Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

Each object stores different real-world values. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). when the data structure is filled with values. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. information hiding. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. At run time. or control real-time devices and processes. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. Typically. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. maintainable. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. you have created an object. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. This allows you to create software components that are modular. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. PL/SQL. You can create as many objects as you need. Object types. and reusable. registered with PL/SQL. solve scientific and engineering problems. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . In. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. analyze data. objects are instances of object types. At run time. and object orientation. exception handling. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example).Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL.

LOB types store values. CLOB. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. They can store instances of an object type and. And. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). piece-wise access to the data. random. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. collections can be passed as parameters. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. can be attributes of an object type. A collection is an ordered group of elements. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. To manipulate LOBs. they allow efficient. not an independent product. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. called locators. all of the same type. BLOB. conversely. Also. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. So. So. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection.

The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine.the basic units (procedures. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. functions. Only the executable part is required. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 .

which specifies a storage format. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. called pointers. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. A scalar type has no internal components. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. A reference type holds values. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. and valid range of values. that designate other program items. constraints. A LOB type holds values. called locators.

Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). -.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. -.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. subprogram. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.2). -.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). -. -. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. -. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE.--based on cursor rowtype However.empno%TYPE.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10). SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec.illegal. SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE.illegal. hours INTEGER). -. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type. -.-.

• • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. you can declare items of that type. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. and NUMBER. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. or any PL/SQL data type. So. including other declarative statements. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. in_stock BOOLEAN. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). total Accumulator(7. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint.2). Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. DATE. such as CHAR. employees Counter. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Variables can have any SQL data type. Besides assigning an initial value. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER.00. rows Counter. Forward references are not allowed.

debit credit%TYPE. you need not know the exact data type of dname. For example.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. Second. To reference a field. you use dot notation. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. Examples : credit REAL(7.dept.00. First.2).dname%TYPE.2). balance NUMBER(7. if the database definition of dname changes. Example : my_dname scott. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time.

Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. END LOOP. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. EXIT WHEN condition. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . ELSE sequence_of_statements2. END IF. END IF. EXIT.. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. END LOOP. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. END LOOP. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. END IF.

Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks.. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP . The label.. loops can be labeled.. EXIT outer WHEN . use the label in an EXIT statement.. END LOOP. • Optionally. -. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . you can complete not only the current loop. END LOOP my_loop.. • With either form of EXIT statement. LOOP . an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. END LOOP outer. END LOOP.. . Jayashree Page 13 of 69 . must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement. but any enclosing loop.. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. Then.. Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete.exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally...

. • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN..branch to enclosing block END. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another.. END.. .. A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 . END.. END... ...Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN .. . Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). GOTO get_name.. GOTO insert_row.. BEGIN . -. BEGIN .. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES . <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE ... <<end_loop>> NULL. . END IF. -. Also.an executable statement END LOOP... FOR i IN 1..50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop. or subblock. LOOP statement.

. UPDATE. SET TRANSACTION AVG. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. COMMIT. STDDEV. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. END.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. SELECT. DELETE. VARIANCE CURRVAL. ROWID. It can. MAX. ROLLBACK. However. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. LEVEL. SAVEPOINT. NEXTVAL. set. however.. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. ROWNUM all comparison. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. improve readability. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. COUNT. END debit_account. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. SUM. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . MIN.

define a RECORD type.first. use dot notation record_name. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 .deptno%TYPE. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].loc%TYPE ). Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. then declare user-defined records of that type.. Even if the fields match exactly.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. deptrec deptrectype. .field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized.column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. dname dept.).. loc dept. or nullity. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . Records cannot be tested for equality. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. inequality.dname%TYPE.

DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. dname.declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)).2)). captain Employee..deptno := ….. salary REAL(7. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS .declare object passengers PassengerList. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. minutes SMALLINT. However. -. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. -. -. DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT. plane_id VARCHAR2(10).Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. job_title VARCHAR2(15). dept_num INTEGER(2). To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . collections. ..declare varray depart_time TimeRec.. and other records (called nested records). hours SMALLINT).

as both are made up of columns/fields. (T / F) 3. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. (T / F) 7. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. 8.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. (T /F) 4. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. prior to its use in the body of the block. 2. (T / F) 5.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. subprogram. or multiple rows. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. or package. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. When a query returns multiple rows. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. including queries that return only one row. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. you name it and associate it with a specific query. For queries that return more than one row. one. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement.

Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. Example : OPEN c1. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. their data types must be compatible. Also. Example : CLOSE c1. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . my_sal. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Once a cursor is closed. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. the OPEN statement also locks those rows.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. you can reopen it. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. and the active set becomes undefined. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. After each fetch. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria.

not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. or SELECT INTO statement. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. and %ROWCOUNT. Evaluates to true. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. UPDATE. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. . DELETE. i. no more rows left Evaluates to true. if last fetch failed.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement.e.

and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output.sal%type. FETCH.empno%type.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). CLOSE c1. COMMIT. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. and CLOSE statements.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. END IF. DECLARE var_empno emp. var_sal. opens a cursor.column_name. dbms_output. END. var_sal emp. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 . END LOOP. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. sal FROM emp. BEGIN OPEN c1. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. Note: 1. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. END LOOP.

IF emp_record.col1%TYPE. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1.comm. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. END LOOP. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. Avoid it. NULL.comm. total_wages NUMBER(11. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. END LOOP.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1.sal + emp_record. END.comm := NVL(emp_record. Also. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1.n2 / (c1rec. IF emp_record. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. END IF. NULL). comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum. COMMIT. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . n2. Example : In the following example. 0). Then. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department.2) := 0.n3). INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0.comm > emp_record. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. you pass a department number. END IF.n1 + c1rec.sal > 2000.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.

strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. you define a REF CURSOR type. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. So. higher_comm. then declare cursor variables of that type. But. -. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. END. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. you take two steps. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. This gives you more flexibility. not an item. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. First. -. COMMIT. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE.declare cursor variable -. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Also. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. Whereas a cursor is static.

sal NUMBER(7. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. -.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4).. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). -. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries.. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. the previous query is lost. FETCH. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR. END IF. -.declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE.2)). and identifies the result set. END emp_data. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. emp_cv EmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. executes the query.. and CLOSE.. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. ename VARCHAR2(1O). emp_cv EmpCurTyp. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS .

Jayashree Page 27 of 69 .. After that. END emp_data. | record_name}.. END emp_data. END emp_data. sal > 2500. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. variable_name]. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. END open_emp_cv. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. choice IN NUMBER). The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[.. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. deptno = 20. Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. OUT EmpCurTyp. the associated result set is undefined. END open_emp_cv. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR.

END. / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. emp_name CHAR(10).get_staff(20.deptno = dept. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). dept_name CHAR(14). dname. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. job. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).deptno = dept_no AND emp.deptno ORDER BY empno. dept_loc CHAR(13)). loc FROM emp. job_title CHAR(9). :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 . ename. END. END. dept WHERE emp.

The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. Write these increments in a separate table. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. as well as update in the EMP table. In the EMP table. (T / F) 4. Get a number from each of the two tables. 3. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. 2. including queries that return multiple rows. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. 2. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. and 20% to all salesmen. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. (T / F) 6. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. Thus. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. Oracle is transaction oriented. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. Until you commit the changes. However. That is. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. once a query begins and as it proceeds. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. the data read by the query does not change. the database is automatically restored to its former state. Thus. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. other users cannot access the changed data. When one transaction ends. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. that is. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. As update activity continues. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time.

.. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. a rollback restores the original data. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails..... EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK.. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id. .. or DELETE statement.. Also. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. . Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT... a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased. UPDATE. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). .. . If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception.. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. . INTO emp_id..). • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction.Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased. If the statement fails. When you roll back to a savepoint. BEGIN SELECT empno. Rolling back is useful for two reasons. . . if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. FROM new_emp WHERE . END. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. However. First.. PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram..). • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited..). INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id... Second.

In that case. DELETE FROM emp WHERE .. So. All rows are locked when you open the cursor. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. . you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit. BEGIN . then locks each row in the active set. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables.). • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . However. WHERE empno = emp_id... You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement.. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id... use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row.. not as they are fetched. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. UPDATE emp SET ... When querying multiple tables. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. END..Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. So. . SAVEPOINT do_insert. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction.empno%TYPE. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed.

they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. . the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode.. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. if the table has been locked by another user. sal.. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. END LOOP. dept WHERE emp. and a query never acquires a table lock.. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1..Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. .deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. END. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them.. job. For example. dname FROM emp. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. BEGIN OPEN c1. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO ... Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait..deptno = dept. .

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. you write separate routines called exception handlers.. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . VALUE_ERROR is raised. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. When an error occurs. After an exception handler runs. which can also raise predefined exceptions. To handle raised exceptions. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. an exception is raised. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . That is. So. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. a warning or error condition is called an exception. in a SQL statement. If there is no enclosing block. In procedural statements. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers.. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. you try to open an already open cursor. control returns to the host environment. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined.

if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. you try to divide a number by zero. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. when you select a column value into a character variable. no exception is raised. In SQL statements. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. PL/SQL has an internal problem. For example. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. so when that happens. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. an arithmetic. So. truncation. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . conversion. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. or sizeconstraint error occurs. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. In procedural statements. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. For example.

however. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block. declare the same exception in two different blocks. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. . END.raise predefined exception END IF. 2. So. .Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. BEGIN . … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END.. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER...exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 .. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. q_o_h NUMBER(5).. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. -. the local declaration prevails. You can. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. END IF.

PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. In PL/SQL.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. the exception propagates. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. -60). not at run time. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. BEGIN . the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search.. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. In the latter case.. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. A pragma is a compiler directive. subprogram. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. Oracle_error_number).. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. That is.. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 .handle the error . where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. END. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler.

END IF. then pass it to an enclosing block. Example : BEGIN . THEN RAISE past_due. according to the scope rules. For example. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . So. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due.. you want to re raise an exception. END.. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.. BEGIN .... Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. ------------. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. it propagates to the enclosing block.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. But. IF . that is. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. beyond the block in which it was declared. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception. handle it locally. To re raise an exception..sub-block ends EXCEPTION .. then log the error in an enclosing block. DECLARE ---------.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. END. that is.

. END.. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 . For user-defined exceptions... in which case SQLCODE returns +100.handle the error differently . EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.raise the exception END IF. IF . The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal.sub-block begins .sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. BEGIN . END.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION.. -. -----------. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler.. For internal exceptions.. THEN RAISE out_of_balance.. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error.handle the error RAISE.reraise the current exception . BEGIN ---------. The message begins with the Oracle error code. -. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message... you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message.

. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. trantype.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. */ FOR err_num IN 1. EXCEPTION . BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg).. BEGIN .. BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. var_qoh itemmast. Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno.. you must assign their values to local variables.. Instead. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. 100). END LOOP.. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). END. then use the variables in the SQL statement. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). BEGIN .9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num).qoh%TYPE := 0.. 1.itno.. . /* Get all Oracle error messages. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. END. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. trandate.err_msg). Jayashree Page 42 of 69 .. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number.

itno. /* inner block */ END LOOP.qty. END IF.trantype. ‘out of stock’ ). /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END.‘invalid item number’). Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .qty WHERE itno = tran.itno. tran.qty. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.trandate.trantype. tran.itno. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. tran. END IF.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. END.tran. tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .itno.trandate. tran.itno.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.

A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. (T / F) 2. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. Record all invalid transactions in another table. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.(T / F) 4. To get the error message of an error.

and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. if the row does not exist. an action to be taken (I. if the account already exists. update. On an insert. or D for insert. In each case the status is written into the action table. if the account does not exist. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. no action is taken. an amount by which to update the account. On a delete. or delete). Each row in the action table contains an account number. an update is done instead. it is created by an insert. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . On an update.Oracle PL/SQL 2. U.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

control execution. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER.procedures .functions Generally. Subprograms have a declarative part. and an optional exceptionhandling part. constants. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. and manipulate Oracle data.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. an executable part. new_balance REAL.. overdrawn EXCEPTION. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . and nested subprograms. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. END IF. exceptions. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. variables. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . cursors..amount. new_balance := old_balance . The declarative part contains declarations of types. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. The executable part contains statements that assign values. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. END debit_account.

WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. END raise_salary.. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. 'No such number'). salary_missing EXCEPTION. BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. 'Salary is null'). increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL.. parameter. . END IF.

it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. an IN parameter acts like a constant.. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. Therefore. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. it cannot be assigned a value. BEGIN SELECT losal. parameter.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). Inside the subprogram. Inside the subprogram. . Inside the subprogram. hisal INTO min_sal. END sal_ok.. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. Therefore. Therefore. max_sal REAL. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller.

you must declare a subprogram before calling it.define mutually recursive subprograms . ). • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 . */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . END.define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order . you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects.. END.. However. DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it. -. /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order.. subprogram.. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( .... ) IS BEGIN .) BEGIN . END. ... CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp.forward declaration .Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block...group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. or package. Therefore... Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to . ). DECLARE rating NUMBER... PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .. PROCEDURE award_bonus (...

you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. Though not necessary.itno%TYPE. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. END. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 . the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. When you call procedure raise_salary. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. COMMIT. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast.

