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luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 1

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001 10.0 points
Consider the circuit shown in the gure.
25 V
28
3
37
13
20
Find its equivalent resistance.
Explanation:
25 V
R
a
R
b
R
c
R
d
R
e
Let : R
a
= 28 ,
R
b
= 3 ,
R
c
= 37 ,
R
d
= 13 , and
R
e
= 20 .
R
a
and R
b
are in parallel, so
1
R
ab
=
1
R
a
+
1
R
b
R
ab
=
_
1
R
a
+
1
R
b
_
1
R
ab
=
_
1
28
+
1
3
_
1
= 2.70968
R
d
and R
e
are in parallel, so
R
de
=
_
1
R
d
+
1
R
e
_
1
R
de
=
_
1
13
+
1
20
_
1
= 7.87879
These resistors are in series, so
R
eq
= R
ab
+ R
c
+ R
de
= 2.70968 + 37 + 7.87879
= 47.5885 .
002 10.0 points
A resistor with an unknown resistance is con-
nected in parallel to a 10 resistor. When
both resistors are connected in parallel to an
emf source of 10 V, the current through the
unknown resistor is measured with an amme-
ter to be 3 A.
What is the resistance of the unknown re-
sistor?
Explanation:
Let : V = 10 V, and
I
1
= 3 A.
V = IR
R
1
=
V
I
1
=
10 V
3 A
= 3.33333 .
003 10.0 points
In the circuit shown below, the current i in
the resistor R doubles its original value when
the switch S is closed.
94.598 14
14 94.598
R
E
S
i
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 2
Find the value of R.
Explanation:
For resistors in parallel,
1
R
eq,p
=
1
R
a
+
1
R
b
.
For resistors in series,
R
eq,s
= R
a
+ R
b
.
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
E
S
Let : R
1
= 94.598 ,
R
2
= 14 ,
R
3
= 14 ,
R
4
= 94.598 , and
R
eq,c
=
1
2
R
eq,o
.
for the current to double when the switch is
closed, the equivalent resistance must drop to
one-half its value when the switch is open.
With the switch open,
R
12
= R
1
+ R
2
= 94.598 + 14 = 108.598
R
34
= R
3
+ R
4
= 14 + 94.598 = 108.598
R
1234
=
1
R
12
+
1
R
34
=
_
1
R
12
+
1
R
34
_
1
=
_
1
108.598
+
1
108.598
_
1
= 54.299
R
eq,o
= R + R
1234
.
When the switch is closed,
R
13
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
3
=
_
1
R
1
+
1
R
3
_
1
=
_
1
94.598
+
1
14
_
1
= 12.1952
R
24
=
1
R
2
+
1
R
4
=
_
1
R
2
+
1
R
4
_
1
=
_
1
14
+
1
94.598
_
1
= 12.1952
R
eq,c
= R + R
13
+ R
24
.
The new resistance is one-half the original, so
R + R
13
+R
24
=
1
2
(R + R
1234
)
2 R + 2 R
13
+ 2 R
24
= R + R
1234
, so
R = R
1234
2 R
13
2 R
24
R = (54.299 ) 2 (12.1952 ) 2 (12.1952 )
= 5.51828 .
keywords:
004 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
The power supplied to the circuit shown in
the gure is 14.0 W.
E
3.0
17.0
7.0
4.5
3.0
a) Find the equivalent resistance of the cir-
cuit.
Explanation:
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 3
E
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
Let : R
1
= 3.0 ,
R
2
= 17.0 ,
R
3
= 7.0 ,
R
4
= 4.5 , and
R
5
= 3.0 .
For resistors in parallel,
1
R
eq,p
=
1
R
a
+
1
R
b
.
R
23
=
_
1
R
2
+
1
R
3
_
1
=
_
1
17
+
1
7
_
1
= 4.95833 .
For resistors in series,
R
eq,s
= R
a
+ R
b
.
R
234
= R
23
+ R
4
= 4.95833 + 4.5
= 9.45833 , and
R
2345
=
_
1
R
234
+
1
R
5
_
1
=
_
1
9.45833
+
1
3
_
1
= 2.27759 , so
R
eq
= R
1
+ R
2345
= 3 + 2.27759
= 5.27759 .
005 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
b) Find the potential dierence across the
battery.
Explanation:
Let : P = 14.0 W
P =
(V )
2
R
V =
_
PR
eq
=
_
(14 W) (5.27759 )
= 8.59571 V .
006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A 38 V battery has an internal resistance r.
1 A
38 V
r
33
88
internal
resistance
What is the value of r?
Explanation:
I
1
I
2
I
3
E
r
R
2
R
3
internal
resistance
Let : E = 38 V,
R
2
= 33 ,
R
3
= 88 , and
I
1
= 1 A.
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 4
Since R
2
and R
3
are connected parallel,
their equivalent resistance R
23
is
1
R
23
=
1
R
2
+
1
R
3
=
R
3
+ R
2
R
2
R
3
R
23
=
R
2
R
3
R
2
+ R
3
=
(33 ) (88 )
33 + 88
= 24 .
Using Ohms law, we have
E = I
1
r + I
1
R
23
r =
E I
1
R
23
I
1
=
38 V (1 A) (24 )
1 A
= 38 24 = 14 .
007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Determine the magnitude of the current
through the 88 resistor in the upper left
of the circuit.
Explanation:
The potential drop across the 88 resistor
on the left-hand side of the circuit is
E
3
= E I
1
r
= 38 V (1 A) (14 )
= 38 V 14 V
= 24 V,
so the current through the resistor is
I
3
=
E
3
r
3
=
24 V
88
=
3
11
A = 0.272727 A .
008 10.0 points
7.7 V 2.8 V
3.9 V
I
1
1.4 2.9
I
2
4.3
I
3
9.9
Find the current I
1
in the 1.4 resistor
at the bottom of the circuit between the two
power supplies.
Explanation:
E
1
E
2
E
3
I
1
R
A
R
B
I
2
R
C
I
3
R
D
At a junction (Conservation of Charge)
I
1
+ I
2
I
3
= 0 . (1)
Kirchhos law on the large outside loop gives
(R
A
+ R
B
) I
1
+ R
D
I
3
= E
1
+ E
2
. (2)
Kirchhos law on the right-hand small loop
gives
R
C
I
2
+ R
D
I
3
= E
3
. (3)
Let : R
A
= 1.4 ,
R
B
= 2.9 ,
R
C
= 4.3 ,
R
D
= 9.9 ,
E
1
= 7.7 V,
E
2
= 2.8 V, and
E
3
= 3.9 V.
Using determinants,
I
1
=

