Oracle PL/SQL

CONTENTS
PL/SQL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL...................................................................................................................... 4 Topics ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 New Features in PL/SQL........................................................................................................................ 5 PL/SQL Architecture .............................................................................................................................. 6 PL/SQL Block Structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 PL/SQL Data Types................................................................................................................................ 8 Declaring Variables and Constants...................................................................................................... 10 Conditional Control Statements ........................................................................................................... 12 Iterative Control Statements................................................................................................................. 12 Loop Labels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements............................................................................... 13 SQL Support in PL/SQL ....................................................................................................................... 15 User-Defined Records .......................................................................................................................... 16 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 18 CURSORS .................................................................................................................................................. 19 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 19 What are Cursors? ............................................................................................................................... 20 Explicit Cursors.................................................................................................................................... 20 Cursor Attributes .................................................................................................................................. 22 Cursor FOR Loops ............................................................................................................................... 23 Passing Parameters to Cursors ............................................................................................................ 24 Using Cursor Variables........................................................................................................................ 25 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 29 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 29 PROCESSING TRANSACTIONS IN PL/SQL ............................................................................................... 30 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Processing Transactions....................................................................................................................... 31 Overriding Default Locking.................................................................................................................. 33 ERROR HANDLING IN PL/SQL................................................................................................................ 35 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Exceptions ............................................................................................................................................ 36 Scope Rules........................................................................................................................................... 38 Using EXCEPTION_INIT..................................................................................................................... 39 Propagation of Exception..................................................................................................................... 39 Re-raising an Exception ....................................................................................................................... 40 SQLCODE and SQLERRM .................................................................................................................. 41 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 44 SUBPROGRAMS AND PACKAGES .............................................................................................................. 46 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 46 What are Subprograms?....................................................................................................................... 47 Procedures............................................................................................................................................ 48 Functions .............................................................................................................................................. 49 Declaring Subprograms ....................................................................................................................... 50 Stored Subprograms ............................................................................................................................. 51 Positional and Named Notation ........................................................................................................... 52 Overloading.......................................................................................................................................... 52 Recursion.............................................................................................................................................. 54 Packages............................................................................................................................................... 54 Package STANDARD ........................................................................................................................... 57

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Oracle PL/SQL

ORACLE Product-specific Packages ................................................................................................... 57 Advantages of Packages ....................................................................................................................... 58 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 59 DATABASE TRIGGERS .............................................................................................................................. 60 Topics ................................................................................................................................................... 60 Introduction to Triggers ....................................................................................................................... 61 Creating a Database Trigger ............................................................................................................... 61 Triggers Examples................................................................................................................................ 63 INSTEAD OF Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 66 Trigger Execution................................................................................................................................. 68 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 69

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Oracle PL/SQL

PL/SQL

• • • • • •

Introduction to PL/SQL Cursors Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL : Exceptions Subprograms and Packages Database Triggers

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Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • • • • • New Features in PL/SQL PL/SQL Architecture PL/SQL Block Structure PL/SQL Data Types Declaring Variables and Constants Conditional Control Statements Iterative Control Statements Loop Labels Sequential Control : GOTO and NULL Statements SQL Support in PL/SQL Jayashree Page 4 of 69 .

When you define an object type using the CREATE TYPE statement (in SQL*Plus for example). • Object Types • Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of interacting objects.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension to SQL. You can create as many objects as you need. PL/SQL. you have created an object. At run time. then calls the routine as if it were a PL/SQL subprogram. which map directly into classes defined in object-oriented languages such as C++. analyze data. reduce complexity by breaking down a large system into logical entities. At run time. This allows you to create software components that are modular. maintainable. you create an abstract template for some real-world object. An object type encapsulates a data structure along with the functions and procedures needed to manipulate the data. In. and reusable. New Features in PL/SQL • • • • External Procedures Object Types Collections LOB Types External Procedures • To support special-purpose processing and promote reuse of code. PL/SQL loads the library dynamically. Each object stores different real-world values. and object orientation. and called by you to do special-purpose processing. exception handling. Object types. This makes the strengths and capabilities of those languages available to you. Typically. information hiding. or control real-time devices and processes. • • Jayashree Page 5 of 69 . and so brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle Server and Toolset. the standard data access language for object-relational databases. PL/SQL offers modern software engineering features such as data encapsulation. solve scientific and engineering problems. when the data structure is filled with values. An external procedure is a third-generation-language routine stored in a dynamic link library (DLL). objects are instances of object types. registered with PL/SQL. external procedures are used to interface with embedded systems. PL/SQL provides an interface for calling routines written in other languages.

This technology acts as an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. To manipulate LOBs. The engine can be installed in an Oracle Server or in an application development tool such as Oracle Forms or Oracle Reports. all of the same type. BLOB. you use the supplied package DBMS_LOB. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. you can use them to move columns of data into and out of database tables or between client-side applications and stored subprograms. PL/SQL operates on LOBs through the locators. Collections work like the arrays found in most third-generation programming languages. PL/SQL can reside in two environments: the Oracle Server Oracle tools • • • • The PL/SQL Engine • The PL/SQL engine executes procedural statements but sends SQL statements to the SQL Statement Executor in the Oracle Server. conversely.Oracle PL/SQL Collections • The collection types TABLE and VARRAY allow you to declare nested tables and variable-size arrays (varrays for short). not an independent product. random. • PL/SQL Architecture • The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology. • Jayashree Page 6 of 69 . So. Also. and NCLOB let you store blocks of unstructured data up to four gigabytes in size. LOB types store values. They can store instances of an object type and. • LOB Types • The LOB (large object) datatypes BFILE. called locators. can be attributes of an object type. collections can be passed as parameters. A collection is an ordered group of elements. Each element has a unique subscript that determines its position in the collection. And. they allow efficient. piece-wise access to the data. CLOB. So. that specify the location of large objects stored out-of-line or in an external file.

• • • Jayashree Page 7 of 69 . an Oracle Server can process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. which can contain any number of nested sub-blocks. A block (or sub-block) lets you group logically related declarations and statements. You can nest sub-blocks in the executable and exception-handling parts of a PL/SQL block or subprogram but not in the declarative part.Oracle PL/SQL • When it contains the PL/SQL engine. functions. The declarations are local to the block and cease to exist when the block completes. The Oracle Server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine. • PL/SQL is a block-structured language . Only the executable part is required. PL/SQL Engine Non-SQL SQL Procedural Statement Executor PL/SQL Block PL/SQL Block SQL Statement Executor ORACLE Server PL/SQL Block Structure DECLARE < Declarations > BEGIN < Executable Statements > EXCEPTION < Exception Handlers > END.the basic units (procedures. and anonymous blocks) that make up a PL/SQL program are logical blocks.

and valid range of values. A LOB type holds values.Oracle PL/SQL PL/SQL Data Types Every constant and variable has a datatype. A scalar type has no internal components. that designate other program items. A reference type holds values. which specifies a storage format. A composite type has internal components that can be manipulated individually. called locators. constraints. A subtype associates a base type with a constraint and so defines a subset of values. Scalar Types BINARY_INTEGER DEC DECIMAL DOUBLE-PRECISION INTEGER FLOAT INT INTEGER NATURAL NUMBER NUMERIC POSITIVE REAL SMALLINT SIGNTYPE Composite Types RECORD TABLE Reference Types REFCURSOR REF object_name LOB Types BFILE BLOB CLOB Subtypes A base type is the datatype from which a subtype is derived. PL/SQL provides a variety of predefined datatypes. CHAR CHARACTER LONG LONG RAW RAW ROWID STRING VARCHAR2 DATE BOOLEAN Jayashree Page 8 of 69 . called pointers. that specify the location of large objects (graphic images for example) stored out-of-line.

