Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

maintainable. Each object stores different real-world values. At run time. when the data structure is filled with values. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. Typically. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. You can create as many objects as you need. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. This allows you to create software components that are modular. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. you have created an object. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. or control real-time devices and processes. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. exception handling. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. In. PL/SQL. solve scientific and engineering problems. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. and reusable. At run time. Object types. objects are instances of object types. registered with PL/SQL. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . you create an abstract template for some real-world object. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. and object orientation. analyze data. information hiding. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL).

This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. To manipulate LOBs. LOB types store values. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. They can store instances of an object type and. A collection is an ordered group of elements. called locators. CLOB. So. conversely. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). all of the same type. BLOB. they allow efficient. Also. can be attributes of an object type. collections can be passed as parameters. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. not an independent product. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . So. random. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. And. piece-wise access to the data.

A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine.the basic units (procedures. functions.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . Only the executable part is required.

and valid range of values. that designate other program items. called pointers. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . which specifies a storage format. A LOB type holds values. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. constraints. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. called locators. A reference type holds values. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. A scalar type has no internal components.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype.

illegal. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type. subprogram.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10).empno%TYPE. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. -. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). -. -.illegal.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp. -. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE.2). -. -. -. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.-. hours INTEGER). -.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.--based on cursor rowtype However.

or any PL/SQL data type. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. you can declare items of that type. such as CHAR. Forward references are not allowed. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. total Accumulator(7. Besides assigning an initial value.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. employees Counter. and NUMBER. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. rows Counter. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. Variables can have any SQL data type. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4).00.2). including other declarative statements. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . So. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. DATE. in_stock BOOLEAN. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables.

minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. Second.2). The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. you need not know the exact data type of dname. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. you use dot notation. balance NUMBER(7.2). if the database definition of dname changes. Example : my_dname scott. Examples : credit REAL(7. First.00.dept. To reference a field. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec. debit credit%TYPE.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). For example.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column.dname%TYPE. the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time.

ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements.. EXIT. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. END LOOP. END IF. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. END LOOP. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. END IF. END IF. EXIT WHEN condition. END LOOP.

. Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement.... -. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. • With either form of EXIT statement. END LOOP. use the label in an EXIT statement. EXIT outer WHEN . but any enclosing loop. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP ... • Optionally.Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks. LOOP ... you can complete not only the current loop. loops can be labeled. END LOOP my_loop. The label. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets.. Then.exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. END LOOP. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 .. . END LOOP outer. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP .

. ... BEGIN .50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). .. ... END. GOTO insert_row... GOTO get_name. -.. END.. -.. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE . END IF.. Also. . <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES . <<end_loop>> NULL. • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN.. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another. END. FOR i IN 1.. Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement..branch to enclosing block END. LOOP statement. BEGIN .an executable statement END LOOP. A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 ..... or subblock.

and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . NEXTVAL. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. LEVEL. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. SAVEPOINT. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. improve readability.. MAX. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. It can. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. UPDATE. ROWNUM all comparison. SELECT. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. COUNT. END debit_account. set. however. ROLLBACK. COMMIT.. END. STDDEV. SET TRANSACTION AVG. DELETE. However. VARIANCE CURRVAL. ROWID. MIN.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. SUM. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement.

.loc%TYPE ). Even if the fields match exactly. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept.deptno%TYPE. Records cannot be tested for equality.).first. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. define a RECORD type.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. loc dept. then declare user-defined records of that type. inequality. or nullity.dname%TYPE. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 .. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. use dot notation record_name.column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. deptrec deptrectype. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized.. dname dept.

. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD.declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). -. and other records (called nested records). DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). dname. collections. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. minutes SMALLINT. salary REAL(7. plane_id VARCHAR2(10). DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT... PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. dept_num INTEGER(2).deptno := …. TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS . loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. job_title VARCHAR2(15). -. .declare object passengers PassengerList. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification.2)).Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. hours SMALLINT). Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . -.. However.declare varray depart_time TimeRec. captain Employee.

(T /F) 4. prior to its use in the body of the block. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. (T / F) 5. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. 8. as both are made up of columns/fields. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T / F) 7. 2. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. (T / F) 3. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. When a query returns multiple rows. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. For queries that return more than one row.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. you name it and associate it with a specific query. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. or package. including queries that return only one row. subprogram. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. or multiple rows. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. one. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename.

Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. After each fetch. my_sal. Once a cursor is closed. Example : CLOSE c1. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. and the active set becomes undefined. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. Example : OPEN c1. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. you can reopen it. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. Also. their data types must be compatible.

