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**This print-out should have 21 questions.
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Multiple-choice questions may continue on

the next column or page – ﬁnd all choices

before answering.

001 10.0 points

Consider the circuit shown in the ﬁgure.

25 V

28 Ω

3 Ω

37 Ω

13 Ω

20 Ω

Find its equivalent resistance.

Correct answer: 47.5885 Ω.

Explanation:

25 V

R

a

R

b

R

c

R

d

R

e

Let : R

a

= 28 Ω,

R

b

= 3 Ω,

R

c

= 37 Ω,

R

d

= 13 Ω, and

R

e

= 20 Ω.

R

a

and R

b

are in parallel, so

1

R

ab

=

1

R

a

+

1

R

b

R

ab

=

_

1

R

a

+

1

R

b

_

−1

R

ab

=

_

1

28 Ω

+

1

3 Ω

_

−1

= 2.70968 Ω

R

d

and R

e

are in parallel, so

R

de

=

_

1

R

d

+

1

R

e

_

−1

R

de

=

_

1

13 Ω

+

1

20 Ω

_

−1

= 7.87879 Ω

These resistors are in series, so

R

eq

= R

ab

+ R

c

+ R

de

= 2.70968 Ω + 37 Ω + 7.87879 Ω

= 47.5885 Ω .

002 10.0 points

A resistor with an unknown resistance is con-

nected in parallel to a 10 Ω resistor. When

both resistors are connected in parallel to an

emf source of 10 V, the current through the

unknown resistor is measured with an amme-

ter to be 3 A.

What is the resistance of the unknown re-

sistor?

Correct answer: 3.33333 Ω.

Explanation:

Let : ∆V = 10 V, and

I

1

= 3 A.

∆V = IR

R

1

=

∆V

I

1

=

10 V

3 A

= 3.33333 Ω .

003 10.0 points

In the circuit shown below, the current i in

the resistor R doubles its original value when

the switch S is closed.

94.598 Ω 14 Ω

14 Ω 94.598 Ω

R

E

S

i

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 2

Find the value of R.

Correct answer: 5.51828 Ω.

Explanation:

For resistors in parallel,

1

R

eq,p

=

1

R

a

+

1

R

b

.

For resistors in series,

R

eq,s

= R

a

+ R

b

.

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

R

E

S

Let : R

1

= 94.598 Ω,

R

2

= 14 Ω,

R

3

= 14 Ω,

R

4

= 94.598 Ω, and

R

eq,c

=

1

2

R

eq,o

.

for the current to double when the switch is

closed, the equivalent resistance must drop to

one-half its value when the switch is open.

With the switch open,

R

12

= R

1

+ R

2

= 94.598 Ω + 14 Ω = 108.598 Ω

R

34

= R

3

+ R

4

= 14 Ω + 94.598 Ω = 108.598 Ω

R

1234

=

1

R

12

+

1

R

34

=

_

1

R

12

+

1

R

34

_

−1

=

_

1

108.598 Ω

+

1

108.598 Ω

_

−1

= 54.299 Ω

R

eq,o

= R + R

1234

.

When the switch is closed,

R

13

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

3

=

_

1

R

1

+

1

R

3

_

−1

=

_

1

94.598 Ω

+

1

14 Ω

_

−1

= 12.1952 Ω

R

24

=

1

R

2

+

1

R

4

=

_

1

R

2

+

1

R

4

_

−1

=

_

1

14 Ω

+

1

94.598 Ω

_

−1

= 12.1952 Ω

R

eq,c

= R + R

13

+ R

24

.

The new resistance is one-half the original, so

R + R

13

+R

24

=

1

2

(R + R

1234

)

2 R + 2 R

13

+ 2 R

24

= R + R

1234

, so

R = R

1234

− 2 R

13

− 2 R

24

R = (54.299 Ω) − 2 (12.1952 Ω) − 2 (12.1952 Ω)

= 5.51828 Ω .

keywords:

004 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

The power supplied to the circuit shown in

the ﬁgure is 14.0 W.

E

3.0 Ω

17.0 Ω

7.0 Ω

4.5 Ω

3.0 Ω

a) Find the equivalent resistance of the cir-

cuit.

Correct answer: 5.27759 Ω.

Explanation:

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 3

E

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

R

5

Let : R

1

= 3.0 Ω,

R

2

= 17.0 Ω,

R

3

= 7.0 Ω,

R

4

= 4.5 Ω, and

R

5

= 3.0 Ω.

For resistors in parallel,

1

R

eq,p

=

1

R

a

+

1

R

b

.

R

23

=

_

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

_

−1

=

_

1

17 Ω

+

1

7 Ω

_

−1

= 4.95833 Ω.

For resistors in series,

R

eq,s

= R

a

+ R

b

.

R

234

= R

23

+ R

4

= 4.95833 Ω + 4.5 Ω

= 9.45833 Ω, and

R

2345

=

_

1

R

234

+

1

R

5

_

−1

=

_

1

9.45833 Ω

+

1

3 Ω

_

−1

= 2.27759 Ω, so

R

eq

= R

1

+ R

2345

= 3 Ω + 2.27759 Ω

= 5.27759 Ω .

005 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

b) Find the potential diﬀerence across the

battery.

