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41.3.2c and 3. Was there any difference between larvae and adults (averaged over temperatures and lines)? 2. with results of Duncan's MRT. Was difference between larvae and adults dependent on temperatures? 7. Did difference between young and old adults depend on lines? 8. 53. (d) the portion of the experimental region that will give an acceptably high yield. the 11 degrees of freedom for treatments should have been partitioned into single degree of freedom contrasts to answer the following questions.4b (5 days).. 500.8abc. The same considerations hold with 2 or more quantita tive factors. Literature Cited 1. 6. New York. A similar example may be seen in (9).e. McGraw tistics Hill. There is a plethora of examples of abuses of Duncan's MRT not only in the horticultural science journals but also in the other agricultural journals. 100. and linear if the zero concentration is deleted. and y remains constant at y* beyond x#. If the response curve reaches a maximum y# at an un known concentration x*. Did temperature difference depend on lines? (Equivalently. Did the 2 lines differ? 5. as mentioned before. Sometimes y* is known. 0. 1. Duncan's MRT was applied.some unknown concentration x = x* and falls beyond x*. where Duncan's MRT was used to compare the effects of 8 con centrations (0.6ab. Other examples could have been chosen just as easilv for illustrative purposes. With a graph. Did difference between young and old adults depend on temperatures? Gladon and Staby (3) studied the effect of a solution of sucrose and 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate on the opening of immature chrysanthemums. slopes.1a (3 days). Was interaction between larvae vs. Soc. The equation will also give an estimate of the difference be tween the yields at any 2 different values of x. or in finding ducting factorial experiments is to study the possible the range of x that will give a response higher than (y* — c). 1970. Interactions between chemicals and concentrations may also sometimes vanish on deleting the zero concentration. it is in structive to analyze the data with and without the zero concentration. Was interaction between young vs. Polynomials will not give a good fit to such data. 20. Examples existence of interactions. A similar example is given in (5). to compare the 12 treatments.8a (0 day). 44. where c is a positive fraction. . (c) the values of x2 and x2 that will maximize the response and the maximum value of the response.4c (7 days). The average numbers of runners per plant. which ones are different in their effects? If the response curve approaches an asymptote (i. to control growth of Euphorbia leucocephala Lotsy for pot produc tion. Of course. There should be more graphical presentation of results. 89: 1976. Quite often. State Hor.2a (1 day). 47. These considerations are more meaningful than the question that is often asked by the naive ex perimenter: among 10. Was difference between larvae and adults dependent on lines? 6. each at 3 nonzero concentrations.b(c)x. for example. The flower heights were measured after various days from harvest. The fitted response surface summarizes the information in the data. Was there a temperature effect? 4. 1. 300. If the results of Dun can's MRT can be believed. for any pair of values of x1 and x2). a two-phase regression should be fitted—a poly nomial up to x* and a horizontal line of unknown height y* beyond x#. It can be used to predict: (a) the response at any point (i. Instead. 9. Sandhu and Buxton (8) studied the effects of two surfactants (Hydrowet and Regulaid) on increasing the surface penetration of Ancymidol for height control of hydrangeas in a 3 x 4 factorial experiment — 3 'chemicals' (Ancymidol alone. adults and temperature dependent on lines? 11. 28 and 82 fxW/cm2) of lighting on runner production in Saxifraga sarmentosa after 5 months of night-interrupt lighting. Chester I. did line difference depend on tempera ture?) 10.8c. there was no opening of the immature flowers during the first 3 days after harvest. All days should be statistically different. If we plot the data for each 'chemical' separately. old adults and temperature dependent on lines? Questions 10 and 11 pertain to three-factor interactions and are usually less important than main effects and two-factor interactions. Statistics in bioloj biology. Average heights. If the cost of applying the treatment depends on its level. an asymptotic equation should be fitted to the data (1).0bc. (b) the difference in responses at any 2 points. Duncan's MRT was used to compare all 12 treatments. Common sense would say that opening was continuous. Because concentration is a continuous variable. 