Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

or control real-time devices and processes. objects are instances of object types. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. Each object stores different real-world values. In. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. and reusable. when the data structure is filled with values. Object types. At run time. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. solve scientific and engineering problems. exception handling. maintainable.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). registered with PL/SQL. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . At run time. you have created an object. information hiding. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. This allows you to create software components that are modular. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. analyze data. You can create as many objects as you need. and object orientation. Typically. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. PL/SQL.

CLOB. So. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. they allow efficient. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. So. random. not an independent product. They can store instances of an object type and. And. Also. BLOB. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. conversely. all of the same type. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. can be attributes of an object type.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). LOB types store values. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . To manipulate LOBs. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. collections can be passed as parameters. called locators. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. A collection is an ordered group of elements. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. piece-wise access to the data. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology.

an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. Only the executable part is required. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . functions.the basic units (procedures. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes.

A scalar type has no internal components. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. A LOB type holds values.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. that designate other program items. called pointers. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. which specifies a storage format. A reference type holds values. called locators. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . and valid range of values. constraints. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually.

SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. -. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). -.illegal.--based on cursor rowtype However. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type.-. -. -. -. -.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp. -.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10).maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 .2). SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE.illegal. subprogram.empno%TYPE. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. hours INTEGER). -. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.

Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Besides assigning an initial value. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER.00. So. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. such as CHAR. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. or any PL/SQL data type. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). you can declare items of that type. employees Counter. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . DATE. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. including other declarative statements. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. total Accumulator(7. in_stock BOOLEAN. rows Counter. and NUMBER. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Variables can have any SQL data type.2). Forward references are not allowed.

balance NUMBER(7. if the database definition of dname changes. To reference a field.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.dept. you need not know the exact data type of dname.2). Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). First. Examples : credit REAL(7. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE.00.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time. For example. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. Example : my_dname scott. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages.2). you use dot notation.dname%TYPE. debit credit%TYPE. Second.

END IF. END LOOP.. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. EXIT. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . END IF.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. EXIT WHEN condition. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. ELSE sequence_of_statements2.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. END LOOP. END LOOP. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. END IF. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements.

you can complete not only the current loop. END LOOP outer.. • Optionally.. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. -. END LOOP my_loop.. EXIT outer WHEN . must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 .exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. but any enclosing loop. The label.. LOOP . as follows: <<outer>> LOOP . loops can be labeled. Then.. use the label in an EXIT statement. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP .. Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. • With either form of EXIT statement. END LOOP. ...Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks.. END LOOP..

.... . or subblock... -.. Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement. BEGIN . END. <<end_loop>> NULL. -. .Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . END. FOR i IN 1. . GOTO get_name.... END. BEGIN .. GOTO insert_row. LOOP statement.branch to enclosing block END... • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN.50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES .. Also. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE .. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 ...an executable statement END LOOP.. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another.. END IF.

improve readability. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. COUNT. SELECT. It can. NEXTVAL. SET TRANSACTION AVG. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. ROWNUM all comparison. UPDATE. set. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. MAX. LEVEL. COMMIT. END. ROWID. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. however.. ROLLBACK. END debit_account. LOCK TABLE COMMIT.. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. VARIANCE CURRVAL. DELETE. MIN. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . SUM. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. However. SAVEPOINT. STDDEV. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program.

dname dept.first. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 .column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. . deptrec deptrectype.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. Records cannot be tested for equality.).. or nullity.dname%TYPE. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].loc%TYPE ). inequality. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table.. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . Even if the fields match exactly. loc dept.deptno%TYPE. use dot notation record_name. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. define a RECORD type. then declare user-defined records of that type.

declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec..declare varray depart_time TimeRec. -. DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). minutes SMALLINT. -.2)). dname.. loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. collections. TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. dept_num INTEGER(2).declare object passengers PassengerList. and other records (called nested records). .Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . plane_id VARCHAR2(10). DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT. captain Employee. salary REAL(7. However. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS ..deptno := …. PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. job_title VARCHAR2(15).. -. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. hours SMALLINT).

Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. (T / F) 7. (T / F) 3. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. (T /F) 4. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. as both are made up of columns/fields. 2. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T / F) 5. 8. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. prior to its use in the body of the block.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

subprogram. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. including queries that return only one row. you name it and associate it with a specific query. or package. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. For queries that return more than one row. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. one. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . or multiple rows. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. When a query returns multiple rows. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually.

which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. my_sal. and the active set becomes undefined. Example : OPEN c1. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. you can reopen it. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. Also. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Example : CLOSE c1. Once a cursor is closed.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. After each fetch. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. their data types must be compatible. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename.

Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. and %ROWCOUNT. Evaluates to true. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. or SELECT INTO statement. . no more rows left Evaluates to true. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1.e. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. UPDATE. if last fetch failed. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. DELETE.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. i. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND.

END LOOP.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100.column_name. BEGIN OPEN c1. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements.empno%type. END IF. END. CLOSE c1. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. END LOOP. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. opens a cursor. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. var_sal emp. sal FROM emp. Note: 1. dbms_output. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. var_sal.sal%type. DECLARE var_empno emp. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. COMMIT. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 .put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. and CLOSE statements. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. FETCH.

BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum.comm. IF emp_record. n2. END IF. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp.comm > emp_record. NULL). n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. 0). INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1. Then.2) := 0.n1 + c1rec. IF emp_record. END LOOP. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor. COMMIT. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1.sal + emp_record. END. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. NULL. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. Also.comm. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.col1%TYPE.sal > 2000. total_wages NUMBER(11. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. END LOOP. you pass a department number. END IF.n2 / (c1rec. Example : In the following example.n3). Avoid it. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record.comm := NVL(emp_record.

Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. then declare cursor variables of that type. you take two steps. Whereas a cursor is static.declare cursor variable -. COMMIT. But. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. -. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. First. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. higher_comm. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. you define a REF CURSOR type.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). This gives you more flexibility. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. Also. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. So. -. END. not an item.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms.

-. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. and CLOSE. emp_cv EmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). -. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . executes the query. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . tmp_cv TmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE.. END IF. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). ename VARCHAR2(1O).declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. the previous query is lost.2)). Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. -. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query.. and identifies the result set. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR.. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . sal NUMBER(7. END emp_data. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. FETCH. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp.

Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. END open_emp_cv. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. OUT EmpCurTyp. END open_emp_cv. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp.. After that.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . variable_name]. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. choice IN NUMBER). sal > 2500. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. | record_name}... The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). deptno = 20. END emp_data. END emp_data. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . the associated result set is undefined.. END emp_data. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.

emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno.deptno = dept.deptno ORDER BY empno. dept_name CHAR(14). END. ename. loc FROM emp. dept WHERE emp. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). dname. emp_name CHAR(10). / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data.get_staff(20. END. job.deptno = dept_no AND emp. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. END. dept_loc CHAR(13)). job_title CHAR(9). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 .

In the EMP table. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . (T / F) 6. 3. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. (T / F) 4. 2. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. Get a number from each of the two tables.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. Write these increments in a separate table. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. including queries that return multiple rows. 2. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. and 20% to all salesmen. as well as update in the EMP table. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

As update activity continues. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. Thus. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. once a query begins and as it proceeds. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. other users cannot access the changed data. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. Thus. the database is automatically restored to its former state. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. However. That is. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. When one transaction ends. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. Until you commit the changes. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. Oracle is transaction oriented. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. that is. the data read by the query does not change. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary.

.. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. Also. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. . However. FROM new_emp WHERE . a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again. If the statement fails.). First. When you roll back to a savepoint. .). INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased.... END. if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters...Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). ...). . EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. BEGIN SELECT empno. or DELETE statement. Second. PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited... . Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT....... INTO emp_id. . UPDATE. . . Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. Rolling back is useful for two reasons. if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table.. If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. a rollback restores the original data.

you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit... So. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed. WHERE empno = emp_id.... SAVEPOINT do_insert. then locks each row in the active set. BEGIN . All rows are locked when you open the cursor. In that case. When querying multiple tables. UPDATE emp SET . INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp.. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row..). DELETE FROM emp WHERE . you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement.empno%TYPE.. .. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. However. .. END. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. not as they are fetched. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. So. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.

deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal.. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.. if the table has been locked by another user.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. For example. dept WHERE emp. END LOOP. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. job. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them.. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. END.. and a query never acquires a table lock. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use.deptno = dept. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. dname FROM emp.. sal.. . the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. ... Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO . BEGIN OPEN c1. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . .

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

you try to open an already open cursor. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. you write separate routines called exception handlers. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. in a SQL statement. If there is no enclosing block. After an exception handler runs. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. In procedural statements. When an error occurs. That is. VALUE_ERROR is raised. an exception is raised. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. a warning or error condition is called an exception. control returns to the host environment. So. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it.. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements.. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . To handle raised exceptions. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. which can also raise predefined exceptions.

Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. truncation. For example. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. In SQL statements. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. no exception is raised. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. you try to divide a number by zero. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. so when that happens. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. So. or sizeconstraint error occurs. when you select a column value into a character variable. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. For example. PL/SQL has an internal problem. conversion. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. In procedural statements. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. an arithmetic. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example).