Correct answer: 8.59571 V.

Explanation:

Let : P = 14.0 W

P =

(∆V )

2

R

∆V =

_

PR

eq

=

_

(14 W) (5.27759 Ω)

= 8.59571 V .

006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

A 38 V battery has an internal resistance r.

1 A

38 V

r

33 Ω

88 Ω

internal

resistance

What is the value of r?

Correct answer: 14 Ω.

Explanation:

I

1

I

2

I

3

E

r

R

2

R

3

internal

resistance

Let : E = 38 V,

R

2

= 33 Ω,

R

3

= 88 Ω, and

I

1

= 1 A.

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 4

Since R

2

and R

3

are connected parallel,

their equivalent resistance R

23

is

1

R

23

=

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

=

R

3

+ R

2

R

2

R

3

R

23

=

R

2

R

3

R

2

+ R

3

=

(33 Ω) (88 Ω)

33 Ω + 88 Ω

= 24 Ω.

Using Ohm’s law, we have

E = I

1

r + I

1

R

23

r =

E − I

1

R

23

I

1

=

38 V − (1 A) (24 Ω)

1 A

= 38 Ω − 24 Ω = 14 Ω .

007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

Determine the magnitude of the current

through the 88 Ω resistor in the upper left

of the circuit.

Correct answer: 0.272727 A.

Explanation:

The potential drop across the 88 Ω resistor

on the left-hand side of the circuit is

E

3

= E − I

1

r

= 38 V − (1 A) (14 Ω)

= 38 V − 14 V

= 24 V,

so the current through the resistor is

I

3

=

E

3

r

3

=

24 V

88 Ω

=

3

11

A = 0.272727 A .

008 10.0 points

7.7 V 2.8 V

3.9 V

I

1

1.4 Ω 2.9 Ω

I

2

4.3 Ω

I

3

9.9 Ω

Find the current I

1

in the 1.4 Ω resistor

at the bottom of the circuit between the two

power supplies.

Correct answer: 1.0662 A.

Explanation:

E

1

E

2

E

3

I

1

R

A

R

B

I

2

R

C

I

3

R

D

At a junction (Conservation of Charge)

I

1

+ I

2

− I

3

= 0 . (1)

Kirchhoﬀ’s law on the large outside loop gives

(R

A

+ R

B

) I

1

+ R

D

I

3

= E

1

+ E

2

. (2)

Kirchhoﬀ’s law on the right-hand small loop

gives

R

C

I

2

+ R

D

I

3

= E

3

. (3)

Let : R

A

= 1.4 Ω,

R

B

= 2.9 Ω,

R

C

= 4.3 Ω,

R

D

= 9.9 Ω,

E

1

= 7.7 V,

E

2

= 2.8 V, and

E

3

= 3.9 V.

Using determinants,

I

1

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0 1 −1

E

1

+ E

2

0 R

D

E

3

R

C

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1 1 −1

R

A

+ R

B

0 R

D

0 R

C

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 5

Expanding along the ﬁrst row, the numera-

tor is

D

1

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0 1 −1

E

1

+ E

2

0 R

D

E

3

R

C

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0 − 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

E

1

+ E

2

R

D

E

3

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ (−1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

E

1

+ E

2

0

E

3

R

C

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −[(E

1

+ E

2

) R

D

− E

3

R

D

]

−[R

C

(E

1

+ E

2

) − 0]

= R

D

(E

3

− E

1

− E

2

) − R

C

(E

1

+ E

2

)

= (9.9 Ω) (3.9 V − 7.7 V − 2.8 V)

−(4.3 Ω) (7.7 V + 2.8 V)

= −110.49 VΩ.

Expanding along the ﬁrst column, the de-

nominator is

D =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1 1 −1

R

A

+ R

B

0 R

D

0 R

C

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

0 R

D

R

C

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

− (R

A

+ R

B

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1 −1

R

C

R

D

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ 0

= 0 − R

C

R

D

− (R

A

+ R

B

) (R

D

+ R

C

)

= (4.3 Ω) (9.9 Ω)

−(1.4 Ω + 2.9 Ω) (9.9 Ω + 4.3 Ω)

= −103.63 Ω

2

, and

I

1

=

D

1

D

=

−110.49 VΩ

−103.63 Ω

2

= 1.0662 A .

009 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

Four resistors are connected as shown in

the ﬁgure.

92 V

S

1

c

d

a

b

2

3

Ω

3

9

Ω

5

3

Ω

8

8

Ω

Find the resistance between points a and b.

Correct answer: 15.218 Ω.

Explanation:

E

B

S

1

c

d

a

b

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

Let : R

1

= 23 Ω,

R

2

= 39 Ω,

R

3

= 53 Ω,

R

4

= 88 Ω, and

E = 92 V.

Ohm’s law is V = I R.

A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junc-

tions connected by zero resistance.

E

B

a

d

b

c

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 6

The series connection of R

2

and R

3

gives

the equivalent resistance

R

23

= R

2

+ R

3

= 39 Ω + 53 Ω

= 92 Ω.

