Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

the standard data access language for object-relational databases. or control real-time devices and processes. solve scientific and engineering problems. At run time. objects are instances of object types. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. At run time. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. Object types. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. you have created an object. Typically. maintainable.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. analyze data. In. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). You can create as many objects as you need. and object orientation. registered with PL/SQL. PL/SQL. and reusable. exception handling. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . information hiding. Each object stores different real-world values. when the data structure is filled with values. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. This allows you to create software components that are modular. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset.

piece-wise access to the data. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. collections can be passed as parameters. So. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. CLOB. Also. They can store instances of an object type and. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. called locators. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. can be attributes of an object type. random. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. To manipulate LOBs. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. conversely. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . So. And. all of the same type. BLOB. A collection is an ordered group of elements. not an independent product. they allow efficient. LOB types store values. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server.

The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks.the basic units (procedures. functions. Only the executable part is required. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements.

CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . called pointers. that designate other program items. A LOB type holds values. which specifies a storage format. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. A reference type holds values. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. and valid range of values. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. called locators. A scalar type has no internal components.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. constraints.

-. -. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7. -. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec.illegal.illegal. -.-.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. -.empno%TYPE.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.2).maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 .--based on cursor rowtype However. -. subprogram. -. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1).based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. hours INTEGER). or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10).based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). -. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE. SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE.

Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. you can declare items of that type. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. employees Counter. total Accumulator(7. Besides assigning an initial value. or any PL/SQL data type. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. Variables can have any SQL data type.2). and NUMBER. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000.00. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. Forward references are not allowed. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. in_stock BOOLEAN. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . DATE.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. including other declarative statements. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. such as CHAR. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. So. rows Counter. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE.

Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column.2). minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). Second. the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time.dept.dname%TYPE.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE.00. if the database definition of dname changes. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. For example. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. debit credit%TYPE. Example : my_dname scott. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. To reference a field. balance NUMBER(7. First.2). Examples : credit REAL(7. you use dot notation. you need not know the exact data type of dname.

END LOOP.. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. END IF. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. EXIT. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. END LOOP. EXIT WHEN condition. END IF. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. END IF. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. END LOOP. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2.

Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. EXIT outer WHEN . END LOOP... LOOP . END LOOP. The label.. use the label in an EXIT statement. • Optionally. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block.... as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . Jayashree Page 13 of 69 . as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. • With either form of EXIT statement.exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. END LOOP outer. Then. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. but any enclosing loop. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement. -...Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP . .. END LOOP my_loop. you can complete not only the current loop. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement.. loops can be labeled.

.... END. FOR i IN 1. -. A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 . END IF..branch to enclosing block END. or subblock. END.. -. . <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES .. Also.... BEGIN . ... <<end_loop>> NULL. ... Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement... • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN.an executable statement END LOOP. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE .. BEGIN . END. GOTO insert_row. GOTO get_name. LOOP statement. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10)...50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop. .Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN .

However. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. SELECT. set. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. NEXTVAL. END. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. UPDATE. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . improve readability. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. VARIANCE CURRVAL. ROLLBACK. ROWNUM all comparison. SET TRANSACTION AVG. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. STDDEV. SAVEPOINT.. however. COUNT. END debit_account. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. It can. MIN. LOCK TABLE COMMIT.. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. SUM. COMMIT. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. MAX. DELETE.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. LEVEL. ROWID.

• • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. deptrec deptrectype.first. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table.loc%TYPE ). Records cannot be tested for equality. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other.dname%TYPE.. or nullity. .column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records.deptno%TYPE. define a RECORD type. dname dept. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps .field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. use dot notation record_name.. Even if the fields match exactly. then declare user-defined records of that type.). inequality. loc dept. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 . Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].

hours SMALLINT). TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15).declare varray depart_time TimeRec.declare object passengers PassengerList.Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS . -. dept_num INTEGER(2). -. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 .deptno := …..2)). plane_id VARCHAR2(10).declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. captain Employee. -. job_title VARCHAR2(15). dname. DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT.. and other records (called nested records).. However.. . collections. minutes SMALLINT. salary REAL(7.

_______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. 2. as both are made up of columns/fields. 8. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T / F) 3. prior to its use in the body of the block. (T / F) 5. (T / F) 7. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. (T /F) 4. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . subprogram. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. or multiple rows. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. you name it and associate it with a specific query. or package. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. including queries that return only one row. When a query returns multiple rows. For queries that return more than one row. one. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10.

and the active set becomes undefined. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. After each fetch. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Once a cursor is closed. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. Example : OPEN c1. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. Example : CLOSE c1. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. their data types must be compatible. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. you can reopen it. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. my_sal. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. Also.

if last fetch failed. no more rows left Evaluates to true. i. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. Evaluates to true. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND.e. DELETE. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. or SELECT INTO statement. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. UPDATE. and %ROWCOUNT. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. . PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1.

EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 . you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. END. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. END LOOP. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. FETCH.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). and CLOSE statements. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. END IF. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. var_sal. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. dbms_output. BEGIN OPEN c1. opens a cursor. var_sal emp. COMMIT. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. sal FROM emp. END LOOP.empno%type.column_name. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. DECLARE var_empno emp.sal%type. CLOSE c1. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. Note: 1.

CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor. INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department.col1%TYPE. NULL. you pass a department number.comm.comm > emp_record. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. IF emp_record. END LOOP. END IF. total_wages NUMBER(11. n2.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. Then. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. END. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. END LOOP.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. Example : In the following example. NULL).sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1.sal > 2000.n2 / (c1rec. IF emp_record. COMMIT.sal + emp_record.n3). Avoid it. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0.n1 + c1rec.comm := NVL(emp_record. 0). Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . END IF. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec.comm. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum. Also.2) := 0. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.

END. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. -. Also. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. you take two steps. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. higher_comm. -. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. COMMIT. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. not an item. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables.declare cursor variable -. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. This gives you more flexibility. Whereas a cursor is static.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . But. then declare cursor variables of that type.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). you define a REF CURSOR type. So. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. First. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query.

FETCH. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). END emp_data.2)). emp_cv EmpCurTyp. and identifies the result set. the previous query is lost. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . sal NUMBER(7. ename VARCHAR2(1O). tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR.. and CLOSE. -. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS .declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. -.. END IF.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4).declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE... Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. -. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. executes the query. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable.

The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. variable_name]. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. After that. sal > 2500. END emp_data. END open_emp_cv.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query.. END open_emp_cv. Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. END emp_data. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 .. the associated result set is undefined. | record_name}.. deptno = 20. choice IN NUMBER). The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. OUT EmpCurTyp. END emp_data.

deptno = dept_no AND emp. loc FROM emp.deptno = dept. dept_name CHAR(14). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. END.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). job. dname. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. END. emp_name CHAR(10). PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. dept_loc CHAR(13)). / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 . dept WHERE emp. job_title CHAR(9). ename.deptno ORDER BY empno. END.get_staff(20. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).

as well as update in the EMP table. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. 2.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. In the EMP table. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. (T / F) 4. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. including queries that return multiple rows. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. Write these increments in a separate table. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. Get a number from each of the two tables. 3. 2. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. (T / F) 6. and 20% to all salesmen. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. However. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. When one transaction ends. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. that is. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. Thus. Until you commit the changes.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. the data read by the query does not change. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. As update activity continues. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. the database is automatically restored to its former state. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . once a query begins and as it proceeds. Thus. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. That is. other users cannot access the changed data. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. Oracle is transaction oriented. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity.

INTO emp_id.. a rollback restores the original data. . if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails.. . if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. FROM new_emp WHERE . • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . UPDATE. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. BEGIN SELECT empno. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT.. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased. . If the statement fails. Rolling back is useful for two reasons. END... Second. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased.). INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id.. .. However.. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. . .. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. or DELETE statement.Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction.). First.. If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK. . PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again.. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id.. .).. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id.. Also... The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited... When you roll back to a savepoint.

. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . .Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp.. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. END. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete.). SAVEPOINT do_insert. then locks each row in the active set. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit.. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE.. This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. not as they are fetched. You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. So. So. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert.. However. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . BEGIN .. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. When querying multiple tables. WHERE empno = emp_id. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. In that case. All rows are locked when you open the cursor.empno%TYPE.. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. ... Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time.. UPDATE emp SET .

. BEGIN OPEN c1. dept WHERE emp. sal.. job..deptno = dept. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . . UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. and a query never acquires a table lock.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. . . they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait. For example. if the table has been locked by another user. END. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO . Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete.. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. dname FROM emp.... END LOOP.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal.

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. which can also raise predefined exceptions. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. After an exception handler runs. control returns to the host environment. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. That is. VALUE_ERROR is raised. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. To handle raised exceptions. an exception is raised.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL.. you try to open an already open cursor. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. In procedural statements. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. If there is no enclosing block.. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . you write separate routines called exception handlers. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. So. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. in a SQL statement. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. When an error occurs. a warning or error condition is called an exception.

SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. when you select a column value into a character variable. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. conversion. you try to divide a number by zero. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. PL/SQL has an internal problem. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . no exception is raised. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. For example. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. so when that happens. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. In SQL statements. So. For example. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. truncation. an arithmetic. In procedural statements.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. or sizeconstraint error occurs. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types.

however.. .. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block. . Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. -. declare the same exception in two different blocks. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. You can. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block.exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . q_o_h NUMBER(5). END.raise predefined exception END IF. 2. EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK.. END IF. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. BEGIN . the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. the local declaration prevails. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions.. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER..Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. So..

BEGIN .Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions.. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. In the latter case. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number.. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. the exception propagates. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. In PL/SQL. A pragma is a compiler directive. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. END. subprogram..handle the error . PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. Oracle_error_number). -60). That is.. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. not at run time. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time.

it propagates to the enclosing block. To re raise an exception. then log the error in an enclosing block. For example. But. according to the scope rules. then pass it to an enclosing block.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. END. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. you want to re raise an exception. ------------. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. beyond the block in which it was declared. DECLARE ---------.. handle it locally. END IF.. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. IF . that is..sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. BEGIN . END.sub-block ends EXCEPTION . • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. that is. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due.. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception. THEN RAISE past_due. So.. Example : BEGIN ....

. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler.raise the exception END IF. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised.. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal. BEGIN ---------. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found. END..handle the error differently . -. The message begins with the Oracle error code. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. in which case SQLCODE returns +100.handle the error RAISE. THEN RAISE out_of_balance. -----------.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. BEGIN . IF . SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. For user-defined exceptions.. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. END. For internal exceptions.reraise the current exception . successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 ..Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. -..sub-block begins .....

. BEGIN . Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM..9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num). INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno.. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM.. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. BEGIN . trantype.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. then use the variables in the SQL statement. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). /* Get all Oracle error messages. 1. trandate.. EXCEPTION . in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number. Instead. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). Jayashree Page 42 of 69 .. BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. ... BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. you must assign their values to local variables. var_qoh itemmast. END.itno.err_msg).qoh%TYPE := 0. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). 100). END.. END LOOP. */ FOR err_num IN 1.

qty.itno. tran. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. tran.itno. tran.itno. tran. END IF.trandate.‘invalid item number’). END.qty WHERE itno = tran. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.trantype.itno. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran. /* inner block */ END LOOP.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran.trandate.qty WHERE itno = tran.itno. tran. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END.tran. tran.trantype.qty. ‘out of stock’ ).

You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. To get the error message of an error. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. Record all invalid transactions in another table.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. (T / F) 2.(T / F) 4.

Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . or delete). U. On a delete. an amount by which to update the account. an update is done instead. update. an action to be taken (I. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. if the row does not exist. On an update. In each case the status is written into the action table. if the account does not exist. if the account already exists. or D for insert. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. Each row in the action table contains an account number. no action is taken. it is created by an insert.Oracle PL/SQL 2. On an insert.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

which deal with exceptions raised during execution. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. The declarative part contains declarations of types. an executable part. new_balance REAL. Subprograms have a declarative part. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. constants. cursors. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. and manipulate Oracle data. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL.amount.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. exceptions. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. END IF. and nested subprograms. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. control execution. variables. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. new_balance := old_balance . and an optional exceptionhandling part..procedures . END debit_account. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . overdrawn EXCEPTION.functions Generally.. The executable part contains statements that assign values.

WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. salary_missing EXCEPTION. END raise_salary. 'No such number'). where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . . ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id.. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. END IF. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. 'Salary is null').Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[.. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. parameter. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.

title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. END sal_ok. Inside the subprogram. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. Therefore. hisal INTO min_sal. Inside the subprogram. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. Inside the subprogram. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. . IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . Therefore. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. Therefore. parameter. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. it cannot be assigned a value. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. max_sal REAL. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. BEGIN SELECT losal.. an IN parameter acts like a constant..

... you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects. PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( ..define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order . However... /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. subprogram.. END. • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 . END. ... -.) BEGIN . DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . )..Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block... CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp. Therefore.define mutually recursive subprograms . PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( .. END..forward declaration . you must declare a subprogram before calling it. ) IS BEGIN . ). PROCEDURE award_bonus (..group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to .. or package. DECLARE rating NUMBER..

