bB|
avbMv‡Qi Z³v nq wK bv, GiKg M‡àv cÖPwjZ Av‡Q bv? K_v A‡bKUv †mBiKgB|
†Uwjwfk‡b †`Ljvg wek¦we`¨vj‡qi QvÎ-QvÎxiv wewfbœ GjvKvq wM‡q avb jvMv‡”Q Ñ

gv‡V KvR Ki‡QÑ Zv‡`i AwfÁZvi K_v ej‡Q| MÖvg ev PvlevmÑ K…l‡Ki myL-`ytL
m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv aviYvB wQj bv Zv‡`i| GB cÖqvmUv Lye ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| GwU Lye †h
hyMvšÍKvix wKQy NUv‡e Zv bvÑ wKš‘ hviv MÖvg †P‡bbv, MÖv‡gi K…lK †P‡bbv, Zv‡`i
RxebhvÎv †`Lvi my‡hvM Zviv cv‡”Q Ges Zv‡`i AwfÁZvi K_v hLb †`‡ki kû‡i
myweav‡fvMx gvby‡li Kv‡Q †cuŠQv‡”Q, ZLb †mUvi †Zv Aek¨B GKai‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡Q|
GKUv wRwbm g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e †h, iex›`ªbv‡_i mg‡q K„l‡Ki i³ †hgb jvj wQj
GLbI †Zgwb jvjB Av‡Q| †m mg‡qi K…l‡Ki `ytL Ges eÂbv AvR‡Ki K„l‡Ki
`ytL Ges eÂbv †_‡K †Zv Avi Avjv`v n‡Z cv‡i bv Ñ aibUv n‡Z cv‡i Avjv`v|
Avgv‡`i †`‡k A‡bK GbwRI Av‡Q, A‡b‡K wciwMwi K‡ib| Mwie †KvbI wci
Av‡Qb Ggb D`vniY Avgvi Rvbv †bB| Avi GbwRI K‡i †KD e‡ov‡jvK nqbv
GiKg `„óvš—I Avgvi Rvbv †bB| Zuviv Dbœq‡bi bv‡g bvbv †KŠk‡j MÖv‡gi `wi`ª
gvby‡li m¤ú` AvZ¥mvr K‡ib Ñ Zv‡`i ÔMwi‡ei g‡a¨ MwieÕ evwb‡q †d‡jb| †Zv g‡b
ivL‡Z n‡e †h iex›`ªbv_ AvšÍwiKfv‡eB MÖv‡gi Dbœqb †P‡qwQ‡jb| KL‡bv KL‡bv
nq‡Zv ev Zuvi aviYv wQj D”Pwfjvlx| g‡b n‡Z cv‡i GUv GKUv KíbvcÖeY g‡bi
e¨vcvi| wKš‘ Avgiv hw` GKUz Mfx‡i Zwj‡q †`wL Zvn‡j g‡b n‡e †h iex›`ªbv_ †h
mgm¨vi K_v wPšÍv K‡i‡Qb †mB mgm¨v †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv fv‡e GLbI i‡q †M‡Q|
iex›`ªbv_ cj−xDbœq‡bi R‡b¨ †h Kg©cš’v MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb Zv †_‡K Avgiv GKUv
†cÖiYv †c‡Z cvwi| Zuvi †`Lv‡bv c_ a‡i Avgiv nuvU‡Z cvwi| †Zvgv‡K GKUv
D`vniY w`‡q †evSvB, GKmgq K‡ji Mvb ev MÖv‡gv‡dvb bv‡g GKUv hš¿ wQj, GwU
GwWmb Avwe®‹vi K‡iwQ‡jb| Ges Zuvi Avwe®‹v‡ii ci Pvi-cuvPRb AviI AvaywbK
K‡i †Zv‡jb ev ejv hvq ms¯‹vi K‡i hš¿wU‡K AviI Kvh©Kix K‡i †Zv‡jb| iex›`ªbv_
cj−xDbœq‡bi R‡b¨ †h KvR K‡i‡Qb, †h fv‡e †f‡e‡Qb AvaywbK wPšÍv I cÖhwy ³i
mn‡hv‡M Zv‡K Avgiv AviI Kvh©Ki K‡i Zzj‡Z cvwi| iex›`ªbv_ gvwUi KvQvKvwQ
wQ‡jb e‡j Zuvi cj−xDbœq‡bi mw`”Qv wQj, wbix¶vag©x gb wQj| Avi Avgiv hviv
gvwUi K_v ewj, gvwUi gvby‡li K_v ewj Zviv cÖZviYv Kwi, †auvKv w`B| Avgiv gvwUI
wPwb bv, gvbylI wPwb bv| Avgiv kn‡i e‡m avb‡¶‡Zi Qwe AuvwKÑ MÖvgxY wbm‡M©i
Zvwid Kwi| Avgiv kn‡i e‡m e¨vÛmsMx‡Z jvj‡bi Mvb Kwi Avi ïwb| GB
AvZ¥cÖZviYv iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡a¨ wQj bv| GB R‡b¨ iex›`ªbv_ LyeB cÖvmw½K, Aš—Z
cj−xDbœqb wPšÍvi R‡b¨ Ñ Avevi cj−xi gvbyl‡K Rvbvi R‡b¨I|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv Rvwb, bRi“j I jvjb Zuv‡`i Rxebe¨vcx wn›`ygymjgv‡bi HK¨ ¯’vc‡bi †Póv K‡i †M‡Qb| iex›`ªbv_ GB KvRwU K‡ZvLvwb K‡i‡Qb?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : wn›`y-gymjgvb H‡K¨i R‡b¨ GKRb ivRbxwZwe` GKfv‡e
KvR Ki‡eb, GKRb mgvRKgx© GKfv‡e KvR Ki‡eb, GKRb agx©q e¨w³Z¡ GKfv‡e
KvR Ki‡eb Ges GKRb †jLK Avi-GK ai‡b KvR Ki‡eb| †Zv jvjb Ges
bRi“‡ji K_v GLv‡b D`vniY wn‡m‡e ejv n‡”Q| iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi †jLvq mv¤cÖ`vwqK
m¤cÖxwZ m¤ú‡K© AZ¨šÍ ¸i“Z¡c~Y© K_v e‡j‡Qb| Ges wZwb mv¤cÖ`vwqK A‰b‡K¨i g~j
KviY AbymÜv‡bi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Gi R‡b¥i BwZnvmUv wK, cÖKw„ ZUv †Kgb Ges wKfv‡e
Gi wbimb n‡Z cv‡iÑ iex›`ªbv‡_i eû †jLvq GB welq¸‡jv G‡m‡Q| G‡¶‡Î
iex›`ªbv‡_i m‡½ jvjb Ges bRi“‡ji †gŠwjK cv_©K¨ n‡”Q †h bRi“j Ges jvjb

kvk¦wZKx-21

kvk¦wZKx-22

Zuv‡`i Mvb ev m„Rbkxj iPbvq Gme e‡j‡Qb| Avi iex›`ªbv_ g~jZ Zuvi gbbkxj
wPšÍvg~jK iPbvi ga¨ w`‡q wn›`y-gymwjg H‡K¨i K_v †f‡e‡Qb| iex›`ªbv_ gymjgvb
mgv‡Ri cÖwZ K‡ZvUv g‡bv‡hvMx wQ‡jb †mwU †evSv hvq †h wZwb W. gyn¤§` knx`yj−vn&
mv‡ne‡K kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡bi †h U&ªvw÷ †evW© Zvi m`m¨ K‡iwQ‡jb| KvRx Ave`yj I`y`‡K
wZwb G‡ZvUvB †mœn Ki‡Zb Ges fv‡jvevm‡Zb †mUv ejvi A‡c¶v iv‡L bv| Ôwn›`ygymjgv‡bi we‡ivaÕ GB wel‡q e³…Zv †`Iqvi R‡b¨ I`y`‡K wZwb kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡b Avgš¿Y
Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb| 1935 mv‡ji 26,27 I 28 gvP©Ñ GB wZb w`b GB e³…Zv nq Ges
eq‡mi fv‡i by‡q cov iex›`ªbv_ cÖwZw`bB GB mfvq Dcw¯’Z wQ‡jb| ïay ZvB bq, GwU
hLb eB AvKv‡i †ei nq iex›`ªbv_ ZLb Gi †Qv‡Uv GKwU f~wgKvI wj‡L w`‡qwQ‡jb|
iex›`ªbv‡_i †mœn, ï‡f”Qv I †cªiYv gymwjg †jLK‡`i cv‡_q wQj| KvRx Ave`yj I`y`
†_‡K ïi“ K‡i RmxgD`&`xb, gyn¤§` gbmyiDÏxb, e‡›` Avjx wgqv, Ave`yj Kvw`i,
mywdqv Kvgvj, gvngy`v LvZzb wmwÏKv, ˆmq` gyRZev Avjx, ûgvqyb Kwei Ñ Guiv †Zv
mevB iex›`ªbv‡_i KvQ †_‡K †cÖiYv †c‡q‡QbÑ iex›`ªbv‡_i †mœn, cÖxwZ, fv‡jvevmvq
mœvZ n‡q‡Qb| Zuvi A‡bK †jLvq gymjgvb m¤cÖ`vq m¤ú‡K© GgbwK Avgv‡`i cqM¤^i
m¤ú‡K© e³e¨ Av‡Q Ges wZwb kª×vi m‡½ GB agx©q gnvcyi“l‡K ¯§iY K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi
GKwU Mvb Av‡Q, Ô†Kvb Av‡jv‡K cÖv‡Yi cÖ`xc R¡vwj‡q aivq AvmÕ| GwU Avgv‡`i
bexRxi Rb¥wZw_ Dcj‡¶ iwPZ Ggb K_v †kvbv hvq| GUv mwVK wKbv iex›`ªM‡el‡Kiv
ej‡Z cvi‡eb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv Rvwb, K…wl Dbœq‡bi R‡b¨ iex›`ªbv_ cwZm‡i MÖvgxY
e¨vsK ¯’vcb K‡iwQ‡jb| ¶z`ª F‡Yi aviYvI Avgiv Zuvi KvQ †_‡K cvB| eZ©gvb
ÔMÖvgxY e¨vsKÕ I cÖPwjZ Ô¶z`ª FYÕ-Gi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔMÖvgxY e¨vsKÕ I Ô¶z`ª FYÕGi †gŠwjK cv_©K¨ †Kv_vq ?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : iex›`ªbv_ wbt¯^v_©fv‡e cwZm‡i MÖvgxY K…wl e¨vsK cÖwZôv
K‡iwQ‡jb Zuvi †bv‡ej cyi¯‹v‡ii UvKv w`‡q| iex›`ªbv‡_i D‡Ïk¨ wQj gnr, H †h
ejjvg, Pvwl-†Mi¯’i gnvR‡bi nv‡Z ew›` bv nIqv| Avi GLb hviv K…wlFY †`b,
¶z`ªFY †`b, Guiv †Zv mevB e¨emvqx| hw` nK K_v ej‡Z nq, iex›`ªbv_ wQ‡jb
mgvR`iw`, mgvRKgx©, wZwb MÖvgxY gvby‡li fvM¨ cwieZ©‡bi R‡b¨ MªvgxY e¨vs‡Ki
aviYv wb‡q K…wl e¨vsK ¯’vcb K‡iwQ‡jb| Avi AvR‡K GB ai‡bi e¨vsK cÖwZwôZ
n‡q‡Q cy‡ivcywi e¨emvwqK gybvdvi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K| Ges `yt‡Li m‡½ ej‡Z nq, GB
ai‡bi e¨vsK †_‡K FYMÖn‡Yi ci H Mwie Pvwliv FY †kva Ki‡Z bv †c‡i AviI
wbt¯^ n‡q †M‡Q| G ch©šÍ cwimsL¨vb wb‡j †`Lv hv‡e kZ kZ gvbyl AvZ¥nZ¨v
K‡i‡Qb, GB Ôbe¨ bxjKiÕ‡`i nvZ †_‡K Ae¨vnwZ cvIqvi †Kv‡bv Dcvq wQj bv
e‡j| GLv‡bB K_vcÖm‡½ P‡j Av‡m RmxgD`&`x‡bi GKwU Mv‡bi K_v| RmxgD`&`xb
PgrKvi me Mvb wj‡L‡QbÑ G wb‡q †Kv‡bv Av‡jvPbv nq bv| `ywf©‡¶i Ic‡i Zuvi
GKwU AmvaviY Mvb Av‡QÑ ÔevRvb Pj hvB Pj gv‡V jv½j evB‡ZÕ GwU
AveŸvmDÏx‡bi Mjvq wZwi‡ki `k‡K GBP.Gg.wf. †_‡K †ewi‡qwQj| Zvi GKUv
cO&w³ n‡”Q, ÔeD w`qv‡Q Mjvq `wo fy‡Li R¡vjv mB‡ZÕ| †Zgwb Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi gvbyl
hviv ¶y`ªFY MÖnY K‡i Zviv Mjvq `wo w`‡Z eva¨ nbÑ fy‡Li R¡vjv mB‡Z, bv my‡`i
R¡vjv mB‡Z!

••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv‡_i RxeÏkvq hw` `yB evsjvi wefvRb NU‡Zv Zvn‡j
wZwb GB wefvRb‡K wKfv‡e wb‡Zb e‡j Avcwb g‡b K‡ib?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : GUv †Zv ejvB evûj¨ iex›`ªbv_ KLbI e½wefvM Pvbwb|
Zvn‡j †Zv 1905-G iex›`ªbv_‡K Ni †Q‡o ivRc‡_ bvg‡Z n‡Zv bv| †`kfvM †`L‡j
iex›`ªbv_ †h `ytL †c‡Zb, cÖwZev` Rvbv‡Zb †mwU †Zv Avgiv Zuvi Av‡Mi cÖwZwµqv
†_‡KB eyS‡Z cvwi| 1905-G hLb e½wefvM †g‡b †bbwb, 1947 mv‡j wK Ggb
Awbevh© KviY wQj †h wZwb GB wefvM‡K Aby‡gv`b Ki‡Zb ?
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv Rvwb, weMZ miKv‡ii Avg‡j wkjvB`n KzwVevwoi iO
cwieZ©b Kiv n‡q‡Q| G m¤ú‡K© Avcbvi cÖwZwµqv wK, Rvb‡Z Pvw”Qjvg|
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : bv, †kv‡bv, Avgiv †Q‡j‡ejv †_‡K †`‡L AvmwQ †h GB
KzwVevwoi iO myiwK iO wKsev Mvp †Mvjvwc wQj| GUv KLbB mv`v wKsev mv`v‡U wQj
bv| Avwg GB e¨vcv‡i A‡bK eqmx-gvbyl-huv‡`i eqm 80/90 Qvwo‡q †M‡Q, Zuv‡`i
wR‡Ám K‡iwQ| †KD e‡jb wb KzwVevwoi iO mv`v wQj| wR‡Ám Kivi KviYUv n‡jv
ms¯‹w… ZwelqK gš¿Yvjq GB iO cwieZ©‡bi e¨vcv‡i Z`‡š—i R‡b¨ GKUv KwgwU MVb
K‡iwQj, †mB KwgwUi AvnŸvqK wQ‡jb bRi“j Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wbe©vnx cwiPvjK
K_vwkíx ikx` nvq`vi| Avgv‡K Zuv‡`i m‡½ GB e¨vcv‡i wKQy KvR Ki‡Z n‡qwQj|
Avwg cÖexY, cÖvPxb †ek wKQy gvby‡li mv‡_ G e¨vcv‡i Avjvc Kwi, Zviv 70-80 eQi
a‡i †`L‡Qb †h KzwVevwoi iOUvÑ H †h ejjvg, myowK iO ev †Mvjvwc iO wQj| GB
iOUv cwieZ©b †K‡bv Kiv nq Avwg Rvwb bvÑ Z‡e †mUv †h ïfeyw×i cwiPq enb K‡i
bv GB K_vUv eywS| GB cwieZ©b KivUv DwPr nqwb Ges G‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i
¯§„wZweRwoZ wkjvB`‡ni KzwVevwoi HwZn¨ bó n‡q‡Q| GwU GKwU mvs¯‹…wZK Aciva
e‡j Avwg g‡b Kwi| GwU weMZ miKv‡ii Avg‡j n‡q‡Q| †Zv GB miKv‡ii Avg‡j
GZ ¸i“Z¡mnKv‡i hLb Zuviv GB e¨vcv‡i †LuvR-Lei wb‡jb, GKUv AbymÜvb KwgwUI
MwVZ n‡jv, Zuviv Zuv‡`i cÖwZ‡e`bI w`‡jbÑ Zvic‡i iex›`ªbv‡_i mva©kZRb¥el©
†cwi‡q †M‡jI KywVevwo‡Z cÖK…Z i‡Oi †cuvP jvM‡jv bv, GwU AZ¨šÍ `yfv©M¨RbK I
†e`bv`vqK| miKv‡ii MiR Kiv DwPr wQjÑ ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv KZ©e¨ wQj|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : GB i‡Oi cwieZ©b hLb Kiv n‡jv, ZLb †KvbI cÖwZev` Kiv nqwb?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : Aek¨B n‡q‡Q| A‡b‡KB K‡i‡Qb| Avwg wb‡RI wewfbœ
wgwWqvq G e¨vcv‡i K_v e‡jwQ| Avwg e‡jwQ, wj‡LwQ, †KvbI dj nqwb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv †R‡bwQ, wkjvB`‡n wek¦fviZxi Av`‡j iex›`ª
wek¦we`¨vjq ¯’vcb Kiv n‡e| G wel‡q Avcbvi Abyfw~ Z Rvb‡Z Pvw”Qjvg|
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : GB wel‡q Avgv‡`i gvbbxq cÖavbgš¿x iex›`ªbv‡_i 149 Zg
Rb¥Rqš—x‡Z XvKvi Imgvwb wgjbvqZ‡bi Abyôv‡b †NvlYv w`‡qwQ‡jb †h, wkjvB`‡n
iex›`ª wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZwôZ n‡e| Gev‡ii mva©kZe‡l©i Abyôv‡bI wZwb †mB †NvlYvi
K_vB D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb| GgbwK RvZxq msm‡` GK cÖ‡kœi DˇiI wZwb wkjvB`‡nB
iex›`ª wek¦we`¨vjq n‡e Ggb e‡jwQ‡jb| gvbbxq cÖavbgšx¿ hLb e‡j‡Qb wbðqB
iex›`ª wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZwôZ n‡e, Ges RvqMvi e¨vcv‡iI wZwb ¯úófv‡e D‡j−L
K‡i‡Qb| wZwb GI D‡j−L K‡ib, iex›`ªbv‡_i ¯§„wZweRwoZ mvRv`cy‡iI GB

kvk¦wZKx-23

kvk¦wZKx-24

wek¦we`¨vj‡qi GKwU K¨v¤úvm _vK‡e| Zv-†Zv _vK‡ZB cv‡i| GB ai‡bi K¨v¤úvm
KjKvZvi iex›`ªfviZx wek¦we`¨vj‡qi wZb-Pvi‡U Av‡Q Ñ †Rvovmuv‡Kv VvKzievwo‡Z
Av‡Q, wewU †iv‡W Av‡Q, DËie‡½ bZzb GKUv Pvjy n‡q‡Q| ZvB mvRv`cy‡i †Zv †mUv
n‡ZB cv‡i| †mBm‡½ Avgiv g‡b Kwi cwZm‡iI hw` GB wek¦we`¨vj‡qi GKUv K…wl
Abyl` Kiv nq Zvn‡j GB wZbwU RvqMv wgwj‡qB iex›`ª wek¦we`¨vjq c~Y©Zv cv‡e|
Gi m‡½ †Zv Avevi me A‡ji gvby‡liB Abyf~wZ, Av‡eM Rwo‡q Av‡Q Ges †mB
Av‡eM‡K Avwg kª×v Kwi, †mB Abyf~wZ‡K Avwg m¤§vb RvbvB| c~e©e‡½ iex›`ª¯§„wZi †h
wÎfyR AÂj †mwU GB iex›`ª wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi ga¨ w`‡q bZzb e¨Äbv cv‡e Ges
iex›`ª¯§„wZi AÂj¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU AvwZ¥K m¤úK© M‡o IVvi my‡hvM wgj‡e|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : mv¶vrKv‡ii G‡Kev‡i †kl ch©v‡q Avgiv P‡j G‡mwQ| G
ch©v‡q Avwg Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z Pvw”Qjvg| Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi K‡qKwU msL¨v Avcwb
†`‡L‡Qb, Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ m¤ú‡K© Avcbvi AwfgZ wK?
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : GLv‡bI iex›`ªbv_‡K ¯§iY K‡iB ReveUv Avwg w`‡Z PvB|
iex›`ªbv_ GK RvqMvq e‡j‡Qb, Ô†`‡ni me i³ gy‡L D‡V Avmvi bvg ¯^v¯’¨ bqÕ|
Avgiv wK †`LwQ, Avgv‡`i mewKQyB †Zv ivRavbx‡Kw›`ªK| XvKvi evB‡i †h RMr
Av‡Q, gvbyl Av‡Q Ges KvR Kiv hvq, KvR K‡i P‡j‡Q gvbyl bvbv †¶‡ÎÑ †m-K_v
†h‡bv myweav‡fvMx fvM¨evb gvby‡liv ¯^xKviB Ki‡Z Pvb bv| ZvB ¯^xK…wZi R‡b¨ XvKvi
w`‡K ZvwK‡q _vK‡Z nq| Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ †ei nq ivRkvnx †_‡K Ges Avwg hZ`~i Rvwb
†h ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vj‡qi K‡qKRb Zi“Y QvÎ-QvÎx Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ D`&‡hv‡M †ei
K‡i _v‡K| †h eq‡mi †Q‡jiv GLb gv`Kvm³ n‡”Q, mš¿vm I ˆbiv‡R¨i g‡a¨
wb‡R‡K Rwo‡q †dj‡Q, hviv A‰ea A‡_©i mÜv‡b QyU‡Q, †mB c‡_ bv wM‡q Giv
ms¯‹…wZPP©vi KvR Ki‡Q| Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi K‡qKwU msL¨v Avwg †`‡LwQ, Zv‡Z †ek Avkv
†R‡M‡Q| ivRkvnx †_‡K Zi“Y ms¯‹…wZ‡mexiv †h D`&‡hvM wb‡q‡Q wbôv I j¶¨ _vK‡j
†mB cÖqvm GKw`b mv_©K n‡e, mdj n‡e| †h KÕwU msL¨v Avwg †`‡LwQÑ Zvi g‡a¨
GKwU msL¨vi K_v Avgv‡K D‡j−L Ki‡ZB nq, †mwU kvk¦wZKxi †jvKms¯‹…wZ wel‡q
GKwU we‡kl msL¨v| GK K_vq ejv P‡j †h GwU Lye †Pv‡L aivi g‡Zv GKwU KvR|
Aek¨ Avwg GKUz wPwšÍZI Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi fwel¨‡Zi e¨vcv‡i| GB Zi“‡Yiv hLb
covïbv †kl K‡i Rxeb-RxweKvi Kv‡R bvbv w`‡K Qwo‡q-wQwU‡q co‡e, ZLbI wK
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ †ei n‡e? hv‡Z †ei nq †mB iKg GKUv aviv ˆZwi Kiv `iKvi|
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi R‡b¨ Avgvi A‡bK ï‡f”Qv I Awfb›`b|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : m¨vi, Avgv‡K Avcbvi g~j¨evb mgq †`Iqvi R‡b¨ AmsL¨
ab¨ev`| Kvgbv Kwi, Avcwb `xN© Kg©gq I my¯’ Rxe‡bi AwaKvix †nvb|
•Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix : †gvRvd&di, Zzwg ivRkvnx †_‡K Kó K‡i G‡m Avgvi GB
G‡jv‡g‡jv K_v ïb‡j Ges Zv h‡š¿ aviY Ki‡j Zvi R‡b¨ Avwg †Zvgv‡K ab¨ev`
RvbvB| †Zvgvi ˆah© I kª‡gi cÖksmv Ki‡Z nq| †Zvgvi Ges Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ cwiev‡ii
g½j Kvgbv Kwi|

kvk¦wZKx-25

Ôiex›`ªbv‡_i Kvw•¶Z wQj ¯^vaxbZvi wfZi ¯^vaxbZvÑÕ

Ave`yk kvKzi-Gi mv¶vrKvi
Ave`yk kvKz‡ii Rb¥ 25†k †deª“qvwi 1941
mv‡j, †bvqvLvjx †Rjvi myavivg _vbvi
iv‡gk¦icyi MÖv‡g| Kg©Rxe‡b, cÖ_‡g
wek¦we`¨vj‡q Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨ Aa¨vcbv, c‡i
cvwK¯Ív‡bi wmwfj mvwf©‡m †hvM`vb K‡ib|
Ges evsjv‡`‡ki miKv‡ii mwPe wnmv‡e
Aemi MÖnY K‡ib| covïbv K‡ib wewea
welq I bvbvb fvlvq| †j‡Lb Mí, Dcb¨vm,
bvUK, iPbv, cÖeÜ, ¯§„wZK_v BZ¨vw`|
1979 mv‡j Ôevsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹viÕ cvb †QvUM‡íi Rb¨| 2003 mv‡j cwðge½
†_‡K cvb ÔAwgqf~lY cyi¯‹viÕ| 1410 m‡b Ô†MvjvcmsMªnÕi Rb¨ cvb ÔcÖ_g Av‡jv
el©‡miv eBÕ cyi¯‹vi| mgMÖ mvwnZ¨K‡g©i Rb¨ ÔAj³ mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹viÕ cvb 2008
mv‡j| MíMÖš’, bvUK I Dcb¨v‡mi cvkvcvwk cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q Ôgnvgwng iex›`ªbv_Õ,
Ôci¤úivnxb iex›`ªbv_Õ, Ôiex›`ªbv_‡K hZUzKz RvwbÕ, ÔmsMxZ mswerÕ, ÔevOvjxi gyw³i
MvbÕ BZ¨vw` cÖeÜMÖš’|

iex›`ªmsL¨vi Rb¨ Ave`yk kvKzi-Gi GB mv¶vrKviwU Avwg B-†gB‡ji gva¨‡g
MÖnY K‡iwQ| Ñ †gvRvd&di †nv‡mb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Ôev½vjx gvÎB ivexw›`ªKÕÑ K_vwUi mv‡_ Avcwb KZUv mngZ
†cvlY K‡ib ?
•Ave`yk kvKzi : K_vUv ejv n‡q _v‡K K_vi K_v wn‡m‡e, AvwgI e‡j _vwK| wKš‘
Kv‡Ri K_v wn‡m‡e K_vwUi m‡½ Avwg we›`ygvÎ mngZ bB| KviY, mngZ n‡j
evsjv‡`‡ki MYgvbyl, we‡kl K‡i MÖvgevsjvi RbmvaviY, evOvwj _v‡Kb bv| †Kbbv
Zuviv Ôivexw›`ªKÕ †Zv bbBÑ iex›`ªbv_‡K Rv‡bb bv, GgbwK †P‡bbI bv| ZvI
Avgv‡`i g‡Zv iex›`ª-†jLK‡`i †`v‡lB| iex›`ªbv_‡K Zuvi mvgwMÖK wPšÍv‡PZbv,
a¨vbaviYv I w`Kwb‡`©kbvmn Dc¯’vcbvi gva¨‡g e„nËi evOvwjmgv‡Ri ˆ`bw›`b
Rxe‡b cÖvmw½K K‡i Zzj‡Z cvwiwb Avgiv| Zuvi ¯^‡`k‡PZbv, ivRbxwZ-wPšÍv,
¯^vaxbZvfvebv, MÖvgfvebv Ges cwi‡ekfvebvi m‡½ RbmvaviY‡K mycwiwPZ K‡i
†Zvjv nqwb| Avgiv bMievmxivI iex›`ªbv‡_i MÖv‡gvbœqb-gvb‡evbœqbgyLx Kg©avivq
†hvM bv w`‡q †Kej Zuvi kÖve¨Kve¨ I `„k¨Kve¨ h_v Mvb Avi bv‡Pi Avb›`avivq
†KvjvnjgyLi _vKv‡KB Ôivexw›`ªKÕ nIqv Ávb K‡iwQ| A_©vr Ômvab Kg©xÕ‡K Gwo‡q
†Kej ÔPviY KweÕ‡K wb‡qB †g‡ZwQ| fz‡jwQ †h wZwb hyMcr Kwe¸i“ I KweKgx©| LÊ
iex›`ªbv_‡K bq, ALÊ iex›`ªbv_‡K Rxe‡bi m½x K‡i wb‡Z cvi‡jB †Kej evOvwj‡K
h_v A‡_© ivexw›`ªK ejv hv‡e|
kvk¦wZKx-26

••†gv. †nv. : Avcwb ivRkvnx iex›`ª cwil‡`i Av‡qvwRZ GK Abyôv‡b e³…Zv cÖ`vbKv‡j
e‡jwQ‡jb, iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖ_gw`KKvi Mvb¸wj Av‡eM ev fvevwkªZ Ges †k‡li w`KKvi
Mvb¸wj n‡”Q iƒcvwkªZ| Avgiv Rvwb, Avcwb GKRb m½xZÁ Ges msMxZwkíxI e‡U|
ZvB welqwU‡K Avi GKUz we¯ÍvwiZfv‡e Avcbvi KvQ †_‡K ïb‡Z Pvw”Qjvg|
•Av. kv. : iex›`ªbv‡_i Mv‡bi m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cwiYZ ch©vq aiv nq Zuvi K‡¤úvRviRxe‡bi †kl ce©wU‡K (1921-1941)| G-ce©wU‡K ZvwË¡KMY e‡jb fve‡`¨vZK I
iƒccÖKvkKÑ ivMivwMYx I Kve¨i‡mi Av‡iK ai‡bi M½v-hgybv m½g| msMxZRûix
a~R©wUcÖmv` e‡jb, G-ch©v‡qi Mvb¸wj m¤ú~Y© Bm&‡_wUK wKsev iƒcvKzj| GKB K_v
Bw›`iv †`ex †PŠayivbxI e‡j‡Qb Zuvi iex›`ª¯§„wZ‡Z : ÔA‡b‡K Zuvi cÖ_g eq‡mi Mvb
†ewk cQ›` K‡ib, Zvi fvlv I fve mij gg©¯úk©x eÕ‡j| wZwb wb‡R Avgv‡K e‡j‡Qb
Avgvi Av‡MKvi Mvb¸wj B‡gvkbvj, GLbKvi¸wj Bm&‡_wUK&|Õ
K_vUvi GšÍvi cÖgvY wgj‡e MxZweZv‡bi ÔwewPÎÕ c‡e© msKwjZ wewfbœ FZz-A‡½i
eûwea Mv‡b, we‡klZ AvbyôvwbK-kxl©K m½x‡Z| †kl c‡e©i wek eQ‡i Kwe fv‡ei
Mv‡bi †Nvi KvwU‡q iƒ‡ci Mv‡bi jxjvq we‡fvi wQ‡jb| KwewP‡Ëi B‡gvkb †_‡K
BgvwR‡bk‡bi w`‡K, A_©vr ü`qe„wË †_‡K eyw×e„wËi w`‡K, AMÖMwZ Aek¨ AšÍ¨ Dwbk
kZK †_‡KB j¶¨ Kiv hvw”Qj| 1897 mv‡j iwPZ Ô†Kb evRvIÕ MvbwUi D`vniY
w`‡q 1935 mv‡j iex›`ªbv_ a~R©wUcÖmv`‡K wj‡L‡Qb :
ÔcÖ_g eq‡m Avwg ü`qfve cÖKvk Kievi †Póv K‡iwQ Mv‡b, Avkv Kwi †mUv KvwU‡q D‡VwQ
c‡i| cwiYZ eq‡mi Mvb fve-evrjvevi R‡b¨ bq, iƒc †`evi Rb¨| Zrmswk−ó Kve¨¸wjI
AwaKvskB iƒ‡ci evnb| Ô†Kb evRvI KuvKb KbKb KZ Qjf‡iÕÑ G‡Z hv cÖKvk cv‡”Q Zv
Kíbvi iƒcjxjv| fvecÖKv‡k e¨w_Z ü`‡qi cÖ‡qvRb Av‡Q, iƒccÖKvk A‰nZzK| gvj‡Kv‡li
†PŠZvj hLb ïwb Zv‡Z Kvbœvnvwmi m¤úK© †`wL †b, Zv‡Z †`wL MxZiƒ‡ci M¤¢xiZv|Õ

••†gv. †nv. : Avcwb GKRb K_vmvwnwZ¨K wnmv‡e evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨ iex›`ªbv‡_i
Zzjbvg~jK Ae¯’vbUv †Kgb n‡e e‡j g‡b K‡ib ?
•Av. kv. : K_vmvwn‡Z¨ iex›`ªbv‡_i Zzjbvg~jK Ae¯’vb GL‡bv ch©šÍ AbwZµvšÍ|
fwel¨‡ZI Ggwb AbwZµg¨ _vK‡e wKbv Zv nq‡Zv GLwb ejv hv‡e bv| Z‡e Zuvi
Mí¸‡”Qi A‡bK Mí, Dcb¨vm Ô†MvivÕ Ges e¨w³MZ cÖeÜvewji cÖvq meB evsjv fvlv
I mvwn‡Z¨ exclusive class ev ¯^Zš¿ †kÖwY‡Z-†h wPiKvjB weivR Ki‡e †mK_v GLwb
ejv hvq| Avwg GLwb Av‡iv ej‡Z PvB‡ev †h D¾¡j DBU, ïå wnDgvi, PgKcÖ`
KíbvF× iƒcK, m¤úªmvwiZ Dcgvmg„× nvm¨‡KŠZz‡Ki w¯œ»kxZj Avb›`avivq
cÖengvb me©`v me©v‡½ i‡mvËxY© M`¨wkíxi Avm‡i iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii g‡Zv we‡kl
DrKl©e‡j m‡e©vrK…ó wkíx Avi †KD Avm‡eb bv e‡jB g‡b nq|
••†gv. †nv. : Ôbvix wk¶v, evj¨ weevn I weaev weevnÕÑ bvix welqK GB wZbwU cÖ‡kœ
iex›`ªbv‡_i wPšÍv-†PZbvi mv‡_ Zuvi cvwievwiK Rxe‡b A_©vr practice-Gi †¶‡Î †Kvb
¯^-we‡ivwaZv wQj wK-bv ?
•Av. kv. : wQj| welqwU we¯ÍvwiZ ejv `iKvi| †h-iex›`ªbv_ †jLvq I e³…Zvq Ggb
cÖMwZkxj, bvixev`x Ges mgvRm‡PZb GKRb ¯úóe³vi fveg~wZ© M‡o †Zv‡jb, wZwb
†Kgb K‡i Zuvi wZb Kb¨vi evj¨weevn w`‡Z cv‡ib Agb wbg©gfv‡e? Kwe e‡ov †g‡q
gvayixjZv Ii‡d †ejvi (1886-1918) hLb we‡q †`b, ZLb Zuvi eqm gvÎ †PvÏ
kvk¦wZKx-27

eQi| †g‡Rv †g‡q †iYyKv Ii‡d ivYxi (1891-1903) we‡q †`b gvÎ mv‡o `k eQi
eq‡m| †Qv‡Uv †g‡q AZmxjZv Ii‡d gxivi (1894-1969) we‡q †`b eqm †PvÏ cvi
n‡ZB| iex›`ªRxebxKvi cÖfvZKzgvi gy‡Lvcva¨vq wj‡L‡Qb : Ôiex›`ªbv_ GZKvj
evj¨weev‡ni wei“‡× M‡`¨ c‡`¨ eû iPbv wjwLqv Ae‡k‡l ¯^qs †mB wRwbmUv mg_©b Kwi‡jb
Kx KwiqvÑ evYx I Rxe‡bi g‡a¨ G AmsMwZ †Kb, Zvnvi m`yËi bvB|Õ (c„. 34, wØZxq LÊ,
iex›`ªRxebx, wek¦fviZx, 1999)|
iweRxebxKvi cÖkšÍKzgvi cvj wj‡L‡Qb : Ô†PŠÏ eQ‡iiI Kgeqmx gvayixjZvi weev‡ni Rb¨
iex›`ªbv‡_i e¨¯Í nIqv‡Z Avðh©‡eva bv K‡i cviv hvq bv|...†Kej Kwe bq, evOvwj mgv‡R Zuvi
f‚wgKv wQj wPšÍvbvq‡Ki| ZvB e¨w³¯^v‡_© Zuvi mvgvwRK f‚wgKv we¯§i‡Yi BwZe„ËwU wKwÂr
A¯^w¯ÍKi|Õ (c„. 290, iweRxebx, PZz_© LÊ, Avb›` cvewjkvm©, KjKvZv, 2001)|

†h-evsjv †_‡K bvixRvMi‡Yi nvIqv ZLb mviv fviZe‡l© µgk Qwo‡q co‡Q †mB
evsjvq, we‡kl K‡i KjKvZv I mwbœwnZ A‡j, †m-bvixgyw³wPšÍvi nvIqvi †eM
Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e †ewk nIqvB ¯^vfvweK| A_P †Rvovmuv‡Kvi VvKzicwiev‡i iex›`ªbv‡_i
wnm¨vq †m-cÖfv‡ei †jkgvÎ †bB| Ab¨vb¨ wnm¨vq wKš‘ †ek Av‡Q| KweKb¨v †ejvi
13 eQ‡ii eo mywk¶vcÖvßv fvwZwR Bw›`iv †`exi (1873-1960) we‡q nq 26 eQi
eq‡m| †ejvi 14 eQ‡ii eo Kwei fvMwb mijv †`exi (1872-1945) we‡q nq 33
eQi eq‡m| wZwb VvKzievwo‡Z ˆkke KvwU‡q †e_yb ¯‹z‡j fwZ© n‡q Kwe Kvwgbx ivq,
†jwW Aejv emy cÖg‡y Li mv_x nb, 1886 mv‡j G›UªvÝ I 1890 mv‡j Bs‡iwR‡Z
Abvm©mn weG cvk K‡i ¯^Y©c`K cvb| Zuv‡`i wcZv‡`i Avq †ewk wQj ejvi gv‡b
`uvov‡eÑ †Kej UvKvi Afv‡eB iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi Kb¨v‡`i wk¶vi e`‡j evj¨weevn w`‡Z
eva¨ n‡qwQ‡jb| GUv †av‡c wUK‡e bv, eis nvwmi D‡`ªK Ki‡e|
Z‡e ¯^xq Kb¨v‡`i Ô†e-AvBwbÕ we‡q †`evi †cQ‡b iex›`ªbv‡_i Avw_©K we‡ePbv
Aek¨B wQjÑ we‡q¸wji LiP Rwg`vwii miKvwi Znwej †_‡K g¨v‡bR Kiv, †hUv
†`‡e›`ªbv‡_i g„Z¨z i ci eÈb n‡q hvIqv Rwg`vwii †m‡i¯Ív †_‡K cvIqv m¤¢e n‡Zv
bv| gnwl©i eqm ZLbB 84 †ci“‡bvi gy‡L, kixiI wbwðZB AebwZkxj| G †hb
wb‡Ri Avw_©K m¼U‡gvP‡bi R‡b¨ †g‡q¸wj‡K wemR©b †`Iqv| †mUvI †Zv iex›`ªPwi‡Îi Ici fv‡jv Av‡jv †d‡j bv| e¯‘Z Zuvi cÖwZwU Kb¨vi Acwimxg `ytLK‡ói
Rxe‡bi GKK iPwqZv ¯^qs iex›`ªbv_B| hw`I KwecyÎ i_x›`ªbv‡_i Av‡gwiKvq weÁvb
Zcm¨vi g‡Zv Zuvi KjKvZvq †gvU‡ii e¨emvI Aíw`‡bB eÜ n‡q hvq, Zey wcZv Zuvi
cyÎwU‡K mycwÖ ZwôZ Ki‡Z †Póvi †Kv‡bv Kmyi K‡ibwb| wcZvi GB †Póvi wQ‡U‡duvUv
†_‡KI †ejv-ivwb-gxiviv ewÂZ n‡jb †Kb? †Kb Zuv‡`i h_vh_ wk¶vi e¨e¯’v bv
K‡i mvZ ZvovZvwo msmv‡ii Nvwb Uvb‡Z eva¨ Kiv nj?
KjKvZvq ev wkjvB`‡n ev kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡bi wk¶vcÖwZôv‡b Kb¨v‡`i Dchy³
wk¶vjv‡fi my‡hvM `v‡bi Dcvq I mvg_©¨ Kwei h‡_óB wQj| Zvi cwie‡Z© Gi-Ii
GUv-IUvi Rb¨ AwbqwgZ nvDm-wUDUi wn‡m‡e Bs‡iR wkw¶Kv ev evOvwj wk¶‡Ki
wbhyw³‡Z KweKb¨v‡`i †Zgb wKQz AR©b nqwb| Kwei g‡bvfve †hb Zv‡`i h_v‡hvM¨
wk¶v-`x¶v n‡jI P‡j, bv-n‡jI P‡j|
fve‡Z Avðh© jv‡M, †h mgq †g‡q‡`i we‡q I wk¶v wb‡q wn›`ymgv‡Ri ms¯‹viK I
msi¶K‡`i g‡a¨ me †_‡K †ewk gZ‡f` †`Lv w`‡qwQj †mB msKUj‡Mœ iex›`ªbv_

kvk¦wZKx-28

Ôwn›`yweevnÕ bv‡g GK my`xN© cÖeÜ wj‡L mv‡qÝ A¨v‡mvwm‡qkb n‡j cvV Ki‡jb|
cÖeÜwU‡Z Kwe evj¨weev‡ni Zxeª we‡ivwaZv Ki‡jb| A_P wZwb wb‡Ri †g‡qi
†hŠebvM‡gi Av‡MI we‡q w`‡jb| GB iex›`ªbv_B meyRc‡Î Ô¯¿xi cÎÕ bvgK
†QvUMíwU wj‡L mvwnwZ¨K Ges mgvRZvwË¡K gn‡j Zzgyj Av‡jvob m„wó K‡ibÑ eis
ejv †h‡Z cv‡i evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ bvixwe‡`ªv‡niB m~Pbv K‡ib|
GB cÖm‡½ D‡j−L‡hvM¨, ivg‡gvnb ivq cÖewZ©Z wn›`ya‡g©i weï× G‡Kk¦iev`
wbw®Œqfv‡e AbymiY Kivq Ges mgvR ms¯‹vi ev cÖPviagx© †Kv‡bv iKg mwµq D‡`¨vM
MÖnY †_‡K weiZ _vKvq gnwl© †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii (1817-1905) Avw` eªvþmgvR
wejyß nq| Ab¨w`‡K †KkeP›`ª †m‡bi (1838-1884) we¯§qKi evwM¥Zv, cvwÊZ¨ I
wbijm DÏxcbvq beMwVZ ÔfviZel©xq eªvþmgvRÕ mviv evsjvq Ges fviZe‡l©i DËi
cwðg cÖ‡`k, cÄve, gv`ªvRmn wewfbœ A‡j cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| g~jZ GB mgv‡Ri
†Póvq miKvi 1872 wLª÷v‡ã AvBb cvm K‡i evj¨weevn I eûweevn wbwl× K‡i Ges
weaevweevn ev wn›`y-gymwjg cÖf…wZi g‡Zv ¯^xK…Z ag©vej¤^x bb Ggb me bi-bvixi
g‡a¨ AmeY© weevn‡K ˆeaZv `vb K‡i|
GB cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z cÖkœ nj, 1872 wLª÷v‡ã evj¨weevn AvBbZ wbwl× nIqv m‡Ë¡I
iex›`ªbv_ 1901 mv‡j e‡ov I †g‡Rv †g‡qi Ges 1907 mv‡j †Qv‡Uv †g‡qi
evj¨weevn w`‡q wK Wvnv †eAvBwb KvR K‡ibwb? Avw` eªvþ mgv‡Ri GKKv‡ji
m¤úv`K n‡qI wb‡Ri †g‡q‡`i wkÿvi AwaKvi ev my‡hvMjvf †_‡K ewÂZ K‡i Kwe I
mgv‡Ri wk¶vbvqK wcZv †h-Mwn©Z KvRwU K‡i‡QbÑ †mUv‡K †Kej i¶YkxjB bq,
cÖwZwµqvkxjI ej‡Z n‡e|
VvKzievwoi Ab¨vb¨ AwaKvsk wkï ¯‹zj-K‡j‡R co‡Z †M‡jI iex›`ªbv_ wb‡Ri
mšÍvb‡`i KjKvZvi ¯‹z‡j cvVvbwb †Kbbv iex›`ªRxebxKv‡ii fvlvq, ÔZv‡`i
wk¶v`x¶v m¤^‡Ü Zuvi wbR¯^ gZ Av‡Q...|Õ ev¯Í‡e wKš‘ †`Lv †Mj †h Kwei †g‡qiv
evwo‡ZI †jLvcov Kivi †Zgb my‡hvM †c‡jb bv| 1308 mv‡ji Avlvp-kªveY gv‡m
e‡ov I †g‡Rv †g‡qi we‡qi ci H eQ‡iB 7B †cŠl cuvPwU QvÎ wb‡q cÖwZwôZ nj
kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡bi ÔeªþPh©vkªgÕÑ cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi ¸i“M„‡ni Av`‡k©| †Qv‡Uv †g‡q gxivi
eqm ZLb gvÎ mvZ eQi| Zuvi covïbvi e¨e¯’v wcZ…‡`e GB we`¨vj‡qI wKš‘
K‡ibwb| mvaviY eªvþ mgv‡Ri cÖMwZev`x mf¨iv hLb †g‡q‡`i D”Pwk¶vjv‡fi
my‡hvM †`Iqvi R‡b¨ cyi“lkvwmZ mgv‡R †Rvi cÖPvi Pvjv‡”Qb ZLb iex›`ªbv_ GKRb
`vwqZ¡kxj I `~i`kx© wcZv Ges mgv‡R mycwiwPZ GKRb kª‡×q e¨w³Z¡ wn‡m‡e Avcb
Kb¨v‡`i K‡jR-BDwbf©vwmwU‡Z D”PZi wk¶vi Z_v e¨w³Z¡MV‡bi Dchy³ my‡hvM w`‡q
Rbmvavi‡Yi mvg‡b D¾¡j GKUv BwZevPK `„óvšÍ ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvi‡Zb| wKš‘ Zv bv
K‡i wZwb G‡K G‡K wZbwU Kb¨v‡KB evj¨weevn w`‡q k¦ïievwo cvwV‡q w`‡jb!
GB cÖm‡½ g‡b c‡o, VvKzievwoi †g‡qiv M½vmœv‡b †h‡Zb †Niv‡Uvc cvwé P‡o| eÜ
cvwé my× Zuv‡`i R‡j Pzwe‡q †Zvjv nZ| Nv‡U †b‡g mœvb Kivi my‡hvM †c‡Zb bv
Zuviv| Av‡¯Í Av‡¯Í †mB evwo‡Z AM©vb, wcqv‡bv, d¬zU cÖf…wZ wejvwZ ev`¨hš¿ I
Avmevec‡Îi g‡Zv wejvwZ wk¶v Ges †KZv-KvbybI Xz‡K‡Q|

iex›`ªbv‡_i †g‡Rv `v`v, fviZe‡l©i cÖ_g AvB. wm. Gm m‡Z¨›`ªbv_ †ev¤^vB †_‡K
evwo Avmvi mgq ¯¿x Ávb`vbw›`bx‡K †g‡gi †cvkvK cwi‡q G‡b‡Qb| Zuv‡K gvwmK
ÔevjKÕ cwÎKv m¤úv`bvi Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ n‡Z w`‡q‡Qb| m‡e©vcwi me©K‡g© ¯¿x¯^vaxbZvi RxešÍ `„óvšÍiƒ‡c GKUv Av`k© Zz‡j ai‡Z w`‡q‡QbÑ Avengvb Kv‡ji ¯’wei
mgvRwUi mvg‡b|
Kwei bZzb `v`v †R¨vwZwi›`ªbv_ Ges Zuvi ¯¿x Kv`¤^ix `y‡Uv †Nvovq †P‡c M‡oi gv‡V
†eov‡Z †h‡Zb †jvKwb›`vq Kvb bv w`‡q| GB `yB `v`vi m‡½ ˆK‡kvi I †hŠe‡bi A‡bK
w`b KvUv‡jI iex›`ªbv_ Avcb Kb¨v‡`i wejvwZ nvIqv †_‡K `~‡i †i‡L‡Qb †Zv e‡UBÑ Le©
K‡i‡Qb Zuv‡`i ¯^vaxbZv I mKj m¤¢vebv| A_P †g‡Rv`v`v m‡Z¨›`ªbv_ Zuvi Kb¨v
Bw›`iv‡K Ges bÕw`w` ¯^Y©Kzgvix Zuvi Kb¨v mijv‡K †jLvcovi mKj my‡hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb|
mvdvB MvB‡Z bv-PvB‡j ej‡Z nqÑ iex›`ªbv_ Avcb mšÍvb‡`i cÖwZcvj‡bi †¶‡Î
wj½-ˆel‡g¨i cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| †g‡q‡`i wk¶v I we‡q †`Iqvi e¨vcv‡i wZwb
i¶Ykxj gvbwmKZvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| gnwl©i AvMÖ‡n Kwei evwjKvea~ g„Yvwjbx fwZ©
n‡qwQ‡jb j‡i‡Uv ¯‹z‡j| A_P Zuvi Kb¨viv †Kv‡bv ¯‹z‡jiB gyL †`L‡jb bv, evwo‡ZI
†ewkw`b †jLvcov Kivi my‡hvM †c‡jb bv|
iex›`ªbv‡_i AvPi‡Y Amvgćm¨i ev Zuvi K_vq I Kv‡R ¯^we‡ivwaZvi `„óvšÍ A‡bKB
Av‡Q| mgvRms¯‹viK wbwkKvšÍ P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi †gR`v`v wewkó wk¶K I mgvR‡mex
eªvþ beKvšÍi cyÎ bwjbxKvšÍi m‡½ GK weaevi we‡q nq| †mUvB wQj Avw`
eªvþmgv‡Ri cÖ_g weevn| iex›`ªbv_B AvPvh© wn‡m‡e ïf AbyôvbwU cwiPvjbv K‡ib|
A_P wZwbB Avevi åvZz®úyÎ e‡j›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii ea~ 14 eQi eq‡mi weaev mykxjv
(1885-1928) Ii‡d mvnvbvi cybwe©evn †VwK‡q Zuvi `ytLx RxebwU‡K (wPii“Mœ ¯^vgxi
wbtmšÍvb ¯¿x, e×Db¥v` k¦ï‡ii weaev cyÎea~) mxgvnxb M−vwbi AwšÍg A¼wU‡Z †V‡j
†`b wcZvi Av‡`‡kÑ †h Ab¨vq Av‡`k Gi Av‡M cÖZ¨vL¨vZ n‡q‡Q Kwei AMÖR
w؇R›`ª, m‡Z¨›`ª Ges †R¨vwZwi›`ªbv‡_i Øviv| Av‡iv D‡j−L¨ †h Av‡`kwU wQj 1856
mv‡j cÖewZ©Z weaevweevn AvB‡bi mivmwi cwicš’x|
••†gv. †nv. : iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, Ò¯^vaxbZv evwn‡ii wRwbm b‡n wfZ‡ii wRwbm,
myZivs Zvnv KvnviI KvQ nB‡Z Pvwnqv cvBevi †Rv bvB| hZ¶Y wb‡Ri kw³i Øviv
Avgiv †mB kw³ jvf bv Kwi ZZ¶YB Avgiv civaxb|Ó GB kw³Uv wKfv‡e Avm‡e
e‡j wZwb (iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi) g‡b K‡ib ?
•Av. kv. : wZwb g‡b K‡ib cÖ_g ¯Í‡iB AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e AvwZ¥K ¯^vaxbZv| iex›`ªbv‡_i
Kv‡Q ¯^vaxbZvi e¨vL¨v wQj cÖPwjZ A‡_©i †_‡K A‡bK Mfx‡i| iex›`ªbv‡_i Kvw•¶Z
wQj ¯^vaxbZvi wfZi ¯^vaxbZvÑ c‡o cvIqv ev †K‡o †bIqv ¯^vaxbZv bq| ZvB
we‡`kxi bvMcvk‡gvPbB Kwei Kv‡Q ¯^vaxbZv bq| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jbÑ Ô†`k‡K Rq K‡i
wb‡Z n‡e c‡ii nvZ †_‡K bq wb‡Ri ˆb®‹g¨© †_‡K, J`vmxb¨ †_‡KÕ| Zuvi Ô¯^‡`kx
mgvRÕ cÖe‡Ü Ô¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vjbÕKv‡j iex›`ªbv_ RvwZi AvZ¥kw³i RvMiY Ges AvwZ¥K
¯^vaxbZvi Ici †Rvi w`‡qB weZwK©Z n‡qwQ‡jb| ÔKvjvšÍiÕ MÖ‡š’i Ôm‡Z¨i AvnŸvbÕ
cÖe‡Ü wZwb wj‡L‡Qb : Ôev‡i ev‡i Avwg †Kej GKwU K_v †evSvevi cÖqvm †c‡qwQ †h gvbyl‡K

kvk¦wZKx-29

kvk¦wZKx-30

AwaKvi †P‡q wb‡Z n‡e bv, AwaKvi m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e|...†mw`b †`‡ki †jvK‡K GB e‡j mveavb
Kievi `iKvi wQj †h, fvi‡Z Bs‡iR †h Av‡Q GUv evB‡ii NUbv, †`k †h Av‡Q GUvB Avgv‡`i
wfZ‡ii K_v|...fvi‡Z B‡i‡Ri Avwef©ve-bvgK e¨vcviwU eûiƒcx; AvR †m Bs‡i‡Ri g~wZ©‡Z,
Kvj †m Ab¨ we‡`kxi g~wZ©‡Z Ges Zvi ciw`b †m wb‡Ri †`kx †jv‡Ki g~wZ©‡Z wb`vi“Y n‡q
†`Lv †`‡e| GB ciZš¿Zv‡K aYye©vY nv‡Z evB‡i †_‡K Zvov Ki‡j †m Avcbvi †Lvjm e`jv‡Z
e`jv‡Z Avgv‡`i nqivb K‡i Zzj‡e|Õ

ZvB K‡i Zzj‡Q †mÑ cÖeÜwU iPbvi cÖvq kZ ermi c‡iI, Ges Ô†`kx †jv‡Ki
g~wZ©‡ZÕB| KviY Avgiv AvRI Avgv‡`i †`k‡K Ô¯^‡`kÕiƒ‡c m„wó K‡i Zzj‡Z cvwiwb,
iex›`ªbv_ †hgb e‡j‡Qb †Zgwb K‡i| ZvB Avgv‡`i ¯^‡`k‡K Avgiv AvRI cvBwb|
†Kgb K‡i †c‡Z e‡jwQ‡jb Kwe? e‡jwQ‡jbÑ Ôgvby‡li h_v_© ¯^iƒc n‡”Q Zvi
AvZ¥kw³m¤úbœ AšÍicÖK…wZ‡Z, GBRb¨ †h †`k‡K gvbyl m„wó K‡i †Zv‡j Avcbvi Áv‡b eywׇZ
†cÖ‡g K‡g© †mB †`kB Zvi ¯^‡`k|Õ wZwb e‡j‡Qb : ÔGKwU e„nr ¯^‡`kx Kg©‡¶Î Avgv‡`i
AvqËMZ bv _vwK‡j Avgvw`M‡K wPiw`bB `ye©j _vwK‡Z nB‡e, †Kv‡bv †KŠk‡j GB wbRx©e
`ye©jZv nB‡Z wb®‹…wZ cvBe bv| †h Avgvw`M‡K Kg© w`‡e, †mB Avgv‡`i cÖwZ KZ…©Z¡ Kwi‡e,
Bnvi Ab¨_v nB‡ZB cv‡i bv...AZGe me©cÖh‡Zœ Avgvw`M‡K Ggb GKwU ¯^‡`kx Kg©‡¶Î
Mwoqv Zzwj‡Z nB‡e †hLv‡b ¯^‡`kx we`¨vj‡qi wkw¶ZMY wk¶KZv, c~Z©Kvh©, wPwKrmv cÖf…wZ
†`‡ki wewPÎ g½jK‡g©i e¨e¯’vq wbhy³ _vwK‡eb|Õ

GBme cÖe‡Ü †Kgbfv‡e AvZ¥wbf©ikxj n‡q IVv m¤¢eÑ Zvi mg¯Í iƒc‡iLvI A¼b
K‡i‡Qb wZwb| Kwei ¯^‡`k‡PZbv I ¯^vaxbZvfvebv ¯^vZ‡š¿¨ mgy¾¡j, GL‡bv m¤ú~Y©
cÖvmw½K, AvRI c~Y©iƒ‡c ev¯Íevq‡bi A‡c¶vq c‡o Av‡Q| ¯^‡`kx hy‡Mi Ae¨ewnZ
c~e© †_‡KB fv‡ei I K‡g©i RMr‡K GKB Lv‡Z cÖevwnZ Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb Kwe¸i“|
e½xq RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖ_g f‚wgKv ZLb PviYKwei| Zuvi fv‡ei Mvb¸wj
AvZ¥we¯§„Z RvwZi g‡a¨ AvZ¥kw³i Av¯’v wdwi‡q Avb‡Z mnvqK n‡qwQj|
¯^‡`kx hy‡M iex›`ªbv‡_i wØZxq f‚wgKvwU wQj KweKgx©i| ¯^‡`kx mgv‡Ri msweavb
cÖYq‡b, MÖvg cybM©Vb cwiKíbvq, wk¶vi mvwe©K ms¯‹vi mvabvq, MYgvby‡li `vwi`ª¨
†gvPb I A_©‰bwZK Dbœqb cÖ‡PóvqÑ †`k I RvwZi MVbg~jK GK e„nr Kg©h‡Ái
cy‡ivwnZiƒ‡c iex›`ªbv‡_i Kg©PÂj iƒcwU mgKvjxb BwZnv‡m wPiKvj D¾¡j _vKvi
g‡Zv| ïay cwiKíbvB bq, Zvi ev¯ÍevqbI K‡iwQ‡jb Kwe Zuvi mxwgZ ¶gZvi
AvIZvq wk¶vms¯‹vi Ges cj−xms¯‹v‡ii g‡Wjiƒ‡c kvwšÍwb‡KZb I kÖxwb‡KZb M‡o
†Zvjvi gva¨‡g|
Ô¯^‡`kx mgvRÕ, Ô¯^‡`kx mgvR cÖe‡Üi cwiwkóÕ, ÔfviZelx©q mgvRÕ, ÔQv·`i cÖwZ m¤¢vlYÕ,
Ôm‡Z¨i AvnŸvbÕ, ÔKvjvšÍiÕ cÖf…wZ iPbvq evsjv‡`k I evOvwj RvwZi AvZ¥Avwe®‹v‡ii †h c_
iex›`ªbv_ wb‡`©k K‡iwQ‡jbÑ †m c_wU iex›`ª-g‡Wj wn‡m‡e, kZel© a‡i Pjgvb m¼‡U
fvivµvšÍ †`kevmxi Kv‡Q †`kMV‡bi wbZ¨bZzb g‡Wj Dc¯’vc‡bi e`‡j, P‚ovšÍ g‡Wjiƒ‡c
M„nxZ nevi mgq G‡m‡Q| g‡WjwU GKK_vq AvZ¥wbf©ikxjZvi gva¨‡g AvZ¥kw³i m„wó Kiv
Ges AvZ¥kw³i gva¨‡g AvZ¥KZ…©Z¡ m„wó Kiv|
••†gv. †nv. : iex›`ªbv_ †h cj−xmwgwZ ¯’vcbvi K_v e‡j‡Qb| †mB Ôcj−xmwgwZÕ
eZ©gvb mg‡qi MÖvgxY †c¶vc‡U KZUv cÖvmw½K n‡e e‡j Avcwb g‡b K‡ib ?
•Av. kv. : m¤ú~Y© cÖvmw½K n‡e| iex›`ªbv_ AvšÍwiK wek¦vm †_‡KB e‡jwQ‡jbÑ
Pxb‡`‡ki g‡Zv ÔMÖv‡gB Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cÖvY cÖwZôv wQjÕ| bvMwiK mf¨Zvi Bs‡iR
kvk¦wZKx-31

RvZ G‡m MÖv‡gi m‡½ Avgv‡`i Avengvb MuvUQovwU †K‡U w`‡q‡Q| G‡`‡k f‚wgi cÖK…Z
gvwjK wQj ivóª Ges iv‡óªi c‡¶ ivqZx ¯^Z‡¡ fvMx wQj Rwgi Pvlx| Bs‡iR G‡m †mB
Pvlxi †_‡K †fvM¯^Zw¡ U †K‡o wb‡q Rwgi wPi¯’vqx e‡›`ve¯Í K‡i w`j Rwg`vi‡K, †Kej
ivR¯^ Av`vq K‡Vvifv‡e Kvh©Ki Kivi Jcwb‡ewkK ¯^v‡_©| AvaywbK hy‡M Gfv‡e
MÖvgevsjv‡K †`‡Lb iex›`ªbv_B cÖ_g| ¯^”Q `„wó‡Z ev¯ÍweK †`k‡K †`Lvi I Abyfe
Kivi welqwU PgrKvifv‡e Rvwb‡q‡Qb wZwb : ÔAvgv‡`i cÖ_g eq‡m fviZgvZv, fviZj²x
cÖf…wZ kã¸wj e„n`vqZb jvf Kwiqv Avgv‡`i Kíbv‡K Av”Qbœ KwiqvwQj| wKš‘ gvZv †h †Kv_vq
cÖZ¨¶ Av‡Qb Zvnv KL‡bv ¯úó Kwiqv fvwe bvB; j²x `~‡i _vKzb, Zuvnvi †cPKUv‡K ch©šÍ
KL‡bv P‡¶ †`wL bvB|...gvZv‡ji c‡¶ g`¨ †hiƒc Lv‡`¨i A‡c¶v wcÖq nq Avgv‡`i c‡¶I
†`kwn‰Zlvi †bkv ¯^qs †`‡ki †P‡qI e‡ov nBqv DwVqvwQj|Õ
Zvi c‡ii c„ôv‡ZB wj‡L‡Qb : ÔfviZgvZv †h wngvj‡qi `yMg© P‚ovi Dc‡i wkjvm‡b ewmqv
†KejB Ki“Y my‡i exYv evRvB‡Z‡Qb, GK_v a¨vb Kiv †bkv Kiv gvÎÑ wKš‘ fviZgvZv †h
Avgv‡`i cj−x‡ZB c¼‡kl cvbvcyK‡z ii av‡i g¨v‡jwiqvRxY© c¶xnv‡ivMx‡K †Kv‡j jBqv Zvnvi
c‡_¨i Rb¨ Avcb k~b¨ fvÊv‡ii w`‡K nZvk`„wó‡Z Pvwnqv Av‡Qb, Bnv †`LvB h_v_© †`Lv
(ÔQv·`i cÖwZ m¤¢vlYÕ, AvZ¥kw³)|

Ô¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vjbÕ iPbvq iex›`ªbv‡_i wbM~p wKš‘ ¯^Zš¿ ¯^‡`kfvebvB cwijw¶Z nq|
Zuvi g‡Z : Ô¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vj‡bi Rb¨ †`‡ki gb cÖ¯Z
‘ Ges †m Kvi‡Y ÔcÂv‡qZÕ, ÔMÖvg¨
mw¤§jbÕ, Ôcj−xmwgwZÕ cÖf…wZ ¯’vcbv GLb GKvšÍB Avek¨K| cj−xi Abœ-e¯¿-Avkªq-wk¶viv¯ÍvNvU cÖf…wZ m¤ú‡K© mg¯Í Afve‡gvP‡bi fvi wb‡RivB MÖnY Kiv, Avi Kvnv‡KI MÖnY
Kwi‡Z bv †`Iqv GwU Ôcj−xmwgwZiÕ g~jbxwZ| GBfv‡e wKQzw`b KvR Kwi‡Z cvwi‡j cj−xi
`ytLx `wi`ª‡`i m‡½ Avgv‡`i ü`‡qi †hvM ms¯’vwcZ nB‡e Ges GKÎ nIqvi mv_©KZv Avgiv
eywS‡Z cvwie| AvZ¥kw³ Pvjbv Kwiqv KË…‡© Z¡i c„_K AwaKvix nIqvi Rb¨ GBiƒc
Ôcj−xmwgwZÕ‡Z Avgv‡`i GLb nv‡Z Lwo Kwi‡Z nB‡e|Õ

ïay Dc‡`k bq, Kzwóqv, wkjvB`n, KvjxMÖv‡g GBme fvebv ev¯ÍevwqZ Ki‡Z e¨w³MZ
Kg©-D‡`¨vMI wb‡qwQ‡jb wZwb| cieZx©Kv‡j †mB iex›`ª-g‡WjwU AbymZ
„ nqwb| Avgiv
wKš‘ iex›`ªbv_-fvweZ †miƒc Ôcj−xmwgwZÕ ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡kI M‡o Zzwjwb GL‡bv ch©šÍ|
d‡j Avgv‡`i miKvi-cÖwZwôZ ÔMÖvg miKviÕ †U‡Kwb, ÔAv`k© MÖvgÕ m„ó nqwb|
ÔmgvR †f`Õ cÖe‡Ü wZwb e‡jb : Ô†`‡ki A‡bœ †Uv‡ji Avi †cU fwi‡Z‡Q bv; `ywf©‡¶i `v‡q
G‡K G‡K Zvnviv miKvwi Abœm‡Îi kiYvcbœ nB‡Z‡Q; †`‡ki abx gvbxiv Rb¥¯’v‡bi evwZ
wbevBqv w`qv KwjKvZvq †gvUi Mvwo Pwoqv wdwi‡Z‡Q| ZvB †`‡ki Rwg`viw`M‡K ewj‡ZwQ,
nZfvM¨ ivqZw`M‡K c‡ii nvZ I wb‡Ri nvZ nB‡Z i¶v Kwievi Dchy³ wkw¶Z my¯’ I
kw³kvjx Kwiqv bv Zzwj‡j †Kv‡bv fvj AvBb ev AbyKj
‚ ivRkw³i Øviv Bnviv K`vP i¶v
cvB‡Z cvwi‡e bv| Bnvw`M‡K †`wLevgvÎ mK‡jiB wRnŸv jvjvwqZ nB‡e| Ggwb Kwiqv †`‡ki
AwaKvsk †jvK‡KB hw` Rwg`vi gnvRb cywjm Kvbyb‡Mv Av`vj‡Zi Avgjv, †h B”Qv †m
Abvqv‡mB gvwiqv hvq I gvwi‡Z cv‡i, Z‡e †`‡ki †jvK‡K gvbyl nB‡Z bv wkLvBqvB ivRv
nB‡Z wkLvBe †Kgb Kwiqv?Õ

ivwkqvi wPwV‡Z wZwb Av‡iv ¯úó K‡i e‡j‡Qb Rwg`vwi cwiPvjbvi mgq Kx wQj Zuvi
AwfcÖvq : ÔPvlx‡K AvZ¥kw³‡Z `„p K‡i Zzj‡Z n‡e, GB wQj Avgvi AwfcÖvq| G m¤^‡Ü `y‡Uv
K_v me©`vB Avgvi g‡b Av‡›`vwjZ n‡q‡QÑ Rwgi ¯^Z¡ b¨vqZ Rwg`v‡ii bq, †m Pvlxi|
wØZxqZ, mgevqbxwZ Abymv‡i Pv‡li †¶Î GKÎ K‡i Pvl bv Ki‡Z cvi‡j K…wli DbœwZ n‡ZB
kvk¦wZKx-32

cv‡i bv| gvÜvZvi Avg‡ji nvj jvOj wb‡q Avj-euvav UzK‡iv Rwg‡Z dmj djv‡bv Avi dz‡Uv
Kjmx‡Z Rj Avbv GKB K_v|Õ

iex›`ªbv‡_ g‡Z ÔMÖv‡gi Kv‡Ri `y‡Uv w`K Av‡Q| KvR GLv‡b †_‡K Ki‡Z n‡e, m‡½
m‡½ wk¶vI Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡`i †mev Ki‡Z n‡j wk¶v jvf Kiv PvB|Õ gv‡b, G‡`i
†_‡K Av‡M wk¶v †bIqv PvB| cÖm½Z ¯§Z©e¨ †h Dwj−wLZ mgvRZ‡Ë¡i †gŠj
mZ¨¸wj‡K iex›`ªbv_ fvlvq cÖKvk Kivi c‡i ev¯Í‡eI cÖgvY K‡i‡Qb wekkZ‡Ki
ïi“‡Z| †mme Gwo‡q wM‡q Avgiv †Kej Zuvi Kve¨ c‡owQ Avi Mvb †M‡qwQ|
cÖwZc‡¶ GKB evYx cÂvk eQi ci gvI †m Zzs cÖPvi KivgvÎB Zuvi KvQ †_‡K
Avgiv Zv †Kviv‡bi evYxi g‡Zv kª×vf‡iB MÖnY K‡iwQ|
cj−x msMV‡bi cÖ_g ch©v‡qB iex›`ªbv_ Pvjy K‡ib wn‰Zlxe„wË I Kj¨vYe„wË| †mB
eveZ msM„nxZ me UvKvB e¨q n‡Zv Rwg I cÖRvi Dbœq‡b| cÖRv‡`i KvQ †_‡K nvje‡Kqv LvRbvi UvKv-cÖwZ wZb cqmv wnmv‡e wn‰Zlxe„wË Av`vq nZ| Rwg`vwi †m‡i¯Ív
†_‡K †gvU msM„nxZ UvKvi mgcwigvY †`Iqv nZ Ges †mB UvKv Li‡Pi e¨e¯’v KiZ
cÖRv‡`i Øviv wbe©vwPZ wn‰Zlx mfv|
Kj¨vYe„wËI UvKvq wZb cqmv| Zvi R‡b¨ Avjv`v iwm`I †`Iqv nZ Ges Av`v‡qi
mgcwigvY UvKv w`‡Zb Rwg`vi wb‡R| GBfv‡e eQ‡i cuvP-Qq nvRvi UvKv msM„nxZ
nZ| ZvQvov mvqivZ-gnvj e‡›`ve¯Í n‡j †gvU bR‡ii kZKiv AvovB UvKv I bvgLvwi‡Ri bRivbv miKvwi AvB‡b kZKiv cuvP UvKv Av`vq nZ| GB UvKvB e¨q n‡q‡Q
iv¯ÍvNvU wbg©v‡Y, gw›`i-gmwR` ms¯‹v‡i, ¯‹zj-gv`ªvmv ¯’vc‡b Avi Pvlx‡`i wec`Avc‡`i mvnv‡h¨|
wkjvB`‡n ¯’vwcZ nq gnwl© `vZe¨ wPwKrmvjq| cwZm‡i emv‡bv nq eo nvmcvZvj
Ges KvjxMÖvg ciMYvi wZbwU wefv‡M wb‡qvwRZ nb wZb Rb Wv³vi| Ô†nj_&
†KvAcv‡iwUf&Õ-Gi gva¨‡g wPwKrmvi e¨e¯’v mviv fviZe‡l© me©cÖ_g Pvjy K‡ib
iex›`ªbv_B, Zuvi wbR Rwg`vwi‡Z|
Kzwóqv †_‡K wkjvB`n ch©šÍ Qq gvBj iv¯Ív iex›`ªbv_ ˆZwi Kwi‡q †`b GB k‡Z© †h
i¶Yv‡e¶‡Yi `vwqZ¡ †b‡e ¯’vbxq MÖvgevmx| Kz‡qv †Luvovi `vwqZ¡ †`b MÖvgevmx‡K Avi
wZwb `vwqZ¡ †bb G‡÷U †_‡K Kz‡qv euvav‡bvi| cyKzi ms¯‹viI P‡j GKB ixwZbxwZ‡Z|
iex›`ªbv‡_i Askx`vwi-wfwËK Dbœq‡bi Kvh©Ki GB bxwZwU‡K Zuvi ¯^Kv‡j †KD Avg‡j
†bqwb| wKš‘ GKB wRwbm ÔcvwU©wm‡cUwi †W‡fjc‡g›U digyjvÕ bv‡g cwðg †_‡K
bv‡Rj nIqvgvÎB Zvi Ici wcGBP. wW. wb‡Z evOvwjI `‡j `‡j jvB‡b `uvwo‡q‡Q|
cwZm‡i Kwe GKwU ag©‡MvjvI emvb, †mLv‡b Ges wkjvB`‡n ¯’vcb K‡ib Av`k©
K…wl‡¶ÎÑ †hLv‡b my`~i AZx‡Zi †mB 1910 mv‡jB e¨eüZ nq Uªv±i, cv¤ú‡mU Avi
mvi Ges Pvl nq ZLbKvi D”Pdjbkxj dmj| †bŠ‡Kv †evSvB bó Bwjk m¯Ívq wK‡b
Zv‡Z P~b w`‡q gvwU‡Z cyu‡Z ˆZwi nq ˆRemvi| AwaK dj‡bi R‡b¨ cÖwZwôZ nq K…wl
j¨ve‡iUwi| KvjxMÖv‡g Pvl m¤ú‡K© GK wPwV‡Z Kve¨i‡mi Kvievix Zuvi R‰bK Kg©x‡K
wjL‡Qb : ÔcÖRv‡`i ev¯‘evwo, †¶‡Zi AvBj cÖf„wZ ¯’v‡b Avbvim Kjv †LRyi cÖf„wZ d‡ji
MvQ jvMvBevi Rb¨ Zvnv‡`i DrmvwnZ KwiI| Avbvi‡mi cvZv nB‡Z Lye gReyZ myZv evwni

kvk¦wZKx-33

nq| djI weµq‡hvM¨| wkgyj, Av½yi MvQ †eov cÖf„wZi Kv‡R jvMvBqv Zvi g~j nB‡Z wKiƒ‡c
Lv`¨ evwni Kiv hvB‡Z cv‡i ZvnvI cÖRvw`M‡K wkLv‡bv Avek¨K| Avjyi Pvl cÖPwjZ Kwi‡Z
cvwi‡j we‡kl jv‡fi nB‡e|Õ

KyUxiwk‡íi Dbœq‡bI nvZ w`‡qwQ‡jb iex›`ªbv_| eqbwkí †kLv‡Z kªxivgcy‡i wb‡q
hvIqv nj GKRb ZuvZx‡K| ¯’vbxq GKRb gymjgvb †Rvjv‡K cvVv‡bv nj
kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡b Zuv‡Zi KvR wkL‡Z| wZwb G‡m Lyj‡jb Zuv‡Zi ¯‹zj| cUvwii Kv‡RI
nvZ †`Iqv nj GKB mg‡q| iex›`ªbv_ cyÎ i_x›`ªbv_‡K GK wPwV‡Z †j‡Lb :
Ô†evjcy‡i GKUv avbfvbv Kj Pj‡PÑ †mB iKg GKUv Kj GLv‡b (cwZm‡i) Avb‡Z cvi‡j we‡kl
Kv‡R jvM‡e|...GLvbKvi Pvlx‡`i †Kvb& industry †kLv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i †mB K_v fvewQjyg| GLv‡b
avb Qvov Avi wKQy Rb¥vq bv| G‡`i _vKevi g‡a¨ †Kej k³ Gu‡Uj gvwU Av‡Q| Avwg Rvb‡Z PvB
Pottary wRwbmUv‡K Cottage industry-iƒ‡c MY¨ Kiv P‡j wKbv| GKevi Lei wb‡q †`wLmÑ
†QvULvU furnace Avwb‡q GK MÖv‡gi †jvK wg‡j G KvR Pvjv‡bv m¤¢eci wKbv|
Av‡iKUv wRwbm Av‡Q QvZv ˆZwi Ki‡Z †kLv‡bv| †m iKg †kLvevi †jvK hw` cvIqv hvq
Zvn‡j wkjvB`n A‡j GB KvRUv Pvjv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| b‡M›`ª ejwQj †Lvjv ˆZwi Ki‡Z
cv‡i Ggb Kz‡gvi GLv‡b Avb‡Z cvi‡j we¯Íi DcKvi nq| †jv‡K wU‡bi Qv` w`‡Z Pvq †c‡i
I‡V bvÑ †Lvjv †c‡j myweav nq|Õ

`qvjy Rwg`vi mvRvi e`‡j ¯^vej¤^x cÖRv evbvevi e¨e¯’vcbvq D‡`¨vMx Rwg`vi
iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖRvmvavi‡Yi mvgvwRK Aw¯Í‡Z¡i mvwe©K w`‡K g‡bv‡hvM †`evi cÖwµqvq
mvwjwki w`‡KI bRi coj| wZwb cÖRv‡`i wbR¯^ wePvi e¨e¯’v Pvjy K‡i w`‡jb| Zuvi
Avg‡j Rwg`vwii g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv weev` wb‡q cÖRviv Av`vj‡Z †hZ bv|
cÖ‡Z¨K Mªv‡gi †jv‡Kiv Zuv‡`i wfZi †_‡K GKRb‡K cÖavb g‡bvbxZ Ki‡Zb| IB
MÖvgcÖavbivB c‡i Avevi ciMYvi me cÖavb‡`i ga¨ †_‡K cuvPRb‡K g‡bvbxZ
Ki‡Zb| Zuv‡`i ejv nZ cÂcavb| weev` I we‡iva cÂcÖavbivB wgwU‡q w`‡Zb|
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GK gnZx cÖqvm|
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P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi (1852-1910) eyw׉RweK PwiÎnbb (Aek¨B AbeavbekZ)|
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Zvi cÖgvYÑ mKj a‡g©i ga¨ w`‡q wM‡q me‡k‡l Kwe gvbea‡g©B `x¶v wb‡qwQ‡jb|
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•Av. kv. : AZxe ¸i“Z¡c~Y© G cÖkœwU we¯ÍvwiZ DËi `vwe K‡i, †h‡nZz iex›`ªbv‡_i K…wl
fvebvi ¸i“Z¡c~Y© w`K¸‡jv AbymZ
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ch©šÍ Kvw•LZ ¯Í‡i †cuŠQ‡Z cv‡iwb| AvR‡Ki mvi-exR-cvwb Ges mgevq-bxwZmn
mKj K…wlfvebviB wZwb wQ‡jb cw_K…r wKsev AMÖcw_K|
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Amvg¨| abKvgx wb‡Ri Mi‡R `vwi`ª¨ m„wó Kwiqv _v‡K|Õ †m-`vwi`ª¨ Pig iƒc cwiMÖn
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b¨°viRbK| gvwK©b Kwe †jv‡q‡ji GKwU Dw³i D‡j−L K‡i iex›`ªbv_ wj‡L‡Qb :
ÔweL¨vZ Av‡gwiKvb Kwe †jv‡qj Zuvi †Kvb KweZvq wj‡L‡Qb, Av‡gwiKvi `w¶Y †_‡K DËi
mxgv ch©šÍ we¯ÍvwiZ e„nr RvwZwU i‡³i MÜ fvjev‡m| GKRb BsivR †jLK b‡f¤^i gv‡mi
ÔK‡›U‡¤úvivwi wiwfqyÕ cwÎKvq GB K_vi mv¶¨ w`qv‡Qb|Õ
Dcmsnv‡i Kwe wj‡L‡Qb : Ôgbyl¨ RvwZi g‡a¨ GKwU wel Av‡Q, hLb GK RvwZ Avi GK
RvwZ‡K Avnvi Kwi‡Z e‡m ZLb f¶¨ RvwZ g‡i Ges f¶K RvwZi kix‡iI wel cÖ‡ek K‡i|
Av‡gwiKvb‡`iI i‡³i g‡a¨ wel †M‡Q|Õ

A_P Av‡Rv Avgv‡`i †`‡ki ivR‰bwZK, mvs¯‹…wZK Ges eyw׉RweK †bZ…Z¡ gvwK©bx‡`i
†jRyoe„wË I c`‡jnbcÖew„ Ë cwinvi K‡i ¯^vaxb we‡`kbxwZ cÖYq‡bi AvšÍwiK cÖ‡Póv
Pvjv‡Z cÖ¯Z
‘ bq|
g„Z¨z i wZbgvm Av‡M †jLv Ômf¨Zvi m¼UÕ cÖeÜwU‡Z iex›`ªbv_ gbyl¨Z¡weaŸsmx ey‡R©vqv
mf¨Zv I ms¯‹w… Z‡K evwZj e‡jB †NvlYv K‡i‡Qb| GiB g‡a¨ dvwm¯Í mš¿vm Zvgvg
wek¦‡K MÖvm Ki‡Z D`¨Z n‡q‡Q| d¨vwmev` †mvwf‡qZ‡K aŸsm Ki‡eÑ G e¨vcv‡i
mv¤ªvR¨ev`xiv wbwðZ wQj e‡j wnUjvi cÖm‡½ Avcmg~jK bxwZ MÖnY K‡iwQj| Auv‡Z
Nv jvM‡ZB fq †c‡q _g‡K †Mj|
iex›`ªbv_ wØavnxbwP‡Ë mv¤ªvR¨ev`x‡`i d¨vwmev` †Zvl‡Yi bxwZ‡K wZi¯‹Z
… K‡iI
we‡k¦i Rb¨ Avï wec`iƒ‡c wPwýZ Ki‡jb d¨vwmev`‡KB (†mB kbvw³KiY †Kgb
wbf©j
y wQj, †mUv †evSv hvq MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`‡ki ÔMYZvwš¿KÕ miKvi¸wji
kvk¦wZKx-38

d¨vwmev`x wµqvKjv‡ci K‡jei †`‡L)| †mvwf‡qZ AvµvšÍ n‡ZB iex›`ªbv‡_i mg¯Í
wPˇeM Qz‡U †Mj AvµvšÍ †mvwf‡q‡Zi c~Y© mg_©‡b|
mviK_vÑ iex›`ªbv‡_i RxebcÖfv‡Z mv¤ªvR¨ev`we‡ivax Ges Rxebmܨvq d¨vwmev`we‡ivax
iPbvewj hy‡Mi ûRy‡M eZ©gv‡b we¯§„Z g‡b n‡jI fwel¨‡Z wPi¯§„ZB _vK‡e| AZGe
Avgv‡`i AvZ¥m‡PZb Ges mZ¨Kvi MYZš¿cÖeY nIqvi Rb¨ ivRbxwZK I mgvRZvwš¿K
iex›`ªbv_‡K Mfxi cÖwYavb mnKv‡i Aa¨qb cÖ‡qvRb|
••†gv. †nv. : A‡b‡K e‡jb iex›`ªbv_ AZ¨vPvix Rwg`vi wQ‡jb, Avevi A‡b‡K e‡jb
iex›`ªbv_ cÖRvi cÖwZ m`v g½jKvgx Rwg`vi wQ‡jb| Avm‡j †KvbUv mZ¨ ?
•Av. kv. : wek kZ‡Ki cÖ_g `k‡Ki ïi“‡Z iex›`ª-wb›`yK †Mvôxi mvwe©K KzrmvcÖPvi
hLb Zz‡½, ZLb ÔAZ¨vPvix Rwg`viÕ K_vUvI Qwo‡qwQj Zviv| Ôw÷j †d«gÕ AvB. wm.
Gm Awdmvi I gb¯^x †jLK Abœ`vk¼i ivq w·ki `k‡K bIMuvi gnKzgv-cÖkvmK
_vKvKvjxb Zuvi cÖkvmbvaxb KvjxMÖvg ciMbvq e¨vcK †LuvRLei wb‡q wj‡L‡Qb †h
†mLvbKvi cÖRvevÜe Rwg`vi wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv_ wQ‡jb Zzjbvwenxb|
1937 mv‡ji RyjvB gv‡m cwZm‡i Kwei †kl åg‡Yi mgq cyY¨vn cvwjZ nq| †mAbyôv‡b wcÖq Rwg`vi‡K eû eQi c‡i †`‡L cÖRv‡`i eyK-†fRv‡bv AkÖ“aviv Abœ`vk¼i‡K
Mfxifv‡e ¯úk© K‡iwQj| e¯‘Z eû c~‡e© 1916 mv‡jB ivRkvnx †Rjv‡M‡RUxqvi-m¤úv`K
Gj. Gm. Gm. I-g¨v‡j, AvB. wm. Gm GK c~Y©v½ weeiY w`‡q Rvwb‡q‡QbÑ Kwe Zuvi
Rwg`vwi G‡÷U‡K wK iKg I‡qj‡dqvi G‡÷‡U cwiYZ K‡iwQ‡jb :
'It must not be imagined that a powerful landord is always oppressive and uncharitable. A
striking instance to the contrary is given in the Settlement Officer's account of the estate
of Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali poet, whose fame is world-wide. It is clear that to
poetical genius he adds practical and beneficial ideas of estate management, which should
be an example to the local Zamindars.
A very favourable example of estate government is shown in the property of the poet, Sir
Rabindranath Tagore. The proprietors brook no rivals. Sub-infeudation within the estate is
forbidden, raiyats are not allowed to sublet on pain of ejectment. There are three divisions
of the estate, each under a Sub-manager with a staff of tahsildars, whose accounts are
strictly supervised. Half of the Dakhilas are checked by an officer of the head office.
Employees are expected to deal fairly with the raiyats and unpopularity earns dismissal.
Registration of transfer is granted on a fixed fee, but is refused in the case of an
undesirable transferee. Remissions of rent are granted when inability to pay is proved. In
1312 (BS) it is said that the amount remitted was Rs. 56,595. There are Lower Primary
Schools in each division and at Patisar, the centre of management, there is a High English
School with 250 students and a Charitable dispensary.
These are maintained out of a fund to which the estate contributes annually Rs. 1250 and
the raiyats 6 pies to rupee in their rent. There is an annual grant of Rs. 240 for the relief of
cripples and blind. An agricultural bank advances loans to raiyats at 12 per cent per
annum. The depositors are chiefly Calcutta friends of the poet, who get interest at 7 per
cent. The bank has about Rs. 90,000 invested in loans.'

R‰bK Jcwb‡ewkK Bs‡iR cÖkvm‡Ki GB D”Q¡wmZ cÖksmv cÖgvY K‡i †Kgb we¯§qKi
NUbv N‡U wM‡q‡Q G‡`‡ki cj−x‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i †bZ…‡Z¡, Avgv‡`i eû cyi“l c~‡e©| †hRbwcÖqZv PvKwii¶vi gvcKvwV wn‡m‡e wekkZ‡Ki ïi“‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔRwg`vwi‡Z
cÖwZwôZÕ n‡qwQj evsjv‡`‡kiB GK cÖvwšÍK A‡j, †m-RbgyLx gvcKvwV †Zv
kvk¦wZKx-39

GKzkkZ‡Ki ïi“‡ZI evsjv‡`‡ki ÔmiKvwi‡Z cÖPwjZÕ nevi †Kv‡bv bgybv †`Lv hv‡”Q
bv Av‡Rv| Rwg`vwii e`‡j Avmgvb`vwi e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi G‡nb
iƒcvšÍiY-Kg©KvІKB|
••†gv. †nv. : Avgiv Rvwb, Avcwb g~jZ K_vmvwnwZ¨K Ges GB cwiP‡qB †ewk ¯^”Q›`
†eva K‡ib| ZviciI Mí, ig¨, bvUK I Dcb¨vm †jLvi cvkvcvwk †Mvjvc wb‡q
`xN©w`b a‡i KvR K‡i‡Qb, KvR K‡i‡Qb iex›`ªbv_ I m½xZ wb‡qI| eZ©gvb mg‡q
wK wb‡q e¨¯Í Av‡Qb ?
•Av. kv. : eZ©gv‡b mve©¶wYK e¨¯Í AvwQ Ges evwK eQiwUB ZvB _vK‡Z n‡eÑ evsjv
GKv‡Wgx KZ©K
„ cÖKvwkZe¨ wecyjvqZb MÖš’ Ôiex›`ªRxebÕ cÖYq‡bi Kv‡R| KvRwUi
me‡P‡q `xN©mÎ~ x Ask nj h_vm¤¢e DcvË msMÖn Kiv| Zvi c‡ii me‡P‡q kÖgmv‡c¶
AskwU nj cwiKwíZ eBwUi wbw`©ó Pvwn`v †gvZv‡eK DcvËmg~‡ni PvjywbevQzwb wKsev
MÖnY-eR©b| AZtci wbišÍi wPšÍvfvebv, we‡ePbv I cybwe©‡ePbv msewjZ Kgc‡¶
`ynvRvi c„ôvi cy¯ÍKwUi Zvrch©c~Y© MÖšb’ vi KvRwUi K_v fve‡Z †Zv fqB jv‡M|
GKgvÎ mK‡ji ï‡f”Qvi cv‡j AbyKj
‚ evqy jvM‡jB Avgvi c‡¶ G wekvj mvMi cvwo
†`Iqv m¤¢e n‡e e‡j Avkv Ki‡Z cvwi Avwg|
••†gv. †nv. : m¨vi, Avcbvi cÖ‡PóvwU m¤ú~Y© mdj †nvK †mB KvgbvB Kwi| Avgv‡K
Avcbvi g~j¨evb mgq †`Iqvi Rb¨ AmsL¨ ab¨ev`| `xN© Kg©gq I my¯’ Rxe‡bi
AwaKvix †nvb|
•Av. kv. : †Zvgv‡KI A‡bK ab¨ev` Avgvi fvebvi wKQz fvi †Zvgvi Nv‡o bvgv‡bvi
my‡hvM †`qvi Rb¨|

†ek K‡je‡i cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q

Ôgv`ywjÕi ÔwbmM© msL¨vÕ| GQvovI KvR Pj‡Q ÔZv‡iK gvmy` msL¨vÕi|
†hvMv‡hvM : Aiwe›`y PµeZ©x, m¤úv`K gv`ywj, dwi`cyi|
01196090442/ 01757150625 aro_bhanga@yahoo.com
aro.maduli@gmail.com

Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi, bvix‡`i m„Rbkxj I gbbkxj iPbv wb‡q Ôbvix‡`i mvwnZ¨
msL¨vÕ| †hvMv‡hvM : 01717513023, 01717125283
mjafor@gmail.com

kvk¦wZKx-40

ÔwZjwZj K‡i Zuv‡K mÂq K‡iwQ, wZjwZj K‡i LiPI K‡iwQÕ

••gywnZ nvmvb : Avcbvi e¨w³MZ Rxe‡bi iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v w`‡qB ïi“ Kiv hvK|
†mB †QvU‡ejvq iex›`ªbv_‡K cÖ_g Kxfv‡e †c‡jb?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : m¤cÖwZ GKRb Avgvi mv‡_ wVK GB welqUv wb‡qB K_v
e‡j‡Q| †m Avgv‡K ej‡jv, Avwg †h‡bv Zv‡K G wb‡q wKQy ewj | Zv Avwg Avgvi ¯§„wZ
†_‡K Zv‡K K_vUv ejevi †Póv Kijvg| KZ e‡qm n‡e ZLb? `k eQiI n‡q‡Q wKbv
m‡›`n| ZLb cvVkvjv‡Z cwo , wØZxq †kªwY A_ev Z…Zxq †kªwY‡Z| ZLb Avgv‡`i Lye
eo, hv‡K ejv hvq †hŠ_ cwievi wQ‡jv| Avi ÁvwZ‡MvôxI cÖPzi wQ‡jv, cÖvq MÖv‡gi,
Avgv‡`i fyebcvovi A‡a©KUv Ry‡oB Avgv‡`i ÁvwZ‡Mvôx| Zv Avgv‡`i evwoi wVK
cv‡kB wZbRb ÁvwZi evwo wQ‡jv| GKRbvi m‡½ Avgv‡`i m¤úK© fv‡jv wQ‡jv bv|
Zv‡`i evwoUv gvwUi †`Iqvj w`‡q †Niv| Avjv`v| †m evwo‡Z Avgiv we‡kl †hZvg bv|
†m evwoiI †KD Gw`‡K Lye GKUv AvmZ bv| Avi cv‡kB wQ‡jv cici `y‡Uv evwo|
GKUv Avgvi evevi PvPv‡Zv eo fvB‡qi evwo, Avi GKUv n‡”Q evevi Ab¨ GK PvPvi
†g‡qi| wZwb weaev| †m evwo‡Z wZwb Zvi eo †Q‡j I `ywU †g‡q wb‡q _vK‡Zb|
Avgv‡`i eyey| hvB‡nvK, wVK cv‡ki evwo †_‡K, GKRb ¯‹j
z co–qv, Avgvi H PvPvi
†Q‡j wQ‡jb—PvPvi GK †Q‡j, GK †g‡q—†Zv Dwb †evanq K¬vm bvB‡b Kx †U‡b

co‡Zb—Avgvi eo fvB| H †h ¯‹j
z co–qv Avgvi †h eo fvB wQ‡jb, PvPv‡Zv fvB—
Zv‡`i g‡b nq cvV¨ wQ‡jv GKUv eB—†m eBUv Mí¸”Q| wKš‘ Avgvi ¯§„wZ‡Z GZUv
¯úó †bB †h cy‡iv ÔMí¸”QÕ-Gi me MíB—cÖ_g L‡Ê AšÍZ—me Mí _vKvi †Zv cÖkBœ
I‡V bv—wZb L‡Ê †Zv cieZ©xKv‡j Mí¸”Q †ewi‡q‡Q| cÖ_g L‡ÊiI me KwU Mí wQ‡jv
wKbv Zv‡ZI Avgvi m‡›`n| Avgvi g‡b nq, cÖ_g LÊ †_‡K wKQy Mí—mvZ-AvUUv Mí
n‡Z cv‡i AviwK—Avjv`v K‡i wb‡q i¨vwcW-wiWvi ai‡bi wKQy GKUv Kiv n‡qwQ‡jv|
iex›`ªbv‡_iB Mí¸”Q—Zvi g‡a¨ †h Mí¸‡jv wQ‡jv ¯úó g‡b Av‡Q Avgvi| Ges
hZ`~i g‡b nq cÖ_g L‡Êi `y‡Uv wZb‡U Mí †mLv‡b wQ‡jv bv| †m Rb¨B ejwQ,
Mí¸‡”QiI †fZi †_‡K evQvB Kiv wKQy Mí| `ª“ZcV‡bi R‡b¨ G eBUv ˆZwi Kiv
n‡qwQ‡jv| GB eBUv, hÎZÎ †hLv‡b †mLv‡b c‡o _vK‡Zv| Avgvi H fvB‡qi
cov‡kvbvq †Zv †Zgb gb wQ‡jv bv| eBcÎ †Kv_vq Kx _vKZ †mUvi Lei ivL‡Zb bv|
GB Mí¸‡”Qi cÖ_g gjvUUv †bB| gjvUUv D‡V P‡j †M‡Q, ïay Mí¸”Q †jLv Av‡Q—
GUzKz g‡b Av‡Q| Avi hÎZÎ c‡o _vK‡Zv GUvI g‡b Av‡Q| KL‡bv nq‡Zv †XuwKi
Kv‡Q Av‡Q, †XuwKUv Av‡Q D‡Vv‡b| AvwObvi GKcv‡k †XuwK, †mB †XuwKUvi Dc‡i|
KL‡bvev †XuwKUvi cv‡k| KL‡bv gvwUi Lye PIov we¯—…Z †h ZvIqv, †mB ZvIqvi †Kv‡bv
GKUv RvqMvq| KL‡bv N‡ii †fZ‡i—GBiKg| Avwg wKš‘ †mB eBUvi cÖwZ †Zgb
K‡i AvK…ó nBwb| wKš‘, Avgvi H †h PvPv, wZwb Avgvi evevi †P‡qI eq‡m GKUz eo—
Zuvi PvPv‡Zv fvB AviwK—†mw`K n‡Z Avgvi PvPv| Dwb LyeB wkw¶Z gvbyl wQ‡jb ZvI
bq| wKš‘ eo A™¢yZ wQ‡jv ZLbKvi Muv‡qi A‡bK gvbyl| Lye mvgvb¨ wkw¶Z gvbylI
LvwbKUv dvi&wm Rvb‡Zv| Zvic‡i ïf¼‡ii †h mg¯Í KweZvq A¼¸‡jv wQ‡jv, wn‡m‡ei,
†m¸‡jv me Zv‡`i gyL¯Í _vK‡Zv| bvbvb iK‡gi auvauv Rvb‡Zb Zviv| Avi Mí ej‡Z
ej‡Z KZ iK‡giB †h Mí Ki‡Z cvi‡Zb—Zvi †Kv‡bv AšÍ †bB| Avie¨ Dcb¨v‡mi
Mí †nvK ev Ab¨ wKQyi Mí †nvK, Rxe‡bi AwfÁZvq GKev‡i cvKv mvi—Zv‡`i ˆZwi
n‡q †M‡Q| Mv‡Qi †hgb mvi _v‡K—meUvB †miKg, Lye mvwi| GiKgUv wKQy gvbyl‡K
†`L‡j g‡b n‡Zv| A_P †mB gvby‡liv ev Avgvi PvPv G‡Kev‡iB †`nvZx gvbyl, wb‡Ri
nv‡Z jv½j Pvjv‡Zb, wb‡Ri nv‡Z Mi“i Rvebv KvU‡Zb, †L‡Z w`‡Zb| Lvwj Mv‡qB
_vK‡Zb| Lvwj cv †Zv e‡UB| GKUv aywZ ci‡Zb| GKUz DuPz K‡i, nuvUzi Dci †Kvg‡i
†eo w`‡q aywZUv ci‡Zb| GUzKzB †cvkvK| wZwb, gv‡Sgv‡S GB eBUv wb‡q †Rv‡i
†Rv‡i Mí¸‡jv co‡Zb| Avi †kªvZv wQjvg Avwg| Dwb †h KLb co‡eb Zvi †Kv‡bv wVK
†bB| Avwg nq‡Zv †`LwQ wZwb eBUv wb‡q `vIqvq e‡m‡Qb| hLb eBUv Ly‡j‡Qb, ZLwb
Avwg P‡j Gjvg| ZLb Dwb, GUv cwi®‹vi g‡b Av‡Q, KveywjIqvjvi MíUvB †ewkifvM
mgqB wZwb co‡Zb| Lye cQ›` Ki‡Zb| Avi H Mí c‡o wb‡Ri g‡b g‡b nvm‡Zb,
gRvUv Dc‡fvM Ki‡Zb| Avi AvwgI wKš‘ MíUv ZLb AšÍZc‡¶ eyS‡Z cviZvg †h I
Av”Qv, GB Mí| Lye fv‡jv K‡i bv eyS‡jI †ek eyS‡Z cviZvg| GLb hw` Avgvq †KD
e‡j †h, Avcwb †mB MíUv KZevi ï‡bwQ‡jb? Avwg Zvn‡j ej‡ev KZevi ï‡bwQjvg
Zvi wn‡me †bB| Avi wb‡R co‡Z cvivi c‡i †h KZevi c‡owQjvg—H eBUv

kvk¦wZKx-41

kvk¦wZKx-42

ÔAvgvi iex›`ªbv_Õ cÖm‡½ nvmvb AvwRRyj nK
Dcgnv‡`‡ki Ab¨Zg †kªô K_vmvwnwZ¨K nvmvb AvwRRyj
nK-Gii Rb¥ 1939 mv‡j, cwðgevsjvi ea©gvb †Rjvi
heMÖv‡g| QvÎRxeb †_‡KB †jLv‡jwLi ïi“| g~jZ 1960
mvj †_‡K mwµqfv‡e wb‡R‡K †jLK wn‡m‡e ˆZwi Kivi
wm×všÍ MÖnY K‡ib| GLb wZwb evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨i
GKRb Ab¨Zg cÖavb †jLK| cÖeÜmvwnZ¨ ev AvZ¥K_vi
†¶‡ÎI Zuvi Ae`vb Awe¯§iYxq| B‡Zvg‡a¨ RvZxq
mvwnZ¨ cÖKvkb †_‡K cuvP L‡Ê cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q nvmvb
AvwRRyj n‡Ki iPbvmsMÖn|
wZwb 1967 mv‡j ÔAv`gRx mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹viÕ Ges 1970 mv‡j Ôevsjv GKv‡Wgx mvwnZ¨
cyi¯‹viÕ jvf K‡ib| AviI A‡bK cyi¯‹vi wZwb †c‡q‡Qb, Gm‡ei g‡a¨ i‡q‡QÑ
Ô†jLK wkwei cyi¯‹viÕ (1973), ÔAj³ mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹viÕ (1981), ÔAvjvIj mvwnZ¨
cyi¯‹viÕ (1983), ÔAMÖYx e¨vsK mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹viÕ (1984), Ôwdwjcm mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹viÕ
(1988) BZ¨vw`| GQvovI, wZwb 1999 mv‡j ÔGKz‡k c`‡KÕ f‚wlZ n‡q‡Qb|

kvk¦wZKxi iex›`ª-msL¨vi R‡b¨ Zuvi mv¶vrKviwU MÖnY K‡i‡Qb gywnZ nvmvb|

†_‡K—ZviI wn‡me †bB| †h Kvi‡Y cÖvq cy‡iv MíUv Avwg †Mvov †_‡K †kl GL‡bv
GKiKg gyL¯ÍB ej‡Z cvwi AviwK| Ggb g‡bi g‡a¨ `vM †K‡U †M‡Q| hLb Avgv‡K
†KD wR‡Ám K‡i †h iex›`ª-iPbvi mv‡_ cÖ_g cwiPqUv KLb-Kxfv‡e, ZLb GB MíUvB
ewj| Ges ZLbB Av‡iv wKQy wKQy Mí, hv ILv‡b wQ‡jv, wZwb co‡Zb— ÔivgKvbvB‡qi
wbe©yw×ZvÕ c‡o Lye nvm‡Zb, Zvic‡i Ô¯^Y©g„MÕ, Ôm¤úwË-mgc©bÕ, Ô†`bv-cvIbvÕ GB
Mí¸‡jv ILv‡b wQ‡jv| Ôgyw³i DcvqÕ, ÔQywUÕ, Ô†LvKveveyi cÖZ¨veZ©bÕ G¸‡jvI ILv‡b
wQ‡jv| †Zv †m¸‡jv MíI Avwg—ZLbB Avgvi G‡Kev‡i Lye Nwbôfv‡e me¸‡jv M‡íi
m‡½ GKUv cwiPq n‡q wM‡qwQ‡jv| Mí¸‡jv †Zv RvbZvgB| Ges iex›`ªbv‡_i Mí
†Zv—LyeB gvbweK i‡m fiv—Kv‡RB Lye Dc‡fvM K‡iwQ—†ek g‡b Av‡Q| ÔQywUÕ
MíUv wKsev ÔivgKvbvB‡qi wbe©yw×ZvÕ A_ev Ô¯^Y©g„MÕ, Ôm¤úwË-mgc©bÕ— GB Mí¸‡jv
H PvPvB Av‡¯Í Av‡¯Í co‡Zb, †_‡K-†_‡K, GKUz-GKUz K‡i co‡Zb| G n‡”Q
iex›`ªbv‡_i mv‡_ †evanq Avgvi cÖ_g cwiPq| AvU-b-`k eQi eq‡m| †mB mg‡q Avi
Ab¨ GKUz cwiPq n‡Z cv‡i, nq‡Zv Avgvi eB‡ZB n‡Z cv‡i—iex›`ªbv‡_i Qwe|
GLv‡b Zzwg g‡b Ki‡Z cv‡iv †h me©ÎB †Zv iex›`ªbv‡_i Qwe _v‡K, †KD bv †KD †Zv
†`‡LB †dj‡e—Avgv‡`i mg‡q, ILv‡b me©Î Zv †`Lv †h‡Zv bv—Zv m‡Ë¡I GKUv Qwe
Lye †`LZvg| Avgvi eo fvB‡`i cvV¨eB‡Z, GgbwK wb‡RiI, Avgv‡`i cvV¨eB‡q
iex›`ªbv‡_i GKUv A¯úó Qwe wQ‡jv, bRi“‡jiI Qwe wQ‡jv| Gme g‡b c‡o AviwK!
wKš‘ †mUv †Zv Av‡iKUz eo n‡q| †m¸‡jv †Zv Avjv`v K_v| Z‡e cÖ_g cwiP‡qi K_v
ej‡Z †M‡j †Zvgv‡K †h MíUv ejjvg †mUvB ej‡Z n‡e|
••gywnZ nvmvb : GKUz mvg‡bi w`‡K AvMvB| Av‡iKUz eo n‡q, hLb wek¦we`¨vj‡q
co‡Qb, ZLb Avevi iex›`ªbv_‡K KxiKg K‡i Abyfe Ki‡jb?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : G¸‡jv wK †Zvgv‡K wn‡me K‡i ejv hvq? fwel¨‡Z hLb
†ZvgviI A‡bKUv eqm n‡q hv‡e—Zvic‡i †KD hw` †Zvgv‡K G-K_vB wR‡Ám K‡i
ZLb ZzwgI †`L‡e †h wKQy ej‡Z cvi‡Qv bv, †Kv‡bv †LB cv‡e bv| GUv A‡bKUv,
evwÛ‡ji my‡Zv AvRKvj cvIqv hvq bv—Av‡M evwÛ‡ji my‡Zv cvIqv †h‡Zv—
evwÛ‡ji my‡Zvi GKUv we‡kl c×wZ n‡jv D‡ëvcv‡K †Lvjv—D‡ëvcv‡K Nywi‡q
Zvic‡i †Lvjv †h‡Zv AviwK! †KD hw` †m KvR Kivi mgq †Mvjgvj K‡i †dj‡Zv,
evwÛj hw` †Q‡U †dj‡Zv—Zvn‡j Avi wVK Ki‡Z cviv †h‡Zv bv| wVK †Kvbw`K
†_‡K KZUv my‡Zv wgj‡e †evSv †h‡Zv bv| iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K©I wVK Zv-B n‡q‡Q|
eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qv †Zv? evwÛ‡ji my‡Zv, GZ eo GKUv evwÛj nq‡Zv i‡q‡Q wVKB—wKš‘
KZw`K †_‡K †h wQu‡o-wU‡o GUv-IUv KZRb †h Kx K‡i‡Q, Zv ejv Lye gykwKj|
hw` †KD GK-K_vq `y-K_vq ej‡Z hvq Zvn‡j Zv‡K GKUv K_v evwb‡q ej‡Z
n‡e—G-B n‡jv Avgvi Kv‡Q iex›`ªbv_! Gme evbv‡bv K_v AvRKvj Lye Pj‡Q| Avwg
IiKg K‡i evwb‡q †Kv‡bv K_v ej‡Z PvB bv †Zv| Kv‡RB wZj wZj K‡i mÂq Kiv
iex›`ªbv_, wZj wZj K‡i LiP KivI iex›`ªbv_| iex›`ªbv‡_i LiPI †Zv K‡iwQ, ïay

