Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

Jayashree

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. and reusable. and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. objects are instances of object types. PL/SQL. When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). At run time. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. exception handling. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. Typically. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects. Object types. This allows you to create software components that are modular. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. analyze data. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). maintainable. and object orientation. when the data structure is filled with values. or control real-time devices and processes. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. In. You can create as many objects as you need. information hiding. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. solve scientific and engineering problems. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. Each object stores different real-world values. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. At run time. registered with PL/SQL. you have created an object. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems.

you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. piece-wise access to the data. BLOB. LOB types store values. So. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. To manipulate LOBs. A collection is an ordered group of elements. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. called locators. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. So. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. They can store instances of an object type and. This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. can be attributes of an object type. CLOB. collections can be passed as parameters. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. they allow efficient. random. Also. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. conversely. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . And.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). not an independent product. all of the same type. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file.

PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language .Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. functions. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. Only the executable part is required. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks. an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. • • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part.the basic units (procedures. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks.

which specifies a storage format. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. A reference type holds values. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. that designate other program items. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . A scalar type has no internal components. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. constraints.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. and valid range of values. called locators. called pointers. A LOB type holds values. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes.

subprogram. hours INTEGER).illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). -. SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE. -.2). SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type.illegal. SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1).based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10).-.--based on cursor rowtype However. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. -. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList. -.illegal.empno%TYPE.based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. -.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type. -. -. -. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.

Forward references are not allowed. or any PL/SQL data type. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. So. including other declarative statements. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. Besides assigning an initial value. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10.00. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. employees Counter. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. in_stock BOOLEAN. You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). Variables can have any SQL data type.Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. total Accumulator(7. and NUMBER. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 .2). DATE. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. you can declare items of that type. such as CHAR. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. rows Counter. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'.

The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE.00. Example : my_dname scott.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column. minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.2). Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time. balance NUMBER(7. Examples : credit REAL(7. First. debit credit%TYPE.dept. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. To reference a field.dname%TYPE. you use dot notation. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types. Second. if the database definition of dname changes.2). For example. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages. you need not know the exact data type of dname.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 .

EXIT WHEN condition.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1.. WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. END IF. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. END LOOP. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. END LOOP. END IF. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 .higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements. EXIT. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1. END IF. END LOOP. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. ELSE sequence_of_statements2. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements.

END LOOP. Then. • Optionally. END LOOP outer. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block. The label.. Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . EXIT outer WHEN . use the label in an EXIT statement. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 . . but any enclosing loop. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. loops can be labeled... END LOOP. you can complete not only the current loop. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets... as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements.exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. -.... END LOOP my_loop. LOOP . • With either form of EXIT statement..Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP .. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement.

. -. . Also. or subblock. a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another.. A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 .. -.. ... • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN. .. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). END IF..branch to enclosing block END.Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN . END..50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop.. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE .an executable statement END LOOP.. BEGIN . Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement. LOOP statement. GOTO insert_row. .... END.. END... <<end_loop>> NULL.. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES . FOR i IN 1. BEGIN .. GOTO get_name.

ROWID.. DELETE. MAX. LEVEL. STDDEV. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. ROWNUM all comparison. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . MIN. COMMIT. It can. SUM. SELECT. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block. END debit_account. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. VARIANCE CURRVAL. SET TRANSACTION AVG. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block. and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . ROLLBACK. However. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. UPDATE. SAVEPOINT. it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. however. COUNT. NEXTVAL. set. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK.. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. END. improve readability.

. deptrec deptrectype. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. dname dept.deptno%TYPE. loc dept.first. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps . where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. . define a RECORD type. then declare user-defined records of that type. field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 . Even if the fields match exactly.).Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. use dot notation record_name. or nullity.. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table.column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record.field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized. inequality.dname%TYPE. Records cannot be tested for equality.loc%TYPE ).

. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec.Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno.. PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. -.declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)).deptno := …. dname. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 .2)). TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER.. -. hours SMALLINT). dept_num INTEGER(2). captain Employee..declare varray depart_time TimeRec. loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10. object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. and other records (called nested records). salary REAL(7. DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT.declare object passengers PassengerList. collections. However. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification. job_title VARCHAR2(15). plane_id VARCHAR2(10). minutes SMALLINT. DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). -. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS ..

A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. (T / F) 3. 8. 2.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. (T /F) 4. (T / F) 5. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T / F) 7. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. as both are made up of columns/fields. prior to its use in the body of the block.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. you name it and associate it with a specific query. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. including queries that return only one row. For queries that return more than one row.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. When a query returns multiple rows. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. or multiple rows. one. or package. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. subprogram.

• • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. you can reopen it. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. • • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. their data types must be compatible. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. Also. After each fetch. Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. and the active set becomes undefined. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . the OPEN statement also locks those rows. Once a cursor is closed. my_sal. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. Example : OPEN c1. Example : CLOSE c1. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause.

PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1. . DELETE. if last fetch failed. no more rows left Evaluates to true. and %ROWCOUNT. UPDATE. or SELECT INTO statement. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. Evaluates to true.e. i. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND.

FETCH. CLOSE c1.empno%type. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. BEGIN OPEN c1. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed.column_name. END LOOP. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. and CLOSE statements. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. COMMIT.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. var_sal emp.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2.sal%type. dbms_output. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. Note: 1. opens a cursor. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100. var_sal. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. DECLARE var_empno emp. sal FROM emp. END IF.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. END. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. END LOOP. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 .

high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0.comm := NVL(emp_record.col1%TYPE.n3).comm > emp_record. total_wages NUMBER(11. END IF. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum. Then. IF emp_record. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. 0). Avoid it.comm. Also. END IF. INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal.comm.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. NULL). END.n2 / (c1rec. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor.2) := 0. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . n2. NULL.sal + emp_record.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries. you pass a department number.n1 + c1rec. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop. you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec. COMMIT. Example : In the following example. IF emp_record.sal > 2000.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1. END LOOP. END LOOP.

you define a REF CURSOR type. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. then declare cursor variables of that type. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables. Whereas a cursor is static. END. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. But. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)).weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . First. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. -. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE.declare cursor variable -. Also. So. -.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. This gives you more flexibility. a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. you take two steps. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. COMMIT.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. higher_comm. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval. not an item. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables.

Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. -.... and CLOSE. ename VARCHAR2(1O).declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4). and identifies the result set. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS .. END IF. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. */ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS . -. sal NUMBER(7. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 . You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. END emp_data. executes the query. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR.2)). Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. -.declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. the previous query is lost. FETCH.

choice IN NUMBER).. Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF. deptno = 20. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . After that. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. END emp_data. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. END open_emp_cv. END open_emp_cv. END emp_data. the associated result set is undefined. sal > 2500. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. variable_name]. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 .. OUT EmpCurTyp. Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable... Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. | record_name}. END emp_data. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp.

dept_loc CHAR(13)). job. dept_name CHAR(14). job_title CHAR(9). TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. END. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data.get_staff(20. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).deptno = dept_no AND emp. loc FROM emp. ename. dept WHERE emp. END.deptno ORDER BY empno. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER.deptno = dept.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4). emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 . dname. END. emp_name CHAR(10). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER.

(T / F) 6. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. Write these increments in a separate table. then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . 2. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. and 20% to all salesmen. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. 3. In the EMP table. 2. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. (T / F) 4. including queries that return multiple rows. as well as update in the EMP table.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. Get a number from each of the two tables. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. the data read by the query does not change. Thus. Until you commit the changes. The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. the database is automatically restored to its former state. That is. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. As update activity continues. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 . Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. other users cannot access the changed data. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. However. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. that is. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback. Thus. When one transaction ends. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. once a query begins and as it proceeds. they see the data as it was before you made the changes.Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. Oracle is transaction oriented. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction.

EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK.. Rolling back is useful for two reasons.. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction.). FROM new_emp WHERE ... UPDATE. BEGIN SELECT empno.. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. When you roll back to a savepoint. First.)... . if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails.... if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table. or DELETE statement. Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. . END. any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased.. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id. The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited. However.. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. . Second.. INTO emp_id. . If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception. Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id.. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction... Also. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . . PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram.).. a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again.. a rollback restores the original data. If the statement fails. . . Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. . • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased.

END.. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time.. In that case. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. However. ..).. UPDATE emp SET . you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit. then locks each row in the active set. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 . When querying multiple tables. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted.. you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update.. not as they are fetched. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. . Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement.... • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno. BEGIN . So.. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id. SAVEPOINT do_insert. WHERE empno = emp_id. You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert. All rows are locked when you open the cursor.empno%TYPE. So. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete.

dept WHERE emp. if the table has been locked by another user..deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. dname FROM emp. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. END LOOP. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . BEGIN OPEN c1. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. and a query never acquires a table lock. END. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO .. the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. .deptno = dept. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait.. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete.. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table... A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. . For example. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT. sal. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them..Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. job. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.. . sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

in a SQL statement. a warning or error condition is called an exception. So. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. After an exception handler runs. you try to open an already open cursor. VALUE_ERROR is raised. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. you write separate routines called exception handlers.. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. which can also raise predefined exceptions. To handle raised exceptions. control returns to the host environment. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. an exception is raised. In procedural statements. That is.. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. When an error occurs. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . If there is no enclosing block. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram.

a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. For example. or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. or sizeconstraint error occurs. so when that happens. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. For example. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. an arithmetic. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. In SQL statements. So. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. PL/SQL has an internal problem. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). truncation. In procedural statements. you try to divide a number by zero. if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. conversion. when you select a column value into a character variable. no exception is raised.

the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. END. . Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block. BEGIN . -.exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . the local declaration prevails. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.... q_o_h NUMBER(5). 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER.. So. Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. however. declare the same exception in two different blocks. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. END IF. . EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block.. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END. You can. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions..raise predefined exception END IF. 2.

PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION. That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. not at run time. subprogram. END. In the latter case.handle the error . which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. BEGIN . That is. -60).. the exception propagates. Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT... the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. Oracle_error_number). the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -. Jayashree Page 39 of 69 .. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. In PL/SQL. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected. A pragma is a compiler directive.

BEGIN . END IF. beyond the block in which it was declared. For example.. DECLARE ---------. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name.. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception.sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. you want to re raise an exception. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. it propagates to the enclosing block. then log the error in an enclosing block. that is. So. But. IF . then pass it to an enclosing block.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope.. END. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block.. Example : BEGIN . that is..sub-block ends EXCEPTION . according to the scope rules. END. ------------.. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes.. THEN RAISE past_due. • Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 . handle it locally. To re raise an exception..

EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found... IF .. BEGIN ---------. For internal exceptions.raise the exception END IF. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message....reraise the current exception . -. SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error.sub-block begins .handle the error RAISE. THEN RAISE out_of_balance. For user-defined exceptions. SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. The message begins with the Oracle error code.. SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal.. END. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION. END. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 .. BEGIN . -. -----------. in which case SQLCODE returns +100.handle the error differently ..

END.qoh%TYPE := 0. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num.. You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION.. then use the variables in the SQL statement. 100). /* Get all Oracle error messages. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 ..err_msg). trandate... DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100).. BEGIN .9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num). qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno.. END. .. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number. 1. as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. EXCEPTION . trantype. err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM.itno.Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. var_qoh itemmast. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. BEGIN .. */ FOR err_num IN 1. Instead. you must assign their values to local variables. END LOOP. BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. err_msg VARCHAR2(100).

tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh .itno.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran.trantype.qty WHERE itno = tran.itno. Jayashree Page 43 of 69 . END. /* inner block */ END LOOP. tran.‘invalid item number’).trantype. END IF. tran.itno.itno.qty WHERE itno = tran. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran. tran. tran. END IF. ‘out of stock’ ).qty.qty.trandate.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.tran.trandate. tran.itno. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.

To get the error message of an error. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. (T / F) 2.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement.(T / F) 4. Record all invalid transactions in another table. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 .

On an update. an amount by which to update the account. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . In each case the status is written into the action table. an action to be taken (I. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. no action is taken.Oracle PL/SQL 2. U. On a delete. or D for insert. if the row does not exist. it is created by an insert. On an insert. if the account already exists. Each row in the action table contains an account number. an update is done instead. update. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. if the account does not exist. or delete).

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

new_balance REAL. constants. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. new_balance := old_balance . amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL. an executable part. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. The executable part contains statements that assign values. The declarative part contains declarations of types..procedures . Subprograms have a declarative part. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. END IF. exceptions. variables. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. END debit_account. and an optional exceptionhandling part.amount.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked. overdrawn EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . cursors. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms .. and manipulate Oracle data. control execution. and nested subprograms.functions Generally. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id.

parameter.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL.. . EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. END IF. 'Salary is null'). BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. END raise_salary.. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. 'No such number').Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 . Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. salary_missing EXCEPTION.

BEGIN SELECT losal. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. hisal INTO min_sal. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL.. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . Inside the subprogram. END sal_ok. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. parameter.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. Therefore. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). . max_sal REAL. Inside the subprogram. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. Inside the subprogram. it cannot be assigned a value. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable. Therefore. Therefore. IN parameters can be initialized to default values.. an IN parameter acts like a constant.

/* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. DECLARE rating NUMBER.. -.. subprogram.group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon... • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 . . END... DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .... ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( . PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it. END. ) IS BEGIN . Therefore. PROCEDURE calc_rating ( ..) BEGIN .Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block. you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects.. ). ). END. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( . Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to . you must declare a subprogram before calling it... or package..define mutually recursive subprograms . PROCEDURE award_bonus (. However.define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order .... CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp..forward declaration .

• The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. When you call procedure raise_salary. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item.itno%TYPE. Though not necessary. END. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters.Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 . the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. COMMIT. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters.

-. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.. That is. amt REAL. -. sal_tab RealTabTyp. amount => amt). END. Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. amount => amt)..credit(acct. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER.named notation . order.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram.named notation . END LOOP.credit(acctno => acct. or data type family. acctno => acct). END initialize. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.. amt). amount REAL) IS BEGIN . you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name. Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp.credit(acct.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE. -.credit(amount => amt.positional notation . -.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 . n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1.

PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. END. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded. -. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. . comm_tab RealTabTyp. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.0. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family.. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. END LOOP.n LOOP tab(i) := 0. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. indx). You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. Likewise. BEGIN indx := 50. -. Therefore..Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp..calls second version . you cannot overload standalone subprograms. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.. indx BINARY_INTEGER. END initialize. initialize(hiredate_tab. or package. subprogram..calls first version initialize(comm_tab. Finally. Also. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families. indx).

END fac. constants. it declares the types.public type and object declarations -. objects. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . a specification and a body. The specification is the interface to your applications. Packages usually have two parts. and subprograms. and subprograms available for use. Jayashree Page 54 of 69 . -. and so implements the specification.recursive call END IF. although sometimes the body is unnecessary.1). you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. exceptions. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . Unlike subprograms.subprogram specifications END [name]. or nested.specification (visible part) -. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms. cursors. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. parameterized.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. variables.terminating condition RETURN 1. packages cannot be called.

subprogram bodies [BEGIN -.body (hidden part) -. Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations. enhance. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 . The body holds implementation details and private declarations. sal NUMBER. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. You can debug.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. salary REAL). END emp_actions. comm NUMBER. mgr NUMBER. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. job VARCHAR2.private type and object declarations -. deptno NUMBER).initialization statements] END [name]. which are hidden from your application.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). which are visible to your application.

ename. mgr NUMBER. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. • Jayashree Page 56 of 69 . objects. a stored subprogram. sal NUMBER.package_name.package_name. as follows: .Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -. mgr.NEXTVAL. END emp_actions. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id. comm NUMBER. job. job VARCHAR2. SYSDATE.package_name. END fire_employee. you use dot notation. END hire_employee. sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC.object_name . Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. sal.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger. and subprograms declared within a package specification. deptno). or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus.type_name . comm.

you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. STANDARD. For instance. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. exceptions.ABS(x) . If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program. which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2..Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. Most built-in functions are overloaded. For example. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. However. you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. as follows: . FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. The package specification globally declares types. • • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . which makes it easier to test and debug them.. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). your local declaration overrides the global declaration. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. That way. The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is.. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. For example. and subprograms.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours. For example.Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table.provide transparent event logging .enforce complex business rules . A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays.. Other uses for triggers are to: .enforce complex security authorizations .prevent invalid transactions . and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT.gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system.. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table.provide sophisticated auditing .automatically generate derived column values . ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 . column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table.enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .column]…}].maintain synchronous table replicates . UPDATE.

then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row.Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW. If this condition is satisfied. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 . UPDATE . WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. INSERT. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts.The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger.

job. END.job || ' for employee ' || :new. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range.ename ). while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal.sal < minsal OR :new. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table. 2.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new.empno). details regarding the user. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. maxsal WHERE job = :new. Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history. END IF. NUMBER. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER. END.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. */ SELECT min_sal. :old. 'Salary ' || :new. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new.

END. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time.ROWCNT. SAL. DROP TABLE stat_tab. 4. END. ’HH:MI:SS’)). or INSERT) on table SAL. ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. ’HH:MI:SS’)). UPDATE. Suppose you have a table. 5. ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger. DELETE. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. rowcnt INTEGER.Oracle PL/SQL 3. Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example.ename := UPPER(:new.ename). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. STAT. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. uhour INTEGER). A global session variable. END. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). END IF. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. ’HH:MI:SS’)).

UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8). BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'.rowcnt. hour NUMBER. stat. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.rowcnt := stat. END.rowcnt := 0. END. END IF. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. END IF. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 .rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour. END IF. END IF.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. hour).rowcnt + 1. END. IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24).

The trigger performs update. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. This inevitably involves joins. As a result of these ambiguities. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view.mgr_no AND d.empno = d. e. d.level. Object views present additional problems. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place. and DELETE). p. project p WHERE e. p. UPDATE. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e.resp_dept. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. insert. dept d. unlike other types of triggers. DELETE.deptno = p. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT.projno FROM emp e. For example.name. d. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships.dept_type.empno. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. Users write normal INSERT. By default.deptno. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement.

IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. END IF. :n.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n.deptno.projno = :n. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.empno = :n. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.name = :n. END. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.dept_type = :n. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .projno.empno = :n.name).projno. :n.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.dept_type).level = :n. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.projno = :n.deptno.empno.name WHERE emp.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n.dept_type WHERE dept.empno.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.project_level).deptno = :n. END IF.deptno = :n. :n.level WHERE project. END IF.

if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE. For enabled triggers. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE.

in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. that selects empno. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. ‘SUPPORT’). deptno. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. and dname columns. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. 2. 30.Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. 30. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . 50. 4. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. ‘OPERATIONS’). as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal). 5. ‘SUPPORT’). 3. Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. 6.