%ISOPEN %NOTFOUND.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. and %ROWCOUNT. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. or SELECT INTO statement. . if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. Evaluates to true. DELETE.e. no more rows left Evaluates to true. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. UPDATE. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . if last fetch failed. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. i. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable.

var_sal emp. CLOSE c1. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 . Note: 1. END.column_name. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. opens a cursor. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. END LOOP. BEGIN OPEN c1.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. var_sal. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. sal FROM emp.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. dbms_output.sal%type. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. END IF. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. FETCH. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. and CLOSE statements. DECLARE var_empno emp. END LOOP. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. COMMIT. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno).empno%type.

2) := 0. NULL.n3). total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum.comm := NVL(emp_record. IF emp_record.sal > 2000.n2 / (c1rec. Then.comm > emp_record. 0). Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. END LOOP.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. END. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. Also. Example : In the following example. you pass a department number. n2. total_wages NUMBER(11. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1.comm. INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result.n1 + c1rec. NULL). Avoid it. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department.sal + emp_record. COMMIT.col1%TYPE. END LOOP.comm. END IF. IF emp_record. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record.

Whereas a cursor is static. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . dept_cv DeptCurTyp. -.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. then declare cursor variables of that type. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. But. So. you take two steps.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. you define a REF CURSOR type. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval.declare cursor variable -. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. COMMIT. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. This gives you more flexibility. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. Also. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. First. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. -. END. higher_comm. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. not an item.

. and identifies the result set. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. -. END emp_data. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. -. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it.. sal NUMBER(7. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). END IF. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). ename VARCHAR2(1O). The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR. and CLOSE. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . the previous query is lost.2)).declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS .. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. FETCH. -. executes the query. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. emp_cv EmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.

After that. END open_emp_cv. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. the associated result set is undefined. variable_name]. END emp_data. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. OUT EmpCurTyp. END emp_data. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. END emp_data. choice IN NUMBER).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. deptno = 20. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. | record_name}. sal > 2500.. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR.. END open_emp_cv. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query...

END. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER.deptno = dept. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. loc FROM emp.deptno ORDER BY empno. END. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. END.deptno = dept_no AND emp.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 . emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno.get_staff(20. dname. job_title CHAR(9). dept_loc CHAR(13)). job. dept WHERE emp. ename. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data. dept_name CHAR(14). emp_name CHAR(10).

The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. Get a number from each of the two tables.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. (T / F) 4. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. 2. 2. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. including queries that return multiple rows. (T / F) 6. 3. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. as well as update in the EMP table. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. and 20% to all salesmen. Write these increments in a separate table. In the EMP table. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. once a query begins and as it proceeds. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. As update activity continues. the data read by the query does not change. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. When one transaction ends. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. that is. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. However. Oracle is transaction oriented. That is. Thus. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. other users cannot access the changed data. Until you commit the changes. Thus. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. the database is automatically restored to its former state. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 .

END. However.. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id.. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction.. If the statement fails. or DELETE statement. . Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. . Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. Second. FROM new_emp WHERE .Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. .). Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. . BEGIN SELECT empno... . . UPDATE. When you roll back to a savepoint. a rollback restores the original data..... the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased.). Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased. .. The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails. INTO emp_id.... If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception.. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id.. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK. First. Rolling back is useful for two reasons... a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again. . INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram.). Also. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters..

. When querying multiple tables.. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . then locks each row in the active set. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE.empno%TYPE. END. So.. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed. not as they are fetched. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp.. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert.. WHERE empno = emp_id.).. In that case. However.. You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. So. .. . UPDATE emp SET . This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables.. BEGIN . All rows are locked when you open the cursor.. SAVEPOINT do_insert.

. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. dept WHERE emp. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 .. END. sal. if the table has been locked by another user.. BEGIN OPEN c1. job. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. . A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO .. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. dname FROM emp. END LOOP. . Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback.. . they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. and a query never acquires a table lock.. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal.. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode.deptno = dept. For example. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait..

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. In procedural statements. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. you try to open an already open cursor.. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. To handle raised exceptions. That is. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. in a SQL statement. an exception is raised. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. a warning or error condition is called an exception. When an error occurs. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. After an exception handler runs. control returns to the host environment. which can also raise predefined exceptions. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. VALUE_ERROR is raised. you write separate routines called exception handlers. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. So. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when .. If there is no enclosing block.

PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. no exception is raised. In procedural statements. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. so when that happens. when you select a column value into a character variable. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. conversion. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. an arithmetic. PL/SQL has an internal problem. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. For example. you try to divide a number by zero. For example. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . truncation. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. So.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. or sizeconstraint error occurs. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. In SQL statements. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table.

. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block.. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. q_o_h NUMBER(5). Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. BEGIN .Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. declare the same exception in two different blocks.raise predefined exception END IF. 2. the local declaration prevails..exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. . 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER.. END IF. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. however. So. You can.. -. END. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. . If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block.

where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name.. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. the exception propagates.. -60). subprogram. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. A pragma is a compiler directive. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. In the latter case..Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. BEGIN . Oracle_error_number). PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. not at run time. In PL/SQL. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search.handle the error . END. That is..

you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. THEN RAISE past_due. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. BEGIN .. DECLARE ---------. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. it propagates to the enclosing block. that is. Example : BEGIN .. To re raise an exception.. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. according to the scope rules. ------------. For example.. END. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 .sub-block ends EXCEPTION . END IF. END.. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. But. So.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. then pass it to an enclosing block. beyond the block in which it was declared.. IF . that is. you want to re raise an exception.. handle it locally.. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. then log the error in an enclosing block.

The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found... The message begins with the Oracle error code.. END.. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. -.. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message.handle the error differently . BEGIN ---------. END.. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. THEN RAISE out_of_balance. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 .handle the error RAISE.sub-block begins . in which case SQLCODE returns +100. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message... -----------.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. -. BEGIN . SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal.. For internal exceptions. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler.raise the exception END IF.reraise the current exception . IF .. For user-defined exceptions.

BEGIN . Jayashree Page 42 of 69 .qoh%TYPE := 0. BEGIN . BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number. then use the variables in the SQL statement. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno.. /* Get all Oracle error messages... BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran.9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num).. END LOOP.. you must assign their values to local variables.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. .err_msg). 1. */ FOR err_num IN 1. var_qoh itemmast. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. END. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement.. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER.. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. END. trantype.itno.. trandate. 100). err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). EXCEPTION . Instead.

WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.qty.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran. tran.trandate.qty WHERE itno = tran. tran.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END. ‘out of stock’ ).itno.itno. tran. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.qty WHERE itno = tran.itno. tran. END IF. /* inner block */ END LOOP. tran.‘invalid item number’). tran. END. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran.tran.itno. END IF.itno. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .qty. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .trantype.trandate.trantype.

The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7.(T / F) 4. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. Record all invalid transactions in another table. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. To get the error message of an error. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. (T / F) 2. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5.

an action to be taken (I. update. On an update. it is created by an insert. U. an amount by which to update the account. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . On an insert. an update is done instead. In each case the status is written into the action table. no action is taken. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. if the account does not exist. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. if the account already exists. or delete). or D for insert. Each row in the action table contains an account number. if the row does not exist. On a delete.Oracle PL/SQL 2.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

overdrawn EXCEPTION.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. variables. control execution. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. and manipulate Oracle data. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN .functions Generally. new_balance REAL. END IF. an executable part. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. Subprograms have a declarative part. The declarative part contains declarations of types. and an optional exceptionhandling part.amount. and nested subprograms. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. new_balance := old_balance . These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram... cursors. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. constants. exceptions.procedures . PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . END debit_account. The executable part contains statements that assign values.

END raise_salary. . Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . 'No such number'). Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER.. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id.. parameter. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. 'Salary is null'). END IF. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. salary_missing EXCEPTION.Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[.

Inside the subprogram. Therefore. max_sal REAL.. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. . an IN parameter acts like a constant. Inside the subprogram.. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. END sal_ok. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. Inside the subprogram. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). hisal INTO min_sal. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. it cannot be assigned a value. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. Therefore. BEGIN SELECT losal. parameter. Therefore.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 .

/* Define subprograms in alphabetical order.. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( . PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it. DECLARE rating NUMBER. However.) BEGIN . or package. ) IS BEGIN ..Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block..group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon.. PROCEDURE award_bonus (.... -.forward declaration . Therefore.... • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 .. END.. you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to .. ). you must declare a subprogram before calling it. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( ... ). subprogram.. END.define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order . . PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp..define mutually recursive subprograms . END. DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( ..

iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. END. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. COMMIT.itno%TYPE. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 . you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. Though not necessary. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. When you call procedure raise_salary. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters.

amount => amt). PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. amt REAL.named notation . hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. END LOOP. amount => amt). n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.. -. amt).mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. acctno => acct)..credit(acct. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp. -. or data type family. END. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. That is.named notation . amount REAL) IS BEGIN . TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: .. -.credit(amount => amt. order.credit(acct. END initialize. sal_tab RealTabTyp.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. -.credit(acctno => acct. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name.positional notation .

