This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Period 3 & Group 2 – Selected Properties
1. Which of the following statements about the Period 3 oxides (from sodium to chloride) is true? A The bonding between the molecules becomes covalent across the period. B Silicon dioxide reacts with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. C Magnesium oxide readily dissolves in water. D Sodium oxide dissolves forming a solution with the highest pH. 2. An oxide of X dissolves in water forming a solution Y which readily absorbs carbon dioxide gas. X can form Y because X A is very reactive with water. B has very negative standard reduction potential. C forms a cation with a high charge density. D has many valence electrons. 3. Which of the following about Group 2 elements is true? A Beryllium chloride is ionic. B Barium sulphate is insoluble in water. C The nitrates when heated form nitrogen dioxide gas and metal oxides. D Barium has high charge density. 4. Which of the following oxides does not dissolve in water? A SO2 C Al2O3 B SiO2 D P4O10 5. Which of the following electronic configuration of elements is most likely to react with steam than water? A 1s22s22p63s1 C 1s22s22p63s23p1 2 2 6 2 B 1s 2s 2p 3s D 1s22s22p63s23p2
1. (a) Strontium is below calcium in the Periodic Table. (i) Write the valence electronic configuration of strontium atom. (ii) State how strontium reacts with water and write the equation for the reaction. (iii) Write the equation for the heating of strontium nitrate. State whether strontium nitrate has a higher thermal stability compared to calcium nitrate. (b) The oxides of aluminium and sulphur have different physical and chemical properties. (i) State one difference in the physical properties of both of them. (ii) Write equations for the reactions if any, of the oxides of these elements with aqueous acid and aqueous alkali.
1. (a) Describe the combustion in oxygen of sodium and phosphorus, writing equations for both reactions. (b) The oxides of sodium, silicon and phosphorus differ in their reactions with water. Write equations for the reactions and explain the difference in the reactions by referring to their structure and bonding. (c) Explain how you would differentiate two separate test tubes, one containing magnesium chloride and the other, barium chloride. State the reagent, observation and write equations for both.
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008
CHAPTER 1 Period 3 & Group 2 – Selected Properties
Multiple-choice Questions 1. D Sodium oxide, Na2O is basic. It dissolves readily in water forming an alkaline solution, NaOH, which has a very high pH. 2. B X is a basic oxide as it dissolves in water to form an alkaline solution which absorbs the acidic gas, carbon dioxide. X must have a very negative standard reduction potential as it is a very strong reducing agent. 3. B The sulphates of Group 2 elements are insoluble going down the group. 4. C Aluminium oxide is amphoteric. Therefore it does not dissolve in water due to its covalent nature. 5. B Group 2 element, magnesium has its oxide reacting with steam rather than water. Structured Question 1. (a) (i) 5s2 (ii) Strontium reacts vigorously with water liberating hydrogen gas. Sr + 2H2O → Sr(OH)2 + H2 (iii) 2Sr(NO3)2 → 2SrO + 4NO2 + O2 Strontium nitrate has a higher thermal stability than calcium nitrate. (b) (i) Aluminium oxide has a high melting point but sulphur dioxide has a low melting point. (ii) Aluminium oxide is amphoteric. It reacts with both acid and alkali. Al2O3 + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2O Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O → 2NaAl(OH)4 Sulphur dioxide is an acidic gas. It reacts only with alkali. SO2 + 2NaOH → Na2SO3 + H2O Essay Question 1. (a) When burning sodium metal is lowered in a jar with excess oxygen, sodium glows more brightly with a yellow flame, a yellow substance, sodium peroxide, an ionic compound is formed and in limited oxygen supply, sodium oxide is formed. Both the oxides are basic. 2Na(s) + O2(g) → Na2O2(s) 4Na(s) + O2(g) → 2Na2O(s) Phosphorus burns readily in air to form acidic oxides. White phosphorus burst into flames in the presence of oxygen. In the presence of excess oxygen, phosphorus pentoxide, P4O10 is formed. In a limited supply of oxygen, phosphorus trioxide, P4O6 is formed. Both the oxides are acidic. P4(s) + 5O2(g) → P4O10(s) P4(s) + 3O2(g) → P4O6(s) (b) Sodium peroxide and sodium oxide are basic oxide. They have giant ionic lattice structures. The bonds are ionic and they are easily broken when dissolved in water. The reaction is exothermic so the heat released is enough to break the bonds. Sodium peroxide readily dissolves in water forming sodium hydroxide (an alkaline solution) and hydrogen peroxide whereas sodium oxide dissolves in water forming an alkaline solution and water. Na2O2 + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2O2 Na2O + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2O P4O10 is a simple covalent molecule with weak van der Waals forces between them. It readily dissolves in water forming an acidic solution. P4O10 + 6H2O → 4H3PO4 Silicon dioxide exists as giant covalent molecules with strong Si – O covalent bonds. These bonds do not break in water, hence they are insoluble in water. (c) Add dilute sulphuric acid to both the test tubes and shake them. A white precipitate will form in the test tube that contains barium chloride as barium sulphate is insoluble in water but no precipitate will form with magnesium chloride as magnesium sulphate is soluble in water. MgCl2 + H2SO4 → MgSO4(aq) + 2HCl BaCl2 + H2SO4 → BaSO4(s) + 2HCl
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008
Group 13 - Aluminium
1. The element that does not belong to Group 13 of the Periodic Table is A boron C gallium B aluminium D rubidium 2. Which metal is protected by a layer of its own oxide? A Al C Au B Ag D Fe 3. Which of the following does not affect aluminium? A Oxygen C Alkali B Pure water D Acid 4. Cryolite is used in the electrolytic extraction of aluminium A to obtain pure aluminium. C to lower the melting point of bauxite. B to protect the anode. D as a reducing agent. 5. Most of the chemical properties of aluminium is due to the strong polarising power of Al3+ ion. From the following characteristics seen in aluminium compounds, which one cannot be explained by the polarising power factor? A High lattice energy of aluminium fluoride B The covalent characteristics seen in aluminium chloride bonding C The ability of the Al3+ ion to form complex compound D High hydration energy of Al3+ ion 6. In the manufacture of aluminium through the electrolysis process, the electrolyte is made up of a mixture containing cryolite, Na3AlF6, with aluminium oxide, Al2O3. One theory suggests that the reaction between the two compounds takes place as shown below. Na3AlF6 + Al2O3 → 3Al3+ + 3Na+ + 3O2– + 6F– The above reaction equation shows that A aluminium oxide behaves as an acid. B aluminium oxide behaves as a base. C aluminium oxide and cryolite undergo redox reactions. D cryolite helps aluminium oxide to form ions. 7. Although aluminium is a very reactive metal, as shown by its standard redox potential value of – 1.66 V, it is able to withstand corrosion. Which of the following statements below explains the above observation? A Al3+ ion has a high charge density. B Aluminium atoms are closely-packed. C Aluminium forms an oxide layer on its surface. D Aluminium forms an amphoteric compound.
1. (a) Aluminium chloride, Al2Cl6, is produced when aluminium reacts with chlorine gas. (i) Draw the structural formula for aluminium chloride. (ii) Write a balanced equation for the above reaction. (iii) State one use of aluminium chloride. (b) If 1.0 g of aluminium is used in the reaction in (a)(ii), 2.3 g of aluminium chloride will be produced. Calculate the percentage of product formed.
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008
(c) Explain the following statements: (i) Aluminium chloride sublimes at 180 °C. (ii) The aqueous solution of aluminium chloride shows acidic characteristics. 2. (a) Aluminium hydroxide is precipitated out when carbon dioxide gas is allowed to flow through an aluminate solution. (i) Write an equation to represent the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide. (ii) Write an equation to show the heating of aluminium hydroxide. (b) Aluminium can be obtained from aluminium oxide by electrolysis method. (i) What is the electrolyte used? (ii) What is the function of the electrolyte. (iii) What are the ions which will carry electrical charges during the electrolysis of aluminium oxide?
1. (a) With reference to the physical and chemical characteristics of the aluminium ion, describe the characteristics of the aluminium salt aqueous solution. (b) Explain the following using correct equations. (i) Reaction between anhydrous aluminium chloride with water. (ii) Why aluminium carbonate cannot be prepared from a solution containing Al3+ ions.
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008
CHAPTER 2 Aluminium
Multiple-choice Questions 1. D Rubidium is in Group 1. The others are in Group 13. 2. A Al is protected from corrosion by Al2O3. 3. B Aluminium does not react with pure water at room temperature. 4. C Cryolite lowers the melting point of pure bauxite from 2000 °C to 900 °C. 5. A High lattice energy of aluminium fluoride is due to high ionic charge and also small size of fluoride ion. 6. D 7. C Aluminium reacts with air to form a protective layer of aluminium oxide, Al2O3 on its surface. Structured Questions 1. (a) (i) Cl Al Cl Al
ions. The complex ions react with water and forms H3O+ ion. [Al(H2O)6]3+ + H2O → [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ + H3O+ 2. (a) (i) 2[Al(OH)4]– + CO2 → 2Al(OH)3 + CO32– + H2O (ii) 2Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3H2O (b) (i) Cryolite / Sodium hexafluoroaluminate (ii) To decrease the melting point of aluminium oxide so that electrolysis can be carried out at a lower temperature. (iii) Al3+, O2–
Essay Question 1. (a) Al3+ ion is surrounded by six molecules of H2O forming [Al(H2O)6]3+ complex ion.
H2O OH2 Al OH OH2 2 OH2
Cl Cl Cl (ii) 2Al + 3Cl2 → Al2Cl6 (iii) As catalyst (b) From the equation 2Al + 3Cl2 → Al2Cl6 2 mol Al produces 1 mol Al2Cl6 ∴ 54 g Al produces 267 g Al2Cl6 1.0 1.0 g Al produces — — 267 54 = 4.94 g Al2Cl6 2.3 % of product = —— —— 100% = 46.6% 4.94 (c) (i) Aluminium chloride gas has strong covalent bonding within the molecule but weak van der Waals forces of attraction between molecules. (ii) The aqueous solution of aluminium chloride contains [Al(H2O)6]3+ complex
The Al3+ ion has a high charge and a small size, therefore the charge density is high. This causes Al3+ ion to have high polarising power, enabling it to pull the electrons from water molecules and weakening the O – H bond in water. The H+ ion can be easily released causing the aqueous solution containing Al3+ ion to be acidic. (b) (i) Anhydrous Al2Cl6 is hydrolysed in water to form a cation [Al(H2O)6]3+ Al2Cl6 + 12H2O → 2[Al(H2O)6]3+ + 6Cl– (ii) CO32– is a strong base so the following reaction occurs. [Al(H2O)4(OH)2]+ + CO32– → Al(H2O)3(OH)3 + HCO3–
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008
a soluble complex is formed. D the precipitate CaCO3 will react with an excess of CO2 to form CaO. bottles and light bulbs Making decorative glass. (a) Elements of Group 14 can react with chlorine to form tetrachlorides. the solution becomes increasingly acidic and CaCO3 will decompose. Sn. 4. When CO2 gas is passed through limewater. Ge. D ceramic is less brittle. B as more and more CO2 gas dissolves. Which of the following combination is incorrect? Glass Use Making normal mirrors. name the process (if any) and write the equation for the reaction that has taken place Reaction with water CCl4 SiCl4 PbCl4 6 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. is a type of mica which can be broken into thin layers. Which industrial use reflect the hardness of diamond and the softness of graphite? Diamond Graphite Lubricant Pencil lead Electrode Moderator A B C D Drill head Insulator Glass cutter Abrasive Structured Question 1. the solution becomes increasingly acidic. C ceramic cannot be oxidised. The table below shows a few types of glass and their uses. Muscovite. If an excess of CO2 is passed through.3 Group 14 – C. The advantages of ceramic over iron and steel are as follows except that A the density of ceramic is lower. the white precipitate dissolves because A as more and more CO2 gas dissolves. (008974-T) 2008 Reaction equation . prisms and lenses Making laboratory apparatus Making cookware A B C D Soda glass Lead glass Borosilicate glass Quartz glass 5. 2. What type of force holds the thin layers together in muscovite? A Electrostatic force of attraction C Hydrogen bonds between layers B Van der Waals forces of attraction D Metallic bonds between layers 3. C as more and more CO2 gas dissolves. a white precipitate of CaCO3 is formed. KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2. B ceramic is an electrical conductor. hence CaCO3 changes to CaHCO3 which is soluble. Pb Multiple-choice Questions 1. (i) In the table below. windows. Si. Bhd.
carbon dioxide is a gas whereas silicon dioxide is a solid with high melting point. Explain this statement. (c) Write all the formulae for the oxides of carbon and lead and discuss the respective oxides with respect to their (i) acid-base characteristics (ii) redox characteristics Write one reaction equation for each of the above characteristics. 74% SiO2 (i) Glass X is called soda glass. Type of glass Glass X Glass Y Composition 14% Na2O. (a) What is the relative stability of the +2 oxidation state compared to the +4 oxidation state for the oxides of Group 14 elements when going down the group? (b) (i) Draw the structure of carbon dioxide and silicon dioxide. 12% CaO. (ii) State two reasons for the addition of B2O3 to glass Y.(ii) Explain the differences in the reaction with water between the three tetrachlorides. State the name of glass Y. 74% SiO2 5% Na2O. (b) The composition of two types of glass X and Y is shown below. Bhd. Essay Question 1. (008974-T) 2008 7 . © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 17% B2O3. 4% CaO. (ii) Although the bonding in carbon dioxide and silicon dioxide is covalent.