100 and 200 ppm without surfactant and 0. Schalk and Stoner (6) conducted a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment to study the feeding habits of the Colorado potato beetle at 3 stages of development (4th-instar larvae. all concentrations are different in their effects. the present author would like to apologize to the authors of the examples cited in this section. Did young adults differ from old adults? 3. Ancymidol plus Hydrowet and Ancy midol plus Regulaid) each at 4 concentrations of Ancymidol (0. if regression is significant. it will be seen that the biggest difference was between zero and nonzero concentrations of Ancymidol. an asymptotic curve would be suggested. where (y* — c) is an acceptably high yield. starting from day zero. inappropriately. Seibert (7) studied the effects of 6 levels (0. the maximum percent mortality above some high concentration x* is y* = 100.) Regression analysis will compare the heights. Tjia.3d (21 days). in insecticide studies. with results of Duncan's MRT. the regression is nonlinear if zero concentration is in cluded.9. except at x = infinity). we should take as the response variable the yield per unit dollar of investment. A plot of the results would show that a straight line would give an adequate fit to the data. 50 and 100 ppm with surfactant). where Duncan's MRT was used to compare 7 treatments con sisting of a control and 2 chemicals (Ancymidol and Chlormequat). we may be interested in estimating x* and y*. 83.1°C). 3. and it is true in this example. a statistical analysis is sometimes unnecessary. (If the lowest concentration is zero.. were 38. As mentioned earlier. 2. tends to a maximum y* but never quite reaches it. volume two. 3.t. The correct conclusion is that all irradiance levels were different. and curvatures of the 3 graphs.e. 1000 and 2000 ppm) of gibberelic acid to accelerate flowering and increase yield of statice. the most appropriate statistical pro cedure is regression analysis. Bliss. 50. 17. 200. Fla. etc. and no growth between the 7th and 14th day.2c (14 days) and 98. One form of such an equation is y = a -|. 30 and 40 ppm. 400. If the above data were plotted. young adults and old adults) when confined for 7 hours on leaf disks of 2 tomato lines (C28 and PI 134417) at 2 temperatures (26. were Oa. a major reason for con252 In conclusion. 25.7 and 21. Stoltz. although a parabola would be better. Proc.
Green. This was quite a loss and looking toward future replanting of citrus was discouraging as the nematode and citrus decline disease is still uncontrolled. Rt. dine grape production in central Florida is presented with emphasis on purchasing vines. Harvesting is done by hand or mechanical harvester. Soc. in North Carolina. 88:527-530. Abstract. We have good wine grapes now. Gary J. J. Do not let me mislead you. FL 33853 Additional index words. The larger the grape. but are very good tasting." the best advertising of all. and George L. 89:253-254. Soc. Chemical growth control of Euphorbia leucocephala Lotsy for pot production. The best market today for the present varieties of hybrid Muscadines is the U-Pick-It Program and the local markets. 4. There are the female vines and the perfect flowered. James M. depending on the variety. They will not ripen further after harvest ing. 1976. The self-fertile male vine must be within 25 feet of the female and can pollinate up to 3 female vines. in the past. Production ranges from 2 to 8 tons per acre. There are approximately 15 hybrid varieties released for and adapted to Florida which are nematode and Pierce's Disease resistant. Hybrid Muscadine varieties introduced from the states of Georgia and North Carolina and adapted to Florida are growing exceptionally well in many parts of our state. The jelly-wine grapes are not quite as enjoyable to eat. Buxton. Mead. Stoltz. L. HortScience 11:206-208. State Hort. HortScience 11:371-372. 253 . Amer.. Soc. Opening of im mature chrysanthemums with sucrose and 8-hydroxyquinoline cit entiates resistance to the Colorado potato beetle on tomatoes. Ramcharam. Origin. and furthermore. 