The total resistance R

ab

between a and b can

be obtained by calculating the resistance in

the parallel combination of the resistors R

1

,

R

4

, and R

23

; i.e.,

1

R

ab

=

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

+ R

3

+

1

R

4

=

R

4

(R

2

+ R

3

) + R

1

R

4

+ R

1

(R

2

+ R

3

)

R

1

R

4

(R

2

+ R

3

)

R

ab

=

R

1

R

4

(R

2

+ R

3

)

R

4

(R

2

+ R

3

) + R

1

R

4

+ R

1

(R

2

+ R

3

)

The denominator is

R

4

(R

2

+ R

3

) + R

1

R

4

+ R

1

(R

2

+ R

3

)

= (88 Ω)[39 Ω + 53 Ω] + (23 Ω) (88 Ω)

+ (23 Ω) [39 Ω + 53 Ω]

= 12236 Ω

2

,

so the equivalent resistance is

R

ab

=

(23 Ω) (88 Ω) [39 Ω + 53 Ω]

(12236 Ω

2

)

= 15.218 Ω .

010 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

What is the current in the 39 Ω resistor?

Correct answer: 1 A.

Explanation:

The voltages across R

2

and R

3

, respec-

tively, (the voltage between a and b) are

V

ab

= V

23

= 92 V, and we have

I

23

= I

3

= I

2

=

V

ab

R

23

=

92 V

92 Ω

= 1 A .

011 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points

39.3 Ω

5.16 Ω

16.9 Ω

37.2 V

18.6 V

Find the current through the 16.9 Ω (lower)

resistor.

Correct answer: 0.96727 A.

Explanation:

r

1

r

2

R

E

1

E

2

I

1

I

2

I

3

Let : E

1

= 37.2 V,

E

1

= 18.6 V,

r

1

= 39.3 Ω,

r

2

= 5.16 Ω, and

R = 16.9 Ω.

Assuming currents I

1

, I

2

, and I

3

in the

direction show, we get I

3

= I

1

+ I

2

.

Applying Kirchhoﬀ’s loop rule, we can get

two equations.

E

1

= I

1

r

1

+ I

3

R (1)

E

2

= I

2

r

2

+ I

3

R

= (I

3

− I

1

) r

2

+ I

3

R

= −I

1

r

2

+ I

3

(R + r

2

) , (2)

Multiplying Eq. (1) by r

2

, Eq. (2) by r

1

,

E

1

r

2

= I

1

r

1

r

2

+ r

2

I

3

R

E

2

r

1

= −I

1

r

1

r

2

+ I

3

r

1

(R + r

2

)

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 7

Adding,

E

1

r

2

+ E

2

r

1

= I

3

[r

2

R + r

1

(R + r

2

)]

I

3

=

E

1

r

2

+ E

2

r

1

r

2

R + r

1

(R + r

2

)

=

(37.2 V) (5.16 Ω) + (18.6 V) (39.3 Ω)

(5.16 Ω) (16.9 Ω) + (39.3 Ω) (16.9 Ω + 5.16 Ω)

= 0.96727 A .

012 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points

Determine the current in the 39.3 Ω (upper)

resistor.

Correct answer: 0.530614 A.

Explanation:

From (1), get

I

1

=

E

1

− I

3

R

r

1

=

37.2 V − (0.96727 A) (16.9 Ω)

39.3 Ω

= 0.530614 A .

013 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points

Determine the current in the 5.16 Ω (middle)

resistor.

Correct answer: 0.436655 A.

Explanation:

From (2), get

I

2

=

E

2

− I

3

R

r

2

=

18.6 V − (0.96727 A) (16.9 Ω)

5.16 Ω

= 0.436655 A .

014 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

The circuit has been connected as shown in

the ﬁgure for a “long” time.

81 V

S

1

2

µ

F

2

6

Ω

2

8

Ω

4

Ω

3

2

Ω

What is the magnitude of the electric po-

tential E

C

across the capacitor?

1. |E

C

| = 40 V

2. |E

C

| = 14 V

3. |E

C

| = 27 V

4. |E

C

| = 30 V correct

5. |E

C

| = 5 V

6. |E

C

| = 24 V

7. |E

C

| = 44 V

8. |E

C

| = 20 V

9. |E

C

| = 6 V

10. |E

C

| = 12 V

Explanation:

E

S

C

t

b

a

b

It

R

1

I

t

R

2

I

b

R

3

Ib

R

4

Let : R

1

= 26 Ω,

R

2

= 28 Ω,

R

3

= 4 Ω,

R

4

= 32 Ω, and

C = 12 µF.

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 8

After a “long time” implies that the ca-

pacitor C is fully charged and therefore the

capacitor acts as an open circuit with no cur-

rent ﬂowing to it. The equivalent circuit is

It

R

1

I

t

R

2

R

3

I

b Ib

R

4

a

b

R

t

= R

1

+ R

2

= 26 Ω + 28 Ω = 54 Ω

R

b

= R

3

+ R

4

= 4 Ω + 32 Ω = 36 Ω

I

t

=

E

R

t

=

81 V

54 Ω

= 1.5 A

I

b

=

E

R

b

=

81 V

36 Ω

= 2.25 A

Across R

1

E

1

= I

t

R

1

= (1.5 A) (26 Ω)

= 39 V.

Across R

3

E

3

= I

b

R

3

= (2.25 A) (4 Ω)

= 9 V.