A Hardness of diamond enables the diamond to be used in drill heads. (c) Oxides of carbon: CO. B Van der Waals forces exist between the layers of molecules. (008974-T) 2008 . PbO + 2H+ → Pb2+ + H2O PbO + 2OH– + H2O → Pb(OH)42– (ii) CO is a strong reducing agent. Sn. For CCl4. the carbon atom does not have an empty d orbital and the C – Cl covalent bond is very strong. D Ceramic is not less brittle but more brittle and breaks easily when dropped. PbO + H2 → Pb + H2O PbO2 is also an oxidising agent. PbO2 + C → Pb + CO2 (ii) For SiCl4 and PbCl4. (b) (i) Borosilicate glass (ii) To increase the softening level of glass To decrease the thermal expansion coefficient so that the glass does not break even if there is a sudden increase in temperature Essay Question 1. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 O PbO and PbO2 are amphoteric. 3. Si. Ge. 5. CO2 is a weak acid which partially dissociates in water to form carbonic acid. (a) When going down the group. CO + PbO → Pb + CO2 CO2 can behave as an oxidising agent. D Ouartz glass cannot withstand high temperature hence is not suitable for making cookware. CO2 Oxides of lead: PbO. Both oxides can dissolve in dilute acid and dilute base. the stability of the +2 oxidation state increases whereas the stability of the +4 oxidation state decreases. Silicon dioxide has a giant molecular structure. 8 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. A CO2 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + H2O CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca(HCO3)2 2. Pb Multiple-choice Questions 1. Structured Question 1. (a) (i) Reaction with water CCl4 SiCl4 PbCl4 No reaction Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Reaction equation – SiCl4 + 2H2O → SiO2 + 4HCl PbCl4 + 2H2O → PbO2 + 4HCl (b) (i) O=C=O ⏐ O ⏐ Si O O Si ⏐ Si Si ⏐ (ii) Carbon dioxide is a simple molecule and has weak intermolecular van der Waals forces of attraction.ANSWER CHAPTER 3 Group 14 – C. CO2 + 2Mg → C + 2MgO PbO is an oxidising agent. Bhd. 4. the central atom has empty d orbitals which can accept and share the lone pair electrons from O atoms of water molecules. PbO2 (i) CO is neutral and does not dissolve in water. The +2 oxidation state will easily be oxidised to +4. The ability of layers in the graphite to slide over one another gives the soft property of graphite and it is used as a lubricant.
Nitrogen forms three common oxides: nitrogen oxide. a dark blue solution is formed. Most metals burn readily in oxygen to form metal oxides. 2. D Both central atoms achieve the octet electronic configuration. 3 The equilibrium of the reaction shifts to the right with increased pressure. Nitrogen dioxide exists in equilibrium with its dimer. When excess aqueous ammonia is added to copper(II) ions solution. 6. Which of the following compounds of nitrogen has an odd electron? A NO2 C HNO3 B NH3 D N2O4 3. Which of the following statements is/are true of the equilibrium? 1 The dimerisation of nitrogen dioxide is exothermic. nitrogen tetroxide in the following equation: 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) The intensity of brown colour decreases when the temperature is lowered. (a) Name the oxides of nitrogen that have an unpaired electron at the central atom. 2 and 3 are correct 5. (008974-T) 2008 9 . (b) Name the oxides that have delocalisation of electrons between the N atom and the O atom. D Oxygen has more valence electrons than nitrogen. C Both dissolve in sodium hydroxide solution. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. What is the role of ammonia in this reaction? 1 As ligand 3 As a Bronsted-Lowry base 2 As a Lewis base Structured Question 1. Bhd. B Both are non-polar molecules. 2 The equilibrium of the reaction shifts to the left with increased temperature. C Oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen. Carbon and nitrogen both form dioxides. Which of the following is true of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide? A Both are linear molecules. nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide.4 Group 15 – Nitrogen and its Compounds Multiple-choice Questions 1. B Nitrogen has very high atomisation energy. A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. Which of the following shows the bonding in nitrogen dioxide? A N C N O B O N O O D O O N O O 4. However metal nitrites are only formed when metal reacts with nitrogen at high temperature. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon? A Nitrogen atom has a stable half-filled p orbital in its electron arrangement.
10 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (b) The oxides of nitrogen cause environmental pollution. Illustrate your answer with balanced equations. (i) Identify one oxide of nitrogen that causes acid rain. Write an equation for the formation. Essay Question 1. Write a balanced equation showing its formation. relatively few compounds exist as nitrides compare to oxides. Explain this phenomenon. (e) Name the oxide that is formed when ammonia reacts with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst. (008974-T) 2008 . (d) Name the oxide that dissolves in rain water to produce acid rain. Bhd. (ii) Identify one oxide of nitrogen that causes photochemical smog. However. Explain how these oxides of nitrogen cause pollution. (a) Nitrogen gas is the major component in atmospheric air. Write a balanced equation for the formation.(c) Name the oxide that is formed in the internal combustion of automobiles.
N ≡ N. 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O Essay Question 1. NO2 dissolves in rain water to produce nitrous acid and nitric acid. CO2 can dissolve in water to form acidic solution. D When the temperature is lowered. 2. Bhd. Dimerisation of NO2 to form N2O4 loses heat (exothermic). N2 + O2 → 2NO NO2. 6. Increased temperature shifts equilibrium to the left to absorb heat. Hence it has a very high atomisation energy. D Resonance occurs in NO2 • • N ↔ N → N O O O O O O 4. B Nitrogen gas has triple covalent bond between two nitrogen atoms. dimerises to form N2O4. The N ≡ N bond has very high bond energy / very short bond length. C Structure of CO2 and NO2 are as follows: N O=C=O O O Structured Question 1. 2NO2 + H2O → HNO2 + HNO3 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2 → 4HNO3 (ii) NO2. (008974-T) 2008 11 . nitrogen dioxide causes photochemical smog. H2CO3. (a) Nitrogen gas is relatively inert compared to oxygen gas.ANSWER CHAPTER 4 Group 15 – Nitrogen and its Compunds Multiple-choice Questions 1. 2NO2 + H2O → HNO2 + HNO3 NO. NO2 can dissolve in water to form acidic solution. nitrogen dioxide causes acid rain. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) NO. hence NH3 acts as a ligand and Lewis base. A Lewis structure of NO2 • N O O 3. Hence both CO2 and NO2 can react with NaOH to form salts. 2+ H3N Cu H3N NH3 NH3 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. B A complex ion [Cu(NH3)4]2+ is formed. NO2 which is a brown gas. HNO3. NO2 NO2. N2O4 NO. This is because the two N atoms in nitrogen gas are held by a very strong triple bond. it dissociates to NO2. Ultraviolet light causes the formation of oxygen radical from nitrogen dioxide. Furthermore. Increased pressure shifts equilibrium to the right to decrease the pressure by decreasing the number of moles of gases. the nitrogen molecule is linear and non-polar. A lot of energy is required to dissociate N2 molecule / very high atomisation energy to produce N atoms for reaction. NO2(g) → NO(g) + O•(g) The oxygen radical produced then reacts with oxygen molecule to form ozone molecule. 5. Lone pair of electrons on N of NH3 is shared with Cu2+ ion. (b) (i) NO2. When N2O4 absorbs heat. O•(g) + O2(g) → O3(g) The ozone combines with nitrogen dioxide and the unsaturated hydrocarbon from incomplete combustion of fuels to form smog.
(ii) Write an equation for the reaction. I Multiple-choice Questions 1. (008974-T) 2008 . D Silver astatide is soluble in dilute ammonia solution. (a) When chlorine is passed into an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. 3NaClO ⎯→ 2NaCl + NaClO3 ∆ What are the oxidation states of these chlorine compounds? NaClO NaCl +1 +1 –1 –1 NaClO3 +5 +7 +5 +7 A B C D –1 –1 +1 +1 3. B Astatine is the strongest oxidising agents compared to other halogens. HAt. the smell of chlorine disappears. Which of the following hydrides decomposes most easily when heated? A H–F B H – Cl C H – Br D H–I 4. Bhd. C Hydrogen astatide. (i) Explain why the smell of chlorine disappears. Astatine is the last member of Group 17 elements. (iii) How do you classify this type of reaction? 12 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 2 and 3 are correct 6. Which of the following is not produced when potassium iodide is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid? A SO3 C I2 B NaHSO4 D HI 5. is a colourless gas. Which of the following statements is true? A Astatine has the lowest melting point compared to other halogens. Which of the following property / properties decrease(s) on descending Group 17 from chlorine to iodine? 1 The boiling points of the halogens 2 The electronegativity of the halogens 3 The oxidising power of the halogens Structured Question 1.5 Group 17: Cl. NaClO3 is obtained by heating NaClO. 2. Which of the following chlorine compounds is a covalent molecule? A BaCl2 C AgCl B AlCl3 D KClO3 A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. Br.
(ii) Write an equation for the reaction. (iii) How do you classify this type of reaction? Essay Question 1. violet fumes are produced. (008974-T) 2008 13 . (i) Explain the observation. Explain the following: (a) The reactivity between hydrogen and halogens decreases in the order: Cl2 > Br2 > I2 (b) When chlorine is passed into sodium iodide solution. Bhd. (c) Concentrated sulphuric acid is not suitable for the preparation of hydrogen bromide from sodium bromide. the solution turns brown. © Oxford Fajar Sdn.(b) When a red-hot platinum wire is placed inside a gas jar of hydrogen iodide.
which are odourless. (008974-T) 2008 . instead of getting hydrogen bromide. NaBr(s) + H2SO4(l) → NaHSO4(s) + HBr(g) But concentrated sulphuric acid is also an oxidising agent. sodium chloride and sodium chlorate(I). 14 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. HBr and HI are all colourless gases. a mixture of gases is produced. B Metal chlorides are usually ionic compounds. C 3. (b) When chlorine is passed into sodium iodide solution. I Multiple-choice Questions 1. Chlorine is simultaneously oxidised to ClO– and reduced to Cl–. Essay Question 1. A H2SO4 is reduced to SO2 and not SO3. HBr is oxidised by concentrated sulphuric acid to form bromine. (a) (i) The chlorine gas is converted to the salts.ANSWER CHAPTER 5 Group 17: Cl. Bhd. the weaker the bond. 2. (a) Under suitable conditions. hydrogen bromide is produced. The halogens oxidise hydrogen to hydrogen halides. H – I bonds break to form hydrogen and the violet fumes of iodine. 5. 2HBr(g) + H2SO4(l) → Br2(g) + 2H2O(l) + SO2(g) So. Cl2(g) + 2NaI(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + I2(aq) (c) When concentrated sulphuric acid reacts with sodium bromide. Aqueous sodium iodide is colourless but aqueous iodine is brown. Br. HCl. hydrogen reacts with halogens to form hydrogen halides. H2(g) + X2(g) 2HX(g) This is a redox reaction. HF. 4. (b) (i) At temperatures above 200 °C. D The longer the bond length. The order of reactivity decreases on descending the group because the oxidising power of the halogens decreases as the sizes of the halogens increase. C Hydrogen halides. (ii) 2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) (iii) This is a thermal decomposition reaction. C Structured Question 1. (ii) Cl2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + NaClO(aq) + H2O(l) (iii) This is a disproportionation reaction. 6. the solution turns brown because chlorine oxidises iodide ions to iodine. AlCl3 is covalent and exists as Al2Cl6 at room conditions.
