Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

solve scientific and engineering problems. exception handling. maintainable. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. This allows you to create software components that are modular. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. PL/SQL. At run time. registered with PL/SQL. Each object stores different real-world values. You can create as many objects as you need. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . you have created an object. analyze data. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. and object orientation. or control real-time devices and processes. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example).Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. Object types. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. In. objects are instances of object types. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. At run time. Typically. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. when the data structure is filled with values. information hiding. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. and reusable. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset.

Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). So. CLOB. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. They can store instances of an object type and. And. A collection is an ordered group of elements. LOB types store values. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. not an independent product. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. Also. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. BLOB. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. To manipulate LOBs. all of the same type. they allow efficient. called locators. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. collections can be passed as parameters. can be attributes of an object type. So. random. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. conversely. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. piece-wise access to the data.

• PL/SQL is a block-structured language . Only the executable part is required. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. functions. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks.the basic units (procedures. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part.

which specifies a storage format. A LOB type holds values. called locators. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . constraints. called pointers. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. A reference type holds values. that designate other program items. A scalar type has no internal components. and valid range of values. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line.

Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). subprogram. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10). -.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . -.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. -.empno%TYPE.2).based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7. -. -.--based on cursor rowtype However. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE. -.illegal. -.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15). SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE. hours INTEGER).-. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15).illegal.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. -. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type.

Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. rows Counter. Besides assigning an initial value. and NUMBER. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. So. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. employees Counter. DATE. total Accumulator(7. Forward references are not allowed. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. including other declarative statements. Variables can have any SQL data type.2). Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. such as CHAR. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. in_stock BOOLEAN. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. or any PL/SQL data type. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements.00. you can declare items of that type.

00. Example : my_dname scott.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). To reference a field.dept. you need not know the exact data type of dname. Examples : credit REAL(7. For example. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time.dname%TYPE. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. if the database definition of dname changes. you use dot notation. Second.2). debit credit%TYPE. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. balance NUMBER(7. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. First.2). you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.

END LOOP. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. END IF. END IF. EXIT. END IF. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . END LOOP. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. EXIT WHEN condition.. END LOOP.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1.

loops can be labeled.. you can complete not only the current loop. END LOOP outer.. -..Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks. . END LOOP. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. EXIT outer WHEN . The label. Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. END LOOP. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. LOOP .. END LOOP my_loop. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP . an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets.. but any enclosing loop. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . Jayashree Page 13 of 69 .. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement.. Then...exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. use the label in an EXIT statement. • With either form of EXIT statement.. • Optionally.

or subblock..branch to enclosing block END.. . • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN.. Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement. FOR i IN 1....an executable statement END LOOP. LOOP statement. -. END.. GOTO insert_row. . END IF. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10)... END...50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE .Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . Also. A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 . .. BEGIN .. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another.. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES . GOTO get_name... END. BEGIN . .. -.. <<end_loop>> NULL.

however.. ROWNUM all comparison. set. COUNT. STDDEV. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. LEVEL. MAX.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. SUM.. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. However. DELETE. It can. improve readability. SET TRANSACTION AVG. END debit_account. MIN. SAVEPOINT. SELECT. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. COMMIT. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . END. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . UPDATE. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. ROWID. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. VARIANCE CURRVAL. ROLLBACK. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. NEXTVAL. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program.

loc%TYPE ).deptno%TYPE. define a RECORD type.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized.. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. Records cannot be tested for equality.dname%TYPE. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 .. Even if the fields match exactly. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. then declare user-defined records of that type.). records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. dname dept. or nullity. loc dept. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. inequality. . use dot notation record_name.first. deptrec deptrectype.

-..deptno := …. captain Employee. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. and other records (called nested records). dept_num INTEGER(2). loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. plane_id VARCHAR2(10).2)). job_title VARCHAR2(15). dname. PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects.declare varray depart_time TimeRec. TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. However.declare object passengers PassengerList. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. collections.. hours SMALLINT). DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). minutes SMALLINT. DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT.. -. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. -. . FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS .declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . salary REAL(7.Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno..

as both are made up of columns/fields. 2. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. (T / F) 5.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. (T / F) 3. (T /F) 4. 8. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. prior to its use in the body of the block. (T / F) 7. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. including queries that return only one row. subprogram. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. one. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. When a query returns multiple rows. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. For queries that return more than one row. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. or package. or multiple rows. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. you name it and associate it with a specific query.

Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. After each fetch. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. and the active set becomes undefined. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. Also. my_sal.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. Once a cursor is closed. their data types must be compatible. you can reopen it. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. Example : CLOSE c1. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Example : OPEN c1.