Since E

1

and E

3

are “measured” from the same

point “a”, the potential diﬀerence across C

must be

E

C

= E

3

− E

1

= 9 V − 39 V

= −30 V

|E

C

| = 30 V .

015 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

If the battery is disconnected, howlong does it

take for the capacitor to discharge to

E

t

E

0

=

1

e

of its initial voltage?

1. t

E

t

/E

0

= 228

2. t

E

t

/E

0

= 798

3. t

E

t

/E

0

= 500

4. t

E

t

/E

0

= 216

5. t

E

t

/E

0

= 312

6. t

E

t

/E

0

= 672

7. t

E

t

/E

0

= 240 correct

8. t

E

t

/E

0

= 272

9. t

E

t

/E

0

= 91

10. t

E

t

/E

0

= 330

Explanation:

With the battery removed, the circuit is

C

Iℓ

R

1

I

r

R

2

R

3

I

ℓ Ir

R

4

ℓ

r

C

R

e

q

I

e

q

where

R

ℓ

= R

1

+ R

3

= 26 Ω + 4 Ω = 30 Ω,

R

r

= R

2

+ R

4

= 28 Ω + 32 Ω = 60 Ω

and

R

eq

=

_

1

R

ℓ

+

1

R

r

_

−1

=

_

1

30 Ω

+

1

60 Ω

_

−1

= 20 Ω.

Therefore the time constant τ is

τ ≡ R

eq

C = (20 Ω) (12 µF) = 240 µs .

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 9

The equation for discharge of the capacitor is

Q

t

Q

0

= e

−t/τ

, or

E

t

E

0

= e

−t/τ

=

1

e

.

Taking the logarithm of both sides, we have

−

t

τ

= ln

_

1

e

_

t = −τ (−ln e)

= −(240 µs) (−1)

= 240 µs .

keywords:

016 10.0 points

Dielectric materials used in the manufacture

of capacitors are characterized by conductiv-

ities that are small but not zero. Therefore,

a charged capacitor slowly loses its charge by

“leaking” across the dielectric.

If a certain 5.65 µF capacitor leaks charge

such that the potential diﬀerence decreases

to half its initial value in 1.9 s, what is the

equivalent resistance of the dielectric?

Correct answer: 4.85154 × 10

5

Ω.

Explanation:

Let : t = 1.9 s and

C = 5.65 µF = 5.65 × 10

−6

F.

By using q = C V , we immediately ﬁnd out

that when the potential across the capacitor

is halved, the charge on the capacitor is also

halved; i.e.,

q

f

q

i

=

1

2

.

Also note that the charge drop has time de-

pendence as

q = q

0

e

−t/RC

.

Solving for R yields

R =

t

C ln

_

q

0

q

_ .

Thus we have, for q

0

= q

i

and q = q

f

,

R =

t

C ln

_

q

i

q

f

_

=

(1.9 s)

(5.65 × 10

−6

F) ln(2)

= 4.85154 × 10

5

Ω .

017 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

For a long period of time the switch S is

in position “b”. At t = 0 s, the switch S is

moved from position “b” to position “a”.

3 µF

2 MΩ

4 MΩ

11 V

S

b

a

Find the voltage across the 2 MΩ center-left

resistor at time t

1

= 5 s.

Correct answer: 4.78058 V.

Explanation:

C

R

1

R

2

V

0

S

b

a

Let : R

1

= 2 MΩ = 2 × 10

6

Ω,

R

2

= 4 MΩ = 4 × 10

6

Ω,

C = 3 µF = 3 × 10

−6

F, and

V

0

= 11 V.

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 10

When the switch is closed to position “a”,

the resistor R

2

is not part of the circuit and

may be disregarded, see Figure (a).

C

R

1

V

0

Figure (a)

For an RC circuit,

I = I

0

e

−t/(RC)

=

_

V

0

R

1

_

e

−t/(R1 C)

.

Because I R

1

= V

R1

, we have

V

R1

= V

0

e

−t1/(R1 C)

= (11 V) e

(−5 s)/[(2×10

6

Ω)(3×10

−6

F)]

= 4.78058 V .

018 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

Much later, at some time t

′

0

= 0 s, the switch

is moved from position “a” to position “b”.

Find the voltage across the 2 MΩ center-left

resistor at time t

′

= 2 s.

Correct answer: 3.28108 V.

Explanation:

Now the switch moves to position “b”,

thereby excluding the battery from the cir-

cuit, see Figure (b).

C

R

1

R

2

Figure (b)

Note: The equivalent resistance of the cir-

cuit is

R

eq

= R

1

+ R

2

= 2 × 10

6

Ω + 4 × 10

6

Ω

= 6 × 10

6

Ω

because R

1

and R

2

are in series.

Again, see Figure (b)

I = I

0

e

−t

′

/(Req C)

=

V

0

R

eq

e

−t

′

/(Req C)

because the capacitor has an initial potential

across it of V

0

. Thus,

V

R1

= I R

1

= V

0

_

R

1

R

eq

_

e

−t

′

/(Req C)

For the given values

V

R1

= (11 V)

_

2 × 10

6

Ω

6 × 10

6

Ω

_

× e

(−2 s)/[(6×10

6

Ω)(3×10

−6

F)]

= 3.28108 V .