†P‡q wb‡qwQ Zv †Zv bq, Avi wb‡RI †Zv LiP K‡iwQ! wZjwZj K‡i Zuv‡K mÂq
K‡iwQ, wZjwZj K‡i LiPI K‡iwQ|
hZ`~i g‡b c‡o, Ôiweiwk¥Õ e‡j GKwU eB—GB cieZ©xKv‡j †h Ôiweiwk¥Õ
†ewi‡qwQ‡jv IUv bq—†QvÆ GKUv Ôiweiwk¥Õ, iex›`ªbv‡_i Rxebx wQ‡jv †mUv| †mBUv
g‡b Lye `vM †K‡U Av‡Q| GLb iex›`ªbv‡_i †h mg¯Í AmvaviY RxebxMÖš’ †ewi‡q‡Q—
cÖfvZKzgvi gy‡Lvcva¨vq K‡i‡Qb, cªkvšÍKgz vi cvj K‡i‡Qb—G¸‡jvi Ab¨ ¸i“Z¡
Av‡Q| wKš‘ g‡bi g‡a¨ Lye GKUv wcÖq RvqMv hw` `Lj K‡i _v‡K †Kv‡bv MÖš’, Z‡e
†mB eBUvB| KviY †mLv‡b iex›`ªbv‡_i †QvU‡ejvi K_v Ggb my›`i K‡i †`Iqv
Av‡Q, iex›`ªbv‡_i G‡Kev‡i †QvU‡ejvq Zuvi KweZv †jLvi †Póv, Zuvi Qov †jLvi
†Póv, Zuvi wb‡Ri GKUv Kv‡Vi wmsn wQ‡jv—†mB wmsnUvi mvg‡b wZwb ewj`vb
Ki‡eb, Kv‡Vi Luvov nv‡Z wb‡q ej‡eb iwe ewj †`‡e| †mRb¨ Dwb wb‡R gš¿ ˆZwi
K‡iwQ‡jb| GB wRwbm¸‡jv GZ my›`i K‡i g‡bi g‡a¨ GL‡bv Lye ¯úó I cwi®‹vi
n‡q Av‡Q| Avi H mg‡qB †evanq Zuvi GKUv `y‡Uv KweZv cowQ, Lye mnR
KweZv¸‡jv nq‡Zv ZLb cowQ—ÔAšÍi gg weKwkZ K‡iv, AšÍiZi †nÕ ev GB RvZxq
†Kv‡bv KweZv| Avi GKUz eo nIqvi c‡i, Avwg cov ïi“ K‡iwQ Avgvi eo fvB‡`i
¯‹zjcvV¨ eB¸‡jv| GB¸‡jv †Zvgiv GLb nq‡Zv KíbvI Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv, GLbKvi
eB¸‡jv GZ im-Klnxb, GZ hvwš¿K, GZ weewglv-RvMv‡bv n‡q‡Q †h †mUv fvev hvq
bv| hZ my›`i †`L‡Z eB ZZB AbvKl©Yxq| Avgv‡`i mg‡q GB eB‡qi cÖKvkbv AZ
fv‡jv wQ‡jv bv—Avi AvRKvj †hgb Qvcvi DbœwZ n‡q‡Q Zv‡Zv wQ‡jvB bv—wKš‘
GKUv wRwbm wQ‡jv, cvV¨Zv wRwbmUv A‡bK †ewk wQ‡jv| ZLbKvi H †h A¶i
emv‡Zv—mx‡mi A¶i GKUv GKUv K‡i| †hUv‡K e‡j †jUvi‡cÖm| G‡KKUv A¶i
a‡i a‡i emv‡Zv| G¸‡jv wKš‘ †Pv‡Li R‡b¨ Aviv‡gi, co‡Z Lye fv‡jv jvMZ| Zv
GBmg¯Í eB †Zv ZLb Pvicv‡k Lye †ewk _vK‡Zv bv| hv _vK‡Zv, eûevi †mme eB
Avwg coZvg| Avgvi iex›`ªbv_ cov †mBR‡b¨ hZ`~i g‡b c‡o, Ô¸ßabÕ MíUv
KZevi †h c‡owQ! Avgvi eo fvB K¬vm †U‡b co‡Zb, Avgvi dzdv‡Zv eo fvB—
ZLb eB¸‡jv KZ hZœ K‡i Qvcv n‡Zv—G-B-i-K-g †gvUv wQ‡jv evsjv cvV¨eBUv|
Ges Kvc‡oi gjvU †`Iqv| GiKgB †gvUv eB wQ‡jv i‡gkP›`ª gRyg`v‡ii
ÔfviZe‡l©i BwZnvmÕ| e„n`vqZb Ges †Kv‡bv iK‡gi Akª×v †bB †h †QvUiv co‡e
eyS‡e wKbv—Zv bq| Avgiv †Zv ey‡SwQ, Zviv hw` KwVb K‡iB wj‡L _vK‡eb Zvn‡j
Avgiv eySjvg Kx K‡i? Avwg †Zv †ek eyS‡Z †c‡iwQjvg| GLvb †_‡K Avwg
ÔgnvcÖ¯v’ ‡bi c‡_Õi GKUv Ask c‡owQ—K¬vm †m‡f‡bi cvV¨eB‡Z—cÖ‡eva m¨vbv‡ji
†jLv| iex›`ªbv‡_i A‡bK KweZv G eB †_‡KB c‡owQ| Avi, hLb cy‡ivcywi I‡`i
†U·Uv †`Iqv n‡jv—K¬vm bvBb-†U‡bi R‡b¨—ZLb Avgvi nvZ †_‡K eB †K‡o
wb‡Zv †mB eo fvB—†`L‡jB—ej‡Zv Ô†i‡L †`Õ! wKš‘ Avwg jywK‡q, Av‡avAÜKv‡ii g‡a¨ e‡m H eB Ly‡j Ô¸ßab MíUv coZvg—we‡kl K‡i Ô¸ßabÕ MíUvB!
†Kb †hb g‡b c‡o—Ôcv‡q a‡i mvav/ iv bvwn †`q ivav/ †k‡l w`‡jv iv/ cvMj Qv‡ov

kvk¦wZKx-43

kvk¦wZKx-44

cv/ †ZuZzj e‡Ui †Kv‡j/ `w¶‡Y hvI P‡jÕ BZ¨vw` BZ¨vw`—GB Mí¸‡jv Kxfv‡e
Kxfv‡e g‡b Av‡Q Ges ej‡Z ej‡j Avwg cÖvq gyL¯Í ej‡Z cvi‡ev| GB‡Zv
ejwQI—KZevi †h c‡owQ! GBiKg K‡i Avgvi eo‡`i A‡bK covi welq †ek Aí
eq‡mB Kâvq G‡m wM‡qwQ‡jv—Avwg ZLb nq‡Zv dvB‡f cowQ wKsev wm‡· cowQ—
Zvi †ewk n‡e bv—Avwg ZLbB H eB¸‡jv c‡o wb‡qwQ AviwK|
••gywnZ nvmvb : KZ Av‡M Ô†MvivÕ wb‡q wj‡LwQ‡jb| †mB cÖe‡Üi fvebvq GLb wK
†Kv‡bv cwieZ©b Avb‡Z Pvb? H wm×v‡šÍB wK GL‡bv w¯’i Av‡Qb?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : gvbyl †Zv e`jvq| Ô†MvivÕ wb‡q hv wj‡LwQ—GKUv eo cÖeÜ—
Ôiex›`ªbv‡_i ¯^‡`kfvebv : †MvivÕ| K_vmvwn‡Z¨i K_KZv MÖ‡š’ Av‡Q| †Kv‡bv GKUv
Dcj‡¶ wj‡LwQjvg wbðqB| †jLvUv‡K nq‡Zv Avwg GLb Av‡iv eo Ki‡ev|
hvB‡nvK—bv, Avwg †ZgbwKQy e`jv‡ev bv—†evanq Avgvi K_v Avwg GLbI Hfv‡eB
ej‡Z PvB| KviY †mLv‡b Avgvi RvqMvUv †Zv cwi®‹vi Kiv Av‡Q| evievi Avwg †h
K_vUv ewj—iex›`ªbv_‡K LiP KiviI Av‡Q, iex›`ªbv_‡K cyuwR wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡i
†mUv‡K Avevi wb‡qvM K‡i wKQy DØ„Ë †ei Kivi †h KvR †mUvI Av‡Q—meB Kwi|
Kv‡RB Avwg ILvb †_‡K AvcvZZ, H Ae¯’vb †_‡K, iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© †h K_v¸‡jv
e‡jwQ—H Ae¯’vbwU †_‡K GLb m‡i `uvov‡bvi †Kv‡bv Dcj¶ ev KviY N‡Uwb|
••gywnZ nvmvb : evsjv‡`‡ki wKQy Z_vKw_Z Zi“Y K_vmvwnwZ¨K‡`i †`Lv hvq †h
Zviv AKvi‡YB iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm‡K Lv‡Uv K‡i †`L‡Qb| iex›`ªbv‡_i †QvUMí‡K
Zviv A¯^xKvi Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv †gv‡UI, wKš‘ Zviv Zuvi Dcb¨v‡mi cÖwZ GKUzLvwb
Ag‡bv‡hvMxB| iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm cvV bv K‡iB KL‡bv KL‡bv Zviv GiKg K_v
ej‡Qb| G wb‡q Avcwb Kx ej‡eb?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : (†n‡m) Zv‡Z Avwg Kx Ki‡ev e‡jv? Avwg †Zv ewj †h evsjv
mvwn‡Z¨ Ô†MvivÕ†K AwZµg K‡i †h‡Z cv‡i ev wM‡q‡Q Ggb †Kv‡bv Dcb¨vm GLbI
ch©šÍ †jLv nqwb| ew¼gP‡›`ªi †Kv‡bv Dcb¨vmI bq| Ô†MvivÕi GB cÖmvi, Ô†MvivÕi GB
we¯—…wZ Avi Ô†MvivÕi GB mvP©—†h AbymÜvb—GUv Avgv‡`i aviYviI evB‡i| Avgiv
GLb Lye †QvÆ wRwbm wb‡q c‡o AvwQ, Lye ¶z`ª RvqMvq c‡o AvwQ|
••gywnZ nvmvb : GB ¶z`ªZvUv †Kb? †Kb Avgv‡`i GB `xbZv?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : n‡e bv †Kb? n‡eB †Zv| µgvMZ †h ¶z`ª n‡qwQ|
cwjwUK¨vwj ¶z`ª n‡qwQ, KvjPvivwj ¶z`ª n‡qwQ, `yB evsjv fvM K‡i ¶z`ª n‡qwQ—
µ‡gB †Zv ¶z`ª nw”Q! d‡jB iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q †h GB K_v¸‡jv—Zviv †Kb e‡jb ,
KxRb¨ e‡jb, Kx mgvPvi Avwg wK”Qy Rvwb bv—Kv‡iv _vK‡ZB cv‡i †h‡Kvb e³e¨ ev
fvebv| wKš‘ Avgvi K_v GB, H M`¨ c`vwZK M`¨ bq, Akixix M`¨I bq—†mUv
MRevwnbx M`¨| eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qv †Zv? `xN© cv †d‡j Pjv, †hgb †Mviv cv †d‡j‡Q—
j¤^v j¤^v cv| iex›`ªbv‡_i M`¨I ILv‡b †miKg| e¨vcK, we¯—…Z, AwZkq my›`i M`¨|
Kv‡RB Avgvi wb‡Ri aviYv †Zv Avwg evievi e‡jBwQ †h iex›`ªbv_ e‡jv Avi hvB-B
e‡jv, Dcb¨vm ev †Kv‡bv wKQyiB wbw`©ó msÁv †bB| †Kv‡bvw`bB wQ‡jv bv, GLbI
†bB, fwel¨‡Z _vK‡eI bv| Ges †Kv‡bv †jLK †miKg msÁv †g‡b Pj‡ebI bv|

Avwg †hgb †Kv‡bv msÁv gvwb bv| Kv‡RB Dcb¨vm wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i †Kv‡bv †jLv
fv‡jv bq, GK_v ej‡j Dcb¨vm wel‡q Av‡M GKUv aviYv ˆZwi Ki‡Z nq—GiKg
n‡j Dcb¨vm nq, GiKg n‡j Dcb¨vm nq bv—GB wRwbmUvi Aw¯ÍËB Avwg ¯^xKvi
Kwi bv| Dcb¨vm m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv mywbw`©ó AvKvi ev aviYv †h ev¯ÍweKB †bB Zv
c„w_exi †kªô Dcb¨vm¸‡jvi mv‡_ ci¯ú‡ii Zzjbv Ki‡jB eyS‡Z cviv hvq| Avi GB
wPšÍvUvI AÁZvcÖmZ
~ †h Dcb¨v‡mi GKUv wbw`©ó AvKvi Av‡Q, †m AvKv‡ii g‡a¨
co‡jB ïay Zv‡K Dcb¨vm ejv hvq| Kv‡RB Avwg †Zv g‡b Kwi, Ô†MvivÕ iex›`ªbv‡_i
GKUv †kªô KvR, AmvaviY KvR| Avwg Kv‡iv Ici Avgvi wPšÍv Pvwc‡q w`‡Z PvB bv,
Zviv hw` GiKg K_v e‡j Z‡e Avwg Lvwj ej‡ev, bv, gvbjvg bv—Zzwg Avgvi mv‡_
K_v e‡jv, Avwg eywS‡q †`‡ev Avwg †Kb gvbjvg bv| AvaywbKZv _vK‡e, bZzb K_v
_vK‡e, Avgvi wei“×gZ _vK‡e—GUv‡Zv Lye ¯^vfvweK| Z‡e IRbUv Avwg Ki‡ev,
IRb K‡i †KvbUv nv‡Z †b‡ev Avi †KvbUv †b‡ev bv †mUv wVK Ki‡ev—GB ch©šÍB|
GUv IB, IUv GB e‡j †NvlYv Kiv—G n‡jv ivq †`Iqvi g‡bvfve, ivq †`Iqvi
g‡bvfve mywcÖg †Kv‡U© Lv‡U, mvwn‡Z¨ Zv Pj‡e bv| Avwg †`‡LwQ, †`‡ek ivq‡K GK
Abyôv‡b †KD ejwQ‡jv ÔAvgvi wKš‘ †MvivÕUv ZZUv fv‡jv jv‡M bvÕ—†`‡ek ivq ZLb
Lvw”Q‡jb, LvIqvUv gy‡Li Kv‡Q wb‡q, cÖkK
œ Z©vi w`‡K ZvwK‡q ej‡jb, AZ¨šÍ weK…Z
K‡É—Ôc‡ov bv! Lvivc jv‡M? †Zv c‡ov bv! †Zvgv‡K co‡Z e‡j‡Q †K? Zzwg c‡ov
bv!Õ GB n‡jv †`‡ek iv‡qi wiG¨vKkb| AvwgI ZvB ej‡ev| †NvlYv †`evi `iKvi
Kx? hvi fv‡jv jv‡M bv †m bv co‡jB cv‡i (D‰”Pt¯^‡i nvwm)!
••gywnZ nvmvb : B`vbxs ÔAvgvi iex›`ªbv_Õ e‡j GKUv K_vi Lye Pj n‡q‡Q| GLb Avcbvi
†mB e¨w³MZ iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v‡ZB Avwm| Avcwb iex›`ªbv_‡K †Kb Pvb Ges Kxfv‡e?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : fv‡jv e‡j‡Qv| ÔAvgvi iex›`ªbv_Õ wk‡ivbv‡g †Zv AvwgB GKUv eB
Ki‡ev| ïi“‡Z †Zvgv‡K †h K_vUv ejjvg, IUv‡K wK ej‡Z cvwi ÔAvgvi iex›`ªbv_Õ?
••gywnZ nvmvb: Zv‡Zv Aek¨B ej‡Z cv‡ib |
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : hw` ewj Avgvi iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v, whwb Avgvi e¨env‡ii
iex›`ªbv_ bvwK e¨w³MZfv‡e GKRb gvbyl‡K Dc‡fvM Kiv ev MÖnY welqUv wb‡qB
Avgvi iex›`ªbv_?
••gywnZ nvmvb : e¨w³MZfv‡e MÖnY-eR©‡bi welqUvB awi|
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : Kxfv‡e Zv‡K wb‡qwQ, GK `y K_vq †Kgb K‡i GB cÖ‡kœi Reve
†`‡ev? e‡jv? GKUz Av‡MB †Zvgvq ejjvg Avgvi †QvU‡ejvKvi ÔMí¸”QÕUv‡K Hfv‡e
†`Lvi K_v, Zvic‡i Ii mv‡_ ZLwb †Zv Avwg Rwo‡q †Mjvg| GB Rwo‡q hvIqvUv Kx
Kv‡iv Áv‡bi R‡b¨? GB Rwo‡q hvIqvUv †Kb? †Kb NU‡Q? Zvn‡j †ev‡Sv, hw` gvby‡li
cÖwZ Avgvi AvMÖn _v‡K †m‡¶‡Î iex›`ªbv‡_i iPbvi cÖwZI Avgvi AvMÖn _vK‡e| †Kbbv
iex›`ªbv_ mviv Rxeb hv wKQy K‡i‡Qb—GB gvby‡li Ic‡i hZB e‡jv †kl Aewa Avi
KvD‡KB Hfv‡e ¯^xKvi K‡ibwb—me‡P‡q †ewk g~j¨ w`‡q‡Qb gvbyl‡KB| Zuvi Kv‡Q
†`eZv, Ck¦i—†h¸‡jv‡K Avgiv cÖvq weg~Z© aviYv ewj—Zuvi Kv‡Q GB¸‡jv wQ‡jv bv|
iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZvq, bvU‡K, †QvUM‡í, Dcb¨v‡m gvby‡li wgwQj nvRvi j¶ n‡q `uvovq|

kvk¦wZKx-45

kvk¦wZKx-46

Zv‡Z gvby‡li AKíbxq we¯ÍvwiZ Kg©cÖev‡niI mvgbv-mvgwb †`Lv †g‡j| eo, Av‡iv
eo, †QvU, AwZ †QvU, m~² Avevi FRy mej—mevB GKm‡½B †Pv‡L c‡o| gvbeRxe‡bi
DòZv, wbweoZv, wbweó GK mvwbœa¨-NwbôZv c~Y©Zvq PivPi cwic~Y© n‡q I‡V| gvbyl‡K
hw` †KD P~ovšÍ e‡j MÖnY K‡ib, Zvic‡i Avi wKQy †bB| Zv‡Z wK wek¦ ev` hvq? ZvB
†mB wPšÍvUvB †Zv ˆewk¦K wPšÍv| KviY c„w_ex‡Z †Zv gvby‡liB emevm| gvbyl‡K c„w_ex
†_‡K Zzwg ev` w`‡q `vI, Zvn‡j c„w_ex e‡j Avi †Kv‡bv e¯‘i _vKevi `iKviI †bB—
Zzwg Zv‡K †Q‡o w`‡q Ab¨ MÖ‡n P‡j hvI| Avi Zuvi Mvb †Zv Avwg cÖwZwbqZB ïwb—
memgq ïb‡evB AviwK—Gi cÖwZ †Kv‡bvw`b exZkª× n‡ev e‡j g‡bI nq bv| †Zv Mvb
†hiKg K‡i ˆZwi nq—PU K‡i †kvbv hvq| M‡íi †ejvq †mLv‡b Aemi jv‡M, wb‡R‡K
cwikªg K‡i co‡Z nq—wKš‘ Zvui MíI †Zv Avwg co‡ev—Zuvi Dcb¨vmI Avevi
co‡ev—Ô†MvivÕ wb‡q GZ K_v n‡”Q, Kv‡RB †mUvI Av‡iKevi co‡ev| Zuvi AvuKv Qwe
†`L‡ev—g~j Qwe Avwg GL‡bv †`wLwb, wKš‘ Lye AmvaviY me wiwcÖ›U n‡q‡Q †Zv—
†m¸‡jv †`LwQ, †`LeI| iex›`ªbv‡_i †jLv bvUK g¯’ n‡j Zv Avwg †`L‡ev, Dc‡fvM
Ki‡ev| iex›`ªbv‡_i fvebvi Ask †b‡ev Zuvi cÖPzi cwigv‡Y mgvRwPšÍvg~jK,
†`kwPšÍvg~jK †hme †jLvcÎ Av‡Q †mLvb †_‡K| ivóªwPšÍvg~jK I mgMÖ c„w_exi gvby‡li
RMr m¤úwK©Z iPbv¸‡jvi meB †`L‡ev Avwg| Kv‡RB Gw`K †_‡K ejv hvq †h
iex›`ªbv_ Avgvi Kv‡Q Kxfv‡e MÖnY‡hvM¨ †m K_vi Reve †Zv Hfv‡eB w`‡Z n‡e| KZ
†jvKB †Zv MÖnY‡hvM¨—iex›`ªbv_I MÖnY‡hvM¨| Ges iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© Avwg ej‡Z
cvwi, GZUv Acwinvh© we‡kl Avi KvD‡K g‡b nq bv| gv‡b wkí-mvwn‡Z¨i RM‡Z ev
Avgvi Rxeb-hvc‡bi †¶‡Î iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡Zv IZUv Acwinvh© Avi †Zgb †KD †bB|
AšÍZ wkíx-mvwnwZ¨K‡`i g‡a¨, †jLK‡`i g‡a¨, Kwe‡`i g‡a¨ †bB| n¨uv n‡Z cv‡i,
Avgvi fvlvi Kwe e‡j—Av‡iKRb nq‡Zv ej‡jv, bv M¨v‡U‡K Avwg Av‡iv A‡bK †ewk
Kv‡Q †c‡Z PvB, †nvgvi‡K †c‡Z PvB| Avwg ej‡ev: bv, wVKB Av‡Q—wKš‘ †h Kvi‡Y
iex›`ªbv_‡K me PvB‡Z †ewk AšÍi½fv‡e cvIqv hvq e‡j Avwg g‡b Kwi, †mUv n‡jv
GB—wZwb Avgvi fvlvi †jLK| GB myweavUv Avwg iex›`ªbv‡_i †¶‡Î cvw”Q|
••gywnZ nvmvb : GKUv K_v Lye †kvbv hvq, c~e©e‡½ bv G‡j bvwK iex›`ªbv_ GB
iex›`ªbv_B n‡Zb bv| GB gZ‡K Avcwb KZUv h_v_© g‡b K‡ib?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : GB K_v¸‡jv me mv`v-Kv‡jv‡Z fvM Kiv| mvwn‡Z¨i †¶‡Î G
mg¯Í K_v AevšÍi| hviv Gme K_v e‡j, Zviv AevšÍi K_v e‡j| Avi hviv Gme wb‡q
fv‡e, ZvivI AevšÍi K_v fv‡e| hv cvIqv hvq †mUv ev` w`‡q, ZK©-weZK© K‡i
mgqUv bó K‡i| n‡Zb wK n‡Zb-bv—MbrKv‡ii g‡Zv GBmg¯Í K_vevZ©v ejvi
†Kv‡bv A_© nq bvwK! KjKvZv kniI Lye eo wRwbm Zuvi Kv‡Q| kvwšÍwb‡KZbI,
†mLvbKvi †mB D`vi gvV Ges Livi ivpe½ Zuvi g‡bi †fZ‡i Av‡Q| Avevi GBw`‡K
n‡jv DZjv‡bv QjQj b`xeûj †h evsjv‡`k—ga¨e‡½i K_vI G‡m‡Q| ïay c~e©e½
bq wKš‘! c~e©e‡½i wKQy Ask, ga¨e‡½i wKQy Ask, `w¶Ye½ I DËie‡½i wKQy Aímí
RvqMv ev Iw`‡K, Ab¨w`‡Ki wKQy AÂj, AviKvb-UvivKvb n‡Z cv‡i AviwK—Gme
wgwj‡qB Zuvi †QvUM‡íi f~‡Mvj ˆZwi n‡q‡Q|

Gme wRwbm n‡jv Lye fv‡jv K‡i wbweofv‡e ch©‡e¶Y Kivi g‡Zv welq| GLb hv
NU‡Q Zv n‡jv, hw` †Zgb †Kv‡bv cÖm½ Av‡m ev †Zgb †Kv‡bv gxgvsmvi `iKvi
nq—ZLb Avgiv †`L‡Z ewm †h iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi mgMÖ-cÖwZfvi KZfvM †Kvb RvqMv
†_‡K wb‡q‡Qb| Avwg ej‡ev GBme fv‡Mi †Kv‡bv `iKvi †bB| ÔwQbœcÎÕ Avgiv G
mg¯Í fvMvfvwM QvovB co‡Z cvwi|
••gywnZ nvmvb : GUv‡Zv iex›`ªPP©vi †¶‡Î Avgv‡`i GKUv msKxY©ZviB cwiPq †`q|
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : Aek¨B| GB †h Lvwj mv`v-Kv‡jv Kiv| AgyK n‡j ZgyK
n‡Zv bv, ZgyK n‡j AgyK n‡Zv bv—GBme K_v¸‡jv †K meRvšÍvi g‡Zv e‡j Avwg
Rvwb bv| hviv GB K_v¸‡jv e‡j, meRvšÍvi g‡Zv e‡j| eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qv †Zv?
K_vevZ©v meRvšÍvi g‡Zv K‡i ej‡j †Kv‡bv jvf nq bv|
••gywnZ nvmvb : mv¤cÖwZK mg‡q iex›`ª-PP©vi †¶‡Î †Kv‡bv bZzbZ¡ wK Avcwb †`L‡Z
cvb? evsjv‡`‡k GLb hv n‡”Q?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : GKUv K_v Kx Rv‡bv, iex›`ªbv_ GKw`K †_‡K Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q
m¤ú~Yf
© v‡e GKUv †K¬vRW P¨vÞvi wQ‡jv| Kwd‡b fiv GKUv wRwbm, †c‡iK gviv GKUv
wRwbm—†ZBk eQi a‡i wQ‡jv AviwK| Kv‡RB, †h dzj, Zvi †mŠif †Kv‡bvw`b
weKwkZ n‡q Avgv‡`i mvg‡b †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡iwb—†m hLb cÖ_g †`Lv w`‡Z ïi“
K‡i—ZLb Zvi D‡ËRbv †Zv n‡eB| Avgv‡`i iex›`ª-PP©vi GKK_vq †gvU fwjDg ev
AvqZb †hUv—†mUv GLb Lye ùxZ n‡q †M‡Q| GUv hw` Avwg cuv‡Pi `k‡K wKsev Q‡qi
`k‡Ki m‡½ Zzjbv Kwi, Zvn‡j ejvB †h‡Z cv‡i GUv KíbvI Kiv hv‡e bv †h
iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q Avgv‡`i AvMÖn KZUv †e‡o‡Q| Avi Dcj¶I A‡bK mgq Avgv‡`i
bZzb Kg©-avivi Rb¥ †`q—Gev‡ii mva©kZZg Rb¥evwl©Kx Dcj‡¶ Avwg †Zv g‡b Kwi
GKw`K †_‡K evsjv‡`k Avi fviZel© †Kb, †MvUv c„w_exB †Zv †g‡Z D‡V‡Q| Zv wb‡q
LvwbKUv ejv hvq ˆewK| wKš‘ Zzwg hw` e‡jv †h Gev‡ii †jLv¸‡jvi w`‡K ZvKvb,
†KvbUv‡K Kx bZzb K_v ejv n‡q‡Q †mUv we‡k−lY Ki“b—Zv †Zv wfbœ K_v| Zvn‡j
Avgvi †Zv g‡b nq, †h mg¯Í K_v¸‡jv Avgiv ej‡Z Ges ïb‡Z Af¨¯Í, †h mg¯Í
K_v¸‡jv g~jZ kãeûj, GKK_vq †h¸‡jv‡K evMvo¤^icÖavb ejv hvq—A_ev †h mg¯Í
K_v ej‡Z ej‡Z hvi aviB bó n‡q †M‡Q| GiKg K_vB †ewk _vK‡Q—GUv wVKB|
hv‡K ejv hvq bZzb bZzb RvqMv †_‡K iex›`ªbv_‡K †`Lvi †PóvUv, cÖkœ KivUv Kg—
GLv‡b cÖkœ Kiv wb‡q GKUz we‡kl K‡i ewj—iex›`ªbv‡_i AwZ-cÖksmv Kiv †hgb GKUv
Pj, †Zgwb iex›`ªbv‡_i `y‡Uv Ggwb wRwbm wb‡q cÖkœ Kiv ev Zuv‡K wb‡q wKQy wb›`vm~PK
K_v ejv, GUvI wKš‘ Kgb n‡q †M‡Q—GUvI bZzb wKQy bq| GKmg‡q GUv bZzb
wQ‡jv| ZLb fveZvg—evc‡i, iex›`ªbv‡_i wei“‡× GBmg¯Í K_v wK ejv hvq! GLb
GBmg¯Í K_v¸‡jv ej‡Z ej‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i wei“‡× ejv K_vI Avgvi g‡bi g‡a¨
†Kv‡bv `vM Kv‡U bv| g‡bI nq bv †h Lye bZzb K_v ïbwQ| Avm‡j GBme weZK© Kivi
†Kv‡bv gv‡b nq bv| iex›`ªbv_ Kx Reve w`‡Z Avm‡eb? G‡m Revew`wn Ki‡eb? ejjvg
†Zv, GBmg¯Í wRwbm n‡”Q AevšÍi| G¸‡jv‡K Av‡jvPbvq AvbviB †Kv‡bv A_© †bB|
KviY c„w_ex‡Z me †jvKB †h `iKvix KvR Ki‡Q Zv †Zv bq—hviv A`iKvix KvR

kvk¦wZKx-47

kvk¦wZKx-48

K‡i †eov‡”Q Zzwg wK Zv‡K wKQy ej‡Z cvi‡Qv? cvi‡Qv bv| Z‡e Avi Kx| hviv ej‡Q
ejyK, ej‡ZB cv‡i| Avgvi ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqvi `iKvi †bB| Zv‡`i †d‡j †`Iqvi
`iKviI †bB, ¸i“Z¡ †`IqviI `iKvi †bB|
••gywnZ nvmvb : iex›`ªbv_‡K Avgv‡`i Kxfv‡e cvV Kiv DwPZ, Avcbvi `„wó‡Z?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : Avgvi g‡b nq †h iex›`ªbv_‡K cvV Kiv DwPZ †bevi R‡b¨|
GLb hw` e‡jv Kx wb‡Z cvwi—Zvn‡j ej‡ev Zuvi KvQ †_‡K Dcjw×i MfxiZv wb‡Z
cvwi| Avevi †ev‡ai AZj¯úk©x AbyfeUv †Kgb †mUv eySevi †Póv Ki‡Z cvwi|
Mvb¸‡jv Lye fv‡jv K‡i ïb‡Z cvwi| Avwg m¤cÖwZ Zuvi Mvb wb‡qB wjLwQ, wKš‘
Mv‡bi Avwg wKQyB Rvwb bv| Avwg ZvB Mv‡bi evYx wb‡qB wjwL—iex›`ªbv‡_i Mv‡bi
evYx Avwg Kxfv‡e ïwb—Avwg †Zv Zuvi Mv‡bi H †h ¯^i, Aa©¯^i, ¯úk©¯^i Gme wel‡q
(A_©vr msMx‡Zi w`K †_‡K) Avgvi mywbw`©ó †Kv‡bv cvwÊZ¨ †bB| Zey Avwg
iex›`ªbv‡_i Mvb ï‡b Zvi m¤^‡Ü K_v ej‡Z cvwi| iex›`ªmsMxZ †_‡K Kx cvIqv hvq,
AvgviB wn‡m‡e †mUv fve‡Z cvwi| Avi Zzwg hw` cÖkœ K‡iv †h I‡Z Ôme-B cvb?Õ
Avwg ej‡ev : bv, meUv Avi Kx K‡i cv‡ev| Avwg wK Avi wb‡MÖv‡`i Mv‡bi †mB
msMÖvgx myiUv iex›`ªbv‡_i Mv‡b cv‡ev? cv‡ev bv| †mRb¨ †Zv hvw”Q bv Zuvi Kv‡Q—
hvi Kv‡Q hv cvIqv hv‡e bv, Zuvi Kv‡Q †mBR‡b¨ hv‡ev bv| ZvQvov e¨vcvi n‡”Q,
Avwg wbw”Q †Kb— hw` fvwe me iex›`ªbv_ K‡i wM‡q‡Qb, Zvn‡j Avwg wjL‡Z hvw”Q
KxRb¨—GBUv wn‡me Ki‡jB †Zv nq| hw` g‡b Kwi hv nevi Zvi meB K‡i
†d‡j‡Qb iex›`ªbv_—Zvn‡j Avgvi RvqMv KB? Zvn‡j Avgvi wb‡Ri RvqMvUv eRvq
ivL‡Z n‡e—eRvq †i‡LB †Zv iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡Z n‡e bvwK! Zv †h RvqMvUv Avgvi
eRvq Av‡Q †m RvqMvUvq †Zv iex›`ªbv_ †bB, †mLv‡b Avwg AvwQ (nvwm)|
GLb GBfv‡e hw` Zzwg †`‡Lv, Zvn‡j eyS‡e— cÖwZwU †¶‡ÎB Avgiv cvi¯úwiK Ø›ØmsNv‡Zi g‡a¨ w`‡q AMÖmi nB| iex›`ªbv_‡KI Avwg †mfv‡eB MÖnY K‡iwQ|
••gywnZ nvmvb : Zuv‡K wK Avgiv wek¦-gvbeZvi GKUv Amvgvb¨ cÖZxK wn‡m‡e †`L‡Z cvwi bv?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : nu¨v, Zv †Zv e‡UB| Avgv‡`i MocoZv †h wn‡me¸‡jv Kivi
Av‡Q—†m wn‡me¸‡jvi w`K †_‡K †Zv ejvB hvq| gvbe-ms¯‹…wZi GKUv m‡ev©Ëg
cÖKvk N‡U‡Q iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡a¨| Avwg GK RvqMvq e‡jwQ—wZwb wb‡R MVbKvix I
wb‡R MwVZ—`y‡UvB| Avi GLb Zzwg hw` e‡jv iex›`ªbv_ me w`‡q‡Qb, †m-K_vI wVK
bq—Avevi Zzwg hw` e‡jv iex›`ªbv_ wKQyB †`bwb, †m-K_vI wVK bq| A_ev G K_v
hw` Zzwg e‡jv †h iex›`ªbv_ hv w`‡q‡Qb Zv A‡b¨I w`‡q‡Qb, ZvI wVK bq—ev
iex›`ªbv_ hv w`‡q‡Qb Zv ïaygvÎ iex›`ªbv_B w`‡Z cv‡ib, Avi †KD cv‡ib bv—ZvI
wVK bq| Avwg Gfv‡eB †Zv iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q AMÖmi nw”Q, Zuv‡K †`LwQ| cÖwZwbqZB
†`LwQ| K_vevZ©v ejwQ| iex›`ªbv‡_i †hmg¯Í wRwbm wb‡q Avgvi g‡b n‡”Q †Kv‡bv cÖkœ
Zzj‡ev, †mme welq wb‡q cÖkœI †Zv Zz‡jwQ—cÖkœ †h Avwg Zzwj bv Zv †Zv Avi bq|
••gywnZ nvmvb : iex›`ªbv‡_i `k©b wb‡q Avcbvi fvebvUv Kx?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : GKmgq Avwg iex›`ªbv‡_i `k©b wb‡q GKUz fveZvg| cwð‡gi
`k©b †hfv‡e ˆZwi n‡q‡Q, iex›`ªbv‡_i `k©b‡K †mfv‡e wePvi Kiv hvq bv| eis,

fviZxq `k©‡bi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i `k©bUv‡K cvkvcvwk ivL‡j we‡ePbv Kiv hvq|
BD‡iv‡c hviv mvaviYfv‡e `k©‡bi gvbyl, Zviv nq‡Zv fviZxq `k©bUv‡K `k©‡bi
ch©vqfy³B K‡ib bv| Zviv G‡K GKai‡bi wbPz †Pv‡L †`‡Lb| hw` Avgiv cwðgv
`k©‡bi BwZnv‡mi wbg©v‡Yi iv¯ÍvUv †`wL—Zvn‡j †evSv hv‡e †h IUv AZ¨šÍ KwVb
†eŠw×K c‡_ AMÖmi n‡qwQ‡jv| AZ¨šÍ KwVb we‡k−l‡Yi c‡_ Zv AMÖmi n‡qwQ‡jv|
ZbœZbœ K‡i †LuvRv, cÖkœ Kiv, Reve cvIqv Ges me wRwbm‡K we‡kl K‡i †d‡j
Zvic‡i †`Lv| fvi‡Zi HwZn¨Uv Zv bq, IUv GKai‡bi mgMÖ AviwK| †mR‡b¨
mvaviYfv‡e †`Lv hvq c~e‡© `kxq—cÖv‡P¨i †h `k©b—†mUv cwð‡gi †Pv‡L, I‡`i
Kv‡Q †Kv‡bv `k©b bq| GUv‡K Zviv g‡b K‡i GK ai‡bi KweZvag©x wRwbm, GUv GK
ai‡Yi wgwówmR‡gi g‡Zv wRwbm—aiv-†Quvqvi g‡a¨ †bB| GB-†h wRwbmUv—GUv
iex›`ªbv_‡K LvwbKUv cÖfvweZ K‡iwQ‡jv| Avwg wb‡R wKš‘ GB c‡_i bB, Avwg Ab¨
c‡_i—Avwg me©`v g‡b Kwi, †hUv‡K e‡j wPrkw³, gvby‡li GB wPrkw³Uv‡K me©`v
ev` w`‡q †KvbUv‡KB †kl ch©šÍ †`Lv wVK bq| wPrkw³ ev wPšÍvkw³—wPšÍvkw³
Avgv‡`i‡K we‡kl †`Lvq, Af¨šÍi †`Lvq, ALÊ †`Lvq—Avi Avgv‡`i †h gnr
Av‡eM¸‡jv Av‡Q, Avgv‡`i Abyf~wZ-Dcjw׸‡jv Av‡Q, Zv‡K mgMÖ †`Lvq—cvU©
†`Lvq bv, Ask †`Lvq bv| †mBfv‡eB iex›`ªbv‡_i `k©b‡K Avwg GKmg‡q †`Lvi
†Póv K‡iwQjvg| wKš‘ c‡i iex›`ªbv‡_i e¨w³MZ Rxe‡bi w`‡K ZvwK‡q †`‡LwQ †h
†mLv‡b †Kv‡bv A¯úóZv †bB Zuvi—†KvÌvI †bB| A_©vr fviZxq `k©‡bi †h
A¯úóZvi K_vUv cwð‡g Awf‡hvM wn‡m‡e †kvbv hvq, †m A¯úóZvi e¨vcviUv
iex›`ªbv‡_i †fZi KL‡bv Avi Avwg Ly‡u R cvB bv| iex›`ªbv‡_i wPšÍvi g‡a¨I Avi
A¯úóZv †`wL bv, Rxeb-hvc‡bi †fZ‡iI Avi A¯úóZv †`wL bv| mewKQy‡Z Lye
¯úófv‡eB wPšÍv Kivi e¨vcviUv †`wL| ZvI GB †`Lvi g‡a¨ GKUv Afve †_‡K
hvq—iex›`ªbv‡_i †`Lvi g‡a¨—Dwb hZUv Av`‡k©i wPÎ AuvK‡Z cv‡ib, KvÊÁv‡bi
wn‡me w`‡Z cv‡ib—c_wb‡`©‡ki †ejvq Dwb Pzc K‡i _v‡Kb| KviY wZwb †hUv
PvB‡Qb, †mUv PvB‡jB †h nq bv—GKUv cÖwµqv jv‡M, G cÖwµqvi K_vB †Zv Kvj©
gvK©m e‡j‡Qb| wec−‡ei cÖwµqv ev nq‡Zv i³cv‡Zi cÖwµqv, nq‡Zv hy‡×i cÖwµqv,
nq‡Zv jovB‡qi cÖwµqv| GB wRwbmUv‡K iex›`ªbv_ hZUv ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqv `iKvi,
ZZUv ¸i“Z¡ mvivRxe‡b †`bwb| GUv iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© Avgvi mvaviY GKUv gšÍe¨|
Avwg GUv ejwQ GRb¨ †h wZwb, Zuvi mvgwMÖK g‡bvfv‡ei g‡a¨—†h KvÊÁvb Av‡Q,
†h ev¯Íe‡eva Av‡Q †mUv Lye AmvaviY| Zv Ki‡j gvby‡li mgvRUv my¯’ Ges wbivgq
n‡q DV‡Zv| wKš‘ PvB‡jB †Zv Avi †mUv nq bv—gvby‡li fv‡jv Ki‡Z PvB‡jI †KD
fv‡jv Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| Avi gvby‡li fv‡jv PvB‡jI Zv †Zv Avcbv-Avcwb fv‡jv n‡e
bv| †mRb¨ †Zv Kg©cš’v `iKvi bvwK| †mB Kg©cš’vi RvqMvUv eo KwVb RvqMv| Zzwg
ej‡Z cv‡iv, AmvaviY GKUv Zejv—Ac~e© my›`i evRbv †m w`‡Z cv‡i—wKšÍ
†Zvgv‡K hw` ewj IiKg GKUv evwb‡q †`Ibv! Gfv‡eB hw` Zzwg ej‡Z, GiKg K‡i
mgvRUv n‡j mePvB‡Z fv‡jv nq—Avwg ej‡ev, †Zv GiKg K‡iB mgvRUv M‡o
†`Ibv! GB c_Uv cÖvq mevB—we‡kl K‡i hviv Av`k©cwš’, we‡kl K‡i hviv
fveev`x—Zviv GB cš’vUvi K_v wKš‘ wPšÍv K‡ib bv| †mB Kvi‡YB, Zv‡`i GUv

kvk¦wZKx-49

kvk¦wZKx-50

GKai‡bi B”QvB †_‡K hvq—†mB B”Qv‡K ev¯Í‡e cwiYZ Kivi R‡b¨ †h my¯úó
c_wb‡`©kUv `iKvi, Zv Zviv Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv| A_©vr Zvi iv¯ÍvUv n‡”Q fv‡ei iv¯Ív,
K‡g©i iv¯Ív bq| GB GKB cÖkœ Avwg Zz‡jwQjvg Ô†MvivÕ m¤^‡Ü| iex›`ªbv‡_i wec‡¶
GUvB Avgvi K_v wQ‡jv †h fv‡ei Øviv ev¯Í‡e cwieZ©b nq bv| hZB ms¯‹vigy³,
wekvj ü`‡qi gy³ gvbyl wn‡m‡e †Mviv n‡q hvb bv †Kb—fviZel© Zvi mg¯Í
Kzms¯‹vi I AÜKvi wb‡q †hLv‡b c‡o Av‡Q †mLv‡bB _vK‡e—hZ¶Y bv ch©šÍ
†mUv‡K wbw`©ó GKUv cš’v Aej¤^b K‡i cwieZ©b Kiv hv‡e| GB RvqMvUv‡ZB NvUwZ|
ïay iex›`ªbv‡_i NvUwZ bq, eû `vk©wb‡Ki GB RvqMv‡ZB GKUv NvUwZ i‡q‡Q,
cwð‡gi `vk©wb‡KivI Gi evB‡i bb| Avm‡j G¸‡jv n‡”Q Lye †fZ‡ii K_v, G¸‡jv
KL‡bv we‡kl cÖm½ G‡j ZLbB Avwg Av‡jvPbv Kwi| mvaviYfv‡e Gme K_v
Av‡jvPbvq Zzwj Kg—`iKvi †bB e‡j| hLb †Kv‡bv mgq †KD Av‡m, G‡m e‡j—
Avcwb G‡Kev‡i Pzj‡Piv K‡i wePvi Ki“b, ZLbB Avwg Gme K_v ewj|
••gywnZ nvmvb : iex›`ªbv‡_i †h e¨envi I Dc‡hvwMZv, Avgv‡`i †fZ‡i—†m m¤ú‡K©?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : †m K_v †Zv Avwg MZ `k eQi a‡i me©ÎB e‡j †eovw”Q|
cÖ‡Z¨‡K wb‡RB wb‡Ri iv¯Ív Lyu‡R wbK—iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡Q hvevi R‡b¨| Ges
iex›`ªbv‡_i Dc‡hvMxZv Av‡Q Kx †bB, †mUv mevB wb‡RB wePvi Ki“K|
Avwg †Zv Kwi g‡b Zuvi Dc‡hvwMZv Av‡Q, ïay Av‡Q bq—Ly-D-e Av‡Q|
••gywnZ nvmvb : mvgwMÖKfv‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i †QvUMí‡K Kxfv‡e †`‡Lb? Avcbvi
†QvUMí wjLevi †cQ‡b wK iex›`ªbv_ †Kv‡bvfv‡e cÖfve †d‡j‡Qb?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : †kv‡bv, G¸‡jv GZ eªW †Kv‡q‡ðb! eªW †Kv‡q‡ð‡b gykwKj
Av‡Q| Zvn‡j A‡bK Amyweav n‡q hv‡e| ej‡Z cv‡i †h iex›`ªbv‡_i Mí hw` GZB
fv‡jvev‡mb Z‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i wecix‡Z †hme Mí †jLv †mme wK fv‡jvev‡mb bv?
Avcwb wK gucvmvi Mí fv‡jvev‡mb bv? IÕ †nbixi Mí fv‡jvev‡mb bv? ZLb †Zv
gykwK‡j c‡o hv‡ev Avwg! Kv‡RB, eû-gZ eû-c_| iex›`ªbv‡_iI GKUv c_|
AmvaviY| iex›`ªbv‡_i †jLv, GB c‡_i RvqMv †_‡K—Avwg †mLv‡b Zuvi †Kv‡bv
Zzjbv cvB bv| gvby‡li AšÍ‡i †hmg¯Í myeyw× Av‡Q, gvbeZvi †eva †h¸‡jv Av‡Q,
gvby‡li g‡a¨ H‡K¨i †h aviYvUv Av‡Q—G¸‡jv GZ PgrKvifv‡e cÖKvk Kivi
e¨vcviUv iex›`ªbv‡_ †hfv‡e N‡U‡Q, Zuvi †QvUM‡íi g‡a¨—†mUvi Zzjbv †gjv fvi|
Avevi, hviv Gme Ki‡Z hvbwb—Zv‡`i g‡a¨I A‡b‡K AmvaviY Mí wj‡L‡Qb| †mMí Avgvi mgvb wcÖq| Avi Avgvi e¨w³MZ welq, Avgvi †Zv g‡b nq bv †h †Kv‡bv
wKQy‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i e¨vcviUv Avwg m‡PZbfv‡e MÖnY K‡iwQ| Z‡e †`L‡Z cv‡i—
Avgvi †jLv hviv c‡o—†mB cvV‡Kiv| GUv Zv‡`i Rb¨ _vK‡e—Zviv wePvi Ki‡e|
Avgvi ejvi †Zgb wKQy †bB|
••gywnZ nvmvb : iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZvi †¶‡Î hvB| Avcbvi e¨w³MZ gZ G wel‡q ?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : Avgvi gZ n‡”Q, iex›`ª-KweZv wPiKv‡ji—Zuvi eû KweZv
wPiKv‡ji KweZv| c„w_exi †kªô KweZv¸‡jvi mv‡_ Zzjbxq! GB-†Zv!

••gywnZ nvmvb : †kl cÖkœ, w`‡bi †k‡li †h iex›`ªbv_—wZwb Avcbvi Kv‡Q †Kgb?
•nvmvb AvwRRyj nK : w`‡bi †k‡li iex›`ªbv_‡K Avgvi Kv‡Q me-PvB‡Z cwiYZ, me
†P‡q cwiYZ gvbyl, AwfÁZvi Øviv RR©wiZ, AwfÁZvi Øviv F×, ev¯Íe‡K me PvB‡Z
cwi®‹vifv‡e †`L‡Z cvIqv gvbyl—G-B g‡b nq| iex›`ªbv_ me PvB‡Z F×
n‡q‡Qb—Avgvi g‡Z—hZ Zuvi e‡qve„w× N‡U‡Q| Zuvi m„wó¶gZviI e„w× N‡U‡Q eqm
evoevi mv‡_ mv‡_| Ges GZ AUzU m„wó¶gZv wb‡q wZwb Avwk eQi eq‡m c„w_ex
†Q‡o P‡j †M‡Qb| GUv Avgvi Kv‡Q G‡Kev‡iB GKUv cÖvK…wZK NUbvi g‡Zv| †Kv‡bv
gvby‡li c„w_ex‡Z GUv m¤¢e e‡j Avgvi g‡b nqwb| †kl gyn~Z© ch©šÍI m„wói GB
AmvaviY ¶gZv! †mRb¨ †kl iex›`ªbv_‡KB Avgvi Kv‡Q me‡P‡q cwiYZ, me PvB‡Z
MÖnY‡hvM¨, me PvB‡Z fvebv-D‡`ªKKvix| KL‡bv KL‡bv ejv †h‡Z cv‡i GK ai‡bi
wW÷vwe©s AwfÁZv nq iex›`ªbv_ co‡j| e¨w³MZfv‡e Avgvi Ô†kl †jLvÕi A‡bK
KweZvi K_v cÖwZwbqZB g‡b c‡o| GKUv `yc‡y ii K_v g‡b c‡o| wf‡³vwiqv
IKv‡¤úv Zuv‡K †h †PŠwKUv, BwR‡PqviUv iex›`ªbv_‡K w`‡qwQ‡jb—†hUv Zuvi D`q‡bi
†h NiUvq wZwb _vK‡Zb, †mLv‡b cvZv wQ‡jv| Zvi †cQ‡bi †`qv‡j muvUv wQ‡jv
iex›`ªbv‡_i nv‡Zi †jLv| Ô†kl †jLvÕq hv Av‡Q, Ô†iŠ`ªZvc Suv-Suv K‡i/ Rbnxb †ejv
`ycn‡i|/ k~b¨ †PŠwKi cv‡b Pvwn,/ †m_vq mvš—¡bv‡jk bvwn|Õ GB †h Ô†iŠ`ªZvc Suv-Suv
K‡iÕ GUv—Avwg g‡b Kwi—iv‡pi `yciy ‡ejvq bv †M‡j Zzwg eyS‡Z cvi‡e bv K_vUv|
Avi Zuvi ZLbKvi M‡`¨ Av‡Q mgmvgwqK wek¦Uv‡K †`Lv, gvby‡li fwel¨Z wb‡q
Am¤¢e DrKÉv-D‡ØM Ges nZvkv—me Av‡Q| Zvic‡iI c‡`¨ wZwb Avgv‡`i g‡a¨
DÏxcbviB m„wó Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| A‡bK KweZv ZLb wj‡LwQ‡jb, Kuvcv-Kvucv nv‡Z|
ÔH gnvgvbe Av‡mÕ! nv‡Zi †jLvUv †`‡Lv, ZLb Zuvi nv‡Zi †jLv Kuv‡c—fv‡jv K‡i
wjL‡Z cv‡ib bv| gnvgvbe gv‡b Kx? GLv‡b gvbylB †evSv‡”Qb, †Kv‡bv Ck¦i,
A‡jŠwKK mË¡v ev cqM¤^i—†gv‡UB †mm‡ei K_v g‡b K‡ibwb| gvby‡li g‡a¨ hw`
Mo K‡iv , hw` †Zvgv‡K Avwg wR‡Ám Kwi What is the idea of a man? ZLb Zzwg Kx
Reve †`‡e? Zzwg ej‡Z cvi‡e? ej‡Z cvi‡e bv| Zvn‡j ejevi GBfv‡e †Póv Kiv
hvq, me gvbyl †Zv ¯^Zš¿—wKš‘ GB me ¯^Zš¿ gvbyl GKUv RvqMvq †Zv gvbyl—Kx
†mUv? †mBUv‡KB Avwg gvbyl ewj, gvby‡li aviYv ewj| Mv‡qi iO Avjv`v, fvlv
Avjv`v, AvPiY Avjv`v—cÖ‡Z¨KUv gvbyl ¯^Zš¿| GZ ¯^vZš¿¨ m‡Ë¡I ejvi mgq ewj
gvbyl, †Kb ewj? GZ cv_©K¨ †Zv gvbyl e‡j wPwýZ Kwi †Kb? Zvn‡j wbðqB gvbyl
e‡j GKUv wRwbm Av‡Q, hv GB GZ Avjv`vi †fZ‡iI GK—†mBUv‡KB hw` gvbe
ewj Avwg—iex›`ªbv‡_i †Pv‡L wZwbB gnvgvbe| GBUv †`L‡j, gvbweK RM‡Zi evB‡i
iex›`ªbv‡_i Avi wK”Qy †bB—GB K_vUv wKš‘ gv_vq XywK‡q wb‡Z n‡e| †`eZv, Ck¦i
hZB ejyb Dwb—†kl‡gk †mB gvbylB Zuvi Kv‡Q me n‡q †`Lv †`q|
iex›`ªbv_ mviv Rxe‡b GZ k~b¨Zv ev c~YZ
© vi K_v e‡j‡Qb—wZwb cwi‡k‡lI †mB—
k~b¨ I c~Y©| Awbt‡kl|

kvk¦wZKx-51

kvk¦wZKx-52

••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : m¨vi, Avcwb kvixwiK-gvbwmKÑ mew`K †_‡K GLb †Kgb Av‡Qb?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : fv‡jv _vKv ej‡Z nq| kvixwiKfv‡e nqZ fv‡jv AvwQ| Ab¨w`K
w`‡qI fv‡jv AvwQ| Z‡e †h ai‡bi fv‡jv _vKvi welqUv Avgiv wPšÍv Kwi ev †h fv‡e
_vK‡Z PvB †h †Kvb Kvi‡YB †nvK †mUv n‡q I‡V bv|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : m¨vi, Avgiv AvR iex›`ªbv‡_i mvwnZ¨ m¤ú‡K© Avcbvi wKQy
K_v ïb‡ev e‡j G‡mwQ| cÖ_‡gB Avwg †ivgvb Kwe jy‡µwmqvm-Gi KweZv welqK
GKwU gšÍe¨ w`‡q ïi“ KiwQ| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb, ÔKweZvi j¶¨ gvbe mf¨Zv‡K
Kzms¯‹vi I g„Zz¨fq †_‡K cwiÎvY Kiv|Õ iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZv GB KvRwU KZLvwb
Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q e‡j Avcwb g‡b K‡ib ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : †Zvgv‡`i ab¨ev` G wel‡q Avgvi Kv‡Q wKQy †kvbvi ev Rvbvi
AvMÖ‡ni Rb¨| Z‡e Zvi Av‡M Avwg †Zvgvi Kv‡Q GKUv welq Rvb‡Z PvB,
jy‡µwmqv‡mi GB Dw³wU Zzwg †Kb †e‡Q wb‡j?
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : KweZv m¤ú‡K© GB gšÍe¨Uv jy‡µwmqvm K‡i‡Qb AvR †_‡K
eûeQi Av‡M| AvRI Avgiv Zuvi GB K_vwU‡K AwZ cÖvmw½K I ¸i“Z¡c~Y© e‡j g‡b
Kwi weavq iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZv we‡k−lY Kivi R‡b¨ Avgiv †mB cÖvPxb Kwei Kv‡Q
wd‡i †MwQ ev †h‡Z PvB|
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : wVK Av‡Q, jy‡µwmqvm Aek¨B Avgv‡`i Zzjbvq cÖvPxb| Z‡e
GUvI wVK †h wkí-mvwn‡Z¨i D™¢e I weKv‡ki Kvj †_‡KB †gvUvgywUfv‡e hviv

m„Rbkxj gvbyl Zuviv GB ai‡bi K_v e‡j Avm‡Qb| Kv‡RB †mB w`K †_‡K †`L‡Z
†M‡j jy‡µwmqv‡mi †h Dw³ †mUvi GKUv avivevwnKZv i‡q‡Q| Avm‡j Avgiv †hUv‡K
wkí ewj, GLb †mB wkí †Zv KjKviLvbv‡ZI †`wL| GB wk‡íi m‡½ m„Rbkxj
wk‡íi wKš‘ †gŠwjK cv_©K¨ †bB| KviY H cÖhwy ³¸‡jvI gvby‡li GKUv Kíbvkw³
†_‡KB G‡m‡Q| nqZ Rxe‡bi cÖ‡qvRbB †mUv Zv‡`i‡K wkwL‡q‡Q| †hgb, gvbyl
cv_i N‡l Av¸b R¡vjv‡Z wk‡L‡Q| g~jZ, Avgiv gvby‡li `y‡Uv mËv †`wL| GKUv‡K
Avgiv e¯ÍymËv ewj, Ab¨Uv‡K ewj fvemËv| wKš‘ Avgvi g‡b nq G-`y‡Uv‡K Avjv`v
Kivi †Kvb KviY †bB| Avgv‡`i †`n Av‡Q e‡jB †Zv ˆPZb¨ Av‡Q| Avevi Avgv‡`i
ˆPZb¨ bv _vK‡j †`n APj| GB e¯‘ I fveRM‡Zi DËiY NUv‡bvi †h AvKv•¶v †mB
AvKv•¶v †_‡KB †Zv gvbyl mgvR M‡o‡Q| Rxebhvcb‡K AviI mnR Kievi R‡b¨
M‡o Zz‡j‡Q mf¨Zv| ïi“Uv wKš‘ Gfv‡eB| Kv‡RB, gvby‡li m„RbkxjZvi †h welq
Zvi GKUv Nbxf~Z iƒc †mB cÖvPxbKv‡ji KweZvi wfZ‡i Avgiv †c‡qwQ| Aek¨B
KweZv gvby‡li Rxeb‡K weKwkZ Kievi GKUv welq| Avi gvby‡li Rxeb‡K weKwkZ
Kivi K_v fve‡Z †M‡j †Zv Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ nIqv Pj‡e bv| Avi †mB m‡½ g„Z¨z f‡qi
†h e¨vcviUv, GUv wb‡q bvbvRb bvbvfv‡e wPšÍv K‡i Avm‡Qb| GL‡bv ch©šÍ
e¨w³gvby‡li Rxe‡b g„Z¨z Uv A‡gvN| KviY gvbyl‡K euvwP‡q ivLvi e¨vcviUv GLbI
Avwe®‹vi Kiv m¤¢e nqwb| Avgiv †hUv AR©b Ki‡Z PvB †mUv wKš‘ Avm‡j
mgwóMZfv‡e gvby‡li Rxe‡b P‡j Av‡m| Kv‡RB †mLv‡b g„Z¨z f‡qi e¨vcviUv AZUv
evav n‡q `uvov‡Z cv‡i bv| Avi KweZv gvby‡li m„RbkxjZv weKv‡ki g‡a¨ w`‡q
g„Z¨z fq‡K AwZµg Ki‡Z †kLvq| GLb hw` iex›`ªbv‡_i K_vUv ewjÑ nu¨v, iex›`ªbv_
GB KvRwU K‡i‡Qb, †mwU Zuvi KweZv co‡jB †evSv hvq| wZwb Kzms¯‹vi‡K †hfv‡e
AvNvZ K‡i‡Qb, mgvR wec−e Ki‡Z Pvq †hme Kwe-mvwnwZ¨K ZuvivI †mBfv‡e cv‡ib
wb| iex›`ªbv‡_i `„wó‡Z, g„Z¨y gvby‡li Rxe‡b GKUv wmsnØvi wn‡m‡eB KvR K‡i,
GKUv AbšÍ gyw³‡Z wb‡q hvIqvi R‡b¨| ZvB Av¶wiK A‡_©, Avgiv hv‡K g„Z¨z ewj,
iex›`ªbv_ †h †mBfv‡e g„Z¨z ‡K †`‡Lb wb, †mUv Zuvi †jLv co‡jB †evSv hvq| GUv
wVK †h GKRb gvbyl GKUv we‡kl mgq I mgv‡R Rb¥MÖnY K‡i| Ges †mB mgv‡Ri
cÖPwjZ fvlv I ag©‡K Zv‡K MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| GB eÜb¸‡jv gvbyl wb‡Ri weKv‡ki
R‡b¨ wKsev wbivcËvi R‡b¨ †g‡b wb‡q‡Q| wKš‘ Avevi GB eÜb¸‡jv †_‡K gy³I
n‡Z nq| †Kbbv, GB eÜb¸‡jv KLbI bv KLbI gvbeZv weKv‡ki cÖwZeÜKZv n‡q
`uvovq| iex›`ªbv‡_i †¶‡Î †hUv †`wL, †`‡ki agx©q ivRbxwZi Kvi‡Y Zuv‡K wb‡q
A‡bK †bwZevPK K_v ejv n‡q _v‡K| wKš‘ †k·wcqv‡ii †¶‡Î Avgiv ejwQ bv †h
wZwb wLª÷vb Kwe! Avgiv iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v ejwQ †Kb? ejwQ, KviY Avgv‡`i mvg‡b
GKUv ivR‰bwZK D‡Ïk¨ Av‡Q| †mR‡b¨ nqZ Avgv‡`i wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ †_‡K
GKRb‡K `uvo Kivw”Q| wKš‘ bRi“j-iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡a¨ †Zv †Kvb we‡iva wQj bv|
Avevi GI †`Lv †M‡Q †h, GKmgq agv©Üiv bRi“j‡K Kv‡di e‡j cÖZ¨vLvb K‡i‡Q|
wKš‘ cieZ©xKv‡j ZvivB Avevi bRi“j‡K MÖnY K‡i‡Q| gwnqmx †iv‡Kqv‡K wbh©vZb
Kiv n‡q‡Q, A_P Zuv‡KB Avevi GLb wm‡¤^vwjK wn‡m‡e †`Lv n‡”Q| Kv‡RB wkímvwn‡Z¨i welq hw` Avgv‡`i mvg‡b ivwL, Avgv‡`i gv_vUv Aek¨B cwi®‹vi ivL‡Z
n‡e| Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB, Zj÷q wLª÷vb n‡jI gvbevZ¥v‡K Kxfv‡e mvwn‡Z¨ wb‡q

kvk¦wZKx-53

kvk¦wZKx-54

Ôiex›`ªbv_ hw` GZw`b †eu‡P _vK‡Zb Zvn‡j wZwb KwgDwb÷ n‡q †h‡Zb|Õ

iex›`ªbv‡_i mvwnZ¨ cÖm‡½ RyjwdKvi gwZb
Kwe, K_vmvwnwZ¨K I cÖvewÜK RyjwdKvi gwZbGi Rb¥ 1946 mv‡j cvebvi ˆgÎevauvq| `xN©w`b
†_‡K wZwb ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vj‡q evsjv wefv‡Mi
Aa¨vcbv Ki‡Qb| Zuvi cÖKvwkZ MÖ‡š’i msL¨v 30Gi Dc‡i| Zuvi cÖKvwkZ MÖ‡š’i K‡qKwU n‡jv :
Ôˆ¯^iYx ¯^‡`k ZzBÕ (Kve¨, 1972) Ôbxwjgv‡K Puv`
†`e e‡jÕ (Kve¨, 2000), ÔKvi PiY wPý a‡iÕ
(Kve¨, 2011), Ômv`v Kzqvkvi cvwLÕ (Dcb¨vm, 1889), Ôgvbe gvbexÕ (Dcb¨vm,
1996), Ôgyw³hy‡×i MíÕ (1997), ÔAb¨iKgÕ (Mí, 2000), ÔKweZvi †`kÕ (cÖeÜ,
1996), ÔMZ hyM wd‡i Av‡m bvÕ (KjvgMÖš’, 1995), Ôbv †divÕ (gyw³hy‡×i bvUK,
1986), ÔRb¥ bq g„Zz¨ bq euvwPevi mvaÕ (ˆeÁvwbK KíKvwnbx) BZ¨vw`|

AvM÷ gv‡mi 8 Zvwi‡L `ycyi 1Uvi mgq ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vj‡qi knx`yj−vn&
Kjv fe‡b GB mv¶vrKviwU MÖnY Kwi| m‡½ wQj †g‡n`x nvmvb I gywnZ nvmvb
Ñ †gvRvd&di †nv‡mb|

G‡m‡Qb| Avgvi g‡b nq, iex›`ªbv_‡KI Avgv‡`i †mBfv‡e †`Lv DwPr| bRi“j
wb‡RB e‡j‡Qb, †h Kz‡j Avwg Rb¥MÖnY K‡iwQ †mUv Avgvi ˆ`e, Avwg Zv‡K AwZµg
Ki‡Z †c‡iwQ e‡jB Avwg Kwe| Kv‡RB m„Rbkxj gvbyliv me gvby‡li m¤ú` wn‡m‡eB
Avm‡ebÑ Avgv‡`i †mBfv‡e †`Lv DwPZ|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv‡_i Mvb I KweZvq gvbe‡cÖg bv Aa¨vZ¥‡PZbvÑ
†Kvb&Uv‡K Avcwb e‡ov K‡i †`‡Lb ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : gvbe †cÖg Ges Aa¨vZ¥‡PZbv‡K Avjv`v Kiv hvq wK-bv †mUv
Av‡M gxgvsmv Kiv `iKvi| GLb a‡iv ew¼gP›`ª e‡j‡Qb †h, wj‡L hw` mgv‡Ri
DcKvi Ki‡Z cv‡ib Z‡eB wjL‡eb| Kv‡RB Zuv‡K Avgiv GKRb mvgvwRK `vqe×
†jLK wn‡m‡e †g‡b wb‡Z cvwi| Avevi wKš‘ Ab¨w`‡K e‡j‡Qb †h †mŠ›`h© m„wó nj
†jLvi g~j D‡Ïk¨| GLb GB `y‡Uv wRwbm‡K †gjv‡bv nq GBfv‡e †h gvby‡li hLb
GKUv DËiY N‡U wKsev GKUv ch©v‡q hLb gvbyl‡K wb‡q hvIqv nq ZLb GB `y‡qi
g‡a¨ †Kvb we‡iva _v‡K bv| Avi iex›`ªbv‡_i †¶‡Î †Zv ejv hvq †h wZwb gvbe‡cÖg
I Aa¨vZ¥‡PZbv‡K GK K‡i †`‡L‡Qb| Zuvi cÖ_g Rxe‡bi †jLv GKwU KweZvq
e‡j‡Qb, Ò†`eZv‡i hvnv w`‡Z cvwi, w`B ZvB wcÖqR‡b, wcÖqR‡b hvnv w`‡Z cvwi, w`B
ZvB †`eZv‡i|Ó wcÖqRb Ges †`eZvi gv‡S †KvbI cv_©K¨ wZwb †`‡Lb wb| bRi“‡ji
GB Mvb †Zv †Zvgiv ï‡bQ, ÔZzjwm Zjvq h‡e mܨv‡ejvq Zzwg Kwi‡e cÖYvg, †`eZvi
bvg wb‡Z fywjev‡i wb‡qv †gvi bvgÕ| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki HwnZ¨MZ †h `k©b †mLv‡bI
wKš‘ Aa¨vZ¥‡PZbv I ag©‡PZbvi g‡a¨ †KvbI cv_©K¨ †bB| e¯‘Z, gvby‡li g‡a¨ w`‡qB
†`eZvi cÖKvk N‡U‡Q, ZvB GB `y‡Uv wRwbm‡K Avjv`v K‡i †`Lvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB|
iex›`ªbv_I Zv K‡ib wb| wZwb Avm‡j e¨w³i gyw³ †P‡q‡Qb Ges †mB e¨w³i gyw³Uv
Zvi AvwZ¥K RvMi‡Yi †fZi w`‡q NUv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : 30-Gi `k‡Ki Kweiv wKsev AvaywbK Kweiv iex›`ªbv_ †_‡K
KZLvwb †ei n‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : GUv wVK †h w·ki `k‡Ki Kweiv m‡PZbfv‡eB iex›`ªbv‡_i aviv
†_‡K †ei nIqvi †Póv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zvi GKUv cÖavb KviY n‡jv, w·ki `k‡Ki hviv
cÖavb Kwe Zuviv mK‡j AvaywbK wk¶vq wkw¶Z Ges A‡b‡KB Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨i QvÎ
wQ‡jb| Bs‡iwR mvwnZ¨ †h iex›`ªbv_ c‡ob wb, †mUv bq| iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZvq
†ivgvw›UKZvi †h welq Zv‡Zv Bs‡iwR KweZv †_‡KB G‡mwQ‡jv| iex›`ªbv_ cvðvZ¨
†PZbvi m‡½ fviZxq †PZbvi wgkªY NwU‡qwQ‡jb| GLv‡b GKUv K_v e‡j ivLv fv‡jv
†h e¨w³i †hgb f~wgKv Av‡Q, GUvI wVK †h Zvi cvkvcvwk mgq ev hy‡Mi f~wgKvI
†Zgb Av‡Q| a‡iv, we‡k¦ Bs‡iR‡`i kvmbe¨e¯’v P‡j‡Q `xN©w`b, n‡q †Mj `yB `yÕUv
wek¦hy×| Av‡iv A‡bK cwieZ©b Avgiv j¶¨ K‡iwQ| wPšÍvMZ ev fvev`‡k©i w`K w`‡q
w·ki `k‡Ki hviv Kwe Zviv GB mvgwMÖK wel‡qi mv‡_ cwiwPZ wQ‡jb| Zvici
†i‡bmuv ev AZxZ‡K cybivq Avwe®‹vi Kivi †h e¨vcviUv Avgv‡`i GLv‡b Ebwesk
kZvãx‡Z N‡UwQj Zv Zuviv j¶¨ K‡i †`L‡jb| c~e©eZx© Kweiv fviZxq cyiv‡Yi
gv‡SB mxgve× †i‡LwQ‡jb wb‡R‡`i‡K| wKš‘ w·ki `k‡Ki Kweiv †`L‡jb Gi
evB‡iI †Zv cyivY Av‡Q, BwjqvW Av‡Q, IwWwm Av‡Q ev AviI A‡bK wKQyB Av‡Q|

Kv‡RB G¸‡jv‡K bZzb K‡i Avgv‡`i mvwn‡Z¨ G·‡c−vi Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Zuviv
Abyfe Ki‡jb| w·ki `k‡Ki Kweiv Avjv`vfv‡e nqZ A‡bK wKQyB K‡i‡Qb Avi I
meB wQj hy‡Mi GKUv cwieZ©‡bi dj, †hUv Avgiv gvwbK, Zvivk¼i I wef~wZf~lYGi Mí I Dcb¨v‡mI cvB| Gfv‡eB evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ GKUv bZzb aviv ˆZwi n‡q‡Q|
Kwe‡`i cÖKvkfw½ cv‡ë †Mj| mg‡qi mv‡_ mv‡_ cÖKvkfw½ cvëv‡eB| iex›`ªbv‡_i
ÔwbS©‡ii ¯^cf
œ ½Õ c‡ov Avi bRi“‡ji Ôwe‡`ªvnxÕ KweZv c‡ov, GKUv †jLv n‡q‡Q wÎk
eQi Av‡M, Z‡e `y‡Uv KweZv‡ZB †ivgvw›UK D”Q¡vm I eÜb gyw³i e¨vcviUv G‡m‡Q|
wKš‘ fvlvUv Ab¨iKg| Kv‡RB w·ki `k‡Ki Kwe‡`i g‡a¨I cv_©K¨Uv Hfv‡eB
G‡m‡Q| GUv Zuviv m‡PZb fv‡eB K‡i‡Qb|
•†g‡n`x nvmvb : GB cwieZ©bUv iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Kxfv‡e wb‡qwQ‡jb ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : welqe¯‘ ev Dcv`v‡bi w`K †_‡K iex›`ªbv_ wKš‘ GB cwiewZ©Z
cwiw¯’wZi A‡bK wKQyB MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi ÔcybðÕ Kve¨MÖš’ co‡j †mUv †evSv
hvq| wZwb †h Zuv‡`i fv‡jvfv‡eB MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb †mUv †evSv hvq H mg‡qi hviv
cÖavb Kwe Zuv‡`i mv‡_ iex›`ªbv‡_i e¨w³MZ m¤úK© ch©‡e¶Y Ki‡j| Avm‡j GLv‡b
we‡ivwaZv Kivi †KvbI welq †bB| Avwg g‡b Kwi, mvg‡b GwM‡q †h‡Z n‡j
cwieZ©b‡K gvb‡ZB n‡e, bv n‡j G‡Mv‡bv hv‡e bv| GB cwieZ©bUv MÖnY Kiv gv‡b wK
we‡ivwaZv Kiv?
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : gvwbK, wef~wZ, Zvivk¼i-Gi mvwn‡Z¨ Avgiv Lye mvaviY
gvbyl‡`i Lye mvaviYfv‡eB cvB| wKš‘ iex›`ªmvwn‡Z¨ mvaviY gvbylB n‡q I‡V Lye
†ewk B‡›U‡jK&Pqz vj Ges AwZgvÎvq Kvwe¨KÑ welqwU‡K Avcwb Kxfv‡e †`‡Lb ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : nu¨v, GUv wVK †h GKmgq gvby‡li `vwe wQj †h mvaviY gvbyl‡`i
mvwn‡Z¨ wb‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| we‡kl K‡i hviv gvK©mev`x Zuviv G `vwe Ki‡Zb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : gvwbK †Zv GB KvRwUB K‡i‡Qb ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : gvwbK GB KvRwU gvK©mev`x nIqvi Av‡M †_‡KB ïi“ K‡i‡Qb|
GLb K_v n‡”Q gvby‡li A‡bK `ytL †e`bvi K_v Le‡ii KvMR¸‡jv Qv‡c, †mUv wKš‘
mvwnZ¨ bv| mvwn‡Z¨ Avjv`v GKUv wµ‡qwUwfwU _vK‡eB| Av‡iKUv welq a‡iv, GB †h
mvwn‡Z¨ Rv`yev¯ÍeZvi K_v ejv n‡”Q| Avwg †Zv g‡b Kwi †mUvI Avjv`v wKQy bv|
Avgiv hLb kirP‡›`ªi Dcb¨vm cowQ, Rvwb Gi †_‡K wg_¨v Kvwnbx ev NUbv Avi
c„w_ex‡Z bvB| wKš‘ GUv‡K Avgiv wek¦vm Kwi| †Kb? KviY Gi g‡a¨ GK ai‡bi
g¨vwRK¨vj B‡d± KvR K‡i| GB mg¯Í AvBwWqv cwðg †_‡K Av‡m, Zviv G¸‡jv
Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q wewµ K‡i| gvby‡li †h we‡klvwqZ iƒc †mUvB wKš‘ Avgiv mvwn‡Z¨
PvB| Ges GKUv mvwnZ¨ ev wkíKg©‡K ¯’vwqZ¡ w`‡Z ev wPiKvjxb Ki‡Z GUv
cÖ‡qvRbI e‡U| GKUv cÖPwjZ K_v Av‡Q, kirP›`ª‡K GKevi wR‡Ám Kiv n‡qwQj,
Avcbvi †jLv †Zv eywS, iex›`ªbv‡_i †jLv †Zv eywS bv? kirP›`ª e‡jwQ‡jb, †Zvgiv
eyS‡e Kx K‡i, Dwb †Zv †j‡Lb Avgv‡`i R‡b¨, †Zvgv‡`i R‡b¨ †Zv †j‡Lb bv! GUv
†KŠZzK K‡i ej‡Z cv‡ib| GLb welq n‡jv, GKUv gvby‡li ¯^Zš¿iƒc hw` Avgiv
mvwn‡Z¨ bv cvB Zvn‡j Zvi Kv‡Q Avgiv hv‡ev †Kb? ïay wK d‡UvMÖvd †`‡L †eove?

kvk¦wZKx-55

kvk¦wZKx-56

••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avwg ej‡Z Pvw”Q Kz‡ei Ges Awg‡Zi K_v| Kz‡ei‡K Avgiv
Avgv‡`i †Pbv-Rvbv RM‡ZB cvB| wKš‘ AwgZ hZUv bv ev¯Í‡ei Zvi †_‡K †Xi †ewk
Kíbvi, bq wK?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : Kz‡ei n‡jv GK RM‡Zi Avi AwgZ n‡jv Av‡iK RM‡Zi, Kv‡RB
Zv‡`i Ae¯’v‡bi welqUv Zv‡`i PwiÎ iƒcvq‡bi g‡a¨ w`‡q dzwU‡q †Zvjv n‡q‡Q|
iex›`ªbv‡_i welqUv‡K †h Avgiv cÖksmv Ki‡ev †mUvI bv| wZwb cwi‡ekbvi w`K
w`‡q wKfv‡e dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb †mUvI †`Lvi welq| †k‡li KweZv hLb †ei nw”Qj,
ZLb Zv w·ki `k‡Ki KweivI cQ›` K‡iwQ‡jb| eyׇ`e emy Zuvi GK †jLvq Zv
e‡j‡QbI|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm co‡jB †evSv hvq †h GUv GKRb Kwei Dcb¨vm|
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : Avm‡j †k‡li KweZvÕq †Zv KweiB Rq n‡q‡Q| GLb GUv‡K
Dcb¨v‡mi GKUv aviv wn‡m‡e †`L‡Z n‡e| Z‡e Gi wfZi w`‡q gvby‡li †cÖgfv‡jvevmvB ewj, Rxeb-hvcbB ewj, Zvi †h iƒcUv wZwb G‡b‡Qb Zv wKš‘ Zywg
A¯^xKvi Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| jveb¨‡K wZwb e‡j‡Qb, †m n‡jv m‡ivei Avi †KZKx
n‡jv Novi Rj| Novi Rj LvIqv hvq Avi m‡ive‡i muvZvi KvU‡Z nq| A_v©r
Avgv‡`i †h cvw_©e RMr-msmvi Gi evB‡i Avgv‡`i wb‡q hvIqv| ïay msmv‡ii g‡a¨B
hw` Avgiv wb‡R‡`i wbgMœ ivwL Zvn‡j †Zv M‡íi bvwqKv‡K Zvi k¦ï‡ii Ihyi e`bv
GwM‡q w`‡Z n‡e| wKsev kvïoxi R‡b¨ Rvqbvgvh weQv‡Z n‡e| wKš‘ Gi evB‡i †h
Zvi Avjv`v GKUv AvZ¥v Av‡Q G wRwbmUv‡K †Zv A¯^xKvi Kiv hvq bv|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔiweeviÕ M‡í Avgiv †`‡LwQ AwfK Z_vKw_Z
ag© I Ck¦i-fvebv wb‡q cÖkœ Zy‡j‡Q| GB †_‡K wK a‡i †bIqv hvq iex›`ªbv_ †k‡li
w`‡K mskqev‡`i w`‡K avweZ n‡qwQ‡jb ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : A‡bK Av‡MB Avwg Avgvi GKUv †jLvq e‡jwQjvgÑ iex›`ªbv_
hw` GZw`b †eu‡P _vK‡Zb Zvn‡j wZwb KwgDwb÷ n‡q †h‡Zb| Zuvi ÔwkïZx_©Õ
KweZvwU‡Z wZwb e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvwg eªvZ¨ gš¿nxbÕ| ZvQvov wZwb †Zv eªvþ mgv‡Ri
GKRb wQ‡jb| †mLv‡b †Zv wbivKvi Ck¦‡ii K_vB ejv n‡q‡Q| c~Rv AP©bv ev g~wZ©i
e¨vcvi †Zv †mLv‡b wQj bv| Avi ZvQvov Avgv‡`i AvbyôvwbK †h Ck¦i, GB Ck¦‡ii
e›`bv iex›`ªbv_ KLbB K‡ib wb| Avgv‡`i cÖPwjZ †h Ck¦i †mB Ck¦i‡K wZwb hZUv
m¤¢e eR©b K‡i‡Qb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªmvwn‡Z¨ bvixiv KZUv cÖMwZkxj I ¯^vaxb Ges gyw³Kvgx
e‡j Avcwb g‡b K‡ib ?
••RyjwdKvi gwZb : AvR‡K †Zvgvi †h bvixev`x aviYv †mUv w`‡q †Zv iex›`ªbv‡_i
Kvj‡K wePvi Ki‡j Pj‡e bv| iex›`ªbv_ †h mg‡q R‡b¥wQ‡jb †mB mg‡qi †cÖ¶vc‡U
Zuv‡K wePvi Ki‡Z n‡e|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avgiv †`LwQ †`ok eQi c‡iI iex›`ªbv‡_i RbwcÖqZv
GKwe›`y K‡gwb| GLbI wZwb mgvbfv‡e cÖvmw½K| †mB R‡b¨ Avgv‡`i Kv‡ji wePv‡i
Zuv‡K hw` wPšÍv Kwi, Z‡e ?

•RyjwdKvi gwZb : †m‡¶‡Î †`Lv hv‡e †h iex›`ªmvwn‡Z¨i wKQy wKQy bvix we‡`ªvwnbxi
f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| mePvB‡Z mgv‡jvPbv Kiv nq †hvMv‡hvM Dcb¨vm wb‡q| Kzgwy `bx
cÖwZ gyn‡~ Z© i³v³ n‡”Q, we‡bvw`bxi gv‡S cÖwZ gyn‡~ Z© GKUv Ø›Ø KvR Ki‡Q|
Dcb¨v‡mi g‡a¨ Avgiv gvbweK PwiÎ PvB| †mB PwiÎ Avgiv iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨v‡m
cvB| GUv wVK †h ew¼gP›`ª weaev‡`i we‡q w`‡q‡Qb, iex›`ªbv_ Zv cv‡ib wb| Avm‡j
wZwb Zuvi PwiÎMy‡jv‡K Hfv‡e †¯−vMvb wn‡m‡e e¨envi Ki‡Z Pvb wb|
••†g‡n`x nvmvb : wZwb Zuvi bvix Pwiθ‡jv‡K H mgv‡Ri evB‡iI †ei K‡ib wb!
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : †ei Ki‡jB ev Kx n‡Zv? †ivwnbxi m‡½ hw` †Mvwe›` jv‡ji we‡q
w`‡Zb, Zvn‡j cuvPUv-`kUv mšÍvb n‡Zv| Zv‡Z wk‡íi Kx n‡Zv? †ivwnbx‡K †g‡i
†djv ch©šÍ GKUv gvby‡li †h msNvZ, ¶iY †m wRwbm †Zv Avgiv †cZvg bv| Dcb¨vm
AvaywbK Kv‡ji m„wó| †mUv †Zv Avi iƒcK_v bq †h ivRcyÎ †Mj, ˆ`Z¨-`vbe †g‡i
ivRKb¨v‡K wb‡q Avm‡jv, we‡q Ki‡jvÑ Avgvi MíUv dziv‡jv, b‡U MvQUv gy‡ov‡jv!
Kv‡RB Hfv‡e wePvi Kiv wVK bv| Zuvi Kv‡j ev mg‡q bvixi Rb¨ hZUzKz ejv m¤¢e
Zv wZwb e‡j‡Qb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q c~ee© ‡½ cÖPiz Av‡jvPbv n‡q‡Q I n‡”Q|
GLb †Zv ej‡Z †M‡j, iex›`ª-Av‡jvP‡K f‡i †M‡Q †`k| Gme Av‡jvPK I Av‡jvPbv
wb‡q Avcwb KZUv Avkvev`x?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : nu¨v, iex›`ªbv‡_i GB mva©kZRb¥evwl©Kx Dcj‡¶ nqZ bvbviKg
cÎcwÎKv †ei n‡”Q| †ZvgivI Ki‡Qv, Kv‡RB G¸‡jv †Zv n‡ZB cv‡i| me †jLvi
mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM bv _vK‡j G wel‡q wKQy ejv gykwKj| Z‡e GUv wVK, mv¤cÖwZK †h
e¨vcvi, †mUvi ¯’vwqZ¡ wbf©i Ki‡e cieZx©Kv‡j †mUvi MÖnY‡hvM¨Zvi Dci| Kv‡RB
†hUv MÖnY‡hvM¨ bq, †mUv evwZj n‡q hv‡e, GB Avi wK!
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : A‡b‡Ki Kv‡Q Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Rxebvb›` e‡ov Kwe| Avcbvi
Kv‡Q Kwe wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi I Rxebvb›` `vm-Gi Zzjbvg~jK Ae¯’vb †Kgb?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : cÖ‡Z¨K Kwe, cÖ‡Z¨K †jLK Zuv‡`i Ae¯’vb †_‡K Zuv‡`i ¸i“Z¡c~Y©
wRwbm ˆZwi K‡ib| Avi Avgvi K_v hw` ej‡Z nq, †mUv njÑ Avwg evsjv KweZv‡K
GLb ch©šÍ wZbUv cÖRb¥‡Z fvM K‡iwQ| GK. gaym`~ b, `yB. iex›`ªbv_, wZb.
Rxebvb›`| Avwg g‡b Kwi, KweZvi aviv, DËiY, weKvk Ñ mvgwMÖK w`K we‡ePbv K‡i
GLb evsjv KweZvi GUv Z…Zxq cÖRb¥ Pj‡Q| Kv‡RB GLv‡b e‡ov Kwe, †QvU Kwei
†Zv †KvbI e¨vcvi Av‡m bv| GKgvÎ g~Li© vB ej‡Z cv‡i, Gu‡`i †K e‡ov Avi †K
†QvU Kwe|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : K_vcÖm‡½ Z…Zxq cÖR‡b¥i Kwe‡`i K_v P‡j Avm‡Q| Avcbvi
Kv‡Q GB cÖR‡b¥i D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Kwe Kviv ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : GUv ej‡Z †M‡j Avwg Avm‡j hvu‡`i KweZv cwo Zuv‡`i K_v ej‡Z
nq| Avevi Avwg, ejwQ bv e‡j †h Zuviv eo Kwe bv ZvI †Zv bv| Rxebvb›` `vk-Gi
Kv‡j huviv wQ‡jb, 30-Gi `k‡K Avi wK, Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ a‡iv weòz †`, Awgq PµeZ©x,
Rxebvb›` †Zv Av‡QbB| Zvi cieZx© mg‡q kw³ P‡Ævcva¨vq-Gi K_v ejv hvq| Avi
Avgv‡`i GLv‡b..., Avm‡j †hUv n‡q‡Q, †`k wefv‡Mi d‡j evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i `yB e‡½i

kvk¦wZKx-57

kvk¦wZKx-58

avivUv cv‡ë †M‡Q| Zvi KviY GLvbKvi ev¯ÍeZv GKiKg, ILvbKvi ev¯ÍeZv
Ab¨iKg| †mw`K †_‡K cvwK¯Ívb nIqvi c‡i kvgmyi ivngvb wQ‡jb| Zvici a‡iv..
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Avj gvngy` ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : nu¨v| Avj gvngy`-Gi cÖ_g w`KKvi Kve¨MÖš’ Ô†mvbvjx KvwebÕ,
ÔKv‡ji KjmÕ-Gi K_v ejv †h‡Z cv‡i| Avgvi g‡b nq †h Zuvi cÖwZfvi cieZ©x‡Z
†Zgb weKvk N‡Uwb| cieZx© mg‡q Zuvi AbyeZ©b N‡U‡Q gvÎ| †mUv A‡bKUv kvgmyi
ivngvb-Gi g‡a¨I wKQyUv †`L‡Z cvB| kvgmyi ivngvb-Gi A‡bK KweZvi g‡a¨I
AwZK_b Av‡Q...| Avgvi g‡b nq, Aveyj nvmvb-Gi KweZvi †Wc_& A‡bK †ewk|
••gywnZ nvmvb : knx` Kv`ix ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : knx` Kv`ix-Guiv †Zv a‡iv A‡bKUv, gv‡b Kwe wn‡m‡e Zuv‡`i
Aeg~j¨vqb Kivi e¨vcvi bq Z‡e KweZvi †¶‡Î †h ai‡bi wbweóZv `iKvi †mUv
Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ K‡ZvUv Av‡Q ejv gykwKj|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Rq †Mv¯^vgxi KweZv Avcbvi †Kgb jv‡M ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : nu¨v, Rq †Mv¯^vgxI fv‡jv| Avm‡j evsjv KweZvq mvaviYZ H
KweivB wU‡K _vK‡Qb ev _vK‡eb hviv GKUz wgmwUK ai‡bi KweZv †j‡Lb Avi wK!
Ab¨w`‡K, webq gRyg`vi, k•L †Nv‡li K_vI ejv †h‡Z cv‡i|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : bexb †jLK‡`i †jLK n‡q IVvi Rb¨ I cÖexY †jLK‡`i
†jLbxaviv ev gvbUv‡K hvPvB Kivi Rb¨ iex›`ªbv_ cVb-cvVb KZUv Ri“wi ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : GUv‡K hw` †UKwbK¨vwj †`Lv hvq, iex›`ªbv_ c‡o †h GLbKvi
cÖRb¥‡K wk¶v wb‡Z n‡e welqwU Zv bq| iex›`ªbv_ a‡iv GKai‡bi welq wb‡q
wj‡L‡Qb, wZwb GKai‡bi Avw½K e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| Zv memgq AbymiY‡hvM¨ e¨vcvi
bq| Z‡e †h wRwbmUv †`Lvi †mUv nj gvbe AvZ¥vi †h welqUv, †mUv wZwb Kxfv‡e
DwV‡q G‡b‡QbÑ †mB wRwbmUv GKwU wk¶bxq n‡Z cv‡i|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : GwjqU ej‡Qb, ÔcÖwZUv †jLK‡K Zuvi UªvwWkb ev AZxZ
†_‡K wkL‡Z n‡e...Õ
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : †kv‡bv, AZxZ ev hv‡K Avgvi UªvwWkb ewj †mUv wKš‘
mveKb&mvmwj GKRb †jL‡Ki g‡a¨ P‡jB Av‡m|
••gywnZ nvmvb : Zvn‡j †KD hw` e‡j Avwg iex›`ªbv_ †_‡K wKQy wkwL bvB, Zvn‡j
†mUv fyj ejv n‡e wbðq ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : Zv‡Zv e‡UB, Avgiv ivgvqY, gnvfviZ, IwWwm, BwjqvW cwobv?
†mLvb †_‡KI †Zv Avgv‡`i †bIqvi A‡bK wKQy Av‡Q|
••gywnZ nvmvb : Av‡iKUv e¨vcvi, Avgiv wKsev Avwg hLb †Kvb †jLvq AvU‡K hvB
gv‡b hw` †V‡K hvB ZLb hw` iex›`ªbv‡_i GKUv Mí wKsev cÖeÜ cwo ZLb wKš‘ Zv
Lye mvnvh¨ K‡i|
••†g‡n`x nvmvb : A‡b‡KB iex›`ªbv_‡K fMev‡bi Avm‡b ewm‡q‡Qb, Avevi Zuvi
wb›`y‡KiI Afve †bB| iex›`ªbv_‡K Avcwb Kxfv‡e †`‡Lb ?

