TheMetaphysicalMeaningof“Tamil”bySaintRamalingam

RajeshKothandaraman
California,USA

1IntroductionandMotivation:
TheTamilLexiconofUniversityofMadrasdefinestheword'Tamil'as'sweetness’. Prof.Franklin
Southworthsuggeststhatthename‘Thamizh’comesfromtam-mil-->tam-il'self-speak',or'one'sown
speech'.IntheTamilClassicSpiritualliteratureThirumandiram,SaintThirumoolarsays

{Translation]Me,havingbeenbegottenbytheAlmightysowell
ToexplainHimselfinthatexcellingThamizhexperiencesowell.
IntheabovesongThirumoolarusestheword‘Thamizh’torefertosomekindofexperiencethanthe
conventionalmeaningoflanguage.Alsoinanothersongheusesthiswordasaverb.Soallthispointsto
thatthereshouldbemoremeaningtotheword‘Thamizh’thatisinclusiveofthemeaning‘sweetness’.
SuchameaningdoesexistandwasgivenbythegreatYogi,SiddhaandPoetSaintRamalingamaka
Vallalar.InthecontextofexplainingsomedifficultpassagesofSanskrittoaSanskritscholarwhohad
thefirmviewofSanskritistheMotherofalllanguages,VallalarwroteanexplanationofThamizhto
explainitsmetaphysicalmeaning.ItwaspublishedaspartofUrainadai[1](TheProseandCollected
LettersofVallalar)muchlater.

2MetaphysicalApproach
VallalarusesametaphysicalapproachtoexplainthemeaningofTamil.Metaphysicsdealswiththe
fundamentalnatureofbeingandtheworldanddenotesphilosophicalenquiryofanon-empirical
characterintothenatureofexistence.AllpartsofknowledgehavetheirorigininMetaphysics,similarto
thevisiblehasitsbasisintheinvisible.FormsandNumbersarethewaysthemindperceives
MetaphysicsandPlatosaysthestudyofthepropertiesofnumbershabituatesthemindtobe
contemplationofpureTruth,andraisesusabovethematerialuniverse. This is because numbersand
alphabetsaresymbolsofsomehigherreality,representingtheTruthofaHigherPlane.Thesesymbols
areinstruments(likeeyes)toperceivetheHigherreality.ThiruvalluvarputsforthinKural392“Those
called Numbers and Letters, the wise declare, are eyes to live with”.Vallalaradoptsametaphysical
approachtoexplainnumericallyandalphabeticallyandunraveltheHigherTruthbehindit.
Tamilhas12vowelsand18consonants,theremaininglettersarederivedfromthecompoundtable
shownbelow.TamildefinesvowelsandconsonantsasUyirEzhuthu,MeiEzhuthumeaningSoulletters,

Bodylettersrespectively.Asthenameimpliesthisembedsadeepspiritualconceptinit.‘Uyir’inTamil
meansliterally‘Life’butmetaphysicallymeans‘Soul’andthatincludes‘Life’.‘Mei’means‘Physical
Body’.Thevowelsandconsonantscombinetogethertoformthevowel-consonantalphabetcalledthe
Soul-Bodyletter(Uyir-MeiEzhuthu).MetaphysicallythismeanstheSoulgiveslifetothebodyand
becomesalivingbeing,sothevowelsactivatetheconsonantstoproduceconjugants.Soul+Body=Life.
TheTamilalphabetsinacompoundtableisshownbelow

8ody leLLers respecLlvely. As Lhe name lmplles Lhls embeds a deep splrlLual concepL ln lL. ͚hLJŝƌ͛ŝŶdĂŵŝů
ŵĞĂŶƐůŝƚĞƌĂůůLJ͚>ŝĨĞ͛ďƵƚŵĞƚĂƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůůLJŵĞĂŶƐ͚^ŽƵů͛ĂŶĚƚŚĂƚŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐ͚>ŝĨĞ͚͛͘DĞŝ͛ŵĞĂŶƐ͚WŚLJƐŝĐĂů
ŽĚLJ͛͘1he vowels and consonanLs comblne LogeLher Lo form Lhe vowel-consonanL alphabeL called Lhe
Soul-8ody leLLer (uylr-Mel LzhuLhu). MeLaphyslcally Lhls means Lhe Soul glves llfe Lo Lhe body and
becomes a llvlng belng, so Lhe vowels acLlvaLe Lhe consonanLs Lo produce con[uganLs. Soul + 8ody =
Llfe. 1he 1amll alphabeLs ln a compound Lable ls shown below
Tamil compound table
Vowels ĺ
Consonants
Ļ
¿ _ @ Þ 2 2 O Ç @ g @ g
d d dß d| d @ ð Md Gd Od Mdß Gdß Mdu
0 0 0ß 0l 0 [ @ M0 G0 O0 M0ß G0ß M0u
8 8 8ß 8| 8 ð @ M8 G8 O8 M8ß G8ß M8u
@ @ @ß @' @ @ M@ G@ O@ M@ß G@ß M@u
L L Lß µ k _ _ ML GL OL MLß GLß MLu
M M Mß Ml M @ @ MM GM OM MMß GMß MMu
g g gß g| g @ @ Mg Gg Og Mgß Ggß Mgu
§ § §ß §| § @ @ M§ G§ O§ M§ß G§ß M§u
L L Lß Ll L Q _ ML GL OL MLß GLß MLu
u u uß u| u @ @ Mu Gu Ou Muß Guß Muu
ü ü üß ül ü µ @ Mü Gü Oü Müß Güß Müu
û [ [ß û û @ @ M[ G[ O[ M[ß G[ß M[u
0 0 0ß 0| 0 @ @ M0 G0 O0 M0ß G0ß M0u
O O Oß Ol O Q _ MO GO OO MOß GOß MOu
g g gß g| g @ @ Mg Gg Og Mgß Ggß Mgu
u u uß u| u g g Mu Gu Ou Muß Guß Muu
_ _ _ß _| _ @ @ M_ G_ O_ M_ß G_ß M_u
G G Gß G| G @ @ MG GG OG MGß GGß MGu

3SomeTermsandDefinitions
BeforegettingintotheactualtranslationofVallalar’sexplanation,sometermsrequireexplanation.This
helpsinunderstandingthetranslation.ThesetermsweretakenfromtheUrainadaiandgivenbelow.
SIVAMorSatChitAnanda
Vallalardescribes,themeaningofSivamisSatChitAnanda.Inthis‘Sat’is‘Sikaram’,‘Chit’is
‘Vakaram’and‘Ananda’is‘Makaram’.Themeaningofthesetermsareasfollows.

Sikaram-Sat - ThatExistsascontainingEverything -Truth
Vakaram-Chit- ThatexistsasExpressingEverything -Consciousness
Makaram-Ananda-DelightfilledbySatandChit -InfiniteDelight
Whiletheterm‘Sivam’isusuallyassociatedwiththeHindureligiousGod,Vallalar’sdefinitionofSivam
goesbeyondreligion,extremelysimple,yetverypowerfulanddescriptive.Moresimply,Sat-that
existsaseverything,Chit-thatisbeingeverything.

TheTerm‘Supramental‘
SriAurobindo,thegreatYogi,MysticPhilosopherdefinesSupramentalasSelfExistentTruth
Consciousness.ThisexactlytranslatestothedefinitionVallalargivestoterm‘Siva’.Specificallyhecalls
‘SuddhaSivam’.Theterm‘Suddham’wasusedtomeanitisbeyondreligiousexperiencesandtranslates
exactlyto‘Supra’thatmeans‘above’or‘beyond’.Thustheterm‘SuddhaSivam’exactlytranslatesto
‘SupramentalDivine’andtheterm‘SuddhaSanmarkkam’to‘PathtoSupramentalTruth’

TenCommandmentstoExperienceSivamorSupramentalDivine
Vallalararound1860sinalettertohisdiscipleexplainedthetenstages/stepstoexperiencethe
Supramental.ItstartsfromTattwas(Physical,VitalLife,Mental)andendsinSupramental.Theactual
stepsasfollows:

1.TattwasForm:BecomingawarethatthePhysicalBodytoMindarenottheTrueSelf.
2.TattwasPerception:TheTattwas(Physical,Vital,Mind)donotknowtheTrueSelf.Becomingaware
thatweareConsciousnessputintoForm
3.TattwasPurification:Realizingthat‘this’veiledtheConsciousbeing
4.SpiritualForm:ImpureEgoreplacedbytheTrueSelfthroughDivineGrace
5.SpiritualPerception:BeingDelightedthatweareConsciousnessputintoForm
6.SpiritualPurification:BeingPassiveandReceptivetotheDescentofDivineGrace
7.SupramentalForm:PerceivingOneDivineinfinitelyeverywhere,thatAllisSivam
8.SupramentalPerception:SoulBeingDelightedorlivinginthatConsciousness
9.SupramentalYoga:PerformingYogainthatConsciousnessof‘OnenesswithAll’.
10.SupramentalBoga:BecomeOnewithSupramentalDivineandexist.
Theabove10stagescanbebroadlyclassifiedto3stages(Pyschicisation->Spiritualisation->
Supramentalisation3x3=9stages+1SupremeStage)andmatchesperfectlywiththe‘Triple
TransformationoftheIndividual’explainedbySriAurobindo.Thesestagesare

1. PsychicTransformation
2. SpiritualTransformation
3. SupramentalTransformation
Thesestagesaredealtingreatdetailanddepthinhismagnumopus‘TheLifeDivine’.

TripleBeings
Threetypesofbeings(Life)areclassifiedinUrainadai.Theyare:Sakalar,Pralayakalar,Vignanakalar.

Sakalar – HumanbeingshaveEgo,Maya,Karma
Pralayakalar – OvermentalBeingshaveEgoandMaya
Vignanakalar – SupramentalBeingshaveEgoalone.
HereVallalarcallstheEgoasnatural,Mayaastheartificialpartofnatural,Karma(oraction)as
artificial.SakalarareordinaryHumanbeings,PralayakalarareOvermentalbeings,Vignanakalarare
Supramentalbeings.Pure9types,Impure9types,sototal18.
Asexplainedin[9],“Overmentalisaplanewherethefullpoweroftruthdoesnotexist.Itisaplane
wheretruthscanprotectthemselvesandact,eliminatingthedestructiveinfluenceofignorance.Inthe
nextSupramentalPlane,Truthisself-existent.Herethereisnoignorance.PowerofSupermindcan
enterintoignorance,reachitsfoundationoftruth,uniteallofthemandfromtheretransformignorance
intoknowledge”.TheEgomentionedaboveforVignanakalarorSupramentalbeingsrefertosomesort
ofindividualizationasMotherexplainsintheMother’sAgenda[7].Itistheessenceortheessential
purposeofindividualizationWITHOUTtheego’slimitsandthatiswhatVallalarrefersEgoasnatural.

Thakaram
‘Thakaram’referstoPhysicalBody.‘ThakaraVitthai’meansperfectionortransformationofPhysical
BodyintoPurebody.

InUrainadai,inmanyplaceswhileexplainingthecruxofthedifficultwordsVallalarsaystheirmeaning
willcomeoutinmoredetaillaterinthedaysofSanmarkka.In‘Perupadesam’finalgreatsermonbefore
dematerializationofhisdeathlessbodyin1874hementionsthatpeoplewhowillteachthisPathwillnot
beavailableinnearfutureforsometime,andelsewherementionstheywillcometoteachthesame
Path.ItisnocoincidenceSriAurobindoandTheMothercametoPondicherry(nearVadalur)after40
yearsanddidamoredetailedresearchonthesamePath(IntegralYogaisessentiallySuddhaSanmarkka
ifonekeenlyanalyzeandnotdesperatetofindthedifferences)andexplainedingreatdetailtheTriple
TransformationoftheindividualthatleadstoSupramentalization.SriAurobindohimselfmentioned
thathedirectlyreceivedtheteachingsfromaHigherConsciousnessinmentalsilence.Vallalar’s
teachingswereinTamil,notwidelypublishedduringhistimeandmanyreligioussectionswereagainst
histeachingsashewentbeyondthereligiousexperiencestotheSupramentalDivineandhadthe
completebodytransformationbytheGraceofVastGraceLightDivine[1][2][3].Thebody
transformationofVallalarandhisconnectionwithSriAurobindo,TheMotherandTirumoolarisdealtin
greatdetailinThulasiram’s“ArutPerumJothiandDeathlessBodyVol1&2”book.
Theoriginalexplanationof‘Thamizh’byVallalarinTamilisgiveninthefollowingpage.Thisisfollowed
byEnglishtranslationinitalicsfontandourexplanationinnormalfont.