0 1 1
E
1
+ E
2
0 R
D
E
3
R
C
R
D

1 1 1
R
A
+ R
B
0 R
D
0 R
C
R
D

luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 5

Expanding along the rst row, the numera-
tor is
D
1
=

0 1 1
E
1
+ E
2
0 R
D
E
3
R
C
R
D

= 0 1

E
1
+ E
2
R
D
E
3
R
D

+ (1)

E
1
+ E
2
0
E
3
R
C

= [(E
1
+ E
2
) R
D
E
3
R
D
]
[R
C
(E
1
+ E
2
) 0]
= R
D
(E
3
E
1
E
2
) R
C
(E
1
+ E
2
)
= (9.9 ) (3.9 V 7.7 V 2.8 V)
(4.3 ) (7.7 V + 2.8 V)
= 110.49 V.
Expanding along the rst column, the de-
nominator is
D =

1 1 1
R
A
+ R
B
0 R
D
0 R
C
R
D

= 1

0 R
D
R
C
R
D

(R
A
+ R
B
)

1 1
R
C
R
D

+ 0
= 0 R
C
R
D
(R
A
+ R
B
) (R
D
+ R
C
)
= (4.3 ) (9.9 )
(1.4 + 2.9 ) (9.9 + 4.3 )
= 103.63
2
, and
I
1
=
D
1
D
=
110.49 V
103.63
2
= 1.0662 A .
009 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Four resistors are connected as shown in
the gure.
92 V
S
1
c
d
a
b
2
3

3
9

5
3

8
8

Find the resistance between points a and b.