5. (008974-T) 2008 15 . Bhd. B The 3d orbitals on the Zn atom are completely filled. B Oxides of iron include FeO and Fe2O3. a colourless solution containing the complex ion Zn(NH3)42+ results. Which of the following does not indicate the properties of a transition element? A Iron reacts with dilute acid to liberate hydrogen gas. [Cu(en)(NH3)2]Cl2? Oxidation number Coordination number 2 2 4 6 A B C D +1 +2 +2 +2 7. C The oxygen atom in a water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons but both pairs are used to form a single coordinate covalent bond to a metal atom. © Oxford Fajar Sdn.6 Introduction to the Chemistry of d-block Elements Multiple-choice Questions 1. Which of the following best explains why this solution is colourless? A The 3d orbitals are full. B has a charge of +2 or –2. D All transition elements react with dilute acid to produce hydrogen gas. C forms complex ions with a charge of +2 or –2. When a concentrated solution of NH3 is added to a solution containing Zn(NO3)2. A bidentate ligand always A has bonds formed to two metal ions. thus cannot be split. 2. Which one of the following elements exhibits only one oxidation state in its compounds? A Copper B Titanium C Tin D Scandium 4. thus. D A blood red colouration is formed when potassium thiocyanate is added to ferric chloride solution. B All transition elements have more than one valency. 6. D has two donor atoms. C Iron is used in the manufacture of ammonia. What are the oxidation number and coordination number in the coordination compound. D The oxygen atom in a water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons but the second lone pair is not close enough to a second coordination site to form a coordinate bond. Which of the following statements is correct regarding transition elements? A All transition elements exhibit oxidation states of +1 to +7. 3. an electron cannot be transferred between the split 3d orbitals. C All transition elements have completely filled 4s orbitals. B Each hydrogen atom in a water molecule has only one electron to form a coordinate bond to a metal ion. Which one of the following best explains why water is a monodentate ligand? A The oxygen atom in a water molecule has only one lone pair of electrons that can be used to form a coordinate bond to a metal ion.
rhodium and palladium are transition metals that are used in catalytic converters to reduce pollution from vehicle exhausts. the Co(H2O)62+ ion is pink and the CoCl42– ion is blue. State and explain the role of these transition elements in this process. (b) Explain why hydrated copper(II) sulphate is coloured whereas copper(I) sulphate is white. B The colour of the solution will become blue. will change because HCl is a strong acid. (c) In aqueous solutions.C The Zn atom does not have any 4s electrons. When solid CoCl2 is dissolved in water. A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. thus an electron cannot be transferred between the split 4s orbitals. (a) Complete the table. (a) Write the electronic configuration for Cu2+ ion and Cu+ ion. Ion Number of electrons in the 3d subshell Number of unpaired electrons Colour of the aqueous ion Ti3+ Co2+ Cu2+ (b) The metals – platinum. (008974-T) 2008 . (i) What do you understand by the term disproportionation? (ii) Write an equation to show the disproportionation of Cu+ in water. 2 The iron ion undergoes a change in oxidation state. The hexaaquairon(III) ion hydrolyses as shown below. 2. but not CoCl42–. the following equilibrium is established: Co(H2O)62+(aq) + 4Cl– (aq) CoCl42–(aq) + 6H2O(l) In aqueous solution. Structured Questions 1. Which of the following reactions show(s) the formation of complex ion by the replacement of ligand? 1 [Pb(OH)2]2– + 2H2O2 → PbO2 + 2H2O + 2OH– 2 [Cu(H2O)4]2+ + 4NH3 → [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 4H2O 3 [Fe(H2O)6]3+ + SCN– → [Fe(SCN)(H2O)5]2+ + H2O 10. 3 The above hydrolysis is favoured under low pH conditions. [Fe(H2O)6]3+ + H2O [Fe(H2O)5OH]2+ + H3O+ Which of the following statements about the above equilibrium is/are correct? 1 The corresponding iron(III) ion [Fe(H2O)5OH]2+ is less likely to undergo hydrolysis. 16 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 8. D The Zn atom does not have any unpaired electrons which are necessary in order to transfer an electron between the split 3d orbitals. Copper exhibits oxidation states of +1 and +2 in its compound. 2 and 3 are correct 9. Bhd. C The shape of Co(H2O)62+ is octahedral whereas the shape of CoCl42– is tetrahedral. Which of the following best describes what will happen when a concentrated solution of HCl is added to the CoCl2 solution without changing the volume significantly? A The colour of the CoCl2 solution will not change because the solution of HCl is colourless. Cu+ disproportionates to Cu2+ and Cu. D The number of unpaired electrons in Co(H2O)62+.
© Oxford Fajar Sdn. (c) When aqueous ammonia is gradually added to aqueous copper(II) sulphate. (a) Explain what do you understand by the term stability constant? (b) When ammonia is added to a solution of nickel(II) sulphate. (i) Explain why Cr 6+(aq) ion does not exist but Cr(VI) exists as CrO42– and Cr2O72– ions.Essay Questions 1. Explain the observations as fully as you can. (b) (i) Use the standard electrode potential values from the Data Booklet to discuss the oxidation of Cr 3+ to dichromate(VI) ions by hydrogen peroxide. Bhd. Use your equation in (b)(i) to suggest why alkaline conditions are used. the effect of acid on the aqueous chromate(VI) ion. (ii) This oxidation of Cr 3+ by hydrogen peroxide is more satisfactorily achieved under alkaline conditions. (008974-T) 2008 17 . 2. (ii) Explain with an equation. (a) Two common oxidation states of chromium are +3 and +6. the solution turned from green to pale blue. Discuss the stability constant of the complex [Ni(NH3)6]2+. a blue precipitate is formed initially but dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to give a deep blue solution. This deep blue solution lightens considerably on the addition of an aqueous solution of EDTA.
Fe is still in +3 oxidation state in [Fe(H2O)6OH]2+ (2 is incorrect). a light blue precipitate Cu(OH)2 is formed. A Other metals besides transition metals react with dilute acids to liberate hydrogen gas. the more stable the complex. It shows only one oxidation state. 6. (008974-T) 2008 . it is a redox reaction. Dative or coordinate bonds can be formed as these metals have empty d orbitals to allow adsorption to take place. equilibrium is shifted to the left and hydrolysis is depressed (3 is incorrect). The higher the K value. D Scandium is a d-block element but it is not a transition element. [Ni(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 6NH3(g) green [Ni(NH3)6]2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) pale blue [Ni(NH3)62+] K = ———————— ——————— [Ni(H2O)62+][NH3]6 K is the stability constant for [Ni(NH3)6]2+ complex ion. M(aq) + nL [MLn] K = ———n ——— [M][L] MLn(aq) 2 Cl– 7. A Oxidation number of Cu = +2 Coordination number = 4 Valence electronic configuration of Zn2+ ion is 3d10. 2. (a) Cu2+ : 1s22s22p63s23p63d 9 Cu+: 1s22s22p63s23p63d10 (b) The 3d orbitals of Cu+ are all fully filled. The change of colour from green to pale blue shows that the [Ni(NH3)6]2+ complex ion has a high stability constant and that the equilibrium lies to the right. D Water molecules has two lone pairs of electrons in a tetrahedron shape orbital. If the pH is low. (a) Stability constant. B 9. Cu2+(aq) + 2OH– → Cu(OH)2(s) The light blue precipitate Cu(OH)2 dissolves in excess ammonia to form [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex ion which is soluble in water to give a deep blue solution. 3. [Ni(NH3)6]2+ is more stable than [Ni(H2O)6]2+. +3 in the Sc3+ ion. In 1. (ii) 2Cu+ → Cu + Cu2+ Co2+ 7 3 Cu2+ 9 1 2. 4. Bhd. NH3 is a stronger ligand than H2O. (a) Ion Ti3+ 1 Number of electrons in the 3d subshell 1 Number of unpaired electrons Colour of the aqueous ion Violet Pink Blue (b) These transition metals act as heterogeneous catalysts. the ligands H2O in the complexes are replaced by ligands NH3 and SCN–. K. In 2 and 3. hence the second lone pair of electrons is too far away (big angle) to form another coordinate bond with the central metal ion. Structured Questions 1. the oxidation state of Pb charges from 0 to +4. the 3d orbitals of Cu2+ are not fully filled and d-d transition can occur. is the equilibrium constant for the formation of the complex ion from its constituent ions/atoms/molecules. hence there is no transfer of electrons between the split energy levels of 3d orbitals. equilibrium occurs. When aqueous ammonia is added to copper(II) sulphate solution. Hence 2 and 3 are correct. B Transition elements have electrons which can be removed from s orbitals and also d orbitals hence they have variable oxidation states and more than one valency. C The compound has the following structure NH3 en C Cu NH3 2+ (c) (i) Disproportionation is a reaction in which a substance is both oxidised and reduced simultaneously. C 10. the Cl– from HCl reacts with Co(H2O)62+(aq) to form the blue complex CoCl42–. In the complex ion. Fe2+ has a lower charge density hence less likely to undergo hydrolysis (1 is correct). (c) CuSO4 dissolves in water forming a blue coloured solution of [Cu(H2O)6]2+. B 8. 18 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Hence no d-d transition can take place. the split 3d orbitals are completely filled. However. When HCl is added to CoCl2 solution. D A bidentate ligand has two lone pairs of electrons on two donor atoms for sharing with central metal ion.ANSWER CHAPTER 6 Introduction to the Chemistry of d-block Elements Multiple-choice Questions 1. Essay Questions 1. 5. at constant temperature (b) When ammonia is added to nickel(II) sulphate.
(a) (i) Cr 6+ ion has very high charge density. The equilibrium will shift to the right. 2. (b) (i) H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e– → 2H2O(l). E θred = +1. E θox = – 1.Cu(OH)2(s) + 4NH3(aq) → [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) When an aqueous solution of EDTA is added to the copper complex. This implies that the [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex is less stable than the [Cu(EDTA)]2– complex. [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq) + EDTA4–(aq) → [Cu(EDTA)]2–(aq) + 4NH3(aq) The reaction shows the displacement of weaker NH3 ligand by the stronger EDTA4– ligand. (ii) 2H+ + 2CrO42– Cr2O72– + H2O In acidic condition. Formation of Cr 6+ requires very high ionisation energy that results in high instability. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. the hydrogen ion produced will be removed by the alkali. Oxidation of Cr3+ would be easier. the deep blue solution of [Cu(NH3)4]2+ turns lighter due to formation of the lighter coloured Cu(EDTA)2– complex ion.77 V 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) → Cr2O72–(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e– . Bhd. (ii) In alkaline condition. CrO42– and Cr2O72– have delocalised bonding. CrO42– converts to Cr2O72–. thus are more stable. Ecell > 0 Cr3+ is oxidised to Cr2O72– while H2O2 is reduced to H2O. (008974-T) 2008 19 .33 V 2Cr3+(aq) + 3H2O2(aq) + H2O(l) → Cr2O72–(aq) + 8H+(aq).
OCH3 C=O The functional group present in R is A carboxylic acid B aldehyde C ester D ketone 4. 2 and 3 are correct 6.7 The Chemistry of Carbon Multiple-choice Questions 1. The reaction between hydroxide ion and the organic compound. What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon? (The volumes of all gases were measured at room conditions. The compound R has the structural formula shown below. Which type of isomerism is shown by each of the following organic compounds? CH3CH = CHCH3 CH3CH(NH2)COOH Geometric Geometric Optical Geometric C2H5CH = CHBr Geometric Optical Geometric Optical A B C D Optical Optical Geometric Geometric A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. What is the bond angle of the C – C – C bonds in CH3C ≡ CH? A 120 ° C 107 ° B 180 ° D 109. 240 cm3 of carbon dioxide and 0. R – X can be represented by the equation R – X + OH– → R – OH + X– where R is the alkyl group and X is an electronegative element.0 dm3) A C2H6 C C3H6 B C3H8 D C4H10 3. The molar volume of any gas at room conditions is 24. Bhd.5 ° 5. One mole of a hydrocarbon produces four moles of water when burnt in excess oxygen. (008974-T) 2008 .0125 mol of water were produced. In the above reaction. the hydroxide ion acts as a 1 Bronsted-Lowry base 2 Lewis base 3 nucleophile 20 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. The formula of the hydrocarbon is A CH3CH2CH3 C CH3CH = CH2 B CH3CH2CH2CH3 D CH3C6H4CH3 2 When 60 cm3 of a hydrocarbon were burnt completely in oxygen.
The structural formula of limonene is shown below. (b) The pKa values for three carboxylic acids are given below. Two compounds with the molecular formula. Compound Benzoic acid 4-methylbenzoic acid 4-nitrobenzoic acid pKa 4.7. 29. (008974-T) 2008 21 .7% H = 14.forms Structured Question 1. Explain your answer. Write (i) the empirical formula. C2H2Br2. © Oxford Fajar Sdn.20 4. (ii) different from each other? Essay Question 1.43 Explain the relative strengths of these acids. 27. Bhd. (ii) the molecular formula of limonene.34 3. C = 85. The percentage composition (by mass) of the hydrocarbon is as follows. (a) The mass spectrum of a straight chain hydrocarbon shows the main peaks at m/e 56. Which of the following hydrocarbons contain(s) delocalised electrons? CH3 1 2 3 CH3 – C ≡ C – CH3 C(CH3)4 8.and l.3 % Write the structural formula of a hydrocarbon that can give the results described above. 15. What type of stereoisomerism is shown by limonene? In which ways are the isomers (i) similar to each other. Limonene has a lemon odour and is found in oils from citrus fruits. CH3 C CH3 CH2 (a) (b) (c) (d) Write the displayed formula of the limonene molecule. are expected to 1 exhibit structural isomerism 2 exhibit cis-trans isomerism 3 exist in d.
