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A comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation in North American, European and Indian cities
Smardon, Richard. Management of Environmental Quality 19.1 (2008): 118-137.
The purpose of this paper is the comparison of Local Agenda 21 - sustainability plan implementation and research activity between Europe, North America and India. Intensive literature and web search for European, North American and Indian Local Agenda 21 sustainability planning and implementation status. Close to 6,000 sustainability plans have been prepared for European communities versus about 100 for North American communities. A total of 20 Indian cities have started sustainability planning efforts. There is an extensive support network for European communities and much less so for North American and Indian communities. Most sustainability/biodiversity/urban ecosystems research is ongoing in Europe and North America and there is a beginning surge of activity in India. Knowledge of Local Agenda 21 implementation status between these three regions can hopefully spur more activity in North America and India. Comparisons of applicable planning innovations and approaches could be useful. There has not been a comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation that compares Europe, North America and India. There have been some reviews respective to each region.
Urban ecosystems overview: definitions and principles Before there was sustainability planning, an earlier field of research was urban ecosystems research. The early work of the US Forest Service ( Santamour et al., 1976; Heisler and Herrington, 1977) and US Fish and Wildlife researchers in the 1970s was mostly focused on urban vegetation and urban wildlife. Active schools at this time were SUNY Syracuse ( Hopkins, 1980;  Miller, 1973) and University of Mass, Amherst ( Noyes and Progulske, 1973;  Little and Noyes, 1970). Later in the 1980s the emphasis shifted to more systems perspective as expressed by  Hough (1984) and  Douglas (1983). John T.  Lyle (1993) expresses this same systems perspective in his book Urban Ecosystems: Cities of the Futureand Anne  Spirn (1984) in her book The Granite Garden, embraces the ecology of the urban landscape and people - rather than set themselves apart. Also see Penny Firth (2002) Cities as Urban Ecosystemsfrom the Environmental Literacy Council (from Baltimore LTER Project) which also is a systems perspective treatment, as well as Paul  Gobster's (2003) Human Dimensions of the Urban Ecosystem.  Smardon (1988) also has reviewed the role of urban vegetation in cities from cultural and aesthetic perspectives. Historical antecedents to the environmental systems perspective include: Jay Forester: Urban Dynamics: interactive systems which has an inclusive treatment of both physical and
humans as species dominating earth's ecosystems. There is also a need of integration mechanisms for incorporating socio-economic drives into natural drivers within urban systems via Jay Forester or Howard Odum. . and understanding such processes provides utility to problem solving.cultural values and institutions.g. before 1980.power hierarchies. .information flow. . From the above cited work. Short history of the sustainable cities movement Environmental consciousness began to increase after the first United Nations (UN) Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. spatial distribution of resources (abiotic) or population (biotic). Demographic growth trends with attendant impact or humans are thought of as confounding variables. which are: primary production (energy by plants form photosynthesis). populations (growth and decline).land use and management.socio-economic systems. all derive from the general systems theory. . e. diversity studies conducted in urban areas needs to accept human presence as part of the model. . organic matter (raw food).demographic patterns. and whole system metabolism (energy flow). .designed or built environment.2000). The ecology of urban ecosystems can be thought of from a systems perspective as: ecological effects of land use change. Socioeconomic drives which in turn affect the previous biophysical processes include: . Urban environmental agendasthat evolved from this conference were named the "Brown Agenda" ( Serageldin. The problem. of applying natural systems ecological models to urban peopled systems is a radical idea.economic system.L. . and Howard Odum work on energetics and ecological theory. These forces exert influence on five major patterns/processes.one can move to sustainability as a concept and its evolution. model of ecology must include human impact. Meyers: work on cities as information systems. it can be seen that urban ecology has four perspectives: human activity concentrated in an urban cluster. nutrients (available food). one needs a set of research protocols for three biophysical forces/drives. and flow of information (See  Decker et al. which are: flow of energy. As urban ecologists. Richard N. cycling of matter. disturbance (human and natural). From this theoretical work .
