Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

and called by you to do special-purpose processing. At run time. registered with PL/SQL. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. PL/SQL. or control real-time devices and processes. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. objects are instances of object types.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. Typically. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). Object types. In. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. You can create as many objects as you need. maintainable. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. you have created an object. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). analyze data. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. This allows you to create software components that are modular. solve scientific and engineering problems. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. At run time. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. exception handling. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. Each object stores different real-world values. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. and object orientation. information hiding. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . and reusable. when the data structure is filled with values.

piece-wise access to the data. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. So. They can store instances of an object type and. collections can be passed as parameters. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. BLOB. To manipulate LOBs. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. A collection is an ordered group of elements. LOB types store values. random. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. Also. called locators.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). can be attributes of an object type. conversely. So. all of the same type. they allow efficient. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. And. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. not an independent product. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. CLOB. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms.

The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks.the basic units (procedures. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language .Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. Only the executable part is required. functions. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements.

PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. that designate other program items. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. called pointers. A reference type holds values. called locators. constraints. which specifies a storage format. A LOB type holds values. and valid range of values. A scalar type has no internal components. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived.

based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10).based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. -.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . -. -. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). -.empno%TYPE. -. subprogram. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. -.illegal.2). you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE.-.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7. -.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).illegal. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp. hours INTEGER).--based on cursor rowtype However. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). -.

Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. and NUMBER. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration.00. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. employees Counter. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. you can declare items of that type. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). total Accumulator(7. Besides assigning an initial value. DATE. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. or any PL/SQL data type. such as CHAR. rows Counter.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. So. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10.2). in_stock BOOLEAN. including other declarative statements. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. Variables can have any SQL data type. Forward references are not allowed. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used.

00. Second. Example : my_dname scott. you use dot notation.dept. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. Examples : credit REAL(7. if the database definition of dname changes. For example. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types.2).2). To reference a field. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). debit credit%TYPE. First. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec. the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time. you need not know the exact data type of dname.dname%TYPE. balance NUMBER(7.

IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. END IF. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . EXIT. END LOOP.. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. END LOOP.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. EXIT WHEN condition. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. END IF. END IF. END LOOP.

. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. END LOOP my_loop. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . END LOOP. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 .. Then. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. .Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks....exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. -. LOOP . must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement. END LOOP outer. The label. but any enclosing loop.. • Optionally.. use the label in an EXIT statement. EXIT outer WHEN . END LOOP. • With either form of EXIT statement. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets.. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP ... Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. loops can be labeled. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. you can complete not only the current loop.

.an executable statement END LOOP. FOR i IN 1... .. BEGIN .. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES . -. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). or subblock. END. Also. END. <<end_loop>> NULL.. BEGIN . LOOP statement.. Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement. • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN. .. .branch to enclosing block END.. END.... A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 ...... END IF.50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.. GOTO insert_row.. . <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE . -. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another.Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . GOTO get_name.

Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. COMMIT. DELETE. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . ROWNUM all comparison.. LEVEL. SELECT.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block.. SUM. MIN. however. COUNT. It can. set. SET TRANSACTION AVG. improve readability. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. UPDATE. VARIANCE CURRVAL. SAVEPOINT. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. END debit_account. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . NEXTVAL. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. ROWID. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. However. STDDEV. MAX. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. END. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. ROLLBACK.

or nullity.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized.). inequality. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 . dname dept. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. loc dept.column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].first. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. use dot notation record_name. Records cannot be tested for equality. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. . then declare user-defined records of that type...loc%TYPE ).deptno%TYPE. where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. define a RECORD type.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. Even if the fields match exactly. deptrec deptrectype. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps .dname%TYPE.

declare object passengers PassengerList.2)). . Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT.declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). dept_num INTEGER(2). DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). -. PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. job_title VARCHAR2(15). minutes SMALLINT. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. captain Employee.. -. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. salary REAL(7. and other records (called nested records). You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. collections. -. hours SMALLINT)...declare varray depart_time TimeRec. loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10.. However. plane_id VARCHAR2(10).deptno := …. dname. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS .Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno.

(T / F) 5. prior to its use in the body of the block. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. as both are made up of columns/fields. 2. 8. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. (T / F) 7. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T / F) 3. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. (T /F) 4.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. For queries that return more than one row. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. subprogram. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. including queries that return only one row. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. or multiple rows. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. you name it and associate it with a specific query. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. one. When a query returns multiple rows. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. or package.

For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Also. their data types must be compatible. Example : OPEN c1. After each fetch.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. my_sal. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. Once a cursor is closed. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . and the active set becomes undefined. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. Example : CLOSE c1. you can reopen it.

