Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

objects are instances of object types. and object orientation. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. or control real-time devices and processes. You can create as many objects as you need. analyze data. registered with PL/SQL. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. PL/SQL. and reusable. you have created an object. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. In. This allows you to create software components that are modular. Typically. information hiding. and called by you to do special-purpose processing.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. Each object stores different real-world values. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. maintainable. solve scientific and engineering problems. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. At run time. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. At run time. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. when the data structure is filled with values. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . Object types. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. exception handling.

you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. piece-wise access to the data. So. collections can be passed as parameters.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). So. CLOB. all of the same type. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. can be attributes of an object type. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. A collection is an ordered group of elements. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. LOB types store values. Also. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . called locators. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. BLOB. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. random. They can store instances of an object type and. conversely. they allow efficient. And. not an independent product. To manipulate LOBs.

You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. functions.the basic units (procedures. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. Only the executable part is required.

A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. that designate other program items. and valid range of values. constraints. A scalar type has no internal components. called locators. which specifies a storage format. called pointers. A LOB type holds values. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. A reference type holds values.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 .

-. -. hours INTEGER). SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type.empno%TYPE. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE.illegal.-.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL.illegal. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15).maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . subprogram.--based on cursor rowtype However.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.2). Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15). -. -. -. -.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10). SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. -. -.

You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. you can declare items of that type. So. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. including other declarative statements. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. and NUMBER. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause.00. or any PL/SQL data type. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE.2). in_stock BOOLEAN.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. DATE. rows Counter. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. Forward references are not allowed. total Accumulator(7. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. such as CHAR. Variables can have any SQL data type. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). employees Counter. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Besides assigning an initial value. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 .

The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. debit credit%TYPE.dept.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time. For example. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages.dname%TYPE. Second. you use dot notation.2). To reference a field. you need not know the exact data type of dname.00. Examples : credit REAL(7. Example : my_dname scott.2). Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. First. balance NUMBER(7. if the database definition of dname changes. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.

Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. END LOOP. END IF. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. END IF. EXIT. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. END LOOP. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. END IF. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2.. END LOOP. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. EXIT WHEN condition.

loops can be labeled... END LOOP.. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP .. END LOOP my_loop. Then. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. • Optionally. END LOOP outer. .. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. -. END LOOP. LOOP .. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements.Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks.. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 .exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. use the label in an EXIT statement.. • With either form of EXIT statement. EXIT outer WHEN . as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. but any enclosing loop. you can complete not only the current loop. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement.. The label. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement..

-.an executable statement END LOOP... • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN. .. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES . END. ... GOTO insert_row.....50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop. BEGIN .Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . END... FOR i IN 1. END. LOOP statement.. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another. GOTO get_name. A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 . END IF. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement..branch to enclosing block END.. Also. .. -. . <<end_loop>> NULL.. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE . or subblock.... BEGIN .

It can. ROLLBACK. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER.. UPDATE. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. DELETE. ROWNUM all comparison. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. set. SUM. END.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. LEVEL. However. SELECT.. NEXTVAL. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. SET TRANSACTION AVG. VARIANCE CURRVAL. COMMIT. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. improve readability. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. SAVEPOINT. MAX. ROWID. however. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. STDDEV. COUNT. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. MIN. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. END debit_account.

. then declare user-defined records of that type. dname dept..)..loc%TYPE ).column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. Even if the fields match exactly. use dot notation record_name. Records cannot be tested for equality. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. loc dept.deptno%TYPE.first. inequality. deptrec deptrectype. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 . Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . define a RECORD type. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. or nullity. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].dname%TYPE.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized.

loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10.. salary REAL(7.declare object passengers PassengerList.2)). hours SMALLINT). PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. dept_num INTEGER(2). . TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. -. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. -. However. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification... object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. dname.declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). and other records (called nested records). DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT. job_title VARCHAR2(15). collections. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS . DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15).deptno := …. minutes SMALLINT. captain Employee.. -. plane_id VARCHAR2(10).Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 .declare varray depart_time TimeRec.

A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. prior to its use in the body of the block. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. 2. (T / F) 3.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T /F) 4. 8. (T / F) 7. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. (T / F) 5. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. as both are made up of columns/fields. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . you name it and associate it with a specific query. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. including queries that return only one row. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. or package. For queries that return more than one row. or multiple rows. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. one. When a query returns multiple rows. subprogram. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually.

Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. Example : CLOSE c1. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . their data types must be compatible. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. you can reopen it. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. and the active set becomes undefined. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. Also. Example : OPEN c1. Once a cursor is closed. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. After each fetch. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. my_sal.

Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. and %ROWCOUNT.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. no more rows left Evaluates to true. Evaluates to true. if last fetch failed. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. DELETE. . or SELECT INTO statement. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1.e. i. UPDATE. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT.

END LOOP.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. BEGIN OPEN c1. END IF. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record.column_name. FETCH. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. and CLOSE statements. var_sal emp.empno%type. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. dbms_output. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. END LOOP. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements.sal%type. END. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. CLOSE c1. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 .put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. sal FROM emp. DECLARE var_empno emp. Note: 1. opens a cursor. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. COMMIT. var_sal. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100.

END IF. NULL).comm. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1.comm. NULL. n2. END LOOP. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. Avoid it. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0.comm := NVL(emp_record. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result.sal + emp_record. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. IF emp_record. END IF. Also. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. Then.sal > 2000.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. 0).col1%TYPE.2) := 0. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. END LOOP. END.n2 / (c1rec.n1 + c1rec. you pass a department number. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum. IF emp_record. COMMIT. total_wages NUMBER(11. Example : In the following example.n3).comm > emp_record. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1.

First. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . Also. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. So. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. you define a REF CURSOR type. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. Whereas a cursor is static. END. This gives you more flexibility. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. higher_comm. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. not an item. COMMIT.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. -. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. you take two steps. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. But. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. then declare cursor variables of that type. -.declare cursor variable -.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. dept_cv DeptCurTyp.

The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries... emp_cv EmpCurTyp. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query.declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. the previous query is lost. END emp_data. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . and CLOSE. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . END IF. and identifies the result set. FETCH. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp.. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). -. -.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). sal NUMBER(7. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. executes the query. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. ename VARCHAR2(1O). */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp..2)). -. emp_cv EmpCurTyp.

variable_name]. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . END emp_data. choice IN NUMBER).. END emp_data. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. END open_emp_cv. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. After that. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . deptno = 20. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. OUT EmpCurTyp. Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. | record_name}. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. the associated result set is undefined. sal > 2500. END emp_data.. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL.. END open_emp_cv.

PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data.get_staff(20. dept WHERE emp. END. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. emp_name CHAR(10). emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. dname. END.deptno ORDER BY empno.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4).deptno = dept_no AND emp. END. loc FROM emp. dept_loc CHAR(13)). ename. dept_name CHAR(14). job_title CHAR(9). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 .deptno = dept. job.

(T / F) 4. Write these increments in a separate table. and 20% to all salesmen. 2. In the EMP table. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. as well as update in the EMP table. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. 2. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. including queries that return multiple rows. 3. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. (T / F) 6. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. Get a number from each of the two tables. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

As update activity continues. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. When one transaction ends. Oracle is transaction oriented. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. the database is automatically restored to its former state. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. once a query begins and as it proceeds. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. that is. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. Until you commit the changes. the data read by the query does not change. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Thus. Thus. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. other users cannot access the changed data. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. That is. However. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time.

INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id..).Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction... Also. . If the statement fails.... FROM new_emp WHERE . • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . . . UPDATE. PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited.... PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. END. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased.. .). Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). When you roll back to a savepoint. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction...).. . if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails. if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. However. . . Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. BEGIN SELECT empno. a rollback restores the original data... First.. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id. or DELETE statement. Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK.. INTO emp_id. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. . If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception. Rolling back is useful for two reasons.. Second.

BEGIN . So. When querying multiple tables. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. So. However.. All rows are locked when you open the cursor. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update.. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id... UPDATE emp SET .empno%TYPE. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table.. END. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 .. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit.. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete.. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . WHERE empno = emp_id.). You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. In that case. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed. not as they are fetched. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. then locks each row in the active set. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction.. . SAVEPOINT do_insert. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp.. This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. . EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert.

and a query never acquires a table lock.. For example. . dept WHERE emp..... A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table.. job. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. if the table has been locked by another user. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . LOOP FETCH c1 INTO . the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode.deptno = dept. dname FROM emp. sal..deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table.. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. BEGIN OPEN c1. END. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. . sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE. END LOOP. .

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

So. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. If there is no enclosing block.. That is. you try to open an already open cursor. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. an exception is raised. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. you write separate routines called exception handlers. VALUE_ERROR is raised. which can also raise predefined exceptions. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. When an error occurs. After an exception handler runs. a warning or error condition is called an exception. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. in a SQL statement. control returns to the host environment. In procedural statements. To handle raised exceptions. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements..

a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. In SQL statements. PL/SQL has an internal problem. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. no exception is raised. you try to divide a number by zero. For example. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. For example. when you select a column value into a character variable. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. In procedural statements. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. truncation. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. conversion. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. or sizeconstraint error occurs. an arithmetic. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. So. so when that happens.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table.

EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. the local declaration prevails. -.. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block. BEGIN . Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block.raise predefined exception END IF. however. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. q_o_h NUMBER(5). .. 2. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks.exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock... You can. END IF. .Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. So. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER.. declare the same exception in two different blocks. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. END.

if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. Oracle_error_number). END. A pragma is a compiler directive.. not at run time.. In PL/SQL. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. In the latter case. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised.. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. That is. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. BEGIN . -60).. the exception propagates. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. subprogram. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it.handle the error . where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -.

• Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. For example... simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. Example : BEGIN ... according to the scope rules. you want to re raise an exception. So.. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. it propagates to the enclosing block.. But. THEN RAISE past_due. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. beyond the block in which it was declared. then log the error in an enclosing block.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. that is. END. END IF. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception... • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . DECLARE ---------. then pass it to an enclosing block. BEGIN . that is. handle it locally.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. ------------. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. END. IF . To re raise an exception.sub-block ends EXCEPTION .

THEN RAISE out_of_balance. -.. IF .. -----------..sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. END.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION.reraise the current exception . SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. -. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. BEGIN ---------. END..handle the error differently . For internal exceptions. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. The message begins with the Oracle error code.sub-block begins . For user-defined exceptions. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 .handle the error RAISE. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -..... you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. in which case SQLCODE returns +100.raise the exception END IF... BEGIN .

qoh%TYPE := 0.err_msg).. /* Get all Oracle error messages.. trantype. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 . BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. Instead..itno. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). var_qoh itemmast.. EXCEPTION . in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number.9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num). • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100).. . err_msg VARCHAR2(100). 1. END LOOP. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num... BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran..Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. END. 100). BEGIN . BEGIN . Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. trandate. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER.. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. */ FOR err_num IN 1. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. you must assign their values to local variables. END. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. then use the variables in the SQL statement.

END IF.‘invalid item number’). WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. ‘out of stock’ ). tran.trantype.itno. END IF. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran.trandate. tran.qty. tran. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. /* inner block */ END LOOP. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran.qty WHERE itno = tran.itno.tran.itno.qty. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. tran. tran. tran.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock.itno.trantype.trandate.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.itno. END.

you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3.(T / F) 4. Record all invalid transactions in another table. To get the error message of an error. (T / F) 2. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement.

or delete). an action to be taken (I. Each row in the action table contains an account number. an amount by which to update the account. or D for insert. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . U. if the account already exists. On an insert. an update is done instead. if the account does not exist. it is created by an insert. no action is taken. On a delete. In each case the status is written into the action table. On an update. update. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions.Oracle PL/SQL 2. if the row does not exist.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

procedures . and manipulate Oracle data. END debit_account. control execution. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. new_balance := old_balance . ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. Subprograms have a declarative part. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. exceptions. and an optional exceptionhandling part. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. The executable part contains statements that assign values. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . and nested subprograms.. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram.. The declarative part contains declarations of types. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. new_balance REAL. cursors. constants. an executable part. variables. overdrawn EXCEPTION. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers.functions Generally. END IF. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 .amount.

])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing.Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. salary_missing EXCEPTION.. 'No such number'). END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. parameter. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. 'Salary is null'). END raise_salary.. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. . Jayashree Page 48 of 69 .

an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. END sal_ok. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. max_sal REAL. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. Therefore. hisal INTO min_sal... an IN parameter acts like a constant.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. BEGIN SELECT losal. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. parameter. it cannot be assigned a value. Inside the subprogram. . Inside the subprogram. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). Inside the subprogram. Therefore. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. Therefore. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called.

. PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it.. PROCEDURE award_bonus (. END. you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects... PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . -..define mutually recursive subprograms .) BEGIN . DECLARE rating NUMBER. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( . DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . However.. ) IS BEGIN .group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon.Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 ......define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order . END. .forward declaration .. Therefore... ). END.. )... or package.. /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to . CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp. subprogram. you must declare a subprogram before calling it.

itno%TYPE. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. END. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. Though not necessary.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 . COMMIT. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. When you call procedure raise_salary. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements.

n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. -. amt REAL.credit(amount => amt. That is.positional notation .named notation . or data type family. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . END initialize. amt).. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. order. sal_tab RealTabTyp.credit(acctno => acct. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. -..credit(acct. amount => amt). you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number.. END.credit(acct. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. amount => amt). you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. acctno => acct). Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp.named notation . END LOOP. -. -. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. amount REAL) IS BEGIN .