Explanation:
E
B
S
1
c
d
a
b
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Let : R
1
= 23 ,
R
2
= 39 ,
R
3
= 53 ,
R
4
= 88 , and
E = 92 V.
Ohms law is V = I R.
A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junc-
tions connected by zero resistance.
E
B
a
d
b
c
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 6
The series connection of R
2
and R
3
gives
the equivalent resistance
R
23
= R
2
+ R
3
= 39 + 53
= 92 .
The total resistance R
ab
between a and b can
be obtained by calculating the resistance in
the parallel combination of the resistors R
1
,
R
4
, and R
23
; i.e.,
1
R
ab
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
+ R
3
+
1
R
4
=
R
4
(R
2
+ R
3
) + R
1
R
4
+ R
1
(R
2
+ R
3
)
R
1
R
4
(R
2
+ R
3
)
R
ab
=
R
1
R
4
(R
2
+ R
3
)
R
4
(R
2
+ R
3
) + R
1
R
4
+ R
1
(R
2
+ R
3
)
The denominator is
R
4
(R
2
+ R
3
) + R
1
R
4
+ R
1
(R
2
+ R
3
)
= (88 )[39 + 53 ] + (23 ) (88 )
+ (23 ) [39 + 53 ]
= 12236
2
,
so the equivalent resistance is
R
ab
=
(23 ) (88 ) [39 + 53 ]
(12236
2
)
= 15.218 .
010 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
What is the current in the 39 resistor?
Explanation:
The voltages across R
2
and R
3
, respec-
tively, (the voltage between a and b) are
V
ab
= V
23
= 92 V, and we have
I
23
= I
3
= I
2
=
V
ab
R
23
=
92 V
92
= 1 A .
011 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
39.3
5.16
16.9
37.2 V
18.6 V
Find the current through the 16.9 (lower)
resistor.
Explanation:
r
1
r
2
R
E
1
E
2
I
1
I
2
I
3
Let : E
1
= 37.2 V,
E
1
= 18.6 V,
r
1
= 39.3 ,
r
2
= 5.16 , and
R = 16.9 .
Assuming currents I
1
, I
2
, and I
3
in the
direction show, we get I
3
= I
1
+ I
2
.
Applying Kirchhos loop rule, we can get
two equations.
E
1
= I
1
r
1
+ I
3
R (1)
E
2
= I
2
r
2
+ I
3
R
= (I
3
I
1
) r
2
+ I
3
R
= I
1
r
2
+ I
3
(R + r
2
) , (2)
Multiplying Eq. (1) by r
2
, Eq. (2) by r
1
,
E
1
r
2
= I
1
r
1
r
2
+ r
2
I
3
R
E
2
r
1
= I
1
r
1
r
2
+ I
3
r
1
(R + r
2
)
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 7
E
1
r
2
+ E
2
r
1
= I
3
[r
2
R + r
1
(R + r
2
)]
I
3
=
E
1
r
2
+ E
2
r
1
r
2
R + r
1
(R + r
2
)
=
(37.2 V) (5.16 ) + (18.6 V) (39.3 )
(5.16 ) (16.9 ) + (39.3 ) (16.9 + 5.16 )
= 0.96727 A .
012 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Determine the current in the 39.3 (upper)
resistor.
Explanation:
From (1), get
I
1
=
E
1
I
3
R
r
1
=
37.2 V (0.96727 A) (16.9 )
39.3
= 0.530614 A .
013 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
Determine the current in the 5.16 (middle)
resistor.
Explanation:
From (2), get
I
2
=
E
2
I
3
R
r
2
=
18.6 V (0.96727 A) (16.9 )
5.16
= 0.436655 A .
014 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
The circuit has been connected as shown in
the gure for a long time.
81 V
S
1
2