019 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points

4 MΩ

1.3 µF

17.8 V

S

The switch is closed at t = 0.

Find the charge on the capacitor at 3.09 s.

Correct answer: 10.367 µC.

Explanation:

R

C

E

S

luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) 11

Let : t = 3.09 s ,

R = 4 MΩ = 4 × 10

6

Ω,

C = 1.3 µF = 1.3 × 10

−6

F, and

E = 17.8 V.

At t = 3.09 s,

q = C E

_

1 − e

−t/(RC)

_

= (1.3 × 10

−6

F) (17.8 V)×

_

1

− exp

_

−(3.09 s)

(4 × 10

6

Ω) (1.3 × 10

−6

F)

__

= 1.0367 × 10

−5

C

= 10.367 µC .

020 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points

Find the current in the resistor at 3.09 s.

Correct answer: 2.45634 µA.

Explanation:

At t = 3.09 s,

I =

E

R

e

−t/(RC)

=

17.8 V

4 × 10

6

Ω

×

exp

_

−(3.09 s)

(4 × 10

6

Ω) (1.3 × 10

−6

F)

_

= 2.45634 × 10

−6

A

= 2.45634 µA .

021 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points

At 3.09 s the current in the resistor is I (Part

2) and the charge on the capacitor is q (Part

1).

What is the power delivered by the battery?

Correct answer: 43.7229 µW.

Explanation:

In the time interval ∆t, work done by the

battery in pushing charge ∆q across the bat-

tery is

∆W

battery

= ∆q · E .

Correspondingly, the power is

d W

battery

dt

= E

dq

dt

= I E .

The power dissipated in a resistor is

d W

resistor

dt

= I

2

R.

The power to create the electric ﬁeld in a

capacitor is

d W

capacitor

dt

= I

q

C

.

Thus the total power dissipated in the capac-

itor and resistor, that is the power delivered

by the battery is

d W

battery

dt

= I

_

I R +

q

C

_

= (2.45634 × 10

−6

A)

×

_

(2.45634 × 10

−6

A)

× (4 × 10

6

Ω)

+

(1.0367 × 10

−5

C)

(1.3 × 10

−6

F)

_

= 4.37229 × 10

−5

W

= 43.7229 µW .

1952 Ω −1 = 12.598 Ω = 108. R3 R4 1 1 + = 94. With the switch open.598 Ω R34 = R3 + R4 = 14 Ω + 94. so R + R13 +R24 = R 1 (R + R1234 ) 2 2 R + 2 R13 + 2 R24 = R + R1234 .s = Ra + Rb . Explanation: = 54.5 Ω 7.0 Ω E for the current to double when the switch is closed. = 14 Ω .1952 Ω = 5.p = 1 1 + .51828 Ω . R13 = 1 1 + R1 R3 1 1 = + R1 R3 2 −1 For resistors in series. Explanation: For resistors in parallel. so R = R1234 − 2 R13 − 2 R24 R = (54.598 Ω .299 Ω Req. Let : R1 R2 R3 R4 Req. 1 = Req.598 Ω 108. −1 = 12.o .598 Ω = R + R13 + R24 .598 Ω 14 Ω 1 1 = + R2 R4 −1 1 1 = + R2 R4 = 1 1 + 14 Ω 94.0 W. Ra Rb R24 When the switch is closed. = 94.598 Ω + 14 Ω = 108. 1 Req.598 Ω .299 Ω) − 2 (12. 17.0 points The power supplied to the circuit shown in the ﬁgure is 14.1952 Ω Req.598 Ω = R + R1234 .0 Ω 4. Correct answer: 5. = 14 Ω .c R1 S R2 E The new resistance is one-half the original.51828 Ω. 2 and keywords: 004 (part 1 of 2) 10. Req.27759 Ω. R12 = R1 + R2 = 94.o .c = 94.1952 Ω) − 2 (12. the equivalent resistance must drop to one-half its value when the switch is open.598 Ω 1 1 R1234 = + R12 R34 −1 1 1 = + R12 R34 1 1 = + 108.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) Find the value of R.0 Ω 3.0 Ω 3. Correct answer: 5. −1 a) Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

Let : E R2 R3 I1 = 38 V . and R2345 = 1 1 + R234 R5 −1 internal resistance What is the value of r? Correct answer: 14 Ω. and . For resistors in parallel.95833 Ω . = 7. (∆V )2 R ∆V = P Req P = = (14 W) (5.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) R2 R4 R3 R5 R1 E Correct answer: 8. = 33 Ω .0 Ω .0 W 3 Let : R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 = 3. Ra Rb −1 006 (part 1 of 2) 10. R234 = R23 + R4 = 4.s = Ra + Rb . so = R1 + R2345 = 3 Ω + 2.5 Ω = 9.0 Ω . 1 Req. = 17.27759 Ω .0 points A 38 V battery has an internal resistance r.95833 Ω + 4. = 88 Ω . For resistors in series. and = 3. Req.59571 V.27759 Ω . = 1 A.27759 Ω = 5.0 Ω . Explanation: R3 I3 R2 I2 E I1 r internal resistance Req 1 1 + = 9. Explanation: Let : P = 14.p = 1 1 + .45833 Ω 3 Ω = 2.27759 Ω) = 8.0 points b) Find the potential diﬀerence across the battery.45833 Ω .59571 V . −1 005 (part 2 of 2) 10.5 Ω . 88 Ω 33 Ω −1 R23 = = 1 1 + R2 R3 1A 38 V r 1 1 + 17 Ω 7 Ω = 4.0 Ω . = 4.