•RyjwdKvi gwZb : G cÖ‡kœi DËi Avwg Av‡MI wKQyUv w`‡qwQ| iex›`ªbv_ GKRb
gvbyl ZvB Zuvi wKQy mxgve×Zv †_‡K _vK‡e, Avi †mB mxgve×Zv‡K eo K‡i Zzjevi
†Kvb `iKvi †bB, Kv‡RB iex›`ªbv_‡K Ah_v fw³ KiviI e¨vcvi †bB, wb›`v KiviI
e¨vcvi †bB| Avgiv Zuvi iPbvm¤¢vi‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡Z cviwQ wK-bv †mBUvB eo K_v|
••gywnZ nvmvb : Avwg Avcbvi GKwU cÖe‡Ü c‡owQjvg, ÔeuvP‡eb wZwb euvPv‡ebÕ GB
wk‡ivbv‡g| Avgvi cÖkœ n‡”Q Dwb wK Av‡`Š cvi‡eb euvPv‡Z gv‡b AviI `yÕwZb cÖRb¥ ci ?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : H †h ejjvg, Zuv‡K cv‡Vi ga¨ w`‡q †`Lvi R‡b¨| Avgiv hw`
Zuv‡K cvV Kwi Zvn‡j wZwb Avgv‡`i euvPv‡eb| GUv wbf©i Ki‡Q Avgv‡`i Ici| wZwb
†Zv Zuvi m„wó Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q †i‡LB †M‡Qb|
••†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb : Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi cÖvq me¸‡jv msL¨v Avcwb †`‡L‡Qb| Avgv‡`i
GB welqwfwËK KvR Kiv‡K Avcwb Kxfv‡e †`L‡Qb?
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : Avwg memgq ewj, Ab¨‡Kvb KvR bv K‡i †Zvgiv cwÎKv †ei
Ki‡Qv GUvi GKUv cwRwUf w`K †Zv Av‡QB| Avi wjUj g¨vMvwRb¸‡jv hviv Ki‡Q
Zv‡`i A‡bK Kó Ki‡Z nq| Avi nu¨v, cuvP wg‡kwj msL¨v bv K‡i †h †Kvb GKUv
welq‡K †e‡Q wb‡q †Zvgiv †h KvR Ki‡Qv GUvi GKUv ¯’vqx g~j¨ Aek¨B Av‡Q e‡j
Avwg g‡b Kwi|
••Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ : m¨vi, Avgv‡`i‡K Avcbvi g~j¨evb mgq †`Iqvi R‡b¨ AmsL¨
ab¨ev`| Avcwb `xN© Kg©gq I my¯’ Rxe‡bi AwaKvix †nvb|
•RyjwdKvi gwZb : †Zvgv‡`i‡KI ab¨ev` I Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi Rb¨ ïfKvgbv iBj|

kvk¦wZKx-59

kvk¦wZKx-60

†ek K‡je‡i cÖKvwkZ n‡Z hv‡”Q Ñ

ÔagwbÕ
ÔagwbÕi ÔMvwj welqK msL¨vÕ| GQvovI cvIqv hv‡”Q ÔagwbÕi ÔwcÖq eB
msL¨vÕ| †hvMv‡hvM : Avãyj gvbœvb ¯^cb, m¤úv`K ÔagwbÕ, wK‡kviMÄ|
01710675569, dhamoni.2008@gmail.com

ÔMíK_vÕ
Mí I Mí welqK mvwnZ¨KvMR ÔMíK_vÕi K_vmvwnwZ¨K Ônvmvb AvwRRyj
nK msL¨vÕ| GQvovI cvIqv hv‡”Q ÔMíK_vÕi ÔwØZxq msL¨vÕ|
†hvMv‡hvM : P›`b Av‡bvqvi, m¤úv`K ÔMíK_vÕ, ivRkvnx| 01716195717
golpokatha2011@gmail.com

ÔAvenÕ
ÔAvenÕi K_vmvwnwZ¨K ÔRvwKi ZvjyK`vi msL¨vÕ|
†hvMv‡hvM : bvRgyj nvmvb, m¤úv`K Aven, bv‡Uvi| 1719132361

cÖeÜ (62-107)

Ave`yi iDd †PŠayix

wPi-b~Z‡b‡i w`‡jv WvK, cuwP‡k ˆekvL
[†jLK, `vk©wbK I wPšÍvwe` Ave`yi iDd †PŠayixi Rb¥ 1929 mv‡j nweMÄ †Rjvq| wZwb Zuvi
Dcb¨vm, †QvUMí, KweZv, cÖeÜ, ågYKvwnbx I AvZ¥‰RewbK iPbvi g‡a¨ w`‡q evsjv mvwn‡Z¨
`xN©w`b †eu‡P _vK‡eb| 1996 mv‡j ¸Yx †jLK I wPšÍvwe` Ave`yi iDd †PŠayixi †`nemvb
N‡U| Zuvi AcÖKvwkZ ÔwPi-b~Z‡b‡i w`‡jv WvK, cuwP‡k ˆekvLÕ cÖeÜwUi GKwU Ask
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi eZ©gvb msL¨vq cÖKvwkZ n‡jv|]

m~Pbv
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi cuwP‡k ˆekvL 1268 evsjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb e‡j evK¨ mgvß
Ki‡Z gb Pvq bv, eis fve‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M G-w`b evievi Av‡mÑ †mvbvi evsjvi
k¨vgj Muv‡q, iƒcvjx-Mv‡Oi R‡j, †ev‡j-fiv Wv‡ji Qv‡q, wen‡½i kªvš— ¯^‡i,
iRbxMÜvi M‡Ü, †KvwKj-WvKv AvgªKvb‡b| Kwei fvlvq,
Rb¥w`b Av‡m ev‡i ev‡i/ g‡b Kivev‡i/ G Rxeb wbZ¨B b~Zb/ cÖwZ cÖv‡Z Av‡jvwKZ/
cyjwKZ/w`‡bi gZb [...]|1

evsjvmvwn‡Z¨ iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡jvËxY© wekvj Ae¯’vb| wZwb Zuvi m„wókxjZvq †`k I
Kv‡ji DËiY NwU‡q wek¦eªþv‡Êi Acåsk †PZbvi g‡a¨ GK mvejxj wb`k©b
cÖw_ZKi‡Yi mve©Rbxb Av¯’v AR©b K‡i‡Qb, †h-Kvi‡Y iex›`ªmw„ ówb`k©b GLb ch©š—
Rxeb I cÖKw… Zi A‡gvN mw¤§j‡b ¯úófv‡eB ¯úk©KvZi| Zuvi m„wówb`k©‡bi cwiwa
e¨vcK| Rxeb I cÖKw… Zi g‡a¨ Kv‡ji Avwef©yZ cwieZ©bxq avivmgybqœ b-†PZbvq
GKw`‡K iex›`ªbv_ †hgb n‡Z †c‡i‡Qb RvMwZKfv‡e ˆec−weK, Ab¨w`‡K
gbb‰ewk‡ó¨i wb¸pZË¡ we‡k−l‡Y wejxb nIqvi wbivfiY †hvM¨Zv AR©b K‡i‡Qb
AZxw›`ªqZvev`x cÖÁvavivq, G-Kvi‡YB iex›`ªbv_‡K wPib~Zb avivcÖev‡n Dcjwä Kiv
hvq evsjvi mewKQy‡Z| evsjvi mewKQy‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i †mvbvi cik †j‡MB Av‡Q, ZvB
ejv P‡j wZwb evsjvi me©‡Î weivRgvb; wZwb RvMwZK RxebcÖK…wZ-DËwiZ mªóvcyi“l;
wZwb gbb‰ewk‡ó¨i gvbmcÖKw… Z-DËwiZ cÖÁvcyi“l| Zuvi Kv‡Q ˆeKz‡Éi †P‡qI Kvg¨
n‡q I‡V evsjvi b`x, gvwU, KxU, gvbyl, cj−xevsjv, GKZvivÑ Gm‡ei g‡a¨B Zuv‡K
Luy‡R cvIqv hvq; cvIqv hvq Zuvi mviv Rxe‡bi mv_©K m„wówb`k©‡b, hv bvbvfv‡e mg„×
†PZbvq F× K‡i‡Q †`k-Kvj †cwi‡q wek¦MwÊi bvbv Av‡qvRb| evsjvi b`x, gvwU,
KxU, gvbyl, cj−xevsjv, GKZviv Kxfv‡e iex›`ªm„wówb`k©b dz‡U D‡V‡Q Zv msw¶ß
AvKv‡i Zz‡j aivi evmbvq G ¶z`ª cÖeÜwU wjLevi †Póv K‡iwQ|
GKZviv
Avgvi QywU Avm‡Q Kv‡Q mKj QywUi †kl/ Qwe GKUv RvM‡Q g‡bÑ QywUi gnv‡`k/ AvKvk
Av‡Q ¯—ä
— †m_vq, GKUv my‡ii aviv/ Amxg bxieZvi Kv‡b evRv‡”Q GKZviv|2

1
2

kvk¦wZKx-61

ùzwz j½, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
†muRwy Z, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

kvk¦wZKx-62

iex›`ªbv_ e½xq ÔevDjZË¡Õ-Gi ev¯—emZ¨wU Dcjwä K‡i Ae‡nwjZ cj−xRxe‡bi
mxgve× wbi¶i evDj‡K GKwU we‡kl gh©v`vq cÖwZwôZ K‡i‡Qb| evD‡ji GKZviv
Zuv‡K gy» K‡iwQj e‡jB‡Zv wZwb Zuvi weL¨vZ Ô†MvivÕ Dcb¨v‡m, webq Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g,
Zuvi g‡bi B”Qvc~i‡Yi Rb¨ evDj‡K †W‡K G‡b ÔAwPb cvwLÕi MvbwU ï‡bwQ‡jb|
bexb eq‡m iex›`ªbv_ ÔAwPb cvwLÕi MvbwU ï‡bwQ‡jb evD‡ji GKZvivq|
iex›`ªbv_ cÖ_g Rxeb †_‡KB evDj m½x‡Zi fve I fvlvi cÖwZ Mfxifv‡e
DÏvg-Dj−v‡m AbyiwYZ n‡q‡Qb, hv Zuvi Rxebe¨vcx Db¥y³ g‡bvgM‡R, †PZbvq my`„p
cÖfve †d‡j‡Q| evD‡ji Mvb ï‡b fvlvi mijZvq, fv‡ei MfxiZvq, my‡ii Av‡e‡M
iex›`ªbv_ Avc−yZ n‡q‡Qb, ZvB wZwb wek¦vm K‡i‡Qb evOvwji fve I evOvwji fvlv
AvqË Ki‡Z n‡j evOvwj Ô†hLv‡b ü`‡qi K_vÕ e‡j †mLv‡b AbymÜvb Ki‡Z n‡e,
G‡Z Ô[...] †hgb Áv‡bi ZË¡ †Zgwb Kve¨iPbv, †Zgwb fw³i im wg‡k‡Q|Õ3 †R¨vwZ©gq
bvoxi AvKlY©, gvby‡li mg¯— ¶zavZ…òv, mg¯— AR©beR©b, RM‡Zi inm¨vMv‡ii
ga¨kw³, gnvmgy‡`ªi weÁvb, mg¯— Avb›`, mZ¨iƒcÑ GmeB Lyu‡R †c‡q‡Qb evD‡ji
gv‡S iex›`ªbv_| ÔGgb †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv Kwei K_v ïbv wMqv‡Q, huvnviv Rxe‡bi cÖvi¤¢
fv‡M c‡ii AbyKiY Kwiqv wjwL‡Z Avi¤¢ Kwiqv‡Qb [...] A‡bK fv‡jv fv‡jv KweZv
wjwLqv‡Qb, wKš‘ †m¸wj ïwb‡j g‡b nq †hb Zvnv †Kv‡bv GKUv euvav ivwMYxi Mvb,
wgó jvwM‡Z‡Q, wKš‘ b~Zb †VwK‡Z‡Q bv| Ae‡k‡l GBiƒc wjwL‡Z wjwL‡Z, Pvwiw`K
nvZovB‡Z nvZovB‡Z, mnmv wb‡Ri †hLv‡b gg©¯’vb, †mBLvbwU Avwe®‹vi Kwiqv
†d‡jb| Avi Zuvnvi webvk bvB| Gevi wZwb †h Mvb Mvwn‡jb Zvnv ïwbqvB Avgiv
Kwnjvg, evt, G Kx kywbjvg! G †K Mvwnj! G Kx ivwMYx!Õ4
iex›`ªbv_ D”Q¡vm, D‡Øj n‡q D‡V‡Qb D‡cw¶Z evDjm½x‡Zi ¯^xKiY-wkni‡Y|
MÖvgevsjvi Rxe‡b ÔcwicywóiB DcKiYÕ RywM‡q ˆewP‡Î¨i †h Acwi‡gq Hk¦h© I
im‡mŠ›`‡h©i we¯—vi n‡q‡Q Zvi wbcyY mv_©K iƒcB n‡”Q evD‡ji GKZvivÑ
evDjm½xZ; iex›`ªbv_ wb‡Ri m½x‡Zi †¶‡Î Gi myiQ›` cÖ‡qvM K‡i‡Qb| iex›`ªbv_
wek¦vm K‡i‡Qb †h, evDjm½x‡Zi imB evOvwj RvwZi Rxe‡b b~Z‡bi AvnŸvb, hv
ÔRivi AvµgYÕ †_‡K my¯’ K‡i Zz‡j gvbe‡K, †hvM ¯’vcb K‡i †`q gvbe‡K mªóvi
m‡½, KviY Ôim‡mŠ›`h©B gvbewP‡Ë Ava¨vwZ¥K c~Y©Zvq weKvwkZ nqÕ5| fviZel©xq
ivMm½xZ I cvðvZ¨m½x‡Zi cÖfve KvwU‡q iex›`ªbv_ †cÖiYvi Drm Lyu‡R †c‡q‡Qb
evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvY‡K›`ª evD‡ji GKZvivqÑ evDjm½x‡Z| hw`I GKw`b ÔAvgv‡`iÕ
m½xZ ivRmfvq, mgªvUmfvq Ô†cvl¨cy‡Îi g‡Zv Av`‡iÕ evowQj, wKš‘ GLb †mme mfv
Avi †bB, †miKg nIqvi AeKvkI †bB, ZvB m½x‡Zi †mB hZœ-Av`i, †mB üócyóZv
P‡j †M‡Q, wKš‘ evDjm½x‡Zi gvi KLbI nIqvi †bB; KviY G-m½xZ †h-i‡m
ÔjvwjZÕ †m-aviv AvRxebB Pj‡e| g~jK_v ÔcÖv‡Yi m‡½ †hvM bv _vwK‡j e‡ov wkíI
wUwK‡Z cv‡i bv|Õ6

evOvwji m½xZÑ evDjm½xZÑ iex›`ªbv‡_i fvecÖeY ü`q‡K Avc−Z
y K‡i‡Q, †h
fv‡ei fvlv Abyev` Kiv Am¤¢e, †m Avi hvB †nvK Zv evOvwji ü`qRvZ, evsjv Qvov
Avi †Kv_vq G‡K Ly‡u R cvIqv hvq bv; ms¯‹Z
… , Bs‡iwR fvlv hZB †Zvjcvo Kiv †nvK
bv †Kb Gi mÜvb ïay evOvwji ü`‡qB wg‡j| Ôb`xgvZ…K evsjv‡`‡ki cÖv½‡Y cÖv½‡Y
†hgb †QvU-e‡ov b`x-bvjv †mªv‡Zi Rvj wewQ‡q w`‡q‡Q, †Zgwb e‡qwQj Mv‡bi †mªvZ
bvbv avivq| evOvwji ü`‡q †m i‡mi †`ŠZ¨ K‡i‡Q bvbv iƒc a‡i| hvÎv, cuvPvwj,
K_KZv, Kwei Mvb, KxZ©b gyLwiZ K‡i †i‡LwQj mg¯— †`k‡K|Õ7 iex›`ªbv_ ¯^xKvi
K‡i‡Qb †h, m½x‡Zi GZ ˆewPΨ Avi-†KvbI †`‡k Av‡Q wKbv Zv wZwb Rv‡bb bv|8
evD‡ji cÖwZ AvKl©Y †h ïay Zuvi Dcb¨v‡m cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i‡Q Zv bq,
m‡PZbfv‡e evD‡ji m½x‡Zi g~j¨vqb cÖqvmI Zuvi cÖe‡Ü †`Lv hvq| m½xZ m¤^‡Ü
bvbv wPš—vfvebv iex›`ªbv‡_i m„wóK‡g© wea„Z n‡jI 1881 wLª÷v‡ã wZwb ÔmsMxZ I
fveÕ bv‡g GKwU cÖeÜ iPbv K‡i e‡j‡Qb, Ô[...] e½mgv‡R GKUv Av‡›`vjb Dcw¯’Z
nBqv‡Q, GgbwK, †m Av‡›`vj‡bi GK-GKUv Zi½ qy‡iv‡ci DcK‚‡j wMqv †cuŠQvB‡Z‡Q| GLb
nvRvi †Póv K‡iv-bv, nvRvi †Kvjvnj K‡iv-bv †Kb, G Zi½ †iva K‡i Kvnvi mva¨! GB b~Zb
Av‡›`vj‡bi m‡½ m‡½ Avgv‡`i †`‡k msMx‡Zi be Afy¨`q nBqv‡Q|Õ9

evDjm½x‡Zi mÜvb Ki‡ZB †eva nq iex›`ªbv_, †gvMj Avgjxq m½xZPPv©i
Aemv‡bi ci weªwU‡ki AvMg‡b bvMwiK Ges bMi cÖfvweZ mgv‡R m½x‡Zi †h b~Zb
ˆewkó¨ †`Lv †`q Zv‡K ¯^vMZ Rvwb‡q‡Qb| wZwb m½xZ‡K Rxeš— Kivi R‡b¨ AvnŸvb
K‡i‡Qb, ÔAvgv‡`i msMxZwe`¨vj‡q myi-Af¨vm I ivMivwMYx-wk¶vi †kªwY Av‡Q, †mLv‡b
ivMivwMbYxi fve-wk¶viI †kªwY ¯’vwcZ nDK| [...] Avgv‡`i msMxZ hLb Rxeš— wQj, ZLb
fv‡ei cÖwZ †hiƒc g‡bv‡hvM †`Iqv nBZ †miƒc g‡bv‡hvM Avi †Kv‡bv †`‡ki msMx‡Z †`Iqv
nq wKbv m‡›`n| Avgv‡`i †`‡k hLb wewfbœ FZz I wewfbœ mg‡qi mwnZ wgjvBqv wewfbœ
ivMivwMYx iPbv Kiv nBZ, hLb Avgv‡`i ivMivwMYxi wewfbœ fvee¨ÄK wPÎ ch©š— wQj, ZLb
¯úóB eySv hvB‡Z‡Q †h, Avgv‡`i †`‡k ivMivwMYx fv‡ei †mev‡ZB wbhy³ wQj| †m w`b
wMqv‡Q| wKš‘ Avevi wK Avwm‡e bv!Õ10

iex›`ªbv_ 1288 e½v‡ã ÔmsMx‡Zi DrcwË Ges Dc‡hvwMZvÕi wel‡q GKwU cÖeÜ
wj‡L‡Qb, hv nvfvU© †¯úÝv‡ii Ôw` AwiwRb G¨vÛ dvbK&kb Ad wgIwRKÕ-Gi
A‡bKUzKz AbymiY, G‡Z e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvgv‡`i g‡bvfve MvpZg ZxeªZg iƒ‡c cÖKvk Kwievi
Dcvq-¯^iƒ‡c msMx‡Zi ¯^vfvweK DrcwË| †h Dcv‡q fve m‡ev©rK…óiƒ‡c cÖKvk Kwi, †mB
Dcv‡qB Avgiv fve m‡ev©rK…óiƒ‡c A‡b¨i g‡b wbweó Kwiqv w`‡Z cvwi| AZGe msMxZ wb‡Ri
D‡ËRbv-cÖKv‡ki Dcvq I ci‡K D‡ËwRZ Kwievi Dcvq|Õ11 Ô[...] AvcvZZ g‡b nq †hb
msMxZ ïwbqv †h Ae¨ewnZ myL nq, ZvnvB mvab Kiv msMx‡Zi Kvh©| wKš‘ mPivPi †`Lv hvq,
hvnv‡Z Avgiv Ae¨ewnZ myL cvB ZvnvB Zvnvi Pig dj b‡n| Avnvi Kwi‡j ¶zav-wbe„wËi myL
nq wKš‘ Zvnvi Pig dj kixi-†cvlY, gvZv †mœ‡ni ekeZx© nBqv AvZ¥myLmva‡bi Rb¨ hvnv
K‡ib Zvnv‡Z mš—v‡bi g½jmvab nq, h‡ki myL cvBevi Rb¨ Avgiv hvnv Kwi Zvnv‡Z
mgv‡Ri bvbv Kvh© m¤úbœ nqÑ BZ¨vw`| msMx‡Z wK †Kej Av‡gv`gvÎB nq? Ajw¶Z †Kv‡bv
7

3

evDj-Mvb, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
4
evD‡ji Mvb, mgv‡jvPbv, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
5
AwffvlY, msMxZmsN, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
6
msMx‡Zi gyw³, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

kvk¦wZKx-63

wk¶v I ms¯‹w… Z‡Z msMx‡Zi ¯’vb, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
wk¶v I ms¯‹w… Z‡Z msMx‡Zi ¯’vb, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
9
msMxZ I fve, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
10
msMxZ I fve, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
11
msMx‡Zi DrcwË I Dc‡hvwMZv, msMxZ, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
8

kvk¦wZKx-64

D‡Ïk¨ mvwaZ nq bv?Õ12 Ô[...] msMxZ †Kej wPËwe‡bv`‡bi DcKiY bq; Zv Avgv‡`i g‡b myi
†eu‡a †`q, Rxeb‡K GKUv Afvebxq †mŠ›`h© `vb K‡i|Õ13

wek¦fviZx 1966 wLª÷v‡ã iex›`ªbv‡_i m½xZ-fvebvi wel‡q GKwU cÖeÜMÖš’
cÖKvk K‡i, G-MÖ‡š’ m½xZ m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv‡_i e¨w³MZ Abyf‚wZi K_vB me©Î cÖKvk
†c‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki ms¯‹…wZ‡Z m½x‡Zi ¯’vb m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv_ m‡PZb wQ‡jb e‡jB
ÔevDjÕ ms¯‹…wZi aviv¸wj‡K wZwb mh‡Zœ aviY K‡i‡Qb Zuvi m½x‡Z| AZGe ejv hvq
†h, iex›`ªbv_‡K hviv e‡jb cvðv‡Z¨i fveaviv wb‡q mewKQy m„wó K‡i‡Qb Zviv GKwU
fzj aviYv wb‡q emevm Ki‡Qb| ev¯—‡e wZwb wb‡Ri Rb¥f‚wgi gvwU‡Z `„pfv‡e †kKo
†Mu‡o, mgMÖ RvwZi GKwU `xN©w`‡bi HwZ‡n¨i Av‡jvnvIqvq M‡o IVv m½x‡Zi
AvIZvq m„wó K‡i‡Qb Zuvi ¯^Kxq m½xZ RMrwU‡K| iex›`ªbv_ m½x‡Zi †¶‡Î
bvoxeuvav evDjm½x‡Zi mÜvb Ki‡Z wM‡q A‡š^lY-AbycÖ‡ek K‡i‡Qb †hgwb
Rq‡`‡ei ÔMxZ‡Mvwe›`Õ-G †Zgwb †Z‡iv kZ‡Ki PÊx`vm, we`¨vcwZ, Kexi,
Zzjmx`vm, gxivevC cÖgy‡Li m„wó RM‡Z|
iex›`ªbv_ †Q‡j‡ejvq GKevi Zuvi wcZvi m‡½ †ev‡U K‡i M½våg‡Y wM‡q Zuvi
wcZvi eB¸wji g‡a¨ GKwU LyeB cyi‡bv, evsjv A¶‡i Qvcv, †dvU© DBwjqvg †_‡K
cÖKvwkZ ÔMxZ‡Mvwe›`Õ-Gi mÜvb cvb| Q›` Abymv‡i Zvi c‡`i fvM wQj bv, M‡`¨i
gZ GK jvB‡bi m‡½ Avi-GK jvBb Awe‡”Q‡` RwoZ wQj| iex›`ªbv_ ZLb ms¯‹…Z
Rvb‡Zb bv, wKš‘ evsjv fv‡jv Rvb‡Zb e‡jB A‡bK¸wj k‡ãi A_© eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qb|
GB ÔMxZ‡Mvwe›`ÕwU KZevi †h c‡owQ‡jb Zv wZwb wb‡RB ej‡Z cv‡ibwb| Rq‡`e
Kx ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb Zv iex›`ªbv_ eyS‡Z bv-cvi‡jI, Gi Q‡›` I K_vq Zuvi g‡bi
g‡a¨ hv Muv_v nq Zv iex›`ªbv‡_i c‡¶ Amvgvb¨ wQj|14
PÊx`vm I we`¨vcwZ m¤^‡Ü A‡š¦lY Ki‡Z wM‡q iex›`ªbv_ hv Rvb‡Z †c‡i‡Qb
†m-m¤^‡Ü wZwb e‡j‡Qb, Ôwb‡Ri cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨, c‡ii cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨ I cÖK…wZi cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨
cÖ‡ek Kwievi ¶gZv‡KB e‡j KweZ¡| [...] whwb cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨ cÖ‡ek Kwiqv Kwe nBqv‡Qb wZwb
mnR K_vi Kwe, mnR fv‡ei Kwe| [...] AZGe mnR fvlvi, mnR fv‡ei, mnR KweZv
†jLvB k³, KviY Zvnv‡Z cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨ cÖ‡ek Kwiqv †`wL‡Z nq| mK‡ji cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨B †h
e¨w³ AvwZ_¨ cvqÑ dzj e‡jv, †gN e‡jv, `ytLx e‡jv, myLx e‡jv, mK‡ji cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨B hvnvi
Avmb Av‡Q, †mB Zvnv cv‡i| [...] Avgv‡`i PÊx`vm mnR fvlvi mnR fv‡ei Kwe, GB ¸‡Y
wZwb e½xq cÖvPxb Kwe‡`i g‡a¨ cÖavb Kwe| wZwb †h-mKj KweZv †j‡Lb bvB ZvnviB Rb¨
Kwe| wZwb GK QÎ †j‡Lb I `k QÎ cvVK‡`i w`qv wjLvBqv jb| [...] we`¨vcwZ my‡Li Kwe,
PÊx`vm `yt‡Li Kwe| we`¨vcwZ wei‡n KvZi nBqv c‡ob, PÊx`v‡mi wgj‡bI myL bvB|
we`¨vcwZ †fvM Kwievi Kwe, PÊx`vm mn¨ Kwievi Kwe! PÊx`vm my‡Li g‡a¨ `ytL I `yt‡Li
g‡a¨ myL †`wL‡Z cvBqv‡Qb| Zuvnvi my‡Li g‡a¨I fq Ges `yt‡Li cÖwZI AbyivM| we`¨vcwZ
†Kej Rv‡bb †h wgj‡b myL I wei‡n `ytL, wKš‘ PÊx`v‡mi ü`q Av‡iv Mfxi, wZwb Dnv
A‡c¶v Av‡iv AwaK Rv‡bb|Õ15

†lvj kZ‡Ki m~Pbvq kªx‰PZ‡b¨i Avwef©v‡ei m‡½ KxZ©bv‡½i Mv‡bi mg„w× nq,
†mRb¨ kªx‰PZb¨‡K G-aviviB cÖwZwbwa ejv hvq, KviY Ôhvnv‡`i e‡ov cÖvY Zvnviv †ewk
w`b wb‡Ri g‡a¨ eÜ nBqv _vwK‡Z cv‡i bv, RM‡Z e¨vß nB‡Z Pvq| ˆPZb¨‡`e Bnvi
cÖgvY|Õ16 AvVv‡iv kZ‡Ki Kvjx-DcvmK ivgcÖmv‡`i Mv‡b I wewfbœ fR‡bi g‡a¨
cvIqv hvq ÔevDjÕ HwZ‡n¨i mÜvb I ÔevDjÕ mvabvi g~jgš¿wU| evDjm½xZ evsjv‡`‡ki
cÖvPxb †jvK I ag©xq m½x‡Zi GKwU we‡kl aviv, gy³cyi“l jvjbI †Zv GB we‡kl avivi
GKRb| gy³cyi“l jvj‡bi gy³`„wó-wPš—v-†PZbv iex›`ªbv_ AbymÜvb K‡i‡Qb, K‡i‡Qb
e‡jB Zuvi m„wó‡Z AvZ¥ïw×i evDj fvewU‡K Lu‡y R cvIqv hvq, †hLv‡b wZwb gy³cyi“l
jvj‡bi mvgwMÖK gy³`„wó-wPš—v-†PZbvq GK I Awfbœ fv‡ei mgv‡ivn NwU‡q‡Qb, hv
G‡Kev‡iB GKwU wbw`©ó AÂj-†Mvôx-†Mv‡Îi b„ZvwË¡K ˆewk‡ó¨i e½xq ÔevDjZË¡Õ, Avi
hv †MŠoxq ÔˆeòeZË¡Õ I cvi‡m¨i ÔmydxZË¡Õ †_‡K c„_K|
1891 †_‡K 1901 wLª÷vã ch©š— iex›`ªbv_ wQ‡jb wkjvB`‡n, ZLb evDj‡`i
m‡½ Zuvi memgq †`Lvmv¶vr I Avjvc Av‡jvPbv nZ|17 NÈvi ci NÈv| ÔZviv
Mixe| †cvlvK-cwi”Q` †bB| †`L‡j †evSevi †Rv †bB Zviv KZ gnr| wKš‘ KZ
Mfxi welq KZ mnRfv‡e Zviv ej‡Z cviZ|Õ18 evsjv‡`‡ki evDjm½xZB
iex›`ªbv_‡K mev©‡c¶v Av‡›`vwjZ K‡i‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ Ô[...] GK`j †cÖwgK mvaK‡`i
m½ †c‡jb wkjvB`‡ni cj−x A‡j| hviv AvR‡K evsjv‡`‡k evDj bv‡g weL¨vZ|
Giv GKUv we‡kl m¤úÖ`vq| msL¨vi w`K †_‡K G m¤úÖ`v‡qi AwZ mvgvb¨B ZL‡bv
ch©š— eZ©gvb| G‡Z wn›`yI wQj, gymjgvbI wQj| Zey a‡g© Giv bv wn›`y bv gymjgvb|
G‡`i Aa¨vZ¥ Rxeb M‡o DV‡jv GB `yB a‡g©i mvgćm¨i ga¨ w`‡q| Giv †cÖ‡gi
mvaK| ARvbv A‡Pbv Kvqvnxb we‡kl GK †cÖ‡gi e¯‘‡K fvj‡e‡mB G‡`i Avb›`|Õ19
wkjvB`‡n hvIqv-Avmvi c‡_ Ges cieZx©Kv‡j Rwg`vixi `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi mgq wZwb
j¶¨ K‡i‡Qb †h, Phv©MxwZ †_‡K ïi“ K‡i GKwU wbw`©ó aviv e‡q P‡j‡Q evOvwji
m½xZwPš—vq| ÔGZ w`b wZwb c‡ii euvwk avi Kwiqv wb‡Ri Mvb MvB‡Zb, Zvnv‡Z Zuvnvi
cÖv‡Yi mKj myi KzjvBZ bv| wZwb fvweqv cvB‡Zb bvÑ hvnv evRvB‡Z Pvwn Zvnv ev‡R bv
†Kb! †mUv †h euvwki †`vl! e¨vKzj nBqv Pvwiw`‡K LyuwR‡Z LyuwR‡Z mnmv †`wL‡jb Zuvnvi cÖv‡Yi
g‡a¨B GKUv ev`¨ Av‡Q| evRvB‡Z wMqv Dj−v‡m bvwPqv DwV‡jb; Kwn‡jb, ÒG Kx nBj|
Avgvi Mvb c‡ii Mv‡bi g‡Zv †kvbvq bv †Kb? GZ w`b c‡i Avgvi cÖv‡Yi mKj myi¸wj
evwRqv DwVj Kx Kwiqv? Avwg †h K_v ewje g‡b Kwi †mB K_vB gyL w`qv evwni nB‡Z‡Q!Ó20

evOvwji wbR¯^ a¨vbaviYvi m‡½ Lye mnRfv‡eB wg‡k Av‡Q mydx, MRj cÖf…wZ
cviwm m½x‡Zi cÖfve| iex›`ªbv‡_i cviwm m~dxm½xZ aviYv Aek¨ Rb¥jvf K‡i‡Q
Zuvi wcZvi mvwbœ‡a¨ G‡m, Zuvi wcZv cviwm mvwn‡Z¨i AbyivMx cvVK wQ‡jb, nvwdR I
Igi ˆLqvg cÖgyL Kwe‡`i iPbvejx wQj Zuvi wbZ¨w`‡bi m½x; ZvB wbtm‡›`‡n ejv
hvq †h, cviwm mvwnZ¨ Ges m½xZ m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv‡_i †h AbyivM m„wó nq Zvi KviY
Zuvi wcZ…cf
Ö ve| wZwb cviwm mydxmvwnZ¨ Ges mydxm½x‡Zi GKwU my¯úó cwiPq jvf
16

12

msMx‡Zi DrcwË I Dc‡hvwMZv, msMxZ, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
13
AwffvlY (msMxZmsN), msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
14
Rxeb¯§„wZ, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
15
PwÊ`vm I we`¨vcwZ, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

kvk¦wZKx-65

evD‡ji Mvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
evDj-Mvb, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
18
iex›`ªm½xZwewPÎv, kvwš—‡`e †Nvl|
19
iex›`ªm½xZwewPÎv, kvwš—‡`e †Nvl|
20
evD‡ji Mvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
17

kvk¦wZKx-66

K‡i‡Qb ga¨hyMxq mvaK Kwe Kex‡ii c‡`, ZvB Z iex›`ªbv_ Ab~w`Z Kex‡ii wKQy
Mv‡b ÔevDivÕi (wnw›`‡Z evDj‡K ÔevDivÕ ejv n‡q _v‡K) Abyf‚wZi K_v †kvbv hvq|
Kexi evDj gZv`kx© wQ‡jb| Kexi wQ‡jb Ô†jvKÕ bv‡g Kw_Z mvaviY gvby‡li
cÖwZwbwa| Zuvi Mv‡b gvbeZvi †h D‡Øvab, iex›`ªbv_ †m¸wj‡K ¯^vMZ Rvwb‡q‡Qb|
evD‡ji Ôg‡bi gvbylÕ, Ô†m g‡bi gvbyl Ab¨ me †`e‡`exi g‡Zv †Kvb kw³i
cÖZxK bb| wZwb gvby‡li ev¯—e Rxe‡bi fv‡jvg›` wKQyB K‡ib bv| wZwb Av‡Qb,
cÖwZwU gvby‡li g‡a¨ †Mvc‡b| †mB †Mvcbevmx g‡bi gvby‡li Lei †cÖ‡gi mvabvq
Zviv cvb| wKš‘ ai‡Z cv‡ib bv|Õ21 ZvB evDjm½x‡Zi fvlvq me©`vB cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q
†mB Aš—ievmx gvbyl‡K Rvbv I bv Rvbvi Amxg †e`bv| ÔRxeb‡`eZvÕ I Ôg‡bi
gvby‡liÕ g‡a¨ H‡K¨i mÜvb †c‡qB iex›`ªbv_ evDj I Zv‡`i mvabvi cÖwZ Mfxifv‡e
AvK…ó nb|22 †h‡KvbI mvwn‡Z¨ Ggb Ac~e©Zv Avi cvIqv hvq e‡j iex›`ªbv_ wek¦vm
K‡ib bv| AvbyôvwbK a‡g©i eÜbgy³ evD‡ji cÖwZ iex›`ªbv_ AvK…ó n‡q gË n‡q
D‡V‡Qb Zv‡`i Av`k©‡K wbR¯^ Av`‡k© wgwj‡q wb‡Z| Rxe‡bi †klcÖv‡š— †cuŠ‡Q
evD‡ji AvZ¥`k©b Ôgvbe-mZ¨Õ Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z wM‡qB wZwb wb‡R‡K ÔeªvZ¨Õ, Ôgš¿nxbÕ,
ÔRvwZnvivÕ e‡j cwiPq Kwi‡q †`b|
†`‡LwQ GKZviv nv‡Z P‡j‡Q Mv‡bi aviv †e‡q/ g‡bi gvbyl‡K mÜvb Kievi/ Mfxi
wbR©b c‡_|/ Avwg Kwe I‡`i `‡j/ Avwg eªvZ¨, Avwg gš¿nxb|23
evDjmvaK‡`i Ôg‡bi gvbylÕ evievi I bvbvfv‡e ÔRxeb‡`eZvÕ wn‡k‡e cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q
iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z| Ôgvby‡li †`eZv gvby‡li g‡bi gvbyl; Áv‡b K‡g© fv‡e †h
cwigv‡Yi mZ¨ nB, †mB cwigv‡YB †mB g‡bi gvbyl‡K cvBÑ Aš—‡i weKvi NU‡j †mB Avgvi
Avcb g‡bi gvbyl‡K g‡bi g‡a¨ †`L‡Z cvB‡b| gvby‡li hZ wKQz `yM©wZ Av‡Q, †mB Avcb
g‡bi gvbyl‡K nvwi‡q, Zv‡K evB‡ii DcKi‡Y LyuR‡Z wM‡q, A_©vr Avcbv‡KB ci KÕ‡i w`‡q|
Avcbv‡K ZLb UvKvq †`wL, L¨vwZ‡Z †`wL, †fv‡Mi Av‡qvR‡b †`wL| GB wb‡qB gvby‡li hZ
weev`, hZ Kvbœv| †mB evwn‡i wew¶ß Avcb-nviv gvby‡li wejvc Mvb GKw`b ï‡bwQjvg, cw_K
wfLvixi gy‡L,/ Avwg †Kv_vq cve Zv‡i,/ Avgvi g‡bi gvbyl †h‡i|/ nviv‡q, †mB gvby‡l Zvi
D‡Ï‡k¨/ †`‡k-we‡`‡k †eovB Ny‡i|/ †mB wbi¶i Muv‡qi †jv‡Ki gy‡LB ï‡bwQjvg,Ñ/ †ZviB
24
wfZi AZj mvMi|/ †mB cvMjB †M‡qwQj,Ñ/ g‡bi g‡a¨ g‡bi gvbyl K‡iv A‡š¦lY|Õ

iex›`ªbv‡_i G-e³‡e¨ GKRb wbi¶i evD‡ji myMfxi Av‡Z¥vcjwäi cwiPq cÖKvk
†c‡q‡Q| †mRb¨B wZwb evD‡ji evYxi mÜvb Ki‡Z †c‡q‡Qb; †c‡q‡Qb †KvbI GK
Avcb R‡bi Afv‡e ü`‡q †h Mfxi †e`bv m„wó nq Zvi mÜvb Ki‡Z, hv wZwb e¨³
K‡i‡Qb Zuvi wewfbœ evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z; evDj cÖfv‡ei h_v_©ZvB GLv‡b|
e½‡`‡k Ava¨vZ¥ev` mvaKR‡bi m„wówb`k©b A‡bK| g~jZ †lvok kZvãx †_‡K
GB m„wóKg© bvbvfv‡e, bvbv bv‡g, bvbv AvLov-`iev‡i cÖPwjZ n‡q AvVv‡iv kZ‡K
Kzwóqvi †QDwoqvq G‡m eUe„¶iƒc aviY K‡i‡Q| gy³cyi“l jvjb Zuvi mvabvi iƒc-imMÜ meB gvbe Rxe‡bi AvwgZ¡ aŸsmcÖKi‡Yi mvnPh© wn‡m‡e GK AmvaviY m„wóKg©
Dcnvi w`‡q‡Qb, hv weMZ AvovB kZK a‡i GLb ch©š— gvbyl‡K bvov †`q| gy³cyi“l

jvj‡bi c~‡e© evDjm½x‡Zi Aw¯—Z¡, msMÖn Ges msKjb evOvwj mgv‡R _vK‡jI
gy³cyi“l jvjb I Zuvi mgKvjxb evDj‡`i iwPZ Mvb‡KB evDjm½x‡Zi cÖvPxb aviv
e‡j aviYv Kiv nq| e½xq ÔevDjZË¡Õ-Gi Ab¨Zg cÖe³vB wQ‡jb gy³cyi“l jvjb| Zuvi
gZev‡`i m‡½ Ab¨vb¨ ¶z`ª ag©g‡Zi A‡bKvs‡k wgj Ges mvRyh¨ _vK‡jI †jvKa‡g©
m½xZB mvabvi Abyl½x| ÔfveyK †jvK gv‡ÎB Abyfe Kwiqv‡Qb †h, Avgiv gv‡S gv‡S
GK cÖKvi welYœ my‡Li fve Dc‡fvM Kwi, Zvnv †Kvgj welv`, AcÖLi myL| Zvnv Avi
wKQyB bq, mxgv nB‡Z Amx‡gi cÖwZ †bÎcvZ gvÎ|Õ25
AvaywbK gvbylI gy³cyi“l jvj‡bi Mv‡b Avc−Z
y nq, Z‡e Gi †P‡qI †ewk Avc−Z
y
n‡q‡Qb Dwbk kZ‡K wecyj wPš—vq gMœ iex›`ªbv_| jvj‡bi †h-MvbwU cÖ_‡g
iex›`ªbv_‡K AvK…ó K‡iwQj †mwU n‡”Q, ÔLuvPvi wfZi AwPb cvwL/ †Kg‡b Av‡m hvq/
Zv‡i ai‡Z cvi‡j gb‡eox/ w`Zvg cvwLi cvq [...]|Õ26 myKgz vi †mb Zuvi GK cÖe‡Ü
e‡j‡Qb, ÔevDj Mv‡bi GB c`wU KwewP‡Ë `x¶vexR ecb KwiqvwQj [...]|Õ Avi
kwkf~lY `vk¸ß wj‡L‡Qb, Ôjvjb dwK‡ii ÔLuvPvi wfZi AwPb cvwL †Kg‡b Av‡m
hvqÕ GB wRÁvmvi mwnZ iex›`ªbv‡_i Rxeb-wRÁvmvi Mfxi wgj wQj [...]|Õ iex›`ªbv_
wb‡RB jvj‡bi ÔAwPb cvwLÕ m¤^‡Ü wj‡L‡Qb, Ôgv‡S gv‡S e× LuvPvi g‡a¨ Avwmqv
AwPb cvwL eÜbnxb A‡Pbvi K_v ewjqv hvq; gb Zvnv‡K wPiš—b Kwiqv awiqv ivwL‡Z
Pvq, wKš‘ cv‡i bv| GB AwPb cvwLi hvIqv-Avmvi Lei Mv‡bi myi Qvov Avi †K w`‡Z
cv‡i|Õ27 iex›`ªbv_ ÔAwPb cvwLÕi MvbwUi D‡j−L K‡i I Gi m‡½ wZwb Bs‡iwR Kwe
Ô†kjxÕi KweZvi Zzjbv K‡i e‡j‡Qb, ‘[...] That this unknown is the profoudest reality,
though difficult of comprehension, is equally admitted by the English poet as by the
nameless village singer of Bengal, in whose music vibrate the wing-beats of the unknown
bird, only Shelley’s utterance is for the cultural few, while the Baul Song is for the tillers of
the soil, for the simple folk of our village households, who are never bored by its mystic
transcendentalism [...] .’28 evDjm½x‡Zi cÖwZ iex›`ªbv‡_i AbyivM Zuvi A‡bK

m„wówb`k©‡b cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| wZwb Zuvi A‡bK m½x‡Z evD‡ji myi MÖnY K‡i‡Qb Ges
ivMivwMbxi m‡½ wZwb ÁvZ ev AÁvZmv‡i evDjm½x‡Zi my‡ii wgj NwU‡q‡Qb| G
†_‡K †evSv hvq, evD‡ji myi I evYx †KvbI GK mg‡q Zuvi g‡bi g‡a¨ mn‡R wg‡k
wM‡q‡Q|29 gy³gvbyl jvj‡bi Aš—ivZ¥vq evm Kiv mymsnZ ÔevDjZË¡Õ I Ô`k©bÕ
iex›`ªbv‡_i Rxeb`k©b‡K Mfxifv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q, Ges jvjbm½x‡Zi Awf”Qvqv
Zuvi m„wówb`k©‡b my¯úó Qvc †d‡j‡Q| GKgy‡Vv D`vniY,
1. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvgvi N‡ii Pvwe c‡ii nv‡Z|/ †Kg‡b Lywj‡q †m
ab †`L‡ev P‡¶‡Z|Õ Avi wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, Ô†f‡O †gvi N‡ii Pvwe
wb‡q hvwe/ †K Avgv‡iÑ I eÜz Avgvi/ bv †c‡q †Zvgvi †`Lv, GKv GKv/ w`b
†h Avgvi Kv‡U bv †i|Õ iex›`ªbv‡_i MvbwU jvj‡bi Mv‡bi A‡bKUvB cywic~iK

25

e¯—MZ I fveMZ KweZv, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
Mvb m¤^‡Ü cÖeÜ, Rxeb¯§„wZ, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
27
Mvb m¤^‡Ü cÖeÜ, Rxeb¯§„wZ, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

21

26

iex›`ªm½xZwewPÎv, kvwš—‡`e †Nvl|
22
iex›`ªm½xZwewPÎv, kvwš—‡`e †Nvl|
23
cÎcyU, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
24
evD‡ji Mvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

28

29

kvk¦wZKx-67

The Philosophy of Our People, 1925.

iex›`ª iPbvejx|

kvk¦wZKx-68

e‡j m½xZvwfÁRb g‡b K‡ib| GLv‡b jvj‡bi †`nN‡ii gyw³Pvwe Ac‡ii
nv‡Z, Avi Aciw`‡K iex›`ªbv_ gyw³`vZv‡K AvnŸvb Ki‡Qb mLviƒ‡c|
2. gy³cyi“l jvjb ej‡Qb, ÔAvgvi G NiLvbvq †K weivR K‡i|/ Avwg Rbg-fi
GKw`b †`Ljvg bv †i|/ b‡o P‡o Ckvb †Kv‡Y †`L‡Z cvB‡b GB bq‡b/
nv‡Zi Kv‡Q hvi f‡ei nvUevRvi/ Avwg ai‡Z †M‡j nv‡Z cvB‡b Zv‡i|Õ Avi
wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ ej‡Qb, ÔAvgvi wnqvi gv‡S jywK‡qwQ‡j †`L‡Z Avwg
cvBwb/ †Zvgvq †`L‡Z Avwg cvBwb|/ evwni-cv‡b †PvL †g‡jwQ, Avgvi ü`qcv‡b PvBwb|Õ evDj mvabvi g~j welqwU n‡”Q †`nZvwË¡K| Avcb †`‡ni †fZi
†h cig cyi“‡li evm, Zuv‡K bv wPb‡j mvabv wmw× nq bv|
3. gy³cyi“l jvjb ej‡Qb, Ôhvi Avcb Lei Avcbvi nq bv|/ GKevi Avcbv‡i
wPb‡Z cvi‡j †i/ hv‡e AwPbv‡i †Pbv|Õ G-evYxi gg©v_© wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_
wb‡Ri g‡a¨ AvZ¥¯’ K‡i wj‡L‡Qb, ÔAvcbv‡K GB Rvbv Avgvi dziv‡e bv|/
GB RvbviB m‡½ m‡½ †Zvgvq †Pbv|Õ wb‡R‡K †Pbvi g‡a¨B i‡q‡Q AwPb
gvbyl‡K †Pbvi cig cÖvwß, A_©vr cÖwZw`‡bi Kg©‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨B i‡q‡Q wb‡R‡K
†Pbvi weivU iKg †Póv| GB †Póv hw` m‡PZbfv‡e gvbeRxe‡b AbykxwjZ
n‡Z _v‡K Zvn‡jB GKRb ï× gvbyl wn‡k‡e †m A‡Pbvi mÜvb cv‡e|
4. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, Ôcvi K‡iv †n `qvjPuv` Avgv‡i [...]|Õ Avi wek¦Kwe
iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, Ômgy‡L kvwš—cvivevi fvmvI ZiYx †n KY©avi [...]|Õ
jvj‡bi Mv‡bi m‡½ hvi fveMZ AvwZ¥K wgj LyeB wbKUeZ©x|
5. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvgvi g‡bi gvby‡liB m‡b wgjb n‡e KZw`‡b
[...]|Õ Avi wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvwg Zv‡iB Luy‡R †eovB †h iq g‡b
Avgvi [...]|Õ
6. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, ÔH GK ARvbv gvbyl wdi‡Q †`‡k †`‡k [...]|Õ Avi
wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, Ô†m †h evwni n‡jv Avwg Rvwb [...]|Õ
7. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvgv‡i wK ivL‡eb ¸i“ PiY`vmx/ BZicbv Kvh©
Avgvi Anwb©wk [...]|Õ Avi wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, Ô Avwg †Kej †Zvgvi
`vmx/ †Kgb K‡i Avb‡ev gy‡L †Zvgvq fvjevwm [...]|Õ
8. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, ÔKv‡i ej‡ev Avgvi g‡bi †e`bv/ Ggb e¨_vi e¨w_Z
†g‡j bv [...]|Õ Avi wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvwg ü`‡qi K_v ewj‡Z
e¨vKzj, ïavB‡jv bv †Kn [...]|Õ
9. gy³cyi“l jvjb e‡j‡Qb, Ô†Kb Kv‡Qi gvbyl WvK‡Qv †kvÕi K‡i/ AvwQm ZzB
†hLv‡b, †mI †mLv‡b/ Luy‡R †eovI Kv‡i [...]|Õ Avi wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_
e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvgvi cÖv‡Yi gvbyl Av‡Q cÖv‡Y/ ZvB †nwi Zvq mKjLv‡b [...]|Õ
GiKg A‡bK D`vniY Av‡Q, hv‡Z we‡kl we‡kl c`, kã, iƒcK, cÖZxK, Dcgv,
wPÎKí, fve I myi KLbI AvswkK Avevi KLbI ev c‡iv¶ Dcv‡q iex›`ªbv‡_i
m„wóK‡g© GKB HK¨Zv‡b dz‡U D‡V‡Q| gy³cyi“l jvj‡bi gy³mËv iex›`ªgvb‡m
A‡bKfv‡e m¤ú~iK n‡q‡Q, hv Dfqcyi“‡li †evwa‡PZbvq Zv‡`i m„wówb`k©b Agi n‡q
Av‡Q gvbeRxe‡bi mKj †MvÎ-eY©-a‡g©i gvby‡li Kv‡Q| gy³cyi“l jvj‡bi Avwefv©‡ei
ciciB Kv½vj nwibv_ gRyg`vi I gxi gkviid †nv‡mb †ekwKQy evDjm½xZ iPbv

K‡i‡Qb| weòzivg P‡Ævcva¨vq, g‡bv‡gvnb emy, Avb›`P›`ª wgÎ, Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß, Ag„Zjvj
emy, A¶q miKvi cÖgyLiv gy³cyi“l jvjb, cvMjv KvbvB, cvÄy kvn, `yÏy kvn cÖg‡y Li
evDjm½xZ AbyKi‡Y Mvb iPbv K‡ib| evDjm½x‡Zi gva¨‡g `xN©Kv‡ji evOvwj
HwZ‡n¨i avivq e‡q P‡j‡Q gvby‡li AvZ¥cÖKv‡ki Kg©wU| mg¯— m¤úÖ`vq, me©ag©,
RvwZe‡Y©i meiKg MÊxi E‡aŸ© evDjmvaKiv| Rxebaviv Zv‡`i m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c c„_KÑ
MvbB Zuv‡`i me©¯^, c_B Zuv‡`i Avkªq, GKZvivB Zuv‡`i m½x| Zuviv RxebK‡g©i ga¨w`‡q †M‡q P‡j‡Qb mygayi gvby‡li AvZ¥cÖKv‡ki †mB Mvb¸wj| Zuv‡`i GKgvÎ AfxávÑ
eyK †X‡j gvby‡li cÖv‡Yk¦‡ii mvwbœa¨ Abyfe Kiv, KviY Zuviv gvbeZvi Db¥v`bvq g‡R
_v‡Kb| mvgvwRK Rxe‡bi MwÊ †Q‡o G‡`i A‡bKB c_‡K †R‡b wb‡q‡Qb Ni e‡j,
Avevi ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi g‡a¨B †KD †KD Dcjwä K‡i‡Qb gvbe‡cÖg‡K|
evDj ØvivB µgcwieZ©b N‡U‡Q evDjm½x‡Zi| mij-gayi G-Mvb¸wj Mfxifv‡e
Aš—i‡K ¯úk© K‡i; Zv‡`i mvejxj Q‡›`i R‡b¨B| Gi i‡mB AeMvnb K‡i iex›`ªbv_
m„wó K‡i‡Qb Zuvi evDjv½‡bi m½xZ, evDjm½xZ †_‡K cywó wb‡qB wZwb Gi Dci
Qvc †d‡j‡Qb wb‡Ri cÖej e¨w³‡Z¡i| iex›`ªbv_ †Q‡j‡ejv †_‡KB evDjm½x‡Zi cÖwZ
Zxeª AbyivMx n‡q D‡V‡Qb| eix›`ªbv_ ZvB‡Zv e‡j‡Qb, Ô[...] evD‡ji myi †h GKN‡i,
ivMivwMYx hZB †PvL ivOvK †m wK‡mi †Kqvi K‡i! GB myi¸wj‡K †Kv‡bv
ivM‡KŠjx‡b¨i Rv‡Zi †KvVvq †djv hvq bv e‡U, Zey G‡`i RvwZi cwiPq m¤^‡Ü fyj
nq bvÑ ¯úó †evSv hvq G Avgv‡`i †`‡kiB myi, wejvwZ myi bq|Õ30
e½xq ÔevDjZË¡Õ QvovI †MŠoxq ÔˆeòeZË¡Õ I cvi‡m¨i ÔmydxZË¡Õ-Gi cÖfv‡e
evsjvq K‡qK kZvãx a‡i †h-m½xZ cywójvf K‡i‡Q, hv ˆewP‡Î¨ AZzjbxq, hv‡K
mn‡R wP‡b †bIqv hvq GKwU g~j myi †_‡K, GKwU we‡kl cwi‡ek †_‡K, GKwU
we‡kl fve †_‡KÑ †mmeB ¯’vb K‡i wb‡q‡Q iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z; GLv‡b
gyw³i c‡_i mÜvb wg‡jÑ Aek¨ G‡Z `vk©wb‡Ki hyw³ZK© †bBÑ gvbe‡K fv‡jvevmv,
fv‡jvevmv mg¯— wek¦eþ
ª vÊ; GKBm‡½ wb‡R‡K gvbe‡cÖ‡g wbt‡k‡l wewj‡q †`q|
KviY, Ô†h g‡i Zvi Avi gi‡Yi fq _v‡K bv| RMr‡K †m fv‡jvev‡m, GBRb¨ †m
RMr nBqv hvq, †m GKUv AwZ ¶z`ª ÔAvwgÕ gvÎ b‡n, †h h‡gi fq Kwi‡eÑ †m mg¯—
wek¦PivPi| [...] dzj‡K wRÁvm K‡iv bv †Kb, MÜ `vb Kwiqv †Zvgvi jvf Kx? †m
ewj‡e, MÜ bv w`qv Avgvi _vwKevi †Rv bvB, ZvnvB Avgvi ag©! GBRb¨ MÜ bv w`‡Z
cvwi‡j Rxeb e„_v g‡b nq| †Zgwb †cÖwgK ewj‡e giYB Avgvi ag©, bv gwiqv Avgvi
myL bvB|/ †jvfx †jv‡f MwY‡e cÖgv`,/ G‡Ki Rb¨ wK nq Av‡ii gwi‡Z mva|/ evDj
DËi KwijÑ/ hvi †h ag© †mB cv‡e †mB Kg©|/ †cÖ‡gi gg© wK A‡cÖwgK cvq?Õ31
Bw›`ªqMÖvn¨ cwieZ©bkxj G-†h wek¦, G-†h Rxeb G‡K mZ¨vb‡›`i Abyfw‚ Zi Øviv
Dcjwä KivB Z gyw³| G-†h Dcjwä, GKB e‡j eyKfiv fv‡jvevmv wb‡q wb‡R‡K
wbt‡k‡l wewj‡q †`Iqv, gvbeZvi LvwZ‡i, mewKQzi Dc‡i; Avi ZLbB wek¦vmvZxZ
g~Q©bvq Aš—i f‡i I‡V Dò GK bevb‡›`i ¯ú‡k©, cig †cÖwg‡Ki m½x‡Zi gva¨‡g,
KviY Ô†cÖ‡gi Zv‡ii g‡a¨ Abš— eªþv‡Êi Zwor †LjvB‡Z _v‡K, wek¦eþ
ª v‡Êi Lei

kvk¦wZKx-69

kvk¦wZKx-70

30
31

msMx‡Zi gyw³, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
evD‡ji Mvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

wbwg‡li g‡a¨ cÖv‡Yi wfZi Avwmqv Dcw¯’Z nq| hvnv‡K Zzwg fv‡jvev‡mv Zvnvi Kv‡Q
ewmqv _v‡Kv, A`„k¨ †cÖ‡gi Zvi w`qv Zvnvi cÖvY nB‡Z †Zvgvi cÖv‡Y we`y¨r ewn‡Z
_v‡K, wb‡g‡l wb‡g‡l Zvnvi cÖv‡Yi Lei †Zvgvi cÖv‡Y Avwmqv †cŠuQvq| †Zgwb hw`
RM‡Zi cÖv‡Yi mwnZ †Zvgvi cÖvY †cÖ‡gi Zv‡i euvav _v‡K Zvnv nB‡j RM‡Zi N‡ii
K_v mg¯—B Zzwg ïwb‡Z cvI| †cÖ‡gi gwngv Ggb Kwiqv Avi †K Mvwnqv‡Q!Õ32
iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½xZ‡K evDjm½x‡Zi gZB †kªwYweb¨vm Kiv hvq|
†hgb ˆ`b¨c‡`i I cÖeZ©c‡`i m½xZ| cÖ_g c‡`i m½x‡Zi Avm‡i evDjmvaKiv
me©cÖ_g Zvi ¸i“, gyikx`‡K wb‡e`b K‡i m½xZ cwi‡ekb K‡i _v‡Kb; GiKg
iex›`ªbv_I K‡i‡Qb, †hgb, ÔAvgvi gv_v bZ K‡i `vI †n †Zvgvi PiYayjvi Z‡j|/
mKj An¼vi †n Avgvi WyevI †Pv‡Li R‡j|Õ33
ˆ`b¨c‡`i c‡i Av‡m cÖeZ©c‡`i m½xZ; ZLb evDjmvaKiv Zv‡`i mvabRxe‡b
Ôg‡bi gvby‡liÕ A‡š^lY Kivi welqwU‡Z ¸i“Z¡ Av‡ivc K‡i _v‡Kb| evD‡ji Ggb
AvZ¥ZË¡g~jK m½xZ¸wj iex›`ªbv_‡K Mfxifv‡e cÖvwYZ K‡i‡Q, ZvB wZwb Zuvi Ôc~RvÕ,
ÔcÖK…wZÕ c‡e©i wKQz wKQz m½x‡Z Aa¨vZ¥‡PZbvi cÖKvk NwU‡q‡Qb, †hgb, ÔAvwg Zv‡i
Luy‡R †eovB †h iq g‡b Avgvi g‡b|/ †m Av‡Q e‡j/ Avgvi AvKvk Ry‡o †dv‡U Zviv
iv‡Z,/ cÖv‡Z dzj dz‡U iq e‡b Avgvi e‡b|Õ34
G-chv©‡qi m½x‡Z iex›`ªbv_ evDj fvebv‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q‡Qb| GLv‡b wZwb
myi‡K †KvbI ¯^Zš¿fv‡e †`‡Lbwb| evDjm½x‡Z wZwb evsjv Mv‡bi mwZ¨Kvi cwiPq
Lyu‡R †c‡q‡Qb, ZvB †Zv wZwb j¶¨ K‡i‡Qb G-m½xZ fviZelx©q ivMm½x‡Zi gZ
K_v ev` w`‡q †KejgvÎ my‡ii Dci wbf©ikxj bq, eis evYx I my‡ii mw¤§j‡b MwVZ|
ÔevYx cÖwZwU evOvwji Aš—‡ii Uvb; GB Rb¨B fvi‡Zi g‡a¨ GB cÖ‡`‡kB evYxi mvabv
me‡P‡q †ewk n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ GKv evYxi g‡a¨ †Zv gvby‡li cÖKv‡ki c~Y©Zv nq bvÑ
GR‡b¨ evsjv‡`‡k m½x‡Zi ¯^Zš¿ cOw³ bq, evYxi cv‡kB Zvi Avmb| [...] wKš‘
m½xZ hyMjfv‡e MovÑ c‡`i m‡½ wgjb n‡q Z‡eB Gi mv_©KZv| c`vejxi g‡a¨B
†hb Zvi ivmjxjv, ¯^vZš¿¨ †m mB‡Z cvi‡e bv|Õ35
evDjm½xZ Q›`eûj| evDjm½x‡Zi cÖavb j¶¨B n‡”Q K_vi Q‡›`ve× mnR
MwZ; KviY fv‡ei Av‡e‡M hLb evDjmvaKiv †b‡P D‡Vb ZLb †h-Q‡›`i Db¥v`bv
m„wó nq, Avcbv †_‡K, †m-mnR Q›`wU‡K j¶¨ K‡i wZwb mnR fvlv I my‡ii m‡½
m½xZ cwi‡ekb K‡i _v‡Kb| Ô†h e¨w³ wb‡Ri fvlv Avwe®‹vi Kwi‡Z cvwiqv‡Q, †h
e¨w³ wb‡Ri fvlvq wb‡R K_v Kwn‡Z wkwLqv‡Q, Zvnvi Avb‡›`i mxgv bvB| †m K_v
Kwnqv Kx myLxB nq! Zvnvi GK-GKwU K_v Zvnvi GK-GKwU RxweZ mš—vb|Õ36 ÔK_v
wbZvš— mnR, wKš‘ my‡ii †hv‡M Gi A_© Ac~e© †R¨vwZ‡Z D¾¡j n‡q D‡VwQj| [...] GB
Mv‡bi fvlvq I my‡i wn›`y-gymjgv‡bi KÉ wg‡j‡Q, †Kvivb cyiv‡Y SMov ev‡awb| GB
wgj‡bB fvi‡Zi mf¨Zvi mZ¨ cwiPq, weev‡` we‡iv‡a ee©iZv| evsjv‡`‡ki MÖv‡gi

Mfxi we‡Ë D”P mf¨Zvi †cÖiYv B¯‹zj-K‡j‡Ri Av‡MvP‡i Avcbv-Avcwb wKiKg KvR
K‡i G‡m‡Q, wn›`y-gymjgv‡bi Rb¨ GK Avmb iPbvi †Póv K‡i‡Q, GB evDj Mv‡b
ZviB cwiPq cvIqv hvq|Õ37 evDjm½x‡Z Qq-gvÎvi Ô`v`&ivÕ ev KLbI AvU-gvÎvi
ÔKvnvievÕ RvZxq Q‡›`i j¶Y †`Lv hvq| iex›`ªbv_ Gme Kvi‡YB Zv‡ji w`K †_‡K
Zuvi evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z b~Zb wKQy m„wó Kivi cÖ‡qvRb †eva K‡i‡Qb| ÔevDj Mv‡bi
my‡i Avgiv †`wL `ywU fvM| mvaviY wbq‡g GB Mv‡bi hZ KwjB _vKzK bv †Kb, my‡i
cv_©K¨ †`Lv hvq †Kej cÖ_g Kwji m‡½ wØZxq Kwji| c‡ii Avi me Kwji myi
wØZxq Kwj‡K AbymiY K‡i P‡j, Ges cÖ_g Kwj Qvov Ab¨vb¨ me Kwji Q›`I
GK|Õ38 iex›`ªbv‡_i nv‡Z c‡o evDjm½x‡Zi XO A‡c¶vK…Z msKxY© mxgv †_‡K GB
fv‡eB eo I wewPÎ n‡q D‡V‡Q| Zuvi evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Zi my‡i Av‡Q aª“c‡`i gZ
PviwU AskÑ A¯’vqx, Aš—iv I mÂvix‡Z my‡ii ˆewPΨ I Av‡fvM wVK aª“c‡`i gZ Aš—
iv‡K AbymiY K‡i|39 AZGe GK_v wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq †h, iex›`ªbv‡_i m½xZwPš—v
GKvš— e¨w³MZ Abyfw~ Zi Øviv cyó| evD‡ji m½xZfvebv, Abykxjb Ges ZvwË¡K
Av‡jvPbv iex›`ªbv_‡K wbtm‡›`‡n cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q, wKš‘ m½x‡Zi iƒcvqY Ges Zvi
KvVv‡gv ˆZwii †¶‡Î iex›`ªbv‡_i wbR¯^ a¨vbaviYv cwiùzwUZ|
iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Zi my‡i †h Qvc †i‡L‡Qb Zv mn‡RB Aš—‡i cÖ‡ek
K‡i, Z‡e evDj Z_v gy³cyi“l jvjb, cvÄy kvn cÖg‡y Li evDjm½x‡Zi my‡ii m‡½
iex›`ªmó„ evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Zi my‡i AwgjUvB †ewk| †KvbI †KvbI †¶‡Î evYx‡Z
wgjb NU‡jI Mvqb‰kjx‡Z wfbœZv i‡q‡Q| evDjm½x‡Zi myi‡K †KD †KD D`vmx myi
e‡j wPwýZ K‡i _vK‡jI evDjmvaK‡`i GB D`vmx I AvZ¥wbg‡Mœi fvewU
iex›`ªbv_‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q cÖPiz , ZeyI ü`‡qi e¨_v‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Z †h-myi Avcb
†_‡K †R‡M I‡V Zv iex›`ªmó„ evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Zi my‡i A‡bKUv Abycw¯’Z| ZvB
my‡ii †¶‡Î b~Zb Avw½K ev XO wPwýZ nq iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z| Zvj
Ges gvÎvqI Av‡Q cv_©K¨| evDjm½x‡Z `ywU XO‡qi cÖKvk j¶¨ Kiv hvq : GKwU
AvLovkªqxÑ †hLv‡b evDjm½x‡Zi myi A‡bKUv axi-j‡q AvZ¥wbgMœ evDjmva‡Ki
K‡É dz‡U I‡V, d‡j Zvj I gvÎvq kvš— b`xi GKwU Qwe dz‡U I‡V; Avi Ab¨wU
Rbm¤§yLvkªqxÑ †hLv‡b AvZ¥wbgMœ evDjmvaKiv Pov my‡i, `ª“Z Zvj-jq-gvÎvq I
b„‡Z¨i gva¨‡g evDjm½xZ cwi‡ekb K‡i _v‡Kb| ÔevD‡ji bv‡P Q‡›`i ˆewPΨ Av‡Q,
Avi m‡½ m‡½ Zv‡ZI ˆewPΨ A_v©r Zvj †diZv Av‡Q| GB wn‡m‡e evDj Mvb ïay
Kv‡b ïbevi bq, †Pv‡L †`Levi e¯‘| evD‡ji GKZviv, b„‡Z¨i fw½, fv‡ei D”Q¡vm,
meB mvg‡b †_‡K †`‡L ï‡b Z‡e eyS‡Z nq|Õ40 Z‡e AvLovkªqx evDjm½x‡Zi my‡iB
iex›`ªbv_ cÖfvweZ n‡q‡Qb e‡j g‡b nq| Rbm¤§yLvkªqx evDjm½xZ I iex›`ªbv‡_i
evDjv‡½i m½x‡Z G-wgj N‡Uwb|
AwaKvsk iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z mÂvwii myi Zuvi bem„wó; evDj‡`i
my‡ii MVbcÖYvjxi m‡½ wgj †i‡LB G¸wj wZwb ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb, hw`I Zuv‡K A‡bK

32

evD‡ji Mvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
c~Rv, MxZweZvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
34
c~Rv, MxZweZvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
35
K_v I myi, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
36
evD‡ji Mvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
33

37

evDj-Mvb, msMxZwPš—v, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
iex›`ªm½xZ, kvwš—‡`e †Nvl|
39
iex›`ªm½xZ, kvwš—‡`e †Nvl|
40
iex›`ª-m½xZ, W. wcÖqeªZ †PŠayix|
38

kvk¦wZKx-71

kvk¦wZKx-72

mgq cÖvPxb ivMivwMYx ev KxZ©‡bi my‡ii mvnvh¨ wb‡Z n‡q‡Q, ZeyI evDjm½x‡Zi hv
ˆewkó¨ Zv n‡”Q myi, G‡ZI iex›`ªbv_ ˆewPΨ wb‡q G‡m‡Qb| iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi
m½x‡Z ivMivwMYx wg‡k †M‡jI evDjm½x‡Zi my‡ii m‡½ Zvi GKwU PgrKvi mvgÄm¨
†`Lv hvq, †hgb,
1. ÔeRª gvwYK w`‡q Muv_v Avlvp †Zvgvi gvjvÕ MvbwUi mÂvwi‡Z mÜvb wg‡j
†`kivwMYxi i“cwU|
2. ÔAvwg Zv‡iB Rvwb Avgvq †hRb Avcb Rv‡bÕ MvbwUi mÂvwi‡Z ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q
wcjy ivwMYxwU|
3. ÔivwO‡q w`‡q hvI hvI †Mv Gevi hvevi Av‡MÕ MvbwU iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi
m½x‡Zi GKwU DrK…ó wb`k©b| wcjy ivwMYxwUI G‡Z wg‡k Av‡Q, ZeyI aª“c‡`i
gZ PviwU fv‡M Gi myi MwVZ nqwb| ÔivwO‡q w`‡q hvI hvI †Mv Gevi hvevi
Av‡MÕ MvbwU Avi¤¢ nq evDjm½x‡Zi my‡i, wKš‘ †KvbI mywbw`©ófv‡e ev we‡klfv‡e
wef³ bq e‡j myi‡hvRbvq †KvbI weNœ N‡Uwb| evDjmyi I wcjy ivwMYx G‡Ki
m‡½ Ab¨wU wg‡jwg‡k Av‡Q| Mv‡bi K_vq †hLv‡b †hfv‡e myi emv‡bv cÖ‡qvRb
wVK †mfv‡eB myi¸wj ¯’vb K‡i wb‡q‡Q, A_v©r Mv‡bi cÖ_g As‡k †e`bvi cÖKvk,
myiwUI wVK †mBÑ †e`bvi AbyK‚j; Avi †kl As‡k †hLv‡b K_vi mvnv‡h¨ GK
Db¥v`bvi fve dz‡U I‡V †mLv‡b myiwUI †mB c‡_i cw_K|
ivMwfwËK iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Zi AviI K‡qKwU D`vniY,
1. Ôev`j evDj evRvq‡i GKZvivÕ (Lv¤^vR ivM I mvwii Pvi gvÎvq Kvdv© Zvj);
2. ÔN‡i‡Z ågi G‡jvÕ (Kv‡jsov iv‡M I evD‡ji ˆÎgvwÎK `ª“Zjq);
3. Ôeuvav w`‡j euva‡e jovBÕ (ˆfiex iv‡M I evD‡ji ˆÎgvwÎK `ª“Zjq) cÖf„wZ|
GiKg AvKl©Yxq myi m„wói ZvwM‡` iex›`ªbv_ wewPÎiKg cix¶vwbix¶v K‡i‡Qb,
KviY, Ôim‡ev‡ai bvox hLb ¶xY n‡q Av‡m †KŠkj ZLb Kjv‡K Qvwo‡q hvq|Õ
iex›`ªbv‡_i Ávb wewPÎ; wZwb Zuvi †KvbI †KvbI m½x‡Z evDj mvabvi wKQy wKQy
cÖZxK kã e¨envi K‡i‡Qb| evD‡ji Ôiƒc-¯^iƒcÕ ZË¡ iex›`ªbv‡_i ARvbv wQj bv,
ZvB wZwb ¯^xq Rxeb`k©b cÖKv‡ki cÖ‡qvR‡b G k‡ãi cÖ‡qvM NwU‡q‡Qb; cÖK…Z A‡_©Ñ
iex›`ªbv_ evDjB, ZvB Zuvi evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z my‡ii A‡c¶v evYx cÖvavb¨ †c‡q‡Q,
Aek¨ G-Kzkjx cÖ‡qv‡Mi R‡b¨ Zuvi evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z Ab¨iKg gvÎvI †c‡q‡Q;
Aek¨ GI A¯^xKvi Kiv hvq bv †h, Zuvi wKQy wKQy evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Z evDjfve
A¯úó; †hgb, ÔAvgv‡i †K wbwe fvB, muwc‡Z PvB Avcbv‡i|/ Avgvi GB gb Mwj‡q
KvR fzwj‡q m‡½ †Zv‡`i wb‡q hv‡i|Õ41 iex›`ªbv_ GLv‡b my‡ii cwie‡Z© fve‡KB
AwaK ¸i“Z¡ w`‡q‡Qb, wZwb myi‡K wb‡Ri gZ K‡iB mvwR‡q wb‡q‡Qb|
¯^qs iex›`ªbv_ A‡bK RvqMvq gvbe‡cÖg ev w`e¨‡cÖgÑ G-`ywU wel‡q ¯úó †KvbI
cv_©K¨ Auv‡Kbwb, eis wZwb †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb †h, gvbe‡cÖgB Mfxi Hkx‡cÖ‡gi †Quvqv
†j‡M gnvb-wbg©j n‡Z cv‡i; ZeyI GK_v A¯^xKvi Kiv hvq bv †h, Zuvi ¯^iwPZ
evDjv½‡bi m½xZ evOvwji ü`q‡K me‡P‡q †ewk, wbweofv‡e Qyu‡q hvq| iex›`ªbv‡_i

41

evDjv½‡bi m½x‡Zi AskB n‡”QÑ wgkª-evDj XO, cÖPwjZ Ges wbR¯^ X‡Oi mvwi,
AvLihy³ Ges AvLinxb KxZ©b| GKgy‡Vv D`vniY,
1.Ô†Kvb fxi“‡K fq †`LvweÕ (wgkª-evDj)| 2. ÔAvwg Zv‡iB Ly‡u R †eovBÕ (wgkªevDj)| 3. ÔMÖvg Qvov H ivOv gvwUi c_Õ (mvwi)| 4. ÔGevi †Zvi giv Mv‡OÕ (mvwi)|
5. Ô†Zvgvi †Lvjv nvIqvqÕ (wbR¯^ X‡Oi mvwi)| 6. ÔI‡n Rxeb ejfÕ (AvLihy³
KxZ©b)| 7. Ôgv‡S gv‡S Ze †`Lv cvBÕ (AvLihy³ KxZ©b)| 8. Ôbv Pvwn‡j hv‡i cvIqv
hvqÕ (AvLinxb KxZ©b)| 9. ÔAvgwi bv ejv evYxiÕ (AvLinxb KxZ©b)| 9. Ô†iv`b fiv
G emš—Õ (AvLinxb KxZ©b); cÖfw… Z|
evDj fvebvq Avc−Z
y n‡q Ges fvwUqvjx I mvwi Mv‡bi myi e¨envi K‡i iex›`ªbv_
†ekwKQz m½xZ m„wó K‡i‡Qb, †hgb ÔwbZ¨ †Zvgvi †h dzj †dv‡UÕ (fvwUqvjx); ÔAvgvi
gb hLb RvMwj bv‡iÕ (fvwUqvjx); Ô†Zvgvi †Lvjv nvIqvÕ (fvwUqvjx); ÔLi evqy eq
†e‡MÕ (mvwi); ÔGevi †Zvi giv Mv‡OÕ (mvwi); cÖfw… Z| iex›`ªbv_ evDjm½x‡Zi Aš—
i½iƒc ØvivB cÖfvweZ n‡q‡Qb, ewniv‡½i m‡½ bqÑ A_v©r evDjm½x‡Zi hv ˆewkó¨:
evDjm½xZ cwi‡e‡k‡b MvqK‡`i ¯^vaxbZv, iex›`ªbv_ Zv MÖnY K‡ibwb, GRb¨B
iex›`ªbv‡_i evDjv‡½i m½x‡Zi RMrwU m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c ¯^Zš¿, wbR¯^ ˆewk‡ó¨ D¾¡j;
Avevi evDjm½x‡Zi gZB ˆewPΨnxb, ÔGK‡Nu‡qwgÕ| evDjm½xZ I iex›`ªbv‡_i
evDjv‡½i m½x‡Z †h Mfxi wgjwU j¶¨ Kiv hvq Zv n‡”Q Dfq †kªYxi m½x‡ZB
wei‡ni myiB cÖavb n‡q D‡V‡Q, G †hb wein †cÖg¯ú›`‡bi wgjbRwbZ wein|
wekvj evsjv AvR RvwZ‡Z I a‡g© wef³| wew”Qbœ evOvwj RvwZi AvR GB me‡P‡q eo
mgm¨v| evOvwj‡K G-Awfkvc †_‡K gyw³ †c‡Z n‡j e½xq ÔevDjZË¡Õ m¤^‡Ü
wek`fv‡e I ewjôfv‡e M‡elYv Ki‡Z n‡e| Avi GiKg Ki‡Z cvi‡j evOvwj
HK¨e× n‡e| evsjv‡`‡ki †MŠie e„w× K‡i Zviv wek¦evmxi mvg‡b gnr GKwU `„óvš—
¯’vcb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡e| GKBm‡½ g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e †h, evOvwji `yt‡L-ˆ`‡b¨, †kv‡Kmvš—¡bvq, wei‡n-wgj‡b, we‡`ªv‡n-wec−‡e, wk¶vq-mvabvq, Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœqb
cÖ‡PóvqÑ evOvwj Rxe‡bi me©‡¶‡Î evsjv gv‡qi †miv mš—vb iex›`ªbv_ Rwo‡q Av‡Qb;
Qwo‡q Av‡Qb evsjvi GKZviv‡Z; myZivs Zuv‡K we¯§„Z Kivi †KvbI my‡hvM †bB|
evOvwji cÖ‡qvR‡bB Zuv‡K ¯§iY Ki‡Z n‡e hZw`b evOvwj bv‡gi gvbyl¸wj GB
c„w_ex‡Z HK¨e×fv‡e †eu‡P _vKvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Dcjwä Ki‡e|

MxZweZvb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|
kvk¦wZKx-73

kvk¦wZKx-74

†gvt nvi“b-Ai-ikx`

iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶vwPš—v : wk¶vwPš—vq iex›`ªbv_
1.0
¯‹zj-K‡jR co–qv‡`i cÖkœc‡Î cÖvqkB KviK-wefw³ wbY©‡qi R‡b¨ GKwU cÖkœ _v‡K
Ô¯‹zj cvwj‡q iex›`ªbv_ nIqv hvq bvÕ| wKš‘ ¯‹zj I wk¶K Abxn iex›`ªbv_ iex›`ªbv_
n‡q D‡VwQ‡jb ¯‹zj cvwj‡qB| iex›`ªbv_ wb‡R‡K wb‡RB AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb Ô¯‹zjcvjv‡bvÕ e‡j| G bv‡g Zuvi ÔAvKvkcÖ`xcÕ Kv‡e¨ GKwU KweZv Av‡Q| †m KweZvi
cÖviw¤¢K PiYwU GiKg :
Ôgv÷vwi-kvmb-`y‡M© wmuu`KvUv †Q‡j/ K¬v‡mi KZ©e¨ †d‡j/ Rvwb bv Kx Uv‡b/ QzwUZvg
A›`‡ii D‡cw¶Z wbR©b evMv‡b|Õ
j¶Yxq †h, Zuvi Abyf‡e gv÷vwi GK ai‡bi ÔkvmbÕ Ges ¯‹zj n‡”Q‡M kvmbkvjviƒc
Ô`~M©Õ Ges wZwb wb‡R wQ‡jb †m `~‡M©i wmuaKvUv `yišÍ-`ye©vi †Q‡j| Ab¨Î wZwb ¯‹zj‡K
`~M© †_‡K Av‡iv bwgZ K‡i hvwš¿K ÔKjÕ e‡j AvL¨vwqZ K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi fvlvq :
ÒB¯‹zj ewj‡Z Avgiv hvnv eywS †m GKUv wk¶v w`evi Kj| gv÷vi GB KviLvbvi GKUv Ask|
mv‡o `kUvi mgq NÈv evRvBqv KviLvbv †Lv‡j| Kj Pwj‡Z Avi¤¢ nq, gv÷v‡iiI gyL Pwj‡Z
_v‡K| PviUvi mgq KviLvbv eÜ nq, gv÷vi-KjI ZLb gyL eÜ K‡ib; QvÎiv `yB-Pvi cvZv
K‡j QuvUv we`¨v jBqv evwo †d‡i| Zvici cix¶vi mgq GB we`¨vi hvPvB nBqv Zvnvi Dc‡i
gvK©v cwoqv hvq|Ó GB ÔK‡jQvUv we`¨vÕ m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv_ e‡jb, ÔBnvi KviY, G
wk¶vcÖYvjx K‡ji cÖYvjx, Bnv‡Z gb Lv‡U bv, †Q‡jiv †ZvZv cvwL ewbqv hvqÕ| [wk¶vms¯‹vi,
fvÊvi, ˆR¨ô 1313 (1906)|]

Avek¨K| welqUv Pvwc‡q †`Iqvi bqÑ MÖnYKvwgZvi| fv‡jvjvMvi Uv‡b I
Avb›`gqZvi AvKl©‡Y AvK…ó cvVKgv‡ÎB †h‡bv cÖKZ
… wk¶vjv‡fi R‡b¨ AvMÖnx n‡q
I‡VÑ wk¶vcÖYvjx GiKg nIqv PvB| Avi GKevi cvV‡Ki AvMÖ‡ni cv‡j nvIqv
jvM‡j wk¶vi iKg‡di †h cÖKv‡iB †nvK cvV‡Ki Zv‡Z AvZ¥wbwg©wZ NU‡e; cvV¨e¯‘
AvËxK…Z n‡q DV‡e| d‡j wk¶vi hv cÖKZ
… D‡Ïk¨ Zv AR©b K‡i cvVK Av‡jvwKZ
e¨w³Z¡ I kw³gš— wkw¶Z gvbyliƒ‡c M‡o DV‡e| Ges RvwZ jvf Ki‡e `vwqZ¡civqY,
KZ©e¨wbô, mZ¨wcÖq Rbkw³|
wKš‘ iex›`ªbv‡_i mgKv‡j †Zv e‡UB Zuvi R‡b¥i mva©kZel© c‡iI wk¶ve¨e¯’vq G
†`‡k I †`‡k (fviZ) GLbI i‡q †M‡Q †MvovqMj`| Mj`Uv KxiKg †m m¤ú‡K©
GKUv aviYv †bIqv †h‡Z cv‡i gvÎ GKwÎk eQi eq‡m wkjvB`n †_‡K †jv‡K›`ªbv_
cvwj‡Zi AvwZ‡_¨ ivRkvnx‡Z Avmv Ges ivRkvnx G‡mvwm‡qk‡bi Aby‡iv‡a (AMÖnvqY
1299, b‡f¤^i 1892, cÖKvk-mvabv, 1892, cÖKvkÑmvabv, †cŠl 1299) wjwLZ
Ôwk¶vi †ni‡diÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ wb‡gœv³ `„óvš—wU †_‡K :
ÒGKwU M‡í Av‡Q, GKRb `wi`ª mg¯— kxZKv‡j A‡í A‡í wf¶v mÂq Kwiqv hLb kxZe¯¿
wKwb‡Z m¶g nBZ ZLb MÖx®§ Avwmqv cwoZ, Avevi mg¯— MÖx®§Kvj †Póv Kwiqv hLb jNye¯¿
jvf KwiZ ZLb AMÖnvqY gv‡mi gvSvgvwS, †`eZv Zvnvi ˆ`b¨ †`wLqv `qv`©ª nBqv ei w`‡Z
Pvwn‡jb, ZLb †m Kwnj, ÔAvwg Avi wKQz Pvwn bv, Avgvi GB †ni‡di NyPvBqv `vI|Ó
DׄZ As‡ki cieZ©x c¨vivq iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcmsnvi G iKg, ÒAvgv‡`i †mB cÖv_©bv|
Avgv‡`i †ni‡di NywP‡jB Avgiv PwiZv_© nB| kx‡Zi mwnZ kxZe¯¿, MÖx®§i mwnZ MÖx®§e¯¿, †Kej
GKÎ Kwi‡Z cvwi‡ZwQ bv ewjqvB Avgv‡`i GB ˆ`b¨; bwn‡j Av‡Q Avgv‡`i mKjB| GLb Avgiv
weavZvi wbKU GB ei Pvwn, Avgv‡`i ¶zavi mwnZ Abœ, kx‡Zi mwnZ e¯¿, fv‡ei mwnZ fvlv, wk¶vi
mwnZ Rxeb †Kej GKÎ Kwiqv `vI...Ó| [wk¶v, wek¦fviZx, 1973, c„:7 Ñ19|]

cÖkœ DV‡Z cv‡i, ¯‹zj cvwj‡q, cÖPwjZ wk¶ve¨e¯’vq Amš‘wó cÖKvk K‡i GKRb †`ªvnx
co–qv iex›`ªbv_ Kxfv‡e cieZ©xKv‡j RvwZMVb Dc‡hvMx GKRb Abb¨ weij wk¶vwe`
n‡q DV‡jb| Ges Zuvi †m wk¶vwPš—v Kv‡jvËxY© ev¯—weK mZ¨fvebv ev `k©‡b iƒc jvf
Ki‡jv? G cÖ‡kœi DËi Dch©y³ iex›`ª Dw³Øq Ges Ômywkw¶Z e¨w³gv‡ÎB ¯^wkw¶ZÕ
K_vUvi g‡a¨ Luy‡R cvIqv hv‡e| iex›`ªbv_ ¯^wkw¶Z wQ‡jb Ges mywkw¶ZI Aek¨B|
A_©vr gb LvUv‡bv wk¶vq wkw¶Z wQ‡jb wZwb| G Kvi‡YB wZwb cÖvwZôvwbK wk¶vi
Mj` µgvMZ ¯^Abykxjb, Aa¨vqb I cVb-cvV‡bi gva¨‡g Lu‡y R †ei Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q
wk¶vbyivMx I wk¶vwPš—vwe` iex›`ªbv‡_ cwiYZ n‡q DV‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| Ab¨ K_vq,
¯^q¤¢~ Ck¦‡ii g‡Zv Avcbv‡Z Avcwb RvZ Z_v AvZ¥wbwg©Z wk¶v-Ck¦img mgybœwZ jvf
K‡iwQ‡jb| iex›`ªbv_ wek¦vm Ki‡Zb †ZvZv cvwLi g‡Zv AbeiZ †Kv‡bv welq
AvIwo‡q AvIov‡bv iß Kiv hvq, †ndR& Kiv hvq wKš‘ Zv‡Z g‡bi g‡a¨ welqMZ
A‡_©i PvivMvQ MRvq bvÑ Zvrch© Abyaveb Kiv hvq bv| d‡j Kv‡Ri KvR wKQzB nq
bv| GiKg we`¨vR©b‡KB iex›`ªbv_ cÖePwbK fvlvq cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb Gfv‡eÑ ÔMÖš’MZ
we`¨v Avi cin‡¯’ ab/ b‡n we`¨v b‡n ab n‡j cÖ‡qvRb|Õ
wZwb Av‡iv Dcjwä K‡iwQ‡jb, Avb‡›`i m‡½ hy³ bv n‡j †Kv‡bv we`¨vBÑ Zv
gvbewe`¨v, hš¿we`¨v-weÁvb, wPwKrmvweÁvb, b„weÁvb, g‡bvweÁvb, f~‡Mvj-BwZnvm,
`k©b, ag©ZË¡Ñ hvB †nvK bv †Kb, Zv AvZ¥¯’Ki‡Yvc‡hvMx n‡q I‡V bv| ZvB me©cÖKvi
wk¶v I wk¶ve¨e¯’vq Avb›`gqZv, imgqZv, myLgqZvi mswk−óZv Awbevh©fv‡eB

G cÖe‡Ü Avek¨K cv‡Vi m‡½ wk¶v_©xi ¯^vaxb cv‡V”Qvi mswk−óZv Awbevh© g‡b K‡i‡Qb
iex›`ªbv_| bB‡j Zvi eyw×e„wËK bvevjKZ¡ †Nuv‡P bv Ges †m ÔA‡bKUv cwigv‡Y evjK
_vwKqvB hvqÕ| †h wk¶v jvf K‡i wk¶v_©x ÔA‡bKUv cwigv‡Y evjK _vwKqvB hvqÕÑ †mB
wk¶v‡gvn †_‡K †Kb Avgiv gy³ n‡Z cvwi bv? †Kb cvwi bv Zgmv”Qbœ fy‡ji †PvivMwj
†_‡K †ewi‡q G‡m Av‡jvwKZ ev¯—‡ei cvKv iv¯—vq c`¯’vcb Ki‡Z? G cÖkiœ DËiI

kvk¦wZKx-75

kvk¦wZKx-76

cÖm½Z ¯§Z©e¨ †h, iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶vwPš—v welqK cÖeÜ Ôwk¶vi †ni‡diÕ-Gi cÖvZw¯§K
gš—e¨ GwU| g~j cÖeÜwU m¤ú‡K© ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq GK c‡Î iex›`ªbv_‡K
wj‡LwQ‡jb, Ò...wk¶v m¤^Üxq cÖeÜwU Avwg `yBevi cwoqvwQ| cÖwZ Q‡Î Avcbvi ms‡M
Avgvi g‡Zi HK¨ Av‡Q| [cÖm½ K_v, wZb Lvwb cÎ, mvabv 1299Ñ1300,
c„:440Ñ41|] ïay ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vqB bb, Rvw÷m ¸i“`vm e‡›`¨vcva¨vq Ges
fviZxq i¨vsjvi Avb‡›`v‡gvnb emyI iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖe‡Üv³ gZ¸wj‡K c‡Î we‡klfv‡e
mg_©b K‡ib| [cÖv¸³, iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶vwPš—v, c„:70|] GLb cÖkœ n‡”Q, Ôwk¶vi
†ni‡diÕ cÖe‡Ü iex›`ªbv‡_i g~j e³e¨ Kx wQj? D³ cÖe‡Ü iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖviw¤¢K
e³e¨ wQj GiKg : ÔhZUzKz Avek¨K †Kej Zvnvi g‡a¨B Ave× _vKv gvbe Rxe‡bi ag©
b‡n| Avgiv wKqrcwigv‡Y Avek¨K k„•L‡j e× nBqv _vwK Ges wKqrcwigv‡Y ¯^vaxb|
Avgv‡`i †`n mv‡o wZb nv‡Zi g‡a¨ Ave×, wKš‘ ZvB ewjqv †mB mv‡o wZb nvZ cwigvY M„n
wbg©vY Kwi‡j P‡j bv| ¯^vaxb Pjv‡divi Rb¨ A‡bKLvwb ¯’vb ivLv Avek¨K, bZzev Avgv‡`i
¯^v¯’¨ Ges Avb‡›`i e¨vNvZ nq| wk¶v m¤^‡ÜI GKB K_v Lv‡UÕ| [cÖv¸³, c„: 65|]

Av‡Q Ôwk¶vi †ni‡diÕ cÖe‡Ü| cvwi bv G Kvi‡Y †h, †hb‡Zb cÖKv‡i ¯^íZg mg‡q
wk¶v mgvß K‡i mvwU©wd‡KU jvf Ges wewbg‡q PvKwi cÖvwß; A_© DcvR©b| G Kvi‡YB
Avgiv wk¶v AvËxKiY I Kvj‡¶c‡Y AbvMÖnx| GKB Kvi‡Y Ô†Q‡j‡`i nv‡Z †Kvb
m‡Li eB †`wL‡jB †mUv Zr¶Yvr wQwbqv jB‡Z nqÕ| d‡j wk¶v_©xiv wm‡jevm ewn©f~Z
eûgyLx cvVvf¨v‡m Abf¨¯— n‡q c‡o Ges gvbyl wn‡m‡e gbyl¨Z¡ AR©‡b Zviv e¨w³MZ I
RvwZMZfv‡e eyw×e„wˇZ `ye©j-wbõj I e¨_© nq; wk¶v AvËxKiY kw³ AR©b Kiv hvq
bv| cÖeÜKv‡ii fvlvq ÒZvnvi dj nq GB †h, nRg kw³Uv mKj w`K nB‡ZB n«vm
nBqv Av‡mÓ|[cÖv¸³] m„wó nq gvbwmK e`nRg Ges AvwZ¥K cwicyó nq e¨nZ|
Avgv‡`i wk¶ve¨e¯’vi G GK fqven wb`vi“Y msKU| e¨vwaI ejv hvq| Avi Ôe¨vwaB †h
msµvgK, ¯^v¯’¨ bqÕÑ G K_v †K bv Rv‡b! wKš‘ Avgiv eyS‡Z PvB‡b †h, wk¶v_©x‡`i
¯^vaxbZv niY †h‡bv M‡íi †mB Z_vKw_Z me©‡ivM Av‡ivM¨¶g MÖvg¨ nvZz‡o Kweiv‡Ri
R‰bK Pg©‡ivMMÖ¯— †ivMx‡K cÖ‡`q wb‡`©‡ki g‡Zv Ñ whwb Zuvi †ivMx‡K e‡jwQ‡jb,
Òkix‡i GB gjgUv `uvwo‡q gvLv hv‡e bv, e‡m gvLv hv‡e bv, ï‡q gvLv hv‡e bv, N‡i
gvLv hv‡e bv, evB‡i gvLv hv‡e bv, Av‡jv‡Z gvLv hv‡e bv, AÜKv‡i gvLv hv‡e bv, w`‡b
gvLv hv‡e bv, iv‡Z gvLv hv‡e bv|Ó KweivR gkv‡qi G‡Zv me wewawb‡la †kvbvi ci
wKsKZ©e¨weg~p nZfvM¨ fy³‡fvMx †ivMx mwe¯§‡q Rvb‡Z PvB‡jb, ÒZv n‡j Kx Kiv
hv‡eÓ? Gev‡i KweivR gkv‡qi †mvRvmvdUv ReveÑ ÒKx †Zv KivB hv‡e bvÓ| Avgv‡`i
wk¶v e¨e¯’vq cÖK…Z Mj` GLv‡bB| A_©vr KweivR gkv‡qi Rev‡ei ÒKx †Zv KivB hv‡e
bvÓ-Gi g‡Zv wb‡lavÁv Rvwi K‡i co–qv‡`i Ô¯^vaxb cvVÕ †_‡K wePy¨r K‡i Mu¨vovK‡ji
AZj Mne‡i wbe©vwmZ Kiv|
iex›`ªwk¶vwPš—v GKv‡š— GKUz Mfxifv‡e Abyaveb Ki‡j, ej‡ZB nq, wk¶vi mv‡_
Avb‡›`i mv½xf~Z nIqvi Ag„ZgqZvi Zvrch© AvR Ae&wa Avgiv Dcjwä Ki‡Z cviwQ
bv ev KiwQ bv| evj¨Kvj †_‡K Avb›`wegy³ wk¶vi m‡½ msjMœ _vKvi d‡j
åvšÍms¯‹viKewjZ Avgiv Ag„Zm¨ cyÎ nIqvi †mŠfvM¨ †_‡K wb‡R‡`i wb‡RivB ewÂZ
K‡i P‡jwQ eQ‡ii ci eQi-hy‡Mi ci hyM| GB åvwš—i †eovRvj wQbœ K‡i mZ¨v‡š^lyAvb›`v‡š^ly n‡Z bv cvi‡j Awbevh©fv‡e e¨w³MZ, mgwóMZ I RvwZMZ ˆ`b¨`kvq
cwZZ nevi m¤¢vebv †h mywbwðZ Zv ejvi A‡c¶v iv‡L bv|

Ò†`‡ki AwaKvsk †jv‡Ki wk¶vi Dci hw` †`‡ki DbœwZi ¯’vqxZ¡ wbf©i K‡i, Z‡e
gvZ…fvlv Qvov Avi †Kv‡bv MwZ bvB, G K_v †Kn bv eywS‡j nvj Qvwoqv w`‡Z nq|Ó
[mvabv, ˆPÎ 1299 (1893)| gvÎ †lv‡jv eQi eq‡m iex›`ªbv_ wk¶vi gva¨g wn‡m‡e
gvZ…fvlvi cÖwZ †h kª×v I ¸i“Z¡ Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb AvRxeb †m wek¦vm †_‡K wZwb
GKPzjI wePy¨r nbwb| gv, gvZ…fvlv, gvZ…fw~ g ci¯úi Awe‡”Q`¨ I wbweo e܇b msnZ|
i³msevnx‡PZbv cÖev‡n gvZ…fvlvi f~wgKv ïay Abb¨B bq-weKínxbI e‡U| ÔwPš—v kw³
Ges Kíbv kw³ RxebhvÎv wbe©v‡ni c‡¶ `yBwU AZ¨vek¨K kw³ m‡›`n bvB|Õ [ mvabv,
ˆPÎ 1299 (1893)] wKš‘ G `yÔwU kw³ AR©b Ki‡Z n‡j gvZ…fvlv wk¶v Ri“wiÑ wfb
†`wk fvlvq m¤¢e bq| Ôevj¨Kvj nB‡Z hw` fvlv wk¶vi m‡½ m‡½ fve wk¶v nq Ges
fv‡ei m‡½ mg¯— RxebhvÎv wbqwgZ nB‡Z _v‡K Z‡eB Avgv‡`i mg¯— Rxe‡bi g‡a¨
GKUv h_v_© mvgÄm¨ ¯’vwcZ nB‡Z cv‡i, Avgiv †ek mn‡R gvby‡li g‡Zv gvbyl nB‡Z
cvwi Ges mKj wel‡q GKUv h_vhZ cwigvY ai‡Z cvwi|Õ [cÖv¸³, c„:69|]
GBfv‡e wb‡R wb‡R wPš—vkw³, fvebvkw³, Kíbvkw³ Kv‡R jvwM‡q AvwZ¥K weKvk,
gvbwmK weKvk, †`k‡cÖg-gvbe‡cÖg, `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨‡eva, mZ¨wbô-b¨vqwbô I
JwPZ¨‡ev‡a D‡ØvwaZ n‡q IVvi bvg wk¶v| GiKg wk¶vq wkw¶Z n‡q DV‡Z bv
cvi‡j Zvi cwiYwZ n‡e wb‡gœv³ iex›`ª Dw³i g‡Zv : Ò†hgb †hgb cwo‡ZwQ Agwb m‡½
m‡½ fve‡ZwQ bv Bnvi A_© GB †h ¯Z~c DuPy Kwi‡ZwQ wKš‘ m‡½ m‡½ wbg©vY Kwi‡ZwQ
bv|...msMÖn‡hvM¨ wRwbmUv hLwb nv‡Z Av‡m ZLwb Zvnvi e¨enviwU Rvbv, Zvnvi cÖKZ

cwiPqwU cvIqv, Rxe‡bi m‡½ m‡½ Rxe‡bi Avkªq¯’jwU Mwoqv †ZvjvB ixwZgZ wk¶v| gvbyl
GKw`‡K evwo‡Z‡Q, Avi Zvnvi we`¨v Avi GK w`‡K Rgv nB‡Z‡Q; Lv`¨ GK w`‡K fvÊvi‡K
fvivµvš— Kwi‡Z‡Q cvKhš¿ Avi GK w`‡K Avcbvi RviK i‡m Avcbv‡K RxY© Kwiqv
†dwj‡Z‡Q Ñ Avgv‡`i †`‡k GB GK cÖKvi Af~Zc~e© KvÊ Pwj‡Z‡Q|Ó [cÖv¸³, c„: 67-68]

Ò†Kej hvnv wKQz wbZvš— Avek¨K ZvnvB KÚ¯’ Kwi‡ZwQ| †Zgb Kwiqv †Kvb g‡Z KvR P‡j
gvÎ, wKš‘ weKvk nq bv| nvIqv LvB‡j †cU f‡i bv, Avnvi Kwi‡j †cU f‡i, wKš‘ AvnviwU
ixwZgZ nRg Kwievi Rb¨ nvIqv LvIqv `iKvi| †Zgwb GKUv wk¶vcy¯—K ixwZgZ nRg
Kwi‡Z A‡bK¸wj cvV¨cy¯‡— Ki mvnvh¨ Avek¨K| Avb‡›`i mwnZ cwo‡Z cwo‡Z cwoevi kw³
Ajw¶Zfv‡e e„w× cvB‡Z _v‡K; MªnYkw³-aviYvkw³ †ek mn‡R Ges ¯^vfvweK wbq‡g ej jvf
K‡i| wKš‘ GB gvbwmK kw³ n«vmKvix wbivb›` wk¶vi nvZ nB‡Z evOvwj Kx Kwiqv GovB‡e,
wKQz‡ZB fvweqv cvIqv hvq bv|Ó [cÖv¸³,c„:65-66]