When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. Evaluates to true. or SELECT INTO statement. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. i. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. and %ROWCOUNT. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row.e. . no more rows left Evaluates to true. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. if last fetch failed. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. DELETE. UPDATE. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND.

END LOOP. CLOSE c1. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. var_sal. opens a cursor. Note: 1.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. and CLOSE statements. END. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 . var_sal emp. COMMIT. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select.empno%type. DECLARE var_empno emp. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output.sal%type. END LOOP. sal FROM emp.column_name. BEGIN OPEN c1. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. dbms_output.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). FETCH. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. END IF. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record.

END. END LOOP.comm.sal + emp_record. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor. n2. Then. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. IF emp_record.sal > 2000. END IF. NULL. END IF. END LOOP. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries. you pass a department number. 0). higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. IF emp_record.n2 / (c1rec. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department.n1 + c1rec.col1%TYPE.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal.comm. Example : In the following example.n3). INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. Avoid it. NULL).Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. total_wages NUMBER(11. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record.comm > emp_record.2) := 0. Also. COMMIT.comm := NVL(emp_record.

declare cursor variable -. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. not an item. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). dept_cv DeptCurTyp. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. -. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. Also. Whereas a cursor is static. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. So.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. you define a REF CURSOR type. END. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. higher_comm. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. COMMIT. But. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. This gives you more flexibility. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. you take two steps. -. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. then declare cursor variables of that type. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. First. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms.

TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query.2)). FETCH.. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. and CLOSE. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . -. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . and identifies the result set.. END IF.declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. END emp_data. sal NUMBER(7. ename VARCHAR2(1O). • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. emp_cv EmpCurTyp.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). -.. the previous query is lost. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. -. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. executes the query.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.

TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. END open_emp_cv. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. END emp_data. | record_name}. END emp_data. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. After that. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. choice IN NUMBER). OUT EmpCurTyp. sal > 2500.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[.. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . END emp_data. the associated result set is undefined. END open_emp_cv.... variable_name]. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. deptno = 20.

ename.deptno = dept_no AND emp. dept_loc CHAR(13)). job. END. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. END. dept_name CHAR(14). emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno.deptno ORDER BY empno. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. loc FROM emp. dname. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). dept WHERE emp. / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. job_title CHAR(9). :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 .deptno = dept.get_staff(20. END.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data. emp_name CHAR(10).

(T / F) 6. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. as well as update in the EMP table. Get a number from each of the two tables. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . 2. 2. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. Write these increments in a separate table. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. and 20% to all salesmen. 3. In the EMP table. (T / F) 4. including queries that return multiple rows. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. that is. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Oracle is transaction oriented.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. the database is automatically restored to its former state. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. When one transaction ends. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. That is. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. Thus. As update activity continues. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. the data read by the query does not change. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. Thus. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. once a query begins and as it proceeds. However. other users cannot access the changed data. Until you commit the changes.

if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table.. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased. When you roll back to a savepoint... INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. . First... or DELETE statement. BEGIN SELECT empno.. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction.).. a rollback restores the original data. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. Also.).. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. If the statement fails. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased... The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited.. However. . a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again.. if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails. . FROM new_emp WHERE . PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. . EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK. If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id. UPDATE. Rolling back is useful for two reasons.. . END. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 ...Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). . . INTO emp_id.). Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT.. . Second...

.. So. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table.. . • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . UPDATE emp SET . • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted.). All rows are locked when you open the cursor. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed... EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert.empno%TYPE. In that case... You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. So. then locks each row in the active set.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. END.. When querying multiple tables... you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit. BEGIN . not as they are fetched. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. WHERE empno = emp_id.. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. SAVEPOINT do_insert. However. DELETE FROM emp WHERE .

. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use.. dname FROM emp.. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename.. . Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.. BEGIN OPEN c1. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait.. For example. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. sal. and a query never acquires a table lock.. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. . job. END LOOP.. dept WHERE emp. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO .deptno = dept.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. END. if the table has been locked by another user.

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . After an exception handler runs.. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. In procedural statements.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. you write separate routines called exception handlers. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. in a SQL statement. you try to open an already open cursor.. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . So. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. When an error occurs. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. VALUE_ERROR is raised. an exception is raised. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. If there is no enclosing block. a warning or error condition is called an exception. which can also raise predefined exceptions. control returns to the host environment. To handle raised exceptions. That is. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement.

truncation. For example. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. so when that happens. In procedural statements. an arithmetic. when you select a column value into a character variable. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. no exception is raised. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. PL/SQL has an internal problem. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. For example. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. or sizeconstraint error occurs. conversion. In SQL statements. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . you try to divide a number by zero. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. So. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle.