-.Oracle PL/SQL BINARY_INTEGER NATURAL POSITIVE SIGNTYPE NUMBER DEC DECIMAL DEC DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER INT NUMERIC REAL SMALLINT CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR2 STRING VARCHAR User-Defined Subtypes You can define your own subtypes in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.-. or package using the syntax SUBTYPE subtype_name IS base_type. hours INTEGER).based on DATE type SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL.based on TABLE type TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD (minutes INTEGER.based on NATURAL subtype TYPE NameList IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(10). -. Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE EmpDate IS DATE.illegal.2). -. SUBTYPE DeptFile IS c1%ROWTYPE. SUBTYPE Time IS TimeRec. you cannot specify a constraint on the base type. -.--based on cursor rowtype However. -.illegal You can use a simple workaround to define size-constrained subtypes indirectly: DECLARE temp VARCHAR2(15).illegal. SUBTYPE Word IS VARCHAR2(15). SUBTYPE Word IS temp%TYPE. -. SUBTYPE EmpRoster IS NameList.empno%TYPE.based on column type CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM dept. For example: DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER(7. -.maximum size of Word is 15 Jayashree Page 9 of 69 . SUBTYPE Delimiter IS CHAR(1). -. subprogram.based on RECORD type SUBTYPE ID_Num IS emp.

such as CHAR. The NOT NULL constraint must be followed by an initialization clause. in_stock BOOLEAN. you must declare a variable or constant before referencing it in other statements. declarations can impose the NOT NULL constraint. Forward references are not allowed. Constants are declared by specifying the key word CONSTANT before the datatype. such as BOOLEAN and BINARY_INTEGER. rows Counter. employees Counter. DECLARE SUBTYPE Accumulator IS NUMBER. and then use them in SQL and procedural statements anywhere an expression can be used. Declaring Variables and Constants • PL/SQL allows you to declare variables and constants. total Accumulator(7. and NUMBER. valid BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE. DATE. you can declare items of that type. Example: credit_limit CONSTANT REAL := 5000. Example: deptno NUMBER(4) := 10.00. Variables can have any SQL data type. including other declarative statements. Initial values can also be assigned to a variable at the time of declaration. as the following example shows: acct_id INTEGER(4) NOT NULL := 9999. Examples: blood_type CHAR DEFAULT 'O'. Examples: emp_no NUMBER(4). Examples: DECLARE SUBTYPE Counter IS NATURAL. Besides assigning an initial value. or any PL/SQL data type.2).Oracle PL/SQL Using Subtypes Once you define a subtype. • • • • • • • Jayashree Page 10 of 69 . You can use the keyword DEFAULT instead of the assignment operator to initialize variables. So.

dept. • Using %TYPE to declare my_dname has two advantages.00. you need not know the exact data type of dname. debit credit%TYPE. • The %TYPE attribute is particularly useful when declaring variables that refer to database columns. Columns in a row and corresponding fields in a record have the same names and data types.Oracle PL/SQL Using %TYPE Attribute • The %TYPE attribute provides the data type of a variable or database column.2). the data type of my_dname changes accordingly at run time. you use dot notation. To reference a field. The record can store an entire row of data selected from the table Example : emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE. For example. if the database definition of dname changes.dname%TYPE. First. Examples : credit REAL(7.2). balance NUMBER(7.deptno • • • Jayashree Page 11 of 69 . Example : my_dname scott. Second. Using %ROWTYPE Attribute • The %ROWTYPE attribute provides a record type that represents a row in a table (or view). minimum_balance balance%TYPE := 10. you might reference the deptno field as emp_rec.

EXIT WHEN condition. FOR counter IN [REVERSE] lower_bound. END LOOP.. ELSIF condition2 THEN sequence_of_statements2. END LOOP. EXIT. Iterative Control Statements LOOP sequence_of_statements. IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements1.higher_bound LOOP sequence_of_statements.Oracle PL/SQL Conditional Control Statements IF condition THEN sequence_of_statements. END IF. ELSE sequence_of_statements3. END LOOP. Jayashree Page 12 of 69 . WHILE condition LOOP sequence_of_statements. END IF. END IF. IF condition1 THEN sequence_of_statements1. ELSE sequence_of_statements2.

. END LOOP. The label..Oracle PL/SQL Loop Labels • Like PL/SQL blocks. must appear at the beginning of the LOOP statement.. LOOP .exit both loops Sequential Control: GOTO and NULL Statements • • The GOTO statement branches to a label unconditionally. END LOOP my_loop... .. The label must be unique within its scope and must precede an executable statement or a PL/SQL block.. loops can be labeled. as follows: <<outer>> LOOP .. but any enclosing loop. you can complete not only the current loop. as follows: <<label_name>> LOOP sequence_of_statements. the label name can also appear at the end of the LOOP statement. as the following example shows: <<my_loop>> LOOP . use the label in an EXIT statement. END LOOP. Jayashree Page 13 of 69 . Then. an undeclared identifier enclosed by double angle brackets. Simply label the enclosing loop that you want to complete. • Optionally. • With either form of EXIT statement. -.. EXIT outer WHEN .. END LOOP outer.

. GOTO get_name.... END. END IF. <<get_name>> SELECT ename INTO my_ename FROM emp WHERE .. Also.. FOR i IN 1.. . END. Restrictions on using GO TO • • • A GOTO statement cannot branch into an IF statement.. BEGIN . or subblock. <<insert_row>> INSERT INTO emp VALUES .... END. • DECLARE my_ename CHAR(10). LOOP statement.50 LOOP IF done THEN GOTO end_loop. • DECLARE done BEGIN BOOLEAN.Oracle PL/SQL GOTO Statement : Examples • BEGIN .. -.. <<end_loop>> NULL. . a GOTO statement cannot branch from one IF statement clause to another. GOTO insert_row.... A GOTO statement cannot branch from an enclosing block into a sub-block Jayashree Page 14 of 69 ... BEGIN .. -.branch to enclosing block END.an executable statement END LOOP. . .

and row operators Jayashree Page 15 of 69 . it does nothing other than pass control to the next statement. WHEN OTHERS THEN NULL. LEVEL. improve readability. however. SELECT. • Example : PROCEDURE debit_account(acct_id INTEGER. DELETE. MAX. LOCK TABLE COMMIT. COMMIT. The NULL Statement • The NULL statement explicitly specifies inaction. SAVEPOINT. Example : EXCEPTION WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN ROLLBACK. ROWID. It can. SUM. COUNT. VARIANCE CURRVAL. SET TRANSACTION AVG. MIN. However. amount REAL)IS BEGIN NULL. ROWNUM all comparison. UPDATE. A stub is dummy subprogram that allows you to defer the definition of a procedure or function until you test and debug the main program. a GOTO statement can branch from an exception handler into an enclosing block... WHEN VALUE_ERROR THEN INSERT INTO errors VALUES . NEXTVAL. END debit_account. set. • The NULL statement is a handy way to create stubs when designing applications from the top down. END. SQL Support in PL/SQL Data Manipulation Transaction Control SQL Functions SQL Pseudocolumns SQL Operators INSERT. STDDEV. ROLLBACK.Oracle PL/SQL • A GOTO statement cannot branch from an exception handler into the current block.

. loc dept.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Records • • The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as records.. then declare user-defined records of that type. Declaring Records : records must be declared in two steps .field_name Fields declared as NOT NULL must be initialized. Jayashree Page 16 of 69 .dname%TYPE. use dot notation record_name.first.). field_name2 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr]. Records cannot be tested for equality. Even if the fields match exactly.loc%TYPE ). where field_type stands for the following syntax: {datatype_name | variable%TYPE | record_variable%TYPE | table. records of different types cannot be assigned to each other. define a RECORD type.column%TYPE | table%ROWTYPE | cursor%ROWTYPE | cursor_variable%ROWTYPE} • • • To reference individual fields in a record. A user-defined record and a %ROWTYPE record always have different data types You cannot use the INSERT statement to insert user-defined records into a database table. • • • • User-Defined Records : Example TYPE deptrectype IS RECORD ( deptno dept. or nullity. dname dept.deptno%TYPE. inequality. Defining a RECORD type : TYPE type_name IS RECORD ( field_name1 field_type [NOT NULL {:= | DEFAULT} expr].. deptrec deptrectype.

TYPE FlightRec IS RECORD ( flight_no INTEGER. Jayashree Page 17 of 69 . object types cannot have attributes of type RECORD. DECLARE TYPE TimeRec IS RECORD ( seconds SMALLINT. You can specify a RECORD type in the RETURN clause of a function specification..declare object passengers PassengerList.Oracle PL/SQL To store data into deptrec : SELECT deptno. DECLARE TYPE EmpRec IS RECORD ( emp_id INTEGER last_name VARCHAR2(15). job_title VARCHAR2(15). loc INTO deptrec FROM dept WHERE deptno = 10.2)).deptno := ….. To reference a field in deptrec : deptrec..declare nested record airport_code VARCHAR2(10)). . dept_num INTEGER(2). plane_id VARCHAR2(10). PL/SQL lets you define records that contain objects. collections. captain Employee. salary REAL(7. -. and other records (called nested records). -.declare varray depart_time TimeRec. -. dname. However.. FUNCTION nth_highest_salary (n INTEGER) RETURN EmpRec IS . hours SMALLINT). minutes SMALLINT.

A PL/SQL table is similar to a base table. 2. ________________________________________ statement allows for breaking out of a loop unconditionally. as both are made up of columns/fields. 8. A loop label or block label should be declared in the DECLARE section. Nesting of blocks is allowed in any portion of a PL/SQL block. The user can define logically related variables into a composite data type as __________________________ Jayashree Page 18 of 69 . (T / F) 3. The PL/SQL statement which helps in creating the stubs is _____________________ 6. (T / F) 7. prior to its use in the body of the block. (T / F) 5. _______________________________ attribute can be used in PL/SQL to declare a variable to be of the same type as another variable or a table column.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. Initialization of variables cannot be done in the DECLARE part of a PL/SQL block. (T /F) 4.