4 Ω resistor at the bottom of the circuit between the two power supplies.8 V 3. r3 88 Ω 11 008 10.272727 A . (3) Let : RA RB RC RD E1 E2 E3 Using determinants. Correct answer: 1. = 9. their equivalent resistance R23 is 1 1 R3 + R2 1 = + = R23 R2 R3 R2 R3 R2 R3 R23 = R2 + R3 (33 Ω) (88 Ω) = 33 Ω + 88 Ω = 24 Ω .8 V .4 Ω . (1) Kirchhoﬀ’s law on the large outside loop gives (RA + RB ) I1 + RD I3 = E1 + E2 . = 2.9 V .9 Ω . 007 (part 2 of 2) 10. = 2. Explanation: The potential drop across the 88 Ω resistor on the left-hand side of the circuit is E 3 = E − I1 r = 38 V − (1 A) (14 Ω) = 38 V − 14 V = 24 V .9 Ω .9 Ω I3 4.0 points 9. = 1.4 Ω I1 7. Correct answer: 0.7 V . Explanation: RD I3 RC I2 RB E2 RA E1 E3 I1 At a junction (Conservation of Charge) I1 + I2 − I3 = 0 . so the current through the resistor is I3 = E3 24 V 3 = = A = 0.0 points Determine the magnitude of the current through the 88 Ω resistor in the upper left of the circuit.3 Ω I2 2.7 V I1 = 0 E1 + E2 E3 1 RA + RB 0 1 0 RC 1 0 RC −1 RD RD −1 RD RD . = 4.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) Since R2 and R3 are connected parallel.9 Ω 1. we have E = I1 r + I1 R23 E − I1 R23 r= I1 38 V − (1 A) (24 Ω) = 1A = 38 Ω − 24 Ω = 14 Ω . = 7. (2) Kirchhoﬀ’s law on the right-hand small loop gives R C I2 + R D I3 = E 3 .0662 A. = 3.9 V 4 Find the current I1 in the 1. Using Ohm’s law.3 Ω . and 2.272727 A.

9 Ω) (3.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) Expanding along the ﬁrst row. Correct answer: 15.63 Ω2 . = 88 Ω .3 Ω) = −103. the numerator is 53 Ω 23 Ω 5 c 39 Ω 0 D1 = E1 + E2 E3 =0−1 + (−1) 1 0 RC −1 RD RD RD RD a b 88 Ω E1 + E2 E3 E1 + E2 0 E3 RC = − [(E1 + E2 ) RD − E3 RD ] − [RC (E1 + E2 ) − 0] = RD (E3 − E1 − E2 ) − RC (E1 + E2 ) = (9. D −103. = 53 Ω .8 V) −(4.49 V Ω . and Ohm’s law is V = I R .4 Ω + 2. 92 V d S1 Find the resistance between points a and b.3 Ω) (9. R1 a d R4 EB R2 R3 I1 = D1 −110.9 Ω + 4.218 Ω.9 Ω) (9. = 39 Ω .3 Ω) (7.0 points Four resistors are connected as shown in the ﬁgure.49 V Ω = = 1.63 Ω2 b c 009 (part 1 of 2) 10. Explanation: c R1 R2 Expanding along the ﬁrst column.0662 A .7 V − 2.9 Ω) −(1. . A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junctions connected by zero resistance. = 92 V . the denominator is a R3 b R4 1 D = RA + RB 0 =1 0 RC RD RD 1 0 RC −1 RD RD EB d S1 Let : 1 −1 +0 RC RD = 0 − RC RD − (RA + RB ) (RD + RC ) = (4.9 V − 7.8 V) = −110. and − (RA + RB ) R1 R2 R3 R4 E = 23 Ω .7 V + 2.

