Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. exception handling. or control real-time devices and processes. Object types. PL/SQL. At run time. Typically. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. This allows you to create software components that are modular. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. You can create as many objects as you need. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. At run time. information hiding.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. registered with PL/SQL. analyze data. In. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. and object orientation. Each object stores different real-world values. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. solve scientific and engineering problems. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. you have created an object. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. objects are instances of object types. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. and reusable. maintainable. when the data structure is filled with values. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL).

And. So. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). not an independent product. To manipulate LOBs. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. A collection is an ordered group of elements. So. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. LOB types store values. conversely. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. BLOB. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. they allow efficient. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. called locators. collections can be passed as parameters. random. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. all of the same type. piece-wise access to the data. CLOB. Also. can be attributes of an object type. They can store instances of an object type and.

The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. functions.the basic units (procedures. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. Only the executable part is required. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine.

that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. A scalar type has no internal components. which specifies a storage format. A reference type holds values. that designate other program items.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . A LOB type holds values. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. called pointers. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. called locators. constraints. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. and valid range of values.

For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 .based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp. SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE. -. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type. -.empno%TYPE. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15).illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15). SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.illegal. -. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.-.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10).--based on cursor rowtype However.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. -. -. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. hours INTEGER).based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. -. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. subprogram.illegal.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). -. -.2).

Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. including other declarative statements. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. DATE. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. and NUMBER. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. such as CHAR. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). So.2). rows Counter. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. Variables can have any SQL data type. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables.00. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . employees Counter. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. total Accumulator(7. Besides assigning an initial value. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. Forward references are not allowed. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. you can declare items of that type. or any PL/SQL data type. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. in_stock BOOLEAN.

2). balance NUMBER(7. the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. First. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. you use dot notation.2).deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . if the database definition of dname changes. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. you need not know the exact data type of dname. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column.00.dept. Example : my_dname scott. Examples : credit REAL(7.dname%TYPE. For example. debit credit%TYPE. To reference a field. Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). Second.

END IF. END LOOP.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. END IF. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. END LOOP. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . END LOOP. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. EXIT. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. END IF. EXIT WHEN condition.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements..

END LOOP. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement.. END LOOP outer. -. use the label in an EXIT statement... • Optionally.. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. END LOOP. END LOOP my_loop.. Then. • With either form of EXIT statement.. you can complete not only the current loop. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 . but any enclosing loop. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement.exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. EXIT outer WHEN .... Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP .Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. LOOP .. loops can be labeled. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. . The label.

• DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN. ..branch to enclosing block END.. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES .. BEGIN .. BEGIN .. END IF. FOR i IN 1. END. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10).. -. . GOTO get_name. Also. GOTO insert_row.Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN ... END. <<end_loop>> NULL... LOOP statement. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE . . A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 . END... Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement.. or subblock.. -.. .an executable statement END LOOP.....50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.

However. UPDATE. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. VARIANCE CURRVAL. DELETE. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. COUNT. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. ROWNUM all comparison.. LEVEL. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . set. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. NEXTVAL. SET TRANSACTION AVG. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. SUM. SAVEPOINT. MAX. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. END debit_account. COMMIT. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. however. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. improve readability. END. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . ROWID.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. ROLLBACK. It can. SELECT. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. STDDEV. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL.. MIN.

define a RECORD type.). where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table.column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps .first. or nullity.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized. Records cannot be tested for equality. inequality. . then declare user-defined records of that type. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. dname dept.dname%TYPE. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 . use dot notation record_name.deptno%TYPE. Even if the fields match exactly. deptrec deptrectype..Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. loc dept. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept.. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other.loc%TYPE ).

FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS . plane_id VARCHAR2(10). object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD..deptno := …. salary REAL(7.. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10.declare varray depart_time TimeRec. captain Employee. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification.declare object passengers PassengerList. -..declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). -.. DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. job_title VARCHAR2(15). DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). and other records (called nested records). TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno.2)). dname. dept_num INTEGER(2). hours SMALLINT). However. . collections. minutes SMALLINT. -.

(T / F) 7.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. as both are made up of columns/fields. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. (T / F) 5. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. 8. (T / F) 3. prior to its use in the body of the block. 2. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T /F) 4. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

or package. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. When a query returns multiple rows. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. including queries that return only one row. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. or multiple rows. subprogram. For queries that return more than one row. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. you name it and associate it with a specific query. one. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information.