Finally.0. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. -. END initialize. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. or package. Likewise. END LOOP. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. -.calls second version . indx)..calls first version initialize(comm_tab. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. initialize(hiredate_tab. BEGIN indx := 50. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. Therefore. comm_tab RealTabTyp. . You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. subprogram.. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. indx BINARY_INTEGER.. indx).Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. Also.. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 .n LOOP tab(i) := 0.. END.

which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -.recursive call END IF. cursors.1). you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. objects.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . exceptions. it declares the types. variables. and subprograms. a specification and a body.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -.subprogram specifications END [name]. END fac. Packages usually have two parts. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database.terminating condition RETURN 1.public type and object declarations -. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. or nested. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . constants. packages cannot be called. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. and so implements the specification.specification (visible part) -. Unlike subprograms. and subprograms available for use. The specification is the interface to your applications. although sometimes the body is unnecessary. -. parameterized.

salary REAL). Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations.body (hidden part) -. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. which are hidden from your application. which are visible to your application. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. job VARCHAR2.subprogram bodies [BEGIN -.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. deptno NUMBER). enhance. sal NUMBER. END emp_actions. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER).private type and object declarations -. You can debug. mgr NUMBER.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER.initialization statements] END [name]. comm NUMBER. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp.

END emp_actions. and subprograms declared within a package specification. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. comm. comm NUMBER. job VARCHAR2. sal NUMBER.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. mgr.package_name. END fire_employee. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. mgr NUMBER. ename. END hire_employee. a stored subprogram.NEXTVAL.object_name . sal.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno.type_name . as follows: .package_name. job. objects. deptno). PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. SYSDATE. you use dot notation.package_name. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus.

package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. The package specification globally declares types. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. exceptions. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . For instance. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. However. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. STANDARD. Most built-in functions are overloaded..Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment.. which makes it easier to test and debug them. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. as follows: . Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. and subprograms. For example... a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. That way. For example. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER.ABS(x) . they operate independently of any timing mechanism).

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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prevent invalid transactions .Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database . Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table. and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT.enforce complex security authorizations . A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays...column]…}].provide transparent event logging . Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system.enforce complex business rules .automatically generate derived column values .maintain synchronous table replicates . or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table.provide sophisticated auditing . ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 . For example. Other uses for triggers are to: .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. UPDATE. a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours. column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.

The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. UPDATE .The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. If this condition is satisfied. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. INSERT. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction.

empno). 2. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 . END. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. END.ename ). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. :old. details regarding the user. 'Salary ' || :new. NUMBER. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new. END IF.job || ' for employee ' || :new. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. */ SELECT min_sal.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history.sal < minsal OR :new.job. maxsal WHERE job = :new.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1.

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Suppose you have a table. DELETE. STAT. END. UPDATE. END.ename). ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. rowcnt INTEGER. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. END IF. uhour INTEGER). or INSERT) on table SAL. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. A global session variable. END. DROP TABLE stat_tab. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. ’HH:MI:SS’)). SAL.ename := UPPER(:new. 4. 5.ROWCNT. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. ’HH:MI:SS’)).Oracle PL/SQL 3. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. ’HH:MI:SS’)). and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’.

rowcnt + 1. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. END IF. END. END IF. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE .rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. hour NUMBER. hour).rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. stat. END. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat.rowcnt := stat. END IF. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. END. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. END IF.rowcnt := 0.rowcnt. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.

but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. The trigger performs update. project p WHERE e. UPDATE. For example. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view. d.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. dept d. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e.mgr_no AND d. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 . Users write normal INSERT. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity.empno.name. As a result of these ambiguities. unlike other types of triggers. By default. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. p. p. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because.empno = d.resp_dept. This inevitably involves joins. e. Object views present additional problems.projno FROM emp e.dept_type. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. d. DELETE. and DELETE). An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships.deptno = p. insert. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view.level.deptno.

IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.empno.empno.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n. ELSE UPDATE project SET project. END IF.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n. :n.dept_type = :n. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp. :n.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .level WHERE project.name WHERE emp. :n. END IF.project_level).projno = :n.level = :n. END IF.name = :n.deptno = :n.empno = :n.dept_type). IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.name).dept_type WHERE dept.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.projno.projno = :n.projno.deptno. END.deptno.empno = :n.deptno = :n.

For enabled triggers. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 .

‘SUPPORT’). b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. 2. deptno. 5. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. 50. and dname columns. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. 4.Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. that selects empno. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. 30. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . 30. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). 3. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. 6. ‘SUPPORT’). ‘OPERATIONS’). Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables.

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