= 15.6 V . Applying Kirchhoﬀ’s loop rule. and 010 (part 2 of 2) 10. we get I3 = I1 + I2 .2 V . E 1 r2 = I 1 r1 r2 + r2 I 3 R E2 r1 = −I1 r1 r2 + I3 r1 (R + r2 ) (1) (2) 011 (part 1 of 3) 10. R = 16. and we have I23 = I3 = I2 = Vab 92 V = = 1A .16 Ω 16. E 1 = I 1 r1 + I 3 R E 2 = I 2 r2 + I 3 R = (I3 − I1 ) r2 + I3 R = −I1 r2 + I3 (R + r2 ) .9 Ω .e. i. 1 1 1 1 + + = Rab R1 R2 + R3 R4 R4 (R2 + R3 ) + R1 R4 + R1 (R2 + R3 ) = R1 R4 (R2 + R3 ) R1 R4 (R2 + R3 ) Rab = R4 (R2 + R3 ) + R1 R4 + R1 (R2 + R3 ) The denominator is E2 R4 (R2 + R3 ) + R1 R4 + R1 (R2 + R3 ) = (88 Ω)[39 Ω + 53 Ω] + (23 Ω) (88 Ω) + (23 Ω) [39 Ω + 53 Ω] = 12236 Ω2 .3 Ω 6 18. I2 .0 points What is the current in the 39 Ω resistor? Correct answer: 1 A.218 Ω . Explanation: The voltages across R2 and R3 . Multiplying Eq. Correct answer: 0.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) The series connection of R2 and R3 gives the equivalent resistance R23 = R2 + R3 = 39 Ω + 53 Ω = 92 Ω . and R23 . Eq.0 points .2 V 39.9 Ω Find the current through the 16. respectively.16 Ω .3 Ω . (2) by r1 . and I3 in the direction show. Explanation: E1 r1 I1 r2 I2 R I3 E1 = 37.6 V 5.. so the equivalent resistance is Rab = (23 Ω) (88 Ω) [39 Ω + 53 Ω] (12236 Ω2 ) Let : 37. E1 = 18. (the voltage between a and b) are Vab = V23 = 92 V .9 Ω (lower) resistor. R23 92 Ω Assuming currents I1 . r2 = 5. we can get two equations. (1) by r2 . r1 = 39. The total resistance Rab between a and b can be obtained by calculating the resistance in the parallel combination of the resistors R1 .96727 A. R4 .

6 V − (0. |EC | = 27 V 4.16 Ω) + (18.16 Ω) = 0.3 Ω) (16.16 Ω) (16. 013 (part 3 of 3) 10.9 Ω + 5. = 4 Ω. get E 2 − I3 R I2 = r2 18. |EC | = 30 V correct 5. R1 R2 R3 R4 C = 26 Ω .436655 A.6 V) (39. and = 12 µF .16 Ω = 0. = 28 Ω . Correct answer: 0.9 Ω) = 5.16 Ω (middle) resistor.3 Ω = 0. = 32 Ω . Explanation: From (1).3 Ω) = (5. get E 1 − I3 R I1 = r1 37.530614 A .2 V − (0.0 points Determine the current in the 5. 7 26 Ω 4Ω 81 V 28 Ω 32 Ω S What is the magnitude of the electric potential EC across the capacitor? 1.96727 A) (16. Explanation: From (2). |EC | = 44 V 8. |EC | = 5 V 6. Correct answer: 0.2 V) (5.0 points The circuit has been connected as shown in the ﬁgure for a “long” time.0 points Determine the current in the 39. . |EC | = 12 V Explanation: t 012 (part 2 of 3) 10.96727 A) (16.436655 A .luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) Adding.3 Ω (upper) resistor. 12 µF E1 r2 + E2 r1 = I3 [r2 R + r1 (R + r2 )] E 1 r2 + E 2 r1 I3 = r2 R + r1 (R + r2 ) (37. |EC | = 6 V 10.96727 A .9 Ω) = 39. |EC | = 14 V 3.530614 A.9 Ω) + (39. |EC | = 20 V 9. R1 C a R2 It R4 Ib b S b It R3 E Ib Let : 014 (part 1 of 2) 10. |EC | = 24 V 7. |EC | = 40 V 2.

5 A) (26 Ω) = 39 V . tEt /E0 = 312 6. Since E1 and E3 are “measured” from the same point “a”.25 A) (4 Ω) = 9 V. tEt /E0 = 91 10. Rr = R2 + R4 = 28 Ω + 32 Ω = 60 Ω and Req = 1 1 + Rℓ Rr −1 8 It a It R2 R1 R3 Ib R4 Ib 8. Ieq C . tEt /E0 = 330 Explanation: With the battery removed. tEt /E0 = 672 7. tEt /E0 = 500 4. the potential diﬀerence across C must be EC = E3 − E1 = 9 V − 39 V = −30 V |EC | = 30 V . tEt /E0 = 228 where Rℓ = R1 + R3 = 26 Ω + 4 Ω = 30 Ω.25 A = Ib = Rb 36 Ω Across R1 E 1 = It R 1 = (1. 015 (part 2 of 2) 10. tEt /E0 = 240 correct Rt = R1 + R2 = 26 Ω + 28 Ω = 54 Ω Rb = R3 + R4 = 4 Ω + 32 Ω = 36 Ω E 81 V It = = = 1. tEt /E0 = 216 b 5.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) After a “long time” implies that the capacitor C is fully charged and therefore the capacitor acts as an open circuit with no current ﬂowing to it. tEt /E0 = 272 9.5 A Rt 54 Ω 81 V E = 2. tEt /E0 = 798 3. the circuit is Iℓ Ir R2 C r ℓ R1 R3 Iℓ R4 Ir Req 1 1 + = 30 Ω 60 Ω = 20 Ω . Across R3 E 3 = Ib R 3 = (2.0 points If the battery is disconnected. how long does it 1 Et = take for the capacitor to discharge to E0 e of its initial voltage? 1. The equivalent circuit is 2. −1 Therefore the time constant τ is τ ≡ Req C = (20 Ω) (12 µF) = 240 µs .