F
2
6

2
8

3
2

What is the magnitude of the electric po-

tential E
C
across the capacitor?
1. |E
C
| = 40 V
2. |E
C
| = 14 V
3. |E
C
| = 27 V
4. |E
C
| = 30 V correct
5. |E
C
| = 5 V
6. |E
C
| = 24 V
7. |E
C
| = 44 V
8. |E
C
| = 20 V
9. |E
C
| = 6 V
10. |E
C
| = 12 V
Explanation:
E
S
C
t
b
a
b
It
R
1
I
t
R
2
I
b
R
3
Ib
R
4
Let : R
1
= 26 ,
R
2
= 28 ,
R
3
= 4 ,
R
4
= 32 , and
C = 12 F.
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 8
After a long time implies that the ca-
pacitor C is fully charged and therefore the
capacitor acts as an open circuit with no cur-
rent owing to it. The equivalent circuit is
It
R
1
I
t
R
2
R
3
I
b Ib
R
4
a
b
R
t
= R
1
+ R
2
= 26 + 28 = 54
R
b
= R
3
+ R
4
= 4 + 32 = 36
I
t
=
E
R
t
=
81 V
54
= 1.5 A
I
b
=
E
R
b
=
81 V
36
= 2.25 A
Across R
1
E
1
= I
t
R
1
= (1.5 A) (26 )
= 39 V.
Across R
3
E
3
= I
b
R
3
= (2.25 A) (4 )
= 9 V.
Since E
1
and E
3
are measured from the same
point a, the potential dierence across C
must be
E
C
= E
3
E
1
= 9 V 39 V
= 30 V
|E
C
| = 30 V .
015 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
If the battery is disconnected, howlong does it
take for the capacitor to discharge to
E
t
E
0
=
1
e
of its initial voltage?
1. t
E
t
/E
0
= 228
2. t
E
t
/E
0
= 798
3. t
E
t
/E
0
= 500
4. t
E
t
/E
0
= 216
5. t
E
t
/E
0
= 312
6. t
E
t
/E
0
= 672
7. t
E
t
/E
0
= 240 correct
8. t
E
t
/E
0
= 272
9. t
E
t
/E
0
= 91
10. t
E
t
/E
0
= 330
Explanation:
With the battery removed, the circuit is
C
I
R
1
I
r
R
2
R
3
I
Ir
R
4

r
C
R
e
q
I
e
q
where
R

= R
1
+ R
3
= 26 + 4 = 30 ,
R
r
= R
2
+ R
4
= 28 + 32 = 60
and
R
eq
=
_
1
R

+
1
R
r
_
1
=
_
1
30
+
1
60
_
1
= 20 .
Therefore the time constant is
R
eq
C = (20 ) (12 F) = 240 s .
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 9
The equation for discharge of the capacitor is
Q
t
Q
0
= e
t/
, or
E
t
E
0
= e
t/
=
1
e
.
Taking the logarithm of both sides, we have