-. amt REAL. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 .credit(acct. order. amt). END. amount => amt). -.. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. That is. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. -. you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . amount REAL) IS BEGIN .Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram.. or data type family. -.credit(acctno => acct. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END LOOP.named notation . you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. sal_tab RealTabTyp.named notation . you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. amount => amt). END initialize.positional notation .mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names.credit(acct.. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. acctno => acct). PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER.credit(amount => amt. Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp.

calls first version initialize(comm_tab. initialize(hiredate_tab.. END LOOP. BEGIN indx := 50. indx). You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. comm_tab RealTabTyp. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. END. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. -. indx).calls second version . • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . subprogram. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. or package..n LOOP tab(i) := 0. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. Also. indx BINARY_INTEGER. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. -. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. END initialize. . You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. Therefore. Likewise... you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families.0. Finally.

and subprograms available for use. packages cannot be called.subprogram specifications END [name]. exceptions.terminating condition RETURN 1. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. and so implements the specification. objects. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. Unlike subprograms.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms .returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. and subprograms.public type and object declarations -. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. -. although sometimes the body is unnecessary. The specification is the interface to your applications. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. END fac.specification (visible part) -.recursive call END IF. cursors. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. parameterized. Packages usually have two parts. a specification and a body. variables. it declares the types. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . constants.1). Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . or nested. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -.

PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). sal NUMBER. salary REAL). END emp_actions.subprogram bodies [BEGIN -.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER. enhance. The body holds implementation details and private declarations.initialization statements] END [name]. comm NUMBER.body (hidden part) -. job VARCHAR2.private type and object declarations -. You can debug. which are visible to your application. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. deptno NUMBER). or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. mgr NUMBER. which are hidden from your application.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.

or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus.NEXTVAL. comm. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -.object_name . PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. SYSDATE. objects. END fire_employee. you use dot notation. END emp_actions.package_name. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. comm NUMBER. END hire_employee. job VARCHAR2. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC.type_name . and subprograms declared within a package specification.package_name. deptno). mgr. a stored subprogram. ename. mgr NUMBER. sal NUMBER. job. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .package_name. sal. as follows: .

Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. which makes it easier to test and debug them. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. Most built-in functions are overloaded..Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. The package specification globally declares types. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. That way. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. exceptions. For example. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE..ABS(x) . However. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. and subprograms. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. For example. For instance. STANDARD. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle.. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. as follows: . The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER.. they operate independently of any timing mechanism).

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table..prevent invalid transactions .provide sophisticated auditing .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays. Other uses for triggers are to: . For example.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database . column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.column]…}]. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system. UPDATE. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table. a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours..provide transparent event logging .Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.enforce complex security authorizations . and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT. ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 .enforce complex business rules .maintain synchronous table replicates .automatically generate derived column values .

INSERT. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. UPDATE . REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. If this condition is satisfied. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired.

/* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. END.ename ). NUMBER. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. */ SELECT min_sal. maxsal WHERE job = :new. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. :old. details regarding the user.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new. 'Salary ' || :new. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table.job || ' for employee ' || :new. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 . 2.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.job.sal < minsal OR :new. END.empno).

4. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. ’HH:MI:SS’)). ’HH:MI:SS’)). END IF. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . SAL. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. END.Oracle PL/SQL 3. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. UPDATE.ename := UPPER(:new. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. END. DELETE.ename). END. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. or INSERT) on table SAL. 5. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8).ROWCNT. Suppose you have a table. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. STAT. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. DROP TABLE stat_tab. uhour INTEGER). ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. ’HH:MI:SS’)). A global session variable. rowcnt INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new.

rowcnt := stat. hour). IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.rowcnt. END IF. END. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. END IF. END. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE .rowcnt + 1. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). END. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 .rowcnt := 0. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. END IF. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. hour NUMBER. stat.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24).rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.

As a result of these ambiguities.name. Object views present additional problems. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement.deptno = p. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. insert. Users write normal INSERT. By default. p. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view.mgr_no AND d. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. p. and DELETE). An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .empno. The trigger performs update.projno FROM emp e. UPDATE. d. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because.deptno.resp_dept. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. This inevitably involves joins. For example. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. dept d. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. d. project p WHERE e.level. e.empno = d. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place.dept_type. DELETE. unlike other types of triggers. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view.

deptno.empno.empno. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .name).dept_type). END IF.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.empno = :n.name = :n.project_level). ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.empno = :n. :n.name WHERE emp.projno.projno.level = :n. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.level WHERE project.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n.dept_type = :n.projno = :n.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -. END IF.projno = :n. :n. END.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.deptno = :n. END IF.dept_type WHERE dept.deptno = :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept. :n. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.deptno.

if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. For enabled triggers. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action.

and dname columns. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. that selects empno. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. ‘SUPPORT’).Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. ‘SUPPORT’). which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. 30. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. 5. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. 50. 3. ‘OPERATIONS’). 2. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. deptno. 6. 4. 30.