9. C. Sci. Some varieties ripen almost all at once. HortSci 8. S. and Allan K. M. Skin—hearty. self fertile male vines which not only produce fruit them selves. (Note: For Muscadines to reach their full value. Comparing treatment means: a compendium. State Hort. 6. soil types and marketing. Our U-Pick-It Program for the past 2 seasons has been very rewarding indeed. with at least a 2 gal pot size root system. Taste. 1976. Chew. Pike. 1976. and D. Stoner. Bronze (pink to light golden green). Surface active agent to increase effectiveness of surface penetration of Ancymidol on hydrangea and Easter lily. A bioassay differ rate. The table grape varieties are outstandingly delicious.2. Fla. let it be understood that grape vines demand a great amount of personal atten tion in pruning and training the first 3 years. 1975. 5 ft. Proc. they will sell for you via "Word of Mouth. but the Muscadines at present make a sweet wine and wine connoisseurs advise that we need a better dry wine grape. all varieties should be fully ripe before harvest. State Hort. thus it was necessary to push our trees and have the soil treated. Gladon. 'scuppernong. Generally the third year is considered the first productive season. The first 2 years were disappointing as the vines were progressing too slowly. 7. Moreover. Muscadines are not like the bunch grape. 1975. 88:540-543. Proc. the primary per acre cost of the initial planting. HortScience 11:348-357. then the wine market will be open. which were the two major reasons for failure Nematodes destroyed our citrus grove. Hort. have been growing here for many years. ence 11:46-47. The Muscadine vine 'Scuppernong' is the oldest native American variety of grape. Pulp—firm and juicy. J. but also pollinate the female vines. Box 352. Pamlico Sound. Schalk. Biometrics 31:803-851. the Muscadines are not yet well known in Florida and it is necessary to do a great deal of advertising. Optimum gibberelic acid concentration to accelerate flowering and increase yield of statice. Joiner and R. the determination to find out why brought us into the Nursery Vineyard business which proved vines should not be planted in the field until they meet the qualifications of a 1 year old vine or younger. However the financial returns per acre are also greater. Victor. These vines are extremely resistant to Pierce's Disease and nematodes. Fla. Lake Wales. The original vine is around 350 years old and is still alive on Roanoke Island. and black.' Vitis (Muscadinia) rotundifolia. Once you get the customer to taste the grapes. the less you notice the seeds. The past history of Florida's grape industry clearly indicates that the past problems of growing grapes in this state are now over.) Central Florida grapes usually are ready to start harvesting by the first of August. trellising. /. Future growth of the grape industry in Florida is also discussed. One individual's experience in hybrid Musca grapes on a commercial basis is not for everyone. Soc. The individual berries of the latest re leases are medium (nickle coin size) to jumbo (quarter to half-dollar coin size). 3. Fla. Richard J. General Information Plant Characteristics History need not repeat itself. However. 1975. through to the full production age is much greater than for citrus. Others stagger their ripening and take 4 to 8 weeks to complete their production. location and proper care. 101(l):74-76. Since overcoming this problem. Fruit Characteristics Ripening Tendencies. Texture. R. Very attractive and well accepted. Staby. We then discovered the Muscadine grape varieties and decided to test grow a 2-1/2 acre plot. varietal characteristics. Proc. As soon as a good commercial method of making wine with the Muscadines is developed. Varietal Sizes. T. However. Eye Appeal. 89: 1976. we have now planted the remainder of our land. A review of response surface meth odology from a biometric viewpoint. depending on the kind of market and variety. Pollination. B. Tjia. 1976. N. 1976. PLANTING AND CARE OF HYBRID MUSCADINE GRAPES Florence Hall Hall's Vineyard Nursery. Growing Proc. and James L. The effects of night-lighting on growth and pigmentation in greenhouse-grown tropical ornamentals. Michael. Sheehan. Soc. J. Sandhu and J. but the backyard hobby grower can easily care for a few vines. 1976. 3. The smaller grapes usually have 3 to 4 seeds. Wilfret. Seibert. Fla. Large grapes usually have two to three seeds. Seeds. Virgona. Colors. 5. State Hort. irrigation and possible drainage and care. tall.
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