DELETE. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. no more rows left Evaluates to true. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND.e. if last fetch failed. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. i. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. . and %ROWCOUNT. UPDATE. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. Evaluates to true. or SELECT INTO statement.

opens a cursor. END LOOP. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 . LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. END. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed.column_name.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. Note: 1. DECLARE var_empno emp. var_sal. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.sal%type. FETCH. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. END LOOP. sal FROM emp. and CLOSE statements. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record.empno%type. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. dbms_output. BEGIN OPEN c1. COMMIT. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. CLOSE c1. END IF. var_sal emp. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output.

Then. END LOOP.comm. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. n2.sal > 2000. 0). INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result.2) := 0. total_wages NUMBER(11. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.n2 / (c1rec. Example : In the following example.sal + emp_record. NULL. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp.n3). BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. NULL). Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . you pass a department number.n1 + c1rec. END IF. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor.comm. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. IF emp_record. Also.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1.comm > emp_record. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. Avoid it. END. END IF. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. COMMIT. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. END LOOP. IF emp_record.comm := NVL(emp_record.col1%TYPE.

This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. COMMIT. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. not an item. So. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. Whereas a cursor is static. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. you define a REF CURSOR type. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. First. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). END. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. then declare cursor variables of that type. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. higher_comm. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. This gives you more flexibility. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables.declare cursor variable -. you take two steps. -.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. -.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. Also. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. But.

the previous query is lost. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it.. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query.. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. executes the query. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. END emp_data. FETCH...Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). -. END IF. and CLOSE. emp_cv EmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). -. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. ename VARCHAR2(1O). -. and identifies the result set. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. sal NUMBER(7.2)).declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE.

The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. | record_name}. sal > 2500. the associated result set is undefined.. variable_name]. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. OUT EmpCurTyp. END open_emp_cv. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. END emp_data. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. After that. END emp_data.... The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . deptno = 20. choice IN NUMBER). END emp_data. END open_emp_cv.

deptno ORDER BY empno. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). job_title CHAR(9). loc FROM emp. :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). dept WHERE emp. END. job. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data. dept_loc CHAR(13)). END. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno.deptno = dept. emp_name CHAR(10). dept_name CHAR(14). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. ename.get_staff(20. dname. END. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER.deptno = dept_no AND emp.

PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. including queries that return multiple rows. Write these increments in a separate table. (T / F) 6. In the EMP table. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. 2. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. 3. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. 2. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. as well as update in the EMP table. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. Get a number from each of the two tables. (T / F) 4. and 20% to all salesmen. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. the database is automatically restored to its former state. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. the data read by the query does not change. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. Thus. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. that is. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. other users cannot access the changed data. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. When one transaction ends. As update activity continues. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. Until you commit the changes. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. However.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Oracle is transaction oriented. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. once a query begins and as it proceeds. Thus. That is.

EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK... . First.. END. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters.. If the statement fails.).... Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. a rollback restores the original data. FROM new_emp WHERE . Second.. . or DELETE statement. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 .. .. BEGIN SELECT empno.. a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. Also. if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. When you roll back to a savepoint. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER..). INTO emp_id.. . However. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. .). • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. Rolling back is useful for two reasons... If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception. if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction.. UPDATE. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). .Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id.. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased.. The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. . .

. So. WHERE empno = emp_id. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. END. . UPDATE emp SET . Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. However. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row.empno%TYPE. In that case. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed. All rows are locked when you open the cursor. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert. SAVEPOINT do_insert. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.. You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. then locks each row in the active set.... sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE... When querying multiple tables. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update.). So.. . you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . not as they are fetched. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id.. BEGIN ..

Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. END.... .deptno = dept. dname FROM emp. if the table has been locked by another user. job. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback.. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. sal.. dept WHERE emp. . and a query never acquires a table lock. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO . the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. END LOOP. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait. BEGIN OPEN c1. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.... Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. For example. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. .

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

in a SQL statement. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. So. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number.. In procedural statements. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. a warning or error condition is called an exception. you write separate routines called exception handlers. you try to open an already open cursor. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . When an error occurs. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. an exception is raised. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements.. which can also raise predefined exceptions. To handle raised exceptions. VALUE_ERROR is raised. After an exception handler runs. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. If there is no enclosing block. That is. control returns to the host environment. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL.

PL/SQL has an internal problem. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . For example. For example. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. conversion. truncation. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. so when that happens. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. In SQL statements. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. or sizeconstraint error occurs. when you select a column value into a character variable. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. an arithmetic. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). In procedural statements. So. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. no exception is raised. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. you try to divide a number by zero.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password.

3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER.. So. You can. END IF. declare the same exception in two different blocks. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock.raise predefined exception END IF..Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block.. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. . If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block. 2. . q_o_h NUMBER(5). code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. -... EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. the local declaration prevails. IF acct_type NOT IN (1.exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . END. BEGIN . the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. however.

Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions.handle the error . EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. In PL/SQL. In the latter case. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. the exception propagates. END. A pragma is a compiler directive. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception.. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. subprogram. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised.. BEGIN . That is. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. not at run time.. -60). the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. Oracle_error_number)..

then log the error in an enclosing block. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.. Example : BEGIN . that is. according to the scope rules. THEN RAISE past_due. then pass it to an enclosing block. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. IF . it propagates to the enclosing block.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. But.. you want to re raise an exception.sub-block ends EXCEPTION .. So. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. To re raise an exception.. that is. handle it locally. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. DECLARE ---------. END.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. BEGIN . END IF. ------------. END. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.... beyond the block in which it was declared. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 .. For example.

handle the error differently . IF .reraise the current exception .. BEGIN ---------. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. The message begins with the Oracle error code...Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.. -. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. For internal exceptions.sub-block begins . END.. For user-defined exceptions. BEGIN . successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 . THEN RAISE out_of_balance. -. -----------. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found.. END. in which case SQLCODE returns +100. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message... SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal..handle the error RAISE. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised..raise the exception END IF.

you must assign their values to local variables.. var_qoh itemmast. BEGIN . Jayashree Page 42 of 69 . . BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.qoh%TYPE := 0.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM.9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num). DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100)... END LOOP. BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM.itno. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num.. */ FOR err_num IN 1. EXCEPTION . trandate. 100). Instead. END. 1.... • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement.. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. /* Get all Oracle error messages. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). trantype. err_msg VARCHAR2(100)..err_msg). err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM. BEGIN . END. then use the variables in the SQL statement.

itno.qty.trantype. END IF.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran.trandate.itno.trantype.trandate.qty WHERE itno = tran. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. tran.qty. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock. tran. tran. ‘out of stock’ ). ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran. tran. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .itno.itno.qty WHERE itno = tran.tran. tran. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. END IF.itno.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran. END. tran.‘invalid item number’). /* inner block */ END LOOP. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END.

Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. (T / F) 2. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3.(T / F) 4. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. To get the error message of an error. Record all invalid transactions in another table. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6.

Oracle PL/SQL 2. Each row in the action table contains an account number. On an update. update. U. or delete). or D for insert. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. an update is done instead. it is created by an insert. In each case the status is written into the action table. On an insert. no action is taken. if the account does not exist. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. an action to be taken (I. if the account already exists. On a delete. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . if the row does not exist. an amount by which to update the account.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. constants. and nested subprograms. exceptions.amount. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. and manipulate Oracle data. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. new_balance REAL. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. Subprograms have a declarative part. The executable part contains statements that assign values. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . overdrawn EXCEPTION. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id.procedures . amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. and an optional exceptionhandling part. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. control execution. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. END debit_account. cursors.. variables. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER.. an executable part. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN .Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. The declarative part contains declarations of types.functions Generally. new_balance := old_balance .

Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . parameter. 'No such number'). END raise_salary.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER.. . WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id.. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. 'Salary is null'). BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. END IF. salary_missing EXCEPTION. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id.

.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. BEGIN SELECT losal. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. parameter. Therefore. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. END sal_ok.. Inside the subprogram. it cannot be assigned a value. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. hisal INTO min_sal. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. Inside the subprogram.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. Therefore. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). an IN parameter acts like a constant. . • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. max_sal REAL. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. Therefore. Inside the subprogram.

END. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( ... .define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order ... you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects. • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block. /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. ). ). subprogram.. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( .group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp.. PROCEDURE calc_rating ( ... Therefore. END. PROCEDURE award_bonus (. DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .define mutually recursive subprograms . However. DECLARE rating NUMBER..forward declaration . END.. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to ...) BEGIN .. you must declare a subprogram before calling it.. ) IS BEGIN . -. or package... PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it...

iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . COMMIT.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. Though not necessary. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters.itno%TYPE. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. END. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 . you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. When you call procedure raise_salary. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus.

.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. or data type family. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. amount => amt). END. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. -..named notation . hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name. sal_tab RealTabTyp.. END LOOP.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . amt). -.credit(acctno => acct. END initialize. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . amount REAL) IS BEGIN .credit(amount => amt. That is. -. amount => amt).mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names.credit(acct.credit(acct. -.named notation .positional notation . Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp. order. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. acctno => acct). amt REAL. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number.

subprogram. Finally. or package.. END LOOP..Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. . Also. indx). you cannot overload standalone subprograms. -. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. indx). END initialize. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. END.0. Likewise. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER... indx BINARY_INTEGER. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. initialize(hiredate_tab.calls second version .n LOOP tab(i) := 0. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. -. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block.. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families.calls first version initialize(comm_tab. comm_tab RealTabTyp. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. BEGIN indx := 50. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . Therefore. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.

exceptions.recursive call END IF. parameterized. and subprograms available for use. -. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements.1).subprogram specifications END [name]. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. and so implements the specification. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. objects. constants.public type and object declarations -.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . although sometimes the body is unnecessary.terminating condition RETURN 1. END fac. variables. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. or nested. it declares the types. a specification and a body. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. The specification is the interface to your applications. cursors.specification (visible part) -.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . Packages usually have two parts. and subprograms. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . Unlike subprograms. packages cannot be called.

Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -.private type and object declarations -.subprogram bodies [BEGIN -.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER. deptno NUMBER). END emp_actions. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. which are hidden from your application. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). You can debug. enhance. mgr NUMBER. job VARCHAR2.body (hidden part) -. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. which are visible to your application. comm NUMBER. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. sal NUMBER.initialization statements] END [name]. salary REAL). Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations.

sal. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 . comm NUMBER.type_name . PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.object_name .subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. a stored subprogram. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. as follows: . mgr NUMBER. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. objects. job VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.package_name. sal NUMBER. mgr. END hire_employee. comm. ename.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -.package_name. END fire_employee. SYSDATE.package_name. and subprograms declared within a package specification. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. deptno). END emp_actions. you use dot notation.NEXTVAL. job.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno.

For example. For example. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. That way. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. they operate independently of any timing mechanism).Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. The package specification globally declares types. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2.. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. exceptions. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. Most built-in functions are overloaded. For instance. STANDARD. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages.. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . as follows: . which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program.ABS(x) . and subprograms. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. which makes it easier to test and debug them. However. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS.. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table.provide sophisticated auditing . UPDATE.enforce complex security authorizations .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 . a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours. and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT.enforce complex business rules . Other uses for triggers are to: .automatically generate derived column values .. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table.maintain synchronous table replicates .column]…}].enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database . column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. For example..prevent invalid transactions .provide transparent event logging .Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.

Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. INSERT. If this condition is satisfied. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . UPDATE . then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued.

END. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 . 'Salary ' || :new.ename ).sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601.job. END. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range.empno).Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. END IF. 2.sal < minsal OR :new.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. */ SELECT min_sal.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new. :old. maxsal WHERE job = :new. details regarding the user. NUMBER. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table.job || ' for employee ' || :new. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER.

END. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. A global session variable. rowcnt INTEGER. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. END. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. uhour INTEGER). 4. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. END IF. 5.ename). ’HH:MI:SS’)). ’HH:MI:SS’)).ename := UPPER(:new. DELETE. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. or INSERT) on table SAL. ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Suppose you have a table.ROWCNT.Oracle PL/SQL 3. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). DROP TABLE stat_tab. STAT. SAL. END. ’HH:MI:SS’)). TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. UPDATE.

rowcnt + 1. END. END IF.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. END IF.rowcnt := 0.rowcnt. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . hour). CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. END.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. stat. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . END.rowcnt := stat. END IF. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. hour NUMBER.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. END IF.

dept_type. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. This inevitably involves joins. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. DELETE. dept d.deptno. Users write normal INSERT.projno FROM emp e. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. p. e.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. The trigger performs update. For example.deptno = p. project p WHERE e. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view.mgr_no AND d. p. d. As a result of these ambiguities. Object views present additional problems. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 . CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. UPDATE. unlike other types of triggers.resp_dept. insert.name. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. d. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity.level. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view.empno = d. and DELETE). By default. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable.empno.

empno = :n.dept_type WHERE dept. END IF. END IF.deptno. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.empno.empno.deptno = :n. ELSE UPDATE project SET project. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .name WHERE emp.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.name = :n.dept_type).name).projno.deptno = :n.level WHERE project.projno = :n.project_level). :n.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.projno = :n.empno = :n.deptno. END IF.dept_type = :n.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept. :n.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.projno. :n. END.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n.level = :n.

disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. For enabled triggers. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 .

c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. 6. 5. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. 30. that selects empno. 50. 4. deptno. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. 30. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). ‘SUPPORT’). which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. ‘OPERATIONS’). and dname columns. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. 3. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. 2. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6.Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. ‘SUPPORT’).

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