Once a cursor is closed. their data types must be compatible. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. my_sal. Also. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. After each fetch. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . the OPEN statement also locks those rows. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. you can reopen it. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. Example : OPEN c1. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. and the active set becomes undefined. Example : CLOSE c1. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set.

not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. DELETE. . and %ROWCOUNT.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. or SELECT INTO statement. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT.e. no more rows left Evaluates to true. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. i. UPDATE. Evaluates to true. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. if last fetch failed.

Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. FETCH.column_name. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. BEGIN OPEN c1. opens a cursor. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 .put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno).put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. and CLOSE statements. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100.empno%type. var_sal emp. COMMIT. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. dbms_output. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. CLOSE c1. END LOOP. sal FROM emp. var_sal.sal%type. END LOOP. DECLARE var_empno emp. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. Note: 1. END IF. END. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record.

n2. IF emp_record. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. COMMIT. Then.comm. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum.comm > emp_record. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 .n2 / (c1rec.n1 + c1rec.comm.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. total_wages NUMBER(11. you pass a department number. END IF. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.sal + emp_record. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. Avoid it. Example : In the following example.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor.n3). DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record.2) := 0.sal > 2000. 0). END LOOP. NULL). you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. IF emp_record.comm := NVL(emp_record. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. END LOOP. Also. END.col1%TYPE. END IF. NULL.

Also. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. So. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . dept_cv DeptCurTyp. you take two steps. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. But. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. END. you define a REF CURSOR type. COMMIT. -. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. -. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. First.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. higher_comm.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. then declare cursor variables of that type. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. Whereas a cursor is static. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR.declare cursor variable -. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. This gives you more flexibility. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). not an item.

declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it.2)). emp_cv EmpCurTyp. executes the query.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. -. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. FETCH. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. ename VARCHAR2(1O). and identifies the result set. and CLOSE.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. the previous query is lost.. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable.. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. -. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). END emp_data. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . emp_cv EmpCurTyp. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. END IF. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. sal NUMBER(7. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS .declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR.. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . -..

PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . deptno = 20.. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. END open_emp_cv.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS ... Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. After that. Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. the associated result set is undefined. | record_name}. END open_emp_cv.. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. choice IN NUMBER). END emp_data. OUT EmpCurTyp. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). END emp_data. END emp_data. variable_name]. sal > 2500.

:cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 . emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data. dept_loc CHAR(13)). dept WHERE emp. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. job.deptno = dept_no AND emp. END. END.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). emp_name CHAR(10).deptno ORDER BY empno. dname. loc FROM emp. dept_name CHAR(14). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. ename. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).get_staff(20. END. job_title CHAR(9).deptno = dept.

and 20% to all salesmen. (T / F) 4. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. 2. as well as update in the EMP table. Get a number from each of the two tables. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. including queries that return multiple rows. Write these increments in a separate table. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. (T / F) 6. 2. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . In the EMP table. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. 3.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

• • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. As update activity continues. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. Thus. However. the database is automatically restored to its former state. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. Thus. other users cannot access the changed data. that is. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. Until you commit the changes. That is. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. Oracle is transaction oriented. When one transaction ends. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. once a query begins and as it proceeds. the data read by the query does not change.

. However. FROM new_emp WHERE .. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK.. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. Rolling back is useful for two reasons. UPDATE. a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again.. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction.. ... BEGIN SELECT empno.. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters.. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased.. .. .. . The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited. if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails.).. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. INTO emp_id. END. If the statement fails. .). Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table.. First. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception.. Second. Also. . any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased. . Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you)... or DELETE statement.). PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. When you roll back to a savepoint.Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. a rollback restores the original data. ..

. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete.. .Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . When querying multiple tables. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. WHERE empno = emp_id.. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed.. So. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row.empno%TYPE. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE.. So.. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. SAVEPOINT do_insert. All rows are locked when you open the cursor.. You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. then locks each row in the active set. BEGIN .. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. In that case.. not as they are fetched. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. UPDATE emp SET ..). However.. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. END.

.. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. For example. sal. END LOOP. job.. if the table has been locked by another user.... sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE. and a query never acquires a table lock. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. . they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . dname FROM emp. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. END. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. BEGIN OPEN c1...deptno = dept.. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO . . dept WHERE emp. the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait.

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

• • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. you try to open an already open cursor. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. a warning or error condition is called an exception. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. So. That is. VALUE_ERROR is raised. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. control returns to the host environment. When an error occurs. an exception is raised. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. If there is no enclosing block.. you write separate routines called exception handlers. After an exception handler runs. In procedural statements.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL.. To handle raised exceptions. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. in a SQL statement. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . which can also raise predefined exceptions.

SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. For example. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. you try to divide a number by zero. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. or sizeconstraint error occurs. no exception is raised. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. truncation.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. an arithmetic. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. So. For example. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . PL/SQL has an internal problem. In procedural statements. conversion. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. when you select a column value into a character variable. In SQL statements. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). so when that happens.

END IF. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER.. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. 2.raise predefined exception END IF. You can. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. So.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. however. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. declare the same exception in two different blocks. the local declaration prevails. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. END. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. BEGIN .exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 .. EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. . . -. q_o_h NUMBER(5). code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block.. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks.... Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block.

. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler.. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION.. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. -60). In the latter case. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. not at run time. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . BEGIN ..handle the error . END. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. That is. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. In PL/SQL. the exception propagates. Oracle_error_number). subprogram. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. A pragma is a compiler directive. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected.

• Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. DECLARE ---------. you want to re raise an exception.. beyond the block in which it was declared. that is. THEN RAISE past_due. So.. BEGIN ..sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. handle it locally.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope.. But. ------------. Example : BEGIN . that is.. For example. END. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. To re raise an exception. then log the error in an enclosing block.. it propagates to the enclosing block. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. IF .sub-block ends EXCEPTION . only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . then pass it to an enclosing block. END IF.. END.. according to the scope rules. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.

.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised.. END.reraise the current exception . SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal. For internal exceptions.handle the error differently . you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found.raise the exception END IF. BEGIN ---------. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. -. For user-defined exceptions. in which case SQLCODE returns +100. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. END. THEN RAISE out_of_balance. -----------.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.sub-block begins .handle the error RAISE.. -. BEGIN .... The message begins with the Oracle error code. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 . IF ... EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -...

then use the variables in the SQL statement. 1.. BEGIN . .Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. END. trandate. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 ..9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num).. var_qoh itemmast. 100). in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number. trantype. Instead... You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement..itno. BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.err_msg). EXCEPTION . Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. BEGIN . /* Get all Oracle error messages. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). you must assign their values to local variables. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. END LOOP. BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno.. */ FOR err_num IN 1. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg)...qoh%TYPE := 0. END. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER.

‘invalid item number’). END. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END.itno. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .tran. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.trandate.itno.qty WHERE itno = tran. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. tran. tran. tran.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .trantype. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran. tran.itno.itno.itno.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran. tran. END IF.qty.qty.trantype. /* inner block */ END LOOP.trandate. tran. ‘out of stock’ ). END IF.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock.

A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. (T / F) 2. Record all invalid transactions in another table. To get the error message of an error. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1.(T / F) 4.

or D for insert.Oracle PL/SQL 2. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . On an insert. Each row in the action table contains an account number. On an update. an amount by which to update the account. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. an action to be taken (I. or delete). On a delete. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. In each case the status is written into the action table. an update is done instead. if the account does not exist. if the row does not exist. no action is taken. if the account already exists. update. it is created by an insert. U.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

new_balance REAL. Subprograms have a declarative part. and manipulate Oracle data. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. and nested subprograms. The executable part contains statements that assign values.amount. The declarative part contains declarations of types.procedures . IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . new_balance := old_balance . which deal with exceptions raised during execution.functions Generally. overdrawn EXCEPTION. exceptions. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. variables. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms .. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. control execution. constants. END debit_account. cursors. an executable part. and an optional exceptionhandling part. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram.. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL.

'Salary is null'). salary_missing EXCEPTION. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 .])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]... END IF. END raise_salary. parameter. 'No such number'). IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL.Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. . BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id.

where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note.. parameter. an IN parameter acts like a constant. Inside the subprogram. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). Inside the subprogram. Therefore. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. Therefore. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller.. Therefore. Inside the subprogram. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type. hisal INTO min_sal. BEGIN SELECT losal. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. it cannot be assigned a value. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. max_sal REAL. END sal_ok. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. .

END. ). END.. . you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects... -.group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon... DECLARE rating NUMBER. you must declare a subprogram before calling it.. ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( .... ).Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block.. or package. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp.... PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to .) BEGIN ..define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order .. /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. Therefore. END..forward declaration .. DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( . PROCEDURE award_bonus (. subprogram. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it.define mutually recursive subprograms . • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 .. However. ) IS BEGIN .

which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. COMMIT. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. Though not necessary. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram.itno%TYPE.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. When you call procedure raise_salary. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 . END.

n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1.positional notation . amt REAL. END. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. amount => amt). you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: .named notation . amount => amt).. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. END LOOP. amt). -. amount REAL) IS BEGIN . or data type family. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 ..credit(acctno => acct. END initialize. Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp.named notation .credit(acct. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. That is. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. -. order. sal_tab RealTabTyp.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. -.credit(amount => amt. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.credit(acct. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. acctno => acct). Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. -..n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE.

END LOOP. Likewise.... or package. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. comm_tab RealTabTyp.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. BEGIN indx := 50. -. END initialize.calls second version . you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode.0. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. -. . • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. initialize(hiredate_tab.. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. Therefore.Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. indx). n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1.. Also. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. Finally. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. indx). END. indx BINARY_INTEGER. subprogram.calls first version initialize(comm_tab. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 .

although sometimes the body is unnecessary. packages cannot be called.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . parameterized. and subprograms. objects. or nested. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n .recursive call END IF.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. and subprograms available for use. constants. Packages usually have two parts. cursors. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . Unlike subprograms. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -. END fac.1). -. and so implements the specification. The specification is the interface to your applications. variables. a specification and a body. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements.public type and object declarations -. exceptions. it declares the types.terminating condition RETURN 1.subprogram specifications END [name].specification (visible part) -.

or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. enhance. which are hidden from your application. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). deptno NUMBER). sal NUMBER.body (hidden part) -. You can debug.private type and object declarations -. comm NUMBER. salary REAL).subprogram bodies [BEGIN -. END emp_actions. Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. The body holds implementation details and private declarations.initialization statements] END [name]. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. mgr NUMBER. which are visible to your application. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. job VARCHAR2.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -.

Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. END hire_employee. mgr NUMBER. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq.object_name . • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 . ename.type_name . END fire_employee. deptno). SYSDATE. job VARCHAR2. as follows: . Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. END emp_actions.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. you use dot notation.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno.package_name.package_name.NEXTVAL. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.package_name. comm NUMBER. mgr. and subprograms declared within a package specification. a stored subprogram. comm. sal. sal NUMBER. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. job. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. objects.

package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. For instance. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. which makes it easier to test and debug them. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. However. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. Most built-in functions are overloaded.ABS(x) . package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. For example.. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. as follows: . right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. STANDARD. That way. and subprograms. For example. exceptions. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation.. your local declaration overrides the global declaration.. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. The package specification globally declares types. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.prevent invalid transactions . A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table. and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT.provide sophisticated auditing ..provide transparent event logging . UPDATE.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .enforce complex security authorizations . a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system. Other uses for triggers are to: .column]…}]. For example.maintain synchronous table replicates . column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.enforce complex business rules .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [..automatically generate derived column values .

WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. INSERT. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. If this condition is satisfied. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. UPDATE .

END.empno). :old. NUMBER. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history.sal < minsal OR :new. details regarding the user. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. END IF. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range. 'Salary ' || :new. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.job.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. 2.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 . */ SELECT min_sal. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal.ename ). Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. maxsal WHERE job = :new. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. END.job || ' for employee ' || :new.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new.

END. ’HH:MI:SS’)).ename).Oracle PL/SQL 3. or INSERT) on table SAL. rowcnt INTEGER. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. 5. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). uhour INTEGER). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. DELETE. ’HH:MI:SS’)). ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. Suppose you have a table. 4. SAL. A global session variable. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued.ROWCNT. END IF. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed.ename := UPPER(:new. END. END. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. STAT. DROP TABLE stat_tab. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. ’HH:MI:SS’)). UPDATE. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.

CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). hour NUMBER. hour). END. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. END IF.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. END.rowcnt := 0.rowcnt := stat. END IF. stat. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. END IF.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt.rowcnt + 1. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. END.

INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. Object views present additional problems. By default. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. Users write normal INSERT. e. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. unlike other types of triggers.dept_type. dept d.deptno = p. d. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because.empno. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. UPDATE. This inevitably involves joins.projno FROM emp e. DELETE.mgr_no AND d. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view.resp_dept. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. The trigger performs update. d. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. p. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view.level. As a result of these ambiguities.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT.name. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .empno = d. project p WHERE e. For example. and DELETE). An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. p. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view.deptno. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e. insert.

projno. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.empno.deptno.projno.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n. END IF. :n.deptno.name WHERE emp.empno = :n.empno = :n.dept_type WHERE dept. :n. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n.deptno = :n. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.projno = :n. END IF.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .dept_type = :n.level = :n.name = :n.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.level WHERE project.deptno = :n. END IF. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.projno = :n.name). IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.project_level). :n.dept_type). END.empno.

For enabled triggers. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE.

2. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. 6. ‘SUPPORT’). 4. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. deptno.Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. 30. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. ‘SUPPORT’). and dname columns. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. that selects empno. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). 50. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. 30. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. 5. ‘OPERATIONS’). Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. 3. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item.

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