(a) H H H C C C C H H H H H C H H C H * C H H C C H H C H (i) C5H8 (ii) C10H16 (c) Limonene has a chiral carbon. Step 2 Calculate the number of hydrogen atoms per molecule of hydrocarbon 60 60 cm3 of CxHy contains ————— ———— 24 1000 = 0.and l-forms have the same molecular and structural formulae. *C. (b) The smaller the pKa value. the three carbon atoms are arranged linearly.0025 mol CxHy produces 0. D Step 1 Calculate the number of carbon atoms per molecule of hydrocarbon 60 cm3 of CxHy produces 240 cm3 CO2. y = 8 2. OH– ion does not act as a Bronsted-Lowry base in this reaction because it does not accept a proton from RX. Fragments from mass spectrum m/e 29 : C2H5+ m/e 27 : CH = CH2+ m/e 15 : CH3+ Structural formula: CH3CH2CH = CH2. (d) Limonene exists as d. (ii) Difference The d-form rotates the plane of planepolarised light to the right. ∴ 1 molecule of CxHy contains 4 carbon atoms. B The carbon atom in the C ≡ C bond uses sp hybrid orbitals for bond formation. (008974-T) 2008 Structured Question 1. C δ+ δ– R ⎯ X + OH– → R – OH + X– OH– is a nucleophile and attacks the alkyl group which has low electron density. Hence. The methyl . 1 mol of CxHy produces —— — 60 = 4 mol of CO2. Molecular formula from mass spectrum: Mr as shown in the mass spectrum = 56 nCH2 = 56 14n = 56. Step 3 Formula of hydrocarbon Formula of hydrocarbon is C4H10. Hence it exhibits optical isomerism. B H H H Br ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ Structural isomerism C = C C = C ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ Br Br H Br H H H Br ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ Cis-trans isomerism C=C C=C ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ Br Br Br H cis trans 22 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 240 That is.14 1 H 14. 0. ∴ n = 4 ∴ Molecular formula is C4H8. (i) Similarity Both the d. A Only benzene ring contains delocalised electrons.and l-forms.3 —— —— 1 = 14. 4. C The structural formula can be written as C6H5COOCH3. the stronger the acid. Essay Question 1. (a) Empirical formula from composition by mass Element Number of moles C 85. ∴ 1 molecule of CxHy contains 10 hydrogen atoms. They have the same physical and chemical properties. 7.0125 mol H2O. A nucleophile is also a Lewis base. the acid strength increases in the order: 4-methylbenzoic acid < benzoic acid < 4-nitrobenzoic acid 4-methylbenzoic acid is a weaker acid than benzoic acid because the methyl group is electron-donating (+I effect). Thus R is methyl benzoate. ∴ 1 mol of CxHy produces 5 mol of H2O. Bhd.7 —— —— 12 = 7. Thus.ANSWER CHAPTER 7 The Chemistry of Carbon Multiple-choice Questions 1.3 2 (b) Simplest ratio Empirical formula is CH2. C 6. 5.0025 mol of CxHy. A CxHy → 4H2O Hence. The ester group is – COO–. The l-form rotates the plane of planepolarised light to the left. 8. 3.
This makes the loss of proton more difficult. (008974-T) 2008 23 . Bhd. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. The nitro group stabilises the carboxylate ion and thus the acidity increases.group destabilises the carboxylate anion by increasing the charge density of oxygen atom in the C – O bond. Thus the acid strength decreases. 4 – nitrobenzoic acid is a stronger acid than benzoic acid because the nitro group is electron-withdrawing (–I effect).
a mixture of CH2BrCH2Br and CH2BrCH2OH are produced. Which of these isomers has the lowest boiling point? A (CH3)2CHCH(CH3)2 C CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH3 B (CH3)2CHCH2CH2CH3 D C2H5C(CH3)3 3.25 g of Q required 207. A mixture containing a little ethane and a large quantity of bromine gas is exposed to ultraviolet light.t.p. 2 and 3 are correct 6.3-cyclohexadiene are given below.8 Hydrocarbons Multiple-choice Questions 1. for complete hydrogenation. The structural formula of P could be 1 CH2 = CH – CH = CH2 2 CH3C ≡ C – CH3 3 CH2 – C = CH2 CH2 24 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (008974-T) 2008 . 0. What was the volume of gas absorbed by aqueous sodium hydroxide? A 15 cm3 C 25 cm3 B 20 cm3 D 30 cm3 4. The enthalpies of hydrogenation of cyclohexene and 1. the residual gases were passed through aqueous sodium hydroxide. X and Y are probably X Y Bromine water Sodium bromide solution Ethene Ethene A B C D Ethene Ethene HBr(g) Br2 vapour 5. P. 10 cm3 of methane and 10 cm3 of ethane were mixed with excess oxygen and the mixture was exploded. The relative molecular mass of a hydrocarbon. Bhd. The following hydrocarbons are isomers of hexane. ∆H1 = –120 kJ mol–1 cyclohexane . When X (a gas) reacts with Y. Which of the following bromoalkanes is the principle product of reaction? A CH3CH2Br C BrCH2CH2Br B CH3CHBr2 D CBr3CBr3 2. ∆H2 = –232 kJ mol–1 The enthalpy of hydrogenation when 1 mol of benzene reacts with three moles of hydrogen is A – (3 120) kJ mol–1 C –208 kJ mol 3 –1 B – (— 232 ) kJ mol D –152 kJ mol–1 2 A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. + H2 + 2H2 cyclohexane . is 54.4 cm3 of hydrogen at s. After cooling to room temperature.
They are used as flavouring agents and in perfumes. Name and write the structural formula of an isomer of 1. reacts with an electrophile. (c) Outline the steps for the conversion of benzene to (i) (chloromethyl)benzene. (008974-T) 2008 25 . Bhd.1.7-dimethyl-2. Which of the following reagents react(s) with benzene by addition reaction? 1 Concentrated sulphuric acid 2 Hydrogen gas in the presence of nickel at 150 °C 3 Chlorine in the presence of ultraviolet light 8. (b) Based on your explanation given above. (CH3)2C = CHCH2CH2C(CH3) = CHCH2OH geraniol (CH3)2C = CHCH2CH2C(CH3)(OH)CH = CH2 linalool (a) The IUPAC name for geraniol is 3. E+. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Write the displayed formula of this compound. the major organic E The substituent.6-octadien-1-ol. Explain why it is named this way. (a) State three ways in which (i) cyclohexane is similar to hexane. (ii) cyclohexane is different from hexane. The structural formulae of geraniol and linalool are shown below. (ii) benzoic acid. (d) Geraniol reacts with bromine in CCl4 in the absence of sunlight to form an organic compound. suggest the IUPAC name of linalool.1-trichloroethane. What is the molecular formula of this organic compound? (e) Would you expect linalool to have any effect on plane-polarised light? Why? Essay Question 1.7. Essential oil is a natural oil with a distinctive scent produced by certain plants. (ii) State two ways in which the isomers are similar to each other. Geraniol and linalool are found in many essential oils. When a monosubstitued benzene. may be 1 –NH2 2 –COCH3 3 –NO2 Structured Question 1.1-trichloroethane is used in ‘liquid paper’ as a solvent. (b) (i) 1. products obtained are as follows: X E X and – X. (c) Give two similarities and one difference between geraniol and linalool in terms of their structures.1. X.
A The – NH2 group is ortho.7-dimethyl means two methyl groups at C3 and C7.1-trichloroethane Cl Cl ⏐ ⏐ H–C–C–H ⏐ ⏐ Cl H 1. B 207.6 10–3 —— 54 Thus. CH3CH2Br produced undergoes further bromination. 8.25 Number of moles of P = —— = 4. C10H18O + 2Br2 → C10H18OBr4 CH3 CH3 ⏐ ⏐ (e) CH3 – C = CHCH2CH2C* – CH = CH2 ⏐ OH Linalool contains a chiral carbon atom.3-cyclohexadiene but not as low as 152 kJ mol–1. It is slightly lower than the enthalpy of hydrogenation of 1. the smaller the surface area of the hydrocarbon molecule and the smaller the attractive forces between the molecules.1.26 10–3 mol —— 22 400 0. they have different structural formulae. (ii) Cyclohexane is a cyclic hydrocarbon but hexane is a straight chain hydrocarbon. C The reaction between fuming sulphuric acid and benzene is electrophilic substitution.2-trichloroethane (ii) They have the same molecular formula. 207.and para-directing. The main product is therefore CBr3CBr3. They both have six carbon atoms per molecule. – 1-ol means an alcohol (–OH) group at C1.means an alkene with two double bonds at C2 and C6 in the longest continuous chain of eight carbon atoms. D The greater the number of side chains.4 6. the main product is CH3CH2Br. (a) CH3 – C = CHCH2CH2C = CHCH2OH 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (c) Similarities Both geraniol and linalool have two carboncarbon double bonds and one –OH group per molecule. Both have the same molecular formula. CH2 = CH2 + Br2 → CH2BrCH2Br CH2 = CH2 + HOBr → CH2OHCH2Br 5. The general formula of hexane is CnH2n+2. With a little ethane but a large amount of bromine.6 – octadien. D CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O 7 C2H6 + — O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O 2 Volume of CO2 = 10 + (2 10) = 30 cm3 4. Hence the enthalpy of hydrogenation of benzene is lower (less exothermic) than – ( 3 120) kJ mol–1.1. (b) CH3 CH3 ⏐ ⏐ CH3 – C = CHCH2CH2C – CH= CH2 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 ⏐ 2 OH 3. The general formula of cyclohexane is CnH2n. 2. C The actual structure of benzene is considerably more stable than the Kekule structure of three carbon-carbon double bonds. (d) Molecular formula of geraniol is C10H18O. Structured Question CH3 CH3 ⏐ ⏐ 1.7-dimethyl-1. that is. They have similar chemical properties (c) (i) Step 1 Conversion of benzene to methylbenzene by FriedelCrafts reaction 3. P contains two double bonds or one triple bond. 7. They have similar chemical reactions. 3. (b) (i) Cl H ⏐ ⏐ Cl – C – C – H ⏐ ⏐ Cl H 1. Essay Question 1. C10H18O. they are structural isomers.6-octadien-3-ol 26 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. A Bromine water contains Br2 and HOBr.4 cm3 of H2 = ——— = 9. Hence. It is therefore optically active and will rotate the plane of polarised light. (008974-T) 2008 . Cyclohexane and hexane have different physical properties such as boiling point and density. 2. D With a little bromine. Difference They differ in the positions of double bonds and –OH group. Bhd. C2H3Cl3. (a) (i) Cyclohexane and hexane are saturated hydrocarbons.ANSWER CHAPTER 8 Hydrocarbons Multiple-choice Questions 1.
(008974-T) 2008 27 . Bhd.+ CH3Cl AlCl3 − CH3 + HCl + CH3Cl AlCl3 − CH3 + HCl Step 2 Chlorination of side chain − CH3 + Cl2 uv Step 2 Oxidation of side chain to benzoic acid – CH3 + 3[O] acidified KMnO4 − CH2Cl + HCl − COOH + H2O (ii) Step 1 Conversion of benzene to methylbenzene by FriedelCrafts reaction © Oxford Fajar Sdn.
C2H5Br. When CH3CH(Br)CH3 reacts with cyanide ions.9 Haloalkanes Multiple-choice Questions 1. The structure of 3-methyl-3-pentanol is shown below. are hydrolysed by aqueous potassium hydroxide to form ethanol. OH ⏐ CH3CH2 – C – CH3 ⏐ CH2 ⏐ CH3 Which of the following compounds can be used to prepare 3-methyl-3-pentanol? O A CH3MgBr and CH3CH2 – C – CH3 28 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. An aromatic compound X has the molecular formula C8H9Cl. compound X is formed. compound C8H6O4 is formed. (008974-T) 2008 . CH3 ⏐ CH3CCH3 ⏐ Cl III CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl I CH3CHCH2CH3 ⏐ Cl II Which sequence shows the haloalkanes arranged in ascending order of their boiling points? A I < II < III C III < II < I B II < I < III D II < III < I 2. What is the compound formed when dilute sulphuric acid is added to X? A (CH3)2CHCN C CH3CH2COOH B (CH3)2CHCOOH D CH3CH2CH2COOH 4. When X is heated with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution. and bromoethane. C2H5Cl. Bhd. X is A C CH2CH2Cl CH3CH2 Cl B CH3 CH2Cl D Cl CH3 CH3 5. Chloroethane. Which combination shows correctly the more reactive compound and the reason for the reactivity? More reactive compound Reason Higher relative molecular mass C – Br bond is weaker C – Cl bond is more polar Chlorine is a stronger oxidising agent A B C D Bromoethane Bromoethane Chloroethane Chloroethane 3. Three haloalkane compounds are shown below.