Oracle PL/SQL Cursors Topics • • • • • • What are Cursors? Explicit Cursors Cursor Attributes Cursor FOR Loops Passing Parameters to Cursors Using Cursor Variables Jayashree Page 19 of 69 .

Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. A PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information. or package. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. When a query returns multiple rows. • • • Explicit Cursors • The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. or multiple rows. sal FROM emp WHERE deptno = 10. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all SQL data manipulation statements.Oracle PL/SQL What are Cursors? • • Oracle uses work areas to execute SQL statements and store processing information. Jayashree Page 20 of 69 . one. Syntax : CURSOR cursor-name IS select-statement. you name it and associate it with a specific query. subprogram. including queries that return only one row. For queries that return more than one row. You can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows individually. You can use three commands to control a cursor: • OPEN • FETCH • CLOSE • • • Declaring a cursor : • • • When you declare a cursor.

• • • Closing a Cursor : • • • • The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. and the active set becomes undefined. Syntax : OPEN cursor-name. their data types must be compatible. After each fetch. Example : OPEN c1. Once a cursor is closed. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. my_sal. Jayashree Page 21 of 69 . Syntax : CLOSE cursor-name. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. For each column value returned by the query associated with the cursor. the cursor advances to the next row in the active set.Oracle PL/SQL Opening a Cursor : • Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the active set. Any other operation on a closed cursor raises the predefined exception INVALID_CURSOR. • • Fetching with a Cursor : • The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the active set one at a time. Also. Example : CLOSE c1. there must be a corresponding variable in the INTO list. Example : FETCH c1 INTO my_ename. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Syntax : FETCH cursor-name INTO variables. you can reopen it.

.Oracle PL/SQL Cursor Attributes Explicit Cursor Attributes • Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND. and %ROWCOUNT. not the actual number of rows that satisfy the query. i. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. DELETE. or SELECT INTO statement. PL/SQL raises the predefined exception TOO_MANY_ROWS and %ROWCOUNT yields 1.e. Is true if DML statement was not successful Is true if DML statement was successful Returns number of rows affected by a DML statement Is always false because ORACLE automatically closes an implicit cursor after executing its SQL statement SQL%NOTFOUND SQL%FOUND SQL%ROWCOUNT SQL%ISOPEN • If a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. if last fetch failed. if the cursor is open • %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ROWCOUNT %ISOPEN Implicit Cursor Attributes • Implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT. if last fetch succeeded Returns the number of rows fetched Evaluates to true. Jayashree Page 22 of 69 . Evaluates to true. %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND. no more rows left Evaluates to true. UPDATE.

FETCH. sal FROM emp.empno%type. and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. BEGIN OPEN c1. END LOOP. IF var_sal > 1000 THEN var_sal := var_sal + 100.put_line(‘Salary updated for’ ||var_empno). CLOSE c1. repeatedly fetches rows of values from the active set into fields in the record. and CLOSE statements. COMMIT.sal%type. EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND. • Jayashree Page 23 of 69 . END LOOP. dbms_output. DECLARE var_empno emp. Execute the following SQL*PLUS command prior to the use of dbms_output. Using ‘WHERE CURRENT OF <cursor-name>’ in the above example speeds up the update since the condition is the same as the select. Cursor FOR Loops • • In most situations that require an explicit cursor. you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN. var_sal. UPDATE emp SET sal = var_sal WHERE empno = var_empno. Syntax : FOR index IN cursor-name LOOP statements. Note: 1. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record. END IF.put_line procedure: SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON 2. opens a cursor.column_name. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO var_empno. END.Oracle PL/SQL Example: Update the salaries of all employees by 100 if the current salary is more than 1000. The individual values of the fields of the row in the record can be referenced by the dot notation: index. var_sal emp. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.

total_wages NUMBER(11. END.n3). NULL). you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and how many have commissions larger than their salaries.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : Cursor FOR Loop DECLARE result temp. CURSOR c1 IS SELECT n1. Then. Avoid it. higher_comm NUMBER(4) := 0. n3 FROM data_table WHERE exper_num = 1.comm > emp_record. Jayashree Page 24 of 69 . you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. NULL.2) := 0.comm := NVL(emp_record. COMMIT. Also. END IF.n2 / (c1rec. comm FROM emp WHERE deptno = dnum.sal THEN higher_comm := higher_comm + 1.sal > 2000.00 THEN high_paid := high_paid + 1. BEGIN FOR c1rec IN c1 LOOP /* calculate and store the results */ result := c1rec.col1%TYPE. Passing Parameters to Cursors • • You can pass parameters to the cursor used in a cursor FOR loop.sal + emp_record. BEGIN FOR emp_record IN emp_cursor(20) LOOP emp_record. you pass a department number. total_wages := total_wages + emp_record.comm. IF emp_record. END LOOP. high_paid NUMBER(4) := 0. 0). END IF. Example : In the following example. IF emp_record. n2. DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal. Note: Using the COMMIT inside the loop closes the cursor.comm. INSERT INTO temp VALUES (result.n1 + c1rec. END LOOP.

END.declare cursor variable -. First. So. a cursor variable is dynamic because it is not tied to a specific query. Examples: DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. you define a REF CURSOR type. not an item. Syntax for defining: TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type. 'Total Wages: ' || TO_CHAR(total_wages)). This gives you more flexibility. cursors differ from cursor variables the way constants differ from variables.Oracle PL/SQL INSERT INTO temp VALUES (high_paid. Declaring Cursor Variables DECLARE TYPE DeptCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN dept%ROWTYPE. DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Also. -. This gives you an easy way to centralize data retrieval.weak Jayashree Page 25 of 69 . a cursor variable points to the current row in the result set of a multirow query. -. • • Defining REF CURSOR Types To create cursor variables. declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer. then declare cursor variables of that type. which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. Whereas a cursor is static. you can assign new values to a cursor variable and pass it as a parameter to subprograms. dept_cv DeptCurTyp. Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers. you take two steps. A cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. Using Cursor Variables • Like a cursor. But. You can open a cursor variable for any type-compatible query. COMMIT.strong TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. including subprograms stored in an Oracle database. higher_comm.

*/ OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. Controlling Cursor Variables: You use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR. FETCH. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp. executes the query. sal NUMBER(7. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp).2)). and identifies the result set.. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS .Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. tmp_cv TmpCurTyp. -. -. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. When you reopen a cursor variable for a different query. You need not close a cursor variable before reopening it.. ename VARCHAR2(1O). END emp_data.declare cursor variable TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN tmp_cv%ROWTYPE. Note: Other OPEN-FOR statements can open the same cursor variable for different queries. and CLOSE. -. Jayashree Page 26 of 69 .declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. emp_cv EmpCurTyp. END IF. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query. • Cursor variables do not take parameters • The query cannot be FOR UPDATE Examples: IF NOT emp_cv%ISOPEN THEN /* Open cursor variable. The statement syntax is OPEN {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} FOR select_statement.. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS .declare cursor variable DECLARE TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( empno NUMBER(4).. the previous query is lost.

PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp. After that. the associated result set is undefined... Example CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE GenericCurTyp IS REF CURSOR. The statement syntax follows: CLOSE {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS . END open_emp_cv. END emp_data. NUMBER) IS comm IS NOT NULL. Closing a Cursor Variable The CLOSE statement disables a cursor variable. OUT EmpCurTyp.. Fetching from a Cursor Variable The FETCH statement retrieves rows one at a time from the result set of a multi-row query. sal > 2500. variable_name]. END open_emp_cv. deptno = 20. Jayashree Page 27 of 69 .. PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp. END emp_data. END emp_data. choice IN NUMBER). TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. | record_name}. The statement syntax follows: FETCH {cursor_variable_name | :host_cursor_variable_name} INTO {variable_name[. CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE open_emp_cv (emp_cv IN choice IN BEGIN IF choice = 1 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 2 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE ELSIF choice = 3 THEN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp WHERE END IF.

