Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. Each object stores different real-world values. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. analyze data. solve scientific and engineering problems. you have created an object. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). registered with PL/SQL. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. or control real-time devices and processes. and object orientation. and reusable. • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. when the data structure is filled with values. Typically. At run time. This allows you to create software components that are modular. PL/SQL. At run time. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. Object types. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. maintainable. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . and called by you to do special-purpose processing. information hiding. You can create as many objects as you need. In. exception handling. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. objects are instances of object types.

This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. all of the same type. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). piece-wise access to the data. So. collections can be passed as parameters. And. not an independent product. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. LOB types store values. called locators. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. So. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. BLOB. A collection is an ordered group of elements. conversely. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. can be attributes of an object type. CLOB. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. They can store instances of an object type and. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . To manipulate LOBs. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. they allow efficient. random. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. Also. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file.

Only the executable part is required. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . functions. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language .the basic units (procedures. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks.

called pointers. A scalar type has no internal components. A reference type holds values. and valid range of values. A LOB type holds values. constraints. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. that designate other program items. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. called locators. which specifies a storage format. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes.

illegal.illegal.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). subprogram.-.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10). Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type.--based on cursor rowtype However. -. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. -. -.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER. -. hours INTEGER). -.empno%TYPE. -. -.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 .2). SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15). -. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7.

including other declarative statements. Besides assigning an initial value. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. or any PL/SQL data type. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. and NUMBER. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10. in_stock BOOLEAN. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . DATE. rows Counter.00. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype.2). Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. Forward references are not allowed. such as CHAR. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. total Accumulator(7. you can declare items of that type. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. So. employees Counter.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. Variables can have any SQL data type.

balance NUMBER(7.dept. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. To reference a field.2). Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. you use dot notation.dname%TYPE. Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view).Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. if the database definition of dname changes. Example : my_dname scott. the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. First. For example. debit credit%TYPE. you need not know the exact data type of dname. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.00.2). Examples : credit REAL(7. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. Second.

WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . END LOOP. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. END IF. END LOOP. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. EXIT WHEN condition.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements.. EXIT. ELSE sequence_of_statements2.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. END IF. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. END IF. END LOOP.

Then. END LOOP. END LOOP.. . loops can be labeled. END LOOP outer.. END LOOP my_loop. • With either form of EXIT statement.... Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. The label. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. use the label in an EXIT statement. LOOP .exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP . you can complete not only the current loop... the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement.Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks.. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block.. EXIT outer WHEN . Jayashree Page 13 of 69 . -.. but any enclosing loop. • Optionally. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement.

<<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES .. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another.. .50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . FOR i IN 1.branch to enclosing block END. END. GOTO insert_row.. . -. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE .. GOTO get_name..an executable statement END LOOP.. END.... • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). Also.. -. BEGIN . . END..... <<end_loop>> NULL... LOOP statement.... A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 . Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement. . or subblock. • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN. BEGIN . END IF.

. MAX. LEVEL. LOCK TABLE COMMIT.. however. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. SELECT. DELETE. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. VARIANCE CURRVAL. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. END debit_account. MIN. END. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. SET TRANSACTION AVG. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. NEXTVAL. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. SAVEPOINT. UPDATE. ROWID. However. COUNT. set. SUM.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. ROWNUM all comparison. improve readability. STDDEV. ROLLBACK. COMMIT. It can.

field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized. dname dept. Records cannot be tested for equality.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. loc dept. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. then declare user-defined records of that type.loc%TYPE ).dname%TYPE. use dot notation record_name. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. . inequality. define a RECORD type.deptno%TYPE.). A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . Jayashree Page 16 of 69 . where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other.. deptrec deptrectype. Even if the fields match exactly.. or nullity.first.

To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec. However.. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. plane_id VARCHAR2(10). object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. minutes SMALLINT.declare varray depart_time TimeRec. PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. dname. -.declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). -.Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS . salary REAL(7. and other records (called nested records). DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT.declare object passengers PassengerList. loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. hours SMALLINT). job_title VARCHAR2(15). Jayashree Page 17 of 69 ... captain Employee. TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER.deptno := …. -. . dept_num INTEGER(2).2)).. collections.

(T /F) 4. (T / F) 3. prior to its use in the body of the block. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. (T / F) 5. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. 2. as both are made up of columns/fields.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. (T / F) 7. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. 8.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

including queries that return only one row. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. When a query returns multiple rows. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. one. For queries that return more than one row. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . or multiple rows. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. subprogram. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. or package. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. you name it and associate it with a specific query.

For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. After each fetch. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. Also. my_sal.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Once a cursor is closed. Example : CLOSE c1. you can reopen it. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. their data types must be compatible. Example : OPEN c1. and the active set becomes undefined. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name.

%ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. UPDATE. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. if last fetch failed. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. . or SELECT INTO statement. and %ROWCOUNT. DELETE. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable.e. Evaluates to true. no more rows left Evaluates to true. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . i. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row.

COMMIT. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record.sal%type. END LOOP. END IF. CLOSE c1. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. BEGIN OPEN c1. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. DECLARE var_empno emp. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. and CLOSE statements. var_sal emp. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. dbms_output.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. sal FROM emp.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno).Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. opens a cursor. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. var_sal. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 .column_name. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. Note: 1. END LOOP. END. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. FETCH.empno%type.

INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. Avoid it. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. Also.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0.sal > 2000. IF emp_record. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . NULL).sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1. END IF. COMMIT.2) := 0. 0).comm. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. END. you pass a department number. n2. Example : In the following example.comm > emp_record. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0.n3).00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1.col1%TYPE. total_wages NUMBER(11.sal + emp_record. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.comm := NVL(emp_record. Then. END LOOP. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum. END IF. END LOOP. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. IF emp_record. NULL. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec.comm. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor.n2 / (c1rec.n1 + c1rec.

-. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. COMMIT. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . First. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. Also.declare cursor variable -. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. -. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. So. you take two steps. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. END. Whereas a cursor is static. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. higher_comm. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. But. This gives you more flexibility. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. not an item. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. then declare cursor variables of that type. you define a REF CURSOR type.

Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. -. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . -. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. sal NUMBER(7. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. -.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4)..Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. FETCH. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . END IF. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. the previous query is lost. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. and identifies the result set.declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. and CLOSE. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries.2)). executes the query. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. END emp_data. ename VARCHAR2(1O). PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS . PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp.

deptno = 20. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 . END emp_data. END open_emp_cv. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name). TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. END open_emp_cv... Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp.. choice IN NUMBER). END emp_data. END emp_data. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. | record_name}. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. sal > 2500. After that.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS .. OUT EmpCurTyp. variable_name]. the associated result set is undefined.

get_staff(20.deptno = dept. loc FROM emp.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). dept_name CHAR(14). :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 . END. emp_name CHAR(10). ename. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. dept WHERE emp. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp.deptno = dept_no AND emp. END. / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). job. END. job_title CHAR(9).deptno ORDER BY empno. dept_loc CHAR(13)). dname. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data.

give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . as well as update in the EMP table. (T / F) 4. 2. including queries that return multiple rows. Write these increments in a separate table. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. (T / F) 6. Get a number from each of the two tables. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. and 20% to all salesmen. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. 3. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. 2. In the EMP table.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

the database is automatically restored to its former state. once a query begins and as it proceeds. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. Until you commit the changes. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. When one transaction ends. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. That is. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. Thus. other users cannot access the changed data. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. the data read by the query does not change. Oracle is transaction oriented. Thus. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. that is. However. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. As update activity continues.

The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited... Rolling back is useful for two reasons. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK.... . any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased..). INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id.... Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. .). INTO emp_id. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . UPDATE. If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception.Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. a rollback restores the original data. . or DELETE statement. First. .. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). However. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased.. FROM new_emp WHERE . When you roll back to a savepoint. . if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. Also. BEGIN SELECT empno.. a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again...). Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. END.. Second. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint.. If the statement fails. . . PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters.. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. .. PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram.

. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update. UPDATE emp SET . So.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp.. END... When querying multiple tables... In that case.. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. So. BEGIN . You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement.. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed.. WHERE empno = emp_id. However. not as they are fetched. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id.. DELETE FROM emp WHERE .empno%TYPE. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit. This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. All rows are locked when you open the cursor. then locks each row in the active set. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. SAVEPOINT do_insert. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. . • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement.). EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert. . you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 .

sal.. For example....deptno = dept. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait. .. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO . Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. dname FROM emp.. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. BEGIN OPEN c1. . LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal.. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. dept WHERE emp. END. END LOOP. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. and a query never acquires a table lock. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE. . job.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. if the table has been locked by another user..

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

. That is. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . you try to open an already open cursor. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. To handle raised exceptions.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. In procedural statements. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. So. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. a warning or error condition is called an exception. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. If there is no enclosing block. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. VALUE_ERROR is raised. After an exception handler runs. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram. When an error occurs. you write separate routines called exception handlers. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. control returns to the host environment. an exception is raised. which can also raise predefined exceptions. in a SQL statement.. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 .

Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. In procedural statements. when you select a column value into a character variable. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. For example. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. so when that happens. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. For example.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. an arithmetic. no exception is raised. So. truncation. you try to divide a number by zero. or sizeconstraint error occurs. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. conversion. In SQL statements. PL/SQL has an internal problem. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example).

. You can. . -. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER..Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. END IF. q_o_h NUMBER(5). Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. BEGIN . however. EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block.raise predefined exception END IF. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. IF acct_type NOT IN (1... in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. So. END. declare the same exception in two different blocks. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block... . 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END.exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . the local declaration prevails. 2.

. not at run time. subprogram. -60). you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment.. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. In PL/SQL. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time.. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number.. In the latter case. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. That is. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search.handle the error . if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. BEGIN . END. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. the exception propagates. Oracle_error_number). Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . A pragma is a compiler directive. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception.

simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name.. you want to re raise an exception.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION.sub-block ends EXCEPTION . Example : BEGIN . But. beyond the block in which it was declared. handle it locally. So.. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block.. END. it propagates to the enclosing block. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.... that is. according to the scope rules. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due.. THEN RAISE past_due. ------------. END. END IF.. For example. IF . BEGIN . To re raise an exception. then log the error in an enclosing block. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. that is. then pass it to an enclosing block. DECLARE ---------. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes.

. in which case SQLCODE returns +100.sub-block begins . BEGIN ---------. For internal exceptions. END. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found.reraise the current exception .... BEGIN . successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 .. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal.raise the exception END IF.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. -----------... The message begins with the Oracle error code. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. -... SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. THEN RAISE out_of_balance. END. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message..Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. For user-defined exceptions. -. IF .handle the error RAISE.handle the error differently .

BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). trandate. BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.itno. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM.. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 . END.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM.. */ FOR err_num IN 1. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. you must assign their values to local variables.. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg).err_msg). END LOOP.9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num).. 100).qoh%TYPE := 0. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number. var_qoh itemmast. trantype.. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. BEGIN . qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. 1.. BEGIN .. EXCEPTION . /* Get all Oracle error messages.. . then use the variables in the SQL statement. err_msg VARCHAR2(100).. Instead. END.

itno.tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.itno.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.itno.qty WHERE itno = tran. tran. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .itno.qty WHERE itno = tran. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran. tran.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock. tran.‘invalid item number’).itno. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END.trandate. END IF. tran. /* inner block */ END LOOP.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. tran.trantype.trantype.trandate.qty. ‘out of stock’ ). tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . END.qty. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.

(T / F) 4. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. To get the error message of an error. Record all invalid transactions in another table. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. (T / F) 2. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 . The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5.

update. if the account does not exist. On an insert. U. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. no action is taken. if the row does not exist. or delete). Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . On an update. Each row in the action table contains an account number. an update is done instead.Oracle PL/SQL 2. an amount by which to update the account. it is created by an insert. an action to be taken (I. On a delete. In each case the status is written into the action table. if the account already exists. or D for insert. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

control execution.functions Generally. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . END IF. constants. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. The executable part contains statements that assign values. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. new_balance REAL. variables. exceptions. an executable part. END debit_account.amount. new_balance := old_balance . which deal with exceptions raised during execution. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. and manipulate Oracle data.. and an optional exceptionhandling part.. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . PL/SQL has two types of subprograms . and nested subprograms. The declarative part contains declarations of types. Subprograms have a declarative part. cursors. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id.procedures . overdrawn EXCEPTION.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id.

BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. .Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. END raise_salary. 'Salary is null').. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. parameter.. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. salary_missing EXCEPTION. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. 'No such number').])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. END IF. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype.

an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. hisal INTO min_sal. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. BEGIN SELECT losal. Inside the subprogram. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. Therefore. Inside the subprogram. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. . Therefore. an IN parameter acts like a constant. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. it cannot be assigned a value. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . max_sal REAL. Therefore.. END sal_ok. parameter. Inside the subprogram. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type.. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title.

you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects.group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. DECLARE rating NUMBER.. END. you must declare a subprogram before calling it. DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .forward declaration . or package. However.. subprogram. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to .. ). ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( ..Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block. END.) BEGIN . */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . . /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. Therefore... ).. -.... ) IS BEGIN .define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order .. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp. PROCEDURE award_bonus (.. END..define mutually recursive subprograms . PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .. • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 .... PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it..

it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. When you call procedure raise_salary. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. COMMIT. END. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters. Though not necessary.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item.itno%TYPE. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters.