(Chloromethyl)benzene reacts with aqueous potassium hydroxide according to the following equation. Which haloalkane can be used as a refrigerant? A CCl4 C CH3CH2CH2Cl B CF2Cl2 D CHCl 2 Structured Question 1. Br. (b) Chlorofluorocarbons are organic compounds that act as pollutants in the environment. 66. (ii) Given that the relative molecular mass of Z is 242. Write an equation to show the photochemical dissociation of the compound in (b)(i). 4. (a) A compound Z has the following composition by mass. (008974-T) 2008 29 . Rate = k [P] [OH–] Which haloalkane could be P? A CH3CH2CH2CH2Br B CH3CHCH3 ⏐ Br C CH CH CHBrCH 2 2 3 D (CH3)3CBr 9. determine the molecular formula of Z. (iii) Chlorofluorocarbons dissociate in the presence of light. Bhd.18 %. C. © Oxford Fajar Sdn.76 %. CH2Cl + OH– CH2OH + Cl– What reaction mechanism is involved in the reaction? A Nucleophilic substitution reaction C Electrophilic substitution reaction B Nucleophilic addition reaction D Electrophilic addition reaction 8. Which of the following reagents can be used to differentiate between chloropropane and iodopropane? A Aqueous potassium hydroxide C Ethanolic silver nitrate B Ethanolic sodium hydroxide D Chlorine gas 7. H. The rate equation for the hydrolysis of a haloalkane P is as follows. (i) Name a typical chlorofluorocarbon.06 % (i) Determine the empirical formula of Z. 29. (ii) State one property of the chlorofluorocarbon named in (b)(i) and one use related to this property. (iii) Draw the structural formula of an alkene that can be used to prepare Z and name the alkene.O B CH3CH2MgBr and CH3CH2 – C – CH3 O C CH3CH2CH2MgBr and CH3 – C – CH3 O D CH3CH2MgBr and CH3CH2 – C – CH2CH3 6.
(a) Write the structural formulae of four isomers with the molecular formula C4H9Br. 30 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (c) Another isomer in (a) reacts with NaOH(aq) according to the following equation. C4H9Br + NaOH → C4H9OH + NaBr (i) Explain why haloalkanes can be attacked by the OH– ion.Essay Question 1. (d) Which isomer in (a) shows optical isomerism? Identify the chiral carbon with ‘*’. (b) One of the isomers from (a) reacts with ethanolic sodium hydroxide to form three compounds with the molecular formula C4H8 according to the following equation. Write the reaction mechanism for this isomer. (008974-T) 2008 . Bhd. (ii) Give the IUPAC name of the three compounds with the molecular formula C4H8 that can be obtained in this reaction. C4H9Br + NaOH → C4H8 + NaBr + H2O (i) Identify the isomer that reacts in this reaction. Give a reason for your answer. A haloalkane has the molecular formula of C4H9Br. (ii) Identify the isomer that would give the highest rate of reaction when reacted with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.
ANSWER CHAPTER 9 Haloalkanes Multiple-choice Questions 1. C 7. Iodopropane reacts with ethanolic silver nitrate to produce AgI (yellow precipitate). Mechanism (CH3)3CBr is a tertiary haloalkane. This is because the reaction occurs via a more stable carbonium ion. B OH ⏐ CH3CH2 – C – CH3 ⏐ CH2CH3 Chloropropane reacts with ethanolic silver nitrate to produce AgCl (white precipitate). A 8. CH3 CH3 ⏐ ⏐ slow CH3 – C – Br ⎯⎯→ CH3 – C+ + Br – ⏐ ⏐ CH3 CH3 tertiary carbonium ion CH3 CH3 ⏐ ⏐ fast CH3 – C+ + OH— ⎯→ CH3 – C – OH ⏐ ⏐ CH3 CH3 * (d) CH3CH2CHCH3 ⏐ Br Br ⏐ CH3CCH3 ⏐ CH3 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. H H ⏐ ⏐ 3. cis-2-butene. rate-determining step. trans-2-butene (c) (i) The C – Br is polar with the carbon atom being partially positive. It reacts via nucleophilic substitution SN1 reaction. B CH3CH2 – Cδ+ – CH3 CH3CH2MgBr 6. The rate equation shows the reaction is second order. OMgBr ⏐ H2O. Bhd. OH– ion is a nucleophile. (008974-T) 2008 31 . B CH3 – – CH2Cl + [O] X Structured Question 1. C I is a straight chain molecule with the largest size and highest boiling point. depending on the concentration of P and OH– ion in the slow. (a) (i) C3H5Br (ii) C6H10Br2 (iii) Structural formula: Name: Cyclohexene (i) Dichlorodifluoromethane (ii) Property : Low boiling point Use : As refrigerant (iii) CCl2F2 → CF2Cl• + Cl• (b) Essay Question 1. Br ⏐ (ii) CH3CCH3 reacts with the highest rate of ⏐ CH3 reaction. thus it can be attacked by OH– ion. which is a nucleophile. H+ → CH3CH2 – C – CH3 ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ hydrolysis ⏐ CH2CH3 CH3CHCH2Br ⏐ CH3 (b) (i) CH3CH2CHCH3 ⏐ Br (ii) 1-butene. It replaces Cl in the molecule hence the reaction mechanism is nucleophilic substitution reaction. B CH3 – C – CH3 + CN– → CH3 – C – CH3 + Br– ⏐ ⏐ Br CN H H ⏐ ⏐ H+ CH3 – C – CH3 + H2O ⎯→ CH3 – C – CH3 ⏐ ⏐ CN COOH B 4. III is a branched chain molecule with the smallest size and lowest boiling point. (a) Isomers of C4H9Br: CH3CH2CHCH3 ⏐ Br CH3CH2CH2CH2Br HOOC – – COOH C8H6O4 Oδ– δ– δ+ 5. CH3CH2CH2CH2Br. CF2Cl2 can be used as a refrigerant. C Cl is more electronegative than Br. 2. P is a primary haloalkane. CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) compound. Hence chloroethane is more reactive because of the C – Cl bond being more polar than C – Br bond. A 9.
Which sets of reagents can be used to prepare phenyl benzoate in the laboratory? A Phenol and benzoic acid B Phenol and sodium benzoate C Phenol and benzoyl chloride D Sodium phenoxide and benzoic acid 5. 2 and 3 are correct 6. Bhd. (008974-T) 2008 . Which of the following compound has the highest solubility in water? A CH3CH2CH2CH2OH C (CH3)3COH B CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3 D OH 4.10 Hydroxy Compounds Multiple-choice Questions 1. Which of the following compounds will produce an alkene in hydration? A (CH3)3COH C CH OH 2 B OH D OH CH3 2. Which of the following compound is formed when ethanoyl chloride is reacted with H2N CH2OH OH A B C H2N CH2OCOCH3 OH H2N CH2OH OCOCH3 H2N CH2OCOCH3 OCOCH3 D CH CONH 3 CH2OCOCH2 OCOCH3 A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. Which of the following is the major product formed when 2-butanol is refluxed with concentrated sulphuric acid at 140 °C? A CH3CHCHCH3 B CH2CHCH2CH3 C CH3CH2CH2CH2 – O – CH2CH2CH2CH3 D CH3CH2CH(CH3) – O – (CH3)CHCH2CH3 3. Which of the following compound(s) can react with ethanoic acid to produce an ester? 1 C6H5COCl 2 C6H5OH 3 C6H5CH2OH 32 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.
(iv) acidified potassium dichromate(VI) © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. Essay Question 1. (d) Compound C is the alcoholic isomer of C4H10O that is optically active. Identify the isomer that is optically active and mark the chiral centre. (a) 3-methyl-1-butanol is a primary alcohol. (b) The ester formed from the reaction of 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethanoic acid has a flavour of ripe pears.4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine 3 Produce a yellow precipitate with aqueous alkaline iodine Structured Question 1. (008974-T) 2008 33 . (ii) State the condition used in the laboratory for the preparation of this ester. (iii) Name another chemical that can replace ethanoic acid to produce the same ester. (i) Draw the structural formula of the ester formed.7. C4H10O forms two alcoholic isomers A and B as follows: A: CH3CH2CH2CH2OH and B: (CH3)3COH (a) Draw the structural formulae of two other alcoholic isomers of C4H10O besides A and B. (c) Predict the reaction that will take place when 3-methyl-1-butanol is reacted with (i) sodium metal (ii) phosphorous pentachloride (iii) concentrated sulphuric acid at 170 °C. (c) Draw the structural formulae of the products formed from A and B respectively when they are reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170 °C. Name and draw the structural formulae of three primary alcohols that are isomers of 3-methyl-1-butanol. (b) Give a chemical test that can be used to distinguish A from B. Vanillin is the active ingredient of vanilla and has the following formula: HO CH3O CHO Which of the following is/are true of vanillin? 1 Produce hydrogen gas with sodium metal 2 Produce an orange precipitate with 2. Give a chemical test that can be used to distinguish A from C.
CH3CH2CH2CH2OH ⎯→ CH3CH2CH2COOH (c) A will produce CH3CH2CH = CH2. CH3 – CH(OH) – CH2CH3 ⎯⎯⎯→ CH3CH2COO– + CHI3 Essay Question 1. Bhd. B will produce CH2 = C(CH3)2. D When 2-butanol is refluxed with excess concentrated H2SO4. the major product is ether. H2SO4 I2 / OH– [O] 34 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. R – C – O – R’. H2SO4 2CH3CH2CH – CH3 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ ∆ ⏐ OH H H ⏐ ⏐ CH3CH2 – C – O – C – CH2CH3 + H2O ⏐ ⏐ CH3 CH3 3. 2 is correct because the aldehyde group – C – H reacts with O 2. (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH + 2[O] ⎯⎯⎯→ (CH3)2CHCH2COOH + H2O K2Cr2O7/H+ conc. C 2 and 3 are correct because ethanoic acid reacts with –OH group in alcohol and phenol to form ester. D Ethanoyl chloride. (b) (i) CH3COOCH2CH2CH(CH3)2 (ii) Reflux with concentrated sulphuric acid (iii) Ethanoyl chloride. an acyl chloride reacts with hydroxyl group. A The –OH group at the end of the straight chain gives the strongest hydrogen bond between the alcohol and the hydrogen in water hence the highest solubility in water. A will change potassium dichromate(VI) from orange to green / potassium manganate(VII) purple to colourless but B has no visible change. C Benzoyl chloride. (008974-T) 2008 . an acyl chloride is very reactive and reacts rapidly with phenol in NaOH solution. (a) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH (1-pentanol) (CH3)3C – CH2OH (2. 7. O 6. CH2(OH)CH(CH3)2 (b) Heat with acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution / alkaline potassium manganate(VII) solution. Structured Question 1. conc. (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH + Na → (CH3)2CHCH2CH2ONa + H2 (ii) HCl gas is liberated. 4. A Aliphatic alcohol will produce alkene during hydration.2-dimethyl-1-propanol) CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2OH (2-methyl-1-butanol) * CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2OH is optically active. CH3COCl (c) (i) H2 gas is released. –OH to form ester. the major product is alkene. (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ (CH3)2CHCH = CH2 (iv) A carboxylic acid is produced. (d) Heat with alkaline iodine solution. CH3 CH3 ⏐ ⏐ CH3 – C – CH3 → CH3 – C = CH2 + H2O ⏐ OH 2. (a) CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3.4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine to produce an orange precipitate. (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH + PCl5 → (CH3)2CHCH2CH2Cl + HCl + POCl3 (iii) An alkene is produced.ANSWER CHAPTER 10 Hydroxy Compounds Multiple-choice Questions 1. When excess 2-butanol is refluxed with concentrated H2SO4. C will produce a yellow precipitate but A has no visible change. B 1 is correct because the –OH group reacts with Na to produce hydrogen gas. 5.