Oracle PL/SQL Example: Using a bind variable CREATE PACKAGE emp_data AS TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD ( emp_id NUMBER(4).deptno ORDER BY empno.deptno = dept_no AND emp. emp_name CHAR(10). dept WHERE emp. END. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp). job. TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN EmpRecTyp.deptno = dept. :cv) Jayashree Page 28 of 69 .get_staff(20. emp_cv IN OUT EmpCurTyp) IS BEGIN OPEN emp_cv FOR SELECT empno. END. / COLUMN EMPNO HEADING Number COLUMN ENAME HEADING Name COLUMN JOB HEADING JobTitle COLUMN DNAME HEADING Department COLUMN LOC HEADING Location SET AUTOPRINT ON VARIABLE cv REFCURSOR EXECUTE emp_data. dname. dept_name CHAR(14). job_title CHAR(9). loc FROM emp. dept_loc CHAR(13)). / CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_data AS PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER. END. ename. PROCEDURE get_staff (dept_no IN NUMBER.

as well as update in the EMP table. (T / F) 4. including queries that return multiple rows. Write these increments in a separate table. In the EMP table. 3.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1. The two kinds of cursors are _____________________________________________ 3. Stop when all rows have been fetched from either of the two tables. The explicit cursor attribute which evaluates to true if the last fetch succeeded is _______________________________________________________ Exercises 1. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for all DML statements. (T / F) 6. You can use the _______________________________________________ packaged procedure to output something to the screen. Get a number from each of the two tables. The PL/SQL statement that executes the query associated with a cursor is _____________________________________________ 5. Write an anonymus PL/SQL block that retrieves the five highest paid employees from the EMP table. 2. The name of the implicit cursor is _______________________________________ 7. Consider two tables having a column each of numbers. Jayashree Page 29 of 69 . then insert the sum of the rows into a third table. 2. The SELECT statement used in a PL/SQL block need not necessarily have an INTO clause always. and 20% to all salesmen. give a raise in sal of 10% to all clerks.

Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions in PL/SQL Topics • • Processing Transactions Overriding Default Locking – – Using the FOR UPDATE Clause Using the LOCK TABLE Command Jayashree Page 30 of 69 .

The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements ensure that all database changes brought about by SQL operations are either made permanent or undone at the same time. Oracle takes snapshots of the table's data and records changes in a rollback segment. Thus. Until you commit the changes. • • • • • • Jayashree Page 31 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Processing Transactions • When a table is being queried by one user and updated by another at the same time. Oracle is transaction oriented. you can request data locks on tables or rows when it is to your advantage to override default locking. the data read by the query does not change. Oracle treats the series of SQL statements as a unit so that all the changes brought about by the statements are either committed (made permanent) or rolled back (undone) at the same time. You need never explicitly lock a resource because default locking mechanisms protect Oracle data and structures. A transaction is a series of one or more logically related SQL statements that accomplish a task. data cannot be changed by other users until you finish with it. You can choose from several modes of locking such as row share and exclusive. every SQL statement is part of a transaction. Oracle uses information in the rollback segment to build read-consistent query results and to undo changes if necessary. they see the data as it was before you made the changes. As update activity continues. Oracle uses locks to control concurrent access to data. When one transaction ends. The COMMIT statement releases all row and table locks. Thus. However. All the SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. If your program fails in the middle of a transaction. That is. the database is automatically restored to its former state. The COMMIT statement ends the current transaction and makes permanent any changes made during that transaction. A lock gives you temporary ownership of a database resource such as a table or row of data. the next SQL statement automatically begins another transaction. it uses transactions to ensure data integrity. once a query begins and as it proceeds. that is. The first SQL statement in your program begins a transaction. other users cannot access the changed data. Oracle generates a read-consistent view of the data for the query. It also erases any savepoints marked since the last commit or rollback.

.). if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table.. If the statement fails. Also. PL/SQL does not assign values to OUT parameters. UPDATE.. a rollback lets you return to the starting point to take corrective action and perhaps try again. If you exit a stored subprogram with an unhandled exception... Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement. FROM new_emp WHERE .).. . Oracle rolls back to the savepoint.. Second. INSERT INTO tax VALUES (emp_id. or DELETE statement. • • • • Jayashree Page 32 of 69 . Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). First. the savepoint to which you roll back is not erased. . When you roll back to a savepoint. INSERT INTO pay VALUES (emp_id... . EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK. .).. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id... if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails.. Implicit Rollbacks : Before executing an INSERT. INTO emp_id.. The number of active savepoints per session is unlimited. END. .Oracle PL/SQL • The ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. BEGIN SELECT empno. . Rolling back is useful for two reasons. • SAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. ... any savepoints marked after that savepoint are erased.. However.. Example: DECLARE emp_id INTEGER. . PL/SQL does not roll back database work done by the subprogram. a rollback restores the original data.

not as they are fetched. then locks each row in the active set. you can use the FOR UPDATE clause to confine row locking to particular tables. • The FOR UPDATE clause identifies the rows that will be updated or deleted. In that case. WHERE empno = emp_id. • Using the FOR UPDATE Clause DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.Oracle PL/SQL Example: DECLARE emp_id emp. END.. DELETE FROM emp WHERE . So. Oracle automatically obtains row-level locks at update or delete time... You can explicitly lock entire tables using the LOCK TABLE statement. The rows are unlocked when you commit or roll back the transaction. . you must make sure that the row is not changed by another user before the update... This is useful when you want to base an update on the existing values in a row. So.. When querying multiple tables.. you cannot fetch from a FOR UPDATE cursor after a commit. However.. Overriding Default Locking • With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement. . All rows are locked when you open the cursor. Rows in a table are locked only if the FOR UPDATE OF clause refers to a column in that table. BEGIN .. INSERT INTO emp VALUES (emp_id.empno%TYPE. use the FOR UPDATE clause only if you want to lock the rows before the update or delete. SAVEPOINT do_insert.. • • Jayashree Page 33 of 69 .). sal FROM emp WHERE job = 'SALESMAN' AND comm > sal FOR UPDATE. you can explicitly lock specific rows of a table to make sure they do not change before an update or delete is executed. UPDATE emp SET . EXCEPTION WHEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX THEN ROLLBACK TO do_insert.

dept WHERE emp.. Table locks are released when your transaction issues a commit or rollback. • Jayashree Page 34 of 69 . A table lock never keeps other users from querying a table. LOCK TABLE emp IN ROW SHARE MODE NOWAIT.. BEGIN OPEN c1.. if the table has been locked by another user. and a query never acquires a table lock. UPDATE emp SET sal = new_sal WHERE CURRENT OF c1. the statement below locks the emp table in row share mode. sal FROM emp FOR UPDATE.Oracle PL/SQL • Example : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT ename. they prevent other users from locking the entire table for exclusive use. Only if two different transactions try to modify the same row will one transaction wait for the other to complete. The optional keyword NOWAIT tells Oracle not to wait.. Using the LOCK TABLE Command • The LOCK TABLE statement can be used to lock entire database tables in a specified lock mode so that you can share or deny access to them. END. job. Row share locks allow concurrent access to a table. Using the CURRENT OF clause You can use the CURRENT OF clause in UPDATE or DELETE statement to refer to the latest row fetched from a cursor : DECLARE CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno.deptno FOR UPDATE OF sal. END LOOP.deptno = dept. sal.. LOOP FETCH c1 INTO .. . . dname FROM emp... For example. .

Oracle PL/SQL Error Handling in PL/SQL Topics • • • • • • Exceptions Scope Rules Using EXCEPTION_INIT Propagation of Exception Re-raising an Exception SQLCODE and SQLERRM Jayashree Page 35 of 69 .

Internal exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. you try an illegal cursor operation such as closing an unopened cursor. you you try to apply collection methods other than EXISTS to an uninitialized (atomically null) nested table or varray. which can also raise predefined exceptions. When an error occurs. That is. an exception is raised. To handle raised exceptions. normal execution stops and the control transfers to the exception-handling part of your PL/SQL block or subprogram.. the convertion of character string to a number fails because the character string does not represent a valid number. CURSOR_ALREADY_OPEN DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX INVALID_CURSOR INVALID_NUMBER Jayashree Page 36 of 69 . After an exception handler runs. or you try to assign values to the elements of an uninitialized nested table or varray. So. • • • • • Pre-Defined Exceptions Exception ACCESS_INTO_NULL COLLECTION_IS_NULL Raised when . In procedural statements. you try to open an already open cursor. in a SQL statement.Oracle PL/SQL Exceptions • In PL/SQL. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements.. you cannot open that cursor inside the loop. you write separate routines called exception handlers. a warning or error condition is called an exception. You must close a cursor before you can reopen it. A cursor FOR loop automatically opens the cursor to which it refers. the current block stops executing and the enclosing block resumes with the next statement. you try to store duplicate values in a database column that is constrained by a unique index. If there is no enclosing block. Exceptions can be internally defined (by the runtime system) or user defined. you try to assign values to the attributes of an uninitialized (atomically null) object. control returns to the host environment. VALUE_ERROR is raised.