Ôwk¶vi †ni‡diÕ iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖ_g m‡PZb wk¶vwPš—v welqK cÖeÜ| Avi‡¤¢i c~‡e©I
†hgb Avi¤¢ _v‡KÑmܨv‡ejv cÖ`xc R¡vjv‡bvi c~‡e© †hgb weKvj‡ejv mj‡Z cvKv‡bv
wVK †mB iKg Av‡jvP¨ cÖe‡Üi c~‡e© Zuvi wk¶vwPš—vi cÖKvk N‡U‡Q gvÎ †lv‡jv eQi
eq‡m iwPZ Ô†gNbv` eaÕ cÖe‡Ü [1877, kªveY 1284; cÖv¸³, iex›`ªbv‡_i wPš—vRMZwk¶vwPš—v, c„: 3|] D³ cÖe‡Ü wk¶v wel‡q cÖm½Z iex›`ªbv_ e‡jb :

iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡j wk¶ve¨e¯’vi †h eY©bv Avgiv †cjvg AvR‡Ki evsjv‡`‡k, GgbwK
fvi‡ZI Zvi †Zgb †Kvb Kv‡jvc‡hvMx DbœZZi DrKl©© mvwaZ n‡q‡Q Ñ Ggb K_v
†Rvi K‡i ejv hv‡e bv| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k cÖwgZ †Kvb wk¶vbxwZ Pjgvb bv _vKvq
A_©-we‡Ë m¤§„× GKwU GwjU †kªwYi g‡a¨ Bs‡iwR wk¶vi cÖeYZv cÖej AvKvi aviY
K‡i‡Q| Kw_Z †k&ªwYi †jv‡Kiv Zuv‡`i †Q‡j-†g‡q‡`i wPËvKl©K-kÖ“wZwmœ»Ki bvbv
bv‡gi bvbv eªv‡Ûi Bswjk ¯‹zj-K‡jR¸‡jv‡Z A‡_©i †Rv‡i cov‡bvi my‡hvM MÖnY K‡i
g„wËKvmsjMœ fvlv ms¯‹…wZi cÖwZ cÖ`k©b K‡i P‡j‡Q AnsMe©x AeÁv, Ae‡njv Ges
Pig ˆel‡g¨i w`‡K †V‡j w`‡”Q gvZ…fvlv‡K| G‡Z K‡i GK w`‡K weËnxb †Mvôxi
`xbZg †Q‡j-†g‡qiv Avš—R©vwZK fvlv Bs‡iwR wk¶vi my‡hvM †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q,
Ab¨w`‡K wKÛvi Mv‡U©bmn Bswjk ¯‹zj-K‡jR¸‡jv‡Z co–qv †Q‡j-†g‡q‡`i g‡a¨
¯^‡`‡ki, ¯^fvlvi wk¶v-ms¯‹w… Z, †`kR ixwZbxwZ-wkóvPvi, †`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRKivvwóªK I †fŠ‡MvwjK cwiwPwZ, †`‡ki BwZnvm-HwZn¨ Ges ¯^‡`kvbyivMg~jK wk¶v
AvZ¥¯’Ki‡Y m„wó n‡”Q wecyj AbxnvÑwe¯—i AbvMÖn| G mKj QvÎ-QvÎxi A‡b‡K
gvZ…fvlvI ï×iƒ‡c AvqË Ki‡Z cvi‡Q bv| Avevi †h Bs‡iwR Zviv wkL‡Q Zv‡Z
g‡bi fve cÖKv‡k Zviv KZUv m¶g n‡q DV‡Q Ñ †mUvI cix¶v K‡i †`Lvi welq|
Gw`‡K †`kxq fvlv gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ wk¶v cÖwZôvbmg~n †_‡K cvk Kiv AMwYZ
mœvZK ch©v‡qi wWwMÖcÖvß QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i eûjvs‡ki K_v ev` w`‡jI †Lv` evsjv

kvk¦wZKx-77

kvk¦wZKx-78

mvwn‡Z¨i mœvZ‡KvËi A‡bK wkw¶Z †Q‡j-†g‡q ï× K‡i evsjv‡Z GKUv `iLv¯—I
wjL‡Z cv‡i bv| G †_‡K Abyfe Kiv m¤¢e †h, AaxZ welq AvZ¥¯’Ki‡Yi g~j
D‡Ïk¨wU ej‡Z †M‡j G‡Kev‡i gv‡V gviv hv‡”Q| K_vUv `yÔfvlv gva¨‡g wk¶v”Qz
`yÔai‡bi QvÎ-QvÎxi †ejv‡ZB mgfv‡e cÖ‡hvR¨| Aš—Z †h †Kvb GKwU fvlv
h_vh_fv‡e wkL‡jI j¾v cvevi †Kvb KviY _v‡K bv| wKš‘ huviv Kvwo Kvwo UvKv
LiP K‡i Zuv‡`i †Q‡j-†g‡q‡`i Bs‡iwR wk¶vq wkw¶Z K‡i PvKwii evRv‡i Zv‡`i
gv‡K©U †f¨jy Zz‡½ †Zvjvi †Póv K‡i †`kgvZ…Kvi fvlv-ms¯‹„wZ-HwZ‡n¨i cÖwZ Akª×v
e¨³ K‡i `vwqZ¡nxbZvi cwiPq w`‡”Qb †Zgwb Zuv‡`i DbœvwmKZv I miKvwi
Ae¨e¯’vcbvi Kvi‡Y mgv‡R †kªwYMZ ˆelg¨ evo‡Q fq¼iiƒ‡c| iex›`ªbv_ g‡b K‡ib
gvZ…fvlv Qvov cÖK…Z wk¶v I Ávb jvf Kiv m¤¢e bq| GgbwK ¯^cœ †`LvI| G wel‡q
wZwb `„óvš— †`b Rvg©vwbi| ÒRvg©vwb‡Z hZ w`b bv gvZ…fvlvi Av`i nBqvwQj ZZw`b
Zvnvi h_v_© AvZ¥v`i Ges Av‡Z¥vbœwZ nq bvB|Ó[cÖv¸³, cÖm½ K_v-1 (wZb Lvwb cÎ),
c„:72] ïay Rvg©vwb †Kb, Ávb-weÁv‡b mf¨-DbœZ †h †Kvb †`‡ki †¶‡ÎI GKB K_v|
Avgv‡`i †`k †_‡K huviv Gg.G. K‡i we‡`‡k hvb D”PZg wWwMª AR©b Ki‡Z Zuviv
welqUv mg¨K AeMZ Av‡Qb| †Kvb †`‡kB †m †`‡ki fvlv bv wkL‡j, bv Rvb‡j
KvD‡K Aa¨qb I M‡elYvi my‡hvM †`qv nq bv| gvZ…fvlv‡K AeÁv K‡i we‡klÁZv
AR©‡bi †Póvi dj Kx nq Zvi GKwU cÖK…ó bwRi gvB‡Kj gaym~`b `‡Ëi L¨vwZgvb
Bs‡iR Kwe nIqvi wbõj cªqvm| Bs‡iwR‡Z wjwLZ Zuvi Captive Lady cÖKvwkZ n‡j
ÔKvDwÝj Ae GWy‡KkbÕi mfvcwZ wWªsKIqvUvi exUb-Gi wbKU Zvi GK Kwc †cÖwiZ
nq| exUb gaym~`‡bi cÖwZfvi cÖksmv K‡ib wKš‘ †MŠi`vm emvK‡K wjwLZ GK c‡Î
D‡j−L K‡ib †h, But he coud render far greater service to his country and have a
better chance of achiving a lasting reputation for himself, if he will employ the
taste and talents, which he has cultivated by the slok of the poems of his own
language,if poetry at all events he must write. [†hvMx›`ªbv_ emy; RxebPwiZ, 4_© ms¯‹iY]

we‡`‡k emevmKv‡j wZ‡j wZ‡j ga~m~`b exUb-Gi gš—e¨ Abyaveb K‡i‡Qb Ges
cwi‡k‡l Zuvi †ev‡av`q N‡U‡Q I gvZ…fvlvi cÖwZ Avš—wiK AvKl©Y †eva K‡i‡Qb, hvi
cÖK…ó cwiPq cvB Zuvi Ôe½fvlvÕ-kxl©K m‡b‡U|
1.1
Z‡e G K_v mZ¨ †h, Avš—R©vwZK fvlv wn‡m‡e Bs‡iwRi K`i Av‡Q, ZvB e‡j
gvZ…fvlv Z¨vM K‡i Zv‡K Av`i K‡i †W‡K G‡b Ni `L‡ji my‡hvM †`qv DwPZ bq|
wØZxq fvlv wn‡m‡e h‡_ó ¸i“Z¡mn Bs‡iwR †kLv †h‡Z cv‡i; GgbwK mva, mva¨ I
†gav _vK‡j Ab¨ †h †Kvb fvlvI| wKš‘ gvZ…fvlv‡K Ae‡njv K‡i bq| G †¶‡Î
Ôbvbvb †`‡ki bvbvb fvlv we‡b ¯^‡`kx fvlv †g‡U wK AvkvÕÑAvãyj nvwK‡gi G Dw³
AZ¨š— g~j¨evb Ges iex›`ª Dw³i m‡½ mvwZkq m½wZc~Y©| Avãyj nvwK‡gi Dw³wU
wew”Qbœ wKš‘ iex›`ªbv‡_i GZØwelqK fvebv jvMvZvi Ges µgvMZ DrKl© I hyw³gyLx|
m½Z Kvi‡YB wZwb ej‡Z cv‡ib, ÔgyLy‡R¨i †Q‡j‡K Mo Mo k‡ã Bs‡iwR e³…Zv Kwi‡Z
ïwb‡j euvo–‡h¨i †Q‡j‡KI †mB P~ovš— †MŠie nB‡Z ewÂZ Kwi‡Z Zvnvi ev‡ci cÖe„wË nq bv|
ZLb hw` Zuvnv‡K eySvBqv ejv hvq †h evK© eªvBU M−vW‡÷v‡bi fvlvi mwnZ cÖPzi cwigv‡Y
cvbvcyKz‡ii Rj wgkvBqv GKwU e½ kveK †h eû K‡ó A_ev Aívqv‡m †MvUvKZK AwKwÂrKi
K_v ewjqv †Mj, Dnv‡Z †Kvb KvRB nBj bv, Dnv bv Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Aš—tKi‡Y ¯’vqx nBj,
kvk¦wZKx-79

bv wejvwZ mvwn‡Z¨ cÖ‡ek Kwij...Dnv A‡c¶v evsjv fvlvq fve cªKvk Kwievi †PóvI mnmª¸Y
mdjZv Av‡Q| Z‡e Gme K_v euvo–‡h¨i K‡Y© ¯’vb jvf K‡i bv, gyL‡y R¨i †Q‡ji Bs‡iwR duvKv
AvIqv‡Ri Kv‡Q ¯^‡`‡ki mg¯— `vwe Zvnvi wbKU GZB ¶xY ewjqv g‡b nqÕ| [cÖv¸³, cÖm½
K_v-1,mvabv, ˆPÎ 1299 (1893 )]|

gvZ…fvlvq Z_v Ôwk¶vq ¯^‡`kx fvlvÕ Aej¤^b Kiv †Kb Ri“wi iex›`ªbv‡_i Dw³mgy”Pq
†_‡K B‡Zvg‡a¨B Zv mg¨Kfv‡e AeMZ nIqv †M‡Q| Gevi wk¶vi m‡½ †Kb Avb›`
_vKv cÖ‡qvRb Ges wk¶vcÖYvjxi ΓwU †Kv_vq Zvi Dci Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
iex›`ªbv_ g‡b K‡ib, wk¶v Zv †h cÖKv‡iiB †nvKÑmyLKi, Avb›`gq I Abvqvmjä bv
n‡j Zv wk¶v_©xi c‡¶ AvËxKiY Kiv `y®‹i nq Ges wk¶vi g~j D‡Ïk¨ †h gvbmweKvk,
wPš—vkw³i D‡b¥l Ges Kíbvkw³i DrKl© mvabÑZv KLbB h_vh_fv‡e cÖZ¨vwkZ
cwigv‡Y n‡Z cv‡i bv| G wel‡q iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔcybðÕ Kv‡e¨i Ò†Q‡jUvÓ[28 kªveY
1339] KweZvwU GKwU PgrKvi `„óvš— n‡Z cv‡i| †h Ávb wk¶v_©xi ¯^AwfÁZvq RvwiZ
bq, †m Ávb cÖKZ
… Ávb bq; †m AwfÁZvI cix¶vjä mwVK AwfÁZv bq| Kw_Z
KweZvi †Q‡jUv mewKQzB cix¶v K‡i †`L‡Z Pvq; cix¶vjä mZ¨‡KB †m †Kej mZ¨
e‡j g‡b K‡i| Acixw¶Z †Kvb wKQzB Zvi wbKU MÖnY‡hvM¨ bq| Ô†`wLB bv Kx nqÕZviB wewea cix¶v Kiv nj †Q‡jwUi AvRb¥ Kv‡ji ¯^fve| †KŠZ~nj Zvi A`g¨| ZvB
M`euvav Avb›`-myLnxb cvV¨MÖš’ covi Zvi AvMÖn †bB †gv‡UB|
nvRvi iKg gRv w`‡q Ii Rxeb †Niv| ÔI wKQz ivL‡Z Pvq bv, ïay †`L‡Z PvqÕ
[cÖv¸³]| KLbI Ô¸e‡i †cvKv KvM‡Ri ev‡· G‡b iv‡L/ †L‡Z †`q †Mve‡ii ¸wUÕ|
Avevi KLbIev, Ô†Kvjv e¨vO Zz‡j a‡i Lc K‡i,/ evMv‡b Av‡Q †LuvUv †cvZvi GK
MZ©,/ Zvi g‡a¨ †mUv †cv‡l,/ †cvKv gvKo †`q †L‡ZÕ| [cÖv¸³]
ÔGK w`b GKUv †n‡j mvc ivL‡j gvóv‡ii †W‡¯‹,/ fve‡j †`wLB bv Kx K‡i gvóvi
gkvqÕ [cÖv¸³]
ÒGBme K‡iB hvi w`b hvq, †m †Q‡ji fv‡jv QvÎ nevi K_v bq| Zvi Dc‡i gvóvi
gkvq‡`i Zzó nevi K_v bq| wKš‘ Zuv‡`i eySevi ¶gZv wQj bv †h, ÔGgb Acwi‡gq
cix¶vwfjvlx wK‡kv‡ii g‡bviÄb Kivi g‡Zv wkï‡Zvl MÖš’ bv n‡j Ii AvMÖn a‡i
ivLv hv‡e Kx K‡i? Avi Kx K‡iBev Agb `yiš— `ye©vi meyR g‡bi cwiZzwó mvab Kiv
hv‡e? gvóviiv bv eyS‡jI wkï g‡bi Gme K_v whwb h_v_©fv‡e †ev‡Sb, Zuvi bvg
iex›`ªbv_| whwb wb‡R‡K Rv‡bb, GKgvÎ ZuviB ejvi AwaKvi, GLbI †Pbv nj bv
wb‡R‡K|Ó [eZ©gvb Av‡jvPK, Ôf`ªcvovq _v‡Kb bv Ck¦i: iex›`ªKv‡e¨ mvaviY gvbylÕ,
3q ms¯‹iY, †kvfv cÖKvk, XvKv, GKz‡ki eB †gjv 2010, c„:120Ñ123]
GB †h bvbvwea cÖKv‡i, wb‡Ri Avb›`wgwkªZ Kíbvkw³ Kv‡R jvwM‡q, wewea cÖKv‡i
Pvicv‡ki RMZ msmv‡ii AmsL¨ wewPÎ Abyl½‡K cix¶v K‡i AvZ¥weKwkZ Kivi
wk¶v Ñ †mB wk¶vB ev¯—weK h_v_© wk¶v| Avgv‡`i cÖPwjZ wk¶v cÖYvjx‡Z Gi †Kvb
my‡hvM †bB| GwUB Avgv‡`i wk¶v cÖYvjx I wk¶vbxwZi me‡P‡q eo ΓwU| Avb›`gq
cvV¨eB‡qi eo Afve| ¯‹j
z cvjv‡bv iex›`ªbv_ ¯^xq AwfÁZvq G Afve, G ΓwU nv‡o
nv‡o †Ui †c‡qwQ‡jb| †m Kvi‡YB Zuvi Ôcv‡VÕ, Zuvi Ô†jLv KweZv¸‡jvÕ †Q‡jUvi
Òco‡Z gb jv‡M bv wKQz‡ZB/ Ggb wb‡iU eyw×|/ cvZv¸‡jv `yóvwg K‡i †K‡U †i‡L
†`q,/ e‡j Bu`‡y i †K‡U‡Q|/ GZ eo euv`iÓ| Ñ †Q‡jwUi wei“‡× Aw¤^‡K gvóv‡ii GB

kvk¦wZKx-80

Awf‡hv‡Mi Dˇi Kwe Reve †`b AKc‡U, Ò†m ΓwU AvgviB,/ _vKZ Ii wb‡Ri
RM‡Zi Kwe,/ Zv n‡j ¸e‡i †cvKv GZ ¯úó nZ Zvi Q‡›`/ I Qvo‡Z cviZ bv|/
†Kv‡bv w`b e¨v‡Oi LuvwU K_vwU †c‡iwQ wK wjL‡Z,/ Avi †mB †bwo KzKz‡ii Uªv‡RwWÓ|
[cÖv¸³] Ggb mij ¯^xKv‡ivw³i Zvrch© Dcjwä Kiv †M‡j Avgv‡`i cÖPwjZ wk¶v
cÖYvjxi Mj` wk¶vwe`‡`i wPš—vq aiv co‡Zv GZw`b| bv aiv covi KviY, Avgiv
huv‡`i wk¶vwe` e‡j AwfwnZ Kwi Zuviv Avm‡j wk¶vwecYb wekvi` e¨w³| QovKv‡ii
fvlvq, Ôwk¶‡Kiv we`¨v †e‡P/ †Uvj †Lvjv †h A‡bK M„‡n|Õ GB †Uv‡ji K‡jQuvUv ev
m„ó wkw¶Z †kªwY cÖK…Z wkw¶Z bq| ¯^wkw¶Z †Zv bqB Ñ mvwU©wd‡KUcÖvß Awkw¶Z|
wk¶vi g~j D‡Ïk¨ nIqv DwPZ mvwU©wd‡KU cvIqv bq Ñ gvbyl nIqv| G me †`‡L
ï‡b m‡L‡` cÖeÜKvi‡K ej‡ZB nq, Ô†Q‡j hw` gvbylÕ Kwi‡Z PvB Z‡e †Q‡j‡ejv
nB‡ZB Zvnv‡K gvbyl Kwi‡Z Avi¤¢ Kwi‡Z nB‡e; bZzev †m †Q‡jB _vwK‡e, gvbyl
nB‡e bv| wkïKvj nB‡ZB, †Kej ¯§iY kw³i Dci mg¯— fi bv w`qv, m‡½ m‡½ h_v
cwigvY wPš—vkw³ I Kíbvkw³i ¯^vaxb cwiPvjbvi Aemi w`‡Z nB‡e| mKvj nB‡Z
mܨv ch©š— †KejB jvOj w`qv Pvl Ges gB w`qv †Xjv fvOv, †KejB †VOvjvwV gyL¯—
Ges GKRvwgbÑAv‡`i ÔGB Ôgvbe-RbgÕ-Gi c‡¶ Avgv‡`i GB `yj©f †¶‡Î †mvbv
djvBevi c‡¶ h‡_ó b‡n| [AMÖnvqY 1299, b‡f¤^i 1892,cÖKvk-mvabv, †cŠl 1299|]
Avgv‡`i †Q‡j‡`i gvbyl bv nIqvi A‡bK¸‡jv Kvi‡Yi g‡a¨ cÖeÜKv‡ii kbv³K…Z
`yÔwU KviY n‡”Q, (1) Ô†Kej wbim e¨vKiY Ges we‡`wk AwfavbÕ-Gi g‡a¨ Zv‡`i‡K
ÔAv”Qbœ KwiqvÕ †djv| Ges (2) Ô†h †mŠfvM¨evb RvwZiv †`kxq fvlvq wk¶v jvf K‡i
Zvnviv cÖ_g nB‡Z aviYv Kwievi wPš—v Kwievi Aemi cvq| Avi¤¢ nB‡Z Zvnv‡`i
fve cÖKvk Kwievi my‡hvM N‡U|Õ [cÖv¸³, cÖm½ K_v-1, c„:73|] Dw³ `yÔwU mwe‡kl
cÖwbavb‡hvM¨| Avi cÖwbavb‡hvM¨ e‡jB Ô†Q‡jUvÕ KweZvi †Q‡jUvi ¯^vaxb fvebv Ges
AbymwÜrmv I IwiwRbvwjwU AbyKiY‡hvM¨| wKš‘ Ô†Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv Bs‡iR Aa¨vcK
Av‡¶c Kwiqv _v‡Kb †h, evOvwj Qv·`i g‡a¨ IwiwRbvwjwUi †Kv‡bv j¶Y †`wL‡Z
cvIqv hvq bvÕ| [cÖv¸³,c„: 74] G wel‡q iex›`ªbv‡_i DËi GiKg, Ô†m K_v mZ¨|
wKš‘ KPzi Avev` Kwiqv, Kjvi Kuvw` cvIqv hvB‡Z‡Q bv ewjqv cwiZvc Kiv †kvfv
cvq bv| †XuwKi KvwV wbqwgZ c`vNvZ Øviv PvwjZ nBqv Awekªvg gv_v Lywoqv
mgyPvi“iƒ‡c avb fvwb‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ Zvnv‡Z cvZv MRvq bv, dj d‡j bv| G R‡b¨
Ab¨ †h Lywk Av‡¶c Ki“K, wKš‘ †h QzZvi mRxe MvQ KvwUqv GB wbR©xe †XuwK
evbvBqv‡Q †m †Kb wew¯§Z nqÕ| [cÖv¸³, c„: 74|]
1.2
h‡_ó Avb›`gqZvi m‡½ cov, ¯^vaxbfv‡e wPš—v Kiv, AbymwÜrmy nIqv, gvZ…fvlvq
wk¶v MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi wbwðZ Kiv †hgb iex›`ªwk¶vwPš—vi gg©MZ Zvrch© †Zgwb Zuvi
wk¶vwPš—vi Av‡iv K‡qKwU Awfµg n‡”Q, (1) mij nB‡Z µ‡g `yiƒ‡n Av‡ivnY, (2)
cwiwPZ n‡Z AcwiwP‡Z hvÎv, (3) †Áq n‡Z A‡Á‡q cwiågY, (4) wbKU n‡Z `~‡i
AbymÜvb Ges (5) miKvi wbqš¿Ygy³ wk¶v cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbvi e¨e¯’v Kiv| Zuvi
fvlvq, ÔÁvb wk¶v wbKU nB‡Z `~‡i, cwiwPZ nB‡Z AcwiwP‡Zi w`‡K †M‡jB Zvnvi
wfwË cvKv nB‡Z cv‡i| †h e¯‘ PZzw`©‡K we¯—…Z bq, †h e¯‘ m¤§y‡L Dcw¯’Z bvB,
Avgv‡`i ÁvbPP©v hw` cÖavbZ Zvnv‡K Aej¤^b KwiqvB nB‡Z _v‡K Z‡e †m Ávb `ye©j

nB‡eB| hvnv cwiwPZ Zvnv‡K m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c h_v_©fv‡e AvqË Kwi‡Z wkwL‡j Z‡e hvnv
AcÖZ¨¶ hvnv AcwiwPZ, Zvnv MÖnY Kwievi kw³ R‡b¥Õ| [Qv·`i cÖwZ m¤¢vlY, iPbv
ˆPÎ 1311, cÖKvk-e½`k©b, ˆekvL 1312 (1905)-e½xq mvwnZ¨ cwil‡` fvlY]
aviYvkw³ ewjô nq| Kíbvkw³ e„w× cvq| Avi Kíbvkw³ e„w× †c‡j AbymwÜrmv
ev‡o| mij n‡Z `yiƒn ¯—‡i wPš—vkw³ cwiPvjbvi ¯ú„nv Rv‡M| †hgb ÔcybðÕ Kv‡e¨i
ÒiO‡iwRbxÓ [25 kªveY 1339] KweZvi bvwqKv Avwgbv, eqm hvi m‡Z‡iv, †m
Ôw`M¦weRqx cwÊZÕ I kvwYZ eyw×m¤úbœ Aciv‡Rq ZvwK©K k¼ijv‡ji B”QvgZ iO Kiv
cvMwo Ôbvjvi av‡i ZuZ
y Mv‡Qi Qvqvq e‡mÕ ay‡q wb‡q Nv‡mi Dci wewQ‡q w`‡Z wM‡q
j¶¨ Kij, cvMwoi GK †Kv‡Y †jLv Av‡Q ÔGKwU †k−v‡Ki GKwU PiYÕÑ Ò†Zvgvi
kªxc` †gvi jjv‡U weiv‡R|Ó e¨m! Agwb Avwgbvi AbymÜvbx g‡b m„wó nj GK A`g¨
†KŠZ~nj| †ePvix Avwgbv K_vUvi A_© Ôe‡m e‡m fvej A‡bK ¶YÕ; Zvici Kx g‡b
K‡i ÔiwOb my‡Zv Ni †_‡K G‡bÕ/ cvMwo‡Z ÔAv‡iK PiY wj‡L w`jÕ/ Ôcik cvB‡b
ZvB ü`‡qi gv‡S|Õ GB †h cvMwoi †Kv‡Y k¼i jv‡ji †jLv mij GKwU ev‡K¨i A_©
Abyaveb K‡i Aš—M~p© `yiƒn Zvrc‡h© GKv GKvB DcbxZ n‡Z m¶g nj AvwgbvÑ GUvB
cÖKZ
… wk¶vi `„óvš— Ñ AaxZwe`¨v Kv‡R jvwM‡q bZzb wKQz Avwe®‹v‡ii djcÖm~ `¶Zv|
co–qv‡`i GB `¶Zv e„w× I myß cÖwZfv weKv‡ki mnvqK †h wk¶vcÖYvjxÑ ZvB iex›`ª
cÖZ¨vwkZ Av`k© wk¶vcÖYvjx Ges mij †_‡K `yiƒ‡n Av‡ivn‡Yi `„óvš—| Aci w`‡K
cwiwPZ n‡Z AcwiwP‡Z hvÎv Ges wbKU n‡Z `~‡i AbymÜvb Ges D‡ëvµ‡g
Ôwk¶vmgm¨vÕ cÖe‡Ü e¨³, Ôbv Rvbv nB‡Z µ‡g Rvwbevi Avb›`Õ-G wKsev †Áq n‡Z
A‡Á‡q cwiåg‡Yi cÖKó… D`vniY n‡Z cv‡i ÔcybðÕ KweZvi bvqK AvcvZ `yó †mB
†Q‡jUv, Ôey‡bv wel dj †L‡qÕ hvi Ôwfwg© jv‡M,/ i_ †`L‡Z wM‡q †Kv_vq †h‡Z wM‡q
†Kv_vq hvq, wKQz‡ZB wKQz nq bv/ Avagiv n‡q †eu‡P I‡V,/ nvwi‡q wM‡q wd‡i Av‡m/
Kv`v †g‡L Kvco wQu‡oÕ| GUv Zvi wbKU †_‡K `~‡i wM‡q `~i‡K ¯^iƒ‡c †Pbvi cix¶v|
Abyiƒcfv‡e iƒcK_vi M‡í †kvbv bvMKb¨v, †h _v‡K Ôb`xi Av‡iv ZjvqÕ Ges Ô†mvbvi
KuvKB w`‡q AuvPovq j¤^v Pzj...Õ| Zv‡K mwZ¨ mwZ¨ †`Lvi †jvfI mvgjv‡Z cv‡i bv
†m| ZvB b`xi Ô¯^”Q meyR R‡jÕ †`q Wye bvMKb¨vi mÜv‡b| G‡Z K‡i fq¼i wec‡`
c‡o †Q‡jwU| `v‡g hvq AvUwK‡q| eÜ n‡q Av‡m `g| †Pv‡L †`‡L AÜKvi| Ô†h
gv‡K KwP †ejvq nvwi‡q‡Q/ Zvi Qwe Rv‡M g‡b,/ Ávb hvq wgwj‡q| fvix gRv,/ Kx
K‡i g‡i †mB g¯— K_vUvÕ| †m w`b GB wec` †_‡K WvOvq †Mvi“ Piv‡bv ivLv‡jiv
D×vi Kij Zv‡K Ô†R‡j‡`i wWwO wb‡q UvbvUvwb K‡i ÔZyj‡jÕ hLb ÔZLb †m
wbtmvoÕ| Gi ciI AbymwÜrmv K‡g bv GZUzKz| eis Zvi GK eÜz‡K cÖjä
y K‡i
†Q‡jwU| Ô†jvf †`wL‡q e‡j,/ GKevi †`L bv Wy‡e, †Kvg‡i `wo †eu‡a/ Avev‡iv
Zzj‡ev †U‡bÕ| †Q‡jwU ivwR bv n‡j ÔI †i‡M e‡j, fxZz, fxZz, fxZz †Kv_vKviÕ|
†Q‡jwUi GB Avb›`gq cix¶vwfjvwlZv‡K wbtm‡›`‡n AwfwnZ Kiv hvq iex›`ª Kw_Z
Ôbv Rvbv nB‡Z µ‡g Rvwbevi Avb›`Õ Ges †Áq n‡Z A‡Á‡q cwiåg‡Yi cÖ‡Póv|
wk¶vi g~j D‡Ïk¨I GwUB|
1.3
iex›`ªbv_ g‡b K‡ib, ÒwKš‘ Avgv‡`i wk¶v e¨e¯’vq Ges wk¶v cÖYvjx‡Z G c×wZi
wb`vi“Y Afve| Avgv‡`i wk¶v cÖYvjx‡Z Ôe¯—yi mwnZ ewni mwnZ Avgiv wgjvBqv

kvk¦wZKx-81

kvk¦wZKx-82

wkwLevi AeKvk cvB bv| Avgv‡`i AwaKvsk wk¶v †h mKj `„óvš— Avkªq K‡i Zvnv
Avgv‡`i `„wó‡MvPi b‡n| Avgiv BwZnvm cwo; †h BwZnvm Avgv‡`i RbcÖevn‡K
Aejš^b Kwiqv cÖ¯‘Z nBqv DwVqv‡Q, hvnvi bvbv j¶Y bvbv ¯§„wZ Avgv‡`i N‡i
evwn‡i bvbv ¯’v‡b cÖZ¨¶ nBqv Av‡Q, Zvnv Avgiv Av‡jvPbv Kwi bv ewjqv BwZnvm †h
Kx wRwbm Zvnvi D¾¡j aviYv nB‡ZB cv‡i bv| Avgiv fvlvZË¡iƒc gyL¯— Kwiqv
cix¶vq D”P¯’vb AwaKvi Kwi; wKš‘ Avgv‡`i wb‡Ri gvZ…fvlv Kv‡j Kv‡j cÖ‡`‡k
cÖ‡`‡k †Kgb Kwiqv bvbv iƒcvš—‡ii g‡a¨ wb‡Ri BwZnvm cÖZ¨¶ wbeÜ Kwiqv
ivwLqv‡Q Zvnv †Zgb Kwiqv †`wL bv ewjqvB fvlvinm¨ Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q my®úó nBqv
D‡V bv| GK fviZe‡l© mgvR I a‡g©i †hgb eûZi Ae¯’v ˆewPΨ Av‡Q, Ggb †eva
nq Avi †K‡bv †`‡k bvB| AbymÜvbc~e©K Awfwb‡ekc~e©K †mB ˆewPΨ Av‡jvPbv
Kwiqv †`wL‡j mgvR I a‡g©i weÁvb Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q †hgb D™¢vwmZ nBqv DwV‡e Ñ
Ggb `~i‡`‡ki ag© I mgvR m¤^Üxq eB cwoqv K‡LvbB nB‡Z cv‡i bv|
aviYv hLb A¯úó I `ye©j _v‡K ZLb D™¢vebvkw³i Avkv Kiv hvq bv: GgbwK,
ZLbKvi mg¯— D™¢vebv Aev¯—weK A™¢yZ AvKvi aviY K‡i| GRb¨B Avgiv †KZv‡e
BwZnvm wkwLqvI HwZnvwmK wePvi †Zgb Kwiqv AvqË Kwi‡Z cvwi bvB; †KZv‡e
weÁvb wkwLqvI Af~Zc~e© KvíwbKZv‡K weÁvb ewjqv PvjvBqv _vwK, ag©-mgvR,
GgbwK mvwnZ¨ mgv‡jvPbv‡ZI AcÖgË cwigvY‡ea i¶v Kwi‡Z cvwi bv|
ev¯—weKZv ewR©Z nB‡j Avgv‡`i gbB e‡jv, ü`qB e‡jv, K…k I weK…Z nBqv hvq|
Avgv‡`i †`kwn‰Zlv Bnvi cÖgvY| †`‡ki †jv‡Ki wn‡Zi m‡½ GB wn‰Zlvi †hvM bvB|
†`‡ki †jvK gwi‡Z‡Q; `vwi‡`ª¨ RxY© nB‡Z‡Q, Awk¶v, Kzwk¶vq bó nB‡Z‡Q Ñ Bnvi
cÖwZKv‡ii R‡b¨ hvnviv wKQzgvÎ wb‡Ri †Póv cÖ‡qvM Kwi‡Z cÖe„Ë nq bv Zvnviv we‡`wk
mvwnZ¨-BwZnv‡mi cuyw_MZ c¨vwUª¨qwURg& bvbv cÖKvi AmsMZ AbyKi‡Yi Øviv jvf
KwiqvwQ ewjqv Kíbv K‡i| GRb¨B, GZKvj, Z_vwc GB c¨vwUªqwURg& Avgvw`M‡K
h_v_© †Kv‡bv Z¨vM ¯^xKv‡i cÖe„Ë Kwi‡Z cvwij bv| †h †`‡k c¨vwUªqwURg& Aev¯—e b‡n,
cuyw_MZ AbyKiYg~jK b‡n, †mLvbKvi †jvK †`‡ki Rb¨ Abvqv‡m cÖvY w`‡Z‡Q; Avgiv
mvgvb¨ A_© w`‡Z cvwi bv, mgq w`‡Z cvwi bv, Avgv‡`i †`k †h Kxiƒc Zvnv mÜvbc~e©K
Rvwbevi Rb¨ Drmvn Abyfe Kwi bv|Ó [cÖv¸³,ÔQv·`i cÖwZ m¤¢vlYÕ c„: 82|]
†`k I †`‡ki †fŠ‡MvwjK AvqZb, ev¯—weK ¯^iƒc I ˆewPΨ m¤^‡Ü Avgv‡`i AÁvbZv,
AbvMÖn I cÖK„Z fv‡jvevmvi Afve m¤ú‡K© Dch©y³ K_v¸‡jv †hgb mZ¨, †Zgwb
mgvR, mgv‡Ri gvby‡li ag©, eY©, ms¯‹vi, Kzms¯‹vi, Af¨vm Ges RxebvPi‡Yi ˆewPΨ
I wek¦v‡mi iKg‡di m¤ú‡K©I Avgv‡`i bexb co–qv‡`i aviYv, cÖexY gvbyl‡`i
AÁZv ev AÁZvi wcQ‡bI wbiš—i Kvh©©Ki ev¯—weKZvewR©Z AwfÁZv|
Z`ycwi cwVZ welqwUi fvlv hw` weRvZxq nq †Zv we`¨v_x© bv cv‡i †m fvlvi evZ©veiY
†f` K‡i j‡¶¨i gg©¯’‡j †cuŠQ‡Z, bv cv‡i wel‡qi cÖK…Z Zvrc‡h©i Avb›`gqAg„Zgq Av¯^v`b Dc‡fvM Ki‡Z| Dciš‘ gvSLv‡b Dc‡fv‡Mi cÖvš—mxgv ¯úk© Kivi
†mŠfvM¨ AR©b Kivi cwie‡Z© Zv‡`i co‡Z nq `y‡f©v‡Mi AZj MnŸ‡i| ZLb
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cÖvYvš—Ki `y‡f©v‡M| A_©vr Zv‡`i Ae¯’v nq bv NiKv, bv NvUKvi g‡Zv|

kvk¦wZKx-83

G R‡b¨B iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖvÁ I mywPwš—Z AwfgZ n‡”Q :
wkwLevi cÖYvjxwU hw` GKevi gvZ…fvlvi mvnv‡h¨ A‡c¶vK…Z mn‡R AvqË nBqv Av‡m, gbwU
hw` wk¶vi R‡b¨ cÖ¯Z
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cxob, KwVb †Póv I kixi g‡bi Aemv` nB‡Z wb¯‹…wZ cvIqv hvq, Zvnv huvnviv `„óvš—
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f~‡Mvj A¼ cÖf„wZ wk¶vi welq¸wj evsjvq wkLvBqv Bs‡iwR‡K †Kej fvlv wk¶viƒ‡c wkLvB‡j
fvlviƒ‡c Bs‡iwR wkwLevi mgq AwaK cvIqv hvq; eywSqv cwoevi Gis Af¨vm Kwiqv wkwLevi
h_v_© Aemi _v‡K|...[cÖv¸³,iex›`ªbv‡_i wPš—vRMr-wk¶vwPš—v, c„: 78] g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e ïay

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g„wËKvmsjMœ, cÖKZ
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Zv †m m‡Z¨i cÖKvi‡f` hvB †nvK| hZ cÖKviB †nvK| Ôïay e‡ov wRwbm Kíbv
Kwi‡jI nB‡e bv, e‡ov `vb wf¶v Kwi‡jI nB‡e bv, Ges †Q‡Uv gy‡L e‡ov K_v
ewj‡jI nB‡e bv, Øvi cv‡k¦© wbZvš— †Qv‡Uv KvR ïi“ Kwi‡Z nB‡e| wejv‡Zi cÖvmv‡`
wMqv †iv`b Kwi‡j nB‡e bv, ¯^‡`‡ki †¶Î ewmqv KÈK DrcvUb Kwi‡Z nB‡e|
Bnv‡Z Avgv‡`i kw³i PP©v nB‡e Ñ †mB kw³i PP©vgv‡ÎB ¯^vaxbZv Ges ¯^vaxbZv
gv‡bB Avb›`Õ...|[cªv¸³] wk¶vi †¶‡Î cªv¸³ kZ©¸‡jv QvovI iex›`ªwPš—vq A‡iv
A‡bK †gŠwjK I Acwinvh© K_v Av‡Q| †hgb [fvÊvi, ˆR¨ô 1312 91905]-G Ôc~e©
cÖ‡kœi Abyew„ ËÕ-kxl©K cÖe‡Ü iex›`ªbv_ e‡jb,
ÒcÖ_g K_v Ñ †`‡ki Kv‡R †`k‡K h_v_©fv‡e wbhy³ Kwi‡Z nB‡j †Mvovq mvaviY‡K
wk¶v w`‡Z nB‡e|
wØZxq K_vÑ wk¶vi hw` cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ GB nq †h, †`‡ki †jvK‡K †`‡ki Kv‡R †hvM¨
Kiv, Z‡e ¯^fveZB wk¶vi cÖYvjxi m¤^‡Ü miKv‡ii m‡½ Avgv‡`i wgj nB‡e bv|
Z…Zxq K_vÑ hw` Zvnv bv nq Z‡e c‡ii euvav-Pv‡j KZK¸‡jv we`¨vjq evbvBqv
we‡`‡ki kvm‡b ¯^‡`‡ki ¯^i¯^Zx‡K wRwÄi civB‡j we‡kl djjvf cÖZ¨vkv Kiv
Pwj‡e bv| wk¶vcªYvjx‡K mKj cÖKv‡iB ¯^‡`‡ki g½jmva‡bi Dc‡hvMx Kwievi Rb¨
†`‡ki we`¨vjq‡K miKv‡ii kvmb nB‡Z gyw³ †`Iqv `iKvi|
†kl K_vÑ Zvnvi evav GB †h, A‡bœi `v‡q we`¨v miKv‡ii Øv‡i euvav cwoqv‡Q| †m
eÜb bv KvwU‡j we`¨v‡K ¯^vaxb Kwie Kx Dcv‡qÓ...| [i 12k, wek¦fviZx, 1349,
c„:Ñ516-517|]
iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶vwPš—v welqK fvebv¸‡jv e„wUk kvwmZ fviZe‡l© †gK‡j cÖYxZ
wk¶vbxwZi Pjgvb mg‡q e¨³| m½Z Kvi‡YB bKj Bs‡iR evbv‡bvi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖYxZ
weRvZxq wk¶vbxwZ fviZel©xq mgv‡Ri g½j mva‡bi †¶Î †h †Kv‡bvµ‡gB
g½jRbK n‡Z cv‡i bv Zv wZwb Dcjwä K‡iwQ‡jb AvwZ¥K mZZvq| Ges we‡e‡Ki
ZvwM‡` wj‡LwQ‡jb Ôwk¶vi †ni‡diÕ, Ôwk¶v ms¯‹viÕ, Ôwk¶vi evnY,Õ Ôwk¶v mgm¨vÕ,
Ôwk¶v wewaÕ, Ôwk¶v ¯^v½xKiYÕ, Ôwk¶vi wgjbÕ Ñ BZ¨vKvi eûwea cÖeÜ Ges bvbv
kvk¦wZKx-84

cÖm‡½ e¨³ K‡iwQ‡jb wk¶vmswk−ó Zuvi mywPwš—Z e³e¨| Bs‡iR cÖYxZ †m wk¶vbxwZ
Av‡Rv Aewa evsjv‡`k-fvi‡Z cÖvq AcwiewZ©Z Ae¯’vq weivRgvb| Ges hv iex›`ª
mgqKv‡ji g‡Zv Av‡Rv wb‡iU cÖvmw½K| Aš—Z evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ wk¶vbxwZ †gv‡UB
RvwZMVb Dc‡hvMx bq e‡j wk¶vwe‡klÁ e¨w³eM© g‡b K‡ib| G wel‡q ch©vß `„óvš—
†`qv n‡q‡Q| †mB mv‡_ †evSv †M‡Q wk¶vwPš—K iex›`ªbv‡_i AvZ¥MZ fvebv, wek¦vm,
†PZbv I gbbMZ Av`‡k©i ¯^iƒc| Zuvi †mB fvebvi ev¯—e iƒcvqbB n‡”Q
kvwšÍwb‡KZb I kªxwb‡KZb| kvwš—wb‡KZ‡b we‡k¦i eû Ávbx-¸Yx-cÖÁvkxj wk¶‡Ki
mgv‡ek NwU‡q Z‡cvebmg Av`k© wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU g‡Wj ˆZwii cÖ‡Póvq Zuvi
Avš—wiKZvi Afve wQj bv| iex›`ªbv‡_i RxeÏkvq Ges ZviI c‡i kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi
DcvPv‡h©i `vwqZ¡ cvjbKv‡j cyÎ i_x›`ªbv_ VvKzi Ges åvZz®úyÎx Bw›`iv †`exi Mfxi
cÖhZœ I wbôvgq cwiPh©vq cÖwZôvb `yÔwUi L¨vwZ cÖvq wek¦gq Qwo‡q c‡o| Ab¨ K_vq
iex›`ªbv_ nv‡Z Kj‡g †`Lvb Zuvi wPš—vi ev¯—e cÖwZdj‡bi iƒc|
eZ©gvb cÖeÜwU c‡o A‡b‡KiB aviYv n‡Z cv‡i iex›`ªbv_ eywSev Bs‡iwR wk¶vi
we‡ivax wQ‡jb Ges we‡Øl wQj Zuvi c„w_exi Ab¨vb¨ fvlvi cÖwZ| wKš‘ bv, welqUv †m
iKg bq †gv‡UB| c„w_exi me RvwZi gvZ…fvlvi cÖwZ wZwb AwZkq kª×vkxj wQ‡jb|
Zuvi GKvš— wek¦vm wQj c„w_exi †Kvb RvwZB gvZ„fvlvi PP©v I gvZ…fvlvi gva¨g Qvov
Aa¨qb K‡i Ávb-weÁv‡bi †Kvb kvLv‡ZB mvd‡j¨i wkL‡i †cuŠQv‡Z cv‡ib bv|
g‡bi fve cÖKvk I weKv‡ki †¶‡Î gvZ…fvlvi weKí †bB| cÖm½Z g‡b ivLv fv‡jv
†h, iex›`ªbv_ A‡b‡Ki †P‡q fv‡jvB Bs‡iwR Rvb‡Zb| Bs‡iwR fvlvq mwe‡kl
ey¨rcwË AR©b Ki‡Z m¶g bv n‡jI KvR Pvjv‡bvi g‡Zv Bs‡iwR wZwb Rvb‡Zb|
Rvb‡Zb †h Zvi eo cÖgvY †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vicÖvß ÔMxZvÄwjÕ wZwb wb‡RB †Lqv‡ji e‡k
Bs‡iwR‡Z Abyev` K‡ib Ges KzwÉZ wP‡Ë Zv wZwb Bs‡iR Kwe B‡qUm&-Gi nv‡Z Zz‡j
†`b| ejvevûj¨, †m Abyev` cvV K‡iB B‡qUm&mn A‡bK we`» e¨w³ Dcwbl‡`i
fvecyó Aa¨vZ¥g~jK ÔMxZvÄwjÕi gg©e¨Äbvq gš¿gy‡»i g‡Zv AvK…ó nb|
Kwei ¯^K…Z ÔMxZvÄwjÕi Bs‡iwR Abyev‡`i NUbv †_‡K Aš—Z Bs‡iwR fvlvi cÖwZ Zuvi
we‡Øl wQj G K_v ejv mgxPxb n‡e bv| Ab¨ fvlv-mvwn‡Z¨i †¶‡ÎI GKB K_v|
weÁv‡bi AvKi MÖš’mg~n Bs‡iwR‡Z †jLv, †m¸‡jv c‡o Ges AvZ¥¯’ K‡i cÖvÄj fvlvq
wZwbB m¤¢eZ cÖ_g †j‡Lb weÁvbwPš—v welqK MÖš’ Ôwek¦cwiPqÕ| g~jZ wbR fvlvi cÖwZ
AbyivM cÖ`k©‡bi A_© n‡e c„w_exi mKj fvlv-fvlxi gvZ…fvlvi cÖwZ kª×vkxj nIqvi
I Aby‡cÖiYvi cÖZxK Ges ¯^fvlvq wk¶vR©b Kivi ¸i“Z¡ Dcjwä Kivi `„óvš—|
G cÖe‡Ü iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶v`‡k©i g~j m~θ‡jv wew¶ß I wew”Qbœfv‡e bvbv Abyl‡½
Dwj−wLZ n‡q‡Q| G †_‡K Aš—Z GB wm×v‡š— DcbxZ nIqv hvq †h, wk¶v_x©‡`i
AvZ¥MZ wPš—v †_‡K wePvi, we‡k−lY, g~j¨vqb Ges wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi m¶gZvB n‡”Q
wk¶vi g~j D‡Ïk¨ Ges mywk¶vi j¶Y| mywk¶vq wkw¶Z n‡Z cvi‡j Z‡eB
Av‡Z¥vbœqb I AvZ¥weKvk m¤¢e| gyL¯— KivI bq| bKj KivI bq| G Kvi‡YB
ÔRvZxq wek¦we`¨vjqÕ [e½`k©b, fv`ª 1313, 1906] cÖe‡Ü cÖeÜKvi iex›`ªbv_ e‡jb,
Òmywk¶vi j¶Y GB †h, Zvnv gvbyl‡K Awff~Z K‡i bv, Zvnv gvbyl‡K gyw³`vb K‡i|
GZw`b Avgiv B¯‹zj-K‡j‡R †h wk¶vjvf Kwi‡Z wQjvg, Zvnv‡Z Avgvw`M‡K civ¯—
Kwiqv‡Q| Avgiv Zvnv gyL¯— KwiqvwQ, Ave„wË KwiqvwQ, wk¶vjä euvwa [euvav]

ePb¸wj‡K wbtmsk‡q P~ovš— mZ¨ ewjqv cÖPvi KwiqvwQ|...hvnv wKQz cwoqvwQ Zvnv
Avgvw`M‡K f~‡Zi g‡Zv cvBqv ewmqv‡Q; †mB cov we`¨v Avgv‡`i gyL w`qv K_v
ejvBqv‡Q, evwni nB‡Z g‡b nB‡Z‡Q †hb Avgiv K_v ewj‡ZwQ|Ó AZGe †`‡ki
wk¶vcÖYvjx Ggb n‡Z n‡e hv‡Z wk¶v_x©MY Avbw›`Z wP‡Ë we`¨vR©b K‡i AvZ¥wbwg©wZ
NUv‡Z cv‡i| wkL‡Z wkL‡Z Avb›` cvq| Avb›` †c‡Z †c‡Z wkL‡Z cv‡i Ges
wfZ‡i wfZ‡i kw³ mÂq Ki‡Z Ki‡Z kw³gš— Av‡jvwKZ e¨w³‡Z i“cvš—wiZ n‡Z
cv‡i| GKgvÎ Zv n‡jB ÔMÖš’MZ we`¨v Avi cin‡¯— ab/ b‡n we`¨v b‡n ab n‡j
cÖ‡qvRbÓÑ iex›`ªbv‡_i G Dw³i Avi †Kvb mvieËv _vK‡e bv| cwiYvg`k©x cÖKZ

wk¶vbyivMx e¨w³e‡M©iI cÖZ¨vkv ZvB|
cwi‡k‡l mwe‡kl D‡j−L¨ †h, wk¶vwelqK Dchy³
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eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k eûj cÖPwjZ Ges RbwcÖqfv‡e weR‡bm GWy‡Kkb e‡j AwfwnZ
†emiKvwi wek¦we`¨vjqmg~nmn †eïgvi wUD‡Uvwiqvj †nvg, †KvwPs †m›Uvi, jvwb©s c‡q›U
BZ¨vKvi bvbv eªv‡Ûi, bvbv bv‡gi `„wó© AvKl©YKvix Ges m‡¤§vnbx weÁvcbme©¯^ jy‡Uiv
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RvZxq wek¦we`¨vj‡qi g‡Zv AbvPviwK¬ó, †¯^”QvPvix, KvÊÁvbnxb, AcwiYvg`kx©,
RvwZNvwZ I weRvZxq Kg©KvÊgq wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi Pjgvb igigv Ae¯’v‡K nvjvj I
Rv‡qR e‡j DØvû b„Z¨ Kivi AbygwZ †`qv| cÖKZ
… c‡¶ iex›`ªbv_ hv ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb, Zv
n‡”Q, †`k-RvwZ-ivóª Z_v iv‡óªi RbgÊjxi c‡¶ AKj¨vYKvgx, AwnZKi, ¶wZKi
wk¶vbxwZ miKvi‡K †Kvbµ‡gB cÖYqb I ev¯—evqb Ki‡Z bv †`qv| Ab¨K_vq, iv‡óªi
†h cuvPwU †gŠwjK `vwqZ¡ mwVK I h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Kiv Aek¨ KZ©e¨ Ñ †m¸‡jvi g‡a¨
wk¶vi ¸i“Z¡ me©vwaK I m‰e©e Ges cweÎ| G wb‡q miKv‡ii †Kvb cÖKvi MvdjwZ,
Mwogwm ev Lvg‡Lqvjxi wKQzgvÎ AeKvk †bB| G Rb¨B A_©jwMœKviK e¨emvwqK
g‡bve„wËm¤úbœ e¨w³gvwjKvbvaxb, A_©‡jvjyc gybvdv‡Lvi †Kvb wk¶v cÖwZôvb‡K Pj‡Z
bv †`qv Ges K‡Vvifv‡e wbwl× †NvlYv K‡i Zv eÜ K‡i †`qv RvwZi ˆbwZK `vwqZ¡|
Ges G `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b RbgZ MVb K‡i miKvi‡K eva¨ Kiv wk¶vbyivMx e¨w³mn mKj
bvMwi‡Ki cweÎ `vwqZ¡| †Kbbv wk¶v †Kvb e¨emvq bq Ñ wk¶v n‡”Q gvbyl nIqvi
gnËg eªZ Ñ GB n‡”Q iex›`ªbv‡_i wk¶vwPš—vi †gvÏv K_v|
Z‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i nv‡Z Mov kvwš—wb‡KZb I kªxwb‡KZ‡bi gZ jvfnxb, bxwZwbô, mgybœZ
wk¶vgvbm¤úbœ, gbyl¨Z¡ I PwiÎ MVb Dc‡hvMx ¯^‡`kvbyivMg~jK Av`k© wk¶v cÖwZôvb
¯’vcb miKvwi ev †emiKvwi †h fv‡eB †nvK wKsev †nvK weØvbyivMx Rbwn‰Zlx e¨w³K ev
mvgvwRK e¨e¯’vcbvq Ñ Zv me©‡Zvfv‡e MÖnY I Awfb›`b‡hvM¨| A_©vr wk¶v‡K
wecYb‡hvM¨ c‡Y¨ bwgZ n‡Z †`qv †Kvbfv‡eB mgxPxb n‡e bv| †KejgvÎ Zv n‡jB
wk¶v cÖwZôvb¸‡jv RvwZi evwZNi I Av‡jvwKZ we‡e‡Ki cÖZxKiƒ‡c cÖkswmZ n‡e Ñ
b‡Pr AZuj Auvav‡i Zwj‡q hv‡e RvwZ, aŸsm n‡q hv‡e gvbyl-gvbeZv Ges mf¨Zv|

kvk¦wZKx-85

kvk¦wZKx-86

†Qvow` †mZvi evwR‡q †M‡qwQ‡jb, m½‡Z Zejvq cwÊZwR| Mvb †kl n‡Z, e‡ov
R¨vVv Avi mZxk KvKv `yR‡bB `yl‡jb cwÊZwR‡K, Agb †¤¬”Q Mvb †kLvevi Rb¨|
cwÊZwR ZK© w`‡qwQ‡jb †h kn‡ii eû MY¨gvb¨ evOvwj cwiev‡i wZwb GB Mvb
wkwL‡q‡Qb| Zvu‡K Rvbv‡bv n‡qwQj †h, Zviv me †¤¬”Q cwievi, AeªvþY| MvbUv wb‡q
mg‡eZ cÖmv`cÖvw_©iv †h GKgZ bb, Zv ¯có n‡qwQj ewokv-†envjvi ÁvwZ
`vkiw_‡RVzi GB gš—‡e¨, ÒI‡n Avgiv wb‡RivB †Zv f½Kzjxb, wmivR‡`Šjvi PvKi,
Avgv‡`i Avevi †g‡j‡”QvÓ! BgwjZjv cvovi †Kv‡bv evwm›`v‡K wKš‘ †¤¬”Q ZKgv †`qv
n‡Zv bv| Avgiv cvovi mgeqmx‡`i m‡½, †Pvi-cywjk †Ljvi mg‡q, hvi evwo‡Z

B‡”Q Xz‡K †h-†KvbI N‡i jywK‡q _vK‡Z cviZzg, GgbwK bvwRg‡`i †cv‡ov evwo‡Z
ev I‡`i evwoi mvg‡bi gmwR‡`| bvwR‡gi w`w` Kzjmyg Avcv Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z
nvu‡mi wWg wewµ Ki‡Z G‡m, gv Avi KvwKgv‡`i m‡½ Mí Ki‡Zb|
GKUv Mvb †Kb mZ¨bvivq‡Yi cuy‡Rvq Lvc Lv‡e bv, †m †evakw³ ZLb Avgvi wQj
bv| ZvQvov, MvbwUiB we‡ivwaZv Kiv n‡qwQj; hvi gv‡b evwoi †KDB fwel¨‡Z MvB‡e
bv| MvbUv fz‡j †hZzg| wKš‘ MvbUv Avevi †kvbvi my‡hvM nj †mB mg‡q hLb
K¨v_wjK ¯‹z‡j †dv_© ÷¨vÛvW© ch©š— c‡o ivg‡gvnb ivq †mwgbvwi‡Z wM‡q K¬vm wm‡·
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fvlvq K_v ej‡j kvw¯— †c‡Z n‡Zv, Ges †m Kvi‡Y Avgvi gvZ…fvlv †_‡K ewÂZ
nw”Qjyg| wØZxqZ evev Avjv`v evwo ˆZwi Kivq, BgwjZjvi GKvbœeZ©x cwievi †f‡O
wM‡qwQj| BgwjZjvi mvs¯‹w… ZK cUf‚wg †_‡K gy³ Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ `v`v‡K (mgxi
ivq‡PŠayix) g¨vwUªK cvm Kivi ci KjKvZvi wmwU K‡j‡R covi Rb¨ cvwV‡q †`qv
n‡qwQj gvgvi evwo cvwYnvwU‡Z|
ivg‡gvnb ivq †mwgbvwi‡Z cÖwZ eQi fv‡`ªvrme n‡Zv, Avwk¦b gv‡mi †KvbI GK
iweev‡i| QvÎ-QvÎx wk¶K-wkw¶Kviv Ask wb‡Zb b„Z¨MxZ I bvU‡Ki IB
mܨvbyôv‡b, hv‡K ejv n‡Zv emš— Drme, Ges AwffveK‡`i Avm‡Z ejv n‡Zv †mB
mܨvbyôvb †`Lvi Rb¨| Avwg fwZ© nevi cÖ_g eQ‡i, eow`-†Qvow` Avi gv-KvwKgviv
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m~ÎcvZ K‡iwQj MvqK-MvwqKv QvÎQvÎxiv| †¶Î‡gvnb †cvÏvi hZw`b wcÖwÝcvj
wQ‡jb, GB AbyôvbwU n‡Zv cÖwZeQi| Zuvi Aem‡ii ci, wnw›`fvlx‡`i msL¨vwa‡K¨,
eÜ n‡q wM‡qwQj emš— Drme|
eûKvj ci, evevi Kv‡Q Rvb‡Z cvwi †h, †h-mg‡q `v`y-VvKzgv jv‡nvi BZ¨vw`
Avcvi BbwWqvi A‡j Uy¨i K‡i †eovw”Q‡jb, †m-mg‡q ag©-cÖPviK bexbP›`ª ivqI IB
A‡j eªvþa‡g©i cÖPv‡i wM‡qwQ‡jb, Ges Zvui gZv`k© `v`y I AviI eû evOvwj I
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e‡ov R¨vVvi g‡b| Avi Avgvi e‡ov R¨vVvBgv G‡mBwQ‡jb cyi“Zevwo †_‡K| Avgvi
ˆkk‡e cvUbvi AwaKvsk evOvwj GwjU cwievi f`ª‡jvK wQ‡jb eªvþ, Avw`a‡g©i eªvþ|
cwÊZ bexbP›`ª ivq †mB As‡kiB cÖwZwbwa wQ‡jb| `v`y hLb Avcvi BbwWqvq QzB‡jb,
ZLbB cvÄve nvB‡KvU© Ges weª‡U‡bi wcÖwf KvDwÝj ivq w`‡qwQj †h Avw`a‡g©i ev
AvbyôvwbK eªvþiv wn›`y bq| †KkeP‡›`ªi beweavb eªvþiv wQ‡jb AbvbyôvwbK|
cÖ_gZ, Avgv‡`i GKvbœeZ©x cwiev‡ii M„nKZ©v I KΩxi avwg©K †Mvuovwgi Kvi‡Y, I
wØZxq‡Z evOvwj GwjUmgvR †_‡K `~i‡Z¡i `i“Y, hveZxq eªvþ‡`i †eg‡gv ZKgv w`‡q
cwiZ¨vR¨ K‡i w`‡qwQj BgwjZjvi evwo| ivg‡gvnb iv‡qi †jLv eªþm½xZ m¤c‡K©
†m Kvi‡YB D®§v| e‡ov R¨vVv †g‡Rv R¨vVvi bvU‡Ki `j wQj cvUbvq| IB `‡ji
AvÇvq ms¯‹…wZPP©v n‡Zv, wn›`y‡`i ms¯‹w… ZPP©v|
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GwjUmgv‡R cÖ‡ekvwaKvi cvbwb| ivg‡gvnb ivq wn›`y ag©‡K †fZi †_‡K ïa‡iv‡Z
†P‡qwQ‡jb; Zvui eªþmfvi cÖwZwU m`m¨B wQ‡jb eªvþY; Zvui †jLv Mvb‡K †eg‡gv

kvk¦wZKx-87

kvk¦wZKx-88

gjq ivq‡PŠayix

iweVvKzi Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z wbwl× wQ‡jb
BgwjZjvi evwo‡Z, cvUbvq, Avi DËicvovi emZevwU‡Z, Ges gvgvi evwo
cvwYnvwU‡Z, iweVvKzi wbwl× wQ‡jb; Zuvi †jLv I Mv‡bi cÖ‡ekvwaKvi wQj bv| cvUbv
Avi DËaicvovq, e‡ov R¨vVv-†RwVgvi I VvKzgvi wb‡lavÁv Agvb¨ Kivi mvnm
eq¯‹‡`iI wQj bv| iweVvKzi †jvKwU †h wVK †K, Avi †KbB ev Zuvi bvg ev KvR gy‡L
Avbv hv‡e bv †m †KŠZ~nj wbim‡bi cÖqvm eq¯‹ivI Ki‡Zb bv|
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Avwg cÖv_wgK¯—‡i K¨v_wjK ¯‹z‡j c‡owQjyg, †hLv‡b BD‡ivcxq wm÷vi I dv`viiv
cov‡Zb, huviv BD‡ivcxq gbxlx I wLª÷vb mš—‡`i Kg©KvÊ e¨vL¨vb Ki‡Z AwaK
AvMÖnx wQ‡jb| BgwjZjv cvovI wQj Kvnvi Kzwg© cvwm gymni Pvgvi `ymva I AwZMwie wkqv gymjgvb Aay¨wlZ|
iweevey‡`i m¤c‡K© D®§vi exR `v`y-VvKzgv e‡q G‡bwQ‡jb eZ©gvb cvwK¯—v‡bi
ivIjwcwÛ jv‡nvi †Kv‡qUv BZ¨vw` †Kv‡bv GKUv kni †_‡K| `v`y j²xbvivqY
fvi‡Zi cÖ_g åvg¨gvY †dv‡UvMÖvdvi-†cBbUvi wQ‡jb, Ges wbgš¿Y †c‡q ZLbKvi
wcÖÝwj †÷‡Ui beve-†eMg-ivRv-ivwb‡`i †dv‡Uv †eªvgvBW KvM‡R Zz‡j AW©vi Abyhvqx
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Rb jKDW wKcwj‡Oi Kv‡Q| cvwK¯—v‡bi IB AÂjwU‡K †m-mg‡q ejv n‡Zv Avcvi
BbwWqv| cÖ_g Avfvm †g‡j GKwU Mvb‡K †K›`ª K‡i| e‡ov R¨vVvgkv‡qi `yB †g‡q
kv¯¿xq m½xZ wkL‡Zb cwÊZ eyjvwKjv‡ji Kv‡Q| R¨vVvBgv msµvwš—i w`b
mZ¨bvivq‡Yi cuy‡Rv Ki‡Zb, Avi †mB Dcj‡¶ BgwjZjvi evwo‡Z eªvþY-mgv‡ek
n‡Zv| cyi“Zgkvq mZxk †Nvlv‡ji Puv` m`vM‡ii wn‡Zvc‡`k †kl n‡j Ck¦ie›`bvi
Mvb MvB‡Zb w`w`iv, eªR fvlv ev wnw›` ev ms¯‹…‡Z| mZxkKvKvi Aby‡iv‡a cwÊZ
eyjvwKjvj GKwU evsjv Vzswi, ˆfiex ivwMbx‡Z, wkwL‡qwQ‡jb †Qvow` awiÎx‡K:
†K fzjv‡j nvq/ Kíbv‡K mZ¨ Kwi Rvb, G wK `vq ?/ Avcwb Mon hv‡K,/ †h †Zvgvi e‡k
Zuv‡K/†Kg‡b Ck¦i Wv‡K Ki AwfcÖvq ?/ KL‡bv f‚lY †`I, KL‡bv Avnvi;/ ¶‡Y‡K
¯nvcn, ¶‡Y‡K Kin msnvi|/ cÖfz ewj gvb hv‡i,/ m¤§y‡L bvPvI Zv‡i/†nb fzj G msmv‡i
†`‡LQ †Kv_vq ?

ZKgv †`qv DwPZ nqwb| wZwb weª‡U‡b gviv hvb 1883 mv‡j, hLb wKbv †`‡e›`ªbv_
VvKzi c„_K ag© wnmv‡e eªvþa‡g©i bw_ cÖKvk K‡ib 1850 mv‡j|
eªvþ-we‡ivwaZvi Av‡iKwU KviY, †eg‡gv‡`i †nq Kivi exR Avgvi gv G‡bwQ‡jb
cvwYnvwUi gvgvi evwo †_‡K| 1857 mv‡ji gnvwe‡`ªv‡ni we‡ivwaZv K‡i eªvþmgv‡Ri
cÖvq cÖwZwU Uªvw÷ Bsj‡Ûk¦i‡K mg_©b K‡i we‡`ªvnx †mcvB‡`i Kov kvw¯— `vwe
K‡iwQ‡jb| 1871 mv‡j †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKzi †NvlYv K‡iwQ‡jb †h Zvuiv cÖ_‡g eªvþ,
Zvici fviZxq| 1872-Gi †¯ckvj g¨v‡iR A¨v± Abyhvqx we‡q Kivi mg‡q GKRb
eªvþ‡K wj‡L w`‡Z n‡Zv †h, ÒAvwg wn›`y ev gymwjg ev wLª÷vb ev Bûw` bBÓ|
cvwYnvwU‡Z `v`vgkv‡qi cÖRb¥ †_‡K cyi“liv mevB wQ‡jb mœvZK A_ev
mœvZ‡KvËi, hLb wKbv Avgv‡`i cwiev‡i Zv ïi“ n‡q‡Q `v`vi K‡j‡R hvIqv †_‡K|
m¤¢eZ †KkeP›`ª †m‡bi eªvþmgv‡R AbycÖ‡e‡ki ci, †eg‡gv‡`i m¤c‡K© gvgvi
evwo‡Z `vk©wbK AvenvIqv cvj‡U wM‡q _vK‡e, †Kbbv ˆkk‡e †`‡LwQ, Ges Avgvi
†mRgvgv j²xKvš— e‡›`¨vcva¨vq m¤c‡K© GKUv M`¨i (ÔQ¨vbÕ wk‡ivbv‡g AcÖKvwkZ
†Qv‡UvMí MÖ‡š’ Aš—f©z³) Z_¨ msMÖnKv‡j †R‡bwQ †h gvgvi evwo‡Z BbwWqvb wgii
cvw¶K cwÎKv KjKvZv †_‡K Avbv‡Zb `v`vgkvq wK‡kvix‡gvnb|
ZLbKvi w`‡b, †h mg‡q wn›`y evwoi †jv‡Kiv †`qv‡j †`ex-†`eZvi Ges
Bsj¨v‡Ûk¦‡ii Qwe UvOvZ, cvwYnvwUi evign‡ji †cj−vB ˆeVKLvbvq UvOv‡bv _vKZ
A¨vw›UK †d«‡g evuav‡bv Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi, f‚‡`e gy‡Lvcva¨vq, ivg‡gvnb ivq, †KkeP›`ª
†mb cÖgyL Ávbx¸Yxi Qwe| Avðh© †h, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, huv‡K gvgvi evwo‡ZI ejv n‡Zv
iweevey, Zvui Qwe, wZwb †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi cvIqv m‡Ë¡I, UvOv‡bv nqwb|
cvwYnvwUi ˆeVKLvbvwU wQj wekvj, GKUv †QvULvU MÖš’vMvi| AskwU wewµ K‡i
†`evi ci Zvi Ici GLb d¬¨vUevwo D‡V‡Q| iex›`ªbv‡_i GKvwaK eB wQj Kv‡Vi
Avjgvwi¸‡jvq| eq¯‹‡`i e³e¨ wQj †h iweevey fviZxq kv¯¿xq m½xZ‡K weK…Z
Ki‡Qb| e‡ov`v`y Abvw`bv_ hZw`b †eu‡P wQ‡jb, ZZw`b Avwg IB evwo‡Z
iex›`ªm½xZ evR‡Z ev KvD‡K MvB‡Z ïwbwb| †Qv‡Uv †idwiRv‡iUv‡ii gv‡ci GKUv
ev·-†iwWI ivLv _vKZ `vjv‡b, Zvi gv_vq K‡ji Mvb emv‡bv| Abvw` I wK‡kvix
`yR‡bB fviZxq kv¯¿m½x‡Zi †ev×v wQ‡jb| ZvB iex›`ªm½xZ wbwl×|
cvUbvq, BgwjZjvi evwo‡Z, †PvO-jvMv‡bv K‡ji Mvb, †mZvi Zejv AM©vb
K¬¨vwi‡bU nvi‡gvwbqvg Avi †envjv wQj| e‡ov R¨vVv K¬¨vwi‡bU evRv‡Z Rvb‡Zb,
Zejvq m½Z w`‡Z cvi‡Zb| w`w`iv kv¯¿xq m½xZ wkL‡Zb, Ges evwoi Avm‡i
MvB‡Zb| wKš‘ iweeveyi Mvb MvIqv wbwl× wQj| e¯‘Z VvKzgv Ges e‡ov R¨vVv hw`
Rvb‡Z cvi‡Zb †KvbI Mvb eªvþ‡`i †Mq eªþm½xZ Zvn‡j Zv wbwl× n‡q †hZ|
GKvbœeZ©x cwievi †f‡O hvevi ci †PvOv-jvMv‡bv K‡ji Mvb, AvOzievjvMniRvb‡`i MÖv‡gv‡dvb †iKW©, Ges m½xZhš¿¸‡jv w`w`iv k¦ïievwo wb‡q wM‡qwQ‡jb|
Avwg ¯‹z‡ji MwÊ †cwi‡q eQiLv‡bK fv‡qvwjb evRv‡bv wk‡LwQjyg, wKš‘ AvqË Ki‡Z
bv †c‡i †Q‡o w`B| Avgvi mncvVx myeY© Dcva¨vq‡K w`‡q w`‡qwQjyg †envjvUv| myeY©
AviI K‡qK eQi †Póv K‡iwQj, Zvici †Q‡o w`‡qwQj|
Kvjµ‡g BgwjZjvi evwo, KvKviv †KvZis Avi DËicvovq P‡j hvevi `i“Y,
†g‡Rv †RwVgvI gviv wM‡qwQ‡jb, cÖvq fzZz‡o n‡q wM‡qwQj| Zvu‡`i †`Lv-†kvbvi †KD
kvk¦wZKx-89

wQj bv e‡j BgwjZjvi wZb Zjv evwo fvov w`‡q e‡ov R¨vVv-†RwVgvI P‡j
wM‡qwQ‡jb w`w`‡`i †fvgi‡cvLiw¯’Z wmjf¨vb nvD‡m _vK‡Z| `yB R¨vVZz‡Zv w`w`,
mvweÎx I awiÎxi GKB evwo‡Z we‡q n‡qwQj| GLb IB cvUbvBqv Rwg`vi evwoi
†cQ‡bi Ask †f‡O kZvwaK d¬¨v‡Ui Avevmb M‡o D‡V‡Q| w`w`‡`i evwo‡Z cÖvqB
Mv‡bi Avmi emZ| weU Kwe A¨v‡jb wMÝevM©‡K Avwg Agb GK Mv‡bi Avm‡i wb‡q
wM‡qwQjyg w`w`‡`i evwo|
K‡j‡R †XvKvi ci, `wiqvcyi cvovq Avgv‡`i bZzb evwo‡Z G‡m, w`w`‡`i evwo
Avwg e‡ov GKUv †hZzg bv, fvB‡dvuUv Qvov ev e‡ov †RwVgvi WvK co‡j| †Kbbv ZLb
Avgvi wb‡laf‡½i mgq Avi¤¢ n‡q †M‡Q| w`w`iv Avgvi †`Lv †c‡jB ej‡Zb, †Zvi
wel‡q A‡bK K_v Kv‡b Avm‡Q| e‡ov †RwVgvI evi-evi ej‡Zb, Kzc‡_ †hIwb evcy|
cvUbv wgDwRqv‡g wKcvi Ae †cBbwUsm A¨vÛ ¯‹víPv‡ii PvKwi †_‡K eo R¨vVv
Aemi †bevi ci w`w`‡`i evwo‡Z Ibvi cwiwPZRb‡`i †W‡KwQ‡jb mZ¨bvivqY
cy‡Rvi mvܨevm‡i| wM‡q †`wL njN‡ii Kv‡c©‡U e‡m Mvb MvB‡Q e‡ov fvwMœ gÄzkxª ,
†Qvow` †mZvi evRv‡”Qb, nvi‡gvwbqv‡g eow`, Avi Zejvq m½Z w`‡”Qb e„× cwÊZ
eyjvwKjvj| BwR‡Pqv‡i †PvL euy‡R Mvb †kvbvq we‡fvi e‡ov R¨vVv| e‡ov R¨vVvBgv
†`qv‡j †Vmvb w`‡q nvZ‡Rvo K‡i e‡m Av‡Qb| MvbUv GB, MxZweZvb c~Rv ch©vq
†_‡K, GLb me©Î †Mq, eªþm½xZ:
Aš—i gg weKwkZ K‡iv/ Aš—iZi †n|/ wbg©j K‡iv, D¾¡j K‡iv/ my›`i K‡iv †n|/ RvMÖZ
K‡iv, D`¨Z K‡iv,/ wbf©q K‡iv †n|/ Aš—i gg weKwkZ K‡iv/ Aš—iZi †n|/ hy³ K‡iv †n
mevi m‡½,/ gy³ K‡iv †n eÜ,/ mÂvi K‡iv mKj g‡g©/ kvš— †Zvgvi Q›`|/ PiYc‡Ù gg
wPË wb¯cw›`Z K‡iv †n,/ bw›`Z K‡iv, bw›`Z K‡iv,/ bw›`Z K‡iv †n|/ Aš—i gg weKwkZ
K‡iv/ Aš—iZi †n|

evwoi mevi ARv‡š— iex›`ªbv_, iweevey †_‡K iweVvKzi n‡q iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡i †cuŠ‡Q
Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡i wM‡qwQ‡jb| fviZxq msweavb jv¸ nevi ci, cvUbvi
mgv‡RI ¶gZv-bKkvq i`e`j NUwQj; evOvwj‡`i g‡a¨I| cvUbvi evOvwjmgv‡Ri
†K›`ª †_‡K we`vq wbw”Q‡jb eªvþiv; A‡b‡K KjKvZv Avi kvwš—wb‡KZ‡b evmv evua‡Z
P‡j hvw”Q‡jb| cvUbvi eªvþgw›`‡i eÜ n‡q wM‡qwQj †g‡q‡`i ¯‹zj Ges †m RvqMvq
M‡o D‡V‡Q gv‡K©U Kg‡c−·| weavbP›`ª ivq cÖwZwôZ Zvui evev-gv‡qi bvgvw¼Z
nv‡Zi-KvR †kLvi ms¯’v A‡Nvi-Kvwgbx we`¨vjq QvÎx I A‡_©i Afv‡e ayK
u ‡Z Avi¤¢
K‡iwQj| B‡Zvg‡a¨, †Kej Avgv‡`i evwo‡ZB bq, eªþm½xZ evOvwj mgv‡Ri
IciZjv †_‡K Pz‡u q Mwie evOvwj‡`i g‡a¨I Qwo‡q c‡owQj|
ivgK…ò g‡Vi cÖfv‡e, ¯^vgx we‡eKvb‡›`i †jLv eªþm½xZ QvovI, gxivevC, ¸i“
bvbK I Kwe‡ii fRb Avi †e`-Dcwbl` †_‡K wewfbœ †¯—vÎI eªþm½xZ wn‡m‡e
MvIqv Avi¤¢ n‡q wM‡qwQj cvUbvq| cvUbvi ga¨weË I wbgœweË evOvwj eªvþY
cwievi¸‡jvq, e‡ov R¨vVv-†RwVgvi cÖR‡b¥i Kv‡Q, L¨vZbvgv †eg‡gv‡`i msev`
†cŠu‡Qv‡Z Avi¤¢ K‡iwQj, †hgb RM`xkP›`ª emy, m‡ivwRbx bvBWz, my‡PZv K…cjvwb,
Ai“Yv Avmd Avwj, ivRbvivqY emy cÖgyL Avgvi I Avgvi wbKUZg eÜy myeY©
Dcva¨vq, evix›`ªbv_ ¸ß I Zi“Y my‡ii Kv‡Q, Avgv‡`i evwoi eûwea wb‡laf½ I
mxgvj•N‡bi bvbv KvRKviev‡ii g‡a¨ wQj †iKW©-†c−qv‡i iex›`ªm½xZ †kvbv|

kvk¦wZKx-90

`wiqvcy‡ii evwo‡Z ev evix‡bi evwo‡Z mevB GKwÎZ n‡q ïbZzg Avgiv| evixb
fv‡jv MvB‡ZI cvi‡Zv| wb‡Ri we‡q‡Z evmi N‡iI iex›`ªm½xZ †M‡qwQj evixb|
†`eeªZ wek¦v‡mi Ici iex›`ªm½xZ MvBevi wb‡lavÁv ï‡b, myeY© Dcva¨vq (ˆew`K
eªvþY) e‡jwQj, Òevgybiv Ô†eg‡gvÕ†`i Mvb‡K Akªve¨ K‡i †i‡L‡Q, Zv †evanq †Ui
†c‡q kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi KËviv DuPzRvZwMwi djv‡”Q|Ó myeY©, ÔAš—i gg weKwkZ K‡ivÕ
Mv‡b ÔPiYcÙÕ kã m¤c‡K© ejZ, ÒwbivKv‡ii hw` PiYcÙ nq, Zvn‡j cy‡iv kixiUv
_vK‡Z ¶wZ Kx?Ó ejvevûj¨, Ii evev gv eo`v Avgv‡`i evwoi eq¯‹‡`i †P‡q
AwZgvÎvq i¶Ykxj wQ‡jb| Avgv‡`i cÖR‡b¥ kvU©-dzjc¨v›U civ ïi“ n‡q †M‡jI,
I‡`i evwo‡Z ZLbI ch©š— Aby‡gv`b cvqwb|
cvwYnvwU‡ZI, GKvbœeZ©x cwievi hLb †f‡O †Mj, gvgviv mevB G‡K-G‡K Avjv`v
n‡q †M‡jb, gvwm‡`i we‡q n‡q †Mj, `v`y‡`i cÖR‡b¥i wZ‡ivav‡bi ci, iex›`ªbv_ Zvui
Mvb wb‡q cÖ‡ek K‡iwQ‡jb| `vjv‡b ivLv mvwi‡q-†Zvjv ev· †iwWI‡Z, Avi Zvi Ic‡i
emv‡bv K‡ji Mv‡b, IB AÆvwjKvq cÖ‡e‡ki my‡ijv †NvlYv Ki‡Zb iex›`ªbv_, cÖavbZ
c¼R gwj−‡Ki ev kvwš—‡`e †Nv‡li K‡É| iweeveyi Mvb ZZw`‡b iex›`ªm½xZ n‡q †M‡Q|
MZ K‡qK `k‡K wjUj g¨vMvwRb m¤cv`‡Kiv, iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q, Avgvq Aby‡iva
K‡i‡Qb GKUv M`¨ wj‡L w`‡Z| Avgvi c‡¶ iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q cÖeÜ-wbeÜ †jLv
Am¤¢e| Avgvi iex›`ªbv_-cvV, Zvui Mvb ï‡b Dcjwä Kiv, b„Z¨bvU¨ †`‡L ü`q½g
Kiv, Zvui AvuKv Qwe †`‡L wbY©‡q †cvuQv‡bv, KjKvZvi †g‡Uªv †ijhvÎx‡`i iex›`ªm`b
†÷k‡b bvgvi AwfÁZvi gZb mxwgZ| Z‡e, `v`v mgxi ivq‡PŠayix hLb †cv÷gWvb©
ˆewkó¨m¤cbœ GKUv KweZv wjL‡Z e‡jwQ‡jb, ZLb ÔKx welq Kx welqÕ wk‡ivbv‡g
GB KweZvUv wj‡LwQjyg:
Avi‡i iex›`ªbv_/ †Zvgvi m‡½B †Zv †b‡PwQjyg †mw`b/ AvOz‡ji BwZnv‡m GKZvivi nvdevDj
wosovs Zz‡j/ wd« ¯‹zj w÷ª‡Ui RgNU †_‡K m`i w÷ª‡Ui je½evRv‡i/ †h‡Z-†h‡Z Zzwg ej‡j,
Avgv‡Mv wkjvB`n w_Kv AvmZvwm/ AvjygywÏb `cZi hvgy/ Av¸b Avi R‡ji ˆZwi †Zvgvi
†Vvu‡U/ ZLbI GK wPj‡Z eªþm½xZ †j‡MwQj Kx Mig Kx Mig/ M¨vevwW©‡bi AvjLvj−v †d‡j
w`‡j Qzu‡o/ †`Ljyg †Zvgvi dm©v Mv‡q †RvuK a‡i‡Q/ e‡ov †RvuK el©vi †Rvovmvu‡Kvq/ †mwj‡gi
†`vKv‡b wkKKvev‡ei M‡Ü/ †b‡o¸jv Kx ivÜZv‡m ? Rvb‡Z PvB‡j/ I ej‡j, bv eySjyu ?
lvuo‡K Qvjb †Q !/ Avnuv †`Luy bv PL‡K/ Pv‡qi †V‡K UvKgv_v PzUwK-`vwo/ f¬vw`wgi BwjP Avi
†mvbvwjPzj †fiv Bfv‡bvfv RvmywjP/ Avi †Zvgvi gZb i“‡cvwj `vwo‡Z A¨v‡·ji` Avi
gviZf/ hvi Mvj Avcbv-Avcwb KvucwQj †`‡L Zzwg ej‡j/ Dqv‡`i ao¸jv Kz_vq ?/ Avwg
Avgvi bvP/ _vgv‡Z cviwQjyg bv e‡j Zzwg wb‡Ri GKZvivUv w`‡Z PvB‡j/ †Kbbv †Zvgvi cv
†_‡K bvP †h †c‡i‡Q Ly‡j wb‡q †M‡Q/ Avi GLb †Zv w`‡bi †ejvI jvBU‡cv‡÷ n¨v‡jv‡Rb
R¡‡j/ Kx Avb›` Kx Avb›`/ m`i w÷ª‡Ui eviv›`vq/ †Zvgvi wZb †V‡O †PqviLvbv c‡o Av‡Q/
û‡ovûwo †cÖg Ki‡Z wM‡q cvqv †f‡O †d‡jwQ‡j/ ZvwiL-mb †jLv Av‡Q Rxeb¯§„wZ‡Z/ Kx
fv‡jvevmv Kx fv‡jvevmv/ †Zvgvi wdUbMvwoi †Nvov †Zv/ †KvwK‡ji gZb WvK‡Q `v`y
iex›`ªbv_/ Avi †Zvgvi ex‡h©i †iwj· †_‡K KZRb †h cq`v n‡qwQj/ gvwU †_‡K †Qvjv fvRv
Zz‡j Lv‡”Q/ I¸jv Kx ? Avwg ejjyg, KvK|/ I¸jv‡i Kx Kq ? Avwg ejjyg, †mwjg‡KB
wR‡Mm K‡iv/ I GB A‡j †Zvjv Av`vq K‡i|/ Kx Hk¦h© Kx Hk¦h©|

kvk¦wZKx-91

gvmy` ingvb

iex›`ªbv‡_i A_©fvebv : ZvwË¡K ch©vq
B‡”Q K‡iB GKUv ب_©K wk‡ivbvg †`Iqv †Mj| †e‡Yme©¯Z
^ vi GB hy‡M A‡b‡KB
fve‡eb, †eva Kwi UvKv-cqmvi mgm¨vq iex›`ªbv‡_i weeªZ nIqv wb‡q Avgiv
Av‡jvPbvq emwQ| ZvQvov Avgv‡`i meviB Rvbv Av‡Q, Rwg`vib›`b n‡jI
iex›`ªbv_‡KI A_©K‡ó co‡Z n‡q‡Q evisevi| evev †`‡e›`ªbv_ wn‡me K‡i UvKv
w`‡Zb; gv‡mvnviv wbw`©ó wQj| Avi wewfbœ Kg©cj‡¶ †h LiPvw` n‡Zv ZviI UvKvAvbv-cvB ¸‡Y wj‡L ivL‡Zv †Mvg¯Ív-miKvi| †bv‡ej cyi¯‹v‡ii A‡Zv¸‡jv UvKv
MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki duv‡` c‡o nvIqv n‡q wM‡qwQj| GQvov RvgvB b‡M›`ªbv‡_i A_©
ZQiƒcI iex›`ªbv_‡K wecv‡K †d‡jwQj| bvn&, Avgiv †mme UvKv-Kwoi wn‡me wb‡q
ewmwb| †mUv GB Kvi‡YI †f‡e †bqv †h‡Z cv‡i †h, c‡ii cqmvi wb‡K‡k Avgvi
KvR Kx? Avgiv K_vi gv‡bÑ hv‡K e‡j wKbv kãv_© †m m¤ú‡K© iex›`ªbv‡_i fvebv I
K‡g©i cwiPq †be| GB we‡k−l‡Y Avgv‡`iI hvq-Av‡m e‡U, KviY AvgivI fvlv
e¨envi K‡i _vwK| †m A‡_© Avgv‡`i G-m¤úwK©Z Av‡jvPbvq AwaKvi Av‡Q| Z‡e
ÔAv‡jvPbvq AwaKviÕ ej‡Z Avevi †h mswk−ó wel‡q we‡klÁ nIqvi e¨Äbv _v‡K, †m
A‡_© `vwe KiwQ bv|
†Zv GK_vwU G‡Zv Nywi‡q ejv †Kb? GR‡b¨B †h, AveviI g‡b Kwi‡q †`qv, ÔA_©
(UvKv-cqmv) Ab_© NUvqÕÑ e‡j cÖev` Av‡Q, wKš‘ kãv_©I Zv cv‡i, KviY Zvi i‡q‡Q
wfbœv_©, Ab¨v_©, evP¨v_©, j¶¨v_©, e¨½v_©, gyL¨v_©, e¨vcKv_© BZ¨vw`| GKwU fvlvi GKwU
k‡ãiB G‡Zvme e¨envi †`Lv †h‡Z cv‡i| Avevi GKB aŸwb Øviv ˆZwi kãI wfbœ
fvlvq †Zv e‡UB, GKB fvlvi Dcfvlv ev AvÂwjK fvlvq cÖwfbœ A‡_© cÖh³
y n‡Z cv‡i|
k‡ãi A‡_©i GB †gvwnbx igYxmyjfÑ ÔGKB A‡½ GZ iƒcÕ Ges bIj wK‡kv‡ii g‡Zv
m`vPÂj PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨ †`‡L eûw`b fvlvweÁvbxiv A_©‡K Av‡jvPbvi welq wn‡m‡eB
MÖvn¨ K‡ib wb| ZviciI fvlvi j¶¨B †hLv‡b A_©cÖKvk, †mLv‡b K‡Zvw`b Avi Zvi
Av‡jvPbv bv K‡i cviv hvq| ¯^xKvi K‡i wb‡Z n‡q‡Q fvlvi wZbwU A½Ñ evK¨, kã I
aŸwbi evB‡i Av‡iKwU A½ i‡q‡QÑ Avi Zv n‡jv A_©| GB PviwU A‡½i cvi¯úwiK
m¤ú‡K©i Kvi‡YB †Zv fvlv m¤ú~Y©Zv cvq, Kvh©Ki nq|
fvlv‡K GB Pvi-kvLvq Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q _v‡K eZ©gvb hy‡Mi fvlvZ‡Ë¡, A_©vr
mvsMVwbK ev eY©bvg~jK c×wZ‡Z| GB c×wZwU G‡Kev‡i bZzbI bq| e¯‘Z AvR
†_‡K AvovB nvRvi eQi Av‡M GB fviZe‡l© cvwYwb cÖgyL †h fvlvPP©v K‡iwQ‡jb, Zv
eY©bvg~jK fvlvweÁv‡biB Avw`iƒc| Z‡e AvaywbKKv‡j Zzjbvg~jK I HwZnvwmK
c×wZi cvi¯úwiK cÖ‡qv‡Mi hyM †kl nIqvi ci A_©vr hLb wKbv GKwU wbw`©ó ev wfbœ
wfbœ fvlvi k‡ãi Avw`iƒ‡c hvIqv ev cybM©Vb Kiv Avi m¤¢e nq bv, †Zgb †Kvb
DcvË Aewkó _v‡K wb, ZLbB Zzjbvg~jK-HwZnvwmK fvlvweÁv‡bi hyM Qvwo‡q
eY©bvg~jK fvlvweÁv‡bi hy‡M bZzb K‡i cÖ‡ek fvlvZ‡Ë¡i| iex›`ªbv_‡K †`wL fvlv
m¤úwK©Z me ai‡bi wPšÍv-PP©vi mv‡_ cwiwPZ wQ‡jb Ges AvaywbK `„wófw½‡Z
wbRfvlv‡K we‡k−lY Ki‡Qb, gvZ…fvlvi cÖKv‡ki mxgv‡K evov‡bvi e‡›`ve¯Í K‡i‡Qb|

kvk¦wZKx-92

wZwb fvlvZ‡Ë¡i cÖ_g I cÖavb kvLv A_©vr aŸwb ev D”PviY wb‡q †hgb K_v e‡j‡Qb,
†Zgwb A_© cÖm½I G‡m‡Q Zuvi fvlvwelqK Av‡jvPbvq|
GLv‡b A_© kãUvi Av‡iKUz wewnZ Kiv `iKvi| fvlvweÁv‡bi A_©welqK
kvLv‡K Bs‡iwR‡Z ejv nq Semantics| evsjvq bvbv gywb bvbv cwifvlv K‡i‡Qb Gi|
A_© ej‡Z †h‡nZz we‡Ëi fvebv Avm‡Z cv‡i, ZvB A‡b‡K G‡K kãv_© ZË¡ ej‡Z
†P‡q‡Qb| Ab¨c‡¶i hyw³MÖvn¨ e³e¨, ïay kã‡K †K›`ª K‡iB fvlvq A_© cÖKvwkZ nq
bv| ev‡K¨i myi, aŸwb¸Y, ¯^ifw½ BZ¨vw` wg‡j e³vi g‡bvfve e¨³ nq| Kv‡RB evK
ev K_vi A_© we‡ePbv K‡i wØZxqc‡¶i `vwe evMv_©| G `vwe MÖvn¨ K‡i Avgiv
iex›`ªbv‡_i evMv_©fvebvi ¯^iƒcmÜvb Ki‡ev|
iex›`ªbv‡_i fvlvm¤úwK©Z †jLv‡jwLi cwigvY †ek Kg e‡jB g‡b nq| `y‡Uv
cy¯ÍK cvB Avgiv| Ôevsjv fvlv-cwiPqÕ ¶xYKvq MÖš’| AciwU A‡c¶vK…Z e‡ov
K‡je‡ii; bvgÑÔevsjv kãZË¡Õ| Z‡e Gi evB‡i Zuvi bvbv cÖe‡Ü I m„Rb mvwn‡Z¨I
bvbvm~‡Î evMv_© cÖm½ G‡m‡Q| fvebvi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖKvk wn‡m‡e †m¸‡jvi ¸i“Z¡I Kg
bq| Avgiv †mme AskI Pqb K‡i iex›`ªbv‡_i evMv_©fvebvi c~Y© Qwe †c‡Z PvBe|
iex›`ªbv‡_i evM_©weÁv‡bi ZvwË¡K ch©vqwU cvB g~jZ m„Rbkxj iPbvqÑ A‡bKUv
Awf‡¶cag©x gšÍ‡e¨| cÖvmw½KZv wn‡m‡e †`wL AcÖKv‡ki fvi| G‡Zve‡ov GKRb
mvwnZ¨wkíxÑhuvi iPbv mn‡hv‡MB Avgiv Avgv‡`i e¨w³K-mvgvwRK-ivwóªK GgbwK
ˆewk¦K fve-fvebv cÖKvk K‡i AvmwQÑ wZwbB cÖvqk AZ…wß cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb fvlvi
mxgve×Zvi Kvi‡Y| A‡_©i GB mxgve×Zv QvovI ب_©KZv, kãwe‡k‡li Avbyf~wZK
A_©, A‡_©i cwieZ©bag©, GKB k‡ãi mg‡qi cwiµgvq A‡_©i ms‡KvPb-cÖmviYmsµg BZ¨vw` evM_©weÁv‡bi ZvwË¡K Av‡jvPbvi welq| A_© Kv‡K e‡jÑ GB wb‡qB
c„ôvi ci c„ôv wj‡L †M‡Qb mswk−ó cwÊZeM©| †hgb, †K.wm.AM‡Wb I AvB.G.wiPvW©m
The Meaning of Meaning (1923) bv‡gB GKwU cy‡iv eB wj‡LwQ‡jb, †hLv‡b A‡_©i
msÁv wQj evBkwU, hvi gva¨‡g GUvB cÖgvY Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb †h A‡_©i mywbw`©ó I
Amsevw`Z A_© †bB| A‡_©i mv‡_ k‡ãi ev evK¨vs‡ki †h Awb‡`©k¨ m¤úK©
iex›`ªbv‡_i †Pv‡L †mwU aiv c‡owQj we‡klfv‡e| †hKvi‡Y e‡j‡Qb ÔcybðÕi
Ô†KvgjMvÜviÕ KweZvi ïi“‡Z :
bvg †i‡LwQ †KvgjMvÜvi/ g‡b g‡b|/ hw` Kv‡b †hZ AevK n‡q _vKZ e‡m,/ ejZ †n‡m
Ôgv‡b KxÕ|/gv‡b wKQyB hvq bv †evSv †mB gv‡bUvB LuvwU|

A_© msµvšÍ GKB ai‡bi gšÍe¨ i‡q‡Q GKB Kve¨MÖ‡š’i Ôfxi“Õ kxl©K KweZvq|
g¨vwUªKz‡jk‡bi QvÎ Ôe¨½myPZzi e‡UK…òÕ Ñ
GKw`b Kx Kvi‡Y/ mybxZ‡K w`‡qwQj Dcvwa ÔcignsmÕ eÕ‡j|/ µ‡g †mUv nj ÔcvwZnuvmÕ|/
†klKv‡j nj ÔnuvmLvwjÕÑ/ †Kv‡bv Zvi A_© †bB, †mB Zvi †LuvPv|

Z‡e Kx A‡_©i mv_©KZv †bB e‡j g‡b K‡ib iex›`ªbv_? e¯‘Z Zv bq, A_©
A‡bKmgqB cÖKvk‡K mxwgZ K‡i †`q, fve‡K cy‡iv Zz‡j ai‡Z cv‡i bvÑGgbwUB
Zuvi e³e¨| †`‡L‡Qb, Ôbv cv‡i eySv‡Z Avcwb bv ey‡S/ gvbyl wdwi‡Q K_v Lu‡y R Luy‡R
(Ôcyi¯‹viÕ, Ô†mvbvi ZixÕ)| GB KweZvq wKQy c‡i wb‡R `vwqZ¡ wb‡qwQ‡jb e‡U, Ô wKQy
NyPvBe †mB e¨vKzjZv/ wKQy wgUvBe cÖKv‡ki e¨_vÕ Ñ wKš‘ wb‡RB msK‡U c‡o ej‡Qb:

kvk¦wZKx-93

hvnv wKQy ewj AvwR me e„_v nq,/ gb e‡j gv_v bvwoÑG bq, G bq|/ †h K_vq cÖvY †gvi
cwic~YZ
© g/ †m K_v ev‡R bv †Kb G exYvq gg| (Ô†gŠbÕ, Ô‰PZvwjÕ)

G-msKU wK kã¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y? bv, GKRb evM_©ZvwË¡‡Ki g‡ZvB †`‡L‡Qb mg‡qi
cwiµgvq, e¨env‡ii †cŠbtcywbKZvq k‡ãi A_©‡f`x wbkvbvkw³ K‡g Av‡m|
e‡jwQ‡jb Ôfvlv I Q›`Õ KweZvq :
gvby‡li fvlvUzKz A_© w`‡q e× Pvwiav‡i/ Ny‡i gvby‡li PZzw`©‡K| AweiZ ivwÎw`b/ gvb‡ei
cÖ‡qvR‡b cÖvY Zvi n‡q Av‡m ¶xY|
evYxi GB weeZ©b m¤ú‡K© †klRxe‡b e‡j‡Qb, Ôeû¸‡Y †kvPbxq nvq Zvi †P‡q/ GK Kv‡j
hvnv iƒc †c‡q / Kv‡j Kv‡j A_©nxbZvq/ µgk wgjvqÕ (9 bs KweZv Ô†kl †jLvÕ)|

GQvov A‡_©i Av‡iK mgm¨v n‡”Q, cÖvqk †m Awfav kw³ ev evP¨v_© Qvwo‡q
j¶¨v_© MÖnY K‡i| wKš‘ Zv‡Z KL‡bv KL‡bv Kv‡iv AvcwË _vK‡ZB cv‡i| †hgb wQj
Ôm~² wePviÕ bvU‡Ki PÊxPi‡Yi| bvU‡Ki ïi“‡Z †Kejiv‡gi mv‡_ Zvi K‡_vcK_‡bi
wKQy Ask cov hvK :
†Kejivg| gkvq, fv‡jv Av‡Qb ?
PÊxPiY| Ôfv‡jv Av‡QbÕ gv‡b Kx?
†Kejivg| A_©vr my¯’ Av‡Qb|
PÊxPiY| ¯^v¯’¨ Kv‡K e‡j?
†Kejivg| Avwg wRÁvmv KiwQ‡jg, gkv‡qi kixi-MwZKÑ
PÊxPiY| Z‡e ZvB e‡jv| Avgvi kixi †Kgb Av‡Q Rvb‡Z PvI| Z‡e †Kb
wRÁvmv KiwQ‡j Avwg †Kgb AvwQ? Avwg †Kgb AvwQ Avi Avgvi kixi †Kgb Av‡Q
wK GKB nj?