developed the concept of "Sustainable cities". building capacities in urban environmental planning and management.cities are important engines of economic growth. the program applies more than 95 percent of its resources in the first five years. It further accepts that environmental degradation threatens: . The Rio conference developed the Green Agendaof deforestation.cities absorb two-thirds of the population growth in developing countries. and . The primary focus of SCP is at the city level where. global warming. building capacities in urban environment. and . . . in which there is some national. leading to setting a number of international directions in making cities sustainable. are very important in this regard.cities offer significant economies of scale in provision of jobs. At the moment the SCP is a locally focused program.1995) by the international development agencies such as the World Bank.agree on joint strategies and coordinate action plans. . biodiversity and pollution. regional and global support for activities and programs at the city level.productivity in the urban economy in provision of goods and services. housing and service. .to clarify environmental issues.cities are important centers of productivity and social enhancement. regional and global levels. The Sustainable Cities Program (SCP) is a joint UNCHS/UNEP program. . which work in a coordinated fashion. The second UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and subsequent UN Habitat II Conference held in Istanbul in 1996. SCP provides a framework of linking local actions and innovations to activities at the national.cities make an important contribution to social and economic development at national and local levels. Global networks such as the UN programs and the International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). and . . The SCP is based on a development paradigm that: . which are undergoing tremendous rates of growth.economic efficiency in the use of scarce resources. and promoting a board-based participatory process. . The SCP brings together all the stakeholders whose cooperation is required: . From this general history of urban sustainability planning . . resource depletion.social equity in the distribution of development benefits and costs. The Sustainable cities concept merged the Brown and Green agendasand attempts to implement Agenda 21in an urban context thus launching the Sustainable Cities Program (SCP). It argues that full realization of cities potential contribution to development are often obstructed by severe environmental degradation in and around rapidly growing environmental centers.institutionalize continuing environmental planning and management.one can now examine such planning in Asia with specific reference to Indian cities.implement technical support and capitol investment. It works toward the development of a sustainable urban environment.sustainability of hard won development achievements.
An in-depth treatment of these policies and reforms is presented by ( Mahadevia.org/progammes/uef/ . one should note that Asian cities and especially mega cities have much higher population densities ( Sorensen et al. and the local level that covers. and urban governance which includes institutions of decision making and finance. pp. and green space protection and function. International programs International programs for biodiversity within Urban areas can divided into about three areas.html . poverty alleviation. 2004).Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) a worldwide action agendafor reduction of greenhouse gases and energy conservation at www..Urban policies in India address two levels of policy making: the regional level which deals with urbanization and industrial location policies.html .org. 2003. those programs: focused on making cities more sustainable under Agenda 21. Urban sustainability programs under the aegis of agenda 21include: . North American and Indian cities.unesco.A global coalition of cities and international support programs working on the urban environment at www.Caretakers of the Environment International .icac.International Institute for the Urban Environment.ca/index. 2003) including pre-economic reforms and post-economic reforms.A global network of secondary school teachers and students active in environmental education at www.bestpractices.Best practices database in UN-Habitat at www.boker. For a review of India's national policies on sustainability and biodiversity conservation the reader should refer to the  United Nations (2002) Country Profile of India The author's purpose is merely to present the current scorecard of Agenda 21Chapter 28 implementation of sustainable city programs in Europe.International Center for Sustainable Cities promotes sustainability in cities around the world through practical demonstration projects using Canadian expertise and technology at www. urban land use planning.each region illustrates the interaction of international and national agencies as well as NGOs in support of such activities. North America and India in comparative fashion. assessing urban biodiversity and urban biosphere reserves. housing including slums.org/mab/urban/ This program includes at least 40 cities worldwide. 22-66).Urban Environmental Forum . By showing what has been done with such implementation . which will be outlined.unchs. which is a proposal to establish a network on MILU: Multifunctional Intensive Land Use in Cities in Europe 2004-2007 at www.iclei. .caretakers.urban. As we compare and contrast European.The UN Habitat Human Settlements Program the Sustainable Cities Program at www. The post-independence period in India is divided into two periods for understanding the major thrusts in urban policies over time ( Mahadevia.UN Human Settlements Program .org . This one factor presents unique challenges to sustainability planning implementation.nl/ .org/ccp/ This program includes some 500 cities worldwide. .
habitat) as well as for food and fiber production: . tourism and recreation) include: .org/mab/urban/urbangroup. maintaining or restoring urban green space for the functions that they provide (air quality. greenbelt biosphere reserve around the city.unesco.Cordillera Volconica Central Biosphere reserve near San Jose Costa Rica. or should be. mixture of (1) and (2) above.The Virtual Library. There are two ongoing urban study groups: the New York Urban Biosphere Group and the South Africa. The Urban working group may look at the following scenarios for urban biosphere Reserves (See  UNESCO-MAB.gdrc. Examine if there is. . .ruaf.htm for further information. Explore alternative ways and means of recognizing selected cities. 2004): city as biosphere reserve.org/ruaf_inf_fr. The MAB Urban group was created to stimulate discussion and information concerning the contribution of the Biosphere Reserve concept to sustainable development. a place for urban areas and cities in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. including in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity with its focus on the ecosystem approach.Alto Manzanaris Biosphere Reserve near Madrid. Cape Town group at www. on the development of an agendafor possible MAB activities.La Ciuda Necesita Espcios Verdes con Mayor Biodiversidad Autotona . Urban Environmental Management .Cerrado Biosphere Reserve around Brasilia.. . There also is the MAB Program . See the paper  UNESCOMAB (1998) Application of Biosphere Reserve Concepts to Urban Areas and their hinterlands and www.Green belts around Rio de Janeiro and San Palo.org/themes/biodiversity This program sets general assessment standards under the Convention on Biodiversity.columbia.unep.edu/cubes/groups/urbanbio/ Urban greenspace assessment The programs below stress protecting.html . watershed protection. There are four purposes or aims of this group: Identify contