By, Tosh Kumar 0412210054 CS,4th year

RFID-What it is?
• Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. • RFID (radio frequency identification) is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person. • An alternative to bar code. • RFID is also called dedicated short range communication (DSRC).

not the kind of plane it was.. • .• • Invented in 1948 by Harry Stockman. RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane. Came into commercial use only in 1990s. Initial application was during World War II-The United Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones.

Components of RFID .

Components of RFID(cont’d) .

Passive RFID Tags .

Active RFID Tags • Battery Powered tags – Have much greater range – 100m – Hold much more information – Kbytes – Can integrate sensing technology • Temperature. GPS – Can signal at defined time – Multiple tags can be recorded at once • Used for higher value items – Shipping containers – Babies – Electronic assets • Cost between $20 and $40 per item • Life between 2 – 4 years .

Components of RFID(cont’d) Active RFID Tag Power Source Internal to tag Passive RFID Energy transferred using RF from reader No Only in field of reader Very High Up to 3-5m. usually less Few hundred within 3m of reader 128 bytes of read/write Tag Battery Availability of power Required signal strength to Tag Range Multi-tag reading Yes Continuous Very Low Up to 100m 1000’s of tags recognized – up to 100mph Up to 128Kb or read/write with sophisticated search and access Data Storage .

Components of RFID(cont’d) .

123456.23000. 613.Electronic product code-EPC • Each tag contains a unique code that facilitating the identification process & is known as EPC.Could describe the product type (24 Bits) • Serial Number – Unique ID for that product item (36 Bits) . • E.g.123456789 (96 bits) • Header – defines version of EPC(8 bits) • EPC Manager – describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer) (28 bits) • Object Class .

System overview .

RFID Vs Bar Code RFID Forging is difficult Barcode Forging is easy Scanner not required. Tag 20 cents a piece) Can be reusable within factory premises Cannot be reused Can read only one tag at a time . No need Scanner needs to see the bar to bring the tag near the code to read it reader RFID is comparatively fast Can read multiple tags Relatively expensive as compared to Bar Codes (Reader 1000$.

Benefits of RFID .

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• Gains->Gillette saves 20% in Operational Cost at each Distribution Center. • Previously->Using Bar Code. .• Gillette & Co: • Objective: To Track movement of product from Packaging Center to Plant’s distribution center. time taken=80 sec to 20 min • 1999->With RFID it takes 20 seconds.

Issues / Concerns .

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RFID Readers could also WRITE onto Tags. radiation. . • Passports-UK. RFID Sensors to sense temperature. Airports – Baggage Tracking.Uses of RFID • • • • • • • Used where unique identification is needed. movement. • Replacing Barcodes. Hospitals & Nursing Homes – Patient Tagging . Finland. Ireland. Security Applications – Contactless Smart Cards. Large Retail companies – Product Tracking. Australia. • RFID is used in Libraries. food quality.

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pilot project for BEL Bangalore. tags installed on employee buses. • TCS have tied up with Hyderabad university to produce RFID tagged mark sheets & degrees to deter use of fake degree. Buses inside the BEL campus were tracked with the aim of gauging employee punctuality.Setting up a lab to study RFID .Working on pilot projects • Infosys Technologies – RFID consulting on logistics player in the RFID space. • Intellicon .Member of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) .Initiatives in RFID • Patni Computer Systems Lab – Implemented Animal Tracking System • Wipro Technologies . .

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