= ln
_
1
e
_
t = (ln e)
= (240 s) (1)
= 240 s .
keywords:
016 10.0 points
Dielectric materials used in the manufacture
of capacitors are characterized by conductiv-
ities that are small but not zero. Therefore,
a charged capacitor slowly loses its charge by
leaking across the dielectric.
If a certain 5.65 F capacitor leaks charge
such that the potential dierence decreases
to half its initial value in 1.9 s, what is the
equivalent resistance of the dielectric?
5
.
Explanation:
Let : t = 1.9 s and
C = 5.65 F = 5.65 10
6
F.
By using q = C V , we immediately nd out
that when the potential across the capacitor
is halved, the charge on the capacitor is also
halved; i.e.,
q
f
q
i
=
1
2
.
Also note that the charge drop has time de-
pendence as
q = q
0
e
t/RC
.
Solving for R yields
R =
t
C ln
_
q
0
q
_ .
Thus we have, for q
0
= q
i
and q = q
f
,
R =
t
C ln
_
q
i
q
f
_
=
(1.9 s)
(5.65 10
6
F) ln(2)
= 4.85154 10
5
.
017 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
For a long period of time the switch S is
in position b. At t = 0 s, the switch S is
moved from position b to position a.
3 F
2 M
4 M
11 V
S
b
a
Find the voltage across the 2 M center-left
resistor at time t
1
= 5 s.
Explanation:
C
R
1
R
2
V
0
S
b
a
Let : R
1
= 2 M = 2 10
6
,
R
2
= 4 M = 4 10
6
,
C = 3 F = 3 10
6
F, and
V
0
= 11 V.
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 10
When the switch is closed to position a,
the resistor R
2
is not part of the circuit and
may be disregarded, see Figure (a).
C
R
1
V
0
Figure (a)
For an RC circuit,
I = I
0
e
t/(RC)
=
_
V
0
R
1
_
e
t/(R1 C)
.
Because I R
1
= V
R1
, we have
V
R1
= V
0
e
t1/(R1 C)
= (11 V) e
(5 s)/[(210
6
)(310
6
F)]
= 4.78058 V .
018 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Much later, at some time t

0
= 0 s, the switch
is moved from position a to position b.
Find the voltage across the 2 M center-left
resistor at time t

= 2 s.
Explanation:
Now the switch moves to position b,
thereby excluding the battery from the cir-
cuit, see Figure (b).
C
R
1
R
2
Figure (b)
Note: The equivalent resistance of the cir-
cuit is
R
eq
= R
1
+ R
2
= 2 10
6
+ 4 10
6

= 6 10
6

because R
1
and R
2
are in series.
Again, see Figure (b)
I = I
0
e
t

/(Req C)
=
V
0
R
eq
e
t

/(Req C)
because the capacitor has an initial potential
across it of V
0
. Thus,
V
R1
= I R
1
= V
0
_
R
1
R
eq
_
e
t

/(Req C)
For the given values
V
R1
= (11 V)
_
2 10
6

6 10
6

_
e
(2 s)/[(610
6
)(310
6
F)]
= 3.28108 V .
019 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
4 M
1.3 F
17.8 V
S
The switch is closed at t = 0.
Find the charge on the capacitor at 3.09 s.
Explanation:
R
C
E
S
luu (al34557) HW7 mackie (10623) 11
Let : t = 3.09 s ,
R = 4 M = 4 10
6
,
C = 1.3 F = 1.3 10
6
F, and
E = 17.8 V.
At t = 3.09 s,
q = C E
_
1 e
t/(RC)
_
= (1.3 10
6
F) (17.8 V)
_
1
exp
_
(3.09 s)
(4 10
6
) (1.3 10
6
F)
__
= 1.0367 10
5
C
= 10.367 C .
020 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
Find the current in the resistor at 3.09 s.
Explanation:
At t = 3.09 s,
I =
E
R
e
t/(RC)
=
17.8 V
4 10
6

exp
_
(3.09 s)
(4 10
6
) (1.3 10
6
F)
_
= 2.45634 10
6
A
= 2.45634 A .
021 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
At 3.09 s the current in the resistor is I (Part
2) and the charge on the capacitor is q (Part
1).
What is the power delivered by the battery?
Explanation:
In the time interval t, work done by the
battery in pushing charge q across the bat-
tery is
W
battery
= q E .
Correspondingly, the power is
d W
battery
dt
= E
dq
dt
= I E .
The power dissipated in a resistor is
d W
resistor
dt
= I
2
R.
The power to create the electric eld in a
capacitor is
d W
capacitor
dt
= I
q
C
.
Thus the total power dissipated in the capac-
itor and resistor, that is the power delivered
by the battery is
d W
battery
dt
= I
_
I R +
q
C
_
= (2.45634 10
6
A)

_
(2.45634 10
6
A)
(4 10
6
)
+
(1.0367 10
5
C)
(1.3 10
6
F)
_
= 4.37229 10
5
W
= 43.7229 W .