G-†Mj k‡ãi Av¶wiK ev Avw` A_© a‡i Ac‡ii mv‡_ ZK©| wKš‘ ÔˆeKz‡Éi LvZvÕ
cÖnm‡bi Awebvk wb‡RB wb‡Ri evK¨ wb‡q msK‡U c‡owQj| msKU‡gvP‡bi R‡b¨ †m
cÖ‡qvR‡b Av¶wiK A‡_©i AmsMwZ †g‡b wb‡qI g‡bi fve cÖKv‡k Zrci n‡qwQj|
NUbvwU n‡jv Awebvk g‡bvigv‡K GKwU AvswU Dcnvi w`‡Z Pvq| Z‡e Kx wj‡L cvVv‡e
†mB wb‡q mgm¨v| cÖ_‡g †j‡L Ô†`exc`Z‡j wegy» f‡³i c~‡RvcnviÕ| wKš‘ Zvici
mgm¨vq c‡o Ôc`ZjÕ kãUv LvU‡Q bv e‡j, KviY DcnviUv †Zv AvswU| Avevi ÔKiZjÕ
wjL‡j Ôc~‡RvcnviÕ †egvbvb n‡q hvq| ïay ÔDcnviÕ kãwUI g‡bi fve cÖKó… fv‡e cÖKvk
Ki‡Z cvi‡Q bv e‡j Awebv‡ki g‡b nq| †K`vi civgk© †`q ÔcÖY‡qvcnviÕ wjL‡Z Ñ
†m‡¶‡Î mgm¨v euvavq Ô†`exÕ kãwU| GBme RwUjZv cÖgvY K‡i Avgiv A‡_©i mv‡_
aŸwbiI GKUv mvgÄm¨ PvB| iex›`ªbv_I ZvB †P‡q‡Qb Lye K‡i|
Dchy³
© bgybvivwR m„Rbmvwn‡Z¨i e‡j wkíxi KíbvjZvi ¶z`K
ª m
z gy e‡j g‡b
Kivi KviY †bB| evM_©weÁv‡b A_©cK
Ö v‡ki GB mgm¨v¸‡jv‡KB wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb
cwʇZiv| iex›`ªbv_ Aek¨ Zuvi gbbag©x iPbv‡ZI G-RvZxq Av‡jvPbv K‡i Zuvi
evM_©-fvebv †ck K‡i‡Qb| †hgb, ÔcÂf~ZÕ MÖ‡š’i ÔM`¨ I c`¨Õ cÖe‡Ü wj‡L‡Qb :
...Ôwe¯§„wZ RvwMqv I‡VÕ Ggb GKUv K_v e¨envi Kwi‡j ïwb‡Z e‡ov AmsMwZ †eva nq|
A_P K_vUv wbZvšÍ Ag~jK b‡n| AZxZ Rxe‡bi †h mKj kZ mnmª ¯§„wZ ¯^vZš¿¨ cwinvi
Kwiqv GKvKvi nBqv‡Q, hvnv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨K‡K c„_K Kwiqv wPwbevi †Rv bvB, Avgv‡`i
ü`‡qi †PZb gnv‡`‡ki PZyw`©K †eób Kwiqv hvnvi we¯§„wZgnvmvMiiƒ‡c wb¯Íä nBqv
kqvb Av‡Q, Zvnviv †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv mg‡q P‡›`ªv`‡q ev `w¶‡Yi evqy‡e‡M GKm‡½ PÂj I
Ziw½Z nBqv D‡V, ZLb Avgv‡`i †PZb ü`q †mB we¯§„wZZi‡½i AvNvZ-cÖwZNvZ
kvk¦wZKx-94

Abyfe Kwi‡Z _v‡K, Zvnv‡`i inm¨c~Y© AMva Aw¯ÍZ¡ Dcjä nq, †mB gnvwe¯§„Z
AwZwe¯§„Z wecyjZvi GKZvb µ›`baŸwb ïwb‡Z cvIqv hvq|

ÔGB inm¨c~Y© AMva Aw¯ÍZ¡ DcjäÕ nIqvi R‡b¨ cÖvqkB Av¶wiK A‡_©i mxgv Qvwo‡q
†h‡Z nq Avgv‡`i| iex›`ªªbv_ G‡¶‡Î Ávb I fv‡ei fvlvi g‡a¨ kãv‡_©i
ˆecixZ¨awg©Zv e¨envi j¶ K‡i e‡j‡Qb ÔÁv‡bi fvlvq PvB ¯úó A_©; fv‡ei fvlvq
PvB Bkviv, nq‡Zv A_© euvKv K‡i w`‡q|Õ Ôevsjv fvlv-cwiPqÕ MÖ‡š’ K_vwU e¨vL¨v
Ki‡Z †h‡q e‡jb :
fv‡jv jvMv †evSv‡Z Kwe ej‡jb, ÔcvlvY wgjv‡q hvq Mv‡qi evZv‡mÕ| ej‡jb, ÔXj Xj
KuvPv A‡½i jvewY Aebx ewnqv hvqÕ| GLv‡b K_v¸‡jvi wVK gv‡b wb‡j cvMjvwg n‡q
`uvov‡e| K_v¸‡jv hw` weÁv‡bi eB‡q _vKZ ZvnÕ‡j eySZzg, weÁvbx bZzb Avwe®‹vi
K‡i‡Qb Ggb GKUv ˆ`wnK nvIqv hvi ivmvqwbK wµqvq cv_i KwVb _vK‡Z cv‡i bv,
M¨vmiƒ‡c nq A`„k¨| wKsev †Kv‡bv gvby‡li kix‡i Ggb GKwU iwk¥ cvIqv †M‡Q hvi bvg
†`Iqv n‡q‡Q jvewY, c„w_exi Uv‡b hvi wewKiY gvwUi Dci w`‡q Qwo‡q †h‡Z _v‡K|
k‡ãi A_©‡K GKvšÍ wek¦vm Ki‡j GBiKg GKUv e¨vL¨v Qvov Dcvq _v‡K bv| wKš‘ G-†h
cÖK…Z NUbvi K_v bq, G-†h g‡b-nq-†hbÕi K_v| kã ˆZix n‡q‡Q wVKUv-Kx Rvbvevi
R‡b¨; †mBR‡b¨ wVK-†hb-Kx ej‡Z †M‡j Zvi A_©‡K evov‡Z nq, euvKv‡Z nq| wVK-†hbKxÕi fvlv Awfav‡b †eu‡a †`Iqv †bB, ZvB mvaviY fvlv w`‡qB Kwe‡K †KŠk‡j KvR
Pvjv‡Z nq| Zv‡KB ejv nq KweZ¡| e¯‘Z Kwe GZ eo RvqMv †c‡q‡Q Zvi cÖavb KviY,
fvlvi kã †Kej Avcb mv`v A_© w`‡q me fve cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB Kwe jveY¨
k‡ãi h_v_© msÁv Z¨vM KÕ‡i evwb‡q ej‡jb, †hb jveY¨ GKUv Sibv, kixi †_‡K SÕ‡i
c‡o gvwU‡Z| K_vi A_©Uv‡K m¤ú~Y© bó KÕ‡i w`‡q G n‡jv e¨vKzjZv; G‡Z ejvi m‡½
m‡½B ejv n‡”Q Ôej‡Z cviwQ †bÕ| GB Awbe©PbxqZvi my‡hvM wb‡q bvbv Kwe bvbv iKg
AZy¨w³i †Póv K‡i | my‡hvM bq †Zv Kx; hv‡K ejv hvq bv Zv‡K ejevi my‡hvMB Kwei
†mŠfvM¨| GB my‡hv‡MB †KD jveY¨‡K dz‡ji m‡½ Zzjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i, †KD ev wbtkã
exYvaŸwbi m‡½Ñ AmsMwZ‡K Av‡iv eû `~‡i †U‡b wb‡q jveY¨‡K Kwe †h jvewY e‡j‡Qb
†mI GKUv AaxiZv| cÖPwjZ kã‡K AcÖPwj‡Zi †Pnviv w`‡q fvlvi AvwfavwbK
mxgvbv‡K Awbw`©ófv‡e evwo‡q †`Iqv nj|
Abyfe-Dcjwä G‡ZvUvB AvZ¥MZ e¨vcvi †h A‡bKmgq A‡_©i `iKviB c‡o bv| aŸwbUvB
KvR K‡i †`q| Gfv‡eI ejv P‡j, aŸwb hw` ev wKQyUv †evSv‡Z cv‡i, †Zv A_© †d‡j †`q
weåvwšÍ‡Z| ÔdvêybxÕ bvU‡K GgbUvB eywS‡q‡Qb| †mLv‡b gnviv‡Ri `iev‡i †hgb Av‡Q
kÖ“wZf~lY, †Zgwb Av‡Q Kwe‡kLi| gnvivR e‡j, ÔI‡n Kwe‡kLi, Avgvi Kx gykwKj
n‡q‡Q Rv‡bv| †Zvgvi K_v Avwg GK we›`ywemM©I eyS‡Z cvwi †b, A_P †Zvgvi myiUv
Avgvi ey‡K wM‡q ev‡R| Avi kÖ“wZf~l‡Yi wVK Zvi D‡ëv; Zvi K_v¸‡jv LyeB ¯úó †evSv
hvq †nÑ e¨vKi‡Yi m‡½I †g‡jÑ wKš‘ myiUvÑ †m Kx Avi eje|Õ Kwe‡kL‡ii cÖZy¨Ëi,
ÔgnvivR, Avgv‡`i K_v †Zv †evSevi R‡b¨ nq wb, evRevi R‡b¨ n‡q‡Q|Õ

G‡Zv †Mj GK gnviv‡Ri gšÍe¨| Ô†mvbvi ZixÕ Kv‡e¨i Ôwns wUs QUÕ KvwnwbKweZvq
†`Lv hvq ivRv neyP›`ª ïa~y bq AgvZ¨eM©I aŸwbgvnv‡Z¥¨ †gvwnZ n‡q‡Q| ivRv A™¢~Z GK
¯^cœ †`‡LwQj| AvMv‡Mvov AmsjMœ †mB ¯^cœ`„‡k¨i †klch©v‡q Ô†e‡` Kv‡b Kv‡b
e‡jÑÔwns wUs QUÕ| GB ¯^cœ I K_vUvi A_© Rvbvi R‡b¨ wewfbœ †`k †_‡K wewfbœ gv‡M©i
cwÊZ Avbv nq| Zviv †KD g‡bvgZ A_© ej‡Z cv‡i bv| gv‡b hv e‡j Zv ivRv I
AgvZ¨iv wek¦vm Ki‡Z AcviM| †hgb, G wQj ïay ¯^cœ, Gi †Kv‡bv A_© †bB Ggb
gšÍ‡e¨ mevB i“ó nq| †k‡l †MŠoxq GK mvay Rvbvq, ÔwbZvšÍ mij A_©, AwZ cwi®‹vi|Õ
kvk¦wZKx-95

Zvici †h e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb K‡i Zv G‡Kev‡i gv_vgyÊny xb, A‡bKUv iex›`ªbv‡_i GKwU
Mv‡bi cÖ_g Kwji g‡ZvÑ ÔA‡bK K_v hvI †h ewj †Kv‡bv K_v bv ewjÕÑ h_v: ÔΨ¤^‡Ki
wÎbqb wÎKvj wθY/ kw³‡f‡` e¨w³‡f` wظY we¸Y| weeZ©b AveZ©b m¤^Zb© Avw`/
Rxekw³ wkekw³ K‡i wem¤^vw`/ AvKl©Y weKl©Y cyi“l cÖKw… Z/ AvYe †PŠ¤^Ke‡j AvK…wZ
weK…wZ|/ Kzkv‡MÖ cÖengvb RxevZ¥we`y¨r/ aviYv cigv kw³ †m_vq D™¢Z
~ ÕÑ BZ¨vw`| Avi
eyS‡Z bv †c‡iB Ômvay mvay mvayÕ i‡e Kuv‡c Pvwi avi,/ m‡e e‡jÑ Ôcwi®‹vi AwZ
cwi®‹vi|/ `y‡e©va hv wKQy wQj n‡q †Mj Rj/ k~b¨ AvKv‡ki g‡Zv AZ¨šÍ wbg©j|Õ GB
AvcvZ e¨½g~jK iPbvi AšÍwb©wnZ A_© GB nIqv m¤¢e †h, aŸwb wb‡RB A_©gqZv m„wó
K‡i| evsjv aŸb¨vZ¥K k‡ãi Av‡jvPbvq G-Kvi‡YB e‡jwQ‡jb, Ô...aŸwb‰ewPΨ GZ
mn‡R GZ eY©bv-ˆewP‡Î¨i AeZviYv Kwi‡Z cv‡i †h, Zvnv A_©e× kã Øviv cÖKvk Kiv
`ytmva¨Õ (Ôevsjv kãZË¡Õ)| Aek¨ Zvi Av‡M Zv‡K n‡Z nq myigq| †MŠoxq mvay
myimn‡hv‡MB A_©nxb ¯^‡cœi Av‡iv A_©nxb e¨vL¨v K‡iwQj| GLv‡b myi ej‡Z Avgiv
ev‡K¨i my‡ii K_v ejwQ| GKB aŸwbRvZ evK¨ ïay my‡ii Kvi‡YB cÖwfbœ A_© cÖ`vb K‡i
Ñ G‡Zv Avgiv wbZ¨B †`wL| †hgb ÔZzwg wK/Kx †L‡qQÕ Ñejvi my‡iB †evSv hv‡e Av‡`Š
LvIqv n‡q‡Q, bvwK †Kvb Lv`¨ LvIqv n‡q‡QÑ Zv Rvb‡Z PvIqv n‡”Q| Av‡iv g‡b
Ki‡Z cvwi Ô†gNbv`ea¨ Kv‡e¨Õ cÖgxjvi †mB eûcwVZ Dw³Ñ ÔAvwg wK WivB mwL wfLvwi
ivN‡eÕÑ †mUv †h mwLi Kv‡Q cÖkœ wQj bv, wQj Avcb †ZRw¯^Zvi D`vË cÖKvkÑ Zv e‡ov
¯úó| A_©cK
Ö v‡ki GBgZ aviv j¶ K‡i iex›`ªbv_ ÔQ›`Õ MÖ‡š’ e‡jb, Ôïay K_v hLb
Lvov `uvwo‡q _v‡K ZLb †KejgvÎ A_©‡K cÖKvk K‡i| wKš‘ †mB K_v‡K hLb Zxh©K
fw½ I we‡kl MwZ †`Ihv hvq ZLb †m Avcb A‡_©i †P‡q AviI wKQy †ewk cÖKvk K‡i|
†m †ewkUzKz †h Kx Zv ejvB k³|Õ
GB ÔZxh©K fw½Õ gv‡bB myi, †hwU Qvov cÖZ¨vwkZ A_©wU cÖKvwkZ nq bv| iex›`ªbv_
K_v I my‡ii GB A½vw½ iƒ‡ci K_v e‡j‡Qb ÔmsMxZ I KweZvÕ cÖe‡Ü :
Avgv‡`i fvecÖKv‡ki `ywU DcKiY Av‡QÑ K_v I myi| K_vI hZLvwb fve cÖKvk K‡i,
myiI cÖvq ZZLvwb fve cÖKvk K‡i| Ggb-wK, my‡ii Dc‡iB K_vi fve wbf©i K‡i| GKB
K_v bvbv my‡i bvbv A_© cÖKvk K‡i| AZGe fvecÖKv‡ki A‡½i g‡a¨ K_v I myi
Dfq‡KB cvkvcvwk aiv hvB‡Z cv‡i|

evK I Zvi A‡_©i GiKg bvbv PvwiΨ-cwiPq iex›`ªbv‡_i iPbvq cÖvc¨, hv
evM_©weÁv‡bi Avw`-Avmj me cy¯Í‡K †g‡j| mvwnZ¨wkíx wn‡m‡e †Zv e‡UB, AvaywbK
cÖvÁ evM_©we‡`i `„wó‡ZI Gme kbv³ Ki‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| †mB AwfÁv‡bi e¨envwiK
ch©vqI i‡q‡Q| ejvevûj¨, Zv evsjv fvlvq| ˆeqvKiY ev fvlvZvwË¡K bB, evD‡ji
g‡Zv fvlvi c‡_ Ny‡iwQ gvÎÑ BZ¨vKvi webq cÖ`k©bc~eK
© Ôevsjv kãZË¡Õ I Ôevsjv
fvlv-cwiPqÕ-G aŸb¨vZ¥K kã, kã‰ØZ, cwifvlv, kãv_© wb‡q †h Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb,
Zv AvaywbK evsjvi cÖ_g evM_©weÁvbag©x Av‡jvPbv I Avwe®‹vi e‡j †g‡b wb‡q‡Qb
mybxwZKzgvi P‡Ævcva¨vq, gyn¤§` Ave`yj nvB‡qi g‡Zv fvlvweÁvbx| †mB e¨envwiK
cv‡Vi Av‡jvPbv-ch©v‡jvPbv n‡Z cv‡i Ab¨ cwim‡i|

kvk¦wZKx-96

Avngv` gvhnvi

Avgv‡`i `ytmg‡qi I †i‡bmuv‡mi iex›`ªbv_
cvwK¯—vb Avg‡j iex›`ªbv_ evOvwji Kv‡Q, AviI wbw`©ó K‡i ej‡j evOvwj-gymjgvb
ga¨we‡Ëi Kv‡Q we‡klfv‡e cÖvmw½K n‡q D‡VwQ‡jb| evsjvfvlvi m…wókxj gnr cÖwZfv
wn‡m‡e iex›`ªbv_ †h evOvwjgv‡Îi Kv‡QB cÖvmw½K _vK‡eb Zv Lye ¯^vfvweK| wKš‘
cvwK¯—vwb Avg‡j ev¯—‡e Zv wQj bv| KviY e„wUk Dcwb‡ek †_‡K gyw³i †h AvKv•¶v
mvgwMÖK A‡_© evsjvfvlv-wfwËK RvwZi g‡a¨B †R‡M D‡VwQj cvwK¯—vb Av‡›`vjb Zv‡K
wef³ K‡iwQj `yB fv‡M| cvwK¯—vb ivóª‡K evsjvi gymjgvb g‡b K‡iwQj Zv‡`i
wbR¯^ A_©‰bwZK I mvs¯‹…wZK gyw³i Dcvq| wKš‘ Zv‡`i gymjgvwbZ¡ †h cvwK¯Ívb
iv‡óªi bvMwiK wn‡m‡e Zv‡`i A_©‰bwZK AwaKvi cvIqvi cwie‡Z© G‡Kev‡i Zv‡`i
evOvwj‡Z¡i A_v©r Aw¯Í‡Z¡i †Mvov a‡i Uvb gvi‡e Ges Zv‡`i AšÍ¨R Ae¯’vq †d‡j
ivL‡e Zv c~e©-evsjvi gymjgvbiv wVK Kíbv Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| A_©‰bwZK wb‡®úl‡Yi
AšÍM©Z cÖwZwµqvq fvlvi cÖ‡kœ Zi“Y QvÎiv Av‡›`vjb K‡i Dwbk †kv AvUPwj−‡k I
evqv‡bœv‡Z cvwK¯Ívwb kvmK †Mvôx‡K Kuvwc‡q †`q| GiB mÄxebx‡Z Pyqvbœi mvaviY
wbev©P‡b evOvwjiv Rqjvf K‡i| ivóªcwiPvjbvq bZzb Rxeb`„wói AbyK~j miKvi
cÖwZôv K‡i cwðgv kvmK †Mvôx‡K mvgvb¨ weg~p Ki‡Z m¶g n‡jI AvBqye Lvb
mvgwiK kvmb Rvwii ga¨ w`‡q evOvwj‡`i cÖwZ Zviv bZzb K‡i ïi“ K‡i wb‡®úlY|
c~e©evsjvi gvby‡li Ici Pvwc‡q †`qv cvwK¯—vwb kvmKP‡µi A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i
wei“‡× Kwe-mvwnwZ¨K-wkíx ev eyw×RxexMY wKš‘ cÖ_‡g AvBqyex kvm‡bi wei“‡× †Zgb
GKUv cÖwZev`x n‡q I‡Vb wb| Gi GKUv KviY mgv‡Ri AMÖmi gvbyl wn‡m‡e ivóªxq
ˆelg¨ Zv‡`i ¯úk© K‡i wb †Zgbfv‡e| eis mgv‡Ri eyw×Rxex †kªYx‡K G-mgq
A‡bKUv wb®ŒxqB n‡q co‡Z †`Lv hvq| Ôb¨vkbvj ey¨‡iv Ae wiKÝU«vKkbÕ bv‡g GKwU
mvs¯‹…wZK cÖwZôvb Pvjy K‡i †mB cÖwZôv‡bi c¶ †_‡K bvbvfv‡e Avw_©K myweavw` w`‡q
†`‡ki m„wókxj †jLK-eyw×Rxex‡`i w`K †_‡K we‡ivwaZvi m¤¢vebv‡K `xN©Kvj †VwK‡q
ivL‡ZI m¶g n‡qwQj AvBqye Lv‡bi †bZ…Z¡vaxb ZrKvjxb miKvi| wKš‘ hLb ejv
nj cvwK¯—vb iv‡óªi ¯^v‡_© iex›`ªbv_‡K eR©b Ki‡Z n‡e ZLb c~e©-evsjvi †jLK
eyw×RxexMY wecbœ †eva Ki‡Z ïi“ Ki‡jb| Zuviv Abyfe Ki‡jb Zuv‡`i Aw¯—‡Z¡i
msKU‡K| GB msKU e¨vcK n‡q I‡V 1965 mv‡j, hLb cvK-fviZ hyׇk‡l cvwK¯—
v‡bi AvBqyex miKvi fviZ †_‡K cy¯K
— Avg`wb wbwl× K‡i ZLb †_‡K| evsjvfvlv I
mvwn‡Z¨i weivU Ask †_‡K c~e©-evsjvi evOvwj‡`i ewÂZ ivLevi miKvwi AwfcÖvq
G‡Z KvR K‡iwQj| fviZxq m¤ú` eR©‡bi m‡½ m‡½ iex›`ªbv_‡K MÖnY-eR©b wb‡q
msKU AviI Nbxf~Z nq| Gi Av‡M 1961 mv‡j cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii we‡ivwaZv m‡Ë¡I
GiB cÖwZwµqvekZ ZrKvjxb c~e©-cvwK¯—v‡b, evsjv‡`‡k iex›`ªkZevwl©Kx mvo¤^‡iB
D`&hvwcZ n‡qwQj| iex›`ªkZevwl©Kx D`&hvc‡bi Ask wn‡m‡eB wmKvb&`vi Avey Rvdi
m¤úvw`Z mgKvj cwÎKv iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q cÖKvk K‡iwQj GKwU we‡kl msL¨v [iex›`ª
Rb¥kZevwl©Kx msL¨v, PZz_© el© beg msL¨v, ˆekvL 1368]| eB cÖKvk mn [†hgb: iwe
cwiµgv (1963), †gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠayix] LvwbKUv e¨vcKZv jvf K‡iwQj

kvk¦wZKx-97

iex›`ªbv_ wel‡q bvbvgyLx PPv©| wKš‘ Zv m‡Ë¡I iex›`ªPP©vi GKUv mw¤§wjZ ¯^‡ii
AvKv•¶v XvKv‡Kw›`ªK evOvwj-gymjgvb ga¨weË-mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ †`Lv wM‡qwQj| ejv
hvq Avwbmy¾vgvb m¤úvw`Z iex›`ªPP©vi msKjb iex›`ªbv_ [1968, XvKv] ZviB dj|
wKš‘ †Kb cvwK¯—v‡bi Aš—f©y³ evOvwj-gymjgv‡bi g‡a¨ GB ai‡bi AvKv•¶vi Rb¥ wbj
†m cÖ‡kœi Dˇi ejv hvq †h, †m-mg‡q cÖMwZkxj Amv¤cÖ`vwqK †PZbvi wkw¶Z
gvby‡li Kv‡Q iex›`ªbv_ wb‡R‡`i wecbœZvi cÖZxK n‡q D‡VwQ‡jb e‡j Zuvi gnË¡‡K
cÖPvi Kiv Zuv‡`i c‡¶ wQj Ri“wi| KviY mvs¯‹w… ZK w`K †_‡K GK ai‡bi AwjwLZ
g‡bvRvMwZK Ae‡ivaI †m-mg‡qi Amv¤cÖ`vwqK †PZbvi mvwnwZ¨K-eyw×RxexMY
Abyfe K‡iwQ‡jb| miKvi iex›`ªmsMx‡Zi cÖPvi wbwl× Kivq Zuv‡`i g‡bvRM‡Z N‡U
hvIqv GB Aei“× cwiw¯’wZi Pvc AviI †e‡o hvq|
Avwbmy¾vgvb m¤úvw`Z iex›`ªPP©vi msKjb iex›`ªbv_-Gi cUf~wg AbymÜvb
Ki‡Z †M‡j †`Lv hv‡e †h, ZrKvjxb cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii c~‡ev©³ iex›`ª-we‡ivwaZvB
Gi DrmMZ cÖavbZg †cÖiYv| 1967 mv‡ji 22 Ryb cvwK¯—v‡bi RvZxq msm‡` Z_¨
I †eZvi gš¿x LvRv kvnveyÏxb GKRb mvsm‡`i GK cÖ‡kœvˇi Rvbvb †h, cvwK¯—v‡bi
†eZvi-wUwf‡Z cvwK¯—v‡bi mvs¯‹…wZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai cwicš’x iex›`ªmsMxZ cÖPvi Kiv n‡e
bv Ges G ai‡bi AviI Ab¨vb¨ Mv‡bi cÖPviI Kwg‡q †`qv n‡e| `yB w`b ci 24 Ryb
G msµvš— msev` cÖPvwiZ nq RvZxq ˆ`wbK msev`cÎ ˆ`wbK cvwK¯—vb-G| msev‡`i
wk‡ivbvg wQj Ô†iwWI cvwK¯—vb †_‡K iex›`ªmsMxZ cÖPvwiZ n‡e bvÕ| GB wm×v‡š—i
wei“‡× 19 Rb1 mvwnwZ¨K I mvs¯‹w… ZK e¨w³Z¡ GK wee…wZ cÖPvi K‡ib| wee…wZ‡Z ejv
n‡qwQj †h,
Avgiv GB wm×vš— AZ¨š— `ytLRbK ewjqv g‡b Kwi| iex›`ªbv‡_i mvwnZ¨
evsjvfvlv‡K †h Hk¦h© `vb Kwiqv‡Q, Zvnvi m½xZ Avgv‡`i Abyfw~ Z‡K †h MfxiZv I
Zx¶èZv `vb Kwiqv‡Q, Zvnv iex›`ªbv‡_i evsjvfvlx cvwK¯—vbx‡`i mvs¯‹…wZK mËvi
Awe‡”Q`¨ As‡k cwiYZ Kwiqv‡Q| miKvix bxwZ wba©vi‡Yi mgq GB m‡Z¨i ¸i“Z¡‡K
h‡_vchy³ gh©v`v `vb Kiv Acwinvh©|2
wee„wZ‡Z Dwj−wLZ fvl¨ †_‡K mn‡RB Abyfe Kiv hvq †h, ga¨weË evOvwj
gymjgv‡bi mvs¯‹…wZK wecbœZv †eva †_‡K gy³ nevi AwfcÖv‡q †m-mg‡q iex›`ªPP©v
GKUv gva¨g wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡Z ïi“ K‡iwQj| ZvB ejv hvq mvgwMÖK A‡_© GB
Abyfw~ ZiB cÖKvk wQj iex›`ªbv_ msKjbwU| Gev‡i †`‡L †bqv hvK G‡Z Aš—f©y³
iPbvi wk‡ivbvgmg~n I †jLK ZvwjKv :
gigx iex›`ªbv_/ gyn¤§` knx`yj−vn&;
iex›`ª-¯§…wZ/ Rmxg D`&`xb;
fvlvZvwË¡K iex›`ªbv_/ gyn¤§` Ave`yj nvB;
wk¶vmgm¨v I iex›`ªbv‡_i wPš—v/ gynv¤§` Ky`ivZ-G-Ly`v;
iex›`ª-mvwn‡Z¨ `vk©wbK †PZbv/ Aveyj dRj;
b›`bZvwË¡K iex›`ªbv_/ kIKZ Imgvb;
iex›`ªbv_ : Zvui wkímvwnZ¨Z‡Ë¡i w·eYx/ Ave`yj gvbœvb ‰mq`;
iex›`ª-msMxZ/ KvRx †gvZvnvi †nv‡mb;
†mŠ›`h©eyw× I iex›`ª-gbxlv/ Avng` kixd;
iex›`ªbv‡_i MYm‡PZbZvi ¯^iƒc/ †Mvjvg gyiwk`;
kvk¦wZKx-98

iex›`ªbv‡_i ag©/ †gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠayix;
iex›`ªbv_ I †jvKmvwnZ¨/ ghnvi“j Bmjvg;
iex›`ªbv_/ Ave`yj Kvw`i;
iex›`ªmvwnZ¨ g~j¨vq‡bi mgm¨v/ †R¨vwZg©q ¸nVvKyiZv;
evsjv Kv‡e¨ g~j¨‡ev‡ai weeZ©b : iex›`ªbv_/ nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb;
iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZvi Bs‡iwR iƒcvš—i/ Kexi †PŠayix;
B‡qU&m I iex›`ªbv_/ mviIqvi gyiwk`;
iex›`ªbv‡_i bvUK : Dcjwäi iƒcvš—i/ gybxi ‡PŠayix;
wZb bvix : we‡bvw`bx, bw›`bx I Kygyw`bx/ bxwjgv Beªvwng;
iex›`ªbv‡_i †QvUMí : †kl ch©vq/ Av‡bvqvi cvkv;
iex›`ªbv‡_i wPÎKjvi ¯^iƒc/ m‡š—vl ¸ß;
iex›`ªm½xZ, wkíx I †kªvZv/ mb&Rx`v LvZyb;
`yB †hŠe‡b K…ò †kvwYZ/ nvqvr gvgy`;
bZyb K‡i iex›`ªPP©v/ kvgmyi ivngvb;
iex›`ªv‡_i ms¯‹…wZ-mvabv/ Avng` Qdv;
iex›`ªbv_ I c~e© cvwK¯—vb/ iwdKyj Bmjvg;
iex›`ªbv‡_i KweZvi Q›`/ †gvnv¤§` gwbi“¾vgvb;
iex›`ªKv‡e¨ cieZ©x cwieZ©b/ AwRZKygvi ¸n;
gv·©ev`x `„wó‡Z iex›`ªbv_/ i‡Yk `vk¸ß;
iex›`ªbv‡_i mgvRwPš—v : GKwU w`K/ Avwbmy¾vgvb|

GB msKj‡bi m~wPc‡Îi w`‡K ZvKv‡j mn‡RB j¶Yxq †h, iex›`ª-cÖwZfvi kxl©‡KB
GLv‡b mÜvb Kiv n‡q‡Q| †Kej Zuvi KwemËv bq, Zuvi me©w`‡K Av‡jv †d‡j †`Lvi
†Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †gvÏv K_v Zuvi Ae`v‡bi ˆewPΨ I wecyjZv mÜvbI GB msKj‡bi
Ab¨Zg Aviä| GB weivU‡Z¡i, gn‡Ë¡i mÜvb Ki‡Z †mB mg‡qi mwµq L¨vZbvgv cÖvq
mKj mvwnwZ¨K GLv‡b Ask wb‡q‡Qb| †jLK ZvwjKvi kxl©‡`‡k i‡q‡Qb gyn¤§`
knx`yj−vn, m¤¢eZ GwUB Zuvi †kl iPbv, Avi me©Kwbô Avng` Qdv, GB msKjb
cÖKv‡ki ¸i“Z¡ cÖ_‡g huviv Abyfe K‡iwQ‡jb Zuv‡`i GKRb| Avng` Qdv Ges KvRx
wmivR [Zuvi †KvbI †jLv Aek¨ GB msKj‡b †bB] Avwbmy¾vgvb‡K GB ai‡bi GKwU
msKjb m¤úv`bvi Rb¨ DØy× K‡ib| ïay ZvB bq †mKv‡ji Ab¨Zg AMÖYx cÖKvkbv
ms¯’v Ôóy‡W›U I‡qRÕ-Gi ¯^Z¡vwaKvix †gvnv¤§` Iwn`yj−vn-Gi m‡½ Zuvi †hvMv‡hvMI
NwU‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb| DØy× K‡i‡Qb cÖKvkK‡KI! Avng` Qdv †hgb m…wókxjZvq †ZgbB
ivR‰bwZK Dcjwä‡Z wQ‡jb mgKvjxb Ab¨ †jLK-mvwnwZ¨K‡`i †P‡q AMÖmi| wQ‡jb
mvsMVwbK †cÖiYvq DÏxwcZ| ej‡Z †M‡j evOvwj gymjgvb mgv‡R GB me Abyf‡ei
cÖejZv †m-mgq ch©š— wQj Af~Zc~e©| wZwb AMÖmi †PZbvi AwaKvix e‡jB GB ai‡bi
GKwU msKj‡bi ¸i“Z¡ Mfxifv‡e Abyfe Ki‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| Avi GI Abyfe Ki‡Z
†c‡iwQ‡jb †h Ggb GKwU Kv‡Ri R‡b¨ Dchy³ e¨w³wUi bvg Avwbmy¾vgvb|
ejvevûj¨ Avwbmy¾vgvb AZ¨š— †hvM¨Zvi m‡½ GB †PZbvi ev¯—evqb NUv‡Z
†c‡iwQ‡jb| cÖ‡qvRbxq welqvewji m‡½ m¤úwK©Z e¨w³eM©‡K GKÎ Ki‡Z
†c‡iwQ‡jb A_©vr †c‡iwQ‡jb cÖMwZ‡PZbvi †jLK‡`i‡K R‡ov Ki‡Z|
iex›`ªbv_ wQ‡jb BnRvMwZK †PZbvi gvbyl| gbyl¨Z¡B Zuvi wkí I gbbRM‡Zi

kvk¦wZKx-99

†K›`ªxq we‡ePbv| †m-Kvi‡Y Zuv‡K ejv hvq †i‡bmuvm-gvbe| wek kZ‡K evsjvi
gymjgvb mgvRI †i‡bmuv‡mi gvbweK †PZbvq D¾xweZ n‡q E‡VwQj| mvwnZ¨ I
wkíKjv n‡q D‡VwQj Zv‡`i AvMÖ‡ni e¯‘| iex›`ªbv_‡KI Zviv mÜvb Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb
†i‡bmvu‡mi †mB BnRvMwZK-gvbweK `„wó‡KvY †_‡KB| Avwbmy¾vgv‡bi f~wgKvqI
LvwbKUv Ab¨fv‡e Avgiv †mB fvebviB cÖwZdjb †`L‡Z cvB| wZwb e‡j‡Qb,
iex›`ªbv_ m¤ú‡K© G †`‡ki I GKv‡ji fvebvi †h ¯^v¶i G eB‡Z aiv c‡o‡Q, Zvi GKUv
we‡kl g~j¨ Av‡Q| ...G eB‡Z iex›`ªmvabvi c~Yv©½ cwiPq aiv c‡o‡Q, Ggb `vwe Kivi
KviY †bB| Z‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v ej‡Z wM‡q msKj‡bi †jL‡Kiv Zuvi KweZv I bvUK,
Dcb¨vm I †QvUMí, msMxZ I wPÎKjvi Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb; Zuvi Aa¨vZ¥fvebv I mgvRwPšÍv,
`k©b I ag©‡PZbv, mvwnZ¨ZZ¡ I †mŠ›`h©‡eva, e¨w³ü`q I †cÖgvbyf~wZ, g~j¨‡eva I MYm‡PZbZv, fvlvZZ¡-PPv© I wk¶vwelqK wPšÍvi cwiPq †`evi cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb|

AviI cwi®‹vi K‡i wZwb e‡j‡Qb,

†`kx-we‡`kx mvwnZ¨-ms¯‹…wZi m‡½ Zuvi m¤ú‡K©i ¯^iƒc Kx, Abyev‡` Zuvi Kv‡e¨i Av¯^v`
†Kgb, Zuvi mvwn‡Z¨i g~j¨vq‡bi mgm¨v Kx, Zuvi mvwnZ¨m„wó‡Z c~e©-cvwK¯Ív‡bi gvbyl I
cÖK…wZ Kx †cÖiYv w`‡q‡Q Ges c~e©-cvwK¯Ív‡bi mvwnZ¨PPv©q wZwb Kx †cÖiYv w`‡”Qb, Gme
K_vI GB msKj‡bi wewfbœ cÖe‡Ü ejv n‡q‡Q|

iex›`ªbv_ msKjbwU hLb cÖKvwkZ n‡qwQj bvixev` ZLbI evsjv‡`‡k †Zv bqB DbœZ
we‡k¦I h‡_ó ¯úóZv cvq wb, wKš‘ GB msKj‡b bxwjgv Beªvnx‡gi †jLv GB `„wófw½i
iPbv ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv‡_i wPÎKjv wb‡q ZrKvjxb c~e©-evsjvq m¤¢eZ GB
msKj‡b Aš—f©y³ m‡š—vl ¸‡ßi †jLvwUB cÖ_g iPbv| evg ivRbxwZi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K
cwðge‡½ iex›`ªwePvi Pj‡jI c~ee© vsjvq Zvi †XD †Zgb jv‡M wb| i‡Yk `vk¸‡ßi
†jLvwUB m¤¢eZ GB avivq cw_K…r ¯’vbxq| Avwbmy¾vgvb †h †m-mg‡q GBme w`‡KI
`„wó ivL‡Z †c‡i‡Qb †mRb¨ Zuvi GB K…wË¡‡K Avjv`vfv‡e wPwýZ Ki‡Z n‡e| Z‡e
GB eB‡qi ga¨ w`‡q cÖKvwkZ iex›`ªwePv‡ii mviK_v n‡”Q iex›`ªbv_‡K GLv‡b †Kej
gy»`„wóiB we‡eP¨| GgbKx iex›`ªbv‡_i bvbv mxgve×Zv wb‡q KUv¶ K‡i cieZ©x
Kv‡j whwb weZwK©Z n‡qwQ‡jb †mB Avng` kixd‡KI GLv‡b cÖKvk Ki‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q
wbiew”Qbœ gy»Zv| lv‡Ui `k‡KB, 1965 mv‡j, hLb ivR‰bwZK gZj‡e iex›`ªeR©‡bi
cÖqvm Pj‡Q †m-mgqI iex›`ªbv_‡K mvwnwZ¨K Kvi‡Y gy³`„wó‡Z wePvi K‡i †`Lvi
cÖqvm P‡j‡Q| ¯^m¤úvw`Z Kɯ^i cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ Ave`yj−vn Avey mvqx‡`i cÖeÜ
`ye©jZvq iex›`ªbv_-Gi K_v cÖm½Z D‡j−L Kiv hvq| Avwbmy¾vgv‡bi GB msKj‡b
GB ai‡bi †KvbI we‡ePbv cÖavbZ evsjv‡`‡k †mKv‡j weivRgvb ivR‰bwZK I
mvs¯‹…wZK `„wó‡Kv‡Yi Kvi‡YB ¯’vb cvq wb|
evOvwj gymjgvb mgv‡Ri BnRvMwZK `…wófw½i †h DÌvb NUwQj Gi cÖwZf~
e‡jI GB msKjb wQj GB mgv‡Ri mvg‡b cw_K…r `…óvš—| ejv P‡j evsjv‡`‡k
iex›`ªPP©vi mvgwMÖK AwfgyLI wba©viY K‡i w`‡qwQj GB msKjbwU| evsjv‡`‡k
iex›`ªwePv‡ii GB avivB GLbI envj Av‡Q ej‡j AZy¨w³ n‡e bv nq‡Zv| Ggb wKQy
cÖm½ GLv‡b Av‡jvwPZ n‡qwQj hv evsjv‡`‡ki mgv‡jvPbvmvwn‡Z¨ wQj A`„óvšÍce~ ©|
1971-Gi i³¶qx hy‡×i c‡i iex›`ªbv_ evsjv‡`‡k Avi Aei“× iB‡jb bv|
d‡j gy³`„wó‡Z iex›`ªwePvi Avi KwVb nevi K_v bq| ZvQvov iex›`ªbv_‡K AviI
A‡bKUv gy³ †Pv‡L †`Lv cÖ‡qvRb fwel¨‡ZiB ¯^v‡_©| wKš‘ iex›`ªPP©vi †mB †cÖiYv
kvk¦wZKx-100

Avwbmy¾vgv‡bi g‡a¨ †`Lv hvq wb ev Ab¨ KvD‡K GB †PZbvq D¾xweZ n‡ZI †Zgb
†`Lv hvq wb| Avwki `k‡K Avng` kixd iex›`ªbv_‡K wb‡q mgv‡jvPbv Ki‡jI
wePvikw³i D¾¡jZvi †P‡q Zv wQj GK‡c‡k we‡ivac~Y© `…wó| A‡bK msMZ cÖkœ
_vK‡jI h_v_© gy³`„wói mgv‡jvPbvI Zv‡K ejv hv‡e bv|
iex›`ªbv‡_i gnË¡‡K Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z †M‡j Zuvi mxgve×Zv‡K wPwýZ Kiv hv‡e
bv Ggb †KvbI K_v †bB| iex›`ªbv_ evsjv‡`‡ki †h-hy‡Mi mš—vb †m-hyM‡PZbvi
A‡bK mxgve×Zv‡K AwZµg Ki‡Z m¶g n‡jI A‡bK wKQy i‡q †M‡Q AbwZµgYxq|
†mBme AbwZµgYxqZv‡K kbv³ KivI bZyb cÖR‡b¥i AMÖhvÎvi ¯^v‡_©B iex›`ªbv‡_i
g‡Zv gnr cÖwZfv‡K gy³`…wó‡Z wePvi Kiv Ri“wi| RvZxq DrK‡l©i ¯^v‡_©B
iex›`ªbv‡_i kw³ Ges `ye©jZv Dfq wb‡qB M‡elYv Ki‡Z n‡e Avgv‡`i| mvgvwRK,
mvs¯‹…wZK Ges †kªYxMZ Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y iex›`ªbv_ A‡bK cðvrc`Zv †_‡K gy³ n‡Z
cv‡ib wb| cÖwZfvi weivUZ¡ †hgb wQj †Zgwb mxgve×ZvI‡Zv wKQz wQj Zuvi!
iex›`ªbv_ gnr gvbyl wQ‡jb e‡jB cÖMwZc_mÜv‡bi ¯^v‡_© GB mxgve×Zv¸‡jv‡KI
Lyu‡R †`L‡Z n‡e Avgv‡`i| †jLK‡`i g‡a¨ †KD †KD e¨w³MZfv‡e G Kv‡R
GwM‡qI G‡m‡Qb| wKš‘ Zv †Rviv‡jv n‡q I‡V wb| hw` Zv Kiv m¤¢e nq Zvn‡j
GK`v †mUvB n‡q DV‡e bZyb cÖR‡b¥i hvÎvc‡_i w`kv| GBR‡b¨B gy³`„wó‡Z
iex›`ªwePvi Avek¨K| cvwK¯—vwb Avg‡j Avwbmy¾vgvb m¤úvw`Z iex›`ªbv_-Gi g‡ZvB
mdj Avi GKwU gy³`…wói iex›`ª we‡ePbvi msKjb cÖKvk K‡i wbðqB †KD GKRb
iex›`ªwePv‡ii bZyb aviv ïi“ Ki‡eb G Avkv Avgiv Ki‡ZB cvwi| Z‡e G-K_vI
¯^xKvi K‡i wb‡Z n‡e †h, `xN© mgq AwZµvšÍ nIqv m‡Ë¡I GB msKj‡bi ¸i“Z¡
GKUzI K‡g wb, eis AviI D¾¡j n‡q DV‡Q| ejv P‡j evsjv‡`‡ki mvgvwRK I
ivR‰bwZK cUf~wg‡Z msKjbwU iex›`ªPPv©i †h wfwË ˆZwi K‡i w`‡qwQj Zvi IciB
µgk M‡o DV‡Q GLvbKvi iex›`ª-mgv‡jvPbvi †mŠa| iex›`ªbv_ msKj‡bi GB
¸i“Z¡I fzjevi e¨vcvi bq †gv‡UI!

UxKv:
1. †h 19 Rb wee…wZwU‡Z ¯^v¶i K‡iwQ‡jb Zvuiv n‡jb:
1. Avng` kixd, 2. bxwjgv Beªvnxg, 3. iwdKyj Bmjvg, 4. Avwbmy¾vgvb, 5. knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi, 6.
dRj kvnveyÏxb, 7. Rqbyj Av‡ew`b, 8. KvRx †gvZvnvi †nv‡mb, 9. †gvnv¤§` gwbi“¾vgvb, 10. Lvb
mviIqvi gyiwk`, 11. †gvdv¾j nvq`vi ‡PŠayix, 12. gvwjK Ae`yj evix, 13. mywdqv Kvgvj, 14. gyn¤§`
Ky`ivZ B Ly`v, 15. gybxi †PŠayix, 16. nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb, 17. wmKv›`vi Avey Rvdi, 18. gyn¤§`
Ave`yj nvB, 19. kvgmyi ivngvb
2. cÖv¸³, cwiwkó|

kvk¦wZKx-101

Kzj`v ivq
GgGgAvi Rvjvj

XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv Ges iex›`ªbv_
K.
1905 mv‡j e½f½ i` n‡j c~ee© vsjvi gymjgvbMY Bs‡iR miKvi Pig
wek¦vmNvZKZv K‡i‡Q e‡j g‡b K‡iwQ‡jb| Z‡e m¨vi mwjgyj−vn Ges wewkó AwfRvZ
†bZviv GB cwieZ©b‡K the mandate of the Emperor wn‡m‡e MY¨ K‡iwQ‡jb|
1912 mv‡j fvi‡Z jW© nvwW©Ä Av‡mb| Rvbyqvwi‡Z GKwU gymwjg †Wcy‡Ukb ZrKvjxb
fvBmiq jW© nvwW©‡Äi m‡½ †`Lv K‡ib| H †Wcy‡Ukb †`Iqvi d‡j c~e© evOjvi
gymjgvb‡`i ¯^v_© we‡klfv‡e j¶ ivLvi R‡b¨ cÖwZeQi XvKvq cÖv‡`wkK Mfb©‡ii
K¨v¤c emvi Avk¦vm cvIqv hvq| c~e©evsjvi gymjgvb‡`i wk¶ve¨e¯’vq A‡avMwZ hv‡Z
bv nq, Zvi R‡b¨ XvKvq AvevwmK wek¦we`¨vjq ¯’vc‡biI cÖwZkª“wZ †`Iqv nq| 1912
mv‡j 21 Rvbyqvwi fvBmiq jW© nvwW©Ä XvKv md‡i Av‡mb| wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq
cÖwZôvi cÖwZkª“wZ w`‡qwQ‡jb| ZLb XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi cÖ¯—vewUi we‡ivwaZv
K‡iwQ‡jb wZb ai‡bi †jvKRb :
1. cwðge‡½i wKQz gymjgvbÑ Zviv g‡b K‡iwQ‡jb, XvKvq wek¦we`¨vjqwU cÖwZwôZ
n‡j cwðge‡½i gymjgvb‡`i †Kv‡bv jvf †bB| c~e©e‡½i gymjgvb‡`iB jvf
n‡e| Zv‡`i R‡b¨ XvKvq bq cwðge‡½ wek¦we`¨vjq nIqvUvB jvfRbK|
2. c~e© evsjvi wKQz gymjgvbÑ Zviv g‡b K‡iwQ‡jb, c~ee© ‡½i gymjgvb‡`i g‡a¨
10,000 R‡bi g‡a¨ 1 Rb gvÎ ¯‹zj ch©v‡q cvk Ki‡Z cv‡i| K‡jR ch©v‡q
Zv‡`i QvÎ msL¨v LyeB Kg| wek¦we`¨vjq n‡j †mLv‡b gymjgvb Qv·`i msL¨v
LyeB Kg n‡e| c~e©e‡½ cÖvBgvwi Ges nvB¯‹zj n‡j †mLv‡b covïbv K‡i
gymjgvb‡`i g‡a¨ wk¶vi nvi evo‡e| Av‡M †mUv `iKvi| Ges hw` wek¦we`¨vjq
cÖwZwôZ nq Zvn‡j gymjgvb‡`i R‡b¨ †h miKvwi ev‡RU eivÏ Av‡Q Zv
wek¦we`¨vj‡qB e¨q n‡q hv‡e| bZzb K‡i cÖvBgvwi ev nvB¯‹zj n‡e bv| †h¸‡jv
Av‡Q †m¸‡jvI A‡_©i Afv‡e eÜ n‡q hv‡e| †mR‡b¨ Zviv wek¦we`¨vjq Pvb wb|
3. cwðge‡½i wKQz wn›`y g‡b K‡iwQ‡jb †h, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq n‡j KjKvZv
wek¦we`¨vj‡qi ev‡RU eivÏ K‡g hv‡e| myZivs KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq Pj‡e
Kxfv‡e? GB f‡qB Zviv XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jb|
L.
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jb e‡j GKwU AccÖPvi
i‡q‡Q| wKš‘ GUv wbQKB AccÖPvi| Gi †Kv‡bv wfwË bvB| ˆ`wbK msev` cwÎKvq 1
RyjvB 2011 msL¨vq wbqvgZ Avjx wj‡L‡QbÑ XvKvq wek¦we`¨vjq ¯’vc‡bi †NviZi
we‡ivax wQ‡jb Avï‡Zvl gy‡Lvcva¨vq, my‡i›`ªbv_ e¨vbvR©x, W. ivmwenvix †Nvl, Kwe
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi cÖgyL| Z‡e GB Z_¨wUi †Kv‡bv m~ÎDrm †`bwb wZwb| wKš‘ wbqvgZ
Avjx XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZvKvix gIjvbv AvKivg Lvb, PweŸk ciMYvi
†Rjv gnv‡gWvb G‡mvwm‡qkb, e¨vwi÷vi Avãyj imyj, Ôw` gymwjg cwÎKvÕi bvg D‡j−L
K‡ib wb| Avjx wbqvg‡Zi GB Awf‡hv‡M GK ai‡bi m‡Z¨i Acjvc Av‡Q| Ges
GK ai‡bi mv¤cÖ`vwqK Bw½ZI Av‡Q|

kvk¦wZKx-102

ÔwbD GRÕ cwÎKvi m¤cv`K b~i“j Kexi MZ 25 ˆekvL GbwUwf‡Z GKB Awf‡hvM
K‡i e‡jb, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jb| b~i“j
Kexi evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨Zg mvsevw`K Kvg m¤cv`K| myZivs wZwb hLb †Kv‡bv Z_¨
e‡jbÑ `vq `vwqZ¡ wb‡qB e‡jb| †LuvRLei wb‡qB e‡jb| ivgvk¨vgvh`ygay‡`i g‡Zv
hv gy‡L G‡jv Zv ej‡eb GKRb m¤cv`K GUv gvb‡Z Kó nq| wKš‘ wZwbI wbqvgZ
Avjxi g‡Zv GB Z_¨wU †Kv_vq †c‡q‡QbÑ †m wel‡q gyL †Lv‡jb wb| wKš‘ Z_¨wU
iex›`ªbv_ wel‡q| iex›`ªbv_ †Kv‡bv G‡j‡e‡j †jvK bb| Zuvi 150Zg Rb¥evwl©Kx
Pj‡Q| wZwb EbmËi eQi Av‡M gviv †M‡Qb| Zuvi AvZ¥c¶ mg_©b Kivi †Kv‡bv
my‡hvM †bB| wKš‘ Zuvi Rxe‡bi mKj Z_¨B msiw¶Z Av‡Q| LyuR‡j cvIqv hvq| XvKv
wek¦we`¨vj‡qi BwZnvm wb‡q M‡elYv K‡i‡Qb cÖ‡dmi iwdKzj Bmjvg| wZwb ÔXvKv
wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Avwk eQiÕ bv‡g eB wj‡L‡Qb| †mB eB‡qi †Kv_vI iex›`ªbv‡_i
wei“‡× GB ai‡bi Awf‡hv‡Mi nw`m cvIqv hvq bv| KvRx †gvZvnvi †nv‡mb eyw×i
gyw³ Av‡›`vj‡bi Ab¨Zg cy‡ivav wQ‡jb| wZwb AKc‡U mZ¨ ej‡Z wcQcv nbwb
KL‡bv| wZwb Zuvi GK †jLvq AvPvh© cÖdzj− P‡›`ªi wKQz mv¤cÖ`vwqK AvPi‡Yi K_v
e‡j‡Qb| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi BwZnvm wb‡q Zuvi †jLv Av‡Q| wKš‘ wZwb D‡j−L K‡ib
wb iex›`ªbv‡_i GB XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZvi Z_¨wU| G wel‡q †Kv‡bv
mZ¨Zv _vK‡j wZwb wbðq Zv cÖKvk Ki‡Zb| iex›`ªbv_ XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi
we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jbÑ G Awf‡hvMwU Aaybv cvwK¯—vbcš’x KjgRxexiv Ki‡Qb| wKQz
wKQz cvwK¯—vbcš’x cwÎKvq gv‡S gv‡S G ai‡bi iex›`ªwe‡ivwaZv †`Lv hvq| dinv`
gRnvi iex›`ªbv‡_ mv¤cÖ`vwqK `„wó‡KvY †_‡K A‡bK wQ`ªv‡š^lY K‡i‡Qb Zuvi Ôi‡³i
`vM gy‡Q iex›`ªcvVÕ eBwU‡Z| †mLv‡b iex›`ªbv_‡K gRnvi †Kv‡bv Qvo †`b wb| mv`
Kvgvjx bv‡g GKRb MíKvi-cÖeÜKvi dinv` gRnv‡ii avivevwnKZvq iex›`ªbv‡_
wn›`y mv¤cÖ`vwqKZv, gymjgvb we‡Øl, bvix we‡Øl bvbvwea ΓwU Lyu‡R‡Qb| W. Avn¤§`
kixdI iex›`ªbv‡_ cÖRv DrcxoY Lyu‡R‡Qb| AevK KvÊ nj GB iPbvKvi‡`i †Kv_vI
iex›`ªbv_ XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jbÑ GB Z_¨wU bvB|
iex›`ªbv_ †h me kvK mewR KjvUv g~‡jvUv †L‡Zb, ˆ`-ˆL †Kv_v †_‡K †L‡Zb, Kv‡`i
†¶‡ZLvgv‡i †mme Drcvw`Z n‡ZvÑ dinv` gRnvi Ges mv` Kvgvjx bvbvcÖKvi
LvUvLvUzwb K‡i ZvI †ei K‡i †d‡j‡Qb| wKš‘ iex›`ªbv_ XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi
we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jbÑ GB ai‡bi iMi‡M AwZweL¨vZ iex›`ªwQ`ªwU Zv‡`i iPbv‡Z
D‡j−L K‡ibwb| †K‡bv K‡ibwb †mUv GKUv †KvwU UvKvi cÖkœ e‡U| GB Z_¨wU mwVK
n‡j wbðq Zviv Zv‡`i iPbv‡Z D‡j−L bv K‡i cvi‡Zb bv|
2000 m‡b Avng` cvewjwks nvDm †_‡K ÔAvgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi avivevwnKZv
Ges cÖvmw½K wKQz K_vÕ bv‡g GKwU eB‡q †gRi †Rbv‡ij (Ae.) Gg G gwZb,
exicÖZxK, wcGmwm (ZË¡veavqK miKv‡ii Dc‡`óv) GKwU Z_¨ Rvbvb †h, Ô1912
mv‡ji 28 †k gvP© KwjKvZv M‡oi gv‡V Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii mfvcwZ‡Z¡ XvKv
wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi cÖwZev‡` GK wekvj Rbmfvi Av‡qvRb Kiv nq|Õ wZwb
Awf‡hvM K‡ib †h, iex›`ªbv_ XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jb| G
†RW Gg Avãyj Avjx ˆ`wbK mgKv‡j †j‡LbÑ †kvbv hvq, GB Z_¨wU (†jLK Avãyj
gwZb KZ©…K DÌvwcZ iex›`ªbv‡_i XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv Kiv)
BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûk‡bi †Kv‡bv eB‡Z Av‡Q| wZwb AbymÜvb K‡i RvbvbÑ iex›`ªbv_ H
wgwUs-G Dcw¯’Z †_‡K Ges wgwUs-G mfvcwZZ¡ K‡i XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi
we‡ivwaZv K‡i‡Qb e‡j GKRb †jLK D‡j−L K‡ib| †jLK GB Z_¨wU †Kv_vq

†c‡qwQ‡jb Zvi †Kv‡bv m~Î eBwU‡Z D‡j−L K‡ib bvB| Avãyj Avjx Rvbvb, eBwU
Bmjvwg dvD‡Ûkb †_‡K cÖKvwkZ nq| Ges iex›`ªbv‡_i wei“‡× GB evbv‡bv MàwU
e¨envi Kiv nq| H Zvwi‡L iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KjKvZvqB Dcw¯’Z wQ‡jb bv Ges wZwb
XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi we‡ivwaZv K‡ib bvB| Zvn‡j Ly‡u R †`Lv hvK 1912 mv‡ji 28
†k gvP© ZvwiLwU‡K| Ly‡u R †`LeÑ Hw`b iex›`ªbv_ †Kv_vq wQ‡jb Ges Kx K‡iwQ‡jb?
1912 mv‡ji 28 †k gvP© iex›`ªbv_ GKwU wPwV wj‡L‡Qb RM`vb›` ivq‡K| RM`vb›`
ivq weÁvb welqK †jLK, iex›`ªbv‡_i cyÎKb¨v‡`i M„nwk¶K I kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi
eªþPh©vkª‡gi wk¶K| †mw`b wQj e„n¯cwZevi| ˆPÎ 15, 1318 e½vã| iex›`ªbv_
wPwVwU wj‡L‡Qb wkjvB`n †_‡K| iex›`ªbv_ wjL‡QbÑ ÔKqw`b GLv‡b G‡m my¯‡’ eva
KiwQjyg| g‡b K‡iwQjyg †mw`b †h av°vUv †L‡qwQjyg †mUv wKQzB bq| my¯’ n‡q
DV‡jB AmyLUv‡K wg_¨v e‡j g‡b nq| Avevi AvR †`wL mKvj †ejvq gv_vUv ixwZgZ
Ujgj Ki‡P| Kvj eyaevi wQj e‡j, Kvj mܨv‡ejvq †g‡q‡`i wb‡q GKUz Av‡jvPbv
KiwQjygÑ GBUzK‡z ZB Avgvi gv_v hLb Kvey n‡q coj ZLb eyS‡Z cviwP wbZvš—
Dwo‡q w`‡j Pj‡e bv|Õ (we, fv. c, gvN-‰PÎ 1376| 253, cÎ-5)|
cÖkvš—Kzgvi cvj ÔiweRxebxÕ MÖ‡š’i lô L‡Ê Rvbv‡”Qb, Gw`bB wZwb GKwU KweZv
†j‡Lb| KweZvi bvg Ôw¯’i bq‡b ZvwK‡q AvwQÕ| GB KweZvwU MxwZgvj¨ Kve¨MÖ‡š’i Aš—
f©z³ 4 msL¨K KweZv| Gici evwK 15 w`‡b wkjvB`‡n †_‡K iex›`ªbv_ AviI 17wU
KweZv ev Mvb †j‡Lb| Gi g‡a¨ GKwU MvbÑ ÔAvgvi GB c_ PvIqv‡ZB Avb›`Õ| 14
ˆPÎ, 1318 e½vã| iPbvi ¯’vb wkjvB`n| 26†k ˆPÎ 1318(GwcÖj 8, 1912) e½v‡ãI
wZwb wkjvB`‡n| †mLvb †_‡K wj‡L‡QbÑ ÔGevi Avgvq fvwm‡q w`‡Z n‡e AvgviÕ|
GwcÖj 12, 1912 Zvwi‡L wjL‡QbÑ ÔGevi †Zviv Avgvi hvevi †ejv‡ZÕ| wkjvB`‡n
iwPZ| Z_¨ ej‡QÑ †m mg‡q iex›`ªbv_ KjKvZvq bqÑ wkjvB`‡n wQ‡jb| Zvn‡j
iex›`ªbv_ wkjvB`‡n †K‡bv †M‡jb? KLb †M‡jb? Zvi GKUz nw`m Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| 19
gvP© 1912 (6 ˆPÎ, 1318 e½vã) †fv‡i KjKvZv †_‡K wmwU Ae c¨vwim Rvnv‡R
iex›`ªbv‡_i Bsj¨vÛ hvÎvi R‡b¨ †Kweb fvov Kiv n‡qwQj| m½x †g‡qv nvmcvZv‡ji Wvt
w؇R›`ªbv_ ˆgÎ| Kwe‡K we`vq Rvbv‡bvi R‡b¨ eû e¨w³ †mw`b RvnvRNvUvq Dcw¯’Z|
Kwei wRwbmcÎI Rvnv‡R D‡V †M‡Q Av‡Mi w`b| wKš‘ ÔLei G‡jv †h, Kwe Amy¯’;
Avm‡Z cvi‡eb bv| H Mi‡g Dch©zcwi wbgš¿Y-Af¨_©bvw`i Av`i-AZ¨vPv‡i iIbv nÕevi
w`b †fv‡i cÖ¯Z
‘ n‡Z wM‡q, gv_v Ny‡i c‡o hvb| Wv³viiv ej‡jb, Zuvi G-hvÎv
†Kv‡bvg‡ZB mgxPxb n‡Z cv‡i bv| iB‡jb wZwb; Avi K¨vwe‡b GKv ivRZ¡ K‡i, Zuvi
ev·-†cUiv wb‡q Pj−gy Avwg GKjv|Õ GUv wj‡L‡Qb Wvt wgÎ|
iwecyÎ i_x›`ªbv_ VvKzi ÔwcZ…¯§„wZÕ MÖ‡š’ wjL‡QbÑ ÔRvnvR Qvoevi Av‡Mi w`b iv‡Î
m¨vi Avï‡Zvl †PŠayixi evwo‡Z evevi wbgš¿Y| †Kej LvIqv `vIqv bq, †mB m‡½
Ôevwj¥KxcÖwZfvÕ Awfb‡qi e¨e¯’v n‡qwQj| w`‡b›`ªbv_ evj¥xwKi f‚wgKvq Awfbq
K‡ib| Amy¯’ kix‡i evev‡K A‡bK ivZ Aewa RvM‡Z nj| Avgiv N‡i wdijvg ivZ
K‡i| evwK ivZUzKz evev bv Nywg‡q wPwVi ci wPwV wj‡L KvwU‡q w`‡jb| †fvi‡ejv D‡V
evevi kix‡ii Ae¯’v †`‡L Avgiv fq †c‡q †Mjvg, K¬vwš—‡Z Aemv‡` †h‡bv ayuK‡Qb|
ZvovZvwo Wv³vi WvK‡Z nj| RvnvR Avgv‡`i wRwbmcÎ m‡gZ h_vmg‡q cvwo w`j,
wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †m hvÎv Avi hvIqv nj bv|Õ AvKw¯§Kfv‡e hvÎv cÊ n‡q hvIqvq Lye
†e`bv †c‡qwQ‡jb iex›`ªbv_| wZwb 21 gvP© 1912 (8 ˆPÎ 1318 e½vã) Zvwi‡L Wvt
w؇R›`ªbv_ ˆg·K †j‡LbÑ Avgvi Kcvj g›`Ñ Kcv‡ji wfZ‡i †h c`v_© Av‡Q, ZviI
Mj` Av‡QÑ bB‡j wVK Rvnv‡R IVevi gyn~‡Z©B gv_v Ny‡i cojyg †Kb? A‡bK w`‡bi

kvk¦wZKx-103

kvk¦wZKx-104

mwÂZ cv‡ci `Ê †mBw`bB cÖZy¨‡l Avgvi G‡Kev‡i gv_vi Dc‡i G‡m coj| †iv‡Mi
cÖ_g av°vUv †Zv GKiKg †K‡U †M‡Q| GLb Wv³v‡ii Drcv‡Z cÖvY AwZô n‡q
D‡V‡Q| †jLvcov bovPov cÖf…wZ mRxe cÖvYxgv‡ÎiB AwaKvi Av‡Q, Avgvi c‡¶ Zv
G‡Kev‡i wbwl×| 24 gvP© 1912 (11 ˆPÎ 1318 e½vã) wekªv‡gi D‡Ï‡k¨ iex›`ªbv_
wkjvB`‡n iIbv nb|
VvKzievwoi K¨vkewn‡Z †jLv Av‡Q, kªxhy³ iex›`ª evey gnvkq I kªxhy³ i_x›`ª evey
gnvkq I kªxgwZ eaygvZvVvKzivYx wkjvB`n Mg‡bi e¨q 379 bs fvDPvi 11 ˆPÎ
15||3|. ciw`b †mvgevi 12 ˆPÎ 25 gvP© 1912 wLª÷v‡ã iex›`ªbv_ †gŠPvK cwÎKvi
m¤cv`K myaxiP›`ª miKv‡ii fMœx Kv`w¤^bx `ˇK (1285-1350 e½vã) GK wPwV‡Z
†j‡LbÑ GL‡bv gv_vi cwikªg wb‡la| wkjvB`‡n wb¾©‡b cvjvBqv AvwmqvwQ| †Kv_vq
KjKvZvi M‡oi gvV? Avi †Kv_vq wkjvB`n! Zvn‡j 28 gvP© 1912 Zvwi‡L iex›`ªbv_
Kx K‡i wkjvB`n †_‡K Amy¯’ kix‡i KjKvZvi M‡oi gv‡V XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi
mfvq Dcw¯’Z wQ‡jb?
XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Aa¨vcK MxwZAviv bvmixb Rvbv‡”QbÑ iex›`ªbv‡_i wei“‡× GB
AccÖPv‡ii wel‡q wek¦we`¨vjq wm‡bU evwl©K Awa‡ek‡bi (28-29 Ryb, 2011)
Av‡jvPbvq Av‡m| Aa¨vcK dKi“j Avj‡gi K_vi Ask †_‡K wjLwQ...Ôiex›`ªbv_
GKmgq e½f‡½i wei“‡× we‡ivax wQ‡jb...wKš‘...PvicuvP eQi ci Zuvi cyiv‡bv
cwRkb cwieZ©b K‡i †d‡jwQ‡jb|...Aek¨B wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq‡K MÖnY K‡i‡Qb
e‡j wZwb XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi m¤§vbbvq G‡mwQ‡jb|...hviv BwZnvm‡K GK RvqMvq
†i‡L †`q Zviv BwZnvm‡K weK…Z K‡i, Zviv mZ¨‡K weK…Z K‡i|...Ó (Kvh©weeiYx,
c„:178)| GB BwZnvmweK…wZ evsjv‡`‡k GKwU †MvôxKZ©…K iex›`ªwe‡ivwaZviB GKwU
bgybv| wbQK AmZ¨ Z_¨| †Mv‡qej‡mi m~‡Î Z_¨wU ˆZwi n‡qwQj †Mvc‡bÑ
K‡iwQ‡jb GKRb ARvbv †jLK| cÖKvkK Bmjvwg dvD‡Ûkb| Avi Zv eB‡Z
wj‡L‡Qb †gRi †Rbv‡ij (Aet) Avãyi gwZb| Ges G eQi iex›`ªbv‡_i
mva©kZRb¥evwl©Kxi j‡Mœ †Uwjwfk‡bi c`©vq RbM‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖKvk K‡i‡QbÑ Ôw`
wbD GRÕ cwÎKvi ¯^bvgab¨ m¤cv`K b~i“j Kexi| e‡j‡Qb wbqvgZ Avjx bv‡g
GKRb Kjvg †jLK| Z_¨ †c‡jB †Zv n‡e bv| Zv hvPvB evQvB Kivi `iKvi
i‡q‡Q| GB f~L‡Ê iex›`ªwe‡ivwaZv bZzb bq| cvwK¯—vb Avg‡j ïi“| GLb AveviI
cvwK¯—vwb Kvq`vi †miKg we‡ivwaZv Pj‡Q| hviv Ki‡Qb-Zv‡`i fvebvi m‡½ cvwK¯—
vbcš’xi GKwU ms‡hvM Av‡Q| wKš‘ GKwU cÖkœ gv_vq Ny‡i wd‡i Avm‡QÑ iex›`ªbv_ hw`
XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iB _v‡KbÑ Zvn‡j †mB we‡ivwaZvKvix
iex›`ªbv_ GB XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi gvÎ cuvP eQi c‡i †mB wek¦we`¨vj‡qi
cÖv½‡YB wecyjfv‡e msewa©Z nb Kxfv‡e? ZLb †Zv cvwK¯—vb Rvgvbv bq| evsjv‡`kI
bq| e„wUk ivRZ¡ Pj‡Q| e½wefvM †_‡g †M‡Q| c~e©evsjvi gymjgvb †bZ…e„›` ¶zä GB
e½f½ evwZj Kivi R‡b¨| Avevi iex›`ªbv_ e½f‡½i we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jb| myZivs
c~e©evsjvi MÖv‡g M‡Ä Ges †Lv` XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q iex›`ªbv_‡K msea©bv cÖ`v‡bi
†Kv‡bv KviY _vKvi K_v bq| wKš‘ ev¯—‡e †Zv iex›`ªbv_‡K wn›`y-gymjgvb, abx-wba©bx,
Rwg`vi-cÖRv wg‡j wecyj Avo¤^‡i msea©bv w`‡”Qb| †mLv‡b †Zv GB Awf‡hvMwU †KD
Zzj‡Qb bv| †Kv‡bv mv¤cÖ`vwqK †f`‡iLv j¶ Kiv hv‡”Q bv| Zvn‡j?
M.
1926 mv‡j XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq iex›`ªbv_‡K Avgš¿Y Rvbvq e³…Zvw` cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨|
mdim½x n‡qwQ‡jbÑ cyÎ i_x›`ªbv_, cyÎeay cÖZxgv †`ex, Zuv‡`i cvwjZv Kb¨v bw›`bx,

åvZz®cyÎ w`‡b›`ªbv_, wniwRfvB, gwim, Pxbv Aa¨vcK wjg †bv wQqvO Ges BZvwjqvb
Aa¨vcK dvwg©wm I Zzw”P| 9 †deª“qvwi 1926 Zvwi‡L ÔAvb›` evRviÕ cwÎKvq
cÖwZ‡e`b cÖKvwkZ nqÑ XvKvq iex›`ªbv_ bvivqYM‡Ä wecyj Af¨_©bv MZKj¨
iex›`ªbv_ XvKvq †cuŠwQqv‡Qb, XvKvq Awaevmxe„›` Zuvnv‡K wecyj Af¨_©bv Kwiqv‡Qb|
cÖKZ
… c‡¶ ewj‡Z †M‡j GBeviB iex›`ªbv_ me©cÖ_g XvKvq Avwmqv‡Qb| B‡Zvc~‡e©
wZwb fv‡jv Kwiqv XvKv cwi`k©b K‡ib bvB| ¯’vbxq Af¨_©bv-mwgwZ bvivqYM‡Ä
eûmsL¨K †¯^”Qv‡meK †cÖiY KwiqvwQ‡jb| bvivqYMÄ ÷xgvi †÷kb †mw`b Rbmgy‡`ª
cwiYZ nBqvwQj| ÷xgvi Nv‡U Avwmevi eû c~e© nB‡ZB Z_vq RbmgvMY nB‡Z Avi¤¢
nq| †`wL‡Z †`wL‡Z G‡Zv †jvK Ro nq †h, Kx Nv‡U, Kx †RwU‡Z GKUzKzI ¯’vb wQj
bv| iex›`ªbv‡_i ÷xgvi Nv‡U †cuŠwQ‡j PZzw`©K nB‡Z Nb Nb Avb›`aŸwb DwÌZ nq|
K‡qKRb wewkó †bZv AMÖmi nBqv Zuvnv‡K cy®cgv‡j¨ wef‚wlZ K‡ib Ges w÷gvi
nB‡Z bvgvBqv Av‡bb Ñ †gvU‡i Pwoqv XvKv Awfgy‡L hvÎv K‡ib| XvKv kn‡ii c~e©
mxgv‡š— GK`j ¯‹vDU, eûmsL¨K †¯^”Qv‡meK I kn‡ii wewkó f`ª‡jvK Dcw¯’Z
wQ‡jb| iex›`ªbv‡_i †gvUi `„wóc‡_ cÖweó nBevgvÎ Nb Nb RqaŸwb DwÌZ
nq|...Zvici XvKvi beve evnv`y‡ii nvDm †evU Zziv‡M Kwei wekªv‡gi e¨e¯’v nq|
Zziv‡M hvIqvi c_wU KjvMv‡Qi Pviv w`‡q mvRv‡bv n‡qwQj| iex›`ªbv_‡K cÖ_g
Awfb›`bwU Ávcb Kiv n‡qwQj 7 †deª“qvwi 1926 Zvwi‡Li we‡Kj Pvi‡UB
wgDwbwmc¨vwjwU Ges wccjm G‡mvwm‡qk‡bi D‡`¨v‡M XvKvi b_©e“ª K n‡j| mg¯—
njwU c~Y© n‡q wM‡qwQj Ges evB‡iI Nb Rgv‡qZ n‡qwQj| XvKv wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi
KwgkbviMY gvbc‡Î †j‡LbÑ †n RvZxqZvi `vk©wbK cÖPviK| wn›`y-gymjgv‡bi ¯’vqx
wgjb †Kej mvwnZ¨ I wk¶vi wfZi w`qvB m¤¢eci-eZ©gvb we‡iva I A‰bK¨
mgvav‡bi GB ¸n¨gš¿ Zzwg eû c~e© nB‡ZB cÖPvi Kwiqv Avwm‡ZQ|...RvwZi cÖwZ
AZ¨vPv‡i wbR‡K jvwÃZ g‡b Kwiqv Zzwg ivR`Ë `yjf
© m¤§vb N„Yvq cwiZ¨vM KwiqvQ;
†`kevmxi wbM„n †nZz KvbvWvi wbgš¿Y cÖZ¨vL¨vb Kwiqv AvZ¥m¤§vb‡eva I †`k‡bZvi
R¡jš— `„óvš— cÖ`k©b KwiqvQ|
GiciB XvKv RbmvaviY KZ©K
… GKwU gvbcÎ cvV Kiv nqÑ †mLv‡bI ÔbvBUÕ Dcvwa
Z¨v‡Mi K_v D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| kvwš—wb‡KZb, wek¦fviZx wek¦we`¨vj‡qi cÖksmv Kiv
n‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ GLv‡b GKwU wjwLZ e³e¨ †`b| K‡iv‡bkb cv‡K© we‡Kj 5.30 G
Kwe‡K Av‡iKwU msea©bv †`Iqv nq| Dcw¯’Z wQj `k nvRvi †jvK| XvKv †iU‡cqvm©
G‡mvwm‡qkb gvbc‡Î e‡jbÑ jW© KvR©b evnv`y‡ii kvmbKv‡j e½ wefv‡Mi d‡j
c~e©e½ hLb cwðge½ nB‡Z wew”Qbœ nBqvwQj ZLb †mB K~U-bxwZi wei“‡× Avcwb
Kv‡e¨ I m½x‡Z †h fxlY msMÖvg †NvlYv KwiqvwQ‡jb ZvnvI AvR ¯§iY-c‡_ Dw`Z
nB‡Z‡Q| beve evnv`yi Lv‡R nvweeyjv− ni mfvcwZ‡Z¡ wn›`y †gvm‡jg †mevkª‡gi c¶
†_‡K gvbcÎ †`Iqv nq| 10 †deª“qvwi XvKv K‡jwR‡qU ¯‹zj cwi`k©b K‡ib
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi| Zvici `yciy AvovBUvq XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q KvR©b n‡j Dcw¯’Z nb|
GLv‡b XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi we`¨v_©x m•N Zuv‡K GKwU Kve¨vwfb›`b cÖ`vb K‡i|
GLv‡bB we‡K‡j gymwjg n‡j QvÎ BDwbqb msea©bvi wecyj Av‡qvRb K‡i| QvÎmsm`
Kwe‡K AvRxeb m`m¨c`iƒ‡c MÖnY K‡i| gymwjg n‡j msea©bv m¤c‡K© Aveyj dR‡ji
¯§„wZPviYÑ ÔKwe hLb XzK‡jb...nj N‡ii cÖ‡ek c_ †_‡KB Kwei Dci ïi“ n‡q‡Q
cy®ce„wó|Õ gymwjg nj QvÎe„›` gvbc‡Î e‡jb †h, weavZv e‡ov `qv Kwiqv, cÖvYnxb
fvi‡Zi `yw`©‡b †Zvgvi g‡Zv weivU-cÖvY gnvcyi“l‡K `vb Kwiqv‡Qb| †Zvgvi cÖvY
gy³, wek¦gq| †mLv‡b wn›`y bvB, gymjgvb bvB, wLª÷vb bvBÑ Av‡Q gvbyl| ...GKw`‡K

kvk¦wZKx-105

kvk¦wZKx-106

Zzwg gvbyl‡K bvbv Kg©avivq RvMÖZ KwiqvQ, Ab¨w`‡K †mB Amxg mªóvi w`‡K gb‡K
AvK…ó KwiqvQ| ÔKg© I a¨vbÕ Df‡qi mvgÄm¨ mvabB gvbe Rxe‡bi †kªô Av`k©|
Bmjv‡gi GB mvievË©v †Zvgvi Q‡›` cÖwZaŸwbZ nBqv‡Q| †Zvgvi GB Q›` Avgvw`M‡K
cÖwZw`b we‡k¦i Kj¨vY mva‡b I gvby‡li †mevq D‡ØvwaZ Ki“K|...
iex›`ªbv_ msea©bvi Dˇi e‡jbÑ cÖvPxbKv‡j Avgv‡`i †`‡k ivRviv w`wM¦Rq K‡i
wdi‡j Zuv‡`i Dci cy®ce„wó Ac©Y Kiv n‡Zv, Avwg wK Avgvi †`‡ki R‡b¨ †Zgb wKQz
Rq K‡i G‡bwQ hvi R‡b¨ AvR Avgv‡KI cy®c el©Y K‡i msea©bv Rvbv‡bv
n‡”Q|...fvi‡Zi ey‡K G‡Zv RvwZ, G‡Zv ag© ¯’vb jvf K‡i‡Q, Zvi A_© Av‡Q|
fvi‡Zi nvIqvq Ggb kw³ Av‡Q hvi e‡j mKj m¤cÖ`vq GLv‡b Avmb jvf Ki‡Z
†c‡i‡Q|...fvi‡Zi ag© I m¤cÖ`v‡qi g‡a¨ we‡iva I ci¯c‡ii we‡”Q` †`‡L wbZvš—
`ytwLZ, gg©vnZ, jw¾Z nB| a‡g© a‡g© we‡iva n‡Z cv‡i bv| KviY ag© n‡jv wgj‡bi
†mZz Avi Aag© we‡iv‡ai|...hLb a‡g© weKvi Dcw¯’Z nq ZLbB we‡”Q` cÖej n‡q
I‡V| ïay wn›`y-gymjgv‡b cÖ‡f` bq mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ †f‡`i Aš— †bB| hLb gvbyl
gvbyl‡K Acgvb K‡i, ZLb †m `yM©wZ-`vwi‡`ª¨ Pig mxgvq DcbxZ nq, Avwg Avgvi
mgv‡Ri R‡b¨ jw¾Z n‡qwQÑ we‡”Q‡`i i³c−ve‡b gvbe-mgv‡Ri cÖwZ ¯—i KjywlZ
n‡q‡Q|...GB mgm¨v fvi‡Z eûw`b †_‡K Av‡Q| we‡iv‡ai cÖvPxi Zz‡j †Zv mgm¨vi
mgvavb n‡e bv|...ïfeyw×i Av‡jvK weKxY© †nvK| Z‡eB Avgv‡`i wPË gy³ n‡e|
mܨvq KvR©b n‡j iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi fvlY †`b| fvl‡Yi welq wQj ÔAv‡U©i A_©Õ| 11 I
12 †deª“qvwi (27 I 28 gvN) Amy¯’Zvi Kvi‡Y iex›`ªbv_ †Kv‡bv Abyôv‡b †hvM w`‡Z
cv‡ib wb| 13 †deª“qvwi (1 dv¸b) iex›`ªbv_ KvR©b n‡j e³…Zv K‡ib| e³…Zvi welq
wQjÑ Ô`¨ i“j Ad `¨ Rvqv›UÕ| Av‡M D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q, Amy¯’Zvi Kvi‡Y iex›`ªbv_
VvKzi RMbœv_ n‡j Qv·`i msea©bv Abyôv‡b †h‡Z cv‡ib wb| 15 †deª“qvwi (3 dvêyb)
we`vqx w`‡b RMbœv_ n‡ji Qv·`i Aby‡iv‡a nj evwl©Kx Ôevmwš—KvÕi R‡b¨ GKwU Mvb
wj‡L †`b| Gic‡i Kwe‡K gqgbwmsn I ewikv‡jI msea©bv cÖ`vb Kiv nq| 1936
mv‡j XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq Kwe‡K mv¤§vwbK wW wjU Dcvwa‡Z f‚wlZ K‡i| w¯’i wQj, Kwe
e¨w³MZfv‡e Dcw¯’Z †_‡K wek¦we`¨vjq-cÖ`Ë m¤§vb MÖnY Ki‡eb| wKš‘ kix‡ii
Kvi‡Y XvKv †h‡Z cv‡ib wb| Zuvi Abycw¯’wZ‡ZB XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq Zuv‡K ‘honoris
Causa’ DcvwawU cÖ`vb K‡ib| GKwU welq j¶ Kiv hvqÑ Kwei GB msea©bv
Abyôvb¸wj wecyj RbmvaviY, QvÎ, †bZ…e„‡›`i ¯^Ztù‚Z© Dcw¯’wZ‡Z gyLwiZ wQj|
wn›`y-gymwjg RvwZ-m¤cÖ`vq †f‡` mK‡jB Ask wb‡q‡Qb| iex›`ªbv_ XvKv
wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQ‡jb G ai‡bi Awf‡hvM †KD K‡ib bvB|
Kwe‡K ¯^Rb wn‡m‡e mevB MÖnY K‡i‡Qb|

kvk¦wZKx-107

Abyev` cÖeÜ (109-135)

kvk¦wZKx-108

†gvnv¤§` G. KvBqyg

KwíZ ÔGK wek¦Õ : iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi weiwPZ RvZxqZvev`
welqK mgv‡jvPbvg~jK cÖeÜ
Abyev` : gxi IqvjxD¾vgvb
we‡k¦i Ab¨vb¨ RvwZi g‡Zv Avgv‡`iI gvbwmK bvbv m¶gZv eZ©gvb, wKš‘ mgm¨vUv
ev‡a Avgv‡`i MÖvg¨Zv`yó Kvh©¨vf¨vm¸wji Kvi‡Y—iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi
f~wgKv
Ebwesk kZvãxi †kl w`‡b iex›`ªbv_ VvKyi ÔkZvãxi m~hv©¯ÍÕ kxl©K GKwU KweZv iPbv
K‡iwQ‡jb, †hLv‡b wZwb Zxeª I Zx¶è fvlvq RvZxqZvev‡`i wb›`v K‡ib| Zuvi ZLb
†gvnf½ N‡U‡Q, wZwb AZ¨šÍ µz× †gRv‡R—hw`I mgv‡jvPbvi duv‡K duv‡K Avkvi
SjK `„k¨gvb—wj‡L‡Qb :
kZvãxi m~h© AvwR i³‡gN-gv‡S/ A¯Í †Mj, wnsmvi Drm‡e AvwR ev‡R/ A‡¯¿ A‡¯¿
gi‡Yi Db¥v` ivwMbx/ fqsKix| `qvnxb mf¨ZvbvwMbx/ Zz‡j‡Q KzwUj dYv P‡¶i
wb‡g‡l/ ¸ß wel`šÍ Zvi fwi Zxeª we‡l|
¯^v‡_© ¯^^v‡_© †e‡a‡Q msNvZ, †jv‡f †jv‡f/ N‡U‡Q msMÖvgÑcÖjqgš’b‡¶v‡f/ f`ª‡ekx
ee©iZv DwVqv‡Q RvwM/ c¼kh¨v n‡Z| j¾v kig †ZqvwM/ RvwZ‡cÖg bvg awi cÖPÊ
Ab¨vq/ a‡g©‡i fvmv‡Z Pv‡n e‡ji eb¨vq|/ Kwe`j PxrKvwi‡Q RvMvBqv fxwZ/
k¥kvbKz°zi‡`i KvovKvwo-MxwZ|
GB m¼xY© RvZxqZvev‡`i we‡ivwaZv—†h RvZxqZvev` hy× I nZ¨vi m~Pbv K‡i—hv
gvbyl‡K wef³ K‡i ïay, †V‡j †`q aŸs‡mi w`‡K †Kej—wecix‡Z AvšÍR©vwZK
msnwZ hvi Øviv GK D`vi I ALÊ wek¦åvZ„Z¡ I †cÖ‡gi evYx cÖPvi I cÖmvi gvby‡li
Kvg¨ nIqv DwPZ—GB `yB‡qi we‡iva—G‡Ki wb›`v I Ac‡ii cÖksmv Kwei mKj
iPbv—wPwVcÎ, cÖeÜ-wbeÜ, e³…Zvgvjv, KweZv, bvUK I M‡`¨ bvbvfv‡e I iƒ‡c
wea„Z| w_DwmwWwW‡Ri †gv¶g evYx : Òe„nr RvwZmËv hv B”Qv, ZvB K‡i; ¶z`ª RvwZ
†mUv Avewk¨Kfv‡e †g‡b †bqÓ—Gi Zxeª we‡ivax wQ‡jb iex›`ªbv_, KviY DMÖ
RvZxqZv‡eva Zuv‡K KL‡bv DÏxwcZ K‡iwb| ivavK…òb RvZxqZvev‡`i cÖKvk‡K
†`‡L‡Qb †hfv‡e : "Avcb ¯^v_©i¶vB †kl K_v; Dcvq n‡Z cv‡i cvke ejcÖ‡qvM;
we‡e‡Ki †mLv‡b †Kvb f~wgKv †bB"| iex›`ªbv_ Kxfv‡e RvZxqZvev‡`i mg_©‡b
D”PwKZ n‡eb? DMÖ RvZxqZvev‡` D¾xweZ gvbyl mZ¨ I b¨vq‡K cvk KvUvq, gËZvi
Av‡e‡k nZ¨v A_ev AvZ¥`v‡b wcQcv nq bv, Db¥Ë n‡q †m kvwšÍ I ¯^vaxbZvi ¯^iƒc‡K
fz‡j hvq—G‡K iex›`ªbv_ †h Awfavq eY©bvc~e©K eR©b K‡i‡Qb Zv nj—ÒG
g‡bvfv‡ei we¯Ívi‡K †iva I eR©b Aek¨KZ©e¨, KviY G GK wbôzi gnvgvix e¨vwa...
eZ©gv‡bi gvbemgvR‡K AvµvšÍ Ki‡Q, Gi ˆbwZK wbwg©wZ‡K Kz‡i Kz‡i Lv‡”Q...Kx
fq¼i!Ó DMÖ RvZxqZvev` GK AvZ¥NvZx `vevb‡ji g‡Zv, GK fxwZKi D™¢U cÖc‡Âi
g‡Zv gvbeZv‡eva‡K Kei¯’ Ki‡Q cÖwZwbqZ!

kvk¦wZKx-109

iex›`ªbv_ GK msjvc-Avjvc-Av‡jvPbv-cvi¯úwiK fvewewbgqwfwËK c„w_exi
evwm›`v wQ‡jb, †hLv‡b †mŠnv`©¨, m¤úªxwZ, ü`qeËv, mg‡e`bvi Av`vbcÖ`vb Pj‡e,
†hLv‡b RvwZmËv AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªKZv, ¯^v_©wmw×, N„Yvi PP©v †_‡K `~‡i _vK‡e, ˆbwZK I
ivR‰bwZK †PZbvi DrKl© mva‡b e¨vc„Z n‡e, Av‡jvwKZ GK wek¦mfvi mf¨iƒ‡c
mKj RvwZ wg‡jwg‡k m¤§yLhvÎvq mvwgj n‡e Kuv‡a Kuva wgwj‡q, G‡K Aci‡K m¤§vb
I ¯^xK…wZ †`‡e KzÉvnxbfv‡e, eûgvwÎK g½j †PZbvq D¾xweZ n‡e wbišÍi, me©Rbxb
Kj¨v‡Y GK‡Î KvR Ki‡e| AvaywbK RvZxqZvev` I DËi-AvaywbK wPšÍvwe` I
wek¦ev`x A‡bK `vk©wbK, †hgbÑ d«vb&R dvbu, GWIqvW© mvB` I †bŠg Pgw¯‹—Gu‡`i
wPšÍvfvebvi †h aviv, Zvi Avi¤¢ I c~em
© Î~ †hb iex›`ªbv‡_i iPbv I e³…ZvivwR‡ZB
†cÖvw_Z i‡q‡Q, †`L‡Z cvB| Pgw¯‹i GB c~em
© i~ x A‡bKvs‡k Pgw¯‹iB g‡Zv fve‡Zb,
ej‡Zb| iex›`ªbv_ wek¦vm Ki‡Zb—Pgw¯‹i fvlvq ejv hvq, ÒMVbg~jK wPšÍvfvebv,
KvR I cÖwZôv‡bi gva¨‡g Ab¨iKg GK wek¦ wbg©vY m¤¢eÓ, hv‡Z K‡i Òc„w_exi Rb¨
wKQzUv n‡jI kvwšÍ, b¨vqcÖwZôv Ges Avkvi mÂvi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|Ó iex›`ªbv_ Ggb
GK Kgb&I‡qj_ Ae †bBk¨b&R-Gi wel‡q †f‡ewQ‡jb, †hLv‡b GK RvwZ Ab¨
RvwZ‡K wek¦ Drm‡ei A½‡b Zvi b¨vh¨ AwaKv‡ii RvqMv †_‡K VuvBbvov Ki‡e bv
Ges cÖ‡Z¨K RvwZ Òwek¦mfv Av‡jvwKZKi‡Y Zvi wbR¯^ gb‡bi Av‡jvUzKz †R¡‡j †mUv
†cÖv¾¡jfv‡e mgybœZ ivLvi cÖqvm cv‡eÓ|
iex›`ªbv_ AvšÍtmf¨Zv ˆgÎx‡RvU MV‡bi c¶cvZx wQ‡jb| cÖvP¨ I cÖZx‡P¨i
wgj‡bi GKwbô mg_©K Kwe iex›`ªbv_ e„wUk kvm‡Kiv fvi‡Z †h wbôzi `gbbxwZ
Pvwj‡q G‡m‡Q, Zvi Zxeª we‡ivax wQ‡jb| wZwb g‡g©i Mfx‡i Dcjwä Ki‡Zb, e„wUk
Z_v cwðgxiv AvMÖvmx iK‡gi e¨emv I gybvdvgb¯‹Zvq Wz‡e †_‡K ˆbwZKZvewR©Z
¯^RvwZLv`‡K iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q‡Q| ivR‰bwZK D‡Ïk¨wmw× Zv‡`i hy×evR K‡i
Zz‡j‡Q; cÖvP¨‡`kxq‡`i Iiv A‡hŠw³K N„Yvq `~‡i mwi‡q †i‡L‡Q| ZviciI wZwb
Avkv K‡i‡Qb, c~e© I cwð‡gi wgjb NU‡eB GKw`b—m„wókxj K‡g©v`¨g‡K †K›`ª
K‡i| Pvj©m GÛªyR‡K iex›`ªbv_ wPwV‡Z †j‡Lb: ÒAvwg wek¦vm Kwi, c~e© I cwð‡gi
mwZ¨Kv‡ii mw¤§jb NU‡eB|Ó dm& I‡qm&KU‡K wPwV‡Z wj‡LwQ‡jb, Òwek¦vm Ki“b,
c~e© I cwðg †hw`b gvbevZ¥v‡K hveZxq nxbZv, bxPZv †_‡K gy³ Kivi ag©h‡y ×
GKwÎZ n‡e, †mw`b Avwg hvicibvB myLx, Avbw›`Z ne|Ó wKcwjs-Gi †mB gšÍe¨,
hv‡Z c~e© I cwð‡gi wfbœZv‡K `~iwZµg¨ AvL¨v †`Iqv n‡qwQj, ejv n‡qwQj,
Ò`yB‡qi wgjb KL‡bvB m¤¢e bqÓ, Kwe †g‡b †bbwb| Ggvm©‡bi cÖeÜ
ÒKg‡cb‡mBk¨bÓ-Gi g~j m~i, hv‡Z ejv n‡qwQj, ¯’vqx I H‡K¨i wfwˇZ cÖwZwôZ
GK we‡k¦i wbg©vY m¤¢e †Kej ˆecix‡Z¨ c~Y© c~e© I cwð‡gi †gje܇bi gva¨‡g,
hviv G‡K A‡b¨i Lvg&wZ c~iY Ki‡e :
cvðv‡Z¨i Kwe‡K Avwg Kvqg‡bvev‡K¨ AvnŸvb RvbvB—Zvi AwaKv‡i, PP©vq m½x‡Zi hZ
F× myiaviv engvb, mKj‡K K‡É aviY K‡i †hb †M‡q I‡Vb, c~e© I cwðg wPiKvj G‡K
Ab¨‡K Ly‡u R wd‡i‡Q, AZGe, Zviv wgj‡eB—†m wgjb †Kej kvixwiK ev `„k¨gvb wgjb
bq, †m wgjb m‡Z¨iI; MvB‡eb, Wvb nvZ hLb Z‡jvqvi aviY K‡i, evg nvZ wbw®Œq
KL‡bvB _vK‡Z cv‡i bv—†m nvZ ZLb Zz‡j a‡i wbivcËvi Xvj|

kvk¦wZKx-110

iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii RvZxqZvev`we‡ivax e³…Zv I iPbv Zuvi cwðgx mgmvgwqK‡`i cÖPÊ
¶zä I nZvk K‡i‡Q| gvK©mev`x mgv‡jvPK †MqM© jyKvP Ges Bs‡iR mvwnwZ¨K wW GBP
j‡iÝ G wel‡q iex›`ªwe‡ivax wkwe‡ii †bZ…Z¡ †`b| jyKvP, whwb MvÜx I iex›`ªbv_
Dfq‡KB cÖwZweú−−ex AvL¨vq f~wlZ K‡ib, iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔN‡i evB‡iÕ (1915) Dcb¨vm
cÖKvwkZ n‡j Zvi Dci GKcÖKvi Suvwc‡qB c‡owQ‡jb, KviY Kwe H Dcb¨v‡m DMÖ
RvZxqZvev`x I AwZweú−−ex‡`i gv_vq Zz‡j b„Z¨ K‡ibwb| jyKvP, whwb RxweZ gvby‡li
†P‡q Amvi Z‡Ë¡i g~j¨vq‡b †ewk Zrci, e¯‘i †P‡q evqexq aviYvq AwaK wek¦vmx
wQ‡jb, iex›`ªbv_‡K bm¨vr Ki‡Z Pvb GB e‡j †h, Òiex›`ªbv_ eZ©gv‡b G‡Kev‡iB
AcÖvmw½K n‡q c‡o‡Qb... Dcwbl` I fMe`&MxZvi †k−vKwbf©i GK Abw¯ÍZ¡cÖvq ...Ó| j‡iÝ Zuvi
fvlvq Ôiex›`ªbv_ c~RviÕ Zxeª we‡ivwaZv K‡i e‡jb, ÒVvKzi GK ¶wqòy, ee©i Kv‡ji cÖwZf~ n‡q
co‡Qb|Ó wKcwjs-Gi my‡i †M‡q wZwbI e‡jb, ÒAvgv‡`i cwðwg mf¨Zv AvR †hLv‡b `uvwo‡q,
†m D”PZvq †cuŠQevi ¯^cœI †`‡Lwb KL‡bv fviZ, cvim¨ A_ev c~e©‡`kxq †Kvb RvwZ|Ó

Dch©y³ gšÍ‡e¨ j‡iÝ †h J×Z¨ I N„Yvi ewntcÖKvk NUvb, Zv‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i
e³‡e¨iB mZ¨Zv cÖwZwôZ nq †KejÑ c~‡e©i cÖwZ cwð‡gi A‡nZzK Ae‡njv I N„YvB
c~e© I cwðg‡K µgkt `~‡i mwi‡q w`‡q‡Q Ges cwð‡gi cÖwZI cÖvP¨ µgkt wewØó
n‡q c‡o‡Q Awbevh©fv‡e| iex›`ªbv_ GB A‡nZzK cvi¯úwiK we‡Øl‡K †`‡L‡Qb
GBfv‡e : ÒAÁvbZvcÖm~Z A܇Z¡i Zzjbvq GB AÜwe‡Øl Av‡iv †ewk ˆbivk¨RbK;
KviY AÁvbZv †hLv‡b Av‡jvi Afve †evSvq, N„Yv †mLv‡b Av‡jvi Dcw¯’wZ‡KB
bm¨vr K‡i|Ó iex›`ªbv_ cÖZxP¨‡K m¼xY© Ansev`, nxb weR‡qvb¥ËZv, Rei`w¯Íg~jK
civkªqRxexZv I B”QvK…Z AÁZv cwinvi K‡i m„RbkxjZv, åvZ„Z¡‡eva I
gvbeKj¨vY‡ev‡a D¾xweZ n‡q cÖvP¨‡K g~j¨vq‡bi AvnŸvb Rvbvb| ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`b,
Bs‡iR‡`i hy×s‡`nx g‡bvfve Ges ¶gZv I abwjáv Jcwb‡ewkK wek¦‡K kΓZvi
AuvZzoN‡i iƒcvšÍwiZ K‡i‡Q; Av‡iv e‡jb, hy× K‡i wek¦Rq m¤¢e bq, mngwg©Zvq n‡Z
cv‡i| ÔN‡i evB‡iÕ Dcb¨v‡mi cÖavb PwiÎ wbwLj †Kej fvi‡Z weªwU‡ki Ackvm‡bi
cÖwZev` K‡iB ¶všÍ nq bv, fviZxq RvZxqZvev`x AvZ¼ev`x‡`i wb›`vqI †mv”Pvi
n‡q I‡V :
Av‡jKRvÛvi bq, †MŠZg ey× wek¦‡K Rq K‡iwQ‡jb—ïK‡bv M‡`¨ ej‡j GK_v mwZ¨
e‡j g‡b nq bv—Avgiv K‡e GK_v †Rvi Mjvq my‡i †M‡q mevB‡K Rvbv‡Z cvie? K‡e
Gme AšÍ‡ii evYx eB‡qi Qvcv A¶‡ii †eov wWwO‡q evB‡i Dc&‡P co‡e—M‡½vÎx
wngevn †_‡K DrmvwiZ M½vi cweÎ avivi g‡Zv cÖevwnZ n‡e wbiš—i?

jyKvP I j‡iÝ iex›`ªbv_‡K fvecªeY k¼vev`x wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kivi gva¨‡g
wb›`vg›` Ki‡jI, Zuvi RvZxqZvev`‡K eR©b kxNªB mwVK cš’v e‡j we‡ewPZ nq, hLb
cici `yÕwU wek¦hy× msNwUZ nq, j¶ j¶ gvbyl nZvnZ nq; cÂv‡ki `k‡K †Kwbqvi
wei“‡× hy³ivR¨ hy× †NvlYv K‡i, hv‡Z 1,50,000 gvbyl cÖvY nvivq; 1971 mv‡j
evsjv‡`‡k cvwK¯Ívwb‡`i nZ¨vhÁ, hv‡Z wÎk j¶ cÖv‡Yi webwó N‡U (Gi meB N‡U
DMÖ RvZxqZvev‡`i aŸRvavix‡`i Pig cš’v Aej¤^‡bi d‡j); Aek¨, lv‡Ui `k‡K
Gme NUbv me‡P‡q gvivZ¥K †gvo †bq, hLb cigvYy A‡¯¿ mw¾Z hyhyavb `yB wkwei
wek¦‡K Pig wech©‡qi gy‡L wb‡q †d‡j| wKDevi wgmvBj µvBwmm AvaywbK wek¦‡K
me©vZ¥K aŸs‡mi †`vi‡Mvovq †cuŠ‡Q w`‡qwQj, Pgw¯‹ g‡b Kwi‡q w`‡”Qb| 1962
mv‡ji A‡±ve‡i, msNv‡Zi Pig gyn~‡Z©, Pgw¯‹ e¨vL¨v K‡ib, f¨vwmwj AvwK©cf& bv‡g
kvk¦wZKx-111

ivwkqvi GK mveg¨vwib Kg©KZ©v wek¦‡K i¶v K‡ib! gvwK©b †WmUªqv‡ii Avµg‡Yi
gy‡L 27†k A‡±vei f¨vwmwj cvigvYweK A¯¿mw¾Z U‡c©‡Wv dvqvi Kivi Aek¨¤¢vex
ûKzgwU Ôe−K K‡ibÕ A_©vr AvU‡K †`b| †mw`b GB Hk¦h© I ¶gZvi `‡¤¢ Mex© c„w_exi
Aw¯ÍZ¡ GKRb gvby‡li KvÊÁvb, weP¶YZv I †evakw³i fimvq wU‡K wQj, ejv DwPr
SyjwQj—†eu‡P wM‡qwQj f¨vwmwji `~i`wk©Zvq—m¤ú~Y© we‡k¦i wejywß bv NU‡jI DËi
†Mvjva© †Zv KuvcwQjB!
AvbygvwbK cuvP †KvwU gvbyl wesk kZvãx Ry‡o wewfbœ i³¶qx hy× I msN‡l© cÖvY
nvivq| GB wecyj msL¨K gvby‡li cÖvYnvwb N‡U wewfbœ RvwZMZ we‡f‡`i †Ri †U‡b—
Ae‡k‡l mœvqyhy‡×i Aemv‡b gvbyl fve‡jv, Gev‡i we‡k¦ kvwšÍ cÖwZôv cv‡e| wKš‘ fwe
†fvjevi bq| wesk kZvãxi Aemv‡b bZzb mnmªv‡ãi ïi“‡ZB †`Lv †Mj, bZzb K‡i
wek¦ Rwo‡q co‡Q cÖvYNvZx msN‡l©, cÖv‡Yi webwói KzrwmZ gnovq, c„w_exi bvbv
cÖv‡šÍ| wRnvw`iv (wRnvw` ej‡Z †Kej Pigcwš’ Bmjvg gZvej¤^x‡`i K_v ejv n‡”Q
bv, hy×s‡`nx AwZ¯^‡`wk hviv wnsmvZ¥K aŸsmhÁ I wb‡`©vl wbi¯¿ gvbyl‡K wbwe©ev‡`
nZ¨vq gv‡Z, Zv‡`i K_vI ejv n‡”Q) Avevi AvNvZ nvb‡Q, c„w_ex wekvj me
nZ¨vKvÊ I aŸsm †`L‡Q †ek wKQzw`b nj| †m‡Þ¤^i 11-Gi K‡qK gyn‡~ Z© †h nZ¨v I
aŸsm wbDBqK©evmx †`Lj, Zvi cÖZ¨z Ëi wnmv‡e gvwK©wb mvgwiK Awfhvb, hv
AvdMvwb¯Ív‡b eû Rbc`‡K a~wj¯§vr Kij, hv †`‡L AwfÁ †¯úb‡`kxq mvsevw`K
wg¸‡qj G‡½j AvwMjvi e‡jb, ÒAvgiv gkv gvi‡Z Kvgvb `vMwQjvg| wbi‡c¶,
wb‡`©vl gvbyl g„Z¨z eiY Kij, A_P Avgv‡`i wbivcËv wbwðZ nj KB!Ó; Biv‡K
Av‡gwiKvi mš¿vmwe‡ivax hy×—Gi me wKQzB wek¦‡K e`‡j w`‡q‡Q, RvZxq wbivcËvi
bv‡g †h aŸsmjxjv P‡j‡Q—Zv †m wek¦‡Rvov Bmjvwg RvZxqZvev`x R½xiv hv K‡i
†eov‡”Q A_ev cvðv‡Z¨i ag©wbi‡c¶ RvZxqZvev‡`i Rei`w¯——mKjB GK AÜKvi
fwel¨‡Zi w`‡KB A½ywjwb‡`©k Ki‡Q| †m hv †nvK, me hy× GLwb †kl n‡”Q bv,
gvwK©b †cÖwm‡W›U ey‡ki †mB evYx : ÒAvgv‡`i Avevmf~wg‡K wbivc` Ki‡Z †h AviI
KZ jovB evwK i‡q‡QÓ GLv‡b cÖwYavb‡hvM¨| kvwšÍi A‡c¶vq †evanq Avgv‡`i
_vK‡Z n‡e Av‡iv ZZw`b, hwÏb bv †mbvcwZiv Zv‡`i wn‡me gvwdK hveZxq
b„ksmZvi cvU PzwK‡q mgi‡`eZvi i³wccvmv †gUv‡Z m¶g nb †hgbwU evUªv© Û
iv‡m‡ji fwel¨Z evYxi A¶‡i A¶‡i cÖwZdwjZ :
hyM-hyMe¨vcx awiÎxgvZv cÖRvcwZ, UªvB‡jvevB‡Ui g‡Zv Rxe‰ewP‡Î¨i Rb¥ †`evi
ci weeZ©‡bi A‡gvN Pµv‡šÍ wb‡iv, †Pw½m Lvb, wnUjvi‡`i D™¢e cÖZ¨¶ K‡i‡Q|
G µvwšÍKvj Aek¨ †K‡U hv‡e, `yt¯^‡cœi hš¿Yv †kl n‡e; Kv‡ji weeZ©‡b c„w_ex‡Z
cÖv‡Yi Aw¯—Z¡ Avevi jyß n‡e, Ges kvwšÍ wdi‡e|
RvZxqZvev` I iex›`ªbv_
†e‡bwW± GÛvimb ÔRvwZÕ-†K GK ÔKwíZ Rb‡MvôxÕ wn‡m‡e msÁvwqZ K‡i‡Qb|
e‡j‡Qb, GB cÖc‡K msÁvwqZ Kiv KwVb, we‡k−lY †Zv `~‡ii K_v...| wnD †mUbIqUmb e‡jb, ÒRvwZ, RvZxqZv, RvZxqZvev`—RvwZÕi †Kvb wek¦vm‡hvM¨ msÁv
wba©viY Kiv Am¤¢e|Ó Avb©÷ †Mjbvi e‡j‡Qb, ÒRvZxqZvev` GK ev‡bvqvU
D™¢veb|Ó ÒRvZxqZvev` †gv‡UB RvwZmËvi RvM„wZ bq; GwU GK A™¢Z
z †eva hv
kvk¦wZKx-112

†hLv‡b †Kvb RvwZi Aw¯ÍZ¡ †bB, †mLv‡b RvZxqZv‡ev‡ai KóKíbv‡K RvMiƒK Kivi
cÖqvmx|Ó GwU GK wg_, hv AvaywbK mgv‡R ivR‰bwZK I Av‡eMxq ˆeaZv jvf K‡i‡Q
†Kvb `y‡Á©q Kvi‡Y| wej GkµdU e‡jb, RvZxqZvev‡`i †Kvb ZË¡ `uvo Kiv‡bv GK
KwVb cÖ¯Ívebv hw`I, e¨vL¨vi AZxZ †Kvb Dcv‡q GwU wesk kZvãxi ivRbxwZ‡Z
k³‡cv³fv‡e Ae¯’vb K‡i G‡m‡Q|
RvwZÕi ivR‰bwZK msÁv wbiƒc‡b GKwU †fŠMwjK mxgv wba©viY I wKQz mvs¯‹…wZK/
ivR‰bwZK Zvrch© ev ˆewk‡ói D‡j−L Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e mv¤cÖwZK wPšÍvfvebvi dmj
ejv hvq| mvs¯‹…wZK ¯^vRvZ¨‡ev‡ai e¨vcviUv Aek¨ mgvR m„wói †Mvov †_‡KB wQj|
GÛvim¨‡bi g‡Z, BD‡iv‡ci RvMiY I wkíwec−‡ei Ab¨Zg dmj nj RvwZmËvi
ivR‰bwZK cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e weKvkjvf| wZwb ej‡Qb, cwðg BD‡iv‡c RvZxqZvev‡`i
DÌvb N‡UwQj agx©q wPšÍvavivi wejywß bv n‡jI µgkt Ae‡nwjZ n‡q cov‡Z—
hyw³ev‡`i Avwef©v‡e hyw³wm× ag©wbi‡c¶Zv ax‡i ax‡i RvqMv K‡i †bqvi cÖwµqvq,
G‡Z m‡›`n †bB| †eŠw×K GB Av‡›`vj‡bi PvwjKvkw³ †h‡nZz wQj hyw³i gyw³ I
gvby‡li gh©v`v‡ev‡a Mfxi cÖZ¨q—G‡Z cÖPwjZ wek¦vm e¨e¯’v †f‡O c‡o, hvi †K‡›`ª
wQj Dcvmbvjq (PvP©), cy‡ivwnZ wQ‡jb hvi aviK-evnK-cÖPviK-cÖkvmK| ag©Z‡š¿i
Aemv‡b GBfv‡e GK ev¯Íewbf©i mvgvwRK-ivR‰bwZK mgvRe¨e¯’vi µgweKvk NU‡Z
jvMj, ag©wbi‡c¶ mgv‡R RvZxqZvev`x †PZbvi D‡b¥l NUj| hLb ag©wbi‡c¶Zv
A`„óev`‡K cwinvi Kij, ZLb, GÛvim‡bi g‡Z, RvwZ-i aviYv hyw³ev`x‡`i
A‡b‡Ki wbKUB GK Kvh©Ki weKí wn‡m‡e cÖwZfvZ nj|
Acic‡¶, Avb©÷ ej‡Qb, Aóv`k-Dbwesk kZvãxi wkíwfwËK cyuwRev‡`i
µgweKv‡ki avivq RvZxqZvev`x fvebvwPšÍvi ïi“| wkíwec−e c~e©eZx© mgv‡Ri wkíwec−e
cieZx© mvgvwRK-A_©‰bwZK e¨e¯’vq †h hvÎv, †mB gnvhvÎvq gvbe‡Mvôx‡K Av‡Mi Zzjbvq
e„nËi, mvs¯‹…wZK †ev‡ai wbwi‡L mggvwÎK mvgvwRK †Mvôx‡Z GKwÎZ Kivi cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv
w`j, †`Lv w`j Kgx©‡`i mgevq MV‡bi cÖ‡qvRb, d‡j, µgkt RwUj I welg mvgvwRK
msMVb Ô†bBk¨b-†÷BUÕ ev RvwZwfwËK ivóªwbg©v‡Yi †SuvK cÖwZôv †cj| Kgx©`j I evRvi
e¨e¯’vi m¤úªmvi‡Y wkíwec−e c~e©eZx© DcRvwZwfwËK mgvRe¨e¯’v M‡o D‡VwQj, hvi
KvVv‡gv c‡i Ach©vß I AKvh©Ki n‡q c‡o| wU‡gvw_ †eªbvb RvZxq †PZbv wbg©v‡Yi ïi“‡Z
mvwnZ¨, we‡kl K‡i Dcb¨v‡mi f~wgKv †hfv‡e we‡k−−lY K‡ib :

mvwnZ¨ hw`I wek¦gvby‡li gb‡K RvZxqZvev‡`i bvbv iƒc I Mwigv cÖ`k©‡b DÏxwcZ,
D¾xweZ K‡i, fvi‡Zi Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi—hv‡K evUª©vÛ iv‡mj Òm‡ev©”P m¤§v‡bi
`vwe`viÓ I GRiv cvDÛ ÒAvgv‡`i †h Kv‡iv †P‡q gnËiÓ wn‡m‡e g~j¨vqb K‡ib—
RvZxqZvev‡`i Av`‡k© GZUzKzI U‡jbwb ev cÖfvweZ nbwb| RvZxqZvev‡`i cÖK…Z
¯^iƒc I cÖwZôvbiƒ‡c Gi D‡Ïk¨‡K wN‡i Zuvi me‡P‡q eo AvcwË wQj| GB mZ¨ †h,
GwU GKwU mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb, wKQz cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡bvi Dc‡hvMx wn‡m‡e M‡o †Zvjv
GK hvwš¿KZv`yó cÖwZôvb—GB ¯^iƒc D`NvUb G‡K iex›`ªbv‡_i wbKU we¯^v` K‡i