or you reference an uninitialized element in an index-by table. VALUE_ERROR is raised if the conversion of a character string to a number fails. a SELECT INTO statement that calls a group function will never raise NO_DATA_FOUND. a SELECT INTO statement returns more than one row. so when that happens. Jayashree Page 37 of 69 . if the value is longer than the declared length of the variable. In SQL statements. the return types of the actual and formal parameters must be compatible. SQL group functions such as AVG and SUM always return a value or a null. PL/SQL aborts the assignment and raises VALUE_ERROR. PL/SQL runs out of memory or memory is corrupted. INVALID_NUMBER is raised. PL/SQL has an internal problem. the host cursor variable and PL/SQL cursor variable involved in an assignment have incompatible return types. or you reference a deleted element in a nested table. your PL/SQL program issues a database call without being connected to Oracle. a timeout occurs while Oracle is waiting for a resource. So. a SELECT INTO statement returns no rows. conversion. For example. truncation. no exception is raised. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number that is outside the legal range (-1 for example). when you pass an open host cursor variable to a stored subprogram. In procedural statements. an arithmetic. when you select a column value into a character variable. The FETCH statement is expected to return no rows eventually. or sizeconstraint error occurs. For example. you reference a nested table or varray element using an index number larger than the number of elements in the collection.Oracle PL/SQL LOGIN_DENIED NO_DATA_FOUND NOT_LOGGED_ON PROGRAM_ERROR ROWTYPE_MISMATCH STORAGE_ERROR SUBSCRIPT_BEYOND_COUNT SUBSCRIPT_OUTSIDE_LIMIT TIMEOUT_ON_RESOURCE TOO_MANY_ROWS VALUE_ERROR ZERO_DIVIDE you try logging on to Oracle with an invalid username and/or password. you try to divide a number by zero.

Exceptions declared in a block are considered local to that block and global to all its sub-blocks. in which case the following syntax is valid: block_label. So. however. .raise predefined exception END IF. the sub-block cannot reference the global exception unless it was declared in a labeled block. BEGIN . EXCEPTION WHEN INVALID_NUMBER THEN ROLLBACK.Oracle PL/SQL User-Defined Exceptions : Example : DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. Because a block can reference only local or global exceptions. declare the same exception in two different blocks.. 3) THEN RAISE INVALID_NUMBER. .exception_name • • Jayashree Page 38 of 69 . q_o_h NUMBER(5).. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block. IF acct_type NOT IN (1. Scope Rules • You cannot declare an exception twice in the same block. END.. If you redeclare a global exception in a sub-block. You can. the local declaration prevails. -.. … EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN /* Exception Handling END.. … BEGIN … IF q_o_h < 1 THEN RAISE out_of_stock. code */ Example : DECLARE acct_type INTEGER. 2. END IF..

You can code the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of a PL/SQL block. the exception reproduces itself in successive enclosing blocks until a handler is found or there are no more blocks to search. the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT tells the compiler to associate an exception name with an Oracle error number. PL/SQL returns an unhandled exception error to the host environment. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected.. In PL/SQL. -60). That allows you to refer to any internal exception by name and to write a specific handler for it. you must use the OTHERS handler or the pragma EXCEPTION_INIT. if PL/SQL cannot find a handler for it in the current block or subprogram. which can be thought of as a parenthetical remark to the compiler. Oracle_error_number). Propagation of Exception • When an exception is raised. Example: DECLARE deadlock_detected EXCEPTION.handle the error . Jayashree Page 39 of 69 . Pragmas (also called pseudoinstructions) are processed at compile time. subprogram.Oracle PL/SQL Using EXCEPTION_INIT • To handle unnamed internal exceptions. In the latter case. BEGIN . A pragma is a compiler directive.. That is. where exception_name is the name of a previously declared exception. the exception propagates.. or package using the syntax • • PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(exception_name. END. not at run time.. EXCEPTION WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -.

• Because the block in which it was declared has no handler for the exception named past_due. you might want to roll back a transaction in the current block. enclosing blocks cannot reference exceptions declared in a sub-block.. then log the error in an enclosing block.Oracle PL/SQL • An exception can propagate beyond its scope. So.. To re raise an exception. END. beyond the block in which it was declared. that is. that is.. END IF. you want to re raise an exception. Re-raising an Exception • Sometimes. BEGIN . according to the scope rules.. For example. handle it locally.. only an OTHERS handler can catch the exception.. WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. END. simply place a RAISE statement in the local handler without an exception name. ------------. THEN RAISE past_due. it propagates to the enclosing block. DECLARE ---------.. Example : BEGIN .sub-block begins past_due EXCEPTION. But. IF . • Jayashree Page 40 of 69 .sub-block ends EXCEPTION . then pass it to an enclosing block..

END. The message begins with the Oracle error code. IF . SQLCODE returns zero and SQLERRM returns the message : ORA-0000: normal.sub-block begins ...handle the error differently . in which case SQLCODE returns +100.. SQLERRM returns the corresponding error message. -----------.handle the error RAISE. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -... THEN RAISE out_of_balance. For internal exceptions.Oracle PL/SQL DECLARE out_of_balance EXCEPTION.sub-block ends EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_balance THEN -. successful completion • • • Jayashree Page 41 of 69 . SQLCODE returns the number of the Oracle error. BEGIN . BEGIN ---------.. For user-defined exceptions. you can use the functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM to find out which error occurred and to get the associated error message. The number that SQLCODE returns is negative unless the Oracle error is no data found. SQLCODE returns +1 and SQLERRM returns the message User-Defined Exception If no exception has been raised. -.. END... SQLCODE and SQLERRM • In an exception handler.raise the exception END IF. -..reraise the current exception .

END LOOP. Make sure you pass negative error numbers to SQLERRM. Jayashree Page 42 of 69 . you must assign their values to local variables. • Example: To update the ITEMMAST table using the ITTRAN table DECLARE CURSOR t1 IS SELECT itno. qty FROM ittran WHERE upper(updt) = ‘N’ ORDER BY itno. END. END.err_msg).. EXCEPTION .. BEGIN .Oracle PL/SQL • You can pass an error number to SQLERRM. 100). trandate.. BEGIN . INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_num. WHEN OTHERS THEN err_num := SQLCODE.. in which case SQLERRM returns the message associated with that error number.. . err_msg := SUBSTR(SQLERRM. INSERT INTO errors VALUES (err_msg). as the following example shows: DECLARE err_num NUMBER. err_msg VARCHAR2(100). You cannot use SQLCODE or SQLERRM directly in a SQL statement. BEGIN FOR tran IN t1 LOOP /* inner block */ DECLARE out_of_stock EXCEPTION. trantype.. Instead.. var_qoh itemmast. */ FOR err_num IN 1.9999 LOOP err_msg := SQLERRM(-err_num).. /* Get all Oracle error messages.itno. DECLARE err_msg VARCHAR2(100). then use the variables in the SQL statement.. BEGIN SELECT qoh INTO var_qoh FROM itemmast WHERE itno = tran. 1.qoh%TYPE := 0.

tran.trandate. WHEN no_data_found THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. END. tran.qty > var_qoh THEN RAISE out_of_stock. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . Jayashree Page 43 of 69 .trantype. tran. ‘out of stock’ ).trandate. UPDATE ittran SET updt = ‘Y’ WHERE itno = tran.qty.trantype. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL IF tran.qty WHERE itno = tran. tran. /* FOR loop */ /* main block */ END. END IF.tran. /* inner block */ END LOOP.itno.itno. tran.itno. EXCEPTION WHEN out_of_stock THEN INSERT INTO errortab VALUES (tran.trantype = ‘I’ THEN IF tran.‘invalid item number’).itno. tran.qty.itno. ELSE UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh + tran.

(T / F) 2. The internal exception TOO_MANY_ROWS is raised when __________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Internal exceptions cannot be raised by the RAISE statement. you can use the function ___________________ Exercises 1. Jayashree Page 44 of 69 .(T / F) 4. A routine that is used to handle raised exceptions is called ____________________ ______________________________________ 3. Record all invalid transactions in another table. The internal exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX means ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. The exception handler which can catch any kind of exception raised is called ___________________________ 7. To get the error message of an error. Consider the following tables : ITEMMAST ITNO NAME QOH (Quantity on hand) CLASS (Category) UOM (Unit of measurement) ROL (Re-order level) ROQ (Re-order quantity) RATE ITTRAN ITEMNO TRANTYPE TRANQTY TRANDATE UPDT Update the itemmast table using the ittran table. You can use an explicit GO TO statement in the exception handling part of a PL/SQL block to go back to the statement following the one which raised the exception.Oracle PL/SQL Review Questions 1.

no action is taken.Oracle PL/SQL 2. In each case the status is written into the action table. an update is done instead. On an update. it is created by an insert. Each row in the action table contains an account number. On an insert. Jayashree Page 45 of 69 . update. U. Suppose there are the two tables : ACCOUNTS Account_id 1 2 3 4 5 Balance 1000 2000 1500 6500 500 ACTION Account_id 3 6 5 7 1 9 10 Oper_type u i d u I d x New_value 599 20099 1599 399 Status Time_tag 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 12-DEC-97 Accounts table is modified according to instructions stored in the action table. or delete). an amount by which to update the account. if the row does not exist. and a time tag used to sequence the transactions. an action to be taken (I. if the account already exists. if the account does not exist. On a delete. or D for insert.