SacredHallofTruthConsciousness

TamilisTh--A–M–E–Zhformedof5unitsofmeasure.Th,Im,ZhrepresentsArtofPhysical
Consciousness(JadaChitKalai).A,E–ArtofConsciousnessProper(ChitKalai).
A-representstheOneDivineorFirstPrimordialGod,firstsyllableofAUM-SiVaYaNaMathatexpresses
theCosmicConsciousness.
E-representstheSoulConsciousnesssyllable,expressestheConsciousnessalwaysinseparablefromthe
DivineandshowingupastheOnebecomingtheInfinitelyManymanifesteddifferences.
Theexplanationof[Th,Im,Zh]representingthePhysicalBodyfortheSoulwheretheDivinebecoming
basisofallSoulConsciousnessartsisasfollows
Th–7
th
consonant
M–10
th
consonant,
Zh–15
th
NaturalTruthSpecialtySyllable
Thelanguage,thatwastaughtbySambu(BeingwhoistheCauseofUniverse)frombeginninglesstime,
-accordingtoPureSiddhanthawastaughtbyDivineGraceandCommand-,thatwascelebratedasthe
Fatherofalllanguagesbywisemen,andstandcompletedmeaning‘sweetness’,NaturalTruthSpecialty
LanguageThamizh’sPureSiddhanticExplanationasfollows

Vallalar–SaintRamalingam

SignificanceofTh+A
Inthe10commandmentstoNaturalTruthExperience,withtheTattwasForm(TatwaaRoopa)asthe
beginning,becomingOnewiththeSupramentalDivineastheend,thebeforementioned‘Th’in7
th

positionrepresentstheSupramentalFormNaturalTruthCommand.The‘A’Akaramexpressingthe
CosmicConsciousnessFormAUM’sinnermeaningisthemanifestationsyllable.AsAkaramisthefirst
syllableofthe12soulsyllables(vowels)andrepresentsthePrimordialGodorSupramentalDivine,that
istheNaturalTruth’sEvolutionaryPerfectionGoalforthe9statesfromBrahmatoParaSiva.So,the
SupramentalDivineEssencetakesforminthePhysicalEtherealPlane(Thakaraakasa),getsinvolvedand
manifestedinthePhysical.ThisisInvolution.[Vyaktam–manifestion[13]].SoAkaramrepresents
Divine’sInvolutionandmanifestationintothePhysical.
ThefirstKuralsays
"A"isthefirstandsourceofalltheletters.Evensois
GodPrimordialthefirstandsourceofalltheworld.
With‘A’takingtheposition1,1representstheDivineandisthesourceofeverything,identitynumber.
Allnumberscouldbederivedfrom1asitexistsineverynumber.Further‘A’iscalledtheMoolanga
Pranavam.MooladharaisconsideredthecenterofPhysicalConsciousnessProper.Itisthe‘root;or
‘foundation’chakra,thecentreatthebottomofthespinewhichisthemainsupportofthephysical
consciousnessandthematerialpartsofthenature”[13].Hence‘A’representsDivine’sInvolutioninto
thePhysical.

SriAurobindo

SignificanceofM+E
The‘M’dissolutionsoundof‘AUM’Pranava(‘A’–Creation,‘U’–Protection,‘M’–Dissolution)and
turnsouttobetheTruthDelight(Sat+Ananda)fortheLiberatedSoulsandInconscientDarknessfor
InvolvedSoulsandattheendoftheConceptionPralayaatthebirthandinLifeitbecomesSupramental
andSoul’sBase(10representsPhysicalBase)fortheJivaorPsychicConsciousnessForce
The‘E’Ekarambeingthe3
rd
alphabetdenotesthethirdofthethreeSpiritualBeings,theSupramental
BeingwhostandabovethelowerHumanBeingsandhigherOvermentalBeings.So,theConsciousSoul
beingswhoalwaysmanifestandEvolvebasedontheDivineCommand–PhysicalBaserelationship
shouldbemarkedasrightfultoexperiencetheSupremeAimofIntegralPerfectDelight.Thisis
Evolution.Ekaramrepresentsman’sevolutionintoDivine.
Thenumber10isthenumberofmanifestationsignifiessomethingestablishedinmanifestation.Inreal
life,base10isthefoundationofallpracticalmathematicshencethebasisofallthatwemeasureand
perceiveinthisuniverse.Thenumber3denotestotheSupramentalbeing(Vignanakalar)ofthethree
beingsbriefedinthe‘TripleBeings’section.MoredetailscanbefoundinSriAurobindo’sworks,TheLife
DivineandTheSynthesisofYoga[4][5].
Pralaya is a non-mental, non-astral, non-material state of existence somewhere between death and
rebirth, where the life impulse is in abeyance. An experience of perfect peace and unending bliss prior to
taking the next incarnation [10]