Zz‡j‡Q| Kwe wbgv©‡Yi PvB‡Z m„Rb, hyw³i †P‡q Kíbvkw³, K…w·gi Zzjbvq cÖvK…wZK
hv wKQz—Zv‡KB mv`‡i MÖnY Ki‡Zb|
ag©Z‡š¿i cZ‡bi ci wkí-cyuwRev‡`i M‡elYvMv‡i †h‡nZz RvZxqZvev‡`i Rb¥,
iex›`ªbv_ G‡K †Kej ÒivRbxwZ I evwY‡R¨i cÖ‡qvR‡b Mov cÖwZôvbÓ iƒ‡cB †`‡L‡Qb,
hvi Øviv Òwecyj ab AR©bÓ m¤¢e wKsev Òe¯‘ev`mÄvZ cÖ‡gv`evRviÓ ˆZwi m¤¢e| GB
wbg©v‡Y †jvf, ¯^v_©ciZv, ¶gZv I DbœwZi ïuo ev `uvov we¯Ívi Kiv Avek¨K n‡q c‡o,
A_ev, gvby‡li bxP cÖew„ ˸wj‡K D‡ËwRZ K‡i mwµq K‡i †Zvjv cÖ‡qvRb, hv‡Z GB
weaŸsmx cÖwµqvq Òm¤ú~Y© gvbyl, ˆbwZKZvF× gvbyl‡K wemR©b w`‡q mxwgZ
¯^v_©ewy ×m¤úbœ, ivR‰bwZK I evwYwR¨K D‡Ïk¨me©¯^ gvby‡li Rb¨ RvqMv K‡i †`qv
hvqÓ| RvZxqZvev‡`, iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, KL‡bvB mvgvwRK cÖvYxiƒc gvby‡li ¯^Ztù~Z©
AvZ¥cÖKv‡ki RvqMv †bB| ¯^vfvweKfv‡e wbqwš¿Z gvbweK m¤úK©, hvi mvnv‡h¨ gvbyl
ci¯ú‡ii mn‡hvwMZvq bvbv Av`k© wbg©v‡Y eªZx nq, RvZxqZvev‡` Zvi RvqMv †bB; eis
GK`j ivR‰bwZK I evwYwR¨K Afxó AR©‡b h~_e× gvbylB RvZxqZvev‡`i aŸRvi bx‡P
GKwÎZ n‡q Zv‡`i jvf, DbœwZ I ¶gZv e„w×i Rb¨ KvR K‡i _v‡K| RvZxqZvev`
msMwVZ gvbe‡Mvôxi ¯^v_© msi¶Y K‡i, hv wKbv †gv‡UB gvbweK ev Ava¨vwZ¥K bq
cÖKiY wePv‡i| iex›`ªbv_ RvZxqZvev`‡K gvbeZvwe‡ivax GK AvZ¼iƒ‡c †`L‡Zb,
KviY e¯‘ev` I hyw³ev‡`i evB‡ii wKQz‡Z Zvi Av¯’v †bB| gvbweK Av‡eM I gvbweK
Av‡Z¥vcjwä‡K gvwo‡q RvZxqZvev` gvby‡li ˆbwZK fvimvg¨‡K bm¨vr K‡i †`q,
ÒAvZ¥vweewR©Z msMV‡bi QvqvÜKv‡i gvbweK ¸Yv¸Y‡K Avovj K‡iÓ|
RvZxqZvev‡`i wbg©vY, hv wKbv gvby‡li mnRvZ I cÖew„ ËMZ ¸Yv¸Y‡K `wg‡q
iv‡L, †Kej Zvi ivR‰bwZK I e¨emvwqK jv‡fi welq‡K ¸i“Z¡ †`q| gvby‡li
ˆbwZKZv I Ava¨vwZ¥KZv †h cÖwµqvq wemwR©Z nq—iex›`ªbv_ G‡K cÖ‡kœi gy‡LvgywL
`uvo Kwi‡q‡Qb| GB mxgve×Zv RvZxqZvev`‡K Am¤ú~Y©, GK †gi“‡Kw›`ªK
GKwkjv¯Í‡¤¢ cwiYZ K‡i‡Q—hv wKbv gvby‡li Rb¨ Ach©vß—†h‡nZz gvbyl ¯^fveZB
iKg‡di ˆecixZ¨ wejvmx, hvi ms‡k−lY I GKxf~ZKiY cÖ‡qvRb nq, fvOPz‡ii
cÖwµqvq Ae‡k‡l m¤ú~Y© gvbylwU †ewi‡q Av‡m|
Av‡MB ejv n‡q‡Q, iex›`ªbv_ RvZxqZvev‡`i f~Z‡K RvwZ‡Z RvwZ‡Z hy×, N„Yv I
cvi¯úwiK m‡›`‡ni m~wZKvMvi iƒ‡c †`‡L‡Qb| ÔN‡i evB‡iÕ Dcb¨v‡m iex›`ªbv‡_i
AvZ¥¯^iƒc †`k‡cÖwgK wbwLj †h RvwZmËv‡K mZ¨ I we‡e‡Ki †P‡q Dc‡i VuvB w`‡Z
MiivwR, ej‡Q, ÒAvwg †`‡ki †meK; wKš‘ cy‡Rv †Zvjv iBj m‡Z¨i A‡c¶vq, hv
†`‡ki †P‡q A‡bK eo| †`k‡K fMevb Áv‡b e›`bv Ki‡j G‡K Awfkß Kivi
Aciva NU‡e|Ó wbwL‡ji eÜz m›`xc, ci‡gvrmvnx A_P Awe‡eKx RvZxqZvev`x, †h
Rv‡Zi bv‡g †h †Kvb e¾vwZ mB‡Z-Ki‡Z ivwR, †h mZ¨-b¨v‡qi †Zvqv°v K‡i bv,
ej‡Q, Ò†`‡ki cÖ‡qvRb‡K fMe`&‡mev wn‡m‡e †`L‡Z n‡eÓ, ÒcÖ‡qvR‡b, we‡eK‡K
mwi‡q †i‡L †`k‡K Zvi RvqMvq emv‡Z n‡eÓ| m›`x‡ci Gew¤^a AwZcÖvMÖmi fvebv,
hv wKbv †`k‡K †`e‡Z¡i Askx`vi K‡i Zz‡j‡Q—G‡K iex›`ªbv_ ÔcÖjq¼ixÕ e‡j‡Qb|
Gi †_‡K Rb¥ †bq GK‡PwUqvev` I †Mvuovwg, hv †n‡Mj-Gi wØ-wefvRbwfwËK hyw³i
cÖ‡qv‡M RvwZ‡K AvZ¥ciZvq gMœ K‡i iv‡L, Aci RvwZ‡K wbR Aw¯Í‡Z¡i we‡ivax g‡b

kvk¦wZKx-113

kvk¦wZKx-114

Aóv`k kZvãxi †klfvM I Dbwesk kZvãxi ïi“‡Z wewfbœ RvwZi DÌvbc‡e© RvZxq
Rxe‡bi bvbv cÖKvk I iƒ‡ci AbyK…wZ HwZnvwmKfv‡eB Dcb¨v‡m wea„Z n‡q‡Q... cªK…Zc‡¶
Dcb¨vm gvbyl‡K RvwZmËvi ¯^iƒc wel‡q wPšÍvfvebv I Kíbv Ki‡Z †kLvq|

nq; Aci RvwZ‡K AvµgY Kivi cÖwµqv‡K hyw³hy³ I ÔcweÎ Kg©Õ g‡b n‡Z _v‡K|
iex›`ªbv_ e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Qb :

iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb, e„wUk Jcwb‡ewkKZv hLb fviZel© I Ab¨vb¨ m¤ú`kvjx †`‡k
jyVZivR Pvwj‡q wbR Øxc‡`‡ki mg„w× NUv‡Z e¨vc„Z nq, ZLb Zviv RvZxqZvev‡`i
Av`k© KcwP‡q †mme KzK‡g©i hyw³ `vuo Kivq| Zviv KL‡bv Jcwb‡e‡ki Dbœq‡b
Zwbœô wQjbv, KviY Zv‡Z Zv‡`i RvZxq ¯^v_© ¶yYœ nZ, Ôg„Mqv‡¶ÎÕ Zvi AvKl©Y
nvivZ| wkKvix wnsmª cÖvYxi g‡Zv (†hgbwU Avgiv j¶¨ K‡iwQ, RvZxqZvev`
DËivwaKvim~‡Î wkKviRxex hyw³i mg_©K) GK RvwZ Ab¨ RvwZi Ici Ryjyg I wnsmª
Avµg‡Yi gv‡SB †eu‡P _v‡K, †KvbiKg fv‡jvevmv-mg‡e`bv-wek¦ åvZ…Z¡‡eva Zv‡K
AvMÖvmx ZrciZv †_‡K wcwQ‡q Avm‡Z e‡j bv| AwZ mij I wbôzi GB hyw³ n‡”Q
GiKg : m¤ú`kvjx I ¶gZvai RvwZ Movi cÖwµqvq wKQz RvwZ‡K †Zv `vwi`ª¨cxwoZ
I `ye©j n‡ZB n‡e| ÒKviY nj, G mf¨Zv n‡”Q ¶gZvi mf¨Zv; AZGe G GK
we‡klvwqZ mf¨Zv—G mf¨Zv hv‡`i †kvlY K‡i wU‡K _vK‡e, Zv‡`i Rb¨ †Zv Gi
kw³ ev ¶gZvi DrmØvi KL‡bv Db¥y³ n‡e bvÓ| RvZxqZvev‡` msMV‡bi ¯^fveB
GiKg †h, iex›`ªbv_ e‡jb, GLv‡b ciwnZeª‡Zi †Kvb VuvB †bB|
†KD †KD GiKg fve‡Z cv‡ib, iex›`ªbv‡_i RvZxqZvev` welqK wPšÍv-fvebv
nq‡Zvev GKUz †ewkgvÎvq AwfRvZ I KóKwíZ—G‡K cvDÛ nq‡Zv ÔAwZï×Õ
AvL¨vwqZ Ki‡Zb; cÖK…Z cÖ¯Ív‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i hyw³Rvj AwamÂvix Ava¨vZ¥ev` I
†ivg¨vw›UK Av`k©ev‡`i gv‡S wePiYkxj| †m hv †nvK, wZwb hv ej‡Qb, Zvi meUvB
†eŠw×K wePv‡i mwVK Ges Gi wKQz wKQz Dcv`v‡bi †`Lv Jcwb‡ewkKZvev` cieZx©
mgv‡jvPbv mvwn‡Z¨ †g‡j| mgv‡jvPKiv e‡jb, RvwZ GK cÖ‡qvRbxq Aw¯ÍZ¡, eZ©gvb
mf¨Zv‡K kw³kvjx Kivi cÖwµqvq RvwZ mnvqK n‡Z cv‡i; eZ©gvb mgv‡Ri mvgvwRK†eŠw×K cwi‡e‡k RvwZ ivR‰bwZK msMVb wn‡m‡e f~wgKv ivL‡Z m¶g; wKš‘ gvbweK
¸Yvejx msnZKiY A_ev ˆbwZKZvi †¶‡Î KZ„©Z¡ Kivi †Kvb GLwZqvi Gi †bB|
Av`k©MZ wePv‡i RvZxqZvev‡`i wbwg©wZ Gi Ab¨Zg `ye©j DËivwaKvi| RvwZi
Ab¨Zg cÖeYZv nj, cÖZ¨ve„Ë n‡q Av‡iv ¯^vfvweK me mvgvwRK BDwbU, †hgb †KŠg,
DcRvwZ, bi‡Mvôx A_ev fvlv I ag©wfwËK MÖ“‡c cwiYZ nIqv—A_©vr †h cÖwµqvq
Gi Rb¥, ZviB g‡a¨ Gi wehyw³i exRgš¿ wbwnZ| RvwZ hw`I wbwg©Z nq mngwg©Zv ev
eÜzZ¡ M‡o †Zvjvi kc_ wb‡q, †kvlY I ˆelg¨ GLvbKvi ˆbwgwËK NUbv—RvwZ
KL‡bv Zvi ÒKvíwbK Rb‡MvôxÓ-i Avkv-AvKv•¶vi K_v e‡j bv| RvwZ Zvi fvev`k©
`uvo Kiv‡bvi †ejvq msL¨vjNy‡`i †V‡j †`q cÖvšÍevmx wn‡m‡e Avi †bZ…Z¡Kvix `j‡K
†K›`ªxq f~wgKvq †U‡b †bq, Av‡iv D”PvKv•¶x K‡i †Zv‡j| Gfv‡eB åvZ…Z¡‡eva µgk
AšÍwn©Z nq, bZzb GK D”P-bx‡Pi web¨vm µgkt ¯úó n‡q I‡V, hv ejv n‡qwQj, Zv
Avi Kiv n‡q I‡V bv| dvbu †hgb e‡jb, ÒRvZxq †PZbv, mK‡ji Avkv-AvKv•¶vi

cÖKvk bq, GK ¯’j
’ , f½yi Zvgvkvq ch©ewmZ nq; Rb‡Mvôx RvwZ‡K mwi‡q †`q,
DcRvwZ ivóª‡K cÖwZ¯’vwcZ K‡i|Ó
†ek K‡qKRb DËi-Dcwb‡ekev`x mgv‡jvPK iex›`ªbv‡_i m‡½ G wel‡q GKgZ
n‡q‡Qb †h, RvZxqZvev` mnbkxjZv eR©b K‡i †hŠw³KZvnxb Kzms¯‹vi I N„Yvi c‡¶
cÖPviYv Pvjvq—Av‡b©÷ †Mjbvi, †e‡bwW± GÛvim¨b Ges Ug †bqvb© e‡j‡Qb| jxjv
Mvuax e‡jb, †Mvôxev‡`i aŸRvavixiv RvwZi bv‡g AvZ¥vûwZ w`‡Z ev Lyb Ki‡Z wcQcv
nq bv| cÖe‡Üi ïi“‡Z Avwg wb‡RI e‡jwQ, RvZxqZvev‡`i auy‡qv Zz‡j AvZ¼ev`x
Kxfv‡e AvZ¼ Qovq, †Mvôxev` cÖwZôv K‡i, hy× evavq hy×ev‡Riv| abx I kw³gË
RvwZ hLb AvµgYKvixi f~wgKvq AeZxY© nq, ZLb Zv‡`i KzrwmZ wnsmv ev `gbbxwZ
XvKevi Rb¨ Zviv G ai‡bi AvMÖvmb‡K ÔMYZ‡š¿i cÖwZôvÕ ev Ôwbixn RbmvaviY‡K
GKbvq‡Ki Ackvmb †_‡K i¶vÕ BZ¨vw` AvcvZMÖvn¨ †cvkvK cwi‡q †`q| Aek¨ G
ai‡bi evMvo¤^i kxNªB Amvi cÖgvwYZ nq| 1937 mv‡j Rvcvb hLb Pxb AvµgY
K‡i, ZLb Rvcvwb †jLK B‡qv‡b b¸wP iex›`ªbv_‡K wPwV wj‡L H Rvcvwb AvMÖvm‡bi
c‡¶ ˆbwZK mg_©b †P‡qwQ‡jb| iex›`ªbv_ AwZmij ¯^RvwZ‡cÖ‡g DØy× nIqvi Zxeª
mgv‡jvPbv K‡i b¸wP‡K e‡jb :
†UvwKIevmx GK ivRbxwZ‡Ki GKwU mv¤úªwZK e³e¨ c‡o Av‡gvw`Z n‡qwQ|
BZvwj Avi Rvg©vwbi m‡½ Rvcv‡bi mvgwiK AuvZvZ bvwK D”Pgv‡M©i Ava¨vwZ¥KZv I
ˆbwZKZvi wfwˇZ n‡q‡Q| gRvi K_v m‡›`n †bB| hv Avgv‡K †gv‡UB Avn¬vw`Z
K‡iwb, Zv nj, †`‡ki †jLK I wPšÍvwe`ivI mgibvqK‡`i Amvi evMvo¤^‡ii
mg_©‡b †cuv a‡i‡Qb|
hy×evR‡`i fÊvwg wel‡q Ugvm †Rdvimb Zvi mg‡qi AwfÁZv eY©bv K‡i‡Qb Gfv‡e:
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mZK©Zv D”PviY K‡iwQ‡jb :

iex›`ªbv‡_i Rb¥ 1861 mv‡j—hLb fvi‡Z e„wUk kvm‡bi wei“‡× RvZxq Av‡›`vjb
`vbv euvawQj µgkt| Kwei R‡b¥i gvÎ 4 eQi Av‡M 1857 mv‡j G‡`‡k e„wUk
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ZLb Gi cÖwZev` wn‡m‡e Kwei Avcb kn‡i, evwoi †`vi‡Mvovq Ô¯^‡`wkÕ Av‡›`vj‡bi
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kvk¦wZKx-117

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AvZ¥cÖKvk K‡i‡Q : fviZ, cvwK¯Ívb I evsjv‡`k| 1947 mv‡j fviZ fvM n‡q fviZ
I cvwK¯Ívb iv‡óªi Rb¥ nq, GK †KvwU gvbyl ZLb M„nnxb nq, `k jv‡Li gZ gvbyl
cÖvY nvivq; `yÕwU eo AvKv‡ii hy× msNwUZ n‡q‡Q, †QvULvU mxgvšÍ msNl© †Zv
jvMvZvi Pj‡Q—Av‡iv hy×, GgbwK cvigvYweK A¯¿mw¾Z n‡q hy‡×iI ûgwK-ag&wK
Pj‡Q; RvZ wb‡q †ec‡ivqv e¾vwZi P~ovšÍ Avi wK! wn›`y-gymjgv‡bi RvZag©wfwËK
`v½vq nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl cÖvY w`‡q‡Q B‡Zvg‡a¨, fviZe‡l© GL‡bv `wi`ª gvby‡li
msL¨v µgea©gvb, ivRbxwZi AmvayZv I MYgvby‡li `y`©kv mxgvnxb| iex›`ªbv_
mveavbevYx D”PviY K‡iwQ‡jb †h, RvZxqZvev‡`i me©bvkv †bkvq gvZ‡j
fviZevmx‡K cwð‡gi gyLv‡c¶x n‡q _vK‡Z n‡e, †mwUI mZ¨ cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q|
fviZel© hw`I ¯^vaxb n‡q‡Q (A_P wef³I Zv‡K n‡Z n‡q‡Q!), RvZxqZvev‡`i ¯^cœ
I ¯^v‡_©i ev¯Íevqb cÖwµqvq †m Zvi ¯^KxqZv‡eva I wbR¯^ †PZbv nvwi‡q e‡m‡Q,
n‡q‡Q cwð‡gi nvm¨Ki KwcK¨vU, ch©ewmZ n‡q‡Q be¨ Dcwb‡ekev`xi mnR Uv‡M©‡U!
iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔGK wek¦Õ ev¯Íevq‡bi ¯^cœI AvR `~i A¯Í, †h‡nZz RvZxqZvev‡` wbwnZ
i‡q‡Q cÖv‡`wkKZvi exR I mvs¯‹w… ZK GK‡`k`wk©Zv|

kvk¦wZKx-119

kvk¦wZKx-120

Dcmsnvi
ÔRxeb¯§„wZÕ MÖ‡š’ iex›`ªbv_ †KŠZzKf‡i ¯§iY K‡i‡Qb, Zuvi ˆkke AwZevwnZ nq
evwoi PvKi‡`i gn‡j, PvKi-evKi‡`i Z`viwK‡ZB| f„Z¨Kyj Zv‡`i `vwq‡Z¡ duvwK
w`‡Z gv‡S-gv‡S N‡ii GK RvqMvq LwogvwU w`‡q `vM w`‡q evjK iex›`ªbv_‡K ejZ,
H j¶èY‡iLvi evB‡i hvIqv wb‡la; `v‡Mi evB‡i cv w`‡j cwiYvg †h Kx fq¼i n‡Z
cv‡i, †m wel‡q evj‡Ki k¼vKzj g‡b hveZxq wec‡`i Qwe Gu‡K w`‡q Zviv wbwð‡šÍ
w`evwb`ªv †h‡Zv| j²Y‡iLv Agvb¨ Kivq ivgvq‡Yi mxZvi fv‡M hv N‡UwQj iex›`ªbv_
†mUv Rvb‡Zb e‡j H Rei`w¯Ígj
~ K ew›``kv †g‡b wb‡Zb—Aek¨ H `vM gy‡Q †d‡j
evB‡ii RMZUv‡K †`LeviI B”Qv wQj A`g¨| ˆkk‡ei IB AwfÁZv Kwei Rxebm½x
n‡qwQj, fzj‡Z cv‡ib wb| †h †Kvb wb‡la‡K wZwb cieZx© Rxe‡b cÖkœ K‡i‡Qb,
AwZµg Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| RvZxq mxgv‡iLv Zuvi wbKU GKB iKg k¦vm‡ivax g‡b nZ|

e„nËi gvbe mgvR MV‡bi c‡_ evav¯^iƒc †Kvb KuvUv‡Sv‡ci Aw¯ÍZ¡ wZwb gvb‡Z
PvB‡Zb bv| wZwb ej‡Zb, RvZxqZvev` hw` Kíbv nq, Zvn‡j gvbyl H Kíbv‡K e¨vß
I we¯Ívix K‡i Zz‡j, †fŠ‡MvwjK mxgv‡iLv wWwO‡q wek¦mgvR‡K Avwj½b Ki‡e|
iex›`ªbv_ †NvlYv K‡ib :
AZGe gvbyl‡K wek¦gvbeZv‡ev‡a ejxqvb n‡Z n‡e, LwÊZ RvZxqZvev`wfwËK
†Kvb m¼xY©Zv bq Avi| WvK G‡m‡Q cÖwZwU gvby‡li Kv‡Q, †m hv‡Z wb‡R‡K I
Zvi cwicvk¦©‡K bZzb hy‡Mi bZzb cÖfv‡Z wek¦gvbeZvi H‡K¨i Rb¨ Kv‡R eªZx
K‡i Zzj‡Z cv‡i|
iex›`ªbv_ Kw_Z cÖwµqv Avewk¨Kfv‡e wØgyLx—Ò†`‡e Avi †b‡e, wgjv‡e, wgwj‡e...Ó,
†hLv‡b RvwZ I Rb‡Mvôx G‡K A‡b¨i m‡½, we‡k¦i gvby‡li m‡½ wgj‡e, GK
AvšÍR©vwZK gvbeZvev‡`i D`¢e NU‡e| Ggvm©b †hgb e‡j‡Qb, †Zgwb mKj AvwZkh¨
cwinvi K‡i ÒˆØZ †PZbvÓ-i D‡b¥l NUv‡Z n‡e, hv‡Z GKK gvbyl ¯^KxqZv eRvq
ivL‡e Avevi mgggx©I n‡e| A_ev, ûBUg¨vb †hgb GKB wbtk¦v‡m ÒAvZ¥Ó Ges
ÒeûÓ-i wel‡q D‡ØwjZ n‡q I‡Vb| RvwZqZvev`x AvZ¥‡cÖ‡gi E‡aŸ© DV‡Z m¶g
n‡jB iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔGK wek¦Õ-Gi †PZbv Avgv‡`i †evaMg¨ I AR©b n‡q DV‡Z cv‡i|
Aek¨ H ch©v‡q †cuŠQ‡Z cÖwµqvq Av‡iKwU †gŠwjK cwieZ©b NUv‡bv cÖ‡qvRb|
eZ©gv‡b RvwZ †h‡nZz †Kej ÒevwYR¨ I ivRbxwZÓ-Gi Ici cÖwZwôZ, Gi Afx‡ói
ZvwjKvq ˆbwZKZv ev Ava¨vwZ¥KZvi RvqMv †bB| AZGe AvZ¥v‡K D×vi K‡i Zvi
†K›`ªxq Ae¯’v‡b emv‡Z n‡e| AvZ¥v RvMÖZ n‡j gvbyl gvbweK I ggZvi Avav‡i
cwiYZ nq| AvBb÷vB‡bi m‡½ GK mv¶v‡Z iex›`ªbv_ e‡jwQ‡jb, ÒAvgvi ag©
A‡jŠwKK gvby‡li m‡½ Avgvi Aw¯ÍZ¡ Avi wek¦gvb‡ei AvZ¥vi wgj‡b—Ó| wb‡R‡K
hvPvB‡qi GB wÎgyLx cš’v—wb‡R‡Z, gvbeZvi wbwi‡L I Ck¦‡ii mgx‡c—hvi meB
Avevi GK A`„k¨ my‡Zvq MÖw_Z—wek¦‡K G‡b GK evmvq †Zv‡j| GB nj gvbeZvi
D”PZi HK¨—K‡cv©‡iU wek¦vqb †_‡K Gi cªK…wZ wfbœ, hv‡K iex›`ªbv_ Ò†Kej
ivR‰bwZK ev evwYwR¨K D‡Ï‡k¨ gvbeZvi HK¨Ó Awfavq eY©bv K‡i‡Qb! iex›`ªbv_
¯^cœ †`‡L‡Qb GK Ògnvb H‡K¨iÓ hv‡Z gvbeZvi cig Kj¨vY mvwaZ n‡Z cv‡i;
Av‡jvwKZ gvbyl I RvwZiv GKwÎZ n‡q A‡jŠwKK wek¦mgvR Mo‡e †hLv‡b—
ûBUgv‡bi Ôms Ae gvB‡mjdÕ KweZvi ÔNvmÕ †hgb, iex›`ªbv_ †Zgwb GK Dr‡cÖ¶vi
gva¨‡g Zuvi ¯^cœ ev¯Íevqb cÖwµqv e¨vL¨v K‡ib :
†Mvjv‡ci D‡Ïk¨ †hgb GKwU-GKwU `j †gjv, †hLv‡b cÖwZwU cuvcwo Abb¨,
†Zgwb gvbeZvi †Mvjvc ZLbB n‡q DV‡e Abb¨, Abycg, hLb we‡k¦i cÖwZwU
RvwZi ˆewkó¨ dz‡U DV‡e G‡K Ac‡ii m‡½ †gjv‡gkvi cÖwµqvq, mK‡jiB
†Mvovq _vK‡e GKB fv‡jvevmvi HK¨, †cª‡gi euvab|
iex›`ªbv_-Gi ¯^cœ Av`k©, wKš‘ GUvi ev¯Íevqb G¶‡Y Avi m¤¢e bq| eZ©gvb hy×evwR
Avi nvbvnvwbi gv‡S weï× gvbeZvev‡`i GKwU aviv cÖevwnZ Kivi cÖ‡qvR‡bi wel‡q
GLv‡b ejv n‡q‡Q, hv Ki‡Z n‡j cÖwZwU RvZxqZvev`x cÖwZôv‡b ˆbwZK I Ava¨vwZ¥K
`ywU avivi PP©v ejer Kiv Avek¨K n‡q co‡e| Gi A_©, eZ©gvb BwZnv‡mi cÖwµqv
†_‡K evB‡i †ewi‡q G‡m GK bZzb fwel¨r iPbv Kiv, †hLv‡b gvby‡li gh©v`v _vK‡e
mevi Dc‡i, me RvwZ I gvbyl †hLv‡b mwZ¨B mgvbfv‡e MYZ‡š¿i PP©vq wbqZ|

Avevi iex›`ªbv‡_i ¯^cœc‡_ Avgv‡`i ågY Ki‡Z A¯^xK…wZ Rvbv‡bvi Suwy KI
A‡bK, †m wel‡q m‡›`n †bB| eZ©gvb AvMÖvmx RvZxqZvev‡`i _vevq AvµvšÍ †Zv
e‡UB, †kl ch©šÍ AvµgYKvixi wb‡Ri Aw¯ÍZB¡ Suwy Ki m¤§yLxb n‡”Q| wnsmv cÖwZwbqZ
we‡k¦ Qov‡”Q fvBiv‡mi g‡Zv| Avgv‡`i A¯¿vMv‡i cÖwZw`b bZzb gviYv¯¿ †hvM n‡”Q,
Avgv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki giY ¶gZv evo‡Q Anwb©wk| cj nv÷©, †bZ…¯v’ bxq mgvRZvwË¡K
fwel¨revYx K‡i‡Qb, Rjevqyi e¨cK cwieZ©‡bi gy‡L Òevsjv‡`k A_ev `w¶Y Px‡bi
Nb emwZc~Y© GjvKv †_‡K wecyj Rb‡Mvôx‡K Ab¨Î mi‡Z n‡Z cv‡iÓ A_ev
Òga¨cÖvP¨ A_ev `w¶Y BD‡iv‡c Rjm¼U ev gi“KiY cÖwµqv †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡iÓ; we‡k¦
gvby‡li Av‡qi welgZv evo‡e; wek¦e¨vcx gvbevwaKvi j•N‡bi NUbv evo‡e; gvwK©b
hy³iv‡óªi KZ©Z
„ ¡ e„w×i cÖeYZv evo‡e Ges ÔbZyb Ôwf¶zK‡`iÕ mvgwiK P¨v‡jÄ e‡ov
kw³‡K fvev‡e; DbœZ †`‡ki ¯^v_©ciZv wek¦‡K msNvZgq AvšÍR©vwZK cwi‡e‡k
iƒcvšÍwiZ Ki‡e, GKwesk kZvãx‡Z MZvbyMwZK hy‡×i m‡½ ÔmxwgZ cvigvYweK
hy×ÕI msNwVZ n‡Z cv‡i| GiKg fwel¨revYx gvbeZvi R‡b¨ †Kej `ytL I aŸsmB
†W‡K Avb‡e| Avi †evaKwi Avgv‡`i †R‡M Ny‡gv‡bvi mgq †bB, gvbeZvi Kwe
iex›`ªbv‡_i ¯^cœc‡_ åg‡YB Avgv‡`i cÖeË
„ n‡Z n‡e—AvšÍR©vwZK kvwšÍ, ˆgÎx I
b¨v‡qi cÖwZôvq mKj‡K GK‡hv‡M Kv‡R bvg‡Z n‡e, Aemvb NUv‡Z n‡e eZ©gvb
¯^v_©vÜ RvZxqZvev` I hy×s‡`nx †`k‡cÖ‡gi—Zvn‡jB †Kej `yt¯^cœ Gov‡bv Ges
BwZnv‡mi PvKv †Nviv‡bvi KvR m¤¢e n‡Z cv‡i|

kvk¦wZKx-121

kvk¦wZKx-122

mvwnZ¨KvMR msev`

ÔwPýÕ
ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K AvM÷ gv‡m cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q knx` BKev‡ji
m¤úv`bvq ÔwPýÕi 21Zg msL¨v| cieZ©x msL¨vi KvR Pj‡Q...|
†hvMv‡hvM : m¤úv`K, 01715319362, 01710000847
dr.iqbalshahid@yahoo.com

ÔwbwiLÕ
ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K AvM÷ gv‡m cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q mwdKzbeœ x
mvgvw`i m¤úv`bvq mvwnZ¨ I wk‡íi KvMR ÔwbwiLÕi 4_© el©, 1g msL¨v|
cieZx© msL¨vi KvR Pj‡Q...|
†hvMv‡hvM : m¤úv`K, 01715138900, mtahsan@gmail.com

Kj¨vY KzÊy

gy‡mvwjwb I iex›`ªbv_
Abyev` : ivZzj cvj

MYgyw³i Av‡cvlnxb mg_©K iex›`ªbv_ GKevi AwZ `ytLRbK GKwU fyj K‡iwQ‡jb
d¨vwmev`x gy‡mvwjwbi Avgš¿Y MÖnY K‡i| NUbvwU †ek mgv‡jvwPZ n‡qwQj AvšÍR©vwZK
A½‡b, we‡kl K‡i BD‡iv‡ci evgcš’x msev`gva¨g¸wj‡Z| †klch©šÍ cwiw¯’wZ wbi¯Í
Ki‡Z iex›`ªbv_‡K Avgš¿Y MÖnY Kivi KviY e¨vL¨v K‡i eÜz Pvj©m A¨vÛªyR‡K GKwU
wPwV wjL‡Z nq| wPwVwU Ôg¨vb‡P÷vi MvwW©qvbÕ bvgK cwÎKvq 1926 mv‡ji 5B AvM÷
cÖKvwkZ n‡qwQj| cieZx©‡Z wPwVwU cybtm¤úvw`Z I Ab~w`Z n‡q cÖKvwkZ nq
BD‡iv‡ci wewfbœ msev`c‡Î| Z‡e gy‡mvwjwb kvwmZ BZvwj‡Z iex›`ªbv‡_i ågY‡K
†K›`ª K‡i m„ó fzj †evSveywSi Aemvb ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡Z †ek wKQzUv mgq †bq| wb‡gœv³
cÖe‡Ü wecixZ Av`k© I wek¦v‡mi `yB e¨w³‡Z¡i GK AmsjMœ mv¶v‡Zi msw¶ß eY©bv
†`Iqv n‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv_ BZvwj‡Z wM‡qwQ‡jb me©‡gvU `yBevi—cÖ_g evi 1925 mv‡j
I c‡ii evi 1926 mv‡j, hw`I Bsj¨v‡Û hvIqvi c~‡e© I Ae¯’vbKvjxb mg‡q wZwb †ek
K‡qKevi BZvwji wfZi w`‡q hvÎv K‡ib|
1920-Gi `k‡K BZvwji ivR‰bwZK cwiw¯’wZ
†h eQi gy‡mvwjwb ¶gZvq Av‡mb, A_©vr 1922 mv‡ji A‡±vei gv‡mi Av‡M BZvwj‡Z
ivR‰bwZK wek„•Ljv †`Lv †`q Ges ZrKvjxb cÖavbgš¿x jyBwM d¨vKUv gy‡mvwjwbi
†bZ…‡Z¡ msNwUZ we‡`ªvn `gb Ki‡Z e¨_© nb| BZvwji A_©bxwZ GB mgq fvimvg¨nxb
n‡q c‡o Ges Avk¼vRbKfv‡e e„w× †c‡Z _v‡K mš¿vm I nZ¨vKvÊ| msm`xq kvmb
e¨e¯’v cwiw¯’wZi mvgvj w`‡Z AcviM n‡q c‡o| mgvRZš¿xiv †m-mgq Ab¨Zg cÖavb
ivR‰bwZK kw³ wQj, wKš‘ BZvwji eyw×Rxex m¤úª`vq Zv‡`i‡K ¶gZvmxb `j wn‡m‡e
†g‡b wb‡Z A¯^xK„wZ Rvbvq| Ggb Aw¯’wZkxj cwiw¯’wZi `i“Y ¶gZvq Avm‡Z mg_©
nb gy‡mvwjwb | 1922 mv‡ji A‡±ve‡i †iv‡g msNwUZ weL¨vZ gv‡P©i ci BZvwji ivRv
wf‡ËvwiI Bgvby‡qj wfbœ †Kvb mgvav‡bi c_ LyuR‡Z e¨_© n‡q gy‡mvwjwb I Zvi
b¨vkbvj d¨vwm÷ cvwU©‡K miKvi MVb Ki‡Z e‡jb|
gy‡mvwjwb AwZ `ªyZ cwiw¯’wZi wbqš¿Y †bb, Ges G‡¶‡Î mn‡hvwMZv †hvMvq Zvi
e¨w³MZ Òe−¨vKkvU©Ó evwnbx, hviv wbg©gfv‡e `gb K‡i gy‡mvwjwb-we‡ivax‡`i|
msev`gva¨‡gi ¯^vaxbZv wejyß Kiv nq Ges AwZ `ªyZB mKj msev`cÎ n‡q c‡o
d¨vwm÷ wbqwš¿Z| 1924 mv‡j gy‡mvwjwb I Zvi wgwjwkqv evwnbx mš¿vm, wg_¨v cÖPviYv
Avi †fvU KviPzwci gva¨‡g wbe©vP‡b GKK msL¨vMwiôZv cvq| A¨v‡g‡Ûvjv I
g¨vwËIwZi g‡Zv wKQz mgvRZvwš¿K †bZv wbe©vP‡bi djvdj wb‡q cÖkœ Zz‡jwQ‡jb, Ges
dj¯^iƒc Zv‡`i‡K wbnZ n‡Z nq Ôe−¨vKkvU©Õ evwnbxi nv‡Z| Gici MYnZ¨v ïi“ n‡j
BZvwji eû msL¨K eyw×Rxex †`k †_‡K cvwj‡q BD‡iv‡ci Ab¨vb¨ †`‡k AvkÖq wb‡Z
_v‡Kb| mgvRZš¿x‡`i mv‡_ Giƒc wbg©g AvPiY AvšÍR©vwZK ch©v‡q gy‡mvwjwbi
fveg~wZ©i Dci †bwZevPK cÖfve †d‡jwQj| d«v‡Ýi mgvRZvwš¿K msev`gva¨g¸wj‡Z
Gi Kov mgv‡jvPbv Kiv nq| gy‡mvwjwb cÖ_g †_‡KB GKwU e¨vcvi Dcjwä
kvk¦wZKx-123

K‡iwQ‡jb, Zv nj—wb‡Ri †`‡k ghv©`v A¶zYœ ivL‡Z n‡j AvšÍRv© wZK ch©v‡q Zvi
fveg~wZ© D¾¡j Kiv cÖ‡qvRb, Ges kw³kvjx we‡`kbxwZ Ges mwVK cÖPviYv Qvov Zv
AR©b Kiv m¤¢e n‡e bv| wZwb cÖvqB we‡`wk msev`gva¨g, cÖfvekvjx e¨w³eM© I
mvs¯‹…wZK cÖwZwbwa‡`i Avgš¿Y Ki‡Zb Zvi kvmbe¨e¯’vi mvdj¨ cÖPvi Kivi R‡b¨|
GB ivR‰bwZK †cÖ¶vc‡U iex›`ªbv_ 1925 mv‡j Av‡R©w›Ubv †_‡K hvÎv K‡i BZvwj‡Z
Av‡mb cÖ_g ev‡ii gZ|
iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖ_g BZvwj ågY, 1925
iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡Q BZvwj hvevi cÖ_g AvbyôvwbK Avgš¿Y Av‡m wgjv‡bi
Ôwdj‡jvwRK¨vj †mvmvBwUÕ bvgK GKwU †emiKvwi AKv‡Wwg †_‡K| †d¬v‡iÝ I Zzwib
ågYmn mdiwUi e¨vwß nevi K_v wQj me©‡gvU 25 w`‡bi| wKš‘ Amy¯Z
’ vi Kvi‡Y
iex›`ªbv_‡K åg‡Yi ˆ`N©¨ Kgv‡Z nq| G-mgq BZvwjqvb wPwKrm‡Kiv Szwu K bv wb‡q
Zuv‡K fvi‡Z wd‡i hvevi civgk© †`b| evwZj Kiv nq †d¬v‡iÝ I Zzwib åg‡Yi
wm×všÍ | †kl ch©šÍ wZwb weªw›`wm wM‡q Rvnv‡R fvi‡Zi D‡Ï‡k¨ iIbv †`b|
iex›`ªbv‡_i Amy¯Z
’ v wKQzUv weeªZKi Ae¯’vq †d‡j Av‡qvRK‡`i| wgjvb I
†fwb‡m gvby‡li Dò Af¨_©bv †c‡q LyeB Avbw›`Z n‡qwQ‡jb iex›`ªbv_, d‡j
Amy¯Z
’ vi Kvi‡Y GB nVvr cÖ¯v’ b iex›`ªbv_‡KI †ek weeªZ K‡iwQj| kixi my¯’ n‡j
iex›`ªbv_ B”Qv‡cvlY K‡ib cybivq BZvwj åg‡Yi| Zuvi GB cÖZ¨vkv wZwb e¨³ K‡ib
GKwU KweZvq, †hwU BZvwjqvb fvlvq Ab~w`Z n‡q †m †`‡ki msev`gva¨‡g cÖPvwiZ
nq iex›`ªbv_ wd‡i Avmvi c~‡e©B|
wgjv‡b Ae¯’vbKvjxb mg‡q iex›`ªbv‡_i mv‡_ mv¶vr nq cÖ‡dmi diwgwPi, whwb
wQ‡jb †ivg wek¦we`¨vj‡qi GKRb fviZ-wekvi` I ms¯‹Z
… fvlvi cwÊZ| diwgwPB
iex›`ªbv‡_i BZvwj md‡ii cÖavb D‡`¨v³v wQ‡jb, Ges Zuvi BZvwj md‡ii mgq
†`vfvlxi f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| wgjvb †Q‡o Avmvi c~‡e© iex›`ªbv_ diwgwP‡K
wek¦fviZx‡Z AwZw_ Aa¨vcK wn‡m‡e †hvM †`evi Avgš¿Y Rvbv‡Z| GQvovI
iex›`ªbv_ Zuv‡K h_vh_ Znwej MVb K‡i wewbg‡qi wfwˇZ wek¦fviZxi Rb¨ GKRb
BZvwjqvb cwÊZ e¨e¯’v Kivi cvkvcvwk BZvjxq mvwnZ¨ I wkíKjvi eB cÖ`v‡bi
Aby‡iva K‡ib| Avgš¿Y MÖnY K‡ib diwgwP| †ivg ågY bv Kivi `i“Y cÖ_gevi
iex›`ªbv‡_i mv‡_ gy‡mvwj‡bi mv¶vr nqwb, Z‡e gy‡mvwjwb wgjv‡b iex›`ªbv‡_i
Dcw¯’wZ m¤ú‡K© ÁvZ wQ‡jb|
iex›`ªbv‡_i wØZxq BZvwj ågY, 1925
cÖ‡dmi diwgwP wek¦fviZx †_‡K AvbyôvwbKfv‡e wb‡qvMcÎ cvb 1925 mv‡ji
RyjvB‡q| ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB wZwb Lywk nb, Z‡e cvkvcvwk wKQzUv DwØMœI wQ‡jb wZwb,
KviY ZLb Awã cÖ¯ÍvweZ BZvwjqvb cwÊZ I BZvjxq eB‡qi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq A‡_©i
e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z mg_© nbwb| cwiw¯’wZ Zvi R‡b¨ AviI wKQzUv weeªZKi n‡q c‡o, KviY
wZwb Rvb‡Zb c~ee© Zx© Ab¨vb¨ BD‡ivcxq AwZw_ Aa¨vc‡Kiv iex›`ªbv‡_i
wek¦we`¨vjq‡K wewfbœ DcKiY w`‡q mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Qb| Ab¨ †Kvb weKí bv †c‡q wZwb
cwiw¯’wZ e¨vL¨v K‡i I mvnvh¨ †P‡q mivmwi wPwV †j‡Lb gy‡mvwjwbi Kv‡Q|

kvk¦wZKx-124

Gi AvM Awã fviZ m¤^‡Ü gy‡mvwjwbi †Zgb †Kvb ciivóªbxwZ wQj bv| ïaygvÎ GKwU
BZvwji cwÎKvq gy‡mvwjwbi GKwU †jLvq fviZ D‡j−wLZ n‡qwQj, †hLv‡b wZwb gšÍe¨
K‡ib †h, gdjv we‡`ªv‡ni ga¨ w`‡q fvi‡Z weªwUk kvm‡bi Aemvb n‡e| cÖK…Zc‡¶,
wek `k‡Ki gvSvgvwS mg‡q fvi‡Zi cwiw¯’wZ d¨vwm÷ cÖPvims‡Ni Rb¨ AbyK~j n‡q
c‡o| gy‡mvwjwbi D‡j−wLZ iPbvwUB wQj c~e©eZx© K‡qK eQi †_‡K †mB mgq ch©šÍ
BZvwj‡Z cÖvß fvi‡Zi Dci fvl¨g~jK GKgvÎ iPbv|
wKš‘ diwgwPi wPwVwU †W‡¯‹ G‡m †cuŠQv‡bv gvÎB gy‡mvwjwb g‡b g‡b Gu‡K †d‡jb
GKwU Pµv‡šÍi bKkv| wZwb iex›`ªbv‡_i e¨vcv‡i AZyrmvnx n‡q c‡ob| m¤¢eZ wZwb
aviYv K‡iwQ‡jb, iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡Zv GKRb AvšÍR©vwZK L¨vwZm¤úbœ kvwšÍ I
gvbegyw³i cÖZxKx e¨w³‡Z¡i BwZevPK gšÍe¨ I cÖksmv †c‡j ewnwe©‡k¦ Zvi kvmb
g~j¨vwqZ n‡e|
`ªyZB iex›`ªbv_ gy‡mvwjwbi j‡¶¨ cwiYZ nb| Gi †cQ‡b AviI wKQz KviY wQj|
iex›`ªbv_ BZvwjqvb fvlv Rvb‡Zb bv, Ges BZvwji ivRbxwZ m¤ú‡K©I Zuvi Lye †ewk
aviYv wQj bv| Gme Kvi‡Y gy‡mvwjwbi Kv‡Q diwgwPi wPwV Avmv gvÎB Zv Aby‡gvw`Z
nq| gy‡mvwjwb wbwðZ wQ‡jb †h iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi duv‡` cv †`‡eb|
cÖ‡dmi diwgwPi k¼v †K‡U hvq| wZwb 1925 mv‡ji b‡f¤^‡i wek¦fviZx‡Z †hvM`vb
K‡ib, Ges mv‡_ K‡i wb‡q Av‡mb BZvwjqvb aª“c`x mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU m¤ú~Y© jvB‡eªwi
I cÖ‡dmi Uzwm bvgK Av‡iKRb cÖL¨vZ cwÊZ‡K, GK eQ‡ii R‡b¨ hvi m¤ú~Y©
A_©vq‡bi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡i BZvwj miKvi| gy‡mvwjwbi web‡q AZ¨šÍ Lywk n‡qwQ‡jb
iex›`ªbv_, Ges Awej‡¤^ K…ZÁZv Rvbvb †UwjMÖvgevZ©vq| wZwb †j‡Lb :
ÒAvwg wbwðZ K‡i ej‡Z cvwi †h, BZvwji RbcÖwZwbwai wbKU †_‡K cÖvß gnvbyfeZvi GB
D`vniY, Avcbvi I Avgv‡`i †`‡ki mvs¯‹„wZK m¤ú‡K©i c_ Ly‡j †`‡e, hvi Øviv m„wó n‡Z
cv‡i HwZnvwmK `„óvšÍ|Ó

iex›`ªbv_ K…ZÁZv Rvbv‡Z wb‡RB BZvwj wM‡q †`Lv Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb cÖ‡dmi
diwgwPi m‡½| ZvQvov c~e©cÖwZkÖ“wZ Abyhvqx iex›`ªbv‡_i w`¦Zxqevi BZvwj ågY
Avek¨K wQj| diwgwP AvšÍR©vwZK m¤úK© gš¿vjq‡K Kwei BZvwj åg‡Yi B”Qvi K_v
AewnZ K‡ib| gy‡mvwjwbi cwiKíbv ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡Z ïi“ K‡i Gi gva¨‡g| BZvwj
miKvi iex›`ªbv‡_i Rb¨ AvwZ‡_qZvi gvÎv e„w× K‡i|
iex›`ªbv_ †iv‡g †cuŠQvb 1926 mv‡ji 30†k †g| c‡ii w`bB cÖ‡dmi diwgwP‡K wb‡q
wZwb gy‡mvwjwbi mv‡_ cvjv‡¾v wPwM‡Z Zvi Awd‡m †`Lv Ki‡Z hvb| GLv‡bB cÖ_g
gy‡LvgywL mv¶vr nq iex›`ªbv_ I gy‡mvwjwbi| cÖ_g Avjv‡cB gy‡mvwjwb iex›`ªbv_‡K
e‡jb, ÒAvwg †mB me BZvwjqvb‡`i GKRb, hviv Avcbvi me eB c‡o‡Q; Aek¨ †h¸wj
Avgv‡`i fvlvq Ab~w`Z n‡q‡Q †m¸wj|Ó

GKch©v‡q Kwe hLb e‡jb †h RbZvi D‡Ï‡k¨ e³…Zvi welqe¯‘ wZwb wba©viY Ki‡Z
cv‡ib wb, gy‡mvwjwb Zr¶Yvr †Rvi w`‡q e‡jb, Òwkí wb‡q ejyb, wkí wb‡q ejybÓ|
G-cÖm‡½ gy‡mvwjwbi RxebxKvi wj‡L‡Qb, ÒwZwb Lye ¸i“‡Z¡i mv‡_ wk‡íi Zvrc‡h©i K_v
ej‡Zb Ges ZrKvjxb wkíx‡`i Dci Zvi h‡_ó cÖfve wQj; wKš‘ e¨w³MZfv‡e wZwb ¯^xKvi
Ki‡Zb †h wZwb wPÎKjv †ev‡Sb bv, Ges Am‡šÍvl cÖKvk Ki‡Zb †h BZvwji ivRbxwZ
ågvZ¥K I weK„Z bv›`wbK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Abymi‡Yi `i“Y cðvrc` n‡q c‡o‡Q|Ó

iex›`ªbv_ I gy‡mvwjwbi g‡a¨ AvavNÈve¨vcx AZ¨šÍ AvšÍwiK Avjvc-Av‡jvPbv nq| Gmgq cÖ‡dmi diwgwP gy‡mvwjwbi K_v Bs‡iwR‡Z Abyev` K‡i w`w”Q‡jb Kwei R‡b¨;
Z‡e Kwei K_v Abyev‡`i cÖ‡qvRb nw”Qj bv, KviY axi MwZ‡Z Bs‡iwR ejv n‡j
gy‡mvwjwb eyS‡Z cvi‡Zb| AvjvcPvwiZv †k‡l gy‡mvwjwb e‡jb, ÒAvgv‡K ïay Rvbv‡eb
Avcwb Kx Ki‡Z Pvb| Avcbvi R‡b¨ †m-m‡ei e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z cvi‡j Avwg AZ¨šÍ Lywk n‡ev|Ó

†nv‡U‡j †divi c‡_ diwgwP gy‡mvwjwb m¤ú‡K© cÖv_wgK Abyf~wZ Rvb‡Z PvB‡j
iex›`ªbv_ e‡jb, Òwbtm‡›`‡n wZwb gnvb e¨w³Z¡| Zuvi wki‡`‡k Ggb GK †ZR Av‡Q hv
Avgv‡K gvB‡Kj A¨v‡Äv‡jvi †Luv`vBh‡š¿i K_v g‡b Kwi‡q †`q| ZvQvov, Zuvi wfZi Ggb
GK mijZv Av‡Q †h, G-K_v wek¦vm KivB KwVb wZwb GKRb wbôyi GKbvqK, †hgbUv A‡b‡K
eY©bv K‡i _v‡KÓ| GB e³‡e¨i wKQz Ask msev`gva¨‡g cÖPvwiZ nq|
gy‡mvwjwbi RxebxKvi wj‡L‡Qb : Òhv‡`i mv‡_ Zvi mv¶vr Kg n‡Zv Zv‡`i Dci Zvi
e¨w³MZ AvKl©Y ¶gZv †ewk KvR KiZ| wZwb B”Qv Ki‡j †h‡Kv‡bv AwZw_‡K gy» Ki‡Z
cvi‡Zb...Ó| iex›`ªbv_I Gi e¨wZµg wQ‡jb bv|

Dc‡i gy‡mvwjwb I iex›`ªbv‡_i mv¶v‡Zi GKwU msw¶ß eY©bv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q, hvi Lei
BZvwji msev`gva¨‡g ¸i“‡Z¡i mv‡_ cÖPvwiZ nq| eûjcÖPvwiZ GKwU d¨vwmev`x
msev`c‡Îi mvsevw`K be¨-BZvwj m¤ú‡K© wKQz wjL‡Z ej‡j Kwe †j‡Lb, ÒAvwg ¯^cœ
†`wL AwMœmœvb †_‡K DrmvwiZ BZvwji Awebk¦i AvZ¥v Avwef©~Z n‡e A`g¨ Av‡jv‡Ki
Avei‡YÓ| gšÍe¨wU cÖKvwkZ nq BZvwji †ek wKQz msev`c‡Î|
cieZx© `yB mßv‡n (1-13 Ryb, 1926) iex›`ªbv_ †iv‡gi †ewkifvM `k©bxq ¯’vb ågY
K‡ib, †`Lv K‡ib ivRvi m‡½, weª‡U‡bi ivóª`‡~ Zi m‡½ Ask †bb ga¨vý‡fvR‡b,
†iv‡gi Mfb©‡ii KZ„K
© K‡jvwmqv‡g Af¨_x©Z nb, I wKQz msev`c‡Î mv¶vrKvi †`b,
hvi wfZi †ek wKQz DׄwZ fzjfv‡e e¨vL¨v Kiv nq, Ges †h‡nZz iex›`ªbv_ BZvwjqvb
fvlv Rvb‡Zb bv ZvB Am½wZ¸wj Zuvi A‡MvP‡i †_‡K hvq| †ivg wek¦we`¨vjqI
Kwe‡K mv`i Af¨_©bv Rvbvq, Ges wZwb wKQz e³„Zv †`b †mLv‡b, hvi wfZi Ab¨Zg
wQj ‘The Meaning of Art’ kxl©K GKwU e³…Zv, †hLv‡b Dcw¯’Z wQ‡jb ¯^qs
gy‡mvwjwb| †mw`b `yc‡y i iex›`ªbv_ diwgwP‡K e‡jb, Ògy‡mvwjwb hZw`b RxweZ Av‡Qb,
BZvwj‡K ZZw`b wbivc` ejv hvq| BZvwji mxgvbv cvi nevi ci, hviv GB †`kwU m¤ú‡K©
†bwZevPK gZ cÖKvk Ki‡e, Zv‡`i Kx DËi w`‡Z n‡e eyS‡Z cviwQÓ| A`„‡ói cwinv‡m

iex›`ªbv_ `„k¨ZB gy‡mvwjwbi gšÍ‡e¨ cÖfvweZ nb, Ges gy‡mvwjwbi ZË¡veav‡b
wb‡qvMK…Z cÖ‡dmi Uzwm I Dcnvi¯^iƒc cÖ`vbK…Z jvB‡eªwii Rb¨ ab¨ev` Rvbvb|
gy‡mvwjwb Rvb‡Z Pvb iex›`ªbv_ K‡Zv w`‡bi R‡b¨ †iv‡g Ae¯’vb Ki‡eb|
c‡ii mßv‡nB †d¬v‡iÝ hvevi cwiKíbvi K_v Rvb‡Z †c‡i gy‡mvwjwb Kwe‡K †iv‡g
Kgc‡¶ c‡b‡iv w`b Ae¯’vb K‡i I wekÖvg wb‡q wewfbœ `k©bxq ¯’vb Ny‡i †`Lvi Aby‡iva
K‡ib| iex›`ªbv_ AveviI K…ZÁZv Rvbvb gy‡mvwjwb‡K| cieZx©‡Z `xN© AvjvcPvwiZvi

iex›`ªbv_‡K BZvwji mxgvbv cvi nevi ci †bwZevPK gšÍe¨B Ki‡Z n‡qwQj!
†ivg Qvovi c~‡e© iex›`ªbv_ gy‡mvwjwbi mv‡_ wØZxqevi mv¶vr K‡ib 13B Ryb|
†mev‡ii mv¶vrwU wQ‡jv AviI `xN© I AvšÍwiKZvc~Y©| ¯^fveZB iex›`ªbv_ †mLv‡b
c~e©-cwð‡gi mw¤§jb m¤^‡Ü Zuvi gZvgZ e¨³ K‡ib| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb, ÒBZvwj GK

kvk¦wZKx-125

kvk¦wZKx-126

gnvb RvwZmËv, Ges ZvB RvwZ wn‡m‡e Gkxq I BD‡ivcxq mf¨Zvi HK¨ cÖwZôvq f~wgKv
ivLvi R‡b¨ †m †hvM¨ZgÓ| gy‡mvwjwb m¤§Z nb| iex›`ªbv_ AviI e‡jb, Ò`ytLRbKfv‡e

Avcwb we‡k¦i g‡a¨ me‡P‡q wbw›`ZÓ| gy‡mvwjwb mij gyLfw½ wb‡q DËi †`b, ÒAvwg
Rvwb, wKš‘ Avwg Kx-B ev Ki‡Z cvwi?Ó cieZx©‡Z gy‡mvwjwb †ivg‡K AvšÍR©vwZK
bMix‡Z iƒcvšÍi Kivi B”Qv e¨³ K‡ib iex›`ªbv‡_i Kv‡Q, Ges AveviI cÖkswmZ
nb| Ae‡k‡l Kwe gy‡mvwjwb‡K Zvi ¯^v¶im¤^wjZ GKwU Qwe †`evi Aby‡iva Rvbvb|
mv¶v‡Zi GLv‡bB mgvwß N‡U, Z‡e †m-mgq BZvwji msev` gva¨‡g GB mv¶v‡Zi
K_v D‡j−wLZ n‡qwQj wKbv, Zvi †Kvb cÖgvY GLbI cvIqv hvqwb|
c‡ii w`b iex›`ªbv_ †ivg †Q‡o †d¬v‡i‡Ý hvb, Ges cieZx©‡Z hvb Zzwi‡b| 22†k Ryb
BZvwji mxgvbv Z¨v‡Mi c~‡e© iex›`ªbv_ gy‡mvwjwb‡K GKwU evZ©v cvVvb, Òhvevi c~‡e© Avwg
mü`q AvwZ‡_qZv I m`q g‡bvfv‡ei R‡b¨ AvšÍwiK ab¨ev` RvbvB Avcbv‡K I BZvwjevmx‡`i,
hv‡`i cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡ib AvcwbÓ| GB evZv© cvwV‡q †Uª‡b myBRvij¨v‡Ûi D‡Ï‡k¨ BZvwj Z¨vM

K‡ib iex›`ªbv_, †hLv‡b cieZx©‡Z Zuvi KL‡bvB wd‡i Avmv nqwb|

BZvwj åg‡YvËi mdi
myBRvij¨v‡Û iex›`ªbv_ K‡qK mßvn †iv‡gBb †ivj¨v‡Ûi mvwbœ‡a¨ KvUvb, Ges Zuv‡`i
wfZi `xN© Av‡jvPbv nq| †ivj¨vÛ wQ‡jb BZvwji d¨vwmev`x kvmb e¨e¯’vi K‡Ævi
mgv‡jvPK, whwb Kwei mvg‡b Zz‡j a‡ib d¨vwmev`x ivóªwUi µgea©gvb `gbbxwZ,
mš¿vm I b„ksmZvi ev¯ÍewPÎ|
BZvwj md‡ii †k‡li w`‡K iex›`ªbv_ wb‡RB wKQzUv A¯^w¯Í‡eva K‡iwQ‡jb, wKš‘
gy‡mvwjwbi Af¨_©bvq wZwb G‡ZvB †ivgvwÂZ n‡qwQ‡jb †h, BZvwj G‡m wZwb fzj
K‡i‡Qb †mUv wek¦vm Ki‡Z cÖ¯‘Z wQ‡jb bv| BD‡ivcxq msev`gva¨‡g cÖPvwiZ
iex›`ªbv‡_i BZvwj mdi msµvšÍ wKQz Zxh©K gšÍe¨ m¤^‡ÜI †ivj¨vÛ AewnZ K‡ib
Kwe‡K| wZwb †Póv K‡ib iex›`ªbv_‡K Zuvi åvšÍ aviYv †_‡K gy³ Ki‡Z, Ges Rvbvb
†h BZvwj‡Z gZ cÖKv‡ki ¯^vaxbZv †iva Kiv n‡q‡Q|
†ivj¨v‡Ûi e³e¨ ï‡b iex›`ªbv_ Dfq m¼‡U c‡ob, Ges cwiYvg¯^iƒc BZvwj‡Z Zuvi
AcQ›`bxq wKQz wel‡qi weeiY w`‡q GKwU mv¶vrKvi cÖKv‡k (hw`I Pv‡c c‡o) ivwR
nb| †ivj¨vÛ c¨vwim †_‡K Zuvi eÜz Wznv‡gj‡K wb‡q Av‡mb mv¶vrKviwU d«v‡Ýi
msev`c‡Î cÖKv‡ki R‡b¨| wKš‘ wecwË N‡U GeviI| iex›`ªbv_ GLv‡bI gy‡mvwjwbi
RuvKRgKc~Y© Af¨_©bvi K_v D‡j−L bv Ki‡Z AcviM nb| nZvk n‡q †ivj¨vÛ I
Wzgv‡nj iex›`ªbv_‡K BZvwj †_‡K wbe©vwmZ‡`i KvQ †_‡K mZ¨ †kvbvi c~‡e© Aby‡iva
K‡ib †Kv‡bv gšÍe¨ bv Ki‡Z|
iex›`ªbv‡_i mv‡_ Rywi‡L cÖ‡dmi mvjfv`wi I wf‡qbv‡Z gwWwMmœqvwbi mv¶v‡Zi
e¨e¯’v Kiv nq| cÖ‡dmi mvjfv`wi Amy¯’Zvi Kvi‡Y Avm‡Z AcviM n‡q co‡j
mv¶vr Ki‡Z Av‡mb Zuvi ¯¿x|
AvjvcPvwiZvi cÖ_‡gB wg‡mm mvjfv`wi Kwe‡K e‡jb, ÒeZ©gv‡b mš¿vm I nZ¨vi
f~wg‡Z cwiYZ nIqv BZvwj‡Z Avcwb †Kb †M‡jb?Ó
iex›`ªbv_ e¨vL¨v K‡ib Zuvi BZvwj åg‡Yi cUf~wg| GK ch©v‡q Kwe e‡jb, Òd¨vwm÷
Av‡›`vj‡bi m~ÎcvZ ev Gi Kvhv©ewj m¤ú‡K© Aa¨qb Kivi Avgvi †Kv‡bv my‡hvM nqwb, Ges
G-e¨vcv‡i Avwg †Kv‡bv gšÍe¨I Kwiwb| GgbwK †ewkifvM mv¶vrKv‡i Avwg mZK©Zvi mv‡_
e¨vL¨v K‡iwQ †h, Aa¨q‡bi Afve‡nZy d¨vwmev‡`i c‡¶ ev wec‡¶ wKQz ejvi g‡Zv Dchy³ bB
Avwg...Z‡e GKRb wkíxi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K e¨w³ gy‡mvwjwb Avgv‡K AvKl©Y K‡i‡Qb...Zvi
kvk¦wZKx-127

KZ„©Zk
¡ xj e¨w³Z¡ Avgv‡K h‡_ó cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q...BZvwj‡Z Avwg hv‡`i ms¯ú‡k© †MwQ mevB
GKev‡K¨ ¯^xKvi K‡i‡Q †h, BZvwj‡K ˆbivR¨ I gnvwech©q †_‡K D×vi K‡i‡Qb gy‡mvwjwb|Ó
wg‡mm mvjfv`wi ZLb e‡jb, Ò...e¨vcviwU mZ¨ bq...GUv d¨vwmev` mg_©K‡`i
gšÍe¨...hviv wecixZ aviYv †cvlY K‡ib, Zv‡`i mv‡_ Avcbv‡K †`LvB Ki‡Z †`Iqv
nqwb...gy‡mvwjwb BZvwj‡K Pig A_©‰bwZK `yie¯’v †_‡K i¶v K‡i‡Qb, GK_v wVK bq|
gy‡mvwjwb ¶gZvq Avmvi c~‡e© BZvwji A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v AviI fv‡jv wQj| wjivi (BZvwjqvb
gy`vª ) Ae¯’v †`Lyb, Av‡M GK cvD‡Ûi mv‡c‡¶ Gi g~j¨gvb wQj 70 Avi GLb
130...we‡`wkiv Gme Rv‡bbv Avi evievi MZvbyMwZK K_vB e‡j...wKš‘ †h e¨vcviwU Avgv‡K
me‡P‡q `ytL w`‡q‡Q Zv n‡jv, Avcwb Awb”QvK…Zfv‡eB d¨vwmev`‡K mg_©b Ki‡Z mvnvh¨
K‡i‡Qb| Avgiv eyS‡Z cviwQ NUbvwU Awb”QvK„Z, KviY Avcbvi gZ Kj¨vYgyLx e¨w³i c‡¶
GUv Kiv m¤¢e bq|Ó

wg‡mm mvjfv`wi Kwe‡K Ggb A‡bK NUbvi K_v e‡jb, hvi mv¶x wQ‡jb wZwb wb‡RB|
m¤ú~Y© Av‡jvPbvwU ¯’vqx nq cÖvq GK NÈv, Ges A‡±vei gv‡m cÖKvwkZ nq Òw`
g¨vb‡P÷vi MvwW©qvbÓ cwÎKvq| cieZx©‡Z (gwWwMmœqvwb, g¨vwËIwZi wePviKvjxb
DwKj) I A¨vb‡Rwjqv evjvevb‡di mv‡_ wf‡qbvq †`Lv n‡j, ZuvivI Kwe‡K Abyiƒc
K_v e‡jb| Gme fvl¨ ¯^fveZB wePwjZ K‡i iex›`ªbv_‡K, Ges wZwb gvbwmK hš¿Yvq
cxwoZ n‡Z _v‡Kb, †hgbUv n‡qwQj mvZ eQi c~‡e© Ag„Zmi nZ¨vKv‡Êi mgq| Gici
wf‡qbv †_‡K iex›`ªbv_ fvi‡Z emevmiZ Zuvi eÜz Pvj©m G¨vbWªy‡Ri Kv‡Q BZvwj
åg‡Yi mg¯Í cUf~wg e¨vL¨v K‡i GKwU wPwV †j‡Lb| wek` eY©bvhy³ I webxZ fvlvq
wjwLZ wPwVwU Òw` g¨vb‡P÷vi MvwW©qvbÓ-G cÖKvwkZ nq 1926-Gi 5B AvM÷|
BZvwji cÖwZ iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡bvfv‡ei nVvr cwieZ©b †`‡L wew¯§Z nb cÖ‡dmi
diwgwP| wZwbI GKB cwÎKvq Zuvi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K NUbvi e¨vL¨v K‡i cvëv Reve
w`‡q GKwU iPbv †j‡Lb| Gw`‡K iex›`ªbv‡_i wPwVi †Kvgj ¯^i †ivj¨v‡Ûi gbtc~Z
wQj bv, ZvB wZwb wPwVwUi gyL¨ welq¸wj wbe©vPb Kivi ci cybtm¤úvw`Z I Abyev`
K‡i BD‡iv‡ci wewfbœ cÎcwÎKvq cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ cvVvb| g~jZ iex›`ªbv‡_i mv‡_
gy‡mvwjwbi BZvwji m¤úK© †kl nq GLv‡bB|
GK_v mZ¨ †h, iex›`ªbv_ gy‡mvwjwbi m‡¤§vnbx e¨w³‡Z¡ cÖfvweZ n‡qwQ‡jb, wKš‘ GB
†gvn gy‡mvwjwb A¨vwewmwbqv I f~ga¨mvMi-cvk¦e© Zx© ivR¨¸wj AvµgY Ki‡j †K‡U
hvq| iex›`ªbv_ GKev‡ii R‡b¨I d¨vwmev‡`i mg_©b K‡ib wb; wKš‘ †h‡nZz gy‡mvwjwb
I d¨vwmev` A‡bKUv mgv_©Kiƒ‡c e¨eüZ n‡Zv, ZvB Zuvi gšÍe¨‡K A‡bK †¶‡Î
fzjfv‡e D×…Z Kiv nq BZvwji msev`gva¨‡g|
BZvwji RbMY `yB mßvn c‡iB iex›`ªbv‡_i †`Iqv mv¶vrKvi I G¨vbWªyR‡K †jLv
wPwV m¤^‡Ü Rvb‡Z cv‡i| †ev‡jvsMv †_‡K cÖKvwkZ GKwU ˆ`wbK ÔÔA¨vmvj‡UvÓ-†Z 2
†k AvM÷ cÖKvwkZ nq GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b :
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, whwb `yÕevi BZvwj‡Z G‡m Zvi Kve¨ Øviv Avgv‡`i cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i †M‡Qb,
GKRb e„× Awf‡bZv Ges Avgv‡`i m‡e©v”P N„Yvi cvÎ nevi †hvM¨...GB ¸i“ bvbv kvmKeM©
Øviv wb‡qvwRZ| cÖPiz †eZb cvb wZwb cÖwZwU e³…Zv w`‡q| myPZzi GB e¨w³ Zvi KweZv I
e³„Zvi gZB gaygq, whwb Avgwš¿Z n‡q BZvwj‡Z G‡m A_© I miKv‡ii mvnvh¨ †c‡qwQ‡jb|
wZwb BZvwji cÖksmv K‡ib, †MŠievwš^Z K‡ib d¨vwmev`‡K Ges cÖksmvMxZ Mvb
gy‡mvwjwbi...BZvwji mxgvbv cvi n‡q AcweÎ AvZ¥vi AwaKvix GB e„×, whwb BZvwjevmx‡K

kvk¦wZKx-128

Zvi Kv‡jv †RveŸv I mv`v k¥ªkÖy w`‡q gy» K‡iwQ‡jb, BZvwji d¨vwmev` I gy‡mvwjwbi m¤ú‡K©
†bwZevPK gšÍe¨ K‡ib...wZwb AvPiY K‡i‡Qb cwZZvi g‡Zv, hviv me mgq njd K‡i e‡j
†h Zviv eZ©gvb L‡Ï‡ii †cÖ‡gB wbgMœ| AvR Avgiv `vwe KiwQ †h, Kwe wn‡m‡e Avgiv
iex›`ªbv_‡K Avi cQ›` Kwi bv, KviY wZwb †cŠi“lewR©Z I †gi“`Ênxb| GKRb KcU, Amr
I wbj©¾ e¨w³ wn‡m‡e wZwb Avgv‡`i weiw³i D‡`ªM K‡ib|Ó

Avi Gi mv‡_ gy‡mvwjwbi iex›`ªbv_‡K ivR‰bwZK cÖPviYvi Ask Kivi cwiKíbv
a~wjmvr nq|
cybð
1930 mv‡j Kwe ivwkqv ågY †k‡l wbDBq‡K© Avm‡j cybivq cÖ‡dmi diwgwPi mv‡_
†`Lv nq| diwgwP †mB mgq evi‡K¬‡Z AwZw_ Aa¨vc‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb KiwQ‡jb|
`yÕR‡bi wfZi AvjvcPvwiZvi GK ch©v‡q iex›`ªbv_ gy‡mvwjwbi mv‡_ Zuvi fyj†evSveywS Aemvb Kivi wm×v‡šÍi K_v D‡j−L K‡ib| diwgwP iex›`ªbv_‡K civgk©
†`b me wKQz e¨vL¨v K‡i gy‡mvwjwb‡K GKwU wPwV w`‡Z| iex›`ªbv_ wPwVi GKwU Lmov
†j‡Lb Ges mivmwi gy‡mvwjwbi Kv‡Q bv cvwV‡q, kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡b Zuvi cy‡Îi wbKU
cvVvb MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv hvPvB‡qi R‡b¨| wZwb wj‡LwQ‡jb (21 b‡f¤^i, 1930) :

gnvgvb¨
cÖvqB Avwg ¯§iY Kwi, Kxfv‡e Avgvi cig eÜz cÖ‡dmi diwgwPi gva¨‡g cÖvß Avcbvi
gnvbyfeZvi wb`k©b Avgv‡`i wew¯§Z K‡iwQj| Ag~j¨ Dcnvi¯^iƒc cÖvß BZvwjqvb
mvwn‡Z¨i †mB jvB‡eªwiwU Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q GK gnvg~j¨evb m¤ú`, †hwU Avgv‡`i cÖwZôv‡b
AZ¨šÍ cÖkswmZ n‡qwQj, Avi Gi R‡b¨ Avgiv Avcbvi wbKU Mfxifv‡e K…ZÁ|
BZvwj‡Z Avwg AwZw_ wn‡m‡e hvIqvi ci AvwZ‡_qZvq †h Amvgvb¨ D`viZv †`wL‡qwQ‡jb
Avcwb, Zvi R‡b¨I Avwg e¨w³MZfv‡e K…ZÁ| Avwg AvšÍwiKfv‡e Avkv Kwi †h, Avgvi I
Avcbvi †`‡ki Awaevmx‡`i, hv‡`i R‡b¨ Avgvi i‡q‡Q AK…wÎg fvjevmv, g‡a¨ m„ó fzj†evSveywS wPi¯’vqx n‡e bv, Ges Avcwb I Avcbvi RvwZi Kv‡Q Avgvi GB K…ZÁZv M„nxZ n‡e|
ivRbxwZ GKwU RvwZi wbR¯^ e¨vcvi, wKš‘ Zvi ms¯‹…wZ mgMÖ gvbe-RvwZi| GKwU †`‡ki
AvZ¥cÖKv‡k †h-mKj wel‡qi wPišÍb g~j¨ i‡q‡Q, Zv‡K ¯^xKvi K‡i †bIqv Avgvi KZ©e¨|
BZvwji c¶ †_‡K Avgv‡`i cÖwZôv‡b cÖ`vbK…Z GB gnr Dcnvi my‡hvM K‡i w`‡q‡Q GK
ˆPZ‡b¨vrm‡ei, hv wPiA¤−vb i‡e, Ges wPiKvj Avcbvi AvšÍwiK mnvbyf~wZi cÖwZ kÖ×vi
`vwe Rvbv‡e|
wPiK…ZÁ
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi|

wPwVwU gy‡mvwjwbi Kv‡Q cvVv‡bv n‡qwQj wKbv, †m e¨vcv‡i GLbI Rvbv hvqwb|
gvwiI †cÖqv‡ii g‡Z wPwVwU cvVv‡bv n‡qwQj, Z‡e †mwU gy‡mvwjwbi nv‡Z †cuŠ‡QwQj
wKbv, Zv ¯úó bq|

kvk¦wZKx-129

AvjdIb‡hv kvn&‡Kvb

we¯§„Z wkjv : iex›`Öbv_ I j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKv cÖm½
Abyev`: wnkvg g. bv‡Ri

†K ej‡Z cvi‡e, cyK‡y i hLb GKwU wkjv †Qvov nq, †Kv_vq hvq ZLbKvi ˆZwi †mB
Zi½¸‡jv? K‡qK mßvn Av‡M, hLb j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKv Ges fviZxq mvwnZ¨ wb‡q GK
B‡j±ªwbK Av‡jvPbvi g‡a¨ j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi cvVK‡`i Kv‡Q iex›`Öbv_ VvKy‡ii DuPy
Ae¯’v‡bi K_v D‡j−L Kivi Sywu K wbB, ZLb A‡b‡K AevK n‡qwQj| Avi AvwgI †h
AevK n‡qwQjvg †mUv Avgv‡K gvb‡ZB n‡e, KviY KLbI GwU Avgvi gv_vq Av‡mwb
†h j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKv‡Z VvKy‡ii Dcw¯’wZ Kv‡iv Kv‡Q †eLvàv †kvbv‡Z cv‡i, GKRb
evOvwji Kv‡Q †Zv †gv‡UI bv| †ek, GKRb nq‡Zvev GKUy †ewk wKQyB m¡Ztwm× e‡j
a‡i †bq ev wb‡Z cQ›` K‡i, Avgvi †QvÆ †`‡k, †Kv÷vwiKvq–kÖxjsKvi †_‡K hv wKQy
eo n‡e–GKRb nq‡Zvev GKUy †ewk wKQy a‡i †bIqvi cÖeYZv †`Lvq|
Z‡e nu¨v, GKRb GwU ej‡ZB cv‡i †h j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKv Avi fviZ `ywU wfbœ RMZ
Ges GB wefw³ Øviv cÖ‡Yvw`Z n‡q, Zi½My‡jvi Drm cybivq †LuvRv evOvwj cvVK‡`i
R‡b¨ nq‡Zv Riywi, GwU †`Lvi R‡b¨ †h j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq VvKy‡ii GLbKvi Ae¯’vb
Avi GLvbKvi wPš—vwe`‡`i Ici Zuvi ZxeÖ fvebvi Kx cÖfve wQj| GwUB nj GB
cÖe‡Üi I mvg‡b Av‡iv †hMy‡jv †jLv n‡e Zvi g‚j fve : VvKyi Ges bZyb we‡k¡i g‡a¨
m¤úK©My‡jv cybtwbgv©‡Yi m¡v‡_©| GwU Aek¨B m‚wPZ K‡i †h GKUv m‚Pbvi `iKvi i‡q‡Q
: Ggb GKwU gnv‡`‡k hv wKbv fviZ †_‡K G‡Zv Avjv`v, Kxfv‡e iex›`Öbv_ VvKyi
j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq GZUv cwiwPZ Avi wcÖq n‡q DV‡jb? †K Rv‡b, Zviv nq‡Zvev ZZUv
Avjv`vI bv| †hfv‡eB †nvK, †ewk w`b Av‡MKvi K_v bv–GKRb BUvjxI bvweK †h
wKbv †¯úB‡bi n‡q †bŠhvÎv KiwQj, Zvi weåvwš—i R‡b¨ ZLbI Avgv‡`i gnv‡`k‡K
I‡q÷ BwÛR e‡j WvKv n‡Zv, Ges hw`I GLb GB bvg K¨vwiweqvb mgy‡`Ö Aew¯’Z
Øxc¸‡jvi wKQy Ask‡KB kyay wb‡`©k K‡i, ZviciI A‡bK wgj Ly‡u R cvIqv hv‡e
Kjv¤^vm †h fviZ LyR
u wQj Avi mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© †m hv Ly‡u R †c‡qwQj Zv‡`i g‡a¨–`yB
wekvj gnv‡`k, hv‡`i f~LÊwP‡Îi we¯—vi Av`©µ
Ö vš—xq †iLv †_‡K Zylvive„Z P‚ov ch©š—,
Avi Zv‡`i wecyj RbmsL¨v hv kÕLv‡bK RvwZ †Mvôx‡K wb‡q MwVZ|
Kv‡iv Kv‡iv Kv‡Q GB mv`„k¨My‡jv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi mv‡_ VvKy‡ii Kve¨ I
wPš—vi †h Mvp m¤úK© wQj Ges hv GLbI Av‡Q Zv cwi®‹vifv‡e Zy‡j ai‡Z cv‡i|
w`j−x wek¡we`¨vj‡q VvKy‡ii cvÊywjwci Dci GKwU e³„Zvq †gw·‡Kvi Kwe IK‡UBwfI
c¨vR (1990 mv‡j mvwn‡Z¨ †bv‡ej cÖvß, whwb fvi‡ZI wKQyKvj Ae¯’vb K‡ib)
D‡j−L K‡ib bxi` †PŠayix-Gi †jLv GKwU iPbv, †hLv‡b GB fviZxq cwÊZ e½ Avi
j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi g‡a¨ mv`„k¨My‡jvi w`‡K `„KcvZ K‡ib| c¨vR GB mv`„k¨My‡jv‡K
†Kivjv I †Mvqv ch©š— we¯—„Z K‡ib, GB e‡j †h, bZyb we‡k¡ †¯úBb, cZyw© MR, AvwdªKv
Ges Av‡gwiKvi Awaevmx‡`i we‡iva †_‡K †h mvs¯‹„wZK mgb¡q-cÖ‡Póv P‡jwQj–
mgb¡q-cÖ‡Póv †hUv‡K wKbv wK¤¢Z
y ‰kjx bvgwU MÖnY Ki‡Z nq–wKQyUv †miKgB N‡UwQj
fvi‡Zi GB wZbwU iv‡R¨, †hLv‡b cwðgxq cÖfve fvi‡Zi wekvj HwZ‡n¨i mv‡_ wg‡k
kvk¦wZKx-130

hvIqv‡ZB wQj, Zv wbw®Œq Kiv‡Z bq| ZviciI, c¨v‡Ri g‡Z, GwU Kwei cÖwZ
AvKl©‡Yi KviY cy‡ivcywi e¨vL¨v K‡i bv, whwb wKbv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq gvÎ GKevi
G‡mwQ‡jb, whwb KLbI ¯ú¨vwbk fvlv wk‡Lb bvB, Avi hvi †jLwbi Dci ¯ú¨vwbk I
j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi mvwn‡Z¨i †Zgb †Kv‡bv D‡j−L‡hvM¨ cÖfveI wQj bv| Ges j¨vwUb
Av‡gwiKvi cvVK, †jLK I wPš—vwe`‡`i Dci VvKy‡ii †h Mvp cÖfve wQj Ges GLbI
Av‡Q Zvi b¨vh¨Zv cÖwZcv`b Ki‡Z GwU ïay cÖPÊfv‡e AK„ZKvh©B n‡e bv, hv c¨vR
wb‡R `vwe K‡ib, eis Avgvi g‡Z GwU we‡klZ GK Ges GKgvÎ Zuvi `xN©
RbwcÖqZvi KviY : Zvi KweZvi Rv`y‡K, A¯úó Ki‡e|
Kwei AvMgb
GwU Rvbv hvq †h, 1924 mv‡j, †ciy miKv‡ii Avgš¿‡Y Gi kZZg m¡vaxbZv w`e‡mi
Avb‡›`vrme D`&hvcb Ki‡Z iex›`Öbv_ VvKyi j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq G‡mwQ‡jb| ZviciI,
Zuvi GB hvÎv `yB gv‡m Kwg‡q Avbv nq wKQy kvixwiK Amy¯’Zvi R‡b¨ hLb wZwb ey‡qbm
GB‡i‡R Ae¯’vb KiwQ‡jb, hv Zuv‡K GB hvÎv Avi †ewk cÖjw¤^Z Kiv †_‡K weiZ
iv‡L| Ab¨w`‡K GB Ae¯’v Zuv‡K Av‡R©w›Ubxq Kwe wfK‡Uvwiqv IKvg‡cvi mv‡_
cwiP‡qi my‡hvM K‡i †`q, whwb Zuvi GKRb Lye Kv‡Qi eÜy n‡q D‡Vb Ges hvi
Lvgvievwo‡Z VvKyi Zuvi c‚iex iPbv K‡iwQ‡jb| weRqv–†h evsjv bv‡g VvKyi Zuvi eÜy‡K
WvK‡Zb, KviY ¯ú¨vwb‡k Zuvi bv‡gi cÖ_g As‡ki ZvB gv‡b nq–Avi Zuvi GB Mvp
eÜyZ¡ A‡b‡KB Mfxifv‡e wbix¶v K‡i‡Q, we‡klZ Av‡R©w›Ubxq cÖfv‡ei Kvi‡Y VvKy‡ii
wPÎKi n‡q DVvi wm×v‡š—i e¨cviwU m¤ú‡K© Av‡iv cwi®‹vi nevi R‡b¨| GB wel‡q W.
iRZ Q‡›`i GKwU PgrKvi iPbv i‡q‡Q, †hwUI j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi mv‡_ VvKy‡ii
m¤ú‡K©i GKwU mvaviY w`K Zy‡j a‡i| Ô`w¶Y Av‡gwiKvq VvKyi : wKQy cwi‡cÖw¶ZÕ
bvgK iPbvwU g‡b nq my¯úófv‡e GwUB ej‡Z Pvq †h IKvg‡cv Avi Kwei g‡a¨ GB
eÜyZ¡B ïay VvKyi Avi j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi g‡a¨ †h m¤úK© Av‡Q Zvi GKgvÎ cÖgvY‡hvM¨
†hvMm‚Î, †h †hvMm‚Î Q‡›`i wek¡vm, wKš—y hv B`vwbsKv‡j G‡Kev‡iB †Kv‡bv †Rvivj wfwË
wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nqbv| GB aviYv nq‡Zv IKvg‡cv Avi VvKy‡ii g‡a¨i m¤úK©‡K wN‡i
†h `„p cÖvgvY¨ Z_¨ Av‡Q †mLvb †_‡KB m„ó, †h m¤úK© j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi Avi Kv‡iv
mv‡_B VvKy‡ii wQj bv| ZviciI, Q‡›`i Z‡K©i cÖ¯—ve GwU †Lqvj Ki‡Z AK„ZKvh© †h
VvKyi GLbI †Kv÷vwiKv mn j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi †ek wKQy wek¡we`¨vj‡q Aa¨vq‡bi
welqe¯—y, Avi cy‡iv gnv‡`k Ry‡oB mvaviY cvVK‡`i R‡b¨ Zuvi †jLvi ¯ú¨vwbk
ms¯‹iY cÖvcbxq, Ges Gi g‚j KviY n‡Z cv‡i †h j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi cÖvmw½K
e¨vcviMy‡jvi mv‡_ cÖvew܇Ki †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU NvUwZ wQj|
e¯—yZ, VvKy‡ii KweZv Zuvi A‡bK c‚‡e©B j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq †cuŠ‡Q, I 1920 Gi
w`‡KB wZwb †jLK I wPš—vwe`‡`i g‡a¨ Ae¯’vb K‡i †bb| Ges GKfv‡e ejv †h‡Z
cv‡i †h Zuuvi KweZv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq G‡mwQj wVK ZLbB hLb †mwUi m‡e©v”P
`iKvi wQj †mLv‡b, g‚jZ Av‡iK gnvKwe †¯úB‡bi †nvqvb i“n&‡gvDb wn‡g‡bh-Gi
`¶ nvZ w`‡q| 1913 mv‡j wZwb Avi Zuvi Av‡gwiKvb ney eD †R‡bvweqv K¨vgcÖvwe
m`¨ †bv‡ej weRqx MxZvÄwj Abyev` Kiv kyiy K‡iwQ‡jb| GB Abyev‡`i cvkvcvwk
wn‡g‡bh wjLwQ‡jb Zuvi c−¨v‡U‡iv Ges Avwg (Platero and I) hv cieZx©‡Z ¯ú¨vwbk

kvk¦wZKx-131

mvwn‡Z¨i Abe`¨ I m‡e©v”P Myi‡y Z¡i `vwe`vi eBMy‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU n‡q D‡V, Ges
RbwcÖqZvq hv ¯ú¨vwbk ms¯‹i‡Y kyay †mBievb‡U¨‡mi Wvb wK‡nvwU (Don Quixote)Gi c‡iB Ae¯’vb K‡i| eBwU–hv GKRb †jvK I Zvi Mvavi Mí wb‡q ˆZwi–
VvKy‡ii MxwZagx© M`¨ Øviv Mfxifv‡e cÖfvweZ, Ges GwU KweZv I Dcb¨v‡mi g‡a¨ †h
wPivqZ wefvRb‡iLv Av‡Q Zv j•Nb Kivi GKwU †Póv, hv †mB evOvwj †jLK Zuvi M`¨
I bvUKMy‡jv‡Z mv_©Kfv‡e mvab K‡iwQ‡jb| wKš—y †K‡bv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi †jLKiv
wn‡g‡bh Avi VvKy‡ii wkíKjvi cÖwZ Gfv‡e G‡Zv Drmvn wb‡q cÖwZwµqv †`wL‡qwQj?
e¨vcviwU fv‡jvg‡Zv †evSvi R‡b¨ wesk kZvwãi cÖ_g `yB `k‡Ki j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi
mvwnZ¨ cÖm‡½i mvgvb¨ wPÎ Zy‡j aiv GLv‡b nq‡Zv Riywi|
cÖ_g wek¡h×
y hLb †kl, ZLb j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi eyw×Rxex‡`i wPš—vkxjZv wbRm¡
`„p KÉ †LuvRvi GK KwVb msMÖv‡g cwZZ n‡qwQj| gvbeKxwZ© Ges AMÖMwZi
Av‡jvKewZ©Kv ÒcÖMwZkxjÓ qy‡iv‡ci cZb–†h qy‡ivc GK e¨vcK nZ¨vjxjvq wb‡R‡K
Rov‡Z we›`ygvÎ wØav K‡i wb–bZyb we‡k¡i A‡b‡Ki R‡b¨ GK weivU av°v, we‡kl K‡i
Zv‡`i R‡b¨ hviv memgq wek¡vm I cÖPvi K‡iwQj †h qy‡iv‡ci D`vniY AbymiY Kiv
j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi GKwU cÖ‡qvRb| GgbwK hw`I 1825-Gi w`‡KB †ek wKQy
gnv‡`k m¡vaxb wQj, ZLb qy‡iv‡ci GKwU kw³kvjx cÖfve j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi
†`kMy‡jvi ixwZ Ges A_©‰bwZK Av`k©B kyay wbqš¿Y K‡i bvB, eis GKwU †kÖô
mf¨Zvi fveg‚wZ©I aviY K‡iwQj, hv A‡bK wPš—vwe`‡KB qy‡ivcxq wk¶v I ivR‰bwZK
Av`k©‡K †mvrmv‡n AbyKiY Kiv‡Z DØy× K‡i, Ges hLb Zviv wb‡RivB wb‡R‡`i
gvwU‡K Amf¨Zv I ee©iZvi g‚Zi© ƒc wn‡m‡e MY¨ K‡iwQj| GwU wQj †m¡”QvPvwiZv Avi
b„ksmZvi GK Kv‡jv Aa¨vq| Av‡R©w›Ubvi †Wvwgb‡Mv mviwg‡qb‡Uvi g‡Zv wPš—vwe`I
¯’vbxq Av‡gwiKvevmx‡`i D‡”Q` Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †NvlYv K‡ib, hv‡Z bZyb
gnv‡`kwU‡K ïay LuvwU qy‡ivcxq RbmsL¨v w`‡q Aay¨wmZ Kiv hvq, Ges Ab¨w`‡K
†gw·‡Kvi cÖvPxb Jcwb‡ewkK DuP‡y kÖwYi wKQy m`m¨ webv AvcwˇZ †b‡cvwjqvb 3 Gi
d«vÝ KZ„©K cÖ`Ë Av`‡k©i Dci wfwË K‡i GKwU e„nr K¨v‡_vwjK mvgÖvR¨ Movi
e¨vcv‡i qy‡ivcxq ¶gZv‡K †g‡b wb‡qwQj, hvi djvdjm¡iƒc GKRb AóÖxq kvmK :
n¨vmev‡M©i g¨vw·wgwjqvb‡K g¨vw·‡Kvi ev`kv wn‡m‡e MÖnY Kiv nq| cy‡iv j¨vwUb
Av‡gwiKv Ry‡oB GB GKB cwiw¯’wZ weivR KiwQj : cyivZb Jcwb‡ewkK
ivRavbxMy‡jv‡Z wekvj, ivRwmK me ivRfeb ˆZwi Kiv, Òqy‡ivcxq GKxfebÓ Gi
GKwU DˇivËi cÖwµqvq RbmvaviY‡K eva¨ Kiv BZ¨vw`, hvi g‡a¨ Avevi cÖvPxbixwZ
Ges fvlvi webvkI Aš—fy©³ wQj, hv Ki‡Z c‚ee© Zx© †¯ú‡bi kvmKivI KLbI cÖ‡Pó
nqwb| GB qy‡ivc GKwÎKiY `~i`wk©Zv hv Ab¨w`‡K qy‡ivc Ges Gwkqv n‡Z wecyj
Awfevmb cÖ‡Yvw`Z K‡iwQj, Dcgnv‡`kwUi RbmsL¨v‡ZI Zv wekvj mgvš—ivj cÖfve
†d‡j–m¡vaxbZv hy×My‡jv mn 400 eQ‡ii †¯úbxq `Lj I kvm‡b hv bv n‡q‡Q, Zvi
†P‡q †ewk Av‡gwiKvi Awaevmx gviv wM‡q‡Q A_ev Zv‡`i Lyb Kiv n‡q‡Q Ewbk
kZ‡Ki †kl Avwk eQ‡i| Avgv‡`i mvwnZ¨ I wPš—vi Av`k©‡ZI Gi cÖfve Mfxifv‡e
AbyfZ
‚ n‡q‡Q, hLb †ewkifvM †jLKB wb‡R‡`i Avw` ¯’vb‡K N„Yv K‡i AbymiY
K‡i‡Q qy‡iv‡ci wPš—vaviv‡K| GgbwK wbKvivMyqvi me©‡kÖô Kwe Ges †¯úbxq
AvaywbKZvi cÖavb PwiÎ iy‡eb W¨vwiIi †jLv‡ZI †h f‚wg Zv‡K Rb¥ w`‡qwQj Zvi
kvk¦wZKx-132

D‡j−L Lyu‡R cvIqv Kómva¨, Ges kyaygvÎ wKDevi Kwe †nv‡h gviwZ-B GB qy‡ivcxq
GKwÎKiY g‡bvfw½i wec‡¶ GKv `uvwo‡qwQ‡jb, GB †NvlYv K‡i †h GKRb bZyb,
ev¯—e Av‡gwiKvb gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbxqZv i‡q‡Q|
ZeyI, kZvwãi AveZ©b¶‡Y j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvevmx bZyb GKwU wKQyi
cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyfe K‡iwQj, †h Zv‡`i †`kMy‡jv KLbI qy‡ivcxq n‡q DV‡e bv,
`iKviI wQj bv †h n‡q DVvi, Ges Zv‡`i GKwU m¡Zš¿ cwiPq _vK‡e hv ZLbI Lyu‡R
cvIqv evwK wQj, hvi wfwË n‡e bv †Kvb AbyKiY|
GB mg‡q †h mKj fvebv I aviv A‡b¡lY Kiv n‡qwQj, Zv‡`i g‡a¨ iex›`Öbv_
VvKy‡ii `k©b Ges ghv©`v Zi“Y †jLK I Kwe‡`i GB aviYv †`q †h, GKRb eo gv‡ci
†jLK nIqvi R‡b¨ qy‡ivcxq‡`i g‡Zv K‡i †jLv ev wPš—v Kiv Avek¨K bq| ZvQvov
VvKy‡ii iƒcKvZ¥K I gvbexq KweZvMy‡jv Aqy‡ivcxq mvwnZ¨ †h we‡`kR GB fyj aviYv
`‚i K‡i, hv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi ZiyY †jLK‡`i c¨vwim, †ivg A_ev wMÖm wb‡q bv wj‡L
wb‡Ri †`‡ki K_v, wb‡Ri gvby‡li K_v, wb‡Ri fvlvq wjL‡Z DØy× K‡iwQj|
mxgve×Zv †_‡K gyw³ Ges GK bZyb mvwn‡Z¨i Rb¥
ZviciI, wZwb Zi“Y cÖR‡b¥i †jLK‡`i †h ˆbwZK Ges eyw×e„wËK Drmvn w`‡qwQ‡jb,
kyay Zv w`‡qB VvKy‡ii cÖwZfvi cÖfve cwigvc Ki‡j fyj n‡e, Ges nq‡Zvev AviI
¸i“Z¡c‚Y©fv‡e, Zuvi cÖfve bZyb wKQy `k©‡bi GK †hŠwMK †¶Î I mvwnZ¨ m¤¢vebvi Rb¥
w`‡qwQj, hv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi wkíx‡`i Kv‡Q Zuvi †jLvi Kx †`Iqvi Av‡Q Zv
D`vn„Z K‡i| 1937 mv‡j hLb †nvqvb i“n&‡gvDb wn‡g‡bh wKDev‡Z Av‡mb, ZLb
ZiyY Kwe‡`i GK wecyj wfo Zv‡K m¡vMZ Rvbvq, KviY Zviv Zuvi g‡a¨ GK
c_cÖ`k©K LyuRwQj| GB cwi`k©‡bi djvdjm¡iƒc †nv‡h †jRvgv wjgv Ò†nvqvb
i“n&‡gvDb wn‡g‡b‡hi mv‡_ K‡_vcK_bÓ (Colloquy with Juan Ramon Jimenez)
cÖeÜwU †j‡Lb, †hLv‡b kZvwãi †klvsk Ry‡o j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi mvwnZ¨‡K †hme
wfwË ˆewkó¨ cÖ`vb Ki‡e †mMy‡jvi A‡bK KqwU wb‡qB Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| ZiyY
†jRvgv hLb KweZvi Dci cÖvPxb gvÎvixwZ KZ„©K Pvwc‡q †`Iqv mxgve×Zvi K_v
e‡jb, ZLb †¯úbxq †mB Kwe eySv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb †h KweZv‡K Zvi P‚ovq †cuŠQv‡Z
evav`vbKvix GB mxgve×ZvMy‡jv †f‡½ Drwi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| c−¨v‡U‡iv Ges Avwg‡Z
wZwb KweZv I M‡`¨i gv‡Si wefw³ gy‡Q †d‡j ZvB K‡ib; hv VvKyi c‚‡e©B
K‡iwQ‡jb| wPwji fvlvq 1920 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ VvKy‡ii wKQy KweZv Ges †jLvi GK
msMÖ‡ni m¤úv`K GB gZ cÖKvk K‡ib †h VvKyi A¶g wQ‡jb DrK…ó bvUKMy‡jvi wKQy
avuP wbqš¿‡Y, Ges wZwb GI g‡b K‡ib †h bvUKxqZvi Afv‡e VvKy‡ii †cv÷Awdm
hw`I GKwU PgKcÖ` bvUK n‡q D‡V‡Q, ZeyI †Kv‡bv †kÖô mvwnZ¨Kg© n‡Z cv‡iwb,
†mB m¤úv`K–whwb ZLbI cÖvPxb wMÖ‡Ki aibMZ wefw³ Øviv cÖfvweZ–GwU eyS‡Z
cv‡ibwb †h Zuvi bvUK w`‡q Kwe Avm‡j bvUK Ges KweZv‡K KvQvKvwQ wb‡q
G‡b‡Qb, †h cÖPjb A‡bK eQi ci †jRvgv wjgv‡K Zrci K‡i ej‡Z : ÒDcb¨vm‡K
Aek¨B Kvwe¨K n‡q DV‡Z n‡eÓ, hv wZwb Zvi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq Dcb¨vm c¨vivwW‡mv‡Z
(Paradiso, 1967) K‡i †`wL‡qwQ‡jb| GB cÖPjb Av‡ivI A‡b‡K AbymiY K‡iwQj,
†hgb Av‡iKRb wKDevevmx Wyj‡m gvigv †j¨vqbvR, hvi MxwZagx© Dcb¨vm evMvb

kvk¦wZKx-133

(1948, The Garden) wn‡g‡bh Ges VvKyi Df‡qi cÖfv‡ei Dci wfwË K‡i iwPZ (hvi
D‡j−L wk‡ivbvgwU‡Z ¯úó) Ges wKDevi †jLK I mgv‡jvPK dªBjvb Gm‡Kvevi mn
Av‡iv A‡b‡Ki Kv‡Q hv cwieZ©‡bi †¶Î wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq, Ges hv cieZx©‡Z
Òj¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi mvwnZ¨ weKvkÓ bv‡g cwiwPZ n‡qwQj| ZvB nvm¨Ki jv‡M kyb‡Z,
hLb wKQy mgv‡jvPK Zv‡`i mvwnZ¨ †h Avm‡j fviZxq mvwn‡Z¨i me©‡kÖô e¨w³i
w`‡KB wd‡i hv‡”Q, †mwU bv ey‡S mgmvgwqK fviZxq †jLK‡`i w`‡K µzi `„wó‡Z
ZvwK‡q Zv‡`i GB †f‡e Aegvbbv K‡i †h Zviv j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi aib †hgb
†MBewiqvj Mviwmqv gvi‡KB‡mi ÔAcÖvK„Z ev¯—eZvÕ AbyKiY Ki‡Q|
GLb, ïay M`¨ I MíB VvKy‡ii †jLv Øviv cÖfvweZ nqwb| GK wPwjevmx, cve‡jv
†biy`v, Zvi Zvi“‡Y¨B GB evOvwj Kwei †cÖ‡g c‡ob, Ges IK‡UBwfI c¨v‡Ri gZ
mgv‡jvPK‡`i Rb¨B Zvi cÖ_gw`‡Ki †jLvMy‡jv Lye Mfxifv‡e GB cÖK„wZ Øviv
cwic‚Y©| ev¯—‡e, Zvi cÖ_g cÖavb KvR wekwU †cÖ‡gi KweZv I GKwU nZvkvi Mvb
(Twenty Love Poems and a Desperate Song)-G Zi“Y †biy`v–whwb 1971 G †bv‡ej
cyi¯‹vi cvb–Zvi 16Zg †cÖ‡gi KweZvq GKwU Ab¡q ms‡hvRb K‡ib, hv A‡bK
mgv‡jvPK GI g‡b K‡i †h GwU VvKy‡ii gvwj Kve¨MÖ‡š’i 30Zg KweZv : ÒZywg
mܨv‡iv †g‡NvgvjvÓ-Gi GKwU mivmwi Abyev`| ZvQvov, 1945-G †bv‡ej weRqx
Av‡iK wPwji Kwe M¨vewi‡qjv wgmUªvj VvKy‡ii †kÖô KweZvMy‡jvi GKwU msMÖ‡n
mn‡hvwMZv K‡iwQ‡jb, †hLv‡b wZwb Ògvwj wb‡q D‡ØMÓ-Gi cÖwZwµqvq wb‡Ri †ek
wKQy e¨vL¨v ms‡hvRb K‡ib|