Oracle PL/SQL Subprograms and Packages Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • What are Subprograms? Procedures Functions Declaring Subprograms Stored Subprograms Positional and Named Notation Overloading Recursion Packages Package STANDARD Product-Specific Packages Advantages of Packages Jayashree Page 46 of 69 .

exceptions. The declarative part contains declarations of types.Oracle PL/SQL What are Subprograms? • Subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can take parameters and can be invoked.. variables. Subprograms have a declarative part. cursors. amount REAL) IS old_balance REAL.amount.procedures . IF new_balance < 0 THEN RAISE overdrawn. EXCEPTION WHEN overdrawn THEN . END debit_account. • • • • • • Subprograms : Example PROCEDURE debit_account (acct_id INTEGER. you use a procedure to perform an action and a function to compute a value. BEGIN SELECT bal INTO old_balance FROM accts WHERE acctno = acct_id. Jayashree Page 47 of 69 . and nested subprograms. and an optional exceptionhandling part. The exception-handling part contains exception handlers. and manipulate Oracle data. ELSE UPDATE accts SET bal = new_balance WHERE acctno = acct_id.functions Generally. END IF. which deal with exceptions raised during execution. These objects are local and cease to exist when you exit the subprogram. constants. control execution. an executable part. new_balance REAL. PL/SQL has two types of subprograms .. The executable part contains statements that assign values. overdrawn EXCEPTION. new_balance := old_balance .

parameter. Jayashree Page 48 of 69 .. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN|OUT|IN OUT] datatype [{:=|DEFAULT} expr] • You cannot specify a constraint on the datatype. increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id. IF current_salary IS NULL THEN RAISE salary_missing. ELSE UPDATE emp SET sal = sal + increase WHERE empno = emp_id. Example : Procedure PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER. END IF. 'No such number').Oracle PL/SQL Procedures Syntax : PROCEDURE name [(parameter[. . 'Salary is null'). END raise_salary. WHEN salary_missing THEN INSERT INTO emp_audit VALUES (emp_id.. salary_missing EXCEPTION.])] IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. BEGIN SELECT sal INTO current_salary FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.

max_sal REAL. parameter. RETURN (salary >= min_sal) AND (salary <= max_sal). an OUT parameter acts like an uninitialized variable.Oracle PL/SQL Functions Syntax : FUNCTION name [(parameter[. where parameter stands for the following syntax: parameter_name [IN | OUT | IN OUT] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expr] Note. title CHAR) RETURN BOOLEAN IS min_sal REAL. Therefore. . Inside the subprogram. hisal INTO min_sal. an IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. Parameter Modes • IN Mode : An IN parameter lets you pass values to the subprogram being called. its value cannot be assigned to another variable or reassigned to itself. BEGIN SELECT losal. it cannot be assigned a value.])] RETURN datatype IS [local declarations] BEGIN executable statements [EXCEPTION exception handlers] END [name]. it can be assigned a value and its value can be assigned to another variable. • OUT Mode : An OUT parameter lets you return values to the caller of a subprogram. • Jayashree Page 49 of 69 . Inside the subprogram. max_sal FROM sals WHERE job = title. Example : Function The following function determines if an employee salary is out of range: FUNCTION sal_ok (salary REAL. an IN parameter acts like a constant. IN parameters can be initialized to default values. Therefore. you cannot specify a constraint on the data type.. Therefore. END sal_ok. IN OUT Mode : An IN OUT parameter lets you pass initial values to the subprogram being called and return updated values to the caller.. Inside the subprogram.

. /* Define subprograms in alphabetical order. */ PROCEDURE award_bonus ( .. ). DECLARE rating NUMBER. END. you must declare subprograms at the end of a declarative section after all other program objects... subprogram. Forward Declarations :You can use forward declarations to ..forward declaration . or package. PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .. -.group subprograms in a package A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. END. However..) BEGIN .. Therefore.Oracle PL/SQL Declaring Subprograms • You can declare subprograms in any PL/SQL block... ).. ) IS BEGIN . • • • Jayashree Page 50 of 69 .define mutually recursive subprograms . CURSOR c1 IS SELECT * FROM emp. PROCEDURE award_bonus (... PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it... ) IS BEGIN calc_rating( . DECLARE PROCEDURE calc_rating ( .. you must declare a subprogram before calling it....define subprograms in logical or alphabetical order . END.

Though not necessary.itno%TYPE.iss_qty WHERE itno = iss_item. When you call procedure raise_salary. COMMIT. or can be executed directly at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the EXECUTE command : SQL> EXECUTE issue_qty ( 6. The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. the actual parameters are evaluated and the result values are assigned to the corresponding formal parameters. which you can execute interactively from SQL*Plus. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. you use the CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements. iss_qty NUMBER) AS BEGIN UPDATE itemmast SET qoh = qoh . Example : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE issue_qty ( iss_item itemmast. • The stored subprograms can be either called from a PL/SQL program or other subprogram. it is good programming practice to use different names for actual and formal parameters. • • • Jayashree Page 51 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Stored Subprograms • To create subprograms and store them permanently in an Oracle database. END. 100 ) Actual and Formal Parameters • • Subprograms pass information using the parameters.

-. order.credit(acctno => acct. acctno => acct). TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Jayashree Page 52 of 69 .named notation . amount => amt). -. amt REAL. or data type family. PROCEDURE credit (acctno INTEGER.named notation . amt). you can call the procedure credit in four logically equivalent ways: . sal_tab RealTabTyp. -. amount REAL) IS BEGIN .credit(amount => amt. END LOOP.mixed notation • Overloading • PL/SQL lets you overload subprogram names. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp.credit(acct.Oracle PL/SQL Positional and Named Notation • When calling a subprogram. That is. Example : DECLARE acct INTEGER.n LOOP tab(i) := SYSDATE.... END. you can indicate the association between an actual and formal parameter by position or name. amount => amt). Procedure to initialize the index-by table named hiredate_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT DateTabTyp.credit(acct. END initialize.positional notation . Example Suppose you want to initialize the first n rows in two index-by tables that were declared as follows: DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. you can use the same name for several different subprograms as long as their formal parameters differ in number. -.

indx). . Also.Oracle PL/SQL Procedure to initialize the index-by table named sal_tab: PROCEDURE initialize (tab OUT RealTabTyp. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in subtype and the different subtypes are based on types in the same family. You cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in data type and the different data types are in the same family. Therefore. n INTEGER) IS BEGIN FOR i IN 1. initialize(hiredate_tab.0. END initialize. hiredate_tab DateTabTyp. • • • Jayashree Page 53 of 69 . subprogram. END LOOP. • Only local or packaged subprograms can be overloaded.calls second version .n LOOP tab(i) := 0. TYPE RealTabTyp IS TABLE OF REAL INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PL/SQL determines which of the two procedures is being called by checking their formal parameters. -. comm_tab RealTabTyp. you cannot overload two subprograms if their formal parameters differ only in name or parameter mode. -. You can place the two overloaded initialize procedures in the same block. END. you cannot overload two functions that differ only in return type (the data type of the result value) even if the types are in different families... BEGIN indx := 50.calls first version initialize(comm_tab. you cannot overload standalone subprograms.. indx).. DECLARE TYPE DateTabTyp IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Finally. indx BINARY_INTEGER. Likewise.. or package.

it declares the types. Packages • A package is a database object that groups logically related PL/SQL types. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms.Oracle PL/SQL Recursion • PL/SQL supports recursive subprograms . a specification and a body. packages cannot be called.returns n! BEGIN IF n = 1 THEN -.1).specification (visible part) -. you use the CREATE PACKAGE and CREATE PACKAGE BODY statements. variables. The specification is the interface to your applications. exceptions. Unlike subprograms. objects. parameterized. which you can execute interactively from SQL*PLUS : • • • • • CREATE PACKAGE name AS -. or nested. ELSE RETURN n * fac(n . Jayashree Page 54 of 69 .recursive call END IF. Packages usually have two parts.public type and object declarations -. END fac. cursors. Example : FUNCTION fac (n POSITIVE) RETURN INTEGER IS -. and so implements the specification. and subprograms.terminating condition RETURN 1. To create packages and store them permanently in an Oracle database. constants. although sometimes the body is unnecessary.subprogram specifications END [name]. and subprograms available for use. -.

which are hidden from your application. enhance. You can debug.initialization statements] END [name]. Jayashree Page 55 of 69 .private type and object declarations -. salary REAL). END emp_actions. Package Interface • The specification holds public declarations.subprogram bodies [BEGIN -. The body holds implementation details and private declarations.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY name AS -.specification TYPE EmpRecTyp IS RECORD(emp_id INTEGER. which are visible to your application. deptno NUMBER).body (hidden part) -. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER). or replace a package body without changing the interface (package specification) to the package body. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. mgr NUMBER. CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp. sal NUMBER. • Application Package Database Specificatio Body Example : Package CREATE PACKAGE emp_actions AS -. comm NUMBER. job VARCHAR2.

• Jayashree Page 56 of 69 .package_name. sal NUMBER. PROCEDURE hire_employee ( ename VARCHAR2. END hire_employee. PROCEDURE fire_employee (emp_id NUMBER) IS BEGIN DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = emp_id.object_name . sal FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC. deptno NUMBER) IS BEGIN INSERT INTO emp VALUES (empno_seq. END emp_actions. comm NUMBER.subprogram_name You can reference package contents from a database trigger.body CURSOR desc_salary RETURN EmpRecTyp IS SELECT empno. comm. job. sal. job VARCHAR2. ename.package_name. objects. as follows: . Referencing Package Contents • To reference the types. mgr NUMBER.type_name . a stored subprogram.NEXTVAL. you use dot notation.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE PACKAGE BODY emp_actions AS -.package_name. and subprograms declared within a package specification. END fire_employee. SYSDATE. or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus. mgr. deptno).

• • • Jayashree Page 57 of 69 . which are available automatically to every PL/SQL program. Package DBMS_OUTPUT : enables you to display output from PL/SQL blocks and subprograms.ABS(x) . The alerts are transaction based and asynchronous (that is. as follows: . you can still call the built-in function by using dot notation.Oracle PL/SQL Package STANDARD A package named STANDARD defines the PL/SQL environment. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. You display the information by calling the procedure get_line or by using the command SET SERVEROUTPUT ON in SQL*Plus. right VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. The put_line procedure outputs information to a buffer in the SGA. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left DATE. Package DBMS_ALERT : lets you use database triggers to alert an application when specific database values change. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER. The package specification globally declares types. which returns the absolute value of its argument: FUNCTION ABS (n NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER. STANDARD. Package DBMS_SQL : allows PL/SQL to execute SQL data definition and data manipulation statements dynamically at run time. ORACLE Product-specific Packages • Package DBMS_STANDARD : provides language facilities that help your application interact with Oracle. package STANDARD declares the following built-in function named ABS. exceptions. package STANDARD contains the following declarations: FUNCTION TO_CHAR (right DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2. That way.. If you redeclare ABS in a PL/SQL program.. and subprograms.. which makes it easier to test and debug them. Most built-in functions are overloaded. For example. you can report errors to an application and avoid returning unhandled exceptions. FUNCTION TO_CHAR (left NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. your local declaration overrides the global declaration. For example. they operate independently of any timing mechanism). For instance.. However. a procedure named raise_application_error lets you issue user-defined error messages.

Oracle PL/SQL

Package DBMS_PIPE: allows different sessions to communicate over named pipes. (A pipe is an area of memory used by one process to pass information to another.) You can use the procedures pack_message and send_message to pack a message into a pipe, then send it to another session in the same instance. At the other end of the pipe, you can use the procedures receive_message and unpack_message to receive and unpack (read) the message. Named pipes are useful in many ways. For example, you can write routines in C that allow external servers to collect information, then send it through pipes to procedures stored in an Oracle database.

Package UTL_FILE: allows your PL/SQL programs to read and write operating system (OS) text files. It provides a restricted version of standard OS stream file I/O, including open, put, get, and close operations. When you want to read or write a text file, you call the function fopen, which returns a file handle for use in subsequent procedure calls. For example, the procedure put_line writes a text string and line terminator to an open file. The procedure get_line reads a line of text from an open file into an output buffer.

Package UTL_HTTP: allows your PL/SQL programs to make hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) callouts. You can use it to retrieve data from the internet, or to call Oracle Web Server cartidges. The package has two entry points, each of which accepts a URL (universal resource locator) string, contacts the specified site, and returns the requested data, which is usually in hypertext markup language (HTML) format.

Advantages of Packages
Modularity : Packages let you encapsulate logically related types, objects, and subprograms in a named PL/SQL module. Each package is easy to understand, and the interfaces between packages are simple, clear, and well defined. Easier Application Design : When designing an application, you can code and compile a specification without its body. Once the specification has been compiled, stored subprograms that reference the package can be compiled as well. Information Hiding : With packages, you can specify which types, objects, and subprograms are public (visible and accessible) or private (hidden and inaccessible). For example, if a package contains four subprograms, three might be public and one private. The package hides the definition of the private subprogram so that only the package (not your application) is affected if the definition changes. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement. Also, by hiding implementation details from users, you protect the integrity of the package.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Added Functionality : Packaged public variables and cursors persist for the duration of a session. So, they can be shared by all subprograms that execute in the environment. Also, they allow you to maintain data across transactions without having to store it in the database. Better Performance : When you call a packaged subprogram for the first time, the whole package is loaded into memory. Therefore, subsequent calls to related subprograms in the package require no disk I/O.

Exercises
1. Create a function to return an employee’s bonus that is based on his salary and department to which he belongs. If he belongs to department 10 and is not a clerk or salesman, then he receives 4% bonus on his salary. If he belongs to department 10 and is a clerk or salesman, then he receives 5% bonus on his salary. All others receive 6% of salary as bonus. Test this function at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 2. Create a procedure that accepts an argument n, and determines the top n employees with respect to salary. The procedure should display the ename and sal of these employees, as well as record the results in a table called TOP_SAL. Call this procedure from a PL/SQL block, or test it at the SQL*PLUS prompt using the command EXECUTE. 3. Create a PL/SQL block that calls a recursive function fact to compute and display the factorials of !..n numbers. 4. Create procedures for the following (refer to the ITEMMAST table): a) Item issue updation b) Item receipt updation c) Adding a new item Execute these procedures with the EXECUTE command.

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Oracle PL/SQL

Database Triggers
Topics
• • • • • Introduction to Triggers Creating a Database Trigger Triggers Examples INSTEAD OF Triggers Trigger Execution

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provide sophisticated auditing .automatically generate derived column values . UPDATE.maintain synchronous table replicates . For example..provide transparent event logging .enforce complex security authorizations ..column]…}].enforce referential integrity across nodes in a distributed database .Oracle PL/SQL Introduction to Triggers • A database trigger is a stored PL/SQL procedure that is associated with a table. and that is implicitly executed when an INSERT. Triggers can supplement the standard capabilities of Oracle to provide a highly customized database management system.enforce complex business rules . Other uses for triggers are to: . column]…} [OR {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [.prevent invalid transactions .gather statistics on table access • • Creating a Database Trigger CREATE [OR REPLACE] TRIGGER trigger-name [BEFORE | AFTER] {DELETE|INSERT|UPDATE [OF column [. Oracle automatically executes a trigger when a specified SQL statement is issued against the table. A trigger could also restrict DML operations to occur only at certain times during weekdays. a trigger can restrict DML operations against a table to those issued during regular business hours. or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. ON table [REFERENCING {OLD [AS] old | NEW [AS] new}] [FOR EACH ROW] [WHEN (condition)] PL/SQL Block Jayashree Page 61 of 69 .

If your row trigger is associated with a table named OLD or NEW. WHEN : specifies the trigger restriction. REFERENCING : specifies correlation names. UPDATE .The definition of the triggering statement specifies what SQL statements cause Oracle to fire the trigger. you can use this clause to specify different correlation names to avoid confusion between the table name and the correlation name. after executing the triggering statement AFTER Option Jayashree Page 62 of 69 .Oracle PL/SQL Parts of a Trigger • Triggering statement : DELETE. INSERT. The trigger restriction contains a SQL condition that must be satisfied for Oracle to fire the trigger. You can specify this condition with the WHEN clause. Trigger action : The trigger action specifies the PL/SQL block Oracle executes to fire the trigger. If this condition is satisfied. before executing the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger only once. You must also specify the table with which the trigger is associated. The triggering statement is one that modifies this table. then Oracle fires the trigger using the trigger action. updates or deletes With FOR EACH ROW option ORACLE fires the trigger before modifying each row affected by the triggering statement ORACLE fires the trigger after modifying each row affected by the triggering statement BEFORE Option ORACLE fires the trigger only once. You can use correlation names in the PL/SQL block and WHEN clause of a row trigger to refer specifically to old and new values of the current row. Trigger restriction : The trigger restriction specifies an additional condition that must be satisfied for a row trigger to be fired. Types of Triggers Row-Level Triggers Statement-Level Triggers BEFORE and AFTER Triggers execute once for each row in a transaction execute once for each transaction executed immediately before or after inserts. • • Oracle evaluates the condition of the trigger restriction whenever a triggering statement is issued. The default correlation names are OLD and NEW.

empno). details regarding the user. END IF.Oracle PL/SQL Triggers Examples 1. To create a trigger for emp table to check the salary range. max_sal FROM sal_guide INTO minsal.sal < minsal OR :new. 'Salary ' || :new. NUMBER. while inserting a value for sal column or updating the sal column of an existing employee : CREATE TRIGGER salary_check BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF sal.sal > maxsal) THEN raise_application_error( -20601. maxsal WHERE job = :new. BEGIN /* Get the minimum and maximum salaries for the employee's job from the SAL_GUIDE table.ename ). Whenever there is a deletion of row(s) from the emp table. and the empno of the row deleted should be logged into another table del_history.job <> 'PRESIDENT') DECLARE minsal maxsal NUMBER.sal || ' out of range for job ' || :new. job ON emp FOR EACH ROW WHEN (new. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER del_check AFTER DELETE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN INSERT INTO del_history VALUES (USER. END. 2.job.job || ' for employee ' || :new. /* If the employee's salary is out of range */ /* then generate an error */ IF(:new. :old. END. */ SELECT min_sal. Jayashree Page 63 of 69 .

Finally the statistical information is saved in the table STAT_TAB by the AFTER statement trigger. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE stat IS rowcnt INTEGER. END. 4. A global session variable. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Ensure that the names of employees in the emp table are always in upper case. is initialized to zero by a BEFORE statement trigger.ename). END IF.ename := UPPER(:new.Oracle PL/SQL 3. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER opn_check AFTER INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF INSERTING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘INSERT’. or INSERT) on table SAL. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. ’HH:MI:SS’)).ROWCNT. Jayashree Page 64 of 69 . ELSIF UPDATING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘UPDATE’. rowcnt INTEGER. END. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. Then it is increased each time the row trigger is executed. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER upcase BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF ename ON EMP FOR EACH ROW BEGIN :new. SAL. Record all the types of operations done on the emp table along with the time. Suppose you have a table. END. DELETE. uhour INTEGER). 5. UPDATE. ’HH:MI:SS’)). ELSIF DELETING THEN INSERT INTO opn_history VALUES (‘DELETE’. The example below contains a sample package and trigger that tracks this information by hour and type of action (for example. and you want to know when the table is being accessed and the types of queries being issued. STAT. DROP TABLE stat_tab. CREATE TABLE stat_tab(utype CHAR(8). ’HH:MI:SS’)).

END.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.rowcnt := stat. hour := TRUNC((SYSDATE . END IF. UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat.TRUNC(SYSDATE)) * 24). END.rowcnt. BEGIN IF updating THEN typ := 'update'. hour). IF deleting THEN typ := 'delete'. END IF. Jayashree Page 65 of 69 . END IF.rowcnt := 0. hour NUMBER. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT = 0 THEN INSERT INTO stat_tab VALUES (typ. stat. EXCEPTION WHEN dup_val_on_index THEN UPDATE stat_tab SET rowcnt = rowcnt + stat. CREATE TRIGGER at AFTER UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal DECLARE typ CHAR(8).rowcnt + 1. IF inserting THEN typ := 'insert'. CREATE TRIGGER rt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal FOR EACH ROW BEGIN stat. END. END IF.rowcnt WHERE utype = typ AND uhour = hour.Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER bt BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE OR INSERT ON sal BEGIN stat.

p. Object views present additional problems. An INSTEAD OF trigger can be used on object views as well as relational views that are not otherwise modifiable. unlike other types of triggers.deptno.name. or delete operations directly on the underlying tables. • Updating a column in a view that involves joins might change the semantics of other columns that are not projected by the view. This inevitably involves joins. • Deleting a row in a view could either mean deleting it from the base table or updating some column values so that it will no longer be selected by the view. but modifying joins is inherently ambiguous.level.projno FROM emp e. dept d. • Inserting a row in a view could either mean inserting a new row into the base table or updating an existing row so that it will be projected by the view.dept_type. UPDATE.Oracle PL/SQL INSTEAD OF Triggers • INSTEAD OF triggers provide a transparent way of modifying views that cannot be modified directly through SQL DML statements (INSERT. • Modifying Views Modifying views has inherent problems of ambiguity. and UPDATE statements against the view and the INSTEAD OF trigger works invisibly in the background to make the right actions take place.empno. By default. CREATE VIEW manager_info AS SELECT e.empno = d.deptno = p. Oracle fires the trigger instead of executing the triggering statement. These triggers are called INSTEAD OF triggers because. d. insert.resp_dept. and DELETE). e. As a result of these ambiguities. project p WHERE e. p. Jayashree Page 66 of 69 . there are many restrictions on which views are modifiable.mgr_no AND d. INSTEAD OF triggers are activated for each row. a key use of object views is to represent master/detail relationships. Users write normal INSERT. DELETE. d. The trigger performs update. Example of an INSTEAD OF Trigger The following example shows an INSTEAD OF trigger for inserting rows into the MANAGER_INFO view. For example.

level = :n.deptno THEN INSERT INTO dept VALUES(:n. ELSE UPDATE dept SET dept.name).dept_type).empno = :n. END IF.empno THEN INSERT INTO emp VALUES(:n.name WHERE emp.deptno = :n.empno.deptno = :n. Jayashree Page 67 of 69 .deptno.dept_type WHERE dept.projno = :n.empno = :n. END. :n.new manager information FOR EACH ROW BEGIN IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM emp WHERE emp.projno.projno = :n. :n. ELSE UPDATE project SET project.project_level).Oracle PL/SQL CREATE TRIGGER manager_info_insert INSTEAD OF INSERT ON manager_info REFERENCING NEW AS n -.empno. END IF. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM dept WHERE dept.projno. ELSE UPDATE emp SET emp.projno THEN INSERT INTO project VALUES(:n. :n.dept_type = :n. IF NOT EXISTS SELECT * FROM project WHERE project.name = :n.deptno.level WHERE project. END IF.

Oracle automatically • executes triggers of each type in a planned firing sequence when more than one trigger is fired by a single SQL statement • performs integrity constraint checking at a set point in time with respect to the different types of triggers and guarantees that triggers cannot compromise integrity constraints • provides read-consistent views for queries and constraints • manages the dependencies among triggers and objects referenced in the code of the trigger action • uses two-phase commit if a trigger updates remote tables in a distributed database • fires multiple triggers in an unspecified order.Oracle PL/SQL Trigger Execution A trigger can be in either of two distinct modes: enabled An enabled trigger executes its trigger action if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) evaluates to TRUE. disabled A disabled trigger does not execute its trigger action. if more than one trigger of the same type exists for a given statement Jayashree Page 68 of 69 . For enabled triggers. even if a triggering statement is issued and the trigger restriction (if any) would evaluate to TRUE.

that selects empno. 30. ‘OPERATIONS’). 5. Create a trigger to change the deptno in the EMP table whenever changes occur in the DEPT table. as newcomm = oldcomm * (newsal / oldsal).Oracle PL/SQL Exercises 1. which will allow you to execute the following commands successfully: INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (4. 2. Jayashree Page 69 of 69 . 30. b) Store the necessary details in a table called RE_ORD. and dname columns. Prevent users from modifying the EMP table at times other than between 8:30 am and 6:00 pm on week days. in case the QOH goes below ROL for that item. deptno. If the receipt is more than the ROQ value. 50. ‘SUPPORT’). Write an INSTEAD OF trigger for insert. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (7. then the trigger should fire for a confirmation. INSERT INTO emp_dept VALUES (6. Create a trigger to make sure that the increase in salary for employees in the EMP table is only 10% of the previous salary. Write a database trigger to automatically update the commission of employees in the EMP table who are salesmen. 3. Create database triggers to (refer to the ITEMMAST table) : a) Check the QOH column value before any issue is made. 6. ‘SUPPORT’). 4. Consider the two tables: EMP EMPNO DEPTNO 1 10 2 10 3 30 4 20 5 20 DEPT DEPTNO 10 20 30 40 DNAME SALES RESEARCH OPERATIONS PRODUCTION Create a view emp_dept on these two tables. c) Check the ROQ value in case of receipt of an item.

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