TheMother

SignificanceofZH
Standinginthelastsyllablepositionas15
th
ofthe18consonants,inthe“SivayogalandofBharatham”
uniquelyfoundonlyintheSwadeshoutof56landsmentionedinPauranikaTattwa,beingacommon
righttoClassicalTamilandColloquialTamil.Zhtakingthe15
th
positionrepresentstheDivineGrace
revelationexperiencethroughPanchaDasakshra(PanchakshraTripleworks5x3=15,NAMASIVAYAx
AUM)toeasilylearnandexperiencetheessenceof“Rig,Yajur,SamaSanskriticVedas”thatbelongto
thefirstofthethreeTamildepartments(Iyal,Isai,Natakam).TamilcontainstheSupremeTruthsecretsof
Devaram,ThiruvasagamandThirumandiramSastra-StotrasbyMahaPurushasSriManickavasakar,
Sambandhar,Navaraiyar,Sundarar,Thirumoolar.UnlikeSanskrit,Marathi,Telugulanguageswhere
evenafterbeingincompleteconcentrationandlivinginhighconsciousnesscollectivelywithother
sadhaksandanalyzeandrefinethedifferentsounds,itisverydifficulttomakelessonsandget
Bhasyam,Vyakhyanam,TikaTippanitools(commentary,elaborateexpositionsandexplanationsof
difficultwordsandphrases)andevenifwegetthese,extremelydifficulttogettheteacherswhoteach
withthesetools,Tamilhaslowlettercount,soundslight,conjunctivesandhibeingveryeasy,very
eleganttowriteandexpresspoetically,withoutfemininedecorationslikepompoussoundingaksharasor
worddecorations,andcouldabsorbandgovernanylanguage’sstructuralfeatures(chandasus).Unique
toitslanguage,amongthespecialhigh,middleandlowaksharas-zh,ir,in,‘zh’theNaturalTruth’s
specialsounddenotesthehigheststateofPureSupra-MonicDelightExperience.So‘zh’represents
PerfectDelight(Ananda).
Inthecontextoftheclaim,TamileasilyleadstoexperienceofSanskriticVedas,itiscommonlyobserved
bythescholarswhoknowboththelanguagesandlookattheissueunbiasedly.SriAurobindohimself,a
greatexponentinSanskrit,inhisbook‘TheSecretoftheVeda’in‘TheFoundationsofthePsychological
Theory’chapter,saysitsonlythroughTamilhefoundthemissinglinksandrelationsofSanskrit[6].

anditleadhimtoplungeintotheoriginsandlawsofdevelopmentofhumanlanguageitself.

Vallalar’smentionthatthefirstdepartmentofTamil(PrinciplesIyal,Music-Isai,Drama-Natakam)
includestheRig,YajurandSamaVedasshowstheencompassingnatureofTamil.Thisisconsistentwith
SriAurobindo’sobservationthatitisthroughTamilthathefirstcametoperceivetheembryologyof
Aryantongues.RegardingthedifficultiesandcomplexitiesofSanskrit,SriAurobindosays
“SanskritoughtstilltohaveafutureasalanguageofthelearnedanditwillnotbeagooddayforIndia
whentheancienttongueceasesentirelytobewrittenorspoken.Butifitistosurvive,itmustgetridof
thecurseoftheheavypedanticstylecontractedbyitinitsdeclinewiththelumberingimpossible
compoundsandtheoverweightofhairsplittingerudition”

SimilarviewsregardingthecomplexityanddifficultyoflearningSanskrithavebeenexpressedbyother
greatpersonalitieslikeSwamiVivekananda.SoTamilactuallyhelpsunderstandingofSanskritmore
easily.
Summaryofthemeaningof‘Thamizh’
WithtimetheEvolutionaryForceconvertstheInconscientDarkNatureintoGraceLight,andthe
resultingspiritualconsciousnessforce(puresoul)experiencingtheNaturalTruthcalledtheVastGrace
Lightalsocalledthe”SupramentalDivineDelightPerfection”throughPureMonicOnenessiscalled
Thamizh.
Sotheconclusionofthissummaryis:TamilLanguageeasilyleadstoSupramentalDivineExperience.
SacredHallofTruthConsciousness