Ges mvaviY cvVK?
Gme wKQyB Aek¨B cy‡ivcywi e¨vL¨v K‡ibv †K‡bv VvKyi GLbI j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi
cvVK‡`i Kv‡Q RbwcÖq| GwU wbwðZ †h Zuvi KweZv Ges M`¨ B`vwbs Ly‡u R cvIqv
Kómva¨, Ges wKQy †¶‡Î †mMy‡jv‡K wc‡QI †djv n‡q‡Q †h‡nZy bZyb mvwnZ¨ cÖPjb
Ges avuP P‚ovq wb‡R‡`i Ae¯’vb K‡i wb‡q‡Q| ZviciI Aš—Z GKwU KviY Av‡Q hvi
d‡j †gw·‡Kv †_‡K wPwj, Av‡R©w›Ubv I eÖvwRj ch©š— GLbI A‡b‡K mivmwi ev
c‡iv¶fv‡e VvKy‡ii cÖfve Abyfe K‡i| wk¶v wb‡q Zuvi wPš—v j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvi
A‡bK †`‡ki wk¶ve¨e¯’vq GKwU cÖavb PwiÎ cvjb K‡i Avm‡Q, mv‡_ KvR K‡i
fviZ‡K Rvbvi GKwU AvMÖn, hv GLbI A‡bK j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvevmx‡K †KŠZ‚njx K‡i
†Zv‡j, Ges †mB AvMÖn cÖ_g †R‡MwQj ZuviB Kvi‡Y| cÖ_g e¨vcviwUi D`vniY Avgvi
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wek¡we`¨vj‡q `k eQi VvKy‡ii Dci GK Av‡jvPbvmfv cwiPvwjZ K‡iwQ‡jb) g‡Z
cÖavb `vk©wbK Ges wPš—vwe`‡`i g‡a¨ `yBRb, Ggv M¨vg‡evqv I iyev‡Uv© weÖwbm Gg.
VvKy‡ii A‡bK wPš—vB †h wf‡Zi Dci Avgv‡`i wk¶ve¨e¯’v `uvwo‡q Av‡Q Zv‡Z cÖ‡qvM
K‡i‡Qb, j¨vwUb Av‡gwiKvq eZ©gv‡b hv me‡P‡q cwiwPZ e¨e¯’vMy‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU|
ZvQvov †gw·‡Kvi AvaywbK wk¶v e¨e¯’vi cÖavb PwiÎ I †jLK †nv‡h f¨vm‡Kvb‡m‡jvm
1920 Gi w`‡KB cwðgxq mvwnZ¨K„wZMy‡jvi cvkvcvwk VvKy‡ii mvwnZ¨I cov‡bv‡K
ky‡f”Qv Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb, Avi Zuvi wPš—vMy‡jv‡K e¨envi K‡i mvwR‡qwQ‡jb †gw·‡Kvi
cÖwk¶Y e¨e¯’v|

kvk¦wZKx-134

Ab¨w`‡K cvVKiv GLbI VvKyi I fvi‡Zi cÖwZ GKwU AvKl©Y Abyfe K‡i, †hgb
G‡jBbv Pv‡fm, †Kv÷vwiKvi GKRb AvBbRxex, VvKy‡ii cÖwZ hvi fv‡jvevmv R‡b¥wQj
Kwe‡K I Zuvi wPš—vMy‡jv‡K AviI Mfxifv‡e Rvb‡Z †h‡q, Ges GB GKB Kvi‡Y mj
AviMy‡q‡jvi VvKy‡ii Dci wekwU Qqgvme¨vcx cVbKvjmg Av‡jvPbvmfv‡K cwiPvwjZ
K‡i, †hLv‡b QvÎQvÎxiv GB evOvwj Kwe‡K ïay cvV Avi we‡k−lYB K‡i bvB, eis Zuvi
wKQy bvUK g¯’I K‡iwQj, Avi Zuvi iPbv cvV I Dc¯’vcb kyay wek¡we`¨vj‡qB K‡iwQj
bv, eis K‡iwQj cy‡iv †`kRy‡o D”Pwe`¨vjqMy‡jv‡ZI|
AvR‡K, GKRb ej‡ZB cv‡i †h cyKy‡ii Zi½My‡jv Avi GK †bB| wKš—y Zvi
cÖfve Pj‡ZB _v‡K, Ges †h wkjv Zv‡`i Rb¥ w`‡qwQj Zv GLbI we¯§„Z nqwb| Gfv‡e,
Avwg `„pZvi mv‡_ W. Q›`‡K DËi w`‡Z cvwi : †hvMm~ÎMy‡jv †gv‡UI `ye©j bq|

Abyev` mv¶vrKvi (137-146)

iex›`ªbv_ I †ivguv †ivjuv

iex›`ªbv_ I AvBb÷vBb

mvwnZ¨KvMR msev`

ÔmvZcvZvÕ
XvKv †_‡K gvneyeyj Avjg-Gi m¤úv`bvq wb‡qvwgZ cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q
wØ-gvwmK mvwn‡Z¨i KvMR ÔmvZcvZvÕ|
†hvMv‡hvM : 01721429980 satpata@live.com
Ô†PŠKvVÕ
PÆMÖvg †_‡K Av‡idxb QÙnxb-Gi m¤úv`bvq wb‡qvwgZ cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q
AbyM‡íi †QvUKvMR Ô†PŠKvVÕ| †hvMv‡hvM : m¤úv`K, 01812575335,
01918527576 chowkath1@gmail.com

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wSbvB`n †_‡K mygb wkK`v‡ii m¤úv`bvq wb‡qvwgZ cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q
mvwn‡Z¨i KvMR Ô†eMeZxÕ| †hvMv‡hvM : m¤úv`K, 01917889510
info@begoboti.com

ÔAvMvwgi c‡_Õ
Kzwóqv †_‡K nvwmeyj nvmv‡bi m¤úv`bvq cÖKvwkZ n‡Z hv‡”Q wkí,
mvwnZ¨ I ms¯‹…wZi KvMR ÔAvMvwgi c‡_Õ| †hvMv‡hvM : m¤úv`K,

iex›`ªbv_ I GBPwR I‡qjm

01722669267, potha@gmail.com

ÔgjvUÕ
XvKv †_‡K wb‡qvwgZ cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q AuvwL wmwÏKvi m¤úv`bvq mvwnZ¨
KvMR ÔgjvUÕ|
†hvMv‡hvM : 01916571549/ 01196267261
shubornoarjo@gmail.com

kvk¦wZKx-135

kvk¦wZKx-136

iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi mvwnwZ¨K, g~jZ Kwe; Rb¥ 1861 mv‡j, ZrKvjxb weªwUk Dcwb‡ek
fvi‡Z| Avi A¨vjevU© AvBb÷vBb GKRb Avcv`g¯ÍK weÁvbx; Zuvi Rb¥ 1879
mv‡j, ZLbKvi Ab¨Zg cÖavb wek¦kw³ Rvg©vwb‡Z| `yR‡bB †bv‡ej cyi¯‹v‡i f~wlZ
n‡q‡Qb, iex›`ªbv_ mvwn‡Z¨, 1913 mv‡j; Avi AvBb÷vBb c`v_© weÁv‡b, 1921
mv‡j| mvwnZ¨ I weÁvb‡K `yB †gi“i welq wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv nq| Z‡e `yÕR‡bB
wbR wbR wel‡qi g~j PP©vi evB‡i gvbyl, cÖK…wZRMZ, mgvR, ag© I ivRbxwZ wb‡q
fve‡Zb| G wb‡q Zuviv A‡bK KvRI K‡i‡Qb|
iex›`ªbv_ I AvBb÷vB‡bi g‡a¨ mv¶vr n‡qwQj 1930 mv‡ji RyjvB gv‡mi
gvSvgvwS| GB mv¶vrKv‡ii Av‡qvRK wQ‡jb Df‡qi eÜz W. †g‡Ûj| AvBb÷vBb
ZLb evwj©‡b _vK‡Zb| iex›`ªbv_ Zuvi evmvq wM‡qwQ‡jb 14 RyjvB| c‡i AvBb÷vBb
cvëv iex›`ªbv‡_i m‡½ †`Lv Ki‡Z hvb W. †g‡Û‡ji evwo| 14 RyjvB AvBb÷vB‡bi
evwo‡Z Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ †hme K_vevZ©v nq Zv GKwU MÖ‡š’ msKwjZ nq (w` wiwjwRIb
Ad g¨vb, RR©, A¨v‡jb GÛ AvbDBb wjwg‡UW, jÛb, A¨v‡cwÛ· Uz, c„ôv 222225)| G‡Z m½x‡Zi ˆewkó¨ Av‡jvPbvi g‡a¨ w`‡q GB `yB wek¦bw›`Z e¨w³Z¡ gvbyl
I cÖK…wZRM‡Zi Af¨šÍixY we‡iva I mgš^‡qi m~Î I PwiÎ kbv³ Ges we‡k−lY Kivi
cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb|

VvKzi : AvR Avwg W. †g‡Û‡ji m‡½ MwY‡Zi bZzb Avwe®‹vi¸‡jv wb‡q Av‡jvPbv
KiwQjvg, ejv n‡”Q AwZ ¶z`ª cigvYyi iv‡R¨ ˆ`ei GKUv f~wgKv Av‡Q; Aw¯Í‡Z¡i
bvUKxqZv Pwi‡Î m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c cyew© ba©vwiZ bq|
AvBb÷vBb : †hme Z_¨ weÁvb‡K GB `„wófw½i w`‡K †V‡j w`‡”Q Zv Kvh©KviYZË¡‡K
bv K‡i †`qwb| k„•Ljv Kx Zv GKRb †evSvi †Póv Ki‡Q DuPz ¯Íi †_‡K| †hLv‡b eo
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ª i
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VvKzi : Zvi gv‡b Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Mfx‡i i‡q‡Q ˆØZZv, ¯^vaxb Zvobv Ges wb‡`©kÁvcK
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mw¾Z Rjwe›`yi mgwó|
VvKzi : Avwg gvbe gb¯Í‡Ë¡i g‡a¨ mgvšÍiv‡ji mÜvb cvB| Avgv‡`i Av‡eM Ges
B”Qv¸‡jv Aeva¨, wKš‘ Avgv‡`i PwiÎ GB Dcv`vb¸‡jv‡K `gb K‡i GKUv mymgÄm
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G¸‡jvi Ici cÖvavb¨kxj Ges G¸‡jv‡K GKÎ K‡i k„•Ljvgq msMV‡b cwiYZ K‡i?
AvBb÷vBb : †KvbI c`v_©B cwimsL¨vbMZ k„•Ljvwenxb bq; †iwWqvg c`v_©¸‡jv
me©`v Zv‡`i wewkó k„•Ljv-ixwZ †g‡b P‡j, GLb Ges c‡iI, wVK †hgb me mgq
K‡i G‡m‡Q| A_©vr, c`v_©¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cwimsL¨vbMZ k„•Ljv Av‡Q|
VvKzi : Zv bv n‡j Aw¯—‡Z¡i bvUK Lye †ewk G‡jv‡g‡jv n‡q hv‡e| ˆ`e NUbv Ges
msK‡íi wbZ¨ mvgÄm¨B GUv‡K wPiKv‡ji Rb¨ bZzb Ges RxešÍ K‡i ivL‡Q|
AvBb÷vBb : Avgvi wek¦vm, Avgiv hv wKQzB Kwi wKsev hvi R‡b¨B euvwP me wKQzi
†cQ‡b KviYZË¡ wµqvkxj i‡q‡Q; GUv eis fvj †h Avgiv Gi me wKQz †`L‡Z cvB bv|
VvKzi : gvbexq Kg©Kv‡Êi †fZi GKUv w¯’wZ¯’vcKZvi e¨vcviI Av‡Q, Avgv‡`i
e¨w³‡Z¡i ewntcÖKv‡ki R‡b¨ GKUv †QvU mxgvbvi g‡a¨ wKQz ¯^vaxbZv| GUv fvi‡Zi
m½x‡Zi c×wZi g‡Zv, hv cvðv‡Z¨i m½x‡Zi b¨vq GZUv K‡Vvifv‡e wba©vwiZ bq|
Avgv‡`i myimªóvMY GKUv wbw`©ó Lmov-†iLv Gu‡K †`b, †mUv myi Ges jq web¨v‡mi
GKUv c×wZ, GKUv mxgvi g‡a¨ †_‡K MvqK †mUv wb‡q wbR¯^ KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i|
Zv‡K Aek¨B IB we‡kl my‡ii wbq‡gi g‡a¨ _vK‡Z nq, Zvici †m IB wba©vwiZ
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cv‡i| my‡ii GKUv DcwiKvVv‡gvi cvkvcvwk Zvi GKUv eywbqv` m„wói R‡b¨ Avgiv
myiKv‡ii Zvwid Kwi, wKš‘ myi‡mŠ›`h© I Aj¼v‡ii ˆewPΨ m„wó‡Z Mvq‡Ki Kv‡Q Zvi
wbR¯^ `¶ZvI cÖZ¨vkv Kiv nq| m„wóK‡g© Avgiv Aw¯—‡Z¡i g~j bxwZi AbymiY Kwi,
wKš‘ Avgiv hw` Gi †_‡K wb‡R‡`i wew”Qbœ bv Kwi Zvn‡j cwic~Y© AvZ¥cÖKv‡ki Rb¨
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AvBb÷vBb : GUv †Kej ZLbB m¤¢e hLb †jvKgvbm‡K wbqš¿Y Kivi g‡Zv m½x‡Zi
GKUv kw³kvjx ˆkwíK HwZn¨ _v‡K| BD‡iv‡c m½xZ MYwkí I MY-Abyfe †_‡K

kvk¦wZKx-137

kvk¦wZKx-138

iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi

AvBb÷vBb, †ivguv †ivjuv I GBPwR I‡qjm
Abyev` : bvwRe Iqv`y`

evsjv GKwU mg„× fvlv| gvZ…fvlv wn‡m‡eI Gi Ae¯’vb wewkó| evsjv fvlvi mvwnZ¨
cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB D”P wkígvbm¤úbœ| wKš‘ ivR‰bwZK Ges Av_©mvgvwRK Kvi‡Y
wek¦mvwn‡Z¨i A½‡b Gi Kvw•¶Z cÖfve j¶¨ Kiv hvq bv| evsjv mvwnZ¨ I evsjv fvlvi
mvwnwZ¨KMY wek¦v½‡b †Zgb GKUv cwiwPZ bb| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Gi e¨wZµg| g~jZ
BD‡iv‡ci cÖwZ iex›`ªbv‡_i wb‡RiB GKUv `ye©jZv wQj| †m Kvi‡Y wZwb BD‡iv‡ci
eyw×Rxex I mvwnwZ¨K‡`i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vc‡b m‡Pó wQ‡jb memgq| Ab¨w`‡K,
we‡klZ Zvi †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi cÖvwßi ci BD‡iv‡cI Zuvi m¤ú‡K© AvMÖn m„wó nq|
iex›`ªbv_ †ek K‡qKevi BD‡ivc ågY K‡ib| G wb‡q A‡bK †jLv‡jwLI K‡i‡Qb|
BD‡iv‡ci K‡qKRb wewkó e¨w³‡Z¡i m‡½ Zuvi eÜzZ¡ I NwbôZv ˆZwi nq| G‡`i
m‡½ wZwb mvwnZ¨ wkí, gvbe mf¨Zv, cÖvP¨ I cÖZx‡P¨i AvšÍtm¤úK©, wek¦kvwšÍ, cÖf…wZ
wel‡q gZwewbgq K‡ib| wewkó weÁvbx AvBb÷vBb, K_vwkíx †ivguv †ivjuv, mvwnwZ¨K
GBPwR I‡qjm cÖgyL G‡`i AšÍf©y³| G‡`i ga¨Kvi g~j¨evb K‡_vcK_b¸‡jv †m
mgq BD‡ivc I Gwkqvi wewfbœ cÎ-cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| evsjvfvlx cvVK‡`i R‡b¨
†m iKg wZbwU K‡_vcK_b GLv‡b Ab~w`Z n‡jv|

Aw¯Í‡Z¡i ˆØZZv

iex›`ªbv_ I AvBb÷vBb

A‡bK `~‡i m‡i †M‡Q Ges Zvi wbR¯^ cÖ_v I HwZn¨m‡gZ †mUv wKQzUv n‡q D‡V‡Q
GKUv †Mvcb wk‡íi g‡Zv|
VvKzi : GB AwZ RwUj m½x‡Zi cÖwZ cy‡ivcywi AbyMZ _vK‡Z nq| fvi‡Z Mvq‡Ki
¯^vaxbZvi gvÎv wbwnZ _v‡K Zvi wbR¯^ m„Rbkxj e¨w³‡Z¡i g‡a¨| †m myiKv‡ii Mvb
wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i MvB‡Z cv‡i hw`, Zv‡K †h myi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q Zvi mvaviY wbq‡gi
g‡a¨, wb‡R‡K cÖKvk Kivi Dchy³ m„Rbkxj ¶gZv Zvi _v‡K|
AvBb÷vBb : g~j m½x‡Zi gnvb aviYv‡K cy‡ivcywi eyS‡Z n‡j Lye D”P wkígvb _vKv
`iKvi, †hb Zv‡K wb‡q e¨wZµ‡gi KvR Kiv hvq| Avgv‡`i †`‡k e¨wZµgI
cÖvqktB c~e©wba©vwiZ|
VvKzi : hw` Avgiv Avgv‡`i AvPi‡Y DrK‡l©i bxwZ Aej¤^b Ki‡Z cvwi Zvn‡j Avgiv
wbR Abyf~wZ cÖKv‡ki cÖK…Z ¯^vaxbZv †c‡Z cvwi| GLv‡bB Av‡m AvPi‡Yi bxwZi
cÖkœ, wKš‘ GUv‡K mwZ¨ K‡i †Zv‡j PwiÎ; Ges e¨w³ n‡”Q Avgv‡`i wb‡Ri m„wó|
Avgv‡`i m½x‡Z i‡q‡Q ¯^vaxbZv Ges c~e©wba©vwiZ k„•Ljvi ˆØZZv|
AvBb÷vBb : Mv‡bi K_vI wK ¯^vaxb? Avwg ej‡Z Pvw”Q, MvqK †h Mvb Mvq Zvi m‡½
Zvi wb‡Ri K_v †hvM Kivi ¯^vaxbZv wK Zvi Av‡Q?
VvKzi : nu¨v| evsjvq GK ai‡bi Mvb Av‡QÑ Avgiv Zv‡K KxZ©b ewj, G‡Z g~j Mv‡bi
cwieZ©b Kiv hvq bv, wKš‘ Gi m‡½ Am½Z gšÍe¨ I evK¨ Ry‡o †`Iqvi ¯^vaxbZv
Mvq‡Ki _v‡K| GUv wecyj Drmvn m„wó K‡i, KviY †kªvZv Mvq‡Ki †hvM Kiv
KZK¸‡jv my›`i I ¯^Ztù~Z© Abyf~wZi Øviv µgvMZ †ivgvwÂZ n‡Z _v‡K|
AvBb÷vBb : Q‡›`i KvVv‡gv wK Lye KwVb?
VvKzi : nu¨v, †ek KwVb| Q›`twe`¨vi mxgv AwZµg Kiv hvq bv; MvqK‡K Zvi mKj
e¨wZµ‡gi g‡a¨ Aek¨B wba©vwiZ jq Ges mgq wVK ivL‡Z nq| BD‡ivcxq m½x‡Z
mg‡qi e¨vcv‡i Zzjbvg~jK ¯^vaxbZv Av‡Q, wKš‘ my‡ii †¶‡Î †bB|
AvBb÷vBb : fviZxq m½xZ wK evYx Qvov MvIqv m¤¢e? evYx Qvov wK Mvb †evSv hvq?
VvKzi : nu¨v, Avgv‡`i A_©nxb K_v I aŸwbi Mvb Av‡Q, hv †Kej myi en‡b mnvqZv
K‡i| DËi fvi‡Z m½xZ GKUv ¯^vaxb wkí, evsjvi g‡Zv Zv evYx Ges wPšÍvi Abyev`
ev we¯—…wZ bq| m½xZ Lye `y‡e©va¨ I m~², Ges my‡ii ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© RMZ|
AvBb÷vBb : GUv wK eû¯^wiK bq?
VvKzi : hš¿ e¨eüZ nq, wKš‘ †mUv myim½wZi Rb¨ bq, eis mgq i¶v Ges K‡Éi
Zvb I MfxiZv‡K D”PwKZ Kivi Rb¨| myim½wZ Av‡ivc Kivi Rb¨ Avcbv‡`i
m½x‡Zi Zvj-jq ¶wZMÖ¯Í nq wK?
AvBb÷vBb : KLbI KLbI LyeB ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq| KLbI KLbI h‡š¿i myim½wZ
MxwZgqZv‡K cy‡ivcywi †L‡q †d‡j|
VvKzi : myi Ges hš¿m½wZ Qwei †iLv Ges i‡Oi g‡Zv| GKUv mvaviY mij‰iwLK Qwei
me©v½xY my›`i nIqv m¤¢e; is Zv‡K A¯úó I Zvrch©nxb K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i| Avevi †iLvi
m‡½ wg‡j is gnvb wPÎ m„wó K‡i, hw` bv Zv Zvi ¸i“Z¡‡K Avovj I aŸsk K‡i|
AvBb÷vBb : PgrKvi Zzjbv GUv; †iLv i‡Oi †P‡q A‡bK cyi‡bvI e‡U| Avgvi g‡b
n‡”Q KvVv‡gvi w`K †_‡K Avcbv‡`i myi Avgv‡`i †P‡q mg„×| Rvcvwb m½xZI g‡b
nq G iKg|
kvk¦wZKx-139

VvKzi : Avgv‡`i g‡bi Ici cÖvP¨xq I cvðvZ¨xq m½x‡Zi cÖfve Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Kiv
KwVb| Avwg cvðv‡Z¨i m½xZ Øviv Mfxifv‡e Av‡jvwoZ; Avwg g‡b Kwi GUv gnvb,
GB w`K †_‡K †h Gi msMVb-ixwZi e¨vwß wekvj Ges myi iPbvi we‡ePbvq LyeB
PgrKvi| Avgv‡`i wbR¯^ m½xZ Avgv‡K Av‡iv Mfxifv‡e ¯úk© K‡i Zvi †gŠwjK
MxwZgqZvi Av‡e`‡bi Kvi‡Y| BD‡ivcxq m½xZ Pwi‡Î gnvKvwe¨K, Gi we¯—…Z cUf~wg
i‡q‡Q, Ges KvVv‡gvq GUv Mw_K ˆewk‡ó¨i|
AvBb÷vBb : GUv Ggb GKUv cÖkœ hvi DËi Avgiv BD‡ivcxqiv mwVKfv‡e w`‡Z
cvwi bv, Avgiv Avgv‡`i m½x‡Z GZUvB Af¨¯Í| Avgiv Rvb‡Z PvB Avgv‡`i
wb‡R‡`i m½xZ cÖ_vMZ bvwK †gŠwjK gvbexq Abyfw~ Z, HKZvb Ges ¯^i-Am½wZi
Abyfe wK ¯^vfvweK, bvwK GUv cÖ_v, hv Avgiv †g‡b †bB?
VvKzi : †Kb Rvwb bv wcqv‡bv Avgv‡K nZeyw× K‡i| †envjv Avgv‡K A‡bK †ewk
Avb›` †`q|
AvBb÷vBb : †h fviZxq †hŠebKv‡j KLbI BD‡ivcxq m½xZ †kv‡bwb Zvi Ici Zvi
cÖfve Aa¨qb †ek gRvi e¨vcvi n‡e|
VvKzi : Avwg GKevi GK Bs‡iR m½xZKvi‡K wKQz K¬¨vwmK¨vj m½xZ we‡k−lY Ki‡Z
e‡jwQjvg, Kx me Dcv`vb Zvi †mŠ›`h© m„wó K‡i Zvi e¨vL¨v w`‡Z e‡jwQjvg|
AvBb÷vBb : mgm¨v n‡jv GKUv mwZ¨Kv‡ii fvj m½xZ, Zv cÖv‡P¨iB †nvK wK
cvðv‡Z¨i, Zvi we‡k−lY Kiv hvq bv|
VvKzi : nu¨v, Avi †kªvZv‡K hv Mfxifv‡e Avc−yZ K‡i Zv Zvi wb‡RiB AvIZvi evB‡ii wRwbm|
AvBb÷vBb : Avgv‡`i AwfÁZvi cÖ‡Z¨K †gŠj e¨vcv‡i, wk‡íi cÖwZ Avgv‡`i
cÖwZwµqvq, GKB AwbðqZv me mgqB †_‡K hv‡e, Zv BD‡iv‡cB †nvK wKsev
Gwkqv‡ZB †nvK| GgbwK Avgvi mvg‡b Avcbvi †Uwe‡j Avwg †h jvj dzj †`LwQ Zv
Avcbvi Ges Avgvi Kv‡Q GKB iKg bv-I jvM‡Z cv‡i|
VvKzi : Z_vwc Zv‡`i g‡a¨ mgš^q mva‡bi cÖwµqv me mgq cÖengvbÑ e¨w³MZ
i“wP‡K me©Rbxb gv‡b DbœxZ Kivi gva¨‡g|

Rxeb mvqv‡ýi iO

iex›`ªbv_ I †ivguv †ivjuv
iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii m¼xY© RvZxqZvev` welqK †jLvi cÖksmv K‡i †ivguv †ivjuv Zuv‡K
GKwU wPwV wj‡LwQ‡jb| Zvi cÖZz¨Ë‡ii m~Î a‡i `yB we‡k¦i `yB wPšÍvwe‡`i g‡a¨
†hvMv‡hvM ¯’vwcZ nq| †mUv 1919 mv‡ji K_v| Gfv‡e GB `yB †bv‡ej weRqx
mvwnwZ¨‡Ki g‡a¨ ü`¨ZvI M‡o I‡V| †ivguv †ivjuvi Aby‡iv‡aB iex›`ªbv_ Ôjv wWK¬v‡ikb
cyi AvBÕBwÛ‡c‡ÛÝ Wv AvBÕGmwcªUÕ-G ¯^v¶i K‡ib| m¤¢eZ GwUB c„w_exi cÖ_g
msMwVZ hy×we‡ivax D‡`¨vM hv‡Z mvivwek¦ †_‡K eyw×Rxexiv AskMÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb|
wesk kZvãxi wØZxq `k‡Ki gvSvgvwS KzL¨vZ d¨vwm÷ gy‡mvwjwbi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i
mn‡hvwMZvg~jK mym¤úK© wb‡q Pig weåvwšÍ m„wó n‡qwQj| GB weåvwšÍ `~i Ki‡Z Ges
iex›`ªbv‡_i fvegh©v`v i¶v Ki‡Z †ivguv †ivjuv D‡`¨vM wb‡qwQ‡jb| iex›`ªbv_
cÖ_gev‡ii g‡Zv BZvwj hvb 1925 mv‡j| Amy¯Z
’ vi Kvi‡Y †m-ågY msw¶ß n‡qwQj|
kvk¦wZKx-140

wZwb †iv‡g †h‡Z cv‡ibwb| †m Kvi‡Y †mevi gy‡mvwjwbi m‡½ mv¶v‡Zi my‡hvM N‡Uwb|
Gici kvwšÍwb‡KZ‡bi R‡b¨ mvnvh¨‡K †K›`ª K‡i gy‡mvwjwbi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i
†hvMv‡hvM ˆZwi nq| ZviB djkÖ“wZ Zvi wØZxqev‡ii BZvwj ågY, ¯^qs gy‡mvwjwbi
Avgwš¿Z AwZw_ wn‡m‡e| 1926 mv‡ji 30 †g wZwb †iv‡g hvb, ciw`b †`Lv K‡ib
gy‡mvwjwbi m‡½, Zvi Awd‡m| Avi GKevi †`Lv nq BZvwj Z¨v‡Mi mgq| iex›`ªbv_
gy‡mvwjwbi K_v-evZ©v, AvwZ‡_qZv I mü`qZvq GZB gy» nb †h wewfbœ †jLvq, wPwV‡Z
Ges mv¶vrKv‡i wZwb †mK_v AKvZ‡i †NvlYv K‡ib| G wb‡q BD‡iv‡c, we‡klfv‡e
evgcš’x, d¨vwmev`we‡ivax I MYZš¿Kvgx eyw×Rxex‡`i g‡a¨, e¨vcK cÖwZwµqv m„wó nq|
GB weåvwšÍKi cwiw¯’wZi g‡a¨ iex›`ªbv_ BZvwj †_‡K myBRvij¨v‡Û hvb| †mLv‡b †ivguv
†ivjuv iex›`ªbv‡_i gy‡mvwjwb-fw³ `~i Kivi D‡`¨vM †bb| G‡Z wZwb cy‡iv mdj bv
n‡jI weåvwšÍ wKQzUv Kv‡U Ges nBPB wKQzUv w¯ÍwgZ nq|
†ivguv †ivjuv wek¦L¨vZ divwk Jcb¨vwmK| d¨vwmev` I hy×we‡ivax f~wgKvi R‡b¨I
wZwb e¨vcKfv‡e cÖkswmZ I Av‡jvwPZ n‡qwQ‡jb| iex›`ªbv‡_i `yB eQi c‡i, 1915
mv‡j, wZwb †bv‡ej cyi¯‹v‡i f~wlZ nb| Zuvi m‡½ iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖ_g mv¶vr N‡U 1921
mv‡ji GwcÖ‡j, c¨vwi‡m| Gic‡i Av‡iv K‡qKevi Zuv‡`i †`Lv-mv¶vr n‡q‡Q| 1930
mv‡ji AvM‡÷ †R‡bfvq mv¶v‡Zi mgq GB `yB wPšÍvwe‡`i g‡a¨ †h AvjvcPvwiZv nq
Zvi Askwe‡kl K‡_vcK_b AvKv‡i cÖKvwkZ nq ÔGwkqvÕ‡Z, 1937 mv‡ji gvP©
gv‡m| GB K‡_vcK_‡bi g‡a¨ ZrKvjxb we‡k¦i mgm¨v, ag©, AvPvi, Ava¨vwZ¥KZv,
weÁvb Ges Gm‡ei g‡a¨Kvi m¤úK© wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| GB welq¸‡jv
eZ©gvb c„w_ex‡ZI mgvb cÖvmw½K|
VvKzi : Avcwb wK g‡b K‡ib AvšÍR©vwZK m¤ú‡K©i †¶‡Î †R‡bfv ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv
ivL‡Z hv‡”Q?
†ivjuv : m¤¢eZ; Z‡e Gi †ewkifvMB wbf©i Ki‡Q †R‡bfvi wbqš¿Y †bB Ggb me
wel‡qi Ici|
VvKzi : GLv‡b mwµq wewfbœ kw³i g‡a¨ jxM Ad †bk݇K Avgvi we‡klfv‡e †mB
iKg g‡b n‡”Q| eZ©gvb gyn~‡Z© AvšÍR©vwZK m¤ú‡K©i cybtmgš^‡qi †¶‡Î GUv n‡”Q †h
†KvbI A‡_© me‡P‡q mnvqK nvwZqvi| GwU ivR‰bwZK we‡k¦ e„nËi m½wZ ¯’vc‡bi
kw³‡K‡›`ª DbœxZ n‡ZI cv‡i, bv-I cv‡i| GLv‡b Kg©iZ wewfbœ AvšÍR©vwZK `j,
mgvR Ges e¨w³i Ici Avwg we‡klfv‡e Av¯’vkxj, Ges Avgvi cÖZ¨vkv GB †h, Zviv
ax‡i ax‡i †R‡bfvq AvšÍR©vwZK Kg©Kv‡Êi GKwU mwZ¨Kvi †K›`ª M‡o Zzj‡Z m¶g
n‡eb hv fwel¨‡Zi ivRbxwZ‡K wbw`©ó MšÍ‡e¨i w`‡K wb‡q hv‡e|
†ivjuv : Avgiv A‡bK †jvK‡K †`wL hviv cÖv‡P¨i w`K †_‡K evZ©v jv‡fi Rb¨ e¨vMÖ
n‡q Av‡Qb| Zviv g‡b K‡ibÑ Ges Avwg †hvM Ki‡Z cvwi †h Zviv wVK K_vwUB
fv‡ebÑ †h, fviZel©B n‡”Q †mB †`k †h GB Bw½Zgq hyMvi¤¢ Kv‡j wek¦‡K †mB
evZ©vwU †kvbv‡Z cv‡i|
VvKzi : GwU AvMÖnf‡i j¶¨ Kivi welq Kxfv‡e fviZel© m¤¢eZ Dbwesk kZvãxi
cÖ_g AvšÍR©vwZK gvbwmKZvm¤úbœ gvbylwU‡K M‡o Zz‡j‡Q| Avwg ivRv ivg‡gvnb
iv‡qi K_vB ejwQ; m‡Z¨i cÖwZ Zuvi wQj cÖej Avmw³| GKwU i¶Ykxj eªvþY
cwiev‡i Rb¥ Zuvi, wKš‘ wZwb Kzms¯‹vi I K‡Vvi AvPviwcÖqZvi mKj eÜb †f‡½

†d‡jb| wZwb †eŠ×ev`‡K eyS‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb, †mR‡b¨ wZeŸZ wM‡qwQ‡jb; wZwb wneª“,
wMÖK, Aviwe, dvwm©, Bswjk I divwk fvlv †k‡Lb; e¨vcKfv‡e BD‡ivc ågY K‡ib
Ges Zuvi g„Z¨z nq weª÷‡j| Zuvi `„wó‡Z Ava¨vwZ¥K mZ¨ gv‡b wbQKB cy‡ivwnZZš¿ bq
hv mxgve× mv¤cÖ`vwqK Dcvmbvjq¸‡jvi g‡a¨; wKsev GUv‡K wZwb gZev` wn‡m‡e
cÖPv‡ii †ckvMZ AwaKvi †fvMKvix‡`i Øviv mswk−ó m¤cÖ`v‡qi evB‡ii †jv‡K‡`i
Ici Av‡ivc Kivi welq e‡jI g‡b Ki‡Zb bv| wZwb Dcjwä K‡iwQ‡jb †h,
Ava¨vwZ¥K HK¨ †MvUv gvbeRvwZ‡K mshy³ K‡i Ges a‡g©i D‡Ïk¨B n‡jv †m †cuŠ‡Q
hv‡e gvbexq m¤úK© Ges gvbexq Kg©KvÊ I AR©‡bi †gŠwjK H‡K¨i ¯Í‡i|
†ivjuv : fvi‡Z ag©xq mnbkxjZvi g‡bvfve †`‡L Avwg cÖvqB wew¯§Z nB; Avgiv
cvðv‡Z¨ hv Rvwb Zvi †_‡K GUv G‡Kev‡iB Avjv`v| GUv‡K m¤¢e K‡i Zz‡j‡Q
Avcbv‡`i a‡g©i m„wóin‡m¨i cÖKw… Z Ges Avcbv‡`i mf¨Zvi †hŠMag©x PvwiΨ|
fviZel© mKj ai‡bi ag©xq wek¦vm I AvPvi‡K cvkvcvwk †e‡o DV‡Z w`‡q‡Q|
VvKzi : m¤¢eZ †mUv Avgv‡`i `yej
© ZvI e‡U, Ges GUv n‡q‡Q mnbkxjZvi GKUv
wek„•Lj g‡bvfve †_‡K, †mUv n‡jvÑ fvi‡Z mKj ai‡bi ag©xq gZev` Ges †jvKRZvB
`v½vi m‡½ Rwo‡q c‡o‡Q, †m Kvi‡Y Avgv‡`i Ava¨vwZ¥K wek¦v‡mi mwZ¨Kvi wfZ‡K
†evSv Avgv‡`i R‡b¨ KwVb n‡q c‡o‡Q| D`vniY¯^iƒc, cïewji AvPv‡ii m‡½
Avgv‡`i a‡g©i †KvbI m¤úK© †bB, Zvic‡iI cÖPiz msL¨K †jvK GUv‡K HwZ‡n¨i wfZ
e‡j g‡b K‡i| a‡g©i GB GKBiKg ˆbwZK AatcZb cÖ‡Z¨K †`‡kB †`Lv hvq|
fvi‡Z Avgv‡`i AvR‡Ki D‡ØM n‡jv GB¸‡jv `~i Kiv Ges †h¸‡jv Avgv‡`i mwZ¨Kvi
Ava¨vwZ¥K DËivwaKvi †mBme e„nËi wek¦vm¸‡jv‡K †Rvi`vi Kiv wb‡q|
†ivjuv : wLªwóq ag©MÖ‡š’I GB cïewji aviYv cÖej| ïi“i Aa¨v‡qi K_vB ai“b: cÖfz
Av‡ej‡K AwaKZi cQ›` Ki‡Qb KviY wZwb Zuvi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKUv †fovi ev”Pv
Kzievwb K‡i‡Qb|
VvKzi : Avwg Iì †U÷v‡g‡›Ui cÖf‡z K KLbI fvjevm‡Z cvwi bv|
†ivjuv : ...†Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q fzj RvqMvq, Avi e„nËi we‡ePbvq AvPvi Ava¨vwZ¥K
e¨vcvi bq|
VvKzi : Avgv‡`i me mgq IB Ôe„nËi we‡ePbvÕi Ici †Rvi †`Iqv DwPZ| my¯úó
g‡›`i †gvKv‡ejvq m‡Z¨i mnbkxj nIqv †cvlvq bv; GUv m~h©v‡jv‡Ki g‡Zv, hv
¶wZKi RxevYyi Aw¯ÍZ‡¡ K Am¤¢e K‡i †Zv‡j| ev¯Íe e¨vcvi n‡jv, fviZxq ag©xq
Rxeb GLb AmwnòzZvi ¯^v¯’¨Ki ˆPZ‡b¨i Afv‡e fzM‡Q, hv GKUv m„Rbkxj a‡g©i
ˆewkó¨| AvR‡Ki fvi‡Z GgbwK bvw¯ÍKZvi cÖPjbI fvj KvR w`‡Z cv‡i, hw`I
Avgvi †`k KLbI bvw¯ÍKZv‡K Zvi ¯’vqx wek¦vm wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡e bv| e‡bi wb‡P
MwR‡q IVv mKj AwbóKi AvMvQv Dc‡o †dj‡e, Ges j¤^v e„¶mg~n A¶Z _vK‡e|
eZ©gvb gyn‡~ Z©, cvðv‡Z¨i w`K †_‡K A¯^xK…wZi DcnviI fviZxq RbM‡Yi GKUv eo
As‡ki Kv‡Q g~j¨evb e‡j cwiMwYZ n‡e|
†ivjuv : Avgvi wek¦vm ˆeÁvwbK hyw³ev` fviZe‡l©i mgm¨v mgvav‡b mvnvh¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|
VvKzi : Avwg Rvwb fviZ KLbI wbQK eyw×e„wËK mgvav‡bi Ici `xN©Kvj Av¯’v ivL‡Z
cvi‡e bv; fvimvg¨ Ges m½wZ wbwðZiƒ‡cB cybt¯’vwcZ n‡e| †mB Kvi‡Y †KvbI GK
w`‡K mvgwqK †SuvK Ava¨vwZ¥K Rxe‡bi †K›`ªxq gxgvsmvq †cuŠQvi Kv‡R Avgv‡`i

kvk¦wZKx-141

kvk¦wZKx-142

mnvqK n‡Z cv‡i| weÁvb‡K Avgv‡`i Kv‡R jvMv‡bv DwPZ †kl ch©šÍ Zv‡K
gvbweKxKiY K‡i|
†ivjuv : AvaywbK we‡k¦ weÁvbB m¤¢eZ me‡P‡q AvšÍR©vwZK Dcv`vb; A_©vr ˆeÁvwbK
M‡elYvq mn‡hvwMZvi g‡bvfve| wKš‘ GLb ivRbxwZK‡`i nv‡Z i‡q‡Q welv³ M¨vm|
GUv GKUv `ytLRbK welq †h weÁvbxiv mvgwiK kw³i cwiPvjbvaxb n‡q c‡o‡Q,
gvbweK gbb I ms¯‹…wZi Dbœqb wel‡q hv‡`i GZUzKz AvMÖnI †bB... RvwZmg~‡ni
g‡a¨Kvi cvi¯úwiK cÖwZØw›ØZvi †P‡q GKUv RvwZi wb‡Ri Af¨šÍixY wewfbœ †kªwYi
g‡a¨Kvi msNl© AvR‡Ki eo mgm¨v| Aek¨ GUv AvMÖvmx RvZxqZvev` Ges hy×s‡`nx
g‡bvfv‡ei cÖK…Z Awfkvc‡K mg_©b wKsev n«vm K‡i bv|
VvKzi : k㸇jvB †ewk AvZ¥m‡PZb, evK¨¸‡jv ZZUv bq| AvBwWqvi AvKvi Ges is
Av‡Q, †m¸‡jv mwPÎ wk‡í g~Z© n‡q IVvi R‡b¨ A‡c¶v K‡i| wVK GB gyn~‡Z© wPÎv¼b
Avgvi evwZ‡K cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| Avgvi †fvi ïi“ n‡q‡Q m½xZ Ges KweZv w`‡q;
GLb, Avgvi Rxe‡bi mvqv‡ý G‡m, Avgvi gb AvKvi I i‡O c~Y© n‡q D‡V‡Q|

iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii Rb¥ 1861 mv‡j, ZrKvjxb weªwUk Dcwb‡ek fvi‡Z| Avi GBP wR
I‡qjm-Gi Rb¥ 1866 mv‡j, e„‡U‡b| iex›`ªbv_ g~jZ Kwe, c„w_exi Ab¨Zg cÖavb I
eo Kwe| I‡qjm cÖavbZ mv‡qÝ wdKkb wj‡L‡Qb, GLbI mgvb RbwcÖq| †m
we‡ePbvq `yÕRb A‡bKUvB `yB †gi“i e¨w³Z¡| Z‡e `yÕR‡bB gvbyl, mgvR I ms¯‹…wZ
wb‡q fve‡Zb, G wb‡q Zuviv A‡bK KvRI K‡i‡Qb| BwZnvm, ivRbxwZ I ag© wel‡qI
`yR‡bi we‡kl AvMÖn I mwµq gZvgZ wQj|
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Ges GBP wR I‡qjm-Gi g‡a¨ mv¶vr n‡qwQj †R‡bfvq 1930
mv‡j, Ryb gv‡mi cÖ_g w`‡K| Zuv‡`i g‡a¨Kvi K‡_vcK_b †iKW© Kiv n‡qwQj| †mB
K‡_vcK_b Awgq PµeZ©x m¤úvw`Z G †U‡Mvi wiWvi bvgK MÖ‡š’ msKwjZ nq| GB
K‡_vcK_‡bi mgq Zuviv gvbe mf¨Zv Ges gvby‡li fwel¨Z wb‡q A‡bK gZ I aviYv
e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| †mme K_v GLbI Kg cÖvmw½K bq|
VvKzi : AvaywbK mf¨Zvi cÖeYZv n‡”Q c„w_exUv‡K mgiƒcx evbv‡bv| KjKvZv, †ev‡¤^,
nsKs, Ges Ab¨ me bMix Kg-†ewk GKB iKg, wekvj gy‡Lvk civ, hv †KvbI we‡kl
†`‡ki cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i bv|
I‡qjm : Z_vwc Avcwb GB we‡kl ev¯ÍeZv‡K Ggb GKUv Bw½Z g‡b Ki‡eb bv †h
Avgiv GKUv bZzb c„w_ex-e¨vcK gvbe-k„•Ljv ˆZwii w`‡K GwM‡q P‡jwQ hv
¯’vbxqZv‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i|
VvKzi : Avgv‡`i e¨w³MZ gyLfve GKB iKg nIqvi `iKvi †bB| gb me©Rbxb nIqv
cÖ‡qvRb| e¨w³‡K ewj †`Iqv DwPZ n‡e bv|
I‡qjm : Avgiv µ‡gB Ggb GKUv gvbe mf¨Zvi K_v fvewQ hvi Ici wfwË K‡i e¨w³i
c~Y©Zvi wekvj m¤¢vebv ˆZwi n‡e| e¨w³‡K Avgiv †hfv‡e †`wL, †m `y‡f©v‡Mi wkKvi, KviY

mf¨Zv c„_K c„_K GK‡K wef³ n‡q c‡o‡Q, A_P DwPZ wQj wgwjZ n‡q GKUv me©Rbxb
mgMÖZvq cwiYZ nIqv, †mUvB gvbe RvwZi ¯^vfvweK MšÍe¨ e‡j g‡b nq|
VvKzi : Avgvi wek¦vm gvbe mf¨Zvi HK¨ me‡P‡q fvjfv‡e i¶v Kiv m¤¢e c„w_exi
wewfbœ mf¨Zv‡K msN I mn‡hvwMZvi e܇b Ave× Kivi g‡a¨ w`‡q| Avcwb wK g‡b
K‡ib gvbe RvwZi R‡b¨ GKwU mvaviY fvlv ˆZwii †KvbI cÖeYZv †`Lv hv‡”Q?
I‡qjm : GKUv mvaviY fvlv (common language) m¤¢eZ gvbe RvwZi Ici
†Rvic~eK
© Pvwc‡q †`Iqv n‡e, Zv Avgiv cQ›` Kwi ev bv Kwi| AZx‡Z, †KvbI
ms¯‹Z
… g‡bi gvbemgvR wb‡R‡`i R‡b¨ ¯’vbxq fvlv ˆZwi K‡i‡Q| GLbKvi
cÖ‡qvRbxqZvB Avgv‡`i GKUv me©Rbxb fvlv MÖnY Ki‡Z eva¨ Ki‡e|
VvKzi : Avwg m¤ú~Y© GKgZ| cuvP-gvB‡ji fvlvi hyM `ª“Z †kl n‡q hv‡”Q| `ª“Z
†hvMv‡hvM mvaviY fvlvi c_ Db¥y³ K‡i w`‡”Q| Z_vwc GB me©Rbxb fvlv m¤¢eZ
RvZxq fvlv¸‡jv‡K cwiZ¨vM Ki‡e bv| GLv‡bB GLb GKUv †KŠZ~n‡jvÏxcK Z_¨
i‡q‡Q †h, gvbeg‡bi H‡K¨i µgea©gvbZvi cvkvcvwk, RvZxq AvZ¥m‡PZbZvi
AMÖMwZ cÖ‡Z¨K RvqMvq RvZxq fvlv ˆZwi wKsev Zvi cybi“¾xeb NUv‡”Q| Avcbvi
wK g‡b nq bv Av‡gwiKvq, Av‡gwiKv Ges Bsj¨v‡Ûi g‡a¨ Ae¨vnZ Nwbô m¤úK©
m‡Ë¡I, Bswjk fvlv GKUv mywbw`©ó iƒcvšÍi I cwieZ©‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q hv‡”Q?
I‡qjm : †mUv n‡j Avwg AevK n‡ev| Pwj−k ev cÂvk eQi Av‡M nq‡Zv G iKg
Ae¯’v wQj, wKš‘ GLb mvwnZ¨ Ges mvaviY K‡_vcK_‡b Bsj¨vÛ Ges Av‡gwiKvi
fvlvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbY©q Kiv µ‡gB KwVb n‡q DV‡Q| Gi Ab¨ w`K †_‡K A‡bK
†ewk cÖwZNvZ Av‡Q e‡j g‡b nq| Avgiv AvRKvj K_v m¤cÖPv‡ii cÖvK…wZK
c×wZ¸‡jvi m¤cÖmviY I c~YZ
© vmva‡bi Rb¨ KvR KiwQ| Abyev` GKUv weiw³Ki
e¨vcvi| Avcbvi KweZvi K_vB ai“bÑ GB cÖwµqvq †m¸‡jv wK A‡bK wKQz nvivqwb?
†m¸‡jv‡K GKB m‡½ mKj gvby‡li Kv‡Q †evaMg¨ K‡i †Zvjvi †KvbI c×wZ hw`
_vKZ Zvn‡j mwZ¨B †mUv PgrKvi GKUv e¨vcvi n‡Zv|
VvKzi : wewfbœ RvwZi m½x‡Zi GKUv mvaviY gb¯ÍvwË¡K wfwË i‡q‡Q, Zvi gv‡b GB bq
†h RvZxq m½x‡Zi (national music) Aw¯ÍZ¡ _vK‡e bv| GKB e¨vcvi, Avgvi g‡Z,
m¤¢eZ mvwn‡Z¨i †¶‡ÎI mwZ¨|
I‡qjm : AvaywbK m½xZ GK †`k †_‡K Av‡iK †`‡k hv‡”Q †KvbI wKQz bv nvwi‡qÑ
cyi‡mj †_‡K evK, Zvici eªvgm, Zvici i“k m½xZ, Zvici cÖvP¨| m½xZ n‡”Q
c„w_exi me wKQzi g‡a¨ me‡P‡q AvšÍRv© wZK|
VvKzi : Avwg GKUz †hvM Kwi? Avwg wZb kÕiI †ewk m½x‡Zi myi iPbv K‡iwQ| wKš‘
†m¸‡jv cvðvZ¨ †_‡K `~‡i i‡q‡Q, KviY †m¸‡jv Avcbv‡`i wb‡R‡`i ¯^iwjwc‡Z
mwVKfv‡e †`Iqv hv‡”Q bv| Avwg hw` †m¸‡jv‡K BD‡ivcxq ¯^iwjwc‡Z wjL‡ZI cvwi
Zvn‡jI m¤¢eZ †m¸‡jv Avcbv‡`i †jv‡K‡`i †evaMg¨ n‡e bv|
I‡qjm : cvðvZ¨ Avcbvi m½x‡Zi m‡½ cwiwPZ n‡Z cvi‡e|
VvKzi : Ggb wKQz myi-jq Av‡Q †h¸‡jv Avgv‡`i Mfxifv‡e Av‡›`vwjZ K‡i, wKš‘
cvðv‡Z¨i †kªvZv‡`i †eva nq nZeyw× Ki‡e| Zvic‡iI, Avcwb †hgb ej‡jb, Nwbô
cwiPq NU‡j m¤¢eZ †m¸‡jv µgvš^‡q cwð‡gi Kv‡Q h‡_vwPZ K`i cv‡e|

kvk¦wZKx-143

kvk¦wZKx-144

gvbe mf¨Zvi fwel¨Z

iex›`ªbv_ I GBP wR I‡qjm

I‡qjm : fwel¨‡Z ˆkwíK cÖKvk n‡e m¤¢eZ GLbKvi †P‡q m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v; Zvi
gva¨g n‡e GKB Ges mevi Kv‡Q †evaMg¨| ai“b †iwWI, †MvUv c„w_ex‡K GK‡Î hy³
K‡i‡Q| Av‡iv bZzb bZzb Avwe®‹vi Avgiv cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Z cvie bv| m¤¢eZ
fwel¨‡Z, RvZxq fvlv I Dcfvlv wb‡q GLbKvi †PuPv‡gwP hLb K‡g Avm‡e, weÁv‡bi
Av‡iv bZzb bZzb Avwe®‹vi NU‡e, ZLb Avgiv ci¯ú‡ii m‡½ K_v eje GKB mvaviY
gva¨g e¨envi K‡i, hvi ¯^cœ GLbI Avgiv †`wLwb|
VvKzi : GB hy‡Mi R‡b¨ Avgv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq bZzb gb¯ÍË¡ ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| mf¨Zvi
bZzb cÖ‡qvRb Ges Pvwn`vi m‡½ Avgv‡`i wb‡R‡`i Lvc LvIqv‡Z n‡e|
I‡qjm : Lvc LvIqv‡bv, fqvbK Lvc LvIqv‡bv!
VvKzi : Avcwb wK g‡b K‡ib GLv‡b †KvbI †gŠwjK eY©MZ mgm¨v i‡q‡Q?
I‡qjm : bv| bZzb bZzb e‡Y©i Rb¥I n‡”Q, we`vqI n‡”Q, Aweivg IVv-bvgv|
Avw`gKvj †_‡KB eY©m¼i N‡U P‡j‡Q; fviZ Gi DrK…ó D`vniY| D`vniY wn‡m‡e,
evsjvq, RvwZcÖ_v Ges Ab¨vb¨ evav m‡Ë¡I PgrKvi eY©m¼i N‡U‡Q|
VvKzi : GLv‡b Zvn‡j eY©‡MŠi‡ei cÖkœUv Avm‡Q| cvðvZ¨ wK cy‡ivcywifv‡e cÖvP¨‡K
¯^xK…wZ †`q? hw` cvi¯úwiK MÖnY m¤¢e bv nq, Zvn‡j Avwg †mB †`‡ki R‡b¨ LyeB
`ytL cÖKvk Kie, †h A‡b¨i ms¯‹…wZ‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i| Aa¨qb †KvbI ¶wZ K‡i bv,
hw`I W. nvm Ges †nbwi gvwZ‡mi g‡Zv †jv‡Kiv g‡b nq wPšÍv K‡ib †h cÖvP¨xq g‡bi
DwPZ bq cÖvP¨xq †`‡ki evB‡i hvIqv, Zvn‡jB me wVK n‡q hv‡e|
I‡qjm : Avwg Avkv Kwi Avcwb GKgZ n‡eb bv| AvwgI bv|
VvKzi : GUv `ytLRbK e¨vcvi †h †KvbI GKUv eY© ev RvwZi †jv‡Kiv ¯^M©xq
wcÖq‡cvlYZvi `vwe K‡i Ges wek¦vm K‡i †h m„wói cwiKíbv Abymv‡i Rb¥MZfv‡eB
Zviv Ab¨‡`i †P‡q †kªô|
I‡qjm : cvðv‡Z¨i †kªô‡Z¡i cÖkœwU m¤¢eZ MZ GKkÕ eQ‡ii e¨vcvi| †jcvb‡Zv
hy‡×i Av‡M ch©šÍ ZwzK©iv cvðv‡Z¨ cÖvavb¨ we¯Ívi K‡i wQj; Kj¤^v‡mi AwfhvÎvi
cwiKíbv †bIqv n‡qwQj ZwzK©‡`i Gov‡bvi R‡b¨| GwjRv‡e_xq hy‡Mi †jLK Ges
Zvi DËim~ixiv cÖv‡P¨i m¤ú` Ges ˆelwqK DrKl© †`‡L Awff~Z n‡qwQj| cvðv‡Z¨i
cÖwZcwËi BwZnvm mwZ¨B Lye Aíw`‡bi|
VvKzi : m¤¢eZ Dbwesk kZvãxi c`v_© weÁvb cvðv‡Z¨ GB eY©‡kªô‡Z¡i †PZbv m„wó
K‡i‡Q| cÖvP¨ GB weÁvb AvZ¥xKiY Ki‡j cvëv †Rvqvi m„wó n‡e Ges ZLb ¯^vfvweK
MwZ wd‡i Avm‡e|
I‡qjm : AvaywbK weÁvb cy‡ivcywi BD‡ivcxq welq bq| wKQz `yN©Ubv Ges A¯^vfvweK
cwiw¯’wZi Kvi‡Y cÖv‡P¨i †`k¸‡jv c„w_exi Ab¨vb¨ As‡k D™f~Z Avwe®‹vi¸wj‡K
Kv‡R jvMv‡Z cv‡iwb| GK mgq Zviv wb‡RivB weÁv‡bi A‡bK wKQz Avwe®‹vi I
DbœwZ K‡i‡Q, c‡i †m¸‡jvB cvðvZ¨ MÖnY Ges Zvi Av‡iv DrKl© mvab K‡i‡Q|
AvRKvj weÁv‡bi RM‡Z Rvcvwb, Pxbv Ges fviZxq bvg Dchy³ ¯^xK…wZ cv‡”Q|
VvKzi : fviZ Lye Lvivc Ae¯’vi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q|
I‡qjm : g¨vK‡j hLb fvi‡Z Z…Zxq †kªwYi mvwnZ¨ Ges `ye©j wk¶ve¨e¯’v Pvwc‡q
†`b fviZxqiv ZLb ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB ¶zä nq| ¯‹‡Ui KweZv c‡o †KvbI gvbyl †eu‡P
_vK‡Z cv‡i bv| Avgvi wek¦vm GLb †m Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b NU‡Q| Z‡e wbwðZ _vKzb

†h Bs‡iRivI Gi †P‡q fvj Ae¯’vq wQj bv| MociZv fviZxqi †P‡q fvj wkw¶Z
Avgiv wQjvg bv, eis Ae¯’v Av‡iv LvivcB wQj|
VvKzi : Avgv‡`i mgm¨v n‡jv cvðv‡Z¨i gnvb mf¨Zv¸‡jvi m‡½ Avgv‡`i †hvMv‡hvM
¯^vfvweK Dcv‡q nqwb| Rvcvb cvðvZ¨xq ms¯‹…wZi †ewkifvMB AvZ¥xKiY Ki‡Z
†c‡i‡Q, Zvi KviY Zviv Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx MÖnY A_ev eR©b Kivi g‡Zv
¯^vaxbZv †fvM Ki‡Q|
I‡qjm : GUv mwZ¨B Lye g›` e¨vcvi, KviY ci¯úi‡K Rvbvi weivU my‡hvM weivRgvb|
VvKzi : Zvici ai“b, wk¶vi †mªvZaviv¸wj ïK‡bv b`xi P‡i cwiYZ n‡q‡Q, Avgv‡`i
m¤ú‡`i †mªvZw¯^bx¸‡jv‡K c×wZMZfv‡e wfbœ w`‡K cÖevwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q|
I‡qjm : AvwgI GKUv cÖRv-RvwZi m`m¨| Avgv‡K cÖPiz U¨v· w`‡Z nq| Avgv‡K
†PK cvVv‡Z nq mvgwiK wegvb Pvjbvi R‡b¨, miKv‡ii K~U‰bwZK Kvh©µg
cwiPvjbvi R‡b¨, cÖPiz ! Avcwb †`L‡Qb, Avgiv GKB Aï‡fi wkKvi| fvi‡Z
AvgjvZ‡š¿i HwZn¨ Aek¨ A‡bK A¯^vfvweK, Ges †mUv P‡j Avm‡Q `xN©Kvj hver|
Bs‡iR‡`i Av‡M †gvMjiv G‡m‡Q, ZvivI Avgv‡`i †jvK‡`i g‡ZvB wbwe©Pvix wQj|
VvKzi : Zvic‡iI, wKQz cv_©K¨ Av‡Q! †gvMj miKvi h‡_ó `¶ Ges hvwš¿Kfv‡e DbœZ
wQj bv| †gvMjiv A_© †P‡qwQj, Ges hZw`b Zviv wejvmx Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q
ZZw`b fvi‡Zi AMÖmigvb MÖvgxY m¤cÖ`v‡qi Rxebhvc‡b weNœ m„wói B”Qv †cvlY
K‡iwb| gymwjg mgªvUiv fviZxq wk¶K Ges MÖvgevmx‡`i Ici KZ©Z
„ ¡ ev kZ© Av‡ivc
K‡iwb| GLb, D`vniY¯^iƒc, fvi‡Zi Avw` wk¶ve¨e¯’v G‡Kev‡i †f‡½ c‡o‡Q, Ges
mKj ¯^‡`kx wk¶vmsµvšÍ cÖqvm miKvwi ¯^xK…wZi Ici wbf©ikxj|
I‡qjm : iv‡óªi Ô¯^xK…wZÕ, Ges wk¶vi we`vq!
VvKzi : Avgv‡K cÖvqB wR‡Ám Kiv nq Avgvi cwiKíbv Kx| Avgvi Reve n‡”Q, Avgvi
†KvbI cwiKíbv †bB| Avgvi †`k, Ab¨ me †`‡ki g‡Zv, Zvi wb‡Ri msweavb wb‡RB
M‡o Zzj‡e; †mUv G‡Mv‡e Zvi cix¶vg~jK ch©v‡qi g‡a¨ w`‡q Ges †kl ch©šÍ GKUv wKQz
`uvwo‡q hv‡e, Avwg ev Avcwb hv Avkv Kwi Zvi †_‡K m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v wKQz|

kvk¦wZKx-145

kvk¦wZKx-146

cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q Kwe kvgxg bI‡ivR-Gi wØZxq Kve¨MÖš’ ÔcvwL‡`i
evsjv LvZvÕ| Kwei mv¤cÖwZK mg‡q †jLv 40wU KweZv w`‡q mvRv‡bv
n‡q‡Q MÖš’wU| cÖKvk K‡i‡Q myeY© cÖKvkbx| cÖ”Q` K‡i‡Qb ayªe Gl|
eBwUi g~j¨ ivLv n‡q‡Q 70 UvKv|

†iRvDj Kwig wmwÏKx

†Pv‡Li evwj : iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm I FZzc‡Y©i Pjw”PÎ
Pjw”P‡Î iex›`ªbv_ (148-161)

Pjw”PÎ : †Pv‡Li evwj

Pjw”PÎ : PZzi½

kvk¦wZKx-147

mvwnZ¨iwmK‡`i Kv‡Q iweVvKz‡ii †Pv‡Li evwj Dcb¨vmwUi K_v bZzb K‡i bv ej‡jI
P‡j, wKš‘ Zuviv A‡b‡KB Gi Dc‡i wfwË K‡i wbwg©Z QwewU †`‡Lb wb| ejvB evûj¨
GKwU Dcb¨vm ev Mí KL‡bvB ûeû Qwe‡Z cvIqv hvq bvÑm¤¢eI bq KviY `y‡Uv
gva¨g Avjv`v, Avi Qwei †¶‡Î ˆ`‡N©¨i welqwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© weavq A‡bK wKQz ev` bv
w`‡q Dcvq _v‡K bv| wKš‘ hw` GiKg nq †h Dcb¨v‡m †bB Ggb wKQz ms‡hvRb Kiv
n‡q‡Q A_ev hv msw¶ßfv‡e D‡j−L Av‡Q gvÎ Zv we¯—vwiZfv‡e, Ggb wK bZzb PwiÎ
m„wó K‡i †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q Qwe‡Z Zvn‡j eyS‡Z n‡e cwiPvjK GwU‡K Zuvi `„wó‡KvY
†_‡K h‡_ó cÖ‡qvRbxq g‡b K‡i‡Qb| wdj¥ KvMRKvwji gZ m¯—v bq, Zvi Dci bZzb
PwiÎ ms‡hvRb gv‡bB e¨qe„w×| Avevi GiKg cÖvqB j¶¨ Kiv hvq †h GKwU
Gwc‡mvW ev NUbv Dcb¨v‡m †hfv‡e Av‡Q ev Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv †_‡K wfbœfv‡e
Qwe‡Z †`Lv‡bv n‡”Q| wKQz cwieZ©bÑeR©b, ms‡hvRb, iƒcvš—iÑgva¨g Avjv`v e‡j
Ri“wi n‡q c‡o| Ab¨vb¨ cwieZ©b cÖavbZ wPÎbvU¨Kvi I cwiPvj‡Ki wbR¯^ wPš—
vaviv, cQ›`-AcQ›` I †Kv‡bv e³e¨ cwiùzU Kivi B”Qv _vK‡j Zv Øviv wbqwš¿Z nq|
cwiPvj‡Ki e³e¨ Avi Jcb¨vwm‡Ki e³e¨ GK wK bv Zv we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
QwewU †`Lvi mgq Avgvi g‡b n‡q‡Q GZUv cwieZ©b cÖ‡qvRb wQj bv, we‡kl K‡i
hLb Qwe‡Z AcwiewZ©Z ivLv n‡q‡Q Dcb¨v‡mi Kvwnbxi g~j KvVv‡gv cwiYwZ I
wk‡ivbvg, hvi mv‡_ Rbg‡b Rwo‡q Av‡Q iex›`ªbv‡_i bvg| D‡j−L‡hvM¨ cwieZ©b¸‡jv
j¶ Kivi ci nq‡Zv Gi e¨vL¨v ev Dcmsnv‡i hvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i|
Dcb¨v‡mi ïi“‡ZB ivRj²x I Zvi cyÎ g‡n‡›`ªi g‡a¨ K‡_vcK_b we‡bvw`bx‡K
we‡q Kivi cÖm‡½| g‡n›`ªª Awb”QzK| Avi Qwei ïi“‡ZB GKwU wPwV cvV Kiv n‡”Q
†bc‡_¨, hv ivRj²x wj‡L‡Qb Zvi evj¨mwL A_©vr we‡bvw`bxi gv‡K| GB wPwV †_‡K
Kvwnbxi cÖv_wgK aviYv cvIqv hv‡”Q, Avi GwU coevi mgq †`Lv‡bv n‡”Q we‡bvw`bxi
Qwe‡K g‡n‡›`ªi Ae‡njv, ivRj²xi Amš‘ó gyL| Zvici we‡bvw`bx‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q GK
gvSeqmx BD‡ivcxq ag©hvwRKvi m‡½| we‡bvw`bxi evev Zvi GKgvÎ Kb¨v‡K
Òwgkbvix †gg ivwLqv eû h‡Zœ covïbv I Kvi“Kvh© wkLvBqvwQjÓÑDcb¨v‡mi ïay GB
GKwUgvÎ ev‡K¨i Dci wfwË K‡i Qwe‡Z †hvM Kiv nj †mB †ggmv‡n‡ei PwiÎ| Zvi
m‡½ we‡bvw`bx fv½v Bs‡iwR‡Z K_v ej‡Q| †ggmv‡n‡ei cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e Zvi ¯^vgx Kx
Amy‡L Aí eq‡m gviv †M‡Q Zv †evSvevi †Póv Ki‡Q| †ggmv‡ne we‡bvw`bx‡K
P‡Kv‡jU w`‡”Qb, we‡bvw`bxi wØav †h‡nZz †m weaev| (c‡i †`Lv hv‡e we‡bvw`bx
Bs‡iwR g›` †k‡L wb, Ges †m GKwU Bs‡iwR MvbI MvB‡e|) Dcb¨v‡m Gme †bB|
Dcb¨v‡mi we‡bvw`bx GZUv AvaywbKv bq, hw`I †m wkw¶Zv, eyw×gZx, i“wPm¤úbœv I
ewjô e¨w³‡Z¡i AwaKvwiYx| c‡ii wm‡Kv‡q‡Ý ew¼‡gi K…òKv‡š—i DBj †_‡K wenvix
co‡Q ivRj²x, gwnb I Abœc~Y©vi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z| (Dcb¨v‡m we‡bvw`bx jywK‡q co‡e
wele„¶, Ges †mwU Av‡iv c‡i|) †ivwnYx Ggb GKRb iƒcmx weaev †h ms¯‹vi gv‡b
bv| wKš‘ Zvi A‡bK ¸Y Av‡QÑbvbvb iKg ivbœv, Kvi“KvR, K‡b mvRv‡bv, BZ¨vw`|

kvk¦wZKx-148

ÒGes GB mKj ¸Yvejxi Rb¨ Ae‡k‡l Zvnv‡K gwi‡Z nBj,Ó gwn‡bi e¨½vZ¥K gš—
e¨| ivRj²x Rev‡e e‡jb †h GKRb weaev IiKg AvPiY Ki‡j fMevb kvw¯— †`‡eb
bv? gwnb e‡j †h kvw¯— w`‡q‡Qb ew¼gP›`ª, fMevb bq| ivRj²x Avevi e‡jb †h
b‡fj wjL‡j IiKg GKUz mvwR‡q wjL‡Z nq| AvRKvjKvi mv`vgvUv weaev‡`i wK
GLbKvi †Q‡jiv cQ›` Ki‡e? Dˇi gwnb e‡j †h ew¼‡gi †Kv‡bv †g‡q‡KB
GLbKvi †Q‡jiv cQ›` Ki‡e bv, KviY Zviv Bs‡iwR Rv‡b bv| ivRj²x cÖkœ K‡ib,
ZvB hw` mwZ¨ Zv n‡j †m we‡bvw`bx‡K Ae‡njv K‡iwQj †K‡bv, †m †Zv Bs‡iwR
Rvb‡Zv| gwnb iwmKZvi Q‡j cÖkœ Gwo‡q hvq| ivRj²xi Av‡¶c †g‡qUv we‡qi ci
GK eQi bv †h‡ZB weaev n‡jv| ZLb wenvix Rvbvq †h †h‡nZz K‡j‡R gwnb weaev
weev‡ni c‡¶ ZK© K‡i‡Q, we‡bvw`bx‡K Zvi R‡b¨ fvev †h‡Z cv‡i| cwiPvjK
ïi“‡ZB evj¨‰eae¨, KwVb ms¯‹v‡i euvav Zvi ewÂZ Rxeb, wk¶vi Afve (we‡bvw`bx
GB e¨vcv‡i GKwU e¨wZµg), BZ¨vw` mgm¨v Ges GB¸wj‡K ¯^vfvweK e‡j †g‡b
†bIqvi †h cªeYZv Zvi cÖwZ Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb Ges c‡i wewfbœ `„‡k¨ wewfbœfv‡e
Zv g‡b Kwi‡q w`‡q‡Qb| Dcb¨v‡m Gme †bB ej‡jB P‡j| †ejyo g‡Vi GK ¯^vgxRxi
AKvj g„Zz¨i msev‡` gwnb Qvov Avi mK‡j gg©vnZ| Dcb¨v‡m GiKg †Kv‡bv
¯^vgxRxi K_vB †bB| Gi c‡i Avi GKwU wPwV cvV Kiv n‡”Q, hv Abœc~Y©vi †jLv Zvi
¸i“‡`e‡K| GB wPwV †_‡K Kvwnbxi cieZ©x avc A_©vr AvkvjZvi m‡½ g‡n‡›`ªi
we‡qi K_v Rvbv hv‡”Q| m‡½ iex›`ªm½x‡Zi myi evR‡Q| G mgq c`©vq f~wgKvwjwc
†`Lv‡bv n‡”Q| Dcb¨v‡m GB `yBwU wPwVi †KvbUvB †bB| ïay ZvB bq, g‡b co‡Q bv
Abœc~Y©vi Ò¸i“‡`eÓ e‡j Kv‡iv D‡j−L Dcb¨v‡m Av‡Q| hvB †nvK, GiKg cwieZ©‡b
¶wZ Ggb wKQz n‡”Q bv, eis ïi“i Dc¯’vcbv †eva nq wKQzUv msw¶ß, bvUKxq I †ewk
djcÖm~ Kiv †M‡Q|

GB †h cwiPvjK bvix‡`i we‡kl K‡i weaev‡`i eÂbv Avi hš¿Yvi cÖm½Uv evi
evi G‡b‡Qb Zvi Qwei g‡a¨, KB f~wgKvwjwc‡Z wZwb †Zv we‡bvw`bxi bvgUv mevi
cÖ_‡g w`‡jb bv| Avwg wKš‘ †mUvB Avkv K‡iwQjvg| wZwbI wK GLv‡b mgvR ev `k©K
†mw›U‡g›U Øviv wbqwš¿Z n‡q‡Qb, bv wK welqUv G‡Kev‡iB Zvi gv_vq Av‡m wb?
g‡n›`ª I Avkvi kh¨v`„‡k¨i K‡_vcK_‡b Avkv ej‡Q, Ònu¨v‡Mv AvRI Avcwb
K‡j‡R †M‡jb bv|Ó ÒAvcwbÓ m‡¤^vab Kivq gwn‡bi AvcwË| Avkv DwØMœ KviY mevB
Zv‡K †`vl †`‡e GB e‡j †h Zvi R‡b¨B Zvi ¯^vgxi covïbvi Ò†¶wZÓ n‡”Q|
AvkvjZvi gy‡L Aï× evsjv iweVvKzi †`b wb, FZzcY© w`‡q‡Qb, nq‡Zv Zvi wk¶vi

Afve I wbZvš— Amnvq cvwievwiK cUf~wgKv †Rvi w`‡q †evSvevi R‡b¨| Avkvi
cÖPwjZ avivi AbymiY I AbMÖmiZvi cÖwZ `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡Z Av‡iv †ek wKQz
LuywUbvwU welq I msjvc cwiPvjK D™¢veb K‡i‡Qb GB Qwe‡Z| †jv‡K Kx ej‡e Zv
wb‡q Avkvi fvebv| †mB †jvKwU †K gwnb Rvb‡Z PvB‡j Avkv Zv Gwo‡q wM‡q
gwnb‡K Aby‡iva K‡i Kz‡qvq cov nvi D×vi n‡q‡Q e‡j gvbZ Abyhvqx KvjxNv‡U
c~‡Rv †`evi Rb¨ Zv‡K wb‡q †h‡Z| Kv‡Ri †jvK _vK‡Z †m †K‡bv Rj Zzj‡Z †M‡jv
gwn‡bi GB cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e Avkv e‡j †h me mgq nvZcv ¸wU‡q e‡m _vK‡j †jv‡K
g›` ej‡e| Zvi m¤^‡Ü †Kv‡bv wb›`v Zvi R¨vVvgkvB‡qi Kv‡b †M‡j Zuvi Am¤§vb n‡e
bv? gwn‡bi cvëv cÖkœ, duvwK w`‡q †g‡q cvi KivUv Am¤§v‡bi bq? cvÎx wn‡m‡e
Avkv‡K †`L‡Z †M‡j ejv n‡qwQj †h Zvi Mv‡bi Mjv fvj, wKš‘ Mvb †m Mvq wb KviY
wenvix eviY K‡iwQj| Zvn‡j GLb †m wenvixi Kv‡Q hvK; Zv‡Z hw` †jv‡K wb›`v
K‡i Zvi R‡b¨ Avkv gwnb‡K `vqx Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| msjv‡ci aib †`‡L g‡b nq
g‡n›`ª †h‡bv GKUv wkïi m‡½ K_v ej‡Q †KŠZzKf‡i| AMZ¨v Avkv Mvb MvB‡Z
PvB‡j gwnb e‡j †h ïay Mvb †kvbv‡jB n‡e bv, kix‡ii wewfbœ Ask †`Lv‡Z n‡e|
g‡b n‡Z cv‡i †h GLv‡b `k©K‡`i myomywo †`evi †Póv Av‡Q| wKš‘ hw` a‡i †bIqv
hvq †h cvÎx †`Lvi mbvZbx cÖ_v‡K (ejvB evûj¨ cyi“lcÖewZ©Z) GLv‡b e¨½ Kiv
n‡”Q, Zv n‡j †m †`vl A‡bKUvB L‡Ê| Zv Qvov GB wm‡Kv‡qÝ Avi GKwU KvR
Ki‡QÑAvkvi AcwiYZ gb I gwn‡bi cv‡k Zvi Amg Ae¯’v‡bi welqwU c‡iv¶fv‡e
Zz‡j ai‡Q| GLv‡b Gme cwieZ©b/ ms‡hvRb wb‡q †ewk wKQz Awf‡hvM Kivi †bB,
KviY Dcb¨v‡mi w_g I MwZi m‡½ Gm‡ei †Zgb †Kvb we‡f` †bB|
Abœc~Y©v‡K ïwb‡q ivRj²x Awf‡hvM K‡ib †h GKUv WvBwb (Avkv) Zvi †Q‡j‡K
KvgvL¨vi †fov K‡i †i‡L w`‡q‡Q| Abœc~Y©v wM‡q Avkv‡K Po K‡lb| Zv‡ZI
ivRj²xi Am‡š—vl cÖkwgZ nq bv| c‡ii wm‡Kv‡q‡Ý Zv‡K †`Lv hvq Zvi MÖv‡gi
evwo‡Z, †hLv‡b we‡bvw`bx Zvi †`Lv‡kvbv Ki‡Q| we‡bvw`bxi e‡`Šj‡Z Zvi n‡q‡Q
Pv‡qi †bkv| GR‡b¨ Zvi g‡b cvc‡evaI KvR K‡i, KviY wZwb g‡b K‡ib weaev‡`i
R‡b¨ Av‡iv A‡bK wKQzi m‡½ PvI wbwl×| ZvQvov Pv‡q wdwiw½‡`i †Quvqv Av‡Q|
we‡bvw`bx hyw³ †`Lvq : Pv‡qi cvZv †Zv Avi wdwiw½iv evbvq bv| gwn‡bi wPwV Av‡m,
wenvix‡K †jLv, gv‡K bq| †m wPwVi g‡a¨ GKUv Av‡eMNb Bs‡iwR KweZv wj‡L
cvwV‡q‡Q| GB KweZvwU, hv Dcb¨v‡m †bB, we‡bvw`bx wb‡q hv‡”Q Zvi †gg wmmUv‡ii
Kv‡Q fvj K‡i ey‡S †bevi Rb¨|
ivRj²x KjKvZvi evwo‡Z wd‡i Avm‡Qb we‡bvw`bx‡K m‡½ wb‡q| GKw`b †m
evwo †_‡K †`Lv †M‡jv GK †ggmv‡ne H iv¯—vq GKUv evwo LuR
y ‡Qb| we‡bvw`bx Zv‡K
Bs‡iwR‡Z Rvbvq †h GBUv †mB evwo bq| Avkv AevK nq we‡bvw`bxi Bs‡iwR ejv
ï‡b| Avkv Zvi gvmxi gZ wek¦vm K‡i, Ò†g‡q‡`i AZ Bs‡iwR wkL‡Z †bB|Ó †m
K_v we‡bvw`bx Rvb‡j Ges gvb‡j Zvi AvR GB `yMw© Z n‡Zv bv| wVK †evSv hvq bv
Bs‡iwR †kLvi m‡½ we‡bvw`bxi fvM¨wech©‡qi Kx m¤úK©| eû Luwy UbvwU ms‡hvRb K‡i
cwiPvjK GKw`‡K †hgb we‡bvw`bxi wk¶v, ms¯‹w… Z, †gav I AvaywbKZvi Ici †Rvi
w`‡q‡Qb, Ab¨w`‡K AvkvjZvi Awk¶v, AvbvwoZ¡, †m‡K‡j gbgvbwmKZv Av‡iv
cwiùzU Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| nq‡Zv AvkvjZv‡K evsjvi Av‡iv j¶ j¶ wbZvš— mvaviY

kvk¦wZKx-149

kvk¦wZKx-150

g‡n›`ª: cÖ‡mwÄZ P‡Ævcva¨vq
wenvix: †UvUv ivq †PŠayix
we‡bvw`bx: Hk¦h© ivB
AvkvjZv: ivBgv †mb
ivRj²x: wjwj PµeZ©x
Abœc~Y©v: ïwPZv ivq†PŠayix
wPÎKi: AfxK gy‡Lvcva¨vq
wkí wb‡`©kbv: B›`ªbxj †Nvl
m½xZ cwiPvjbv: †`e‡R¨vwZ wgÎ
wPÎbvU¨ I cwiPvjbv: FZzcY© †Nvl

bvixi cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e Zz‡j ai‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| eB‡qi Avjgvix‡Z †`Iqvi Rb¨ Avbv
†`v³v cvZv evwj‡ki Zjvq †i‡L gwn‡bi eKzwb †L‡q‡Q Avkv| b¨vc_vwjb m¤^‡Ü
†Kvb aviYvB †bB Zvi, Ggb wK kãUv mwVKfv‡e D”PviY Kiv ev g‡b ivLv Zvi c‡¶
m¤¢e bq| we‡bvw`bx KvM‡R Zv wj‡L w`‡”Q| Avi `kUv mvaviY †g‡qi gZB AvkvjZv
A`„óev`x| Kvi m‡½ Kvi we‡q nevi K_v wQj GB cÖm½Uv hLb `yB mwLi K_vi g‡a¨
D‡V Avm‡Q, ZLb Avkv e‡j †h fMevb hv K‡ib Zv g½‡ji R‡b¨B K‡ib| ZLb
we‡bw`bxi cÖkœ : ZvB hw` mwZ¨ Zv n‡j Zvi AKvj ˆea‡e¨i g‡a¨ Kx g½j wbwnZ
Av‡Q? ivRj²x, Abœc~Y©v Avi we‡bvw`bxi Pv‡qi Avm‡i cvc, AbyZvc, kv‡¯¿i weav‡bi
cÖm½ I‡V, we`¨vmvMi Avi weaevweev‡ni K_vI I‡V| wKš‘ Zv‡Z wK KwP KwP
weaev‡`i hš¿Yv NyP‡Q? Abœc~Y©vi cÖkœ| Avevi hLb evwo‡Z MvQ KvUv n‡”Q we‡bvw`bxi
wb‡`©‡k hv‡Z gwnb I Avkvi N‡i †ewk Av‡jv †Xv‡K, ZLb Zv‡Z wenvixi AvcwË GB
Kvi‡Y †h Mv‡QiI cÖvY Av‡Q| we‡bvw`bx Reve †`q †h †m K_v ej‡Z †M‡j Av‡iv
A‡bK K_v ej‡Z nq, ZLb wKš‘ Avi ïay weaev‡`i gvQ LvIqv eÜ Ki‡j P‡j bv|
Bw½ZUv †eva nq GB †h gv‡Q‡`iI cÖvY Av‡Q, wKš‘ †mR‡b¨ ïay weaeviv Zv LvIqv
eÜ Ki‡e †Kb?
ïay weaev‡`i eÂbvi K_v bq, bvix‡K cyi“‡li †fv‡Mi mvgMÖx wn‡m‡e e¨envi
Ges †hŠbwgj‡bi mgq bvixi cÖwZ Zvi sadistic AvPi‡Yi K_vI Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q|
gwnb Avkvi R‡b¨ GKUv gLg‡ji R¨v‡KU wK‡b G‡b‡Q| we‡bvw`bx Zv‡K Zv ci‡Z
mvnvh¨ Ki‡Z wM‡q j¶ K‡i Avkvi ey‡K AvNv‡Zi wPý| gwn‡bi KvÊ| †K‡bv †m
evav †`q bv we‡bvw`bxi GB cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e Avkv Rvbvq Zvi Amnvq‡Z¡i K_v| †m
Av‡iv Rvbvq †h G e¨vcv‡i gwnb AvZ¥c¶ mg_©‡b VvKzi‡`eZvi D`vniY †`q| Avkv
†eva nq g‡b g‡b Av‡iv A‡bK bvixi g‡Zv ¯^vgxi Giƒc AvPiY †g‡bI †bq|
Dcb¨v‡m G welqwUi D‡j−L G‡Kev‡iB †bB| iex›`ªbv‡_i AvkvjZv mijv, †jLvcov
bv Rvbv I M„nK‡g© Avbvwo GK †g‡q, wVK Av‡Q, wKš‘ GZUv Ki“Yvi cvÎx bq| †m
gwn‡bi †hvM¨ wK bv Zv wb‡qI wØgZ _vK‡Z cv‡i, KviY †m wePvi Ki‡Z †M‡j gvbyl
wn‡m‡e gwn‡bi †hvM¨Zv wb‡qI cÖkœ DV‡e| ZvQvov Dcb¨v‡mi †k‡li w`‡Ki AvkvjZv
Avi cÖ_g w`‡Ki AvkvjZv GK bq| AvkvjZvi GB cwieZ©b †h Gwc‡mv‡W ¯úó n‡q
DV‡Q (ivRj²xi g„Zz¨kh¨v) Zv Qwe‡Z Av‡`Š †bB| mvR‡MvR Kivi ci Avkv ¯^vgxi
N‡i hvq, Zvici †hŠbwgj‡bi `„k¨| †bc‡_¨ wei‡ni Mvb ev‡R hv we‡bvw`bxi
eÂbv‡KB wb‡`©k K‡i|
Qwei wenvix, †h ¯^‡`wk Av‡›`vjb K‡i, GKw`b Kx GKUv cÖwZev`bvgvq
we‡bvw`bxi ¯^v¶i wb‡Z G‡m‡Q| Av‡iv me †g‡q‡`i ¯^v¶i †bB †K‡bv we‡bvw`bx
Rvb‡Z PvB‡j wenvix Rvbvq †h †ewki fvM †g‡q mB Ki‡Z Rv‡b bv| hviv Rv‡b
Zv‡`i A‡b‡Ki Abxnvi KviY Lvivc nv‡Zi †jLv, Bs‡iRfxwZ bq|
evMvbevwo‡Z wcKwbK| †mB mgq e‡›` gvZig †¯−vMvbmn wgwQ‡ji kã †kvbv
hvq| †mw`b Kvi wgwUs wQ‡jv wenvixi gy‡L ïb‡Z †c‡q we‡bvw`bx wewcb cv‡ji
wgwUs‡q hvevi B”Qv cÖKvk K‡i| ¯^vgxi bvg gy‡L Avbvq Zvi mgv‡jvPbv K‡i Avkv|
`yB mwL‡Z Mv‡Qi kvLvq euvav †`vjbvq †`vj Lvq, m‡½ Mvb Òcyiv‡bv †mB w`‡bi K_v
fyjwe Kx †i nvqÓ| A‡bK D™¢ve‡bi g‡a¨ †h¸wj djcÖm~ Zvi g‡a¨ GwU GKwU|

wenvix Avkvi R‡b¨ cy®‹wiYx †_‡K cÙdzj Zz‡j Avbvi R‡b¨ Mv‡qi Rvgv Lyj‡j Zvi
myVvg †`n we‡bvw`bxi g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y K‡i| we‡bvw`bxi aviYv wenvix kixiPP©v
K‡i| gwn‡bi †KŠZzK, we‡bvw`bxi hyw³ cÖ`k©b Ñ Av‡MKvi †`k‡cªwgKivI kixiPP©v
Ki‡Zb, †hgb ivRv ivg‡gvnb ivq| wenvix Avkvi R‡b¨ cÙ Zz‡j Avb‡Q, Ab¨w`‡K
we‡bvw`bxi cv‡q KuvUv dzU‡j Zv gwnb Zz‡j †`evi mgq Zvi Aš—i½ nevi my‡hvM
cv‡”Q| Avevi Avkv I gwnb hLb Nywg‡q co‡Q wenvix Avi we‡bvw`bxI GK m‡½ wKQz
mgq KvUv‡bv I Aš—i½fv‡e K_v ejvi my‡hvM cv‡”Q| ZLb we‡bvw`bx wR‡Ám Ki‡Q
wenvix we‡q Ki‡e wK bv| wenvix †n‡m ej‡Q hw` †fv‡R Kg c‡o| we‡bvw`bx e‡j †m
Dcw¯’Z _vK‡e Zvi we‡q‡Z mv¶x wn‡m‡e, Zvi †fvR jvM‡e bv| Dcb¨v‡m †m mgq
we‡bvw`bx wenvix‡K Zvi †Q‡j‡ejvKvi K_v e‡j| wenvix Avwe®‹vi K‡i Avi GK
we‡bvw`bx‡K †h mZx¯¿x ev Rbbxi g‡Zv Kj¨vYgqx, †h evB‡i Òwejvwmbx hyeZxÓ n‡jI
ÒAš—‡i GKwU c~RviZv bvixÓ| hw`I wcKwb‡Ki `„k¨vejx I msjvc wPÎbvU¨KvicwiPvjK wb‡Ri gZ K‡i ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb, Dcb¨v‡mi wÎfyR ev PZyfR
©y †cÖ‡gi †h w_g
Zvi Lye GKUv e¨Z¨q GLv‡b N‡U wb|
wenvixi cÖwZ we‡bvw`bxi AvKl©‡Yi Av‡iv wb`k©‡bi GKwU n‡”Q hLb ivRj²x
GK cowk ev AvZ¥xqvi m‡½ K_v ej‡Qb wenvixi R‡b¨ cvÎx wbe©vP‡bi e¨vcv‡i, ZiKvwi
†KvUvq iZ we‡bvw`bx Zvi nvZ †K‡U †dj‡Q| Zvici gwnb Zv‡K Wv³v‡ii Kv‡Q wb‡q
hv‡”Q AvMÖ‡ni mv‡_| Bs‡iR Wv³vi ÒnvZKvUvÓ Aš—tmË¡v eySv‡Z g„`yfvlY e‡j a‡i
wb‡”Qb| G iKg AwfÁZv Zuvi n‡q‡Q †h `uvZ e¨_vi K_v e‡j Zuv‡K †W‡K wb‡q hvIqv
n‡q‡Q †Wwjfvwi †Km †`Lv‡Z| Dcb¨v‡m Bw½ZI †bB GiKg GKwU m¤ú~Y© bZzb
ms‡hvR‡bi gva¨‡g AveviI cwiPvjK fviZxq mgv‡Ri cðvrc`Zv I prudery-i w`‡K
`„wó AvKl©Y K‡i‡Qb| Zv‡`i wdi‡Z †`wi n‡j Avkvi gb mw›`» n‡q I‡V|
Qwei cÖvq gvSvgvwS GKUv D‡j−L‡hvM¨ wm‡Kv‡qÝ Avm‡Q †hLv‡b `yB mwL
mvR‡MvR Ki‡Q, Ôfvby wms‡ni c`vejxÕ †M‡q we‡bvw`bx bvP‡Q| Avkvi wR‡` we‡bvw`bx
Mnbv c‡i‡Q| G mgq gwnb Avi wenvixi cÖ‡ek| wenvix gš—e¨ K‡i †h we‡bvw`bx‡K
my›`i †`Lv‡”Q, wKš‘ gwnb e‡j †h webv mvR‡Mv‡RB Zv‡K fvj †`Lvq| we‡bvw`bx g‡b
g‡b AvnZ nq, Mnbv Ly‡j †d‡j| GKUy c‡i gwnbB Avevi Mnbvi ev· wb‡q wM‡q
Avkvi bvg K‡i we‡bvw`bx‡K w`‡”Q| we‡bvw`bx ïay gvjvUv wb‡Z PvB‡j gwnb e‡j †h
†m fvMvfvwM gv‡b bv| GiKg GKwU KvíwbK wm‡Kv‡qÝ, hv Lye GKUv wek¦vm‡hvM¨I
bq, Zvi Lye GKUv cÖ‡qvRb wQj wK? cwiPvjK GUv‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡”Qb fvjevmvi
fvMvfvwMi welqUv Gi mv‡_ †hvM K‡i| `yB mB‡qi fvMvfvwM‡Z Zvi Kx Av‡m hvq,
we‡bvw`bxi G cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e gwnb cvëv cÖkœ K‡i mwZB wK wKQz hvq Av‡m bv| Zvici
gwnb Nwbô nevi †Póv Ki‡Q| †mB DËvc we‡bvw`bxi g‡a¨ mÂvwiZ n‡”Q| †m
gwnb‡K ej‡Q GKwU †Nvovi Mvwo †W‡K Zv‡K M½vi av‡i †eov‡Z wb‡q †h‡Z Ges
gwn‡bi cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e ej‡Q †h GB `yB‡qi gvSvgvwS †Kv‡bv c_ †bB| gwnb Zv‡K
Pzgy w`‡j †m evav w`‡”Q bv Ñ iwmKZv K‡i ej‡Q †h Zvi ¯^vgx g‡i‡Q h²vq| gwnb
f‡q m‡i †M‡j we‡bvw`bx †KŠZzKc~Y© nvwm †n‡m e‡j Zvi ¯^vgxi g„Zz¨i mwVK KviY,
c−xnvi AmyL| Gici ÒcÖ‡gv‡` Xvwjqv w`by gb, Zey cÖvY †Kb Kuv‡` †iÓ GB Mv‡bi
m‡½ wKQz k‡Ui ms‡hvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q : Avkvi kh¨vcvk †_‡K D‡V wM‡q gwnb wjL‡Z

kvk¦wZKx-151

kvk¦wZKx-152

e‡m (m¤¢eZ wPwV), `iRvq emv gvQIqvjx we‡bvw`bx‡K gvQ †`Lvq, GB mgq gwnb
wmuwo w`‡q †b‡g †Kv_vI hvIqvi mgq PzwcPzwc we‡bvw`bxi cv‡k wPwV †d‡j hvq,
we‡bvw`bx wPwV c‡o, gwnb wPwV c‡o, `yBRb †nu‡U †Kv_vI hvq, †Nvovi Mvwo, e‡›`
gvZig †¯−vMvbmn GKUv wgwQj Av‡m, we‡bvw`bxi hš¿YvwK¬ó gyL, `yB mwL Qv‡`
gy‡LvgywL n‡q Kvco †g‡j †`q, we‡bvw`bxi KvQ †_‡K gwnb cvb †bq, gwnb jywK‡q
wPwV c‡o, kh¨vq kvwqZ Avkv, gwnb we‡bvw`bxi d‡Uv †`‡L, †`ivR Ly‡j we‡bvw`bx
GKwU LvZv †ei KÕ‡i Zvi †fZi ivLv GKUv KvMR †`‡L hvi Dc‡ii dz‡ji ïK‡bv
cuvcwo Avi K‡qK jvBb KweZv hvi gg© nj cwievi, abRb, mewKQz c‡o _vK‡e hLb
giY Avm‡e| gš—vRag©x wKQz GKUv Kievi †Póv GBLv‡b Kiv n‡q‡Q e‡j g‡b nq|
GUv †evSv hvq †h gwnb Avi we‡bvw`bxi g‡a¨ †Mvcb †cÖg I Awfmvi Pj‡Q, wKš‘
Gm‡ei mv‡_ ˆeivM¨ ev Ava¨vwZ¥K fvebvm~PK KweZvi jvBbKwUi wVK Kx m¤úK©
†evSv k³, we‡kl K‡i hLb GKUz c‡iB †`Lv hv‡e GB `yRb‡K Lye Aš—i½ `„‡k¨
†hLv‡b kvixwiK Av‡eM‡K †ek cÖejfv‡eB Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q (Dcb¨v‡m †hiKg
Av‡Q Zvi PvB‡Z †Lvjv‡gjvfv‡e)| ¯^vgxi g„Zy¨ wZw_‡Z we‡bvw`bx KvjxNv‡U c~‡Rv
†`Iqvi bvg K‡i evwo †_‡K †ewi‡q gwn‡bi m‡½ mgq KvUv‡”Q| gwn‡bi Kcv‡ji
i³wZj‡Ki `vM jvM‡Q we‡bvw`bxi Kcv‡j, hv †m gyQ‡Q gwn‡bi Rvgvq Avi ej‡Q,
m½ Ki‡e, wPý ivL‡e bv ZvB wK nq ej? Dcb¨v‡m G iKg kvixwiK mvwbœa¨ GKiKg
Abycw¯’Z| Iw`‡K Avkv kvïwoi wb‡`©‡k cÖwZ‡ekx gwnjv‡K †`Lv‡bvi R‡b¨ Zvi evjv
Avb‡Z wM‡q Mnbvi ev· Ly‡j Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Q we‡bvw`bxi GKvwaK wPwV gwnb‡K
†jLv| Avkvi Kvbœv, kvïwoi cÖkœ| we‡bvw`bxi cÖwZ m‡›`n Nbxf~Z nq| Avi †mB mgq
AwfmvwiKv we‡bvw`bx evwo wd‡i KvjxNvU †_‡K Avbv cÖmv` w`‡Z PvB‡Q ivRj²x‡K|
mB‡K wR‡Ám Ki‡Q Zvi Kvbœvi KviY| Ironical Ges bvUKxq| we‡bvw`bx‡K ZLb
Avi fvj †g‡q e‡j g‡b nq bv| iex›`ªbv_I we‡bw`bx‡K cy‡ivcywi wbLuyZ Av`k© bvix
wn‡m‡e M‡ob wb, Z‡e Zvi we‡bvw`bx gwn‡bi m‡½ cvwj‡q †M‡jI †eva nq †kl ch©š—
kixix ¶zavi Kv‡Q AvZ¥mgc©Y K‡i wb| Gi c‡ii `„‡k¨ Avkv‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q Kvkx‡Z
gvmxi m‡½ Zx_© Ki‡Q| †bc‡_¨ ¯^vgxi Ki“Yv wf¶v K‡i †jLv Zvi wPwV cvV|
Iw`‡K KjKvZvq ivRj²x Avi we‡bvw`bx gy‡LvgywL| ivRj²x Zvi eDgvi nVvr
Kvkx P‡j hvIqvi R‡b¨ we‡bvw`bx‡KB `vqx K‡ib| we‡bvw`bx cÖZz¨Ëi Ki‡j ivRj²x
D‡ËwRZ n‡q c‡ob| ÒAvgvi N‡i †Kv_vq e‡m jvMv‡ev, fv½v‡ev, †Kv_vq e‡m nvMe
Zv Avwg wVK Kie... me©‡b‡k Kvjmvc|Ó wZwb Av‡iv wKQz Akªve¨ kã D”PviY K‡ib :
ÒfvZviLvKx gvMxÓ, ÒQuy‡Pv †g‡q‡Q‡jÓ| (iex›`ªbv_ ivRj²xi gy‡L Ggb fvlv †`b
wb|) ivRj²x e‡jb Kuy‡oNi †_‡K G‡m wZbgnjv evwo †`‡L we‡bvw`bxi cvUivYx
nIqvi mva n‡q‡Q| we‡bvw`bx e‡j GiKg AvKv•¶v Zvi _vK‡j Avkv A‡bK Av‡MB
NiQvov n‡Zv| GK ch©v‡q we‡bvw`bx Zuv‡K Pv‡qi †bkvi †LuvUv w`‡ZB ewg K‡i Pv
Zz‡j †djevi e¨_© †Póv K‡ib| kã ï‡b gwnb Avm‡j Zv‡K GK NÈvi g‡a¨ wm×vš—
wb‡Z e‡jb †K _vK‡e GB evwo‡Z, Zvi gv bv we‡bvw`bx|
Gici we‡bvw`bx wenvixi Kv‡Q wM‡q Avkªq Pvq, wb‡R‡K mgc©Y K‡i e‡j Zv‡K
we‡q Ki‡Z, wKš‘ wenvix Zv‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i| we‡bvw`bx Zvi MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z P‡j
hvq| GB mgq we‡bvw`bx wenvix‡K †h wPwV †j‡L Zvi fvlv Dcb¨v‡m Avi Qwe‡Z `yB

iKg n‡jI Zvi myiUv †gvUvgywU GK| Qwei we‡bvw`bx wjL‡Q, mgv‡R Zvi wZb
cwiPqÑweaev, †ggmv‡ne I hyeZx| GB wZb cwiP‡qi Aš—iv‡j Zvi Avmj cwiPq †m
GKRb i³gvs‡mi mvaviY bvix, †h cwiP‡qi ¯^xK…wZ mgv‡Ri Kv‡Q †bB, wKš‘
wenvixi Kv‡Q _vK‡e Avkv K‡iwQj| MÖv‡gi evwoi ˆ`b¨`kv, cvovcÖwZ‡ekx‡`i Cl©v,
we`ªƒc, wb›`v Gme wKQz Qwe‡Z †`Lv‡bv nq wb| †mLv‡b gwn‡bi AvMgb| Zv‡K
we‡bvw`bx Avc¨vqb K‡i| (wKš‘ Dcb¨v‡m Avc¨vqb †Zv `~‡ii K_v, we‡bvw`bx †mLv‡b
Zvi m‡½ iƒp e¨envi K‡i, hw`I †m Zvi m‡½B KjKvZv wd‡i Av‡m|) Qwe‡Z
we‡bvw`bx Lvevi cv‡ZB gwnb‡K †m cÖwZÁv Kwi‡q †bq GB e‡j †h †m Zv‡K Kvkx‡Z
wenvixi Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q †`‡e Ges mviv c_ Zv‡K i¶v Kivi `vwqZ¡ †b‡e| gwnb Rvbvq
†h we‡bvw`bx †h ¶wZi fq Ki‡Q Zvi Zid †_‡K †m iKg wKQz NU‡e bv| GB
RvqMvUv †Zgb wek¦vm‡hvM¨ ev mvgÄm¨c~Y© g‡b n‡”Q bv GB Kvi‡Y †h Qwe‡Z Gi
Av‡MB GKvwaKevi GB `yR‡bi Av‡eMNb †gjv‡gkv †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q|
c‡ii `„k¨ Kvkx‡Z| Abœc~Y©v Avkv‡K gvQ Lvevi R‡b¨ cxovcxwo Ki‡Qb Ges
Zvi e¨e¯’vI Ki‡Qb, †h‡nZz Avkv mš—vbm¤¢ev| GKRb gwnjv gvQ fvR‡Qb| Zvi
cv‡k Avi GKRb gwnjv DrmyK bq‡b Zv †`L‡Qb| whwb gvQ fvR‡Qb Zvi bv‡Kgy‡L
Kvco PvcvÑGi KviY nq‡Zv GB †h wZwb GKRb weaev Ges gvQfvRvi MÜUvI
wb‡Z Pvb bv| GB ¯^we‡ivax B‡gR eÂbvi welqUv‡K Zxeª K‡i Avi †mB mv‡_
bvixev`x w_g wbg©v‡Y Avi GKwU wW‡UBj hy³ n‡”Q| †bc‡_¨ MvIqv wei‡ni Mvb ÒI
Rxeb †i, Qvwoqv hvm †b †gv‡i/ ZzB, Rxeb, Qvwoqv †M‡j Av`i Ki‡e †K?Ó Zv‡Z
gvÎv †hvM Ki‡Q|
Gi c‡i GB Kvkx‡ZB gvSM½vq eRivq †`Lv hvq gwnb I we‡bvw`bx‡K|
Dcb¨v‡m we‡bvw`bx gwn‡bi m‡½ Ni Qv‡o Av‡iv c‡i, Aš—Z †miKg GKUv aviYv
nq| KjKvZvq †divi ci wenvixi cwð‡g P‡j hvevi ev GiKg GKUv Lei †kvbvi
c‡iB †Kej †m gwn‡bi cÖ¯v— ‡e ivwR nq| g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e †h Dcb¨v‡m gwn‡bi m‡½
we‡bvw`bxi †h m¤úK© Zvi cÖavb PvwjKvkw³ Cl©v, DÏvg kvixwiK Pvwn`v ev gwnb‡K
fvjjvMv ZZUv bq| †m GK RvqMvq ej‡Q, ÒAvgvi ey‡Ki R¡vjv jBqv Avwg g‡n‡›`ªi
Ni R¡vjvBqvwQ| GKevi g‡b nBqvwQj Avwg g‡n›`ª‡K fvjevwm, wKš‘ Zvnv fyjÓ
(35Zg Aa¨vq)| eRivq we‡bvw`bx I gwn‡bi K‡_vcK_b, wKQz `~‡i Avi GKwU
eRivq fRb Mvb Pj‡Q| gwn‡bi Kv‡Q we‡bvw`bx GKUv jvj kvj wK‡b PvB‡Q| jvj
i‡Oi e¨vcv‡i gwn‡bi wØav| GB eRiv †_‡KB A‡civ M−vm w`‡q we‡bvw`bx †`L‡Z
†c‡jv Avkv‡K Zvi gvmxi m‡½ M½vi Nv‡U| †`‡L Zvi g‡b mš—vb Kvgbv Rv‡M| gwnb
Zvi †m AvKv•¶v c~iY KiZ, wKš‘ †m †h Av‡MB gwnb‡K cÖwZÁv Kwi‡q wb‡q‡Q|
Gici Nv‡U GK g„Z¨z c_hvÎx A_ev m`¨g„‡Zi Pvicv‡k Ny‡i Ny‡i MvIqv fw³Mvb
ïb‡Q we‡bvw`bx, ci‡b mv`vgvUv weaevi †ek| Dcw¯’Z `xb`ytLx‡`i e¯¿ weZiYKvix
Zv‡KI GKUv Kvco w`‡”Q| we‡bvw`bx Pg‡K D‡V m‡i Avm‡Q| †mB e¨w³i GK
AvZ¥xqvi m‡½ K_v ejvi GKch©v‡q †m wenvix‡K †mB e¨w³i kh¨vcv‡k †`L‡Z †c‡q
GwM‡q †Mj| we‡bvw`bxi †Pv‡Lgy‡L Avb‡›`i QUv| wenvix Zv‡K wR‡Ám Ki‡jv
gwnb`v †Kv_vq| GKUz AevK n‡q we‡bvw`bx wR‡Ám K‡i, ÒAvcwb Avgvi Kv‡Q
Av‡mb wb?Ó †m cÖkœ Gwo‡q wenvix ivRj²xi g„Z¨z msev` †`q| †m Avevi Rvb‡Z Pvq

kvk¦wZKx-153

kvk¦wZKx-154

gwnb †Kv_vq| ivRj²xi g„Zz¨i mgq Zvi kh¨vcv‡k Zvi wbKUvZ¥xqiv †KD wQj bv|
G‡Z GKUv Uª¨vwRK gvÎv †hvM n‡”Q| Z‡e Dcb¨v‡m Zvi g„Zz¨i c~‡e© Abycw¯’Z
wbKUvZ¥xqiv mevB G‡m nvwRi nq Ges gwnb I we‡bvw`bx wej‡¤^ n‡jI gvi ¶gv jvf
K‡i| ivRj²xi †kl B”QvUv‡KI cwiPvjK wb‡Ri cQ›`gZ iƒc w`‡q‡Qb| wenvix
Rvbv‡”Q †mB B”Qvi K_v : Òweaev †fvRb Kivm| †jv‡K eªvþY‡K †`q, Mi“‡K †`q,
KvK‡K †`q, †kqvj‡K †`q, Ggb wK MvQ‡KI †`q; wKš‘ weaev‡K †KD wKQz †`q
bv|Ó we‡bvw`bx gwnb‡K ej‡Q evwo †h‡Z Avi kªv‡×i w`b wKQz Pv DrmM© Ki‡Z|
ivRj²x Pv †L‡Z eo fvjevm‡Zb| gwn‡bi m‡½ †h‡bv GB Zvi †kl †`Lv nq A_ev
Avevi †`Lv n‡jI Zvi g‡a¨ cy‡iv‡bv †Kv‡bv †jb‡`b bv _vKvUvB fvj|
Zvici iBj ïay wenvixi m‡½ †kl †gvKv‡ejv| wenvix hLb we‡bvw`bx‡K we‡qi
cÖ¯v— e †`evi R‡b¨ K_v ej‡Q M½vi Nv‡U ZLb e¨vKMÖvD‡Û R¡j‡Q wPZv, †bc‡_¨
Avevi †mB Mvb ÒI Rxeb †iÓ| wenvixi cÖ¯v— e ï‡b we‡bvw`bx cÖkœ K‡i, ÒAvcbvi
†eŠVv‡bi gyw³cY?Ó wenvix e‡j, bv| ZLb †bc‡_¨ D”PvwiZ n‡”Q we‡qi gš¿ Avi
`„k¨gvb n‡”Q wPZvi Av¸b| nq‡Zv we‡bvw`bxi g‡b Zvi we‡q Avi ˆea‡e¨i ¯§„wZ
RvM‡Q GKm‡½| Gi c‡ii wm‡Kv‡q‡Ý wenvix eRivq Avm‡Q we‡bvw`bxi g‡Zv
Rvb‡Z| Iiv ci¯úi‡K Pzgy w`‡”Q| †bc‡_¨ m½xZ ÒG Kx jve‡Y¨ c~Y© cÖvY, cÖv‡bk
†nÓ| we‡bvw`bx‡K ciw`b cÖ¯‘Z _vKvi K_v e‡j wenvixi cÖ¯’vb| G ch©š— †`‡L g‡b
nq cwiPvjK GB `yB R‡bi wgjb NUv‡Z PvB‡Qb| wKš‘ bv| ciw`b wenvix G‡m
we‡bvw`bx‡K cv‡”Q bv, cv‡”Q `yBwU wPwV| GKwU msw¶ß, wenvix‡K †jLv : Òweev‡ni
†fvR cv‡Q Kg c‡o ZvB cvjvBjvg| m‡½i wPwVwU evwji| †cuŠQvBqv w`‡j K…Zv_©
_vwKe| ¶gvcÖvw_©bx, we‡bvw`bx|Ó Ab¨wU `xN©, Avkv‡K †jLv| Dcb¨v‡m †bB, wKš‘
Qwe‡Z ms‡hvRb Kiv GB wPwVwU cy‡ivUvB DׄZ Kiv cÖ‡qvRb e‡j g‡b n‡”Q|
fvB evwj,
†Zvi Avi Avgvi g‡a¨ evB‡i A‡bK Awgj wQj, Zey Avgiv mB cvwZ‡qwQjyg|
†ek wQjyg `wR©cvov w÷ª‡Ui †`vZjvi Aš—cy‡i| †mUvB wQj Avgv‡`i †ivRKvi RMr|
ZzB †`k ej‡Z Pvm ZvI ej‡Z cvwim| Agb evB‡ii Awgj wb‡q wg‡jwg‡k _vKv G
†`‡ki BwZnv‡m bZyb bq| ZvB Avgiv bZzb wKQz Kwi wb, evwj, Zv e‡j Aš—‡ii wgj
ej‡Z mwZ¨B wK wKQz wQj bv? wQjÑmsmvi Kivi mva| H †h ejjyg H `wR©cvov
w÷ª‡Ui Aš—cy‡ii evB‡i Avgiv wKQ&Qz †`wL wb| ZvB Avgv‡`i †`Lv GKUv gvbyl‡K wb‡q
`yR‡bB †mB mva †gUv‡Z †P‡qwQ| Zv‡Z mvaI †g‡U wb; Avgv‡`i †QvÆ †`kUzKzI †f‡½
UzK‡iv UzK‡iv n‡q †M‡Q| KvR©b mv‡n‡ei AvBb mwZ¨B hw` d‡j Zv n‡j GLb †_‡K
Avwg Avi ZzB `y‡Uv Avjv`v †`‡k _vKe| †mB `yB †`‡k e‡m Avgiv hw` wb‡Ri wb‡Ri
GZ w`bKvi Acgvb, `ytL Avi eÂbvi K_vB ïay fvwe Zv n‡j †Zv Avgiv cÖ_g †_‡KB
nvi †g‡b wbjyg| Avm‡j †`k †Zv g‡bi g‡a¨, evwj| Aš—‡ii †PvL †Kvbw`b hw`
Avgv‡`i wKQz †_‡K _v‡K, mB cvZv‡bvi w`‡b †mB †h Avgiv e‡jwQjyg, Ic‡i LB bx‡P
`B, ZzB Avgvi Avi R‡b¥i mB, hw` †mUv GKev‡ii R‡b¨I g‡bcÖv‡Y wek¦vm K‡i _vwK,
Zv n‡j KvR©b mv‡ne Avgv‡`i wK Rã Ki‡e? †hw`b H `wR©cvov w÷ªU †Q‡o Kvkxi
Nv‡U wM‡q `uvovjyg, †mw`b cÖ_g Rvbjyg mwZ¨Kv‡ii †`k Kv‡K e‡j| †mLv‡b †nu‡mj,
D‡Vvb, LoLwoi evB‡iI †h GKUv weivU RMr †m †Kej eB‡q c‡owQ‡i Avi †f‡ewQ
MíK_v| gnvfvi‡Z Av‡Q Awfgby¨ gv‡qi †c‡Ui †fZ‡iB g¯— exi n‡qwQj| †Zvi †c‡U
†h mš—vb †m †Zvi mv‡_ mv‡_ †ivR M½vmœvb K‡i‡Q| †`vnvB, evwj, †m †Q‡jB †nvK
kvk¦wZKx-155