You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. Finally. Also.. indx BINARY_INTEGER.calls first version initialize(comm_tab. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. subprogram. BEGIN indx := 50. Therefore. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 .. -. .calls second version . you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. END. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Likewise..0. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. comm_tab RealTabTyp. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. END LOOP.. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. indx). END initialize. initialize(hiredate_tab. or package. -.. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode.Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. indx).

The specification is the interface to your applications.1). -. cursors. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -. variables. and so implements the specification. and subprograms available for use.recursive call END IF.specification (visible part) -. exceptions. and subprograms.terminating condition RETURN 1.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . parameterized. constants. Packages usually have two parts. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. or nested. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. packages cannot be called. objects. a specification and a body. Unlike subprograms. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n .returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. END fac. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -.public type and object declarations -.subprogram specifications END [name]. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. it declares the types. although sometimes the body is unnecessary.

salary REAL). mgr NUMBER. Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. comm NUMBER.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -.subprogram bodies [BEGIN -. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. which are visible to your application. sal NUMBER.initialization statements] END [name]. enhance. You can debug. deptno NUMBER). PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). END emp_actions. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. job VARCHAR2. The body holds implementation details and private declarations. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . which are hidden from your application.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER.body (hidden part) -. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.private type and object declarations -.

or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. sal. job. comm NUMBER.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 . deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.type_name . PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. you use dot notation. comm. END fire_employee. END emp_actions. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. mgr NUMBER.package_name. a stored subprogram.NEXTVAL.package_name. job VARCHAR2. deptno).object_name . as follows: . and subprograms declared within a package specification.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. SYSDATE. END hire_employee. mgr. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types.package_name. ename. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. sal NUMBER. objects.

right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. For example. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. which makes it easier to test and debug them. The package specification globally declares types. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program.. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. However.ABS(x) . The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. That way. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment.. For example. and subprograms. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. as follows: . Most built-in functions are overloaded. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. STANDARD.. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. For instance. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). exceptions. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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Other uses for triggers are to: .enforce complex security authorizations . ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 . Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system.Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table. a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours.automatically generate derived column values ..enforce complex business rules .provide transparent event logging . UPDATE.column]…}].gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT..provide sophisticated auditing .prevent invalid transactions .enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database . Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table. A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays.maintain synchronous table replicates . For example. column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.

You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . UPDATE . If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. If this condition is satisfied. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. INSERT. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row.

NUMBER. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.empno). Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. */ SELECT min_sal.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new.job || ' for employee ' || :new.job. 'Salary ' || :new. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. details regarding the user. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 . END. :old. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. maxsal WHERE job = :new.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. END IF. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER.sal < minsal OR :new. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range. END.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal.ename ). BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. 2.

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.ROWCNT. rowcnt INTEGER. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). ’HH:MI:SS’)). uhour INTEGER). ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. 4. A global session variable. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. ’HH:MI:SS’)). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed.ename := UPPER(:new. or INSERT) on table SAL. SAL.ename). END IF. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. ’HH:MI:SS’)). is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. DROP TABLE stat_tab. ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. END. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new.Oracle PL/SQL 3. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Suppose you have a table. 5. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. END. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . END. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. DELETE. UPDATE. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. STAT.

END. END. END IF. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. hour NUMBER. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'.rowcnt. END. END IF.rowcnt := 0. END IF.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . stat. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'.rowcnt + 1.rowcnt := stat. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. END IF. hour).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.

name. As a result of these ambiguities. The trigger performs update. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. By default. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. p. unlike other types of triggers. DELETE. e. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view. d.deptno = p.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. d. and DELETE). • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. This inevitably involves joins. insert. Object views present additional problems. p.level.resp_dept. dept d.empno = d. For example. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e. UPDATE. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. project p WHERE e.projno FROM emp e. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because. Users write normal INSERT. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement.empno.dept_type.mgr_no AND d. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .deptno.

dept_type). END IF. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.name WHERE emp. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.empno = :n.name = :n.deptno.empno.projno = :n.projno.level WHERE project.project_level). :n.projno.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.deptno = :n. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.dept_type = :n.projno = :n. END IF. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n. :n. END.deptno = :n.deptno.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -. END IF.empno. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.dept_type WHERE dept.empno = :n.name).level = :n.

Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . For enabled triggers.

Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. 4. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. 2. 6. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. and dname columns. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. ‘SUPPORT’). 5. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. 3. deptno. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. that selects empno. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. 50. 30. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. ‘OPERATIONS’). ‘SUPPORT’). 30.

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