0. 16. Q reduces Fehling’s solution to copper(I) oxide. Which compound will give a yellow precipitate with alkaline iodine solution? O O A CH3 – C – OCH3 O B CH3 – C – OH C CH3 – C – NH2 O D CH3 – C – CH2OH 3. dilute acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution D Cold.t.1%.p.11 Carbonyl Compounds Multiple-choice Questions 1.1 mol Q reacts with 4480 cm3 hydrogen gas at s. (008974-T) 2008 35 . A compound Q has the following composition by mass.4 dm3 at s. O Which statement is true about cyclohexanone? A It is an aromatic ketone.t. CH3 ⏐ CH3C = CHCH2CH2C = CHC = O ⏐ ⏐ CH3 H Which reagent is decolourised by citral? A Fehling’s solution B 2.p. Citral is used by honeybees as pheromone that attracts other bees. 1.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution C Hot. Q is [Relative atomic mass: H. with nickel as catalyst. 28. 64. hydrogen. CH3COCH3 are isomers. C. dilute acidified potassium manganate(VlI) solution © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Propanal.] A CH2 = CHCHO C CH3CH = CHCH = CHCHO B CH ≡ CCH2OH D CH3COCH = CHCH = CHOH 5. 12. oxygen. O. 7. 4. Which pair of characteristics is shown by the mass spectra of the two compounds? m/e of molecular ion m/e of molecular fragments Different Same Different Same A B C D Different Different Same Same 2. Bhd. 1 mol gas occupies 22.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. D It will give a precipitate with 2. C It can be oxidised to benzoic acid. The structure of cyclohexanone is shown below. CH3CH2CHO and propanone. B Its molecular formula is C6H12O.6%.3%. Carbon.
H C CH3 O C OH CH3 Which reagent(s) can be used to perform the above conversion? 1 Sodium in ethanol 3 Hydrogen gas and hot nickel 2 Zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid Structured Question 1. B It is a reducing sugar. (ii) Suggest a chemical test that can be used to differentiate between ethanol and ethanal. 7. B The reaction can be carried out by using an acidic solution of sodium cyanide. The reaction between cyanide ion and phenylethanone is shown in the equation below. It can be formed from ethanol as shown in the following reaction scheme. The structure of fructose is given below. C The product formed exists as geometric isomers. This compound could be 1 C6H5COCH3 3 C6H5CH2CHO 2 C6H5CHO 9. A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. Lactic acid is found in sour milk. An organic compound gives an orange precipitate with 2. Phenylethanone can be converted to 1-phenylethanol as shown below. (008974-T) 2008 . 36 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. HO – CH2 – C – CH – CH – CH – CH2OH ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ O OH OH OH Which statement is not true about fructose? A It has six optical isomers. OH ⏐ Step I Step II Step III CH3CH2OH ⎯⎯⎯→ CH3CHO ⎯⎯⎯→ Q ⎯⎯⎯→ CH3 – CH – C = O HCN ⏐ OH lactic acid (a) In Step I. (i) State the reagents used in Step I. C It exists in equilibrium with a pentagonal ring form. ethanol is converted to ethanal.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. 2 and 3 are correct 8. Bhd.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine but does not form a silver mirror when heated with diamminesilver(I) ions (Tollen’s reagent).6. CN COCH3 + CN– C OH CH3 Which statement is true about the reaction? A The CN– ion acts as a nucleophile where the N atom on the CN– ion donates a lone pair of electrons to a carbon atom in phenylethanone. D It forms an orange precipitate with 2. D The reaction is a nucleophilic substitution reaction.
(a) (i) Use the molecular formula of R to calculate its relative molecular mass. (ii) Write an equation for the reaction involved in Step II. (i) State the IUPAC name of lactic acid.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralisation. 2. Bhd. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. A compound P has the molecular formula C4H6O2. (c) In Step III.0 cm3 of this solution required 24.5 cm3 of 0. (ii) Draw the stereoisomers of lactic acid. P reacts with warm acidified potassium dichromate(VI) to give an acidic compound R. (d) Using any one isomer of P. (i) Name the type of stereoisomerism shown by lactic acid. (b) Write two structural formulae of compound P. (d) Lactic acid exhibits stereoisomerism. (i) Draw the structure of compound Q. (ii) State the reagent used in this conversion. P reacts with hydrogen cyanide to give compound Q. C4H6O3.50 g of compound R was dissolved in 250 cm3 water. (008974-T) 2008 37 . (ii) Determine the basicity of acid R. (c) State a chemical test that can be used to distinguish between the two isomers of P in (b). compound Q is converted to lactic acid.(b) In Step II. Essay Question 1. C6H8O2N2. ethanal is allowed to react with HCN. identify compounds Q and R. 25. (iii) Name the reaction mechanism involved in this reaction.
⏐ ⏐ CN CN O O R: CH3 – C – CH2 – C – OH through nucleophilic addition mechanism. D Cyclohexanone is a ketone hence it will react with 2. 5.50/102 1000/250 = 0.5 —————— = ————— —————— ————— a b a 1 —=— b 1 Thus. OH OH ⏐ ⏐ (d) Q: CH3 – C – CH2 – CH. (008974-T) 2008 . hence the fragments will have different m/e. ⏐ ⏐ OH OH 6. 2. Bhd.0 0.10 24. dilute acidified KMnO4 to be decolourised when the KMnO4 reacts with ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ – C = C – to form diol. D The reaction is a reduction reaction. A Fructose does not have six optical isomers. Structured Question 1.0980 mol dm–3 aR + bOH → H2O 0. 4. C = C besides the one aldehyde group. 4480 Number of moles of H2 gas = ——— = 0. (a) (i) 102 (ii) [R] = 2.2 mol H2 gas. 1. D Alkaline iodine will react with a ketone which has the CH3 – C – group. O 3. basicity of R = 1 O O (b) CH3 – C – CH2 – C – H. D The presence of C = C double bonds in citral causes cold. 2 and 3 are correct since all are reducing agents. 9. 1 is correct because ketone can react with 2. A Q reduces Fehling’s solution to Cu2O hence Q is an aldehyde with the functional group. 7. thus it is not aldehyde (2 and 3 are incorrect).1 mol Q reacts with 0. C Propanol and propanone have the same molecular formulae. B Acidic solution of sodium cyanide forms HCN which will react with – COCH3 (i) CH3CH – OH ⏐ C≡N (ii) CH3CHO + HCN → CH3CH(OH)CN (iii) Nucleophilic addition (c) (i) 2-hydroxypropanoic acid (ii) Dilute hydrochloric acid (d) (i) Optical isomerism COOH COOH (ii) (b) C H3C OH H H C CH3 OH Essay Question 1.2 —— 22 400 0.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to produce a yellow precipitate. –CHO. hence m/e of molecular ion will be the same. O O CH3 – CH2 – C – C – H (c) Reagent: Iodine + NaOH(aq) Condition: Heat Observation: CH3COCH2CHO gives a yellow precipitate while CH3CH2COCHO does not.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine while ethanol does not. 38 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 8. Hence Q contains one double bond. C and D are true. – C – C –.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to produce an orange precipitate. B.ANSWER CHAPTER 11 Carbonyl Compounds Multiple-choice Objectives 1. (a) (i) KMnO4/H2SO4 (ii) Ethanal gives an orange precipitate with 2. The structures of propanol and propanone are different.0980 25. A The compound does not react with Tollen’s reagent.
The reaction scheme for the synthesis of the organic compound.12 Carboxylic Acids Multiple-choice Questions 1. Bhd. What is the molecular formula of benzenedicarboxylic acid and how many structural isomers can this molecular formula have? Molecular formula Number of structural isomers 3 4 3 4 A B C D A C7H6O4 C7H8O4 C8H6O4 C8H8O4 B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct COOH OH D 1. B refluxing benzoic acid with phenol. (008974-T) 2008 39 . The structural formula of an organic compound is shown below. D mixing benzoyl chloride with phenol dissolved in aqueous sodium hydroxide. Y is shown below: CH3CH2OH ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ X ⎯⎯→ Y reflux K2Cr2O7/H+ Cl2/uv The pH values of ethanol. C mixing benzoyl chloride with phenylmethanol. Which of the following pairs of compounds cannot be used for the preparation of an ester? A Benzoic acid and phenol C Ethanoic acid and 2-propanol B Ethanoyl chloride and phenol D Benzoic acid and ethanol 4. X and Y increases in the order A pKa of ethanol < pKa of X < pKa of Y B pKa of ethanol < pKa of Y < pKa of X C pKa of Y < pKa of X < pKa of ethanol D pKa of X < pKa of Y < pKa of ethanol 3. When chlorine gas is passed into pure ethanoic acid at 100 °C and in the presence of uv light. 6. The organic compound is expected to react with 1 bromine water 2 aqueous sodium carbonate 3 lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III) in ether © Oxford Fajar Sdn. The best method to prepare phenyl benzoate is by A refluxing benzoic acid with phenylmethanol. 2 and 3 are correct Only 1 is correct 7. The esterification of ethanoic acid with 2-propanol produces an ester with the formula A CH3COOCH(CH3)2 C CH3CH2COOCH(CH3)2 B CH3COOCH2CH3 D CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 5. the organic compound obtained is A ClCH2COOH C CH3CH2Cl B CH3COCl D ClCH2CHO 2.
(b) Aqueous sodium benzoate can be distinguished from aqueous sodium phenoxide by using hydrochloric acid. Methacrylic acid. select (i) two compounds which will react with sodium hydrogen carbonate. ethanol. CH2 = C(CH3)COOH. is used widely to form addition polymers. (a) (i) What is the IUPAC name of methacrylic acid? (ii) How would you prepare methacrylic acid from HOCH2CH(CH3)COOH? (b) Predict the reactions of methacrylic acid with (i) lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III). ethanoic acid and benzoic acid. (ii) Describe one chemical test which can be used to distinguish between these two organic products. (c) Write the formula of the polymer formed when methacrylic acid polymerises. Write equations to represent these reactions. (ii) potassium manganate(VII) solution and (iii) sodium. phenol. (i) Name the organic product formed and describe what you would see in each case. 2 act as a carboxylic acid. Structured Question 1. (ii) one compound which will react with aqueous sodium hydroxide but will not react with sodium hydrogen carbonate. (iii) one compound which will react with sodium metal but will not react with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide. 40 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.8. From this list of compounds. concentrated sulphuric acid. (008974-T) 2008 . Essay Question 1. 3 react with hot. Bhd. (a) The organic compounds. A compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH will 1 act as an alcohol. all contain the hydroxyl (–OH) group.
(iii) Hydrogen gas is liberated and CH2 = C(CH3)COONa is formed. A Chlorine attacks the alkyl group in ethanoic acid. (ii) KMnO4 decolourised. C COOH COOH COOH COOH COOH COOH For sodium phenoxide Organic product: Phenol Observation: White emulsion of phenol formed. H ⏐ 4.ANSWER CHAPTER 12 Carboxylic acids Multiple-choice Questions 1. Phenylbenzoate is prepared by Schotten-Baumann reaction. it has the lowest pKa value. using concentrated sulphuric acid at 180 °C. 8. ketones and carboxylic acids are formed. (008974-T) 2008 41 . 3. D It contains a phenol group. Chlorinated ethanoic acid is the strongest acid. Hence it will react with bromine water. On heating. 2. Hence. D –CH(OH) is a secondary alcohol group. (a) (i) 2-methylpropenoic acid (ii) By dehydration. CH2 – C – COOH ⏐ ⏐ OH OH O 7. the C = C double bond is not affected because the C = C bond is susceptible to electrophilic attack and not nucleophilic attack. (ii) Use neutral iron(III) chloride solution. A CH3 – C – O – H + H – O – C – CH3 ethanoic acid ⏐ CH3 2-propanol O H ⏐ CH3 – C – O – C – CH3 + H2O ⏐ CH3 5. (c) H CH3 ⏐ ⏐ –C – C–n ( ) ⏐ ⏐ H COOH © Oxford Fajar Sdn. mild oxidation CH3 ⏐ produces a glycol. Hence it liberates CO2 from Na2CO3 and is reduced to – CH2OH by LiAlH4. Benzoic acid: Buff-coloured precipitate formed Phenol: Purple solution formed Alternative method Use sodium carbonate solution. H CH3 ⏐ ⏐ H – C – C – COOH → ⏐ ⏐ OH H H CH3 ⏐ ⏐ H – C = C – COOH + H2O (b) (i) Reduction to CH2 = C(CH3)CH2OH Comment Lithium aluminium hydride is the source of hydride ion (H–) which acts as the nucleophile. Hence it has the highest pKa value. D C6H5COCl + Na+ –O – C6H5 → C6H5COOC6H5 + NaCl 6. It contains a – COOH group. Benzoic acid: Effervescence and carbon dioxide gas liberated Phenol: No reaction Essay Question 1. (a) (i) CH3COOH and C6H5COOH 2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2 2C6H5COOH + Na2CO3 → 2C6H5 COONa + H2O + CO2 (ii) Phenol (C6H5OH) (iii) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) (b) (i) For sodium benzoate Organic product: Benzoic acid Observation: White precipitate of benzoic acid formed. Bhd. In cold condition. Ethanol is the weakest acid. A Benzoic acid reacts with ethanol to form ethyl benzoate but benzoic acid does not react with phenol to form phenylbenzoate. –COOH is a carboxylic acid group. C X is CH3COOH and Y is ClCH2COOH or Cl2CHCOOH or CCl3COOH. conc. H2SO4 CH3CH(OH)COOH ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ CH2 = CHCOOH + H2O Structured Question 1. Hence. cleavage of the C = C double bond occurs and a mixture of aldehydes.