The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. Though not necessary. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. When you call procedure raise_salary. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. COMMIT. END. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements.itno%TYPE. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters.

credit(acct.credit(amount => amt. amount REAL) IS BEGIN . or data type family. END. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1.. -. Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. amt REAL.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram.. That is. amount => amt). you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: .named notation . amt).credit(acct. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. -.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE.credit(acctno => acct. sal_tab RealTabTyp.positional notation . -.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. acctno => acct). you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . amount => amt). END LOOP. order. END initialize. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..named notation . -. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. END LOOP. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. END.calls second version .. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. -. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode.calls first version initialize(comm_tab. indx). You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block.. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family..0. Likewise. -.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. Finally. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . END initialize. initialize(hiredate_tab. subprogram. Also.. indx). n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. Therefore. or package.Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. comm_tab RealTabTyp. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. BEGIN indx := 50. . indx BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..

subprogram specifications END [name]. or nested.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . cursors. it declares the types. and so implements the specification. -. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -.recursive call END IF. exceptions. The specification is the interface to your applications. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. packages cannot be called. END fac.1).public type and object declarations -.terminating condition RETURN 1. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. constants. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n .specification (visible part) -. variables. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. a specification and a body. although sometimes the body is unnecessary. and subprograms available for use. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. and subprograms. parameterized. Unlike subprograms. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. Packages usually have two parts. objects.

Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . END emp_actions. which are visible to your application. comm NUMBER. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body.private type and object declarations -. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). The body holds implementation details and private declarations. enhance.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. which are hidden from your application. job VARCHAR2.initialization statements] END [name]. You can debug. salary REAL).subprogram bodies [BEGIN -. sal NUMBER. mgr NUMBER.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER.body (hidden part) -. deptno NUMBER). CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp.

comm NUMBER. deptno). job.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. mgr. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.object_name . ename. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. sal NUMBER. END emp_actions.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. objects.package_name.NEXTVAL. END fire_employee. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.package_name. SYSDATE. you use dot notation. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .type_name . comm. mgr NUMBER. sal. and subprograms declared within a package specification.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -.package_name. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. a stored subprogram. job VARCHAR2. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. as follows: . END hire_employee. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.

Most built-in functions are overloaded. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. they operate independently of any timing mechanism).. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. which makes it easier to test and debug them. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time.. STANDARD.ABS(x) .. For example. That way. The package specification globally declares types. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. For example. For instance. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. as follows: . Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. exceptions.. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. However. and subprograms.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.maintain synchronous table replicates .prevent invalid transactions . column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [..enforce complex business rules .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. For example. ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 .. Other uses for triggers are to: . A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays.column]…}]. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. UPDATE. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .provide transparent event logging . a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours.enforce complex security authorizations .automatically generate derived column values . Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table.provide sophisticated auditing . and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT.

updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. UPDATE . You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. If this condition is satisfied. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. INSERT. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts.

maxsal WHERE job = :new.empno). 'Salary ' || :new. NUMBER.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. END. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range. :old. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. 2. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. details regarding the user.ename ). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.job || ' for employee ' || :new. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 .job. END.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new.sal < minsal OR :new. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. END IF.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. */ SELECT min_sal.

ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. uhour INTEGER). Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. END IF. A global session variable. DROP TABLE stat_tab. or INSERT) on table SAL. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. ’HH:MI:SS’)). STAT. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. DELETE. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new.ename). Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger.ename := UPPER(:new. END. END. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. UPDATE. rowcnt INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL 3. Suppose you have a table. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. 4. 5. SAL.ROWCNT. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. ’HH:MI:SS’)). and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. END. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. ’HH:MI:SS’)).

rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). END. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt.rowcnt + 1. hour). stat.rowcnt := stat.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. hour NUMBER. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 .rowcnt := 0. END IF. CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. END IF. END IF. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. END IF. END. END.

For example. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. The trigger performs update. d. dept d. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. DELETE. e. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view.deptno = p. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable.mgr_no AND d.empno.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. project p WHERE e. Users write normal INSERT. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. By default. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. and DELETE). insert. p. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. This inevitably involves joins.level. Object views present additional problems. unlike other types of triggers. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .dept_type. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view.deptno. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e.empno = d. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. As a result of these ambiguities. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. p. UPDATE.projno FROM emp e.resp_dept.name. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. d.

project_level). ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept. END IF.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.projno.deptno.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.deptno.name = :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept. END IF.dept_type WHERE dept.empno.dept_type).empno = :n. :n. :n.empno.projno.empno = :n.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.projno = :n.name WHERE emp.dept_type = :n.deptno = :n.name).deptno = :n.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -. ELSE UPDATE project SET project. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .projno = :n.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n. END IF.level = :n. END.level WHERE project. :n.

if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. For enabled triggers. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE.

Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. 2. ‘OPERATIONS’). 4. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. and dname columns. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. 30. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. 6. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. 30. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. 5. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. ‘SUPPORT’). deptno. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. ‘SUPPORT’). that selects empno. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. 3. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. 50.

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