VallalarreferstheEvolutionaryForcetobetheagentthatconvertsInconscientDarknesstoGrace
Light.Theterm‘ParibakaSakthi’meansEvolutionaryForce.(similartotheterm‘ParinamaValarchi’that
meansEvolution).Sosummarizedsimplyintermsofmeaningoftheletters
Th–DivineCommandtotakeForminPhysical
A–DivineEssenceInvolutionintoHumanBeing&Manifestation
M–CompleteManifestationandDissolution
I–EvolutionofHumanBeingintoSupramentalBeing
Zh-TotalPerfectDelightthroughOneness
Andintheorderofsequenceintermsofnumbers7-->1-->10-->3-->15
Command->Involution->Dissolution->Evolution->Delight=Th+A+M+I+ZH
ThisessentiallyturnsouttobetheDivineinvolvingintophysicalashumanbeing,manifestingand
evolvingintotheSupramentalBeingtoexperiencethePerfectOnenessDelight.Experiencingthis
Onenessdelight(becomingonewitheverything)isessentiallyCompassiontoeverybeingorSweetness,
hencethismeaningfor“Thamizh”.Thewholeexplanationstartsandendswithaninvocation
‘ThiruChitAmbalam’meaning“SacredHallofTruthConsciousness”,Thiru(Sacred)+Chit(Truth
Consciousness)+Ambalam(Hall).AsLayneLittleexplainsthisisthemethodVallalarusetoawakenthe
visionarywithinandcentertheawarenessatapointwithinhispsychewherethetumultuousmindwas
quieted[11].SimilarmethodisalsopracticedinothermysticalschoolslikeRosicrucianTradition.
5Conclusion
Vallalar’sexplanationofthemeaningofThamizhenhancesourunderstandingofSaintTirumoolar’s
referenceto‘Thamizh’experienceinhissong..Itshouldbenotedhowever,Vallalar’sconclusionthat
TamileasilyleadstoSupramentalexperiencedoesNOTmeanotherlanguagesdonotleadto

Supramentalexperience.AlsothisshouldnotbetakenascomparisonwithotherAryanLanguageslike
Sanskrit.Ratheritshouldbeseenasevolutionandbifurcationoflanguagesthatgrewincomplexity.
Later,in1873‘Perubadesam’VallalarsaystherearemistakeseveninTholkappiamandPaniniyam
(TamilandSanskritGrammar)andadvisednottogivetoomuchimportancetothem.Thiscomesinthe
light,grammarcomeslatterthanthesoundsandgetsmorecomplicatedintheirdetails.Soitis
importanttodoalotoffutureresearchontheoriginsofhumanspeechandsacredsoundsthatare
commontoalllanguages,asthatleadsustowardsunitywiththeOnePrimordialSourceorSupramental
Divine,thanonthemanydetailsandcomparisonsoflanguageswhichleadtomoredivisions.Tamilwill
contributealottothisgrandunificationofhumanlanguage.Ultimately,alllanguagesarerelationsof
oneandanother.ItisworthemphasizingthattheOnebecomestheInfiniteMany.OneisTheDivine.
Manyarethelanguagesandarts.
P.S.Vallalarasocialreformertoo,startedaschoolteachingSanmarkawithTamil,SanskritandEnglish
asitslanguagesasearlyas1867.Duetolackofresponseheleftittotakeeffectatitsowntime.Almost
100yearslater,in1968TheMotherstartedAuroville,the‘UniversalTownshipofHumanUnity’to
realizehumanunityindiversitywhereitslanguagesareTamil,Sanskrit,EnglishandFrench.Alsothe
Mothernotedin1969,thatteachingwillbegiveninallthelanguagesspokenonearth.

SathyaGnanaSabaiinVadalur MatirmandirinAuroville

References
1. Vallalar,“Urainadai–ProseofVallalar”
2. Vallalar,“Thiruvarutpa–SongsofDivineGrace”
3. Vallalar,“ArutPerumJothiAgaval-VastGraceLightDivineCall”
4. SriAurobindo,“TheLifeDivine”
5. SriAurobindo,“TheSynthesisofYoga”
6. SriAurobindo,“TheSecretoftheVeda”

7. Mother’sAgenda-Feb3,1968
8. Thulasiram,“ArutPerumJothiandDeathlessBody”Vol1and2.
9. http://www.gurusoftware.com/GuruNet/KnowledgeBase/Spirit/SriAurobindoTheMother.htm
10. http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/key/key-glo3.htm
11. LayneLittle,ASingleFlame'sLight:ReflectionsonthePoetryofRamalingar
12. RecordofYogaGlossary

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