B involves elimination reaction followed by addition reaction. and (ii) C5H9OCl. Bhd. C is a nucleophilic addition reaction. D is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. the organic product obtained is A C6H5NHCH3 B C6H5N(CH3)2 C CH3COC6H4NH2 D C6H5NHCOCH3 2. Compound W is likely to have the structural formula A CH3CH2COOCH3 B CH3COOCH3 C CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 D CH3CH(OH)CH2COCl 4. The mechanism for the reaction between ammonia and ethanoyl chloride is shown below. An organic compound. Upon cooling. compound X and compound Y (an alcohol) are produced.13 Carboxylic Derivatives Multiple-choice Questions 1. the hydrogen atom in the –OH group of alcohol is replaced with A R– C RCO2– B RCO– D RCH2– 3. O– O – ⏐ –Cl HNH2 + CH3 – C – Cl → CH3 – C – Cl ⎯→ CH3 – C + Cl– + H+ δ+ ⏐ –H+ ⏐ + H – N H2 NH2 O This shows that the mechanism A involves the formation of a planar intermediate. Calculate the number of isomers (structural and stereo) for the acyl chlorides with the molecular formulae. C6H5NH2. is hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. C4H7OCl C5H9OCl 3 5 4 5 δ– A B C D 42 2 2 3 3 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. When ethanoyl chloride is added to phenylamine. compound X is converted to compound Z (C3H6O2). When acylation occurs. On acidification. is boiled with aqueous sodium hydroxide and the reaction mixture is allowed to cool. 6. the organic product obtained is A CH3CH2COOH B CH3CO18OH C CH3CH2OH D CH3CH218OH 5. CH3 – CO18O – C2H5. When ethyl ethanoate. W. (008974-T) 2008 . at room temperature. (i) C4H7OCl. Compound Y gives a positive triiodomethane (iodoform) test.
The solution is then distilled. deduce the structural formula of X. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Compound Z gives a positive triiodomethane test but does not give a precipitate with aqueous solution containing the complex ion. ammonia gas is liberated. write the structural formula for (i) Y. (c) State the reagents and conditions required to convert Z to a neutral compound with the molecular formula. An ester. Ethanoyl chloride can be used to synthesise 1 CH3COOC2H5 2 CH3COOC6H4COOH 3 C6H5NHCH3 8. (008974-T) 2008 43 . (b) Suggest the structural formulae for X. is boiled with excess aqueous sodium hydroxide. When Y undergoes mild oxidation. (c) From your answer in (b). (a) Name the class of organic compounds to which (i) Z and (ii) Y belong. compound Z (C8H8O) is obtained. PCl5 Essay Question 1. Bhd. (d) How and under what conditions does Z react with (i) KMnO4. (ii) concentrated sulphuric acid. [Ag(NH3)2]+. Y (C8H10O). The distillate contains a neutral organic compound. Y and Z. (ii) concentrated H2SO4. X (C9H10O2). C4H6O4. (d) How would you expect the residue from the distillation to react with (i) acidified potassium manganate(VII). 2 and 3 are correct 7. With reference to the reaction scheme given below. When a compound is boiled with aqueous sodium hydroxide.A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. (b) Hence. X (C2H4O3) ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ 2 mol HCl oxidation PCl5 Y (C2H2O3) ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ 1 mol HCl further oxidation PCl5 Z (C2H2O4) ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ 2 mol HCl (a) State the reagents used for the conversion of X to Y. (ii) Z. The compound(s) is/are likely to be 1 CH3CONH2 2 CH3COONH4 3 CH3CH2CH2NH2 Structured Question 1. answer the following questions.
CH3CHCH2COCl ⏐ ⏐ CH3 CH3 CH3COCl + C2H5OH → CH3COOC2H5 + HCl CH3COCl + HOC6H4COOH → CH3COOC6H4COOH + HCl An amide or an ammonium salt gives ammonia gas when heated with aqueous sodium hydroxide. D 6. Bhd. CH3CH2*CHCOCl. (a) (i) Z is a ketone (ii) Y is a secondary alcohol (b) (i) Y is H CH3 C OH 5. COOH ⏐ → H2O + CO2 + CO COOH Essay Question 1. 5C2O42– + 2MnO4– + 16H+ → 2Mn2+ + 8H2O + 10CO2 (ii) When Z is warmed with concentrated sulphuric acid. (008974-T) 2008 . (a) Potassium manganate(VII) solution. CH3CONH2 + NaOH → CH3COONa + NH3 CH3COONH4 + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O + NH3 Y is COOH Z is COOH ⏐ ⏐ CHO COOH (c) Reagent: Methanol and a little concentrated sulphuric acid as catalyst. Structural isomers of C4H7OCl CH3CH2CH2COCl .ANSWER CHAPTER 13 Carboxylic Derivatives Multiple-choice Questions 1. An amine has no reaction with aqueous sodium hydroxide. D In hydrolysis of esters. HCOOH → H2O + CO Structured Question 1. ⏐ CH3 [This molecule exists as optical (d and l) isomers] CH3 ⏐ CH3 – C – COCl . acidified with dilute sulphuric acid. decolourisation of KMnO4 occurs and ethanedioic acid is oxidised to carbon dioxide and water. the acyl-oxygen fission occurs and the 18O isotope is present in the alcohol. 5HCOO– + 2MnO4– + 11H+ → 5CO2 + 8H2O + 2Mn2+ (ii) Concentrated sulphuric acid reacts with methanoate to give methanoic acid. B (i) Saponification of ester X gives sodium methanoate (residue) and Y. HCOO– + H+ → HCOOH Carbon monoxide is liberated when methanoic acid reacts with concentrated H2SO4 which acts as a dehydrating agent. O CH3 – C – 18OC2H5 + H2O → CH3COOH + C2H518OH The intermediate is tetrahedral and not planar in shape. B (d) 8. O (b) X is HO – CH2 – C – OH 44 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Methanoate ion is oxidised to carbon dioxide and MnO4– is reduced to Mn2+ ions. C O CH3CH2 – C – OCH2CH3 + NaOH → W CH3CH2COONa + CH3CH2OH Y H+ X CH3CH2COOH Z 4. B (ii) Z is O CH3 C (c) X is H O H C O C CH3 7. dehydration occurs to produce carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. NH3 is a nucleophile. B R – OH + R’COCl → R – O – C – R’ + HCl 3. Condition: Heat COOH COOCH3 ⏐ + 2CH3OH → ⏐ + 2H2O COOH COOCH3 (d) (i) When a mixture of Z (ethanedioic acid) and acidified KMnO4 is heated. The residue decolourises KMnO4 because methanoate is a reducing agent. D CH3COCl + C6H5NH2 → C6H5NHCOCH3 + HCl O 2. CH3CHCOCl ⏐ CH3 Structural isomers of C5H9OCl CH3CH2CH2CH2COCl.
2 and 3 are correct NH2 6. Which of the following compounds is likely to be compound X? A CH3CH2NH2 B (CH3)2NH C (CH3)3N D H2NCH2CH2NH2 A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. Which of the following product is formed when aniline is reacted with cold nitrous acid followed by p-nitrophenol? A – NO N=N-O 2 B N=N NO2 – OH C HO N=N NO2 OH N=N NO2 D 5. Which of the following chemicals can be used to distinguish 1 2 Nitrous acid Hydrochloric acid 3 Bromine water from CH3CONH2? © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 1 mol of nitrogen gas is liberated.14 Amines Multiple-choice Questions 1. Which of the following is formed when P is reacted with tetrahydridoaluminate(III)? A CH3CH2CN C CH3CH2CH2OH B CH3CH2NH2 D CH3CH2CH2NH2 2. Which of the following pairs of chemicals will react to produce N-phenylethanamide? A NH and CH CH COCl 2 3 2 B C D NH2 and CH3COCl CH3CH2NH2 and CH3NH2 and COCl COCl 4. (008974-T) 2008 45 . When 1 mol of compound X is treated with nitrous acid. Compound P is produced when bromoethane reacts with alcoholic potassium cyanide. Bhd. Which of the following amines is most soluble in water? A CH3CH2NH2 C (CH3)3N B (CH3)2NH D C6H5NH2 3.
Which of the following is true of aniline? 1 Soluble in hydrochloric acid 2 Soluble in sodium hydroxide solution 3 Soluble in water Structured Question 1. Name the type of reaction that has taken place.7. Hence state the reagent and the condition for step I. (d) Suggest how step IV can be carried out. Determine the structures and give the IUPAC names for compounds A. (b) State the reagent and the condition for step II. Compound B reacts with ethanoyl chloride to liberate white fumes and compound C is produced. Write an equation for the reaction involved. (a) 1-chloropropane is heated with alcoholic potassium cyanide to produce compound A. Benzocaine is an active ingredient found in many sunburn ointment. When compound A is reacted with tetrahydridoaluminate(III). compound B is formed. Draw the structural formula of the intermediate compound X. Name the type of reaction involved. (c) Ethanoyl chloride is added in step III. Essay Question 1. Bhd. B and C. It can be prepared by the following reaction scheme. CH3 I CH3 II CO2H III CO2CH2CH3 X IV NO2 NO2 NH2 (a) Name the type of reaction that has occurred in step I. Suggest how 1-butanamine can be prepared from compound C. (b) State a simple test to differentiate the following pairs of substances: (i) CH3CH2NH2 and CH3NHCH3 (ii) CH CH NH and NH 3 2 2 2 46 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Write equations for all the reactions involved. (008974-T) 2008 .
Br NH2 Br2 Br NH2 Br © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Structured Question 1. O 3. A Aniline. (008974-T) 2008 47 . CH3CH2CH2CN Compound B is butamine. B – NH2 (c) CO2CH2CH3 NO2 Type of reaction: Esterification (d) React with tin / zinc with dilute hydrochloric acid Type of reaction: Reduction Essay Question + CH3C – Cl H O ⏐ – N – C – CH3 + HCl N-phenylethanamide 1. 7. CH3CH2NH2 ⎯⎯→ CH3CH2OH + N2 (ii) Add bromine water. – NH2 is basic since it can react with HCl to form soluble salt (1 is correct). NH2 produces a white precipitate. CH3CH2CH2CH2NHCOCH3 CH3CH2CH2Cl ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ CH3CH2CH2CN alcoholic KCN 4. Bhd. (a) Compound A is butanenitrile. A CH3CH2NH2 can form the most hydrogen bonds with water. CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 Compound C is N-buthylethamide. CH3CONH2 is neutral and does not react with HCl (2 is correct). (a) Nitration Reagent: Concentrated nitric acid Condition: In the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid (b) Reagent: Potassium manganate(VII) Condition: Acidified and reflux / heat CH2CH2NH2 has no visible change. D CH3CH2Br + CN– ⎯→ CH3CH2CN + Br– ∆ P CH3CH2CN + [H] → CH3CH2CH2NH2 2. A 1 mol of primary amine will react with HNO2 to produce 1 mol of N2 gas. CH3CH2NH2 liberates N2 gas. Bromine will react with – NH2 to form a white precipitate while CH3CONH2 does not react with bromine (3 is correct). CH3NHCH3 has no visible change. HNO2 ∆ with NaOH(aq) salt.ANSWER CHAPTER 14 Amines Multiple-choice Questions 1. CH3CH2NH2 + HNO2 → CH3CH2OH + N2 + H2O 6. C – NH2 4 CH3CH2CH2CN ⎯⎯⎯→ CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 3 CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ CH3CH2CH2CH2NHCOCH3 + HCl LiAlH CH COCl is basic and reacts with HCl to form Reflux with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution: CH3CH2CH2CH2NHCOCH3 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 + CH3COONa (b) (i) React with nitrous acid and heat. C – NH2 + HNO2 – N2+ + NO2 – – OH – N2+ OH –N=N– NO2 5.