2. IF acct_type NOT IN (1.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.. END. BEGIN ... the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.raise predefined exception END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block. the local declaration prevails.exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. . -. .. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. q_o_h NUMBER(5). however. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER.. You can. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. declare the same exception in two different blocks. END IF.. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. So.

-60)... Oracle_error_number). the exception propagates. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . END.handle the error . Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. subprogram. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. not at run time. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. In the latter case. A pragma is a compiler directive. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. That is. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. In PL/SQL... BEGIN . which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment.

. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception. that is. Example : BEGIN . enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. THEN RAISE past_due. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . that is. you want to re raise an exception. it propagates to the enclosing block.. So. END.sub-block ends EXCEPTION . END. To re raise an exception. For example. END IF.. according to the scope rules. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. then log the error in an enclosing block.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope... then pass it to an enclosing block. handle it locally.. beyond the block in which it was declared. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. But. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes.. ------------.. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. BEGIN . DECLARE ---------.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. IF . simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name.

raise the exception END IF. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. END. -..reraise the current exception .sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error.. BEGIN ---------. END. For internal exceptions..handle the error differently . EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.sub-block begins . successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 . -. BEGIN ... SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. in which case SQLCODE returns +100. THEN RAISE out_of_balance.. IF ...handle the error RAISE. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal.. For user-defined exceptions. -----------. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. The message begins with the Oracle error code..

. 100). DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER..itno. */ FOR err_num IN 1. END LOOP. /* Get all Oracle error messages. BEGIN . END. then use the variables in the SQL statement. END. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number..9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num).Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. trandate. you must assign their values to local variables. var_qoh itemmast.err_msg). BEGIN . Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 . BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran.. trantype.. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM.. Instead. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num.qoh%TYPE := 0. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION... You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. EXCEPTION . • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno... WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. 1.

tran. END IF. tran. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran. END IF.itno. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran.trandate.qty WHERE itno = tran. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 . tran.tran.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock.qty.trantype. tran.itno.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. tran. END. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.itno.trantype.‘invalid item number’). tran.qty.qty WHERE itno = tran.itno.trandate.itno. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END. ‘out of stock’ ). /* inner block */ END LOOP.

(T / F) 2. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. Record all invalid transactions in another table. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. To get the error message of an error. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table.(T / F) 4.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception.

an amount by which to update the account. or D for insert. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. an action to be taken (I. On an insert. it is created by an insert. if the row does not exist. an update is done instead. U. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL 2. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. Each row in the action table contains an account number. On a delete. if the account already exists. or delete). update. In each case the status is written into the action table. On an update. if the account does not exist. no action is taken.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . and nested subprograms.amount. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id.. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. and an optional exceptionhandling part. END debit_account. constants. new_balance := old_balance . new_balance REAL.. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. END IF. control execution. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. cursors. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. exceptions. The declarative part contains declarations of types. The executable part contains statements that assign values. and manipulate Oracle data. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. overdrawn EXCEPTION.functions Generally. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. Subprograms have a declarative part. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . an executable part. variables. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value.procedures .Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked.

Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . 'Salary is null'). 'No such number'). BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. . increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. END raise_salary.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. parameter. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id.. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing.. salary_missing EXCEPTION. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id.Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. END IF.

title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. . parameter. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. an IN parameter acts like a constant. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. Therefore. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. Inside the subprogram. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. max_sal REAL. Therefore. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. BEGIN SELECT losal. END sal_ok.. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). Inside the subprogram. Therefore. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. hisal INTO min_sal. it cannot be assigned a value. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. Inside the subprogram.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[..])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name].

) BEGIN . PROCEDURE award_bonus (. ) IS BEGIN .... PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it.Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block. you must declare a subprogram before calling it. )..forward declaration . Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to . ). DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .. • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 . DECLARE rating NUMBER.. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp.. . Therefore. END.. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . END. However... you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects.define mutually recursive subprograms .group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon... subprogram.. END. -. or package. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( ..define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order ... PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order...

• The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. When you call procedure raise_salary. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6.itno%TYPE. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 .iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. COMMIT. END. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. Though not necessary. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters.

-. -. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name. amount => amt). amt). Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . acctno => acct). END LOOP. amount => amt). PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. amt REAL. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.credit(acctno => acct. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER.credit(acct. -. END initialize.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. amount REAL) IS BEGIN . or data type family.positional notation ..credit(acct. sal_tab RealTabTyp. you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. order. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. END..n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. That is. -.named notation .credit(amount => amt..mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names.named notation . Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp.

indx BINARY_INTEGER. Finally.0. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. indx).. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Likewise. END initialize. or package. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp.. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. -. Also. initialize(hiredate_tab. comm_tab RealTabTyp. BEGIN indx := 50.calls first version initialize(comm_tab.. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. indx). subprogram. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1.. Therefore. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. END. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.calls second version . -. . END LOOP. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters..

recursive call END IF. and so implements the specification. or nested. objects. and subprograms available for use.specification (visible part) -.subprogram specifications END [name]. exceptions.public type and object declarations -. The specification is the interface to your applications. although sometimes the body is unnecessary.terminating condition RETURN 1. Unlike subprograms. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -. it declares the types. cursors. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . and subprograms. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. parameterized.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . Packages usually have two parts. END fac. a specification and a body. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. -. constants. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 .returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -.1). packages cannot be called. variables.

CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. comm NUMBER.initialization statements] END [name].specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER.body (hidden part) -. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. You can debug. salary REAL). Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. sal NUMBER. deptno NUMBER).subprogram bodies [BEGIN -. enhance. job VARCHAR2. mgr NUMBER. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -.private type and object declarations -. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). The body holds implementation details and private declarations. which are hidden from your application.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. which are visible to your application. END emp_actions. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 .

or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. a stored subprogram. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. ename. SYSDATE.package_name.object_name . END fire_employee.package_name. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. END emp_actions. sal. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.type_name . comm NUMBER. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. deptno). sal NUMBER. END hire_employee.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno.NEXTVAL. as follows: . job VARCHAR2. comm. objects. job. and subprograms declared within a package specification. mgr.package_name. you use dot notation. mgr NUMBER.

right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Most built-in functions are overloaded. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. That way. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. and subprograms. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. The package specification globally declares types.. package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. For example. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. For instance. exceptions.. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. For example. which makes it easier to test and debug them. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. STANDARD.ABS(x) . which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. as follows: . right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). However..

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.column]…}].enforce complex business rules . and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT. Other uses for triggers are to: .provide transparent event logging .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.provide sophisticated auditing . or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays. a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours. For example. ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 ..maintain synchronous table replicates .enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .prevent invalid transactions .enforce complex security authorizations .automatically generate derived column values . UPDATE. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table..

INSERT. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. If this condition is satisfied. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. UPDATE . • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names.

sal < minsal OR :new. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. END IF. 'Salary ' || :new. :old.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. 2. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. END. END.job || ' for employee ' || :new.ename ).job.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. */ SELECT min_sal. details regarding the user.empno).sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new. maxsal WHERE job = :new. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 . while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. NUMBER. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table.

UPDATE.ROWCNT. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. Suppose you have a table. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. or INSERT) on table SAL. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’.Oracle PL/SQL 3.ename). DROP TABLE stat_tab. DELETE. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . END. 4. rowcnt INTEGER. 5. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. A global session variable. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. uhour INTEGER). Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case.ename := UPPER(:new. END. ’HH:MI:SS’)). ’HH:MI:SS’)). END. ’HH:MI:SS’)). TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. SAL. END IF. STAT.

rowcnt := 0. END. END.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. END. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt := stat. END IF.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . END IF. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat.rowcnt + 1. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. hour). stat. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). hour NUMBER. END IF.rowcnt.

insert.projno FROM emp e. d. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. p.resp_dept.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT.empno. and DELETE).deptno = p. For example.name.dept_type. This inevitably involves joins. The trigger performs update. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. unlike other types of triggers. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .deptno. DELETE. Object views present additional problems. By default. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because.empno = d.level. UPDATE. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. Users write normal INSERT. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view.mgr_no AND d. p. project p WHERE e. dept d. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. As a result of these ambiguities. e. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e. d. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view.

ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept. END IF.deptno.deptno = :n.empno.deptno = :n. END IF.projno = :n. END IF. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.name).dept_type).level WHERE project. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.deptno.level = :n.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n.name WHERE emp.projno. END.empno.dept_type WHERE dept.project_level).name = :n. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.empno = :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. :n.projno.projno = :n. :n. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.dept_type = :n. :n.empno = :n.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.

if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. For enabled triggers. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order.

‘SUPPORT’). 3. 2. that selects empno. 30. and dname columns. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. ‘OPERATIONS’). 6. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. 50. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. 4. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. deptno. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. 30. 5.Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. ‘SUPPORT’). If the receipt is more than the ROQ value.

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