017 (part 1 of 2) 10. keywords: 016 10. At t = 0 s. a charged capacitor slowly loses its charge by “leaking” across the dielectric.e. we have − 1 t = ln τ e t = −τ (− ln e) = −(240 µs) (−1) = 240 µs . 4 MΩ 2 MΩ 11 V 3 µF S b a Find the voltage across the 2 MΩ center-left resistor at time t1 = 5 s. for q0 = qi and q = qf . If a certain 5. t C ln 9 R= qi qf (1.65 × 10−6 F .9 s.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) The equation for discharge of the capacitor is Qt = e−t/τ .0 points For a long period of time the switch S is in position “b”. Solving for R yields R= C ln t q0 q . = 3 µF = 3 × 10−6 F . = 4 MΩ = 4 × 106 Ω . Explanation: R2 R1 V0 C S b a By using q = C V . = 11 V . the switch S is moved from position “b” to position “a”.65 µF capacitor leaks charge such that the potential diﬀerence decreases to half its initial value in 1. i. Therefore.78058 V. Correct answer: 4.65 µF = 5. the charge on the capacitor is also halved.9 s) = (5. and . qf 1 = . E0 e Taking the logarithm of both sides. what is the equivalent resistance of the dielectric? Correct answer: 4.65 × 10−6 F) ln (2) = 4.85154 × 105 Ω. qi 2 Also note that the charge drop has time dependence as q = q0 e−t/RC . or Q0 Et 1 = e−t/τ = . Thus we have.. Let : R1 R2 C V0 = 2 MΩ = 2 × 106 Ω .85154 × 105 Ω .9 s and C = 5.0 points Dielectric materials used in the manufacture of capacitors are characterized by conductivities that are small but not zero. we immediately ﬁnd out that when the potential across the capacitor is halved. Explanation: Let : t = 1.

28108 V. Correct answer: 10. 4 MΩ 17. Find the charge on the capacitor at 3.8 V 1.28108 V . I = I0 e−t/(R C) V0 e−t/(R1 C) .09 s. = R1 Because I R1 = VR1 . Find the voltage across the 2 MΩ center-left resistor at time t′ = 2 s.3 µF S The switch is closed at t = 0. the switch 0 is moved from position “a” to position “b”. Correct answer: 3. see Figure (a).78058 V . VR1 = I R1 = V0 For the given values VR1 = (11 V) 2 × 106 Ω 6 × 106 Ω 6 ′ C R1 Req e−t /(Req C) ′ × e(−2 s)/[(6×10 Ω)(3×10−6 F)] Ω)(3×10−6 F)] = 3. thereby excluding the battery from the circuit. R1 V0 Figure (a) For an RC circuit. at some time t′ = 0 s. we have VR1 = V0 e−t1 /(R1 C) = (11 V) e(−5 s)/[(2×10 = 4. see Figure (b). Explanation: C R E S . 019 (part 1 of 3) 10.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) When the switch is closed to position “a”. see Figure (b) I = I0 e−t /(Req C) V0 −t′ /(Req C) e = Req because the capacitor has an initial potential across it of V0 .0 points Much later. Again.367 µC. the resistor R2 is not part of the circuit and may be disregarded.0 points 018 (part 2 of 2) 10. Explanation: Now the switch moves to position “b”. Thus. R2 R1 Figure (b) Note: The equivalent resistance of the circuit is Req = R1 + R2 = 2 × 106 Ω + 4 × 106 Ω = 6 × 106 Ω C 6 10 because R1 and R2 are in series.

3 µF = 1.45634 × 10−6 A) × (2.37229 × 10−5 W = 43.3 × 10−6 F .09 s the current in the resistor is I (Part 2) and the charge on the capacitor is q (Part 1).45634 µA . that is the power delivered by the battery is d Wbattery q =I IR+ dt C = (2. Correct answer: 2.0367 × 10−5 C) + (1. Explanation: At t = 3. 021 (part 3 of 3) 10. the power is Let : t = 3.3 × 10−6 F) d Wbattery dq =E =IE. dt C Thus the total power dissipated in the capacitor and resistor.367 µC . 020 (part 2 of 3) 10.09 s.09 s.09 s) Ω) (1.0 points Find the current in the resistor at 3. .7229 µW.09 s.3 × 10−6 F) (17. dt 11 The power to create the electric ﬁeld in a capacitor is d Wcapacitor q =I .3 × 10−6 F) = 2. I= E −t/(R C) e R 17.09 s . E = 17. At t = 3.0367 × 10−5 C = 10.3 × 10−6 F) = 4.45634 × 10−6 A) × (4 × 106 Ω) (1. dt dt and The power dissipated in a resistor is d Wresistor = I2 R . work done by the battery in pushing charge ∆q across the battery is ∆Wbattery = ∆q · E .0 points At 3.8 V .8 V)× 1 (4 × = 1.45634 × 10−6 A = 2. What is the power delivered by the battery? Correct answer: 43.luu (al34557) – HW7 – mackie – (10623) Correspondingly.8 V × = 4 × 106 Ω exp (4 × 106 − exp 106 −(3. −(3. C = 1. q = C E 1 − e−t/(R C) = (1.09 s) Ω) (1.45634 µA.7229 µW . Explanation: In the time interval ∆t. R = 4 MΩ = 4 × 106 Ω .

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