HOCH2CH(NH2)COOH will A react with 2 mol of hydrochloric acid. Tyrosine is a natural existing amino acid with the formula C9H11NO3. Bhd. The structural formula for threonine is CH – CH – COOH ⏐ HO NH2 Which of the following is/are true about threonine? 1 Threonine has amphoteric properties. is soluble in both aqueous acid and aqueous alkali. 2 and 3 are correct 6. B It exists as a diazonium ion. C react with excess nitrous acid to liberate 1 mol of gas. When glycine is dissolved in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at pH 12. 2. D react with excess Na2CO3 solution to liberate 1 mol of gas. D It forms zwitterion. Which of the following fibers is considered a protein fiber? A Silk C Cotton B Hemp D Glycogen A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct H3C D 1.15 Amino Acids and Proteins Multiple-choice Questions 1. 1 mol serine. (008974-T) 2008 . Which of the following is the most likely structure of tyrosine? A O2N HO H2N CH2CH(OH)CH3 B C D CH2CH(NH2)COOH CH2CH(OH)COOH OH CH2 C COOH NH2 4. 5. ⏐ NH2 48 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. B react with sodium metal to liberate 2 mol of gas. C It is optically active. it exists as A H3N+CH2COO – C H3N+CH2COOH – B H2NCH2COO D H2NCH2COOH 3. The simplest amino acid.5. 2 Threonine releases nitrogen gas when heated with nitric(V) acid 3 The repeating unit of threonine in a polypeptide chain is CH3 O ⏐ – O — CH – CH – C – . Which of the following is true about aminoethanoic acid? A It exists as a dimer in organic solvent. glycine.
GABA with the chemical formula H2N(CH2)3COOH is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and also in the retina.7. 2 It is found in protein. Insulin is known to lower blood glucose level. Amino acids has the general formula H2NCH(R)COOH. H O H O H ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ H2N – CH – C – N – CH – C – N – CH – C — N – CH – COOH ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ CH – CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ CH3 CH2 CH – CH3 ⏐ ⏐ COOH CH3 O Val-Glu-Ala-Leu (a) With further hydrolysis. Partial hydrolysis gives a peptide chain as shown. glycine and alanine. (iii) Discuss the reactions of the tripeptides with dilute sodium hydroxide solution under different conditions. 3 When protein is denatured. 2 Globular proteins are more soluble in water than fibrous proteins. acidic or basic. Bhd. Structured Question 1. Essay Question 1. Draw the structures of the four amino acids obtained. polar. 8. explain how an amino acid can act as a buffer solution. Insulin is made up of a chain of 51 amino acids. Which of the following is/are true of GABA? 1 It exists as zwitterion. Explain your answers. (008974-T) 2008 49 . this peptide chain yields four amino acids. the peptide sequence is destroyed. (b) Give the systematic names of these four amino acids (c) Classify these amino acids as either non-polar. 3 It is optically active. Explain what is meant by this term. (b) Alanine is optically active. Which of the following statements is/are true of proteins? 1 Proteins are polyamides. (a) Draw the structural formulae of the first two amino acids. (e) (i) How many different tripeptides are possible which contain two molecules of glycine and one molecule of alanine? (ii) Draw the structures of the tripeptides formed. (c) Describe what is observed and give balanced equations for the reactions of alanine with solutions of (i) sodium bicarbonate (ii) nitrous acid (d) Using alanine as an example. © Oxford Fajar Sdn.
8. Na reacts with the 2 –OH groups to liberate 1 H2. 5. (a) H2N – CH – COOH ⏐ CH – CH3 ⏐ CH3 (i) H2N – CH – COOH ⏐ CH3 H2N – CH – COOH ⏐ CH2 ⏐ CH2 ⏐ COOH (ii) 1. the tripeptide would be hydrolysed to amino acids. 2. The structure is not a polypeptide chain (3 is incorrect). a salt is formed. 1 –NH2 group liberates 1 N2. A Threonine has –COOH group and NH2 group (1 is correct). B H2NCH2COOH + OH– → H2NCH2COO– + H2O + (iii) 2-aminopropanoic acid (iv) 2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid (c) 2-aminopentanedioic acid is acidic because it has two carboxyl groups. When boiled with dilute alkali. H2NCH(CH3)COOH + NaHCO3 → H2N – CH(CH3)COO –Na+ + CO2 + H2O (ii) Effervescence due to liberation of nitrogen gas. thus not found in protein. D H2NCH2COOH + – exists as zwitterion. Globular proteins can form more hydrogen bonds with water hence more soluble in water than fibrous proteins (2 is correct). The –NH2 group will only release N2 gas when heated with nitric(III) acid. 1 –COOH group reacts with Na2CO3 to form ½ CO2. (c) (i) Effervescence due to liberation of CO2 gas. 7. With HNO2. H3NCH2COO . C Only 1 –NH2 group to react with 1 HCl. Structured Question 1. H2NCH(CH3)COOH + OH – → H2NCH(CH3)COO – + H2O H2NCH(CH3)COOH + H+ → H3N+CH(CH3)COOH (e) (i) 3 (ii) GAG O H O H ⏐ ⏐ H2N – CH2 – C – N – CH – C – N – CH2 – COOH ⏐ CH3 GGA H O H ⏐ ⏐ H2N – CH2 – C – N – CH2 – C – N – CH – COOH ⏐ CH3 H O H ⏐ ⏐ H2N – CH – C – N – CH2 – C – N – CH2 – COOH ⏐ CH3 (iii) With cold dilute alkali. GABA does not have chiral carbon. Alanine has a chiral or asymmetrical C* that is bonded to four different groups. not with nitric(V) acid. O O H2N – CH – COOH ⏐ CH2 ⏐ CH – CH3 ⏐ CH3 (iii) (iv) (b) (i) 2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid (ii) 2-aminopentanedioic acid 50 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. H2N – CH(CH3)COOH + HNO2 → HO – CH(CH3)COOH + N2 + H2O (d) Alanine can react with both acid and base. A GABA is not α-amino acid. A 6. B Proteins are polyamides (1 is correct). Denaturation causes the tertiary structure to open up and destroyed but the peptide sequence is not destroyed (3 is incorrect). (a) H2N – CH – C – OH H2N – CH – C – OH ⏐ ⏐ H CH3 glycine alanine (b) Alanine rotates the plane of polarised light. B General formula of naturally occurring amino acids: H2NCH(R)COOH 4. Essay Question O O or H3NCH2COO– + OH– → H2NCH2COO– + H2O 3. Bhd. The other 3 amino acids are non-polar and neutral with hydrophobic aliphatic R groups. hence not optically active. (008974-T) 2008 AGG . HNO2. HNO3 (2 is incorrect).ANSWER CHAPTER 15 Amino Acids and Proteins Multiple-choice Questions 1.
O – C – C6H4 – C2H4 – O – is a A SBR rubber C detergent B protein D polyester 2. (008974-T) 2008 A – CH – CH – B – CH2 – O – CH2 – O – 51 . Bhd. C It can be synthesised by the addition polymerisation of isoprene. 6.6? O O A – C – (CH2)6 – C – O – (CH2)4 – O – H O H O ⏐ ⏐ B – N – (CH2)6 – C – N – (CH2)4 – C – H H O O ⏐ ⏐ C – N – (CH2)4 – N – C – (CH2)6 – C – H H O O ⏐ ⏐ D – N – (CH2)6 – N – C – (CH2)4 – C – © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Which of the following structures represents the repeating unit of nylon-6.3-butadiene. can be polymerised under suitable conditions. Which of the following statements about natural rubber is true? A Its monomer is 2-methyl-1. CH2 – CH2. The structure of natural rubber can be represented by the formula A – CH2 – CH = C – CH2 –n ( ) C – CH2 – CH = CH – CH2 –n ( ) ⏐ CH3 B – CH2 = CH – CH2 – CH2 –n ( ) D – CH2 – CH = C – CH2 –n ( ) ⏐ ⏐ CH3 CH3 4.16 Polymers Multiple-choice Questions 1.6 D polystyrene 3. B It is the trans-isomer of polyisoprene. D It is a saturated hydrocarbon. The repeating unit for this polymer is O C – CH2 – CH2 – O – D – CH – CH – ⏐ ⏐ OH OH 5. The polymer containing the following repeating unit. O Epoxyethane. Concentrated nitric(V) acid oxidises cyclohexanol to an organic compound which can be used to make A Terylene C polyethene B nylon-6.
O CH3 O CH3 || ⏐ ⏐ – C – (CH2)2 – C – O – C – (CH2)2 – C – O – ⏐ ⏐ H H (i) Write the repeating unit for polymer X. Which of the following can be used as the initiator for anionic polymerisation? 1 Bu–Li+ 2 Na+NH2– 3 Li+NH2– Structured Question 1. Y or Z will create environmental problems? Why? Essay Question 1. (ii) Draw the structures of the monomers of Y and Z and name them. 52 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (iv) Which polymer. (ii) Write the structural formula of the monomer for making polymer X. (c) The structural formulae of polymers Y and Z are shown below. (i) CH2 = CCl2 + CH2 = CHCN (ii) CH2OH ⏐ + ClOC – (CH2)6 – COCl CH2OH (b) The partial structure of polymer X is shown below. (a) Outline a reaction scheme to show how phenol can be used as starting material to make synthetic fibre. 2 and 3 are correct 7. Bhd.A Only 1 is correct B Only 1 and 2 are correct C Only 2 and 3 are correct D 1. nHO2CCH2CH2COOH + nHOCH2CH2OH → – COCH2CH2CO2CH2CH2O –n + 2nH2O ( ) P The formation of polymer P in the above reaction can be considered as 1 esterification 2 condensation polymerisation 3 hydrolysis 8. (b) Explain the mechanism of free-radical polymerisation using chloroethene as an example. H H ⏐ ⏐ – C – C –n ( ) ⏐ ⏐ H CH3 Y H ⏐ – C – (CH2)5 – N –n ( ) Z O and (i) State one use of polymers Y and Z. (008974-T) 2008 . (iii) Which of these two polymers is not suitable for use as a container for concentrated sodium hydroxide solution? Explain. (a) Write the structure of the copolymer formed from the following reactions.
CH2 – CH2 → – CH2 – CH2 – O – A Natural rubber is a cis-isomer. (008974-T) 2008 (ii) (b) – O – CH2CH2 – O – C – (CH2)6 – C –n ( ) O CH3 ⏐ – C – (CH2)2 – C – O – ⏐ H (ii) O CH3 ⏐ HO – C – (CH2)2 – C – O – H ⏐ H (c) (i) Polymer Y: For making plastic bags Polymer Z: As a synthetic fibre for making clothing (ii) H H O H ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ C = C and HO – C – (CH2)5 – N – H ⏐ ⏐ monomer of Z H CH3 monomer of Y (6-aminohexanoic acid) (propene) (iii) Polymer Z because it contains the amide linkage. (iv) Polymer Y. H H H H ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ C6H5 – C – C• + C = C → ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ H Cl H Cl H H H H H ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ C6H5 – C – C – C – C• → – CH2 – C –n ( ) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ H Cl H Cl Cl • Termination step The addition polymerisation stops when two free radicals combine. It is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon. (i) 53 .6. H H ⏐ ⏐ 2C6H5 – C – C• → ⏐ ⏐ H Cl H H H H ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ C6H5 – C – C – C – C – C6H5 ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ H Cl Cl H © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (a) The synthetic fibre made from phenol is nylon-6.6-hexanedioate ⎯⎯→ NC(CH2)4CN ⎯→ H2N(CH2)6NH2 Step 3 Reaction between HOOC(CH2)4COOH and H2N(CH2)6NH2 HOOC(CH2)4COOH + H2N(CH2)6NH2 → nylon-6. (a) (i) H Cl H CN ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ – C – C – C – C –n ( ) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ H Cl H H O O C6H5 – C – O – O – C – C6H5 → benzoyl peroxide 2C6H5• + 2CO2 • Chain propagation step H H H H ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ C6H5• + C = C → C6H5 – C – C• ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ H Cl H Cl The chain propagates as successive monomers are added to the chain.6-hexanediamine HOOC(CH2)4COOH ⎯→ ammonium 1. 7.ANSWER CHAPTER 16 Polymers Multiple-choice Questions O O Essay Question 1. B Cyclohexanol is oxidised to 1. P is a condensation polymer.6-hexanedioic acid.6. 3.6-hexanedioic acid Phenol ⎯→ cyclohexanol ⎯⎯→ HOOC(CH2)4COOH Step 2 Preparation of 1. D For anionic polymerisation. A 4. D – C – C6H4 – C2H4 – O – C – C6H4 – C2H4 – O – ester linkage 2. C O 5.6 + nH2O (b) • Initiation step O O H2 –H2O NH3 H2 HNO3 1. Structured Question 1. Bhd. It is non-biodegradable and causes land pollution. In the presence of concentrated NaOH. one of the monomers making nylon-6. 8. the amide linkage is broken up due to hydrolysis. the initiator is a Lewis base (nucleophile). 6. Step 1 Preparation of 1. D B The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol is called esterification.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.