Avi †g‡qB †nvK, Zv‡K †Kej `wR©cvov w÷ª‡Ui †`vZjv evwo‡Z AvU‡K ivwLm †b|
†`Lwe mwZ¨Kv‡ii †`k Kv‡K e‡j †mB GKw`b †Zv‡K eywS‡q †`‡e|
BwZ,
†Zvi †Pv‡Li evwj

iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨v‡mi m‡½ G wPwVi me K_vi mivmwi †hvM †bB, ZeyI Avgvi g‡b
n‡q‡Q †h Qwe‡Z G wPwVi overall effect-Uv AmvaviY Ges Dcb¨v‡mi mKj cwieZ©b
ev ms‡hvR‡bi g‡a¨ GwU me PvB‡Z mv_©K| `yBRb bvixi g‡a¨ Awgj A‡bK, wKš‘
Zviv `yBR‡bB bvix| mxgve× Zv‡`i RMr| Zvi evB‡i hvevi ¶gZv Zv‡`i Kv‡iviB
†bB| GB A‡_© Zviv †hb n‡q †M‡Q mgMÖ bvix RvwZi cÖwZwbwa|
QweUv wVK GLv‡bB †kl n‡”Q bv| we‡bvw`bx †Kv_vq P‡j †M‡Q Rvbv hvq wb| †m
fviZe‡l©i K_v wj‡L‡Q| nq‡Zv Ab¨ †Kv‡bv fviZe‡l©i mÜvb †c‡q‡Q| †mLv‡bB
†M‡Q| GB K_v¸‡jv e‡j wenvix| Zvi ci‡b ¯^‡`wk †cvlvK| †m wgwUs‡q hv‡e|
gwnb Zv‡K mveav‡b †h‡Z e‡j KviY kn‡ii Ae¯’v fvj bq| Zvici AvRv‡bi aŸwb
†kvbv hvq| Avi c`©vq †f‡m I‡V GB K_v¸wj, Ò†mev‡ii gZ e½f½ †VwK‡q ivLv
wM‡qwQj...42 eQi c‡i Zv Avi m¤¢e nj bv|Ó Awef³ evsjvi wbõj AvKv•¶v
aŸwbZ n‡q‡Q GLv‡b, Z‡e iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨v‡m G e¨vcv‡i †Kvb K_vB †bB|
†k‡l GK_v ejv hvq †h iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨v‡m cÖvavb¨ †c‡q‡Q cÖavb Pwiθ‡jvi
g‡a¨ Cl©vi Ø›Ø, AvKl©Y, weKl©Y I fyj †evSveywS Avi FZzc‡Y©i Qwe‡Z mvgwMÖKfv‡e
bvixRvwZi eÂbv I Amnvq‡Z¡i DciB †hb †ewk †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| iex›`ªbv‡_i
Aš—Z GB M‡í bvixev`x fvebv ¯úó n‡q I‡V wb| we‡bvw`bxi eÂbv‡K cÖKU Kivi
R‡b¨ Dwb Avkv‡K G‡Kev‡i Ac`v_© wn‡m‡e †`Lv‡Z Pvb wb, Zvi GKUv eo cÖgvY
†k‡li w`‡K Avkvi Pwi‡Î cwieZ©b| †m AvZ¥wek¦vmx Avi †hb cvKv M„w„ nYx n‡q D‡V‡Q
hLb Zvi kvïwo g„Z¨z kh¨vq| Abœc~Yv© e‡jb, Ò¯^vgx‡K †`eZvi gZ Kwiqv †mev Kiv
¯¿xi ag©|Ó Avkv ZvB Ki‡Z Pvq, Zvi ¯^vgx‡K †m c~Rv †`q, wKš‘ wb‡R‡K †m A‡hvM¨
Rv‡b, ZvB fq GB c~Rv hw` †`eZv MÖnY bv K‡i cv‡q †V‡j †`b| iex›`ªbv_ e¨½v‡_©
Gme wj‡L‡Qb e‡j g‡b nq bv| †`eZv †k‡l c~RvwiYx‡K MÖnY Ki‡Qb| Ges †mB
†`eZv Avi †KD bq, g‡n›`ª, hv‡K ejv †h‡Z cv‡i GK Av`y‡i gv‡qi GKgvÎ spoilt
child, hvi Pwi‡Îi cÖavb ˆewkó¨¸wji g‡a¨ KZ¸wj nj wejvwmZv, Avjm¨ (Qwe‡Z
†ewkifvM mgq gwnb‡K †kvIqv A_ev wbðj Ae¯’vq †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q), ciwbf©ikxjZv
I wR`| we‡bvw`bxi cÖwZ iweVvKz‡ii mnvbyfw~ Z _vK‡jI Zv wbi¼zk bq| G K_v wVK
†h Dcb¨v‡m we‡bvw`bx‡K cwi®‹vifv‡eB AvkvjZvi PvB‡Z wewfbœ w`K w`‡q †hvM¨Zi
bvix wn‡m‡e wPwÎZ Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges Zv m‡Ë¡I Zvi e`‡j AvkvjZv g‡n‡›`ªi ¯¿x n‡Z
cvi‡jv e‡j †h we‡bvw`bxi AwePvi ev eÂbvi †eva ZvI Dcb¨v‡m Av‡Q, wKš‘
iex›`ªbª v_ GKvwaKevi g‡b Kwi‡q w`‡q‡Qb †h G †_‡K D™¢Z
~ Cl©v we‡bvw`bx‡K wec‡_
†V‡j w`‡”Q| ÒcÖwZK~j fvM¨ekZ we‡bvw`bx Avcb cÖwZfv‡K †Kv‡bv cyi“‡li wPˇ¶‡Î
Ae¨vnZfv‡e Rqx Kwi‡Z bv cvwiqv msnvig~wZ© aviY KwijÓ (19Zg Aa¨vq)| wenvix
Zvi wPwV †diZ cvwV‡q‡Q GiKg aviYv KÕ‡i Ò¶zäv we‡bvw`bx...Zvnvi Pvwiw`‡Ki
mg¯— msmviUv‡K R¡vjvBevi Rb¨ cÖ¯Z
‘ nBjÓ (24Zg Aa¨vq)| Zvici wenvixi Kv‡Q
kvk¦wZKx-156

AvZ¥mgc©b Ki‡Z wM‡q we‡bvw`bx Zv‡K cÖkœ K‡i †h Avkvi g‡a¨ †m Ggb Kx †`‡L‡Q
Ges Av‡iv Rvbvq †h wenvix hw` Avkv‡K fvj bv evmZ (A_©vr Zv‡K fvjevmZ) Zv
n‡j Zvi Øviv Avkvi Ggb me©bvk n‡Zv bv, A_©vr †m ZLb g‡n‡›`ªi g‡bv‡hvM‡K
cÖkªq w`‡Zv bv Ges Zvi m‡½ Ni †Q‡o †ewi‡q coevi R‡b¨ Zv‡K c‡iv¶fv‡e
cÖ‡ivwPZ KiZ bv| wKš‘ †m g‡n›`ª‡K Qvo‡e Kx‡mi wewbg‡q? G K_v ï‡b wenvix e‡j
†h Zvi K_v¸‡jv bvUK-b‡f‡ji msjv‡ci g‡Zv, ÒwKš‘ bvU‡Ki bvwqKv †÷‡Ri
Dc‡iB †kvfv cvq, N‡i Zvnv‡K jBqv P‡j bvÓ (35Zg Aa¨vq)| we‡bvw`bxi
ΓwU¸‡jv ev` w`‡q kyay ¸Y¸‡jv ivL‡j, g‡n›`ª‡K GKwU serious PwiÎ wn‡m‡e wbg©vY
Ki‡j, Avi †k‡l wenvixi we‡qi cÖ¯v— ‡e we‡bvw`bx ivwR n‡j Avgiv Ab¨ iKg wKQz
†c‡Z cviZvg †hLv‡b g‡n›`ª GKUz GKUz K‡i eyS‡Z cviZ `y‡Uv bvixi g‡a¨ Zdvr,
Avi cvÎx wbe©vP‡b Zvi nVKvwiZvi K_v| wKš‘ †mUv iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨vm Avi
FZzc‡Y©i Qwe, `y‡Uv †_‡KB Avjv`v n‡Zv|
†Pv‡Li evwj Dcb¨v‡mi †klUv, we‡kl K‡i we‡bvw`bx I wenvixi we‡q bv †`evi
e¨vcviUv m¤^‡Ü, hv wb‡q A‡bK mgv‡jvPbvi So D‡V‡Q, `yBGK K_v bv ej‡j GB
Av‡jvPbv g‡b nq Am¤ú~Y© _vK‡e| we‡bvw`bx cÖm‡½ bxnviiÄb ivq Zuvi iex›`ªmvwn‡Z¨i f~wgKv-q e‡j‡Qb, ÒRxeb hvnv‡K eÂbv Kwiqv‡Q wkíx iex›`ªbv_I Zvnv‡K
eÂbv Kwi‡jbÓ| GB e¨vcviUv ¯^qs iex›`ªbv_‡KI fvwe‡qwQj| wm‡bgvi ïi“‡ZB Zuvi
GKwU gš—e¨ †`Lv‡bv n‡”Q c`©vq, Ò†Pv‡Li evwj †eievi AbwZKvj ci †_‡KB Zvi
mgvwßUv wb‡q Avwg g‡b g‡b AbyZvc K‡i G‡mwQ, wb›`vi Øviv Zvi cÖvqwðË nIqv
DwPrÓ| 24 Ryb 1940| cwiPvjK cÖ_‡gB GB e³e¨wU `k©K‡`i †`Lv‡jb, Zvi gv‡b
wZwb †h G wel‡q mRvM wQ‡jb ïay ZvB bq, Dwb GUv‡K ¸i“Z¡c~Y© g‡b K‡i‡Qb e‡jB
Qwe ïi“i wVK Av‡MB Zv `k©K‡`i †`Lv‡bv cÖ‡qvRb g‡b K‡i‡Qb| GLb cÖkœ n‡jv
Dwb wb‡R GKRb bvixev`x Ges mvnmx cwiPvjK nIqv m‡Ë¡I †K‡bv †k‡l we‡bvw`bx
Avi wenvixi we‡q w`‡Z cvi‡jb bv, we‡kl K‡i †hLv‡b Qwe evbv‡Z wM‡q Dwb
Dcb¨vm‡K ûeû AbymiY K‡ib wbÑA‡bK ¯^vaxbZv wb‡q‡Qb †hLv‡b †hgb cÖ‡qvRb
g‡b K‡i‡Qb| Gi e¨vL¨v †eva nq GB †h FZzcY© we‡bvw`bx‡K GKRb ewÂZ bvix
wn‡m‡eB †`Lv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| wØZxqZ, M‡íi LuywUbvwU welq I msjv‡c hZB cwieZ©b
Kiv †nvK bv †K‡bv Zvi †klUvi Ggb cwieZ©b GKUz †eva nq evovevwoB g‡b n‡Zv,
iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡Zv mvwnwZ¨‡Ki M‡íi †¶‡Î †Zv e‡UB|
†UKwbK¨vj wel‡q †Zgb wKQz ejvi †bB| ïay GBUzKz ej‡Z PvB †h `„k¨
cwieZ©‡bi †Kvb ms‡KZ ev Bw½Z bv _vKvi d‡j wKQz †¶‡Î Zvr¶wYKfv‡e †evSv
k³ †h cvkvcvwk Ry‡o †`Iqv `ywU `„k¨ Avm‡j `ywU wfbœ RvqMvq (Ges m¤¢eZ wKQz
mg‡qi e¨eav‡b) NU‡Q| †dW, IqvBc, BZ¨vw` wKQzUv †m‡K‡j, hvwš¿K I K…wÎg
c×wZ e‡jB nq‡Zv cwiPvjK e¨envi K‡ib wb| `yBGKwU †¶‡Î evK¨ e¨envi
K‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ mevK wP‡Îi †¶‡Î Zv †ewk e¨envi Kiv fvj †`Lvq bv, Dwb Zv
K‡ibI wb| Ab¨ †Kvb Dcvq Aej¤^b Kiv †h‡Zv wK bv †mUv Avgvi g‡b nq Pjw”PÎ
wbg©vY wk‡íi m‡½ hviv mivmwi RwoZ ZvivB fvj ej‡Z cvi‡eb|

kvk¦wZKx-157

AwgZvf bvM

PZzi½ wel‡q cuvPwU K_v
b‡f¤^i 1915 †_‡K †deªyqvwi 1916 Aewa meyRcÎ cwÎKvq cici iex›`ªbv‡_i †h
Mí¸‡jv cÖKvwkZ nq, cieZx©Kv‡j ZvB GK‡Î PZzi½ Dcb¨vm bv‡g me©Rbwew`Z|
GKB mv‡j cÖKvwkZ iex›`ªbv‡_i Aci Dcb¨vm N‡i evB‡iÕi Zzjbvq Avw½‡K PZzi½Gi Awgj D‡j−L‡hvM¨| N‡i evB‡ii ivR‰bwZK †cÖ¶vcU b¨v‡iwU‡fi g~j KvVv‡gv‡K
my`„p iv‡L| Zvi †cÖw¶‡Z wbwL‡jk-wegjv ev m›`xc-wegjvi gvbwmK Uvbv‡cv‡ob
iex›`ªbv_ Kvwnbxi Av‡jv‡K Zz‡j Av‡bb| d‡g©i wePv‡iI N‡i evB‡i Dcb¨v‡mi
Wvq‡jvMag©xZv A‡bKUvB w_‡qUvixq| PZzi½ Dcb¨v‡mi PviwU A‡½iB g~j K_K wKš‘
kªxwejvm| Zvi †PvL w`‡qB Avgiv Pjgvb NUbvcÖevn cÖZ¨¶ Kwi| ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB d‡g©i
wbwi‡L GB Dcb¨vm A‡bKUvB MZvbyMwZK| Lye ¯^í Avfvm e¨wZ‡i‡K PZzi½ Dcb¨v‡mi
NUbvKvj Abyaveb Kiv Kómva¨| mycwiKwíZfv‡eB iex›`ªbv_ GB Dcb¨v‡m bvix-cyi“l
wÎfyR †cÖgÑ †`n wbgw¾Z I †`‡nvËi, GB welq †_‡K wePz¨Z nbwb|
mygb gy‡Lvcva¨vq cwiPvwjZ PZzi½ (2008)-G Pjw”P‡Îi wbR¯^ wbq‡g
Dcb¨v‡mi kªxwejv‡mi ¯^K_b ch©ewmZ n‡q‡Q `k©‡Ki mvg‡b N‡U hvIqv NUbvq| GB
¯^í cwim‡ii †jLvq †`Lvi †Póv Kie g~j cvuPwU welqÑ fv‡jv-g‡›`i Pzj‡Piv
we‡k−l‡Y bq, `yB mªóvi m„wói cv_©‡K¨|
K. R¨vVvgkvB e„ËvšÍ
myKgz vi †mb GK`v gšÍe¨ K‡iwQ‡jbÑ ÒPZzi½-Gi cÖ_g A½ ÔR¨vVvgkvBÕ me‡P‡q
¯^m¤ú~Y©Ó| Dcb¨v‡mi m‡½ m‡½ Pjw”P‡ÎI †`Lv hvq GB AskwU R¨vVvgkvB Amvgvb¨
¸i“Z¡c~Y©| Dwbk kZ‡Ki †Muvovi w`‡K evsjvi we‡kl K‡i, KjKvZvi ivR‰bwZK Ges
mvgvwRK Uvbv‡cv‡ob I †`vjvP‡ji mvgvwRK wPÎvqb| be¨gvbeZvev` (wW‡ivwRI
BZ¨vw`) Ges wecÖZx‡c AvPvime©¯^ wn›`y cÖ_vi evovevwo, A¯ú„k¨ZvÑ Qwei mgqKvj
iƒcvwqZ nq| we‡kl K‡i R¨vVvgkvB RM‡gvn‡bi cvðvZ¨ Av‡jvK cÖvwßi wecix‡Z
kPx‡mi evev nwi‡gvn‡bi AÜ Ck¦i-wek¦vm Ges kPx‡mi R¨vVvi cÖwZ c¶cvwZZ¡ cÖ_g
A‡½i g~j myi‡K Zz‡j a‡i| †bc‡_¨i kã †hvRbvq Kuvmvi-NÈvi X°vwbbv` Ges
R¨vVvgkvB-Gi †e‡Vv‡db-†meb Pjw”PÎxq cÖ‡qvM hv Dcb¨v‡m Abycw¯’Z| cwiPvjK
mygb Dcb¨v‡mi e³e¨wU‡K mwVK a‡iwQ‡jbÑ RM‡gvn‡bi bv-Ck¦iev` (Ôbvw¯ÍKÕ
kãwU Zuvi †¶‡Î AcÖPwjZ) Ges kPx‡miI †mB aviYv Kvwnbxi cieZx© euvK iPbvq
Amxg ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| Z‡e GKUv LUbv Zv m‡Ë¡I †_‡K hvq| iex›`ªbv_-Gi Dcb¨vmwU‡ZI
ÔR¨vVvgkvBÕ GKwU wfbœ A½ wnmv‡e _vKvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wQj wK? c„_K Kvwnbx wnmv‡e
wj‡L c‡i Ry‡o †`Iqv †Zv wbQKB GKwU cÖ‡qvM cÖYvjx| wKš‘ †`Lvi welq †mwU
Dcb¨vm‡K mg„× Kij wKbv| PZzi½ g~jZt kPxm-`vwgbx-kªxwejv‡miB Kvwnbx|
ÔR¨vVvgkvBÕ AvL¨vb †mLv‡b wKQyUv n‡jI evûj¨| KviY kPx‡mi PwiÎ iƒcvq‡Yi
Kvi‡YB R¨vVvgkvB-Gi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Avjv`v K‡i bv| †hfv‡e ¸i“Z¡ cvb bv jxjvb›`
¯^vgxI| ZvI Dcb¨v‡mi jxjvb›` ¯^vgxi Zzjbvq Pjw”P‡Îi jxjvb›` ¯^vgx A‡bK RwUj
PwiÎ I Avjv`v fvebvi `vwe`viÑ †m Av‡jvPbvq c‡i Avme| mygb iex›`ªbv_‡K
kvk¦wZKx-158

fv½‡Z Pvbwb| m¤¢eZ ÒPZzi½Ó ÒwÎi½Ó n‡q hv‡e †m Avk¼vq ÔR¨vVvgkvBÕ Aa¨vq
Pjw”P‡ÎI we`¨gvb| Dcb¨v‡mi †P‡qI Pjw”P‡Î GB A½wU evwK wZbwU A‡½i Zzjbvq
K‡›U›UMZ w`K †_‡K Am¤ú„³| kPx‡mi e¨vKMÖvDÛ, mg‡qi cÖwZ”Qvqv, mgv‡Ri eRªAvuUzwb¸‡jv nqZ Ab¨fv‡e evwK A½¸‡jvi †fZi w`‡q †`Lv‡bvi †PóvB A‡bK †ewk
Pjw”PÎxq nZ|
L. kPxm I `vwgbx
kPxm m¤^‡Ü kªxwejv‡mi cÖ_g gšÍe¨Ñ ÒkPxm‡K †`wL‡j g‡b nq †hb GKUv
†R¨vwZ®‹Ó| Avi `vwgbxi cÖwZ kªxwejvmÑ Ò`vwgbx †hb kªve‡Yi †g‡Ni wfZiKvi
`vwgbx| evwn‡i †m cyÄ cyÄ †hŠe‡b c~Y©; AšÍ‡i PÂj Av¸b wSKwgK Kwiqv DwV‡QÓ|
Dcb¨v‡m †h‡nZz kªxwejvm `k©K Ges K_K †m‡nZz Avgiv mvaviYfv‡e kªxwejvm‡KB
†jLK cÖwZf~ fve‡Z cvwi| iex›`ªbv_ GLv‡b GKUv gRvi †Ljv †L‡j‡Qb| GKw`‡K
kªxwejv‡mi g‡Zv GKRb i¨vwWKvj hye‡Ki †Pv‡L `„wó w`‡q‡Qb cvV‡Ki, Avi wb‡Ri
gbb-eyw×-؇›Øi fvi w`‡q‡Qb kPx‡mi AvZ¥v‡K| kPxm ZvB iex›`ªbv‡_i wb‡Ri g‡bi
†`vjvP‡ji iƒcKÑ cvðvZ¨ev` †_‡K fveev`, bv-Ck¦i `k©b †_‡K ˆeÂe fw³i‡m
wbg¾bÑ kPxm‡K iex›`ªbv_ QywU‡q †ei K‡i‡Qb g‡bi GK Mnxb †KvY †_‡K Ab¨
GK AÜKv‡i| g‡bi AveQv Abyf~wZ kPxm eyS‡Z †P‡q‡Q iƒc-Aiƒ‡ci g‡a¨Kvi
Ae¯’vb, Amx‡gi g‡a¨ mxgvbv nviv‡bvi mZ¨| kPx‡mi PwiÎ cÖK„Z A‡_©B Avfvgq`y¨wZ-wKiY Av‡jvwKZ cyi“l| mdj Dcb¨v‡mi PwiÎ †_‡K Pjw”P‡Î mv_©K PwiÎvqb
Lye mnRmva¨ bq| myeªZ `Ë kPx‡mi Pwi‡Î Amvgvb¨ Awfbq K‡i‡Qb| †Pnvivi
my‡Kvgj `y¨wZi ˆewkó¨ Zuvi †bB, Agb Av¸b Siv Dcw¯’wZI †bB| wKš‘ `ywU Amvgvb¨
†PvL ZuviÑ ZvwoZ, ¯^cœvnZ, fvM¨`yó| Pjw”P‡Îi ˆ`wnK Awfb‡q we‡kl K‡i jxjvb›`
¯^vgxi AvLovq kPxmiƒcx myeªZ Abe`¨ Ñ Zuvi emvi fw½gvq, Zuvi AvbZ †Pv‡Li
fvlvq, Zuvi ¯^i‡¶c‡Y| Ab¨w`‡K, `vwgbxi cÖwZ Awfgv‡bi Awfe¨w³‡Z, `vwgbxi
†_‡K gb Zz‡j †bIqvi †Póvi AvšÍwiKZvq, †k‡li Kv‡j Aiƒ‡ci eÜbnxb gyw³i
Av¯^v‡` wZwb †R¨vwZ®‹B| mvwn‡Z¨ iex›`ªbv_ A‡bKUvB Dn¨ †_‡K‡Qb kPx‡mi gvbwmK
cwieZ©‡bi †nZz wel‡q| R¨vVvgkvB‡qi cvðvZ¨ev` †_‡K jxjvb›` ¯^vgxi i‡mi
AvL‡i †f‡m hvIqv Ges †k‡l ¸i“ev‡` wb‡Ri AvZ¥vi AbymÜvbÑ Pjw”P‡Îi gva¨gMZ
Kw›UwbDwUi `vwe †g‡bB mygb gy‡Lvcva¨vq-Gi kPxm A‡bK †ewk cÖvÄj| bbxevjv I
R¨vVvgkvB‡qi g„Zz¨‡Z kPx‡mi cvðvZ¨ cÖfv‡ei †ik K‡g| bbxevjv AvL¨vb
A‡bKUvB cwiPvjK ewשZ K‡ib kPx‡mi g‡bi m~PK wba©vi‡Yi Rb¨| cieZx©Kv‡j,
jxjvb›` ¯^vgxi GK wk‡l¨i AvZ¥nZ¨v kPxm‡K fvei‡mi wKbvivq wb‡q wM‡q
AvZ¥gyw³i c_ †`Lvq| kPxm‡K A‡bKUv ÔgvbeÕ Kivi AwfcÖv‡qB bbxevjv ch©v‡q
Avgiv †`wLÑ bbxevjvi Db¥y³ wcV †`‡L iv‡Z kPx‡bi ¯^‡gnb `„k¨|
iex›`ªbv‡_i Dcb¨v‡mi eo cvIqv Zuvi bvix PwiÎ| `vwgbx Gi e¨wZµg bq,
Z‡e Ab¨fv‡e `vwgbx e¨wZµgB| nqZ PvwiwÎK `„pZvq †Pv‡Li evwji we‡bvw`bx
wKQyUv n‡jI `vwgbxi mgch©v‡q Avm‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e we‡bvw`bx †hLv‡b wb‡Ri fvM¨
A‡bK‡¶‡ÎB cyi“‡li nv‡Z mgc©Y K‡i‡Q, `vwgbx †mLv‡b A‡bK GK‡ivLvÑ Zvi
†hŠb I gb‡bi/ AvZ¥vi gyw³ Zvi wb‡Ri Kv‡QB GB mZ¨, Zvi mwVK Rvbv wQj|

kvk¦wZKx-159

Ò†Zvgv‡`i †Kv‡bv f³-ev GK gZj‡e GK e‡›`ve¯Í Kwi‡eb, †Kv‡bv f³-ev AviGK gZj‡e Avi-GK e‡›`ve¯Í Kwi‡eb Ñ gvSLv‡b Avwg †Zvgv‡`i `k-cuwP‡ki Nuwy U?ÓÑ
kPxm I kªxwejvm AevK n‡jI Avgiv ey‡S hvB `vwgbx mvgvb¨ bq| c‡i jxjvb›` ¯^vgxi
wk‡l¨i g„Z¨y i c‡iI †m kPxm‡K wec‡` †d‡j †`q Zvi Zx¶è, AbymwÜrmy wRÁvmvqÑ
ÒAvgv‡K eySvBqv `vI| †Zvgiv w`bivZ hv jBqv AvQ Zvnv‡Z c„w_exi Kx cÖ‡qvRb?
†Zvgiv Kv‡K euvPvB‡Z cvwi‡j?Ó GB `ywU `„p‡PZb Abyfw~ Z-RvZ msjvcB Pjw”P‡Î
eZ©gvb| kPxm-`vwgbxi AšÍ‡ii So Pjw”P‡Î my›`ifv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|
M. ¸nv`„k¨
Dcb¨v‡mi K¬vBg¨v‡· GB ¸nv-AvL¨vb| g‡bi †Pviv‡mªvZ kPxm-`vwgbxi Df‡qi †¶‡ÎB
Gici wgkª Abyf~wZ‡Z wKQyUv AZwK©‡Z eB‡Z _v‡K| wbqgKvby‡bi †eovq kPxm-`vwgbx
evuav _v‡K bv| kªxwejvm‡K ga¨¯’ fi‡K›`ª fve‡j †`Lv hv‡e †h Avðh© iK‡gi m¤ú‡K©i
D_vj cvZvj N‡U kPxm I `vwgbxi m¤ú‡K©i wfZi| iex›`ªbv_ Lye ¯§vU©wj ¸nv-AvL¨vb
kPx‡mi Wv‡qwi‡Z wjwce× K‡ib| cÖvq dª‡qWxq wjwe‡Wvq ¸nv-AvL¨vb GKUv we‡kl
Zvrch© enb K‡i| cÖKw„ Z I cyi“‡li wgjb †¶‡Î ¸nvÑ Rbbiƒcx wÎfyR| Ab¨fv‡e
fve‡j, kPxm-`vwgbx-kªxwejv‡mi †h wÎfyR Zvi ga¨gwY Ôcyi“lÕ ¯^vgx jxjvb›`| jxjvb›`
¯^vgx ZvB nqZ ex‡h©iI cÖZxK| ¸nvi weei‡Y Ges kPx‡mi Abyfw~ Z (Wv‡qwi)
iex›`ªbv‡_i Ab¨Zg B‡ivwUK m„wó| `vwgbx †h iv‡Z mgwc©Z n‡Z G‡m cÖZ¨vL¨vZ nq,
†mB AvZ¥wb‡e`‡bi cÖ‡Póvq ˆ`wnK fvjevmvB cÖvavb¨ cvq| nZvkvRbK fv‡e, Pjw”P‡Î
`„k¨wUi cy‡ivUvB eo mv`v-gvUv, Av‡av-AÜKvi ¸nvi wPÎY| Dcb¨v‡mi †m·yqvj
†Ubk‡bi m‡½ m¤ú„³ mvm‡cÝ nvwi‡q hvq| Zvwš¿K `k©‡bi (ÒwÎfyRÓ=¸nv) m‡½
cvðvZ¨ `k©b (d«‡qWxq ÒwWªgÓ)Ñ Kbmvm‡bm ev gMœ‰PZb¨ Ñ GB Dcb¨v‡mi K‡›U›U‡K
hvwcZ K‡i‡Q, hvi Ô†m›UviÕ G GB ¸nv-AvL¨vb| Pjw”P‡Î GB jwRKvj wi‡cª‡R‡›Ukb
KwVb, Z`ycwi, `ye©j wPÎbvU¨ (GB As‡ki) `i“Y `k©K wn‡m‡e m¤ú‡K©i RwUj wKQy Zš‘
K¨v‡givq aiv co‡Z †`Lv hvq bv|
N. jxjvb›` ¯^vgx
Dcb¨v‡mi jxjvb›` ¯^vgx AbyNUK| cvk¦P© wiÎ| Avgiv †Kv‡bv mwVK KviY Rvb‡Z cvwi
bv †Kb kPxm Zuvi Pi‡Y wb‡ew`Z| cieZx©Kv‡j GI †evSv hvq bv mwVKfv‡e, †Kb
kPxm Zuvi Avkªg Z¨vM K‡i| Pjw”P‡Îi b¨v‡iwUf‡K mvgÄm¨c~Y© Ki‡Z I mvejxj
Kivi AwfcÖv‡qB Avgiv eyS‡Z cvwi †h `vwgbxi wZi¯‹vi Ges †mB wkl¨i g„Z¨z
kPx‡mi wek¦vm †gvP‡bi †nZz| hw`I wVK Kx NUbv ci¤úivq †m ¯^vgxRxi Avkª‡g VuvB
Mv‡o Zv KL‡bvB cwi®‹vi bq| Pjw”P‡Î Kexi mygb AwfbxZ jxjvb›` PwiÎwU GKwU
c„_K, ewjô PwiÎ wn‡m‡eB fv¯^i| †m Kvi‡YB cÖkœ Rv‡M, hw` ÔR¨vVvgkvBÕ
Dcb¨v‡mi GKwU c„_K P¨vÞvi n‡Z cv‡ib, Pjw”P‡Î Z‡e Ôjxjvb›`Õ bb †Kb? wKQy
mgv‡jvPK Dcb¨v‡mi kPxm I jxjvb›`-Gi m¤ú‡K©i m‡½ ¯^vgx we‡eKvb›`kªxivgK…ò‡`‡ei mv`„k¨ Lu‡y R cvb| Pjw”P‡Î hw`I †m AeKvk †bB| kPxm fw³ M`M`, jxjvb›` fvei‡m AvKÉ| wKš‘ `vwgbxi m‡½ mv¶v‡Zi `„k¨¸wj‡Z jxjvb›`B
†cŠi“‡li cÖZxK n‡q Av‡mb| kPxm `„k¨ZB wcwQ‡q hvb, `vwgbx-jxjvb›`-Gi
AwaKv‡ii jovB‡q †Kv_v †_‡K GKUv Pvcv †hŠb-ˆel‡g¨i jovB‡qi wgj †_‡K hvq|
kvk¦wZKx-160

†m Kvi‡YB ¸nv`„‡k¨ jxjvb›` Ôcyi“lÕ, Zvwš¿K-`k©‡bi wÎfy‡Ri (kPxm-`vwgbxkªxwejvm) fi‡K›`ª cÖK…wZi m‡½ hy‡× Db¥Ë| ¸nv`„‡k¨ kPxm-`vwgbxi Ae`wgZ
†hŠ‡b”Qvi K_vB ïaygvÎ iwPZ nq bv c`©vq, jxjvb‡›`i Dcw¯’wZ‡Z Ô¸nvÕi Zvrch©I
cv‡ë hvq| GB PvwiwÎK cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨B Dcb¨v‡mi Òc‡_ †h‡Z †Zvgvi mv‡_ wgjb
nj w`‡bi †k‡lÓ, cv‡ë wM‡q Pjw”P‡ÎÑ ÒgvwUi ey‡Ki gv‡S e›`x †h Rj wgwj‡q
_v‡KÓÑ GLv‡b ÔcÖK…wZÕB Ôgv`vi AvwK©UvBcÕ, Ôkw³i iƒcÕ| jxjvb›`i wbqg, wm×všÍ‡K
A¯^xKvi K‡i `vwgbx ïaygvÎ cyi“lZvwš¿K mgvR‡KB P¨v‡jÄ Rvbvq bv, GKB m‡½
Zz‡j Av‡b weaev bvixi ¯^qs Pvjbvi AwaKv‡ii cÖkœI|
O. m½xZ
PZzi½ Pjw”PÎwUi Ab¨Zg m¤ú` Zvi m½xZ| B`vwbs iex›`ªbv‡_i Kvwnbx Aej¤^‡b
†ek wKQy Pjw”P‡Î j¶¨ Kiv hv‡”Q iex›`ªm½xZ e¨envi Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ cwiPvjK
Kvwnbxi mgqmxgv cvëv‡”Qb, A_ev, †Kv‡bv Pwi‡Îi iex›`ª-†cÖg b¨v‡iwU‡f Zz‡j
Avb‡Qb| mygb †mme kVZvq hvbwb| wZwb `vwgbx Pwi‡Îi wgDwRK¨vj B›UviwjDW
wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡i‡Qb, ÒAvgvi cÖv‡Yi gv‡S myav Av‡Q PvI wKÓ (hv `vwgbxi
K¨v‡i±vi wgDwRKI e‡U), R¨vVvgkvB‡qi cvðvZ¨ev`‡K mvgÄm¨ w`‡Z we‡Vv‡db,
ˆeòem½xZ/ KxZ©bmgMÖ jxjvb›` ¯^vgxi Avkªg-†Kw›`ªK wm‡Kv‡q‡Ý| Avi Gme‡KB
a‡i †i‡L‡Q ïi“ Ges †k‡li e„Ëvq‡bi `„k¨ †hLv‡b Abe`¨ mywd m½xZ (Òwgj Mqv
i“n †Kv MoÓ) iƒc †_‡K Aiƒ‡ci Dbœqb‡K wPwýZ K‡i| GQvov D‡j−L‡hvM¨ ¸nv`„‡k¨
jxjvb‡›`i Mjvi K¬vBg¨v· m„RbKvix Mvb| myg‡bi Pjw”PÎ cÖK…Z A‡_©B wgDwRK¨vj
Nivbvi Qwe n‡q I‡V Zvi kvwãK e¨vw߇Z|

cÖKvwkZ n‡”Q Avd‡ivRv Avj‡gi cÖ_g AvZ¥‰RewbK Dcb¨vm
ÔdvbymÕ| eBwU †ei Ki‡Q ïׯ^i cÖKvkbx| eBwUi PgrKvi
cÖ”Q` K‡i‡Qb Zznxb nvmvb| eBwU m¤ú‡K© cÖL¨vZ
K_vmvwnwZ¨K nvmvb AvwRRyj nK e‡j‡Qb, ÔAvd‡ivRv Avj‡gi
M`¨ co‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M| GKUv AvU‡cŠ‡i fve Av‡Q Avi Av‡Q
GKUv †fZi †_‡K Uvb| welq hLb cwiev‡ii K_v, wb‡Ri
¯§„wZ-MÖ‡š’i cvZv¸‡jv D‡ë hvIqv, cÖvq wb‡Ri cy‡iv‡bv Wv‡qwi Ly‡j covi gZ
ZLb fv‡jv †Zv jvM‡eB| Zvi m‡½ hw` †hvM nq Avgv‡`i gyw³hy‡×i wKQy
AwfÁZvi eY©bv| GBme Kvi‡Y Avd‡ivRvi †jLv fv‡jv jvM‡jv|Õ eBwUi g~j¨
ivLv n‡q‡Q 150 UvKv|

kvk¦wZKx-161

†g‡n`x Avãyjv− n

evwjKvg½j : myß ¯§„wZi e¨³ K_v
†QvÆ G RxebUv K‡Zv wewPÎ K_viB bv Rb¥ †`q wbiš—i| N‡ii K_v, c‡ii K_v|
gv‡Vi K_v, Nv‡Ui K_v| my‡Li K_v, `yt†Li K_v| AviI K‡Ëv wKQz...! wKQz K_v
Ae¨³ †_‡K hvq ey‡Ki gv‡S| Avevi wKQz K_v e¨³ my‡i †e‡R I‡V, Avgv‡`i w`‡q
hvq Abvw`Kv‡ji `ytL wKsev myL-¯§„wZ| Av‡eMx gvbyl ey‡K AvMwj‡q ivL‡Z cv‡ibv
mewKQz| cÖKvk K‡i ¯^v‡` A_ev we¯^v‡`| K_vq wKsev †jLvq| Zv‡ZB eywS kvwš— nq
gvby‡li| Zv‡ZB Rx‡ei Ae¨³ Avi e¨³ K_vB Mí n‡q I‡V|
†jLK †gvmv‡ÏK Avn‡g‡`i evwjKvg½j MíMÖš’wU‡Z Zuvi wPš—vi, Avkvn‡Zi,
N„Yvi I ¯^‡cœi K_v e‡j‡Qb| evwjKvg½j MíMÖš’wUi AwaKvsk M‡í gnvb gyw³hy‡×i
mg‡qi wKQz K_v cvIqv hvq| MÖšw’ U‡Z 11wU Mí Av‡Q| AwaKvsk M‡íi bv‡gi g‡a¨
ˆewPΨ Ges my›`i wPš—vi m~²Zv j¶¨ Kiv hvq|
ÔWvûK e‡ai gnvKve¨Õ MíwU‡Z MíKvi GKRb gyw³‡hv×vi Amnvq‡Z¡i K_v
e‡j‡Qb| GKRb gyw³‡hv×vi †PvL w`‡q †jLK †`wL‡q‡Qb cvwK¯—vwb †mbvK¨v¤ú Avi
¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki wPwKrmv‡K‡›`ªi g‡a¨ †Kv_vI †Kv‡bv cv_©K¨ †bB| KviY cvwK¯—vwb
†mbvK¨v‡¤úi ee©iZv Avi Avgv‡`i wPwKrmv‡K‡›`ªi ee©iZv cÖvq GKB wPÎ cÖ`k©b
K‡i| wPwKrmv‡K‡›`ªi `iRv Rvbvjv †h‡bv cvwK¯—vwb K¨v‡¤úi cÖwZiƒc, †hLv‡b
GKRb gyw³‡hv×vi ¯¿x wPwKrmvi R‡b¨ gviv hvq Avi gyw³hy‡×i mgq †mbvK¨v‡¤úi
wfZ‡i A‡bK bvix cvwK¯—vwb evwnbxi ee©iZvi wkKvi nq| Ô¯^‡cœi †fZiKvi fq I
fimvÕ M‡í MíKvi GKRb Amnvq grm¨Rxexi ev¯—eZvi K_v e‡j‡Qb| GB M‡í
GKRb grm¨Rxexi wbZ¨Kvi Avq gvQaiv Avi wewµ Kivi g‡a¨B mxgve×|
fvM¨ZvwoZ gvby‡li `ytL, `y`k
© vi K_v D‡V G‡m‡Q GB M‡í| wec‡` †KD Kv‡iv bq Ñ
GB wbM~p ZË¡ cvB Avgiv GB M‡íi wfZ‡i| ÔevwjKvg½jÕ MíwU †Kvb nviv‡bv
evwjKvi myL-¯§„wZi Mí| eûeQi Av‡M nviv‡bv ¯^cœ-evwjKv‡K GK gyn~Z© †`L‡Z
cvIqv †h‡bv ¯^cœ-my‡Li mÜvb †`q| GB M‡í †g‡q‡`i wnsmy‡U g‡bi m~² i‡mi ¯^v`I
cvIqv hvq| Ôevrm¨vqb PwiZK_vÕ MíwU DËvj †hŠe‡bi `yiš— K_vi Mí| GB M‡í
GKRb cyi“‡li GKvwaK bvixi mv‡_ m½g, Avevi Zv‡`i cÖwZ Av‡eMx nIqvi welqwU
¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| GB M‡íi wPÎcU mxgvš—eZ©x GjvKvq Aew¯’Z †`ŠjZw`qvi †hŠbcwj−|
ÔWvwjg Kzgv‡ii bvggvÎ QvqvÕ GB MíwU‡Z †jLK ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡k GKRb Wvwjg
Kzgvi‡K cÖZ¨vkv K‡ib, whwb †mvbvi KvwV-iƒcvi KvwV eywj‡q ivRKb¨vi Nyg fv½v‡eb
A_©vr Avgv‡`i Am‡PZb gvby‡li Nyg fv½v‡eb| wKš‘ †jLK nZvk KviY †mB Wvwjg
Kzgvi †Kv_vI †bB, hviv Av‡Qb Zviv †h‡bv Zvi Qvqv gvÎ| ÔAM¯—¨ hvÎvÕ M‡í GKRb
FYMÖ¯— gvby‡li ev¯—eZvi K_v dz‡U D‡V‡Q, †h †kl ch©š— F‡Yi `v‡q Zvi msmvi
Qvo‡Z eva¨ nq| Gw`‡K cvIbv`viiv e‡m _v‡K cvIbv jv‡fi Avkvq| wKš‘ Kv‡`i
†mB †h nvwi‡q hvq Avi wd‡i Av‡m bv! cyuwRev`x mgv‡Ri Gi †P‡q wbg©gwPÎ Avi Kx
n‡Z cv‡i? Ôgxiiƒ‡c muvB weivR K‡iÕ M‡í evDj Z‡Ë¡i gg©K_v cvB Avgiv| GKRb
gvbyl Kxfv‡e mg¯— †fvMwejvwmZv‡K cwinvi K‡i gvbea‡g© wb‡R‡K wbweó Ki‡Z
cv‡i Zvi iƒc †`Lv hvq GLv‡b| GKRb mva‡Ki mZ¨‡K Kxfv‡e Zvi ¯¿x wb‡Ri mZ¨
kvk¦wZKx-162

wn‡m‡e gv‡bÑ Zvi K_v cvIqv hvq| ÔMÜwelqK wejvwmZv A_ev weågÕ GB M‡í
GKRb †jv‡Ki myMwÜi Ici `ye©jZvi wPÎ dz‡U I‡V| wZwb †hgwb AvZ‡ii MÜ
†bIqvi ci Gi fvjg›` eyS‡Z cv‡ib, †Zgwb wZwb AvZ‡ii MÜ w`‡q GKRb
ivRvKvi‡K wPwýZ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| KviY AvZi gvLv‡bv ivRvKvi‡`i kixi †_‡K †mB
MÜ GL‡bv hvqwb| ÔAv‡jv AÜKvi welqK evj¨wk¶vÕ MíwU GKRb e„×-e„×vi `yt‡Li
Kvwnbx‡K Avkªq K‡i †jLv| e„× nviv‡bv ¯¿x‡K ¯^‡cœ cvIqvi Rb¨ †PvL KvUvb| wKš‘
†mB †Pv‡L wZwb Zvi ¯¿x‡K ¯§„wZ‡Z wd‡i cvb bv| ZLb †h‡bv g‡b nq AÜKvi RMZB
fv‡jv wQj| ÔwPjZvWyqvÕ M‡í gvby‡li Lvivc Af¨v‡mi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| †jLK wPj
ej‡Z g‡bi wfZ‡ii ee©i wPˇK eywS‡q‡Qb| †hUv‡K bv Zvov‡j gvbyl gvbyl n‡q I‡V
bv| Ôis-R¡jv Rxe‡bi mv`vKv‡jv weeiYÕ M‡í †jLK †`wL‡q‡Qb GKRb gvby‡li
AvkvnZ nIqvq wPÎ| †h ¯^cœ wb‡q Rxe‡bi ïi“ †mB ¯^cœ wKfv‡e †Kej ¯^cœB †_‡K
hvq Zvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q wb‡Ri mš—vb Kxfv‡e ¯^vaxbZvwe‡ivax‡`i
mv‡_ nvZ †gjvq|
†k‡l ejv hvq, evwjKvg½j MÖš’wU‡Z †jL‡Ki Mfxi wPš—vi cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q|
AwaKvsk M‡í MíKvi kã Pq‡bi †¶‡Î Lye mveavbZv Aej¤^b K‡i‡Qb Ges
mvejxjZvi w`‡K bRi w`‡q‡Qb| †jL‡Ki MíK_‡bi g‡a¨ GKUv MwZ j¶¨ Kiv
hvq| Kvgbv Kwi †jLK Gfv‡eB mvejxj kã eyb‡b cÖKvk K‡i hv‡eb, Rxe‡bi Mfxi
†_‡K MfxiZi Abyf~wZ¸‡jv‡K| eBwU cÖKvk K‡i‡Q ÔˆekvLx cÖKvkÕ| g~j¨ ivLv
n‡q‡Q 80 UvKv| cÖKvkKvj 21†k eB‡gjv 2011|

gwkDi ingvb

†RvQbvq cy‡owQj hviv : ¶‡q hvIqv ¯^‡cœi AvL¨vb
Dcb¨vmI AvaywbK M`¨ mvwn‡Z¨i GK RbwcÖq kvLv| e¨w³Rxeb †_‡K ïi“ K‡i mvgwóK
Rxeb dz‡U D‡V GB Dcb¨v‡m| gvbe Rxeb m¤úwK©Z bvbv w`K Dcb¨v‡m Av‡m| GKRb
gvbyl n‡q DVvi wcQ‡b †hme Dcv`vb (†hgb : cwievi, mgvR, ivóª I wek¦) KvR K‡i
P‡j mewKQz _v‡K Dcb¨v‡m| GB Kvi‡Y eZ©gv‡b me‡P‡q RbwcÖq mvwnZ¨ gva¨g n‡”Q
Dcb¨vm| Dcb¨v‡m e¨w³Rxe‡bi †cÖg-wein, nvwm-Kvbœv, myL-`ytL, PvIqv-cvIqv, Zvi
gvbweKZv, ag©xq g~j¨‡eva, Avw¯—KZv-bvw¯—KZv, mgv‡Ri bvbvgyLx cÖfve, ivóªh‡š¿i me
w`K D‡V Av‡m; Ggb wKQz ev` _v‡K bv hv Dcb¨v‡m hvIqvi A‡hvM¨|
Dcb¨vm RM‡Z gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmvb G‡Kev‡i bZzb| †RvQbvq cy‡owQj hviv
gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmv‡bi cÖ_g Dcb¨vm| Dcb¨vm wn‡m‡e GUv KZUv mv_©K ev mv_©K
bv Zvi wePvi Ki‡eb †ev×v cvVK ev Gi mgv‡jvPK| f~wgKvq gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmvb
GB Dcb¨vm †jLvi `vqfvi ¯^xKvi K‡i wb‡q‡Qb| Avgiv GB Dcb¨v‡mi f~wgKvq
†`wL, ÔAvwg GKwU Rxeb‡K AwZevwnZ n‡Z †`‡LwQ| Avi `kUv Rxe‡bi †P‡q mvgvb¨
e¨wZµg wQj †h RxebwU| Lye KvQ †_‡K †`‡LwQ| `ywbqvi mewKQy‡Z hvi Ave`vi wQj| ciš‘
Zvi cÖwZ AwfhvM wQj mevi| Zv‡K hviv fv‡jv‡e‡mwQj ev N„Yv K‡iwQj, Zv‡`i Kv‡iv
Zvw”Qj¨ †_‡KB i¶v cvqwb †m| †m mKj wb‡q KLbI Awf‡hvM Ki‡ZI ïwbwb Zv‡K| ...†h

kvk¦wZKx-163

hviv Zv‡K †mB RxebUv w`‡qwQj Ges Zv‡K...mKj‡K ab¨ev` RvbvB| Zviv AwZevwnZ bv
Ki‡j Avgvi †jLv n‡q DV‡Zv bv| my›`i fv‡jv _vK| fv‡jv _vK fv‡jvjvMv|Õ

Gfv‡eB `vqe×Zv ¯^xKvi K‡i †bb †jLK| Ggb GKwU Rxeb wZwb Lye KvQ †_‡K
†`‡LwQ‡jb †h RxebUv Lye †ewk AvK…ó K‡iwQj †jLK‡K| Avi †jLK †Kgb
e¨wZµgx e¨w³‡Z¡i mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡qwQ‡jb Zv Avgiv Dcb¨v‡mi wfZ‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡j
AiY¨ Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ cvB| AiY¨ eZ©gvb mg‡qi gvbyl| bó mg‡qi Av‡eMx gvbyl|
Kíbvi gvbyl| ¯^cœ †`L‡Z fv‡jvev‡m| hv‡K fv‡jvev‡m cÖv‡Yi †P‡q †ewk fvjev‡m|
Zvi g‡a¨ †hgb wek¦vm Av‡Q, †cÖg Av‡Q, fv‡jvevmv Av‡Q, Av‡Q DcKvix GKUv gb|
†h wb‡Ri nvRvi Z¨vM ¯^xKvi K‡i Ab¨‡`i †mevq memgq wb‡R‡K e¨¯— †i‡L‡Q|
BKevj †nvmvBb †PŠayixi Am¤ú~Y© cwievi m¤ú~Y© K‡i w`‡”Q AiY¨| †h wb‡Ri †cÖwgKv
wigwSg‡K cv‡”Q bv, wKš‘ H mgq †m GKwU Am¤ú~Y© cwievi‡K m¤ú~Y© Ki‡Q, Avi
BKevj †nvmvBb †PŠayixi cwiev‡ii GKwU inm¨ D×vi K‡i w`‡”Q, Dcb¨v‡mi †k‡l
†mB inm¨ D×v‡ii Dcw¯’wZ cvB|
ÒPuv‡`i †mB DcZ¨Kvq †mLv‡b ¯^‡cœ ¶‡q hvIqv mgq a‡i ivLv Av‡Q|Ó GB †h
AiY¨i †Pv‡L †`Lv †mB me gvby‡li ¯^cœ ¶‡q huviv euvu P‡Z Pvq, euvPvi gZ K‡i euvP‡Z
Pvq| AviI KZ gvby‡li ¯^cœ ¶‡q hv‡”Q cÖwZwbqZ Avgiv Zvi KZUviB ev Lei
ivwL| KZUvi ev mg‡e`bv RvbvB Avgiv †mB me gvby‡li `yt‡L| hviv Rxeb msMÖv‡g
cÖwZwbqZ jvwÂZ nq fv‡M¨i Kv‡Q, mgv‡Ri Kv‡Q| hv‡`i wek¦vm, fv‡jvjvMv,
fv‡jvevmv Lye mn‡R †f‡O hvq; nq Av‡e‡Mi Acg„Z¨| AvRb¥& jvwjZ ¯^cœ GK wbwg‡l
KZ mn‡R †f‡¯— hvq, Zvi cÖKvk Avgiv gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmv‡bi †RvQbvq cy‡owQj
hviv Dcb¨v‡m †`L‡Z cvB|
†RvQbvq cy‡owQj hviv Dcb¨v‡mi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ AiY¨| fvM¨vnZ AiY¨| B‡”Q
Av‡Q, Av‡Q my›`i Kíbv, wKš‘ fvM¨ Zv A‡bK `~‡i| Ggb GK fvM¨vnZ AiY¨‡K cvB
Dcb¨v‡mi ïi“‡Z| Dcb¨v‡mi †k‡lI Avgiv Ô¯^cœ ¶‡qÕ hvIqv fvM¨vnZ AiY¨‡K
†`L‡Z cvB| †h AiY¨ wigwSg‡K Lye †ewk fvj‡e‡mwQj| wigwSg GB Dcb¨v‡mi
bvwqKv PwiÎ| Dcb¨v‡mi †kl ch©š— Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB, AiY¨ †h wigwSg‡K Lye †ewk
fvj‡e‡mwQj, †m wigwSg AvR WjvicwZ ¯^vgx MÖnY K‡i‡Q| wbt¯^, Amnvq, Aw¯—Z¡nxb
AiY¨ I Zvi fvjevmv Zvi Kv‡Q †Kvb g~j¨ iv‡L wb| ZvB e‡j Avgiv wigwSg‡K
†`vlv‡ivc Ki‡Z cvwi bv, KviY Avgv‡`i mgvR e¨e¯’vUvB Ggb n‡q †M‡Q| †h wbt¯^,
Amnvq, Aw¯—Z¡nxb Zvi Aw¯—Z¡ Lye mn‡R bó nq hvq| g„Z¨z N‡U Zvi Av‡e‡Mi,
wek¦v‡mi, ¯^‡cœi, fvjevmvi| g„Z¨ N‡U AvRb¥ jvwjZ ¯^‡cœi evm‡ii| KZ mn‡R Avgiv
wigwS‡gi gZ Avgv‡`i fvjevmv‡K fy‡j hvB, fy‡j hvB fvjevmvi gvbyl‡K †`Iqv
K_vi| g„Z¨z N‡U GKwU m¤ú‡K©i| GKwU wek¦v‡mi| GKwU myL mg‡qi| N‡i wdi‡Z
B‡”Q Ki‡Q bv, ÒNi‡Zv †mUvB †hLv‡b †KD †divi A‡c¶v K‡i|Ó Rxe‡b Giƒc KZ
we‡”Q`, KZ g„Z¨z Av‡Q, wdwiqv dj Kx? c„w_ex‡Z †K Kvi? Gi †P‡q mnR A_P mZ¨
K_v AvR‡Ki cywu Rev`x mgv‡R Avi Kx n‡Z cv‡i| G †h ïay †RvQbvq cy‡owQj hviv
Dcb¨v‡mi AiY¨Õi K_v bq| GB K_v KZ AiY¨Õi hv‡`i Ni emvi Av‡M Ni †f‡O
hvq| ¯^cœ c~Y©Zv cvIqvi Av‡MB Ac~Y© i‡q hvq| GB K_v †mB Aw¯—Z¡nxb‡`i hviv Aw¯—
Z¡ Ly‡u R wb‡Ri, Aw¯—Z¡ Ly‡u R KvD‡K wb‡qÑ Aw¯—‡Z¡i RvqMv ˆZwi Kivi Rb¨|
kvk¦wZKx-164

ÒAvgiv hLb AvNvZ cvB ZLb cÖfiy Kv‡Q AvZ©bv` RvbvB| wKš‘ hLb ¯^qs cÖfy, A_ev hv‡K
Avgiv mxgvnxb fvjevwm ev kª×v Kwi, ¯^qs †m hLb AvNvZ †`q, ZLb Kvi Kv‡QB ev
Aby‡hvM Rvbv‡bvi _v‡K?Ó

wZZygxi Flf

wØav : ïׯ^‡i cwic−yZ Rxe‡bi kãvejx

ZLb †mB fvM¨vnZ‡`i Avi Aw¯—Z¡ †Kv_vq M‡o D‡V †mUv cÖkœB †_‡K hvq! hv N‡U‡Q
GB Dcb¨v‡mi AiY¨Õi Kcv‡j| GB Dcb¨v‡m †K›`ªxq `ywU PwiÎ AiY¨ I wigwSg
Qvov AviI wKQz Pwi‡Îi mv¶vr cvB| †hgb, BKevj †nvmvBb †PŠayix, Rvnvbviv, c`¨,
ikx` wgqv, ikx` wgqvi ¯¿x, BKevj †nvmvBb †PŠayixi nviv‡bv wØZxq ¯¿x, nviv‡bv †g‡q
Ges Zvi GKwU †Q‡j mš—vb| G‡`i wb‡q Dcb¨vm Zvi Avcb K¶c‡_ GwM‡q P‡j‡Q|
wKš‘ G‡`i Rxeb hš¿Yvq, cvwievwiK Rxeb RwUjZvq me‡P‡q †h PwiÎwU mvnv‡h¨i
nvZ evievi evwo‡q w`‡q‡Q †m nj AiY¨| †h wb‡Ri Rxeb hš¿Yv `~i Ki‡Z cv‡i wb|
†m BKevj †nvmvBb m¤ú‡K© Lvjyi Am¤ú~Y© cwievi‡K m¤ú~Y© K‡i‡Q| BKevj †nvmvBb
†PŠayixi cvwievwiK RwUj inm¨ Avgiv AiY¨Õi nvZ a‡i Aegy³ n‡Z †`wL| Gfv‡e
GB Dcb¨v‡mi Kvwnbx GwM‡q †M‡Q|
gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmvb Zuvi cÖ_g Dcb¨vm †RvQbvq cy‡owQj hviv AiY¨ Rxe‡bi
Qwe AvuK‡Z wM‡q Avgv‡`i eZ©gvb mg‡qi GKwU PvjwP‡Îi mv‡_ cwiPq NwU‡q †`b|
GB Dcb¨v‡mi c−U iPbvq ev wfwË iPbvq †jLK A‡bKUv mv_©K Zv wbtm‡›`‡n ejv
hvq| GB Dcb¨vm cv‡V cvVK GK bZzb ¯^v` cv‡e| b‡ói GB hy‡M gvbeRxeb, Zvi
†cÖg, wek¦vm, fvjevmv, cvwievwiK eÜb, †Kvb ch©v‡q wM‡q †cuŠ‡Q‡QÑ Zuvi GKwU ¯^v`
cvIqv hvq GB Dcb¨v‡m| Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui GB hy‡M Avgiv Aw¯—Z¡ i¶vq wbiš—i †h
cwikªg K‡i P‡jwQ ZviI cÖwZ”Qwe cvB GB Dcb¨v‡m| fvlv¸‡Yi wKQz ΓwU _vKv
m‡Ë¡I Dcb¨vmwU A‡bK †¶‡Î mv_©K nIqvi gh©v`v iv‡L| †jLK GB Dcb¨v‡m
G‡KKUv PwiÎ iPbvq †h h‡Zœi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb, Zv A‡bKUv cÖkvsmvi †hvM¨|
Dcb¨v‡mi GKwU gh©v`vi RvqMv n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q AiY¨ PwiÎwU| GB PwiÎ we‡k−lY
Ki‡Z †M‡j Avgiv hvwš¿K mg‡qi hvwš¿K, Avkvev`x, wek¦vmx, DcKvix, RwUj Rxeb
hš¿Yvq Ave× gvby‡li mv¶vr cvB| hviv wbiš—i cwikªg K‡i hv‡”Q GKUz fvj _vKvi
Rb¨, †eu‡P _vKvi gZ †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨| gvbePwi‡Îi RwUj w`K we‡k−l‡Y †jLK
A‡bKUv mv_©KZvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| GKRb AvaywbK gvbyl †h ai‡bi Rxeb
AwZevwnZ K‡i, Zvi c~Y© Qwe Avgiv GB Dcb¨v‡m †`L‡Z cvB| AvR‡Ki gvby‡li
PvIqv-cvIqv, myL-`yL, †cÖg-fvjevmv, Rxeb hš¿Yv, RwUj e¨w³Z¡, cvwievwiK
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kvk¦wZKx-165

kvk¦wZKx-166

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kvk¦wZKx-167

kvk¦wZKx-168

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Mí cvVK‡K wbtm‡›`‡n †gvngy» Ki‡e| Avi QvcvLvbvi f~Z G cÖKvkbvi Lye †ewk
av‡i Kv‡Q Avm‡Z cv‡iwb| Z‡e K‡qK eQi Av‡M Mí¸‡jv †jLv e‡jB nq‡Zv cÖwgZ
evbv‡bi wKQy wbqg cÖ‡qv‡Mi Afve i‡q †M‡Q| A‡š¦lv cÖKvkbx †_‡K cÖKvwkZ Pvi
iOv AvaywbK Kfvi †Kv‡WW (Pvi“ wc›Uyi) cÖ”Q‡` AuvUv MÖš’wUi g~j¨ ivLv n‡q‡Q 120
UvKv| cÖKvkKvj, †deyqª vwi : 2011|

kvk¦wZKx-169

†ZŠwn` Bgvg

Awbe©vY B›`ªaŸwb : ¯^cœhš¿Yv A_ev e„wói ˆbtkã¨
Awbe©vY B›`ªaŸwb Avmv`y¾vgvb †LvK‡bi PZz_© Kve¨MÖš’; Gi Av‡M †ewi‡q‡Q AZj
R‡ji wSbyK(2005), Rgv ivwL Rb¥vš—i(2008) Ges `iRv †Lv‡jv †gN(2009)
Aci Kve¨MÖš’ wZbwU| Kwe Avmv`y¾vgvb †LvKb KweZvPP©v Ki‡Qb wefvMxq kni
ivRkvnx‡Z e‡m, me iK‡gi ˆn-û‡j−vo, Awek¦vm I A¯^xKv‡ii Pig fÊvwgi evB‡i
GKvš— wbR©bZvq Zuvi wbtkã Kve¨wenvi| †Kv‡bv Am¤¢e cÖZ¨vkv bq, Kwe Zuvi mnR
¯^cœ¸‡jv †`‡Lb, ¯^cœ †f‡O †M‡j welYœ nb Ges msmvihvcb K‡ib GB kn‡i e‡mB|
me‡P‡q myLx I kvš— bMix e‡j ivRkvnx myL¨vZ (A_ev KzL¨vZ); Kwe Avmv`y¾vgvb
†LvK‡bi KweZvgvjv GB kvnwiK †mvgi‡m wm³, wmœ»| Awbe©vY B›`ªaŸwbÕi cÖ_g
KweZv ÔexRÕi cv‡Vv‡b¥vPbÑ
ÔRjZi‡½i g‡Zv GB gvZvj ivwÎ Avi/ AwMœcÖwZg GB Awbe©vY B›`ªaŸwb/ Avgv‡K †`qwb
G km¨f~wg †Q‡o hvevi ¯^vaxbZv:/ e„wói wPý Qu‡y q Avwg ZvB GLv‡bB †f‡m hvB...Õ

G km¨f~wg wK Zuvi wb‡Ri kni, hv Zuvi Kv‡e¨i De©i †¶Î? Kwe‡`i gy»Zv‡eva
we¯§qKi, AvKvke¨ß isaby †`‡L †hgb Zuviv gy» nb, Nv‡mi Ici GKwe›`y UjU‡j
wkwki †`‡LI Zuv‡`i gy»Zv Acvi| †mŠ›`h©gvÎB m~², ¯’j
~ †mŠ›`h© e‡j wKQy †bB|
Avi G m~² †mŠ›`h©B Kwe‡`i KvZi K‡i| Ômgy`ª, AvKvk, Av‡jv, AÜKvi...GBmeÕ
KweZv †_‡KÑ Ô†g‡Ni g‡Zv gy» evj‡Ki `„wó w`‡q †Kvb evwjKvi w`‡K ZvKv‡j Zvi
K¨vbfv‡m Kx iO wdwi‡q †`‡e my›`‡ii nv‡Z? GB fvebv wb‡q GKw`b mgy‡`ª hvIqv †h‡Z
cv‡i| cvwV‡q wgmKj wkwki‡fRv meyR †iv‡`i, †`Lv †h‡Z cv‡i Zvi AZj Mfx‡i Kv‡K †m
†i‡L‡Q a‡iÑAvKvk, bvwK Abš— AvKzwZÑGK gy» evj‡Ki?Õ

Av‡Q †cÖg, ¯^cgœ qZv, k~b¨Zv A_ev ˆbtm½¨‡eva, inm¨wcÖqZv, RxebZ…òv, mvsMxwZK
g~”Q©bv, †bB weinKvZiZv, †hŠbZv, wbwl× Awfjvl wKsev ÔRxeb wb‡q Ryqv †LjvÕi
`ytmvnm| ÔAwbe©vY B›`ªaŸwbÕ †_‡K KÕ¸”Q cO&w³Ñ
ÔAiY¨Ry‡o Gevi hw` wknwiZ bv nq K¯‘ixNÖvY,/ Avi hZ i³evnx Ae¨³ R‡ji AviwZ,/
BUPvcv Nv‡mi M‡í Z‡e GKv GKv cy‡o hv‡e/ wbtm½ e„‡¶i Mvb...Õ(hZ Ae¨³ AviwZ)
ÔgvVgq Qov‡bv †ivÏyi|/ Qvqv hv‡K ewj; nvZ evov‡ZB/ WvbvZßw`‡bi mÂq †`wL `ª“Z
mÂviYkxj/ µgkt k~‡b¨i w`‡K...Õ(Z…òvmgMÖ)
Ôbvg‡Z bvg‡Z GB wbgMœZvi wmuwo/ Avgv‡`i mv‡_ Av‡iv Kx Mfx‡i hv‡e?/ hZUv Mfx‡i
†M‡j/ g„¤§q n‡Z n‡Z GKw`b me gvwU QvB.../ Nywg‡q covi Av‡M G‡mv/ wbweo GB
ivw·K Av‡iv †ewk Lbb‡hvM¨ K‡i hvB|Õ (LwbR)

†hb ievU© d«‡÷i `yÕjvBbÑÔAnd miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before
I sleep’; Avmv`y¾vgvb †LvKb ¯^fveMZfv‡e ˆbtkã¨Pvix, wbiš—i ˆbtkã¨Lb‡b ˆZwi
K‡ib KweZvi exRZjv| kvš—, wbi“c`ªe Rxe‡bi cÖwZB Zuvi hZ c¶cvZ| †iŠ`ª,
†gN, †R¨vrmœv, Av‡jv-AÜKvi M„nZ¨vMx wm×v‡_©i g‡Zv weevMx K‡i Zuv‡K c‡_ c‡_
Nyivqbv, ÔGB M„n GB mbœ¨vmÕi †cÛyjvgxq †`v`yj¨gvbZvqI wZwb †fv‡Mbbv, Ni I
¯^R‡bi A‡gvN Uv‡b AvU‡K †M‡Qb M„nx‡PŠnwχZB| GB †nvgwmK‡bm Avmv`y¾vgvb
†LvK‡bi KweZv‡K K‡i Zz‡j‡Q GK‰iwLK, ˆewPΨnxbÑ hw`I welqe¨env‡i wZwb
wewPÎvwfmvix| Awbe©vY B›`ªaŸwbÕi mg¯— KweZvB GKwUB myi I wi`‡gi Mr-G euvav,
kvk¦wZKx-170

†hb GKwUB KweZv cowQ| A_P Zv‡K `xN©KweZv ejviI Dcvq †bB| Kwe
Avmv`y¾vgvb †LvK‡bi mg¯— wmœ»Zv, wb¯—i½gqZv Avi Mfxi wbgMœZv‡K we‡ePbvq
†i‡LB ej‡Z nq G mg¯—B Zuvi mxgve×ZvI e‡U!

m`¨mgy¾¡j

g‡š¿ bv‡g bv wel : bvg gvnvZ¥¨
Z_vKw_Z mgvR ev¯—eZvi wbM‡o Ave× _vKv Kwei KvR bq| eRª KwVb K‡É gvwbbv
ej‡Z cvivUv †h †Kvb e¨w³i Rb¨ KwVb Ges Kómva¨| †m‡¶‡Î wZwb hw` nb Kwe
Zvn‡j mgv‡Ri AwaKvsk gvby‡li Kv‡Q nb A¯ú„k¨-AcvO&‡³q| hyM I a‡g©i cÖfve
eR©b K‡i gnvKv‡ji fvi gv_vq wb‡Z cv‡ib e‡jB wZwb Kwe| Avi Ny‡Y aiv
mvgvwRK mf¨Zvi AbyMZ e¨w³ hZB wb‡R‡K Kwe e‡j `vwe Ki“K, Aš—Z Avwg Zv‡K
Kwe e‡j g‡b Kwi bv|
KíbvcÖeY, m„Rbkxj, fveev`x wPš—vkxj‡`i Avgiv Kwe ej‡Z cvwi| †m A‡_© Kwe
Rvnvb Avjxi Kve¨MÖš’ g‡š¿ bv‡g bv wel cvV Ki‡j Zuv‡K wbwØ©avq Kwe ejv hvq| GK
`ytmvnwmK cÖqvm Avgiv Luy‡R cvB Rvnvb Avjxi g‡š¿ bv‡g bv wel Kve¨MÖš’wU‡Z|
mgv‡Ri gvbyl n‡q mgv‡Ri w`‡KB wZwb Av½yj Zz‡j‡Qb, e‡j‡Qb Ae¨³ hZ K_v :
Afv‡ei A`„k¨ eowk †Mu‡_‡Q Rxe‡bi †Uvc/ N‡i N‡i i³ jvk c‡_ c‡_ Rxe‡bi †¶vf/ g‡š¿
bv‡g bv wel wel GLb Lvgv‡i Lvgv‡i/ mv‡civB ev¯—ynviv, Z‡e †eu‡`‡`i VuvB †Kvb kn‡i/ b`x
†Kv_vq †Kvb en‡i-/ mv‡ci wel hLb gvby‡li Aa‡i Aa‡i| (Ôg‡š¿ bv‡g bv welÕ)

Amxg Z‡K©i Ke‡j wQbœwfbœ, wb‡®úwlZ I bv‡Rnvj n‡Z †`wL Kwe‡K| KviY Kwei
e³e¨ KL‡bv GK‡c‡k bq| Kwe gvbyl‡K fv‡e Avi †mB fvebvi cÖwZdjb N‡U _v‡K
KweZvq| ev¯—e RMZ‡K g‡bv‡hvMx cvV‡Ki g‡Zv cvV K‡ib Kwe Rvnvb Avjx|
†bwZevPK gvbyl¸‡jvi gv‡S ÁvbMf© e³e¨ cÖPvi Kiv Zuvi KvR bq| gvby‡li gv‡S
¯^cœey‡b Kwe Kvwe¨K fvlvq ej‡Z PvqÑ Kg©V nI, wb‡Ri AwaKvi wb‡R Av`vq K‡i
bvI (hw`I Kwei KvR mgvR ms¯‹vi bq)| ÔfyLv-bv½v gvby‡li KweZvÕ KweZvq Avgiv
GiKg g‡bvfv‡ei cÖwZdjb †`wL| GK_v hw` Avgiv ¯^xKvi Kwi, Kwe hv e‡jb ev
†j‡Lb ZvB KweZv, Zvn‡j we‡kl wKQz ejvi †bB, wKš‘ wk‡ívËxY© nIqvi e¨vcviwU
hw` awi, Zv‡Z Avgvi g‡b nq KweZv KweZvB, wbQK †¯−−vMvb bq| Z‡e MÖnY‡hvM¨Zvi
gvcKvwV Avgvi nv‡Z b¨v¯— nqwb cy‡ivcywi| KviY †ev‡ai gvÎv cvVK‡f‡` wfbœ n‡q
_v‡K| Avmyb Avgiv Kwei e³e¨ ïwb :
Ônvgv‡i Zvwo fv‡jv gvwM fv‡jv/ nvgv‡i Kvg fv‡jv/ nvgiv fvZ e¨vM‡i gigy K¨v!/ †Rvqvb
gi` †eevK-P/ †Rvqvb gvwM †eevK-P..Õ

mg¯— Rxe‡bi †`bvcvIbv wgwU‡q †`evi cÖZ¨‡q Zey Avgiv wb‡R‡`i mgc©Y Kwi
AwZcÖvK…‡Zi Ici| G‡Z K‡i Avgv‡`i fimvi RvqMvUv gReyZ n‡jI e¨w³MZ
DbœwZ †_‡K hvq Zjvwb‡Z| wb‡R‡K RxweZ ivLvi cÖZ¨‡q Avgiv m~h©‡`‡ei KvQ †_‡K
†h kw³ cvB Zv g~jZ Djye‡b gy³ Qov‡bvi g‡ZvB e¨vcvi|

kvk¦wZKx-171

cÙv-†gNbv-hgybvi m½gc_ a‡i/ †Nv‡ii g‡a¨ _vwKÑ IivB myLcvwL|/ wbqwgZ e¨vqvg Kwi,
eyKWb †`B msmv‡i,/ Zey †Nv‡ii g‡a¨ bvPwQ-Lvw”Q-`vw”Q-/ Avi/ cÙv-†gNbv-hgybvi m½g
c_ a‡i †f‡m hvw”Q...(ÔRjhvÎvÕ)|

cwiwPZ c‡_i MwZ `ª“ZB nq| wKš‘ MZvbyMwZK K_vq ¯^v_©KZv †Kv_vq? Kwei D”Pvi‡Y
wØav ¯úó n‡jI, GUv gvb‡ZB n‡e Avgiv bvMwiKZvq AvU‡K _vKv Rxeš— hš¿ gvÎ|
Rxe‡bi cwiwPZ c_ †_‡K B”Qv _vK‡jI †ei n‡Z cvwi bv| G mg¯— Rxeb-hš¿Yv
Avkvi mgvwß NUvq| d‡j Rxe‡bi mg¯— m~² Abyf~wZi exR nq A¼z‡i webó| GKwU
cÖev` Av‡Q, ÔfvZ †Rv‡U bv, wcwiZ †ev‡SÕ| GB wcwiZ †evSv AímsL¨K gvby‡li
R‡b¨B c„w_ex wU‡K Av‡Q| ZvB Kwei Kj‡g D”PvwiZ nqÑ dvg©wkï kxZj Kv‡Pi †fZi
†_‡K e‡j|/ evev Iiv Kviv, gvwUi AwaKvi Kv‡K Kq| (Ô¯^vwaKv‡ii KweZvÕ) eBwU cÖKvk
K‡i‡Q b`x cÖKvk| cÖ”Q` K‡i‡Qb ivwRe ivq| g~j¨ ivLv n‡q‡Q 80 UvKv|

¯^wPË ¯^wPe

Amgvß A‡c¶v : GKwU nuvwU nuvwU cv cvÕi †ivWg¨vc

ÔcÖvgvb¨ RqÕ QÙbv‡g MZ cuvP eQi a‡i KweZv †jLv Kwe i“ûj gvndzR Rq-Gi
cÖ_g Kve¨MÖš’ Amgvß A‡c¶v| eBwU nv‡Z wb‡j †h wRwbmwU cvV‡Ki bRi Kvo‡Z
eva¨ †mwU cÖ”Q` Ges GwU Lye Ri“wi| Ggb my›`i cÖ”Q` I i“wPkxj Kv‡Ri Rb¨
ab¨ev` RvbvB †jLK, cÖKvkK Ges cÖ”Q`Kvi Pvi“ wc›Uzmn mswk−ó mKj‡K| Gevi
MÖš’wUi †fZ‡i Avmv hvK, eBwU cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq 2011 mv‡ji eB‡gjvq, GKz‡k
evsjv cÖKvk †_‡K| Kve¨MÖš’wU‡Z †gvU KweZvi msL¨v 51wU| Kwei Kve¨cÖwZfvi
m‡½ Avgv‡`i cÖ_g nvB-n¨v‡jv ev mv¶vrKvi nq ÔAcv‡ikb w_‡qUv‡iÕ, GwU
Kve¨MÖš’wUi cÖ_g KweZv|
ÒAvgv‡K hLb Acv‡ikb w_‡qUv‡i †bqv n‡jv/ Avgvi gv‡qi Aeqe n‡q †M‡jv iv‡Zi
wbR©b Pi/ mv`v Wv³vi‡`i g‡b n‡jv †d‡ikZvi `j/ Av‡Liv‡Zi gq`v‡b Avgvi cvc
cy‡Y¨i wn‡me PvB‡Z G‡m‡Q!Ó [Acv‡ikb w_‡qUv‡i]

we¯§„wZi Kx wewPÎ wPÎ! GKRb Kwe KZLvwb KvíwbK ev fveyK (c¶vš—‡i †ivgvw›UK)
n‡j GZ my›`i GKwU wPÎ cvV‡Ki mvg‡b Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡ib! GKRb †ivMxi
`„wó‡KvY †_‡K Dchy³ wPÎwU Dc¯’vcb Kivq GKw`‡K †hgb m„wó n‡q‡Q Ki“Yv ev
gvqvi, Z`ª“c Ab¨w`‡K m„wó n‡q‡Q nvjKv i‡mi| `y‡Uv wg‡j Avevi hyMcr m„wó n‡q‡Q
Ki“Y i‡mi| GB KweZvi †k‡li w`‡K `y‡Uv jvBbÑ Ò`yB NÈv Ges QvweŸk eQi eqm‡K/
Avjv`v Ki‡Z cvwi wb †mw`b|Ó

gv‡qi cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi w`K †_‡K `yB NÈv Ges QvweŸk eQ‡ii `yB mš—vb‡K Kwe †hgb
Avjv`v Ki‡Z cv‡ib wb, †Zgwb Kwei KweZ¡ wbY©‡q Kve¨ ÔAcv‡ikb w_‡qUv‡iÕ Avi
Kwei Kve¨cÖwZfv GB `y‡Uv‡K Avgiv Avjv`v Ki‡Z cvwibv| Kwei Kve¨ cÖwZfvi
h_v_© `~Z GB ÔAcv‡ikb w_‡qUviÕ| Gici i‡q‡Q A‡c¶v wmwi‡Ri cuvPwU KweZv|
kvk¦wZKx-172

Rvwb AvR‡Ki N„Yv¸‡jv ARmª Pz¤^b/ n‡q wd‡i Avm‡e GKw`b Ñ †mw`b †g‡Ni e`‡j/ †f‡m
†eov‡e †Zvgvi †Vuv‡Ui Av`ª© RjÑ/ †mB R‡j †b‡q Avwg wVK gvbyl n‡q DV‡ev! (A‡c¶v 3)

Kwe Av‡`Š gvbyl n‡q Av‡Qb wK-bv wKsev gvbyl n‡q DV‡eb wK-bv Avgiv Zv Rvwbbv|
Z‡e Kwe †h GKRb cÖK…Z Kwe n‡q D‡V‡Qb Ges DV‡eb Zvi cÖK…ó mv¶x GB A‡c¶v
wmwi‡Ri KweZv¸‡jv| Gme KweZvq i‡q‡Q evwo †divi Zvobv, kn‡ii wbtk¦vmcÖk¦v‡mi cÖwZ weiƒc g‡bvfve, Av‡Q Kíbv Ges Avnevb| ZvQvov GB wmwi‡Ri
KweZv¸‡jv‡Z i‡q‡Q wcÖq wKQzi Rb¨ A‡c¶v Ges wb‡iU ¯^Ztù~Z© Abyf~wZ, i‡q‡Q
mylg Av‡eM I gg©¯úk©x wKQz k‡ãi †Ljv| †hgbÑ evZv‡ki kixi, †PZbvi kni,
†ev‡ai cÂbqb, †Vuv‡Ui Av`ªR
© j, mgvwßi c`wPý cÖf„wZ| Gme k‡ãi Kj¨v‡Y
KweZv¸‡jv cvV‡Ki Aš—‡ii Aš—t¯’‡j Abvqv‡m RvqMv K‡i †bq|
A‡c¶v wmwi‡Ri †kl PviwU KweZv kw³kvjx m‡›`n †bB| Z‡e cÖ_g KweZvq
wKQzUv `ye©jZv i‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡i KweZvwUi Z…Zxq jvBbwU Avgv‡`i weiw³ Av‡b|
cvV‡Ki ¯^Ztù~Z© Abyf~wZ GLv‡b G‡m evavcÖvß nq| myZivs GB PiYwU Kwe Ab¨
†Kvbfv‡e Dc¯’vcb Ki‡j KweZvwU mylg n‡Zv, Zv m‡›`nvZxZ|
Av¸b jwM‡q w`jvg †eva Abyf~wZi kn‡i/ weKj mf¨Zv‡K e‡j w`jvg-bv/ QvB n‡q
†M‡jv BD‡iv‡ci AvKvk/ GKx wei‡ni euvwk evRv‡jb Ck¦i| (euvwkIqvjv)

ÔeuvwkIqvjvÕ KweZvwU Kwei me©‡¶v‡fi ewntcÖKvk| Kwe AvaywbK mf¨Zv I mgvRev¯—
eZvi bMœwPÎ Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb G KweZvq| g„Z G mf¨Zv, †hLv‡b †bB ¯^cœ, Avkv,
gvbeZv, †KejB i‡q‡Q †¶vf, nZvkv Avi ¯^v‡_©i hy×| Kwe G mgvR e¨e¯’vi wec‡¶
wb‡Ri Ae¯’vb wbwðZ K‡i‡Qb| †Kej †Kvgj Abyf~wZ bq, `„p‡PZv AwMœùzwj‡½
e`jv‡Z n‡e GB mgvR| Kwe Avi `kUv gvby‡li gZ Avkvq eyK euv‡a, Kvgbv K‡ib
GK `¶ †bZ…‡Z¡i, †h n¨vwgj‡bi euvwkIqvjvi gZ me AgvbweK Rvj †U‡b wb‡q wM‡q
†d‡j Avm‡e A‰_ R‡j|
†div nq bv, Rb¥ KweZv¸‡jvI fvj jvM‡e cvVK‡`i| fvj jvM‡e wW-†Rbv‡ikb
wmwi‡Ri 10wU Kve¨| GB Kve¨¸‡jv‡Z i‡q‡Q AmvaviY e¨Äbv| AaywbK wW†Rbv‡ikb I Zv‡`i KvRKg©, g‡bvfve, Zv‡`i †cÖg-cÖxwZ, cÖvwß-AcÖvwß, †hŠbZv
cÖf„wZ welq¸‡jv D‡V G‡m‡Q Gme KweZvq|

GB KweZv¸‡jvi c‡i i‡q‡Q AgxgvswmZ wmwi‡Ri `ywU KweZv| GB `ywU KweZv‡Z
i‡q‡Q Rxe‡bi †Kvb GK mskqv”Qbœ gyn~‡Z©i ˆjwLK wPÎ| AgxgvswmZ-2 bvgK
KweZvwU‡Z i‡q‡Q f~‡Mvj I BwZnv‡mi AvswkK Dcv`vb|
gv‡S gv‡S †Zvgv‡K g‡b nq/ in‡m¨i kvwo civ `y‡e©va¨ wgki/ Avwg Amnvq wK‡kvi ivRv
†Zv‡Zb Lv‡gb| (AgxgvswmZ-2)

Kve¨MÖ‡š’i G‡Kev‡i †kl KweZv, †hwU Kve¨MÖ‡š’i bvg KweZv, Zv n‡jv Amgvß
A‡c¶v| KweZvi K_bfw½ A‡bKUv mybxj M‡½vcva¨v‡qi g‡Zv| Z‡e KweZvwU †kl
ch©ß Kwei wbR¯^ZviB cwiPq enb K‡i| GwU †hb wVK KweZv bq| GK †QvU MvwíK
Kve¨| GB GKwU KweZv cvVv‡š—, cvVK †c‡Z cv‡i †QvUMí Ges Kve¨ `y‡Uv
wRwb‡miB ¯^v`|
Zvici GKzk eQi †K‡U †M‡Q/ Agj `v fviZ P‡j hvIqvi QÕgvm ci/ †iLv Avcvi we‡qi
evw`¨ evR‡jv/ †iLv Avcv Avi KL‡bv gq~i n‡Z cv‡i wb/ cÖ_g mš—v‡bi Rb¥ w`‡q AuvZzi
Ni †_‡K †d‡ib wb wZwb| (Amgvß A‡c¶v)

Av‡jvPbv †k‡l GKwU K_v ejvi †_‡K hvq, Zv n‡jv ¯^bvgab¨ mvwnwZ¨K Avwbmyj nK
KZ…K
© Kwei cwiwPwZ e¨wßi e¨vcviUv| mvwnwZ¨K Avwbmyj n‡Ki cÖwZ Mfxi kª×v I
m¤§vb †i‡LB ejwQ, Kwe‡K †Kb Avwbmyj n‡Ki gvid‡Z cwiwPZ n‡Z n‡e? Kwei
cwiPq enb K‡i Zuvi Kve¨, †Kvb ¯^vbgab¨ e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb bq| ZvQvov †h Kwe
GZ cwiYZ I Am¤¢e my›`i KweZv wjL‡Z cv‡ib, wZwb †Kb Kve¨MÖšw’ Ui cÖ”Q‡`i
cÖ_g d¬¨v‡c GB cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡jb-Zv Avgv‡`i †evaMg¨ bq| Avkv Kwi, Kwe Zuvi
cieZ©x †Kvb m„wó‡Z GB ai‡bi †Póv Pvjv‡eb bv| Avgv‡`i wek¦vm Kwe i“ûj gvndzR
Rq GKRb kw³kvjx Kweiƒ‡c evOjv Kve¨RM‡Z cÖwZôv jvf Ki‡eb| Gi Rb¨ †Kej
cÖ‡qvRb wKQy A‡c¶v| Avi GB A‡c¶vi mgvwß NUzK ÔAmgvß A‡c¶vÕi ØvivB|

weiwZi Gcv‡i †jv‡Ki wb›`v Icv‡i Av‡cvm/ †dBmey‡K †cÖg wkKvi, eD eyS‡jB †`vl|
(wW †Rbvik‡bi Kve¨-9)

†`ex wmwi‡Ri KweZv¸‡jv Kve¨MÖ‡š’i Ab¨vb¨ KweZvi Zzjbvq AvKv‡i †ek †QvU, Z‡e
fve A‡bK Mfxi| GB KweZv¸‡jvi cÖ‡Z¨K ci‡Z ci‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q Ggb wKQz bv
ejv K_v hv cvVK‡K wb‡q hv‡e fvebvi A‡bK Mfx‡i, w`‡e cwic~Y© KweZvi ¯^v`|
†`ex A_© wb‡Z Rv‡b/ wb‡Z Rv‡b AP©bv/ wb®újK kxZj Pvnwb Qvov/ Iiv w`‡Z cv‡ibv
wKQzB| (†`ex-1)

Dc`ª“Z mg‡qi mv¶x n‡q, N„Yv K‡iv ï× nB, fv‡jv †_‡Kv, gv‡K wb‡q GKwU
e¨w³MZ KweZv, iƒcvš—i, Av¸b Rvbvi †jnb w`‡q hvI, GmKj KweZv ¯^gwngvq
D™¢vwmZ| Gi †KvbwU mgKvjxb ev¯—eZv, †KvbwU fvlv Av‡›`vjb, Avevi †KvbwU wcÖq
gvbyl‡K wb‡q wjLv|

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AvM÷ 2011-†Z cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q hk¯^x mvsevw`K I
m¤úv`K Pcj evkvi-Gi cÖ_g Kve¨MÖš’ Ôe„wó‡Z †`e`vi“Õ|
eBwU cÖKvk K‡i‡Q wPÎv cÖKvkbx| PgrKvi cÖ”Q` Gu‡K‡Qb
nv‡kg Lvb| Pcj evkv‡ii GB Kve¨MÖšw’ U‡Z †gvU 43wU
KweZv ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| eBwUi g~j¨ ivLv n‡q‡Q 70 UvKv|

kvk¦wZKx-174

m¤úv`K eivei
wcÖq m¤úv`K,
evsjv GKv‡Wgx‡Z Avgvi GK eÜz Av‡Q, I-B GKw`b Avgv‡K Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ w`j|
ivRkvnx †_‡K cÖKvwkZ ï‡b cÖ_gUvB ¸i“Z¡ w`Bwb| c‡i Aek¨ wb‡Ri fyj eyS‡Z
†c‡i jw¾Z nB| ejv P‡j GB msL¨vi ga¨ w`‡q Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi mv‡_ Avgvi cwiPq
N‡U| A‡bK AvMÖn wb‡q Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi meUvB †kl K‡iwQ| Avwg AevK n‡qwQ GUv
†f‡e †h Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Zi“Yiv †dvK‡jvi wb‡q KvR K‡i‡Q ZvI Avevi †ek
¸wQ‡q| msL¨vwU‡Z †ek wKQy bZzb auv‡Pi †jLv †c‡qwQ| we‡kl K‡i, Kweqvj Avãyj
Rwjj-Gi mv¶vrKv‡ii K_v ej‡ZB n‡”Q| Avi wewkó cÖvewÜK-wPšÍvwe` hZxb
miKv‡ii mv¶vrKviwUI Abe`¨| Zi“Y M‡elK kvgmyj Av‡idxb-Gi †jLvwU †Pv‡L
covi gZ| Icvi evsjvi kw³bv_ Sv jvjb-Gi AwPb gvbyl I mÄq ivq †jvKMwYZ
wb‡q PgrKvi wj‡L‡Qb| AviI fv‡jv †j‡M‡Q ¯^‡ivwPl miKvi, Aveyj nvmvb †PŠayix,
Aveyj Avnmvb †PŠayix, mgi cvj I myw¯§Zv PµeZ©x- Gu‡`i †jLv¸wj|
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi B‡Zvc~‡e© cÖKvwkZ Abyev` I bvUK msL¨vwU Avwg A‡bK †LuvRvLuywR K‡i
msMÖn K‡iwQ| bvUK I Abyev` wb‡q Kiv msL¨v¸‡jvI Avgvi h‡_ó fv‡jv †j‡M‡Q|
we‡kl K‡i, Abyev` msL¨vi K_v Avjv`v K‡i ej‡ZB n‡”Q| GK gjv‡Ui g‡a¨
G‡Zv¸‡jv gvbm¤§Z I wfbœ auv‡Pi †jLvi Abyev` cv‡Vi my‡hvM K‡i †`Iqvi R‡b¨
Avcbv‡K ab¨ev`|
iex›`ªmsL¨v I Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi AvMvgx msL¨v¸‡jvi A‡c¶vq iBjvg| Avwke©v` iBj|
kªx iexb P¨vUvwR©, XvKv wek¦we`¨vq|
sr.du.1999@gmail.com

m¤úv`K mv‡ne,
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi wbqwgZ cvVK Avwg| Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi we‡kl msL¨v¸‡jv mwZ¨B bRi
Kvovi g‡Zv| Abyev` msL¨vwUi †ek K‡qKwU †jLv Avwg GKvwaKevi c‡owQ| we‡kl
msL¨vi Kvi‡YB nqZ Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi K`i w`‡b w`‡b e„w× cv‡”Q| cÖwZUv msL¨vB hLb
we‡kl ZLb wbðq A‡bK Kó Ki‡Z nq Avcbv‡`i!
evsjv‡`‡k Mí I KweZv wb‡q A‡bK KvR n‡q‡Q I n‡”Q| Avwg e¨w³MZfv‡e
PvB, Ôkvk¦wZKxÕ Mí I KweZv wb‡q KvR Ki“K, KviY GUzKz GZw`‡b eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi KvR Avi hvB †nvK MZvbyMwZK n‡e bv| Avgvi AviI GKwU cÖ¯Íve Av‡Q
Ôkvk¦wZKxÕi Kv‡QÑ evsjv‡`‡ki ivRbxwZ welqK GKwU msL¨v PvB| wbðq †f‡e
†`L‡eb| ab¨ev` I A‡bK A‡bK ïfKvgbv|

ÔGKz‡k eB †gjv 2011Õ-†Z cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q
†gvRvd&di †nv‡mb I ivZzj cvj-Gi †hŠ_ M‡íi
eB ÔwØavÕ| eBwUi f~wgKv wj‡L‡Qb K_vmvwnwZ¨K
I cÖvewÜK Ave`yk kvKzi Ges cÖKvk K‡i‡Q
A‡š^lv cÖKvkbx| eBwUi cÖ”Q` K‡i‡Qb Pvi“
wc›Uz| g~j¨ ivLv n‡q‡Q 120 UvKv|

ÔGKz‡k eB †gjv 2011Õ-†Z cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q
gynv¤§` †g‡n`x nvmvb-Gi cÖ_g Dcb¨vm
Ô†Rvmbvq cy‡owQj hvivÕ| eBwU cÖKvk K‡i‡Q
A‡š^lv cÖKvkbx| eBwUi cÖ”Q` K‡i‡Qb Pvi“
wc›Uz| g~j¨ ivLv n‡q‡Q 130 UvKv|

KzZze wgqv
†`Iqvb evRvi, PÆMÖvg|

kvk¦wZKx-175

kvk¦wZKx-176

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