IF acct_type NOT IN (1. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions.. END. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. So. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. -..exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. END IF. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. 2. q_o_h NUMBER(5). You can. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block..raise predefined exception END IF. however. the local declaration prevails.. declare the same exception in two different blocks. .. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. .. BEGIN . EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK.

. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. Oracle_error_number). you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment.handle the error . Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. -60). the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler.. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. In PL/SQL. A pragma is a compiler directive. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. In the latter case. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. That is. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -.. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. END. BEGIN . subprogram.. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. not at run time. the exception propagates. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name.

then log the error in an enclosing block.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION.. So. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.. For example. that is. you want to re raise an exception. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . handle it locally. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. that is. END. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes... BEGIN . DECLARE ---------. IF . beyond the block in which it was declared. To re raise an exception..sub-block ends EXCEPTION . only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception.. THEN RAISE past_due. END..Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. it propagates to the enclosing block.. But. END IF. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. according to the scope rules. ------------. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. Example : BEGIN . then pass it to an enclosing block.

sub-block begins . SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. THEN RAISE out_of_balance.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. -.raise the exception END IF. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal. END. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. BEGIN . The message begins with the Oracle error code.. -----------.handle the error differently . END. For user-defined exceptions.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.......reraise the current exception . in which case SQLCODE returns +100. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 . BEGIN ---------.. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found.. -.. IF .handle the error RAISE. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. For internal exceptions.

then use the variables in the SQL statement. you must assign their values to local variables. 100). trantype. Instead. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. EXCEPTION . Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM.. BEGIN .... BEGIN . END LOOP. /* Get all Oracle error messages. var_qoh itemmast. trandate.itno.. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. 1. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 . END.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM.err_msg). BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number.qoh%TYPE := 0. */ FOR err_num IN 1. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM.. BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran.. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. END.9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num). DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). ..

trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. tran. END IF. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .trantype.qty.qty. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. tran.trantype. tran.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock. /* inner block */ END LOOP.itno. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END. END.itno. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. tran.tran. tran.trandate.trandate.itno. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 . tran.itno. ‘out of stock’ ).itno. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.‘invalid item number’).

Record all invalid transactions in another table. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. To get the error message of an error. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception.(T / F) 4. (T / F) 2. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.

On an insert. if the row does not exist. if the account already exists. update.Oracle PL/SQL 2. or D for insert. it is created by an insert. Each row in the action table contains an account number. an action to be taken (I. On an update. an update is done instead. On a delete. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. an amount by which to update the account. In each case the status is written into the action table. or delete). and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. no action is taken. U. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . if the account does not exist.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

. The declarative part contains declarations of types. The executable part contains statements that assign values. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . new_balance REAL. control execution. and an optional exceptionhandling part.. Subprograms have a declarative part. cursors. constants.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. an executable part. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram.procedures . BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. overdrawn EXCEPTION.amount. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. END IF. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. and manipulate Oracle data. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. and nested subprograms. exceptions. new_balance := old_balance .functions Generally. END debit_account. variables. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id.

'Salary is null'). Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. 'No such number').. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. .Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. END IF. END raise_salary. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name].. parameter. BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. salary_missing EXCEPTION. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing.

Therefore. it cannot be assigned a value. parameter. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. Inside the subprogram. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. BEGIN SELECT losal. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. an IN parameter acts like a constant. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. hisal INTO min_sal. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. max_sal REAL. Therefore. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. Inside the subprogram. END sal_ok. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal)... . title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. Inside the subprogram. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. Therefore. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . IN parameters can be initialized to default values.

. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to . CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp. DECLARE rating NUMBER.. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( ...Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block... Therefore.define mutually recursive subprograms . ). ) IS BEGIN .. END.. -. /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order... • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 . END.. However.) BEGIN .. you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects. you must declare a subprogram before calling it.. PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it.. subprogram...group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon.define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order . ). or package. . ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( . PROCEDURE award_bonus (... END. PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .forward declaration .

Though not necessary. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. END.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. COMMIT. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 .iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast.itno%TYPE. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. When you call procedure raise_salary.

PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. amount REAL) IS BEGIN .. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. acctno => acct).credit(acct.positional notation .Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . -. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . END initialize. or data type family.named notation .credit(acct.. amt REAL. amt). That is.named notation . sal_tab RealTabTyp. END. -. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. amount => amt). n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. -. Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp. END LOOP. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. amount => amt). order.credit(amount => amt.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names.. -.credit(acctno => acct. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.

calls first version initialize(comm_tab. or package. Therefore.. comm_tab RealTabTyp.calls second version . BEGIN indx := 50. END LOOP. Finally. Also. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.. -. indx). you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 .. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. Likewise. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. subprogram. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. . hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.0.Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. -. initialize(hiredate_tab. END initialize.. indx). You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. END. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters.. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. indx BINARY_INTEGER.

Unlike subprograms. although sometimes the body is unnecessary. variables. The specification is the interface to your applications. objects.recursive call END IF. and subprograms available for use. it declares the types. and so implements the specification. constants.specification (visible part) -. packages cannot be called. a specification and a body. parameterized. or nested. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -.1).returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. and subprograms.subprogram specifications END [name]. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . cursors. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . The body fully defines cursors and subprograms.public type and object declarations -. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. Packages usually have two parts.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . END fac. exceptions. -. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database.terminating condition RETURN 1.

body (hidden part) -. The body holds implementation details and private declarations.initialization statements] END [name]. sal NUMBER. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. mgr NUMBER. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. which are visible to your application. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER. Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. salary REAL). which are hidden from your application. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . END emp_actions.private type and object declarations -. enhance. deptno NUMBER).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. comm NUMBER. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). You can debug. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. job VARCHAR2.subprogram bodies [BEGIN -.

PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. END fire_employee.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. objects.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger.package_name.NEXTVAL. job. mgr. a stored subprogram. job VARCHAR2. you use dot notation. sal NUMBER.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. sal. comm NUMBER.type_name . END emp_actions.object_name . mgr NUMBER. ename. comm. and subprograms declared within a package specification.package_name. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. SYSDATE. END hire_employee. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. as follows: . deptno). deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .package_name.

which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program.. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER.. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. For instance. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. and subprograms. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER.. exceptions. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions.ABS(x) . However. STANDARD. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. For example. The package specification globally declares types. That way.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . as follows: . For example.. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. which makes it easier to test and debug them. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). Most built-in functions are overloaded. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .provide sophisticated auditing .provide transparent event logging . ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 . For example.. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system.. UPDATE. Other uses for triggers are to: .column]…}].enforce complex business rules . a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours.maintain synchronous table replicates . A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays. and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table.Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.prevent invalid transactions .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.automatically generate derived column values .enforce complex security authorizations .

You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. If this condition is satisfied. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. UPDATE . you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. INSERT.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger.

maxsal WHERE job = :new.sal < minsal OR :new. END. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. NUMBER. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. details regarding the user.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new.job || ' for employee ' || :new. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 .sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new.job.empno).ename ). while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. END. 2. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new. */ SELECT min_sal. 'Salary ' || :new. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. :old. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. DROP TABLE stat_tab. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . A global session variable. END IF. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. UPDATE. Suppose you have a table. END. DELETE. STAT. or INSERT) on table SAL. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. rowcnt INTEGER.ename). ’HH:MI:SS’)). uhour INTEGER). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. 4. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. END. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. ’HH:MI:SS’)). Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. 5. SAL. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. END.ROWCNT. ’HH:MI:SS’)). ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’.Oracle PL/SQL 3.ename := UPPER(:new.

rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.rowcnt.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. hour NUMBER. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt := stat.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. END. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. END IF. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'.rowcnt := 0. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE .TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). END IF. END IF. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . stat. END. hour). CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. END.rowcnt + 1.

For example.deptno. d. p. e.name. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. Users write normal INSERT. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 . and DELETE). This inevitably involves joins. DELETE. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables.resp_dept. As a result of these ambiguities. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e.dept_type. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. insert. p. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. unlike other types of triggers. project p WHERE e. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. dept d.mgr_no AND d. UPDATE. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. Object views present additional problems. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. d.deptno = p.level.projno FROM emp e.empno.empno = d. By default. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. The trigger performs update. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view.

IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.projno = :n.deptno.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.deptno. END.projno.name WHERE emp.project_level).empno. :n. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.dept_type WHERE dept.level = :n.empno = :n.deptno = :n.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n.level WHERE project. END IF.empno = :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.dept_type = :n.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.empno.name). Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n. :n.name = :n.dept_type).projno = :n. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp. END IF. ELSE UPDATE project SET project. END IF.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n. :n.deptno = :n.projno.

if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. For enabled triggers.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE.

‘OPERATIONS’). If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. 30. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. and dname columns. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. 2. 3. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. 5. 50. ‘SUPPORT’). Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. 4. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. that selects empno. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). 30. deptno. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. 6.Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . ‘SUPPORT’).

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