. -..named notation .named notation . Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. amt REAL. amount => amt). hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. That is. or data type family. acctno => acct). you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp. -. order. END LOOP. amount => amt). END initialize.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER.positional notation . n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. END.credit(acct. -.credit(acctno => acct.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. sal_tab RealTabTyp. amt).credit(amount => amt.credit(acct. amount REAL) IS BEGIN . -. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number..

n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1.. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. indx). Also. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..calls first version initialize(comm_tab. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family.. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. Likewise. comm_tab RealTabTyp. -. Finally. -. initialize(hiredate_tab. indx). . Therefore..0.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. END LOOP. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. BEGIN indx := 50. END.calls second version .Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. END initialize. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. you cannot overload standalone subprograms. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . subprogram. or package. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. indx BINARY_INTEGER.. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded.

which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -.specification (visible part) -. constants.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -.subprogram specifications END [name]. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. it declares the types. a specification and a body. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . although sometimes the body is unnecessary. -. parameterized.public type and object declarations -. exceptions. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. Packages usually have two parts. packages cannot be called. or nested. variables.recursive call END IF. and subprograms available for use. The specification is the interface to your applications. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. END fac.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . and so implements the specification. Unlike subprograms.1). objects. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. and subprograms. cursors.terminating condition RETURN 1.

or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. salary REAL). enhance. Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). job VARCHAR2. mgr NUMBER.initialization statements] END [name].subprogram bodies [BEGIN -. comm NUMBER. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. which are hidden from your application. You can debug. sal NUMBER. The body holds implementation details and private declarations.private type and object declarations -.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. deptno NUMBER). Jayashree Page 55 of 69 .body (hidden part) -. END emp_actions. which are visible to your application. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -.

comm NUMBER.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. mgr.type_name . you use dot notation. ename. a stored subprogram. mgr NUMBER. job VARCHAR2.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. sal NUMBER. as follows: .package_name. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. END emp_actions. job. and subprograms declared within a package specification. END fire_employee. comm. deptno).package_name.NEXTVAL.package_name. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. sal. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. objects. END hire_employee.object_name . SYSDATE.

You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. For example. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. For example. However.. and subprograms.. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. For instance. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS.. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. STANDARD. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. as follows: .. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. which makes it easier to test and debug them. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program.ABS(x) . exceptions. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. The package specification globally declares types. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. Most built-in functions are overloaded. That way. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT. ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 .provide transparent event logging . or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours.enforce complex security authorizations ..gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.prevent invalid transactions . Other uses for triggers are to: .automatically generate derived column values . For example. column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays.Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .provide sophisticated auditing . Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table.column]…}]. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system..maintain synchronous table replicates . UPDATE.enforce complex business rules .

Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. If this condition is satisfied.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. UPDATE . after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. INSERT. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger.

*/ SELECT min_sal. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 .empno).sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new. NUMBER. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal. maxsal WHERE job = :new. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. 'Salary ' || :new. 2. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER.sal < minsal OR :new.job || ' for employee ' || :new. END.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. END IF.ename ). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. :old. details regarding the user.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. END. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.job. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history.

Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. 5. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. END. STAT. uhour INTEGER). ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’.ename). 4. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued.Oracle PL/SQL 3. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). SAL. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.ename := UPPER(:new. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. DELETE. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. ’HH:MI:SS’)). ’HH:MI:SS’)). Suppose you have a table. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. rowcnt INTEGER. END. ’HH:MI:SS’)). A global session variable. ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. END IF. or INSERT) on table SAL. DROP TABLE stat_tab. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new.ROWCNT. UPDATE. END.

rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. hour NUMBER. hour). BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. END.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. END IF. END IF. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt := 0. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE .rowcnt.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). END IF. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat.rowcnt + 1. END IF. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). stat. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. END.rowcnt := stat. END.

Users write normal INSERT. d.resp_dept. Object views present additional problems.empno.deptno. p. d. This inevitably involves joins. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable.mgr_no AND d. For example. p. By default. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .empno = d. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. dept d. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous.deptno = p. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement.projno FROM emp e.name. DELETE. UPDATE. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view. e.dept_type. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT.level. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. unlike other types of triggers. The trigger performs update. project p WHERE e. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. insert. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. and DELETE). or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because. As a result of these ambiguities.

name WHERE emp.level = :n.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.dept_type).deptno = :n.name).dept_type = :n.projno = :n.projno.projno = :n.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. END IF. :n. END IF. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 . :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.empno. END IF.empno = :n.name = :n.deptno. :n.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.level WHERE project. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp. END.deptno.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.empno.empno = :n.projno. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.deptno = :n.dept_type WHERE dept.project_level).

Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. For enabled triggers. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 .

3. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. that selects empno. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. deptno. 30. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. 30. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. ‘SUPPORT’). If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. 6. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. ‘OPERATIONS’). 50. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. 4. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. and dname columns. ‘SUPPORT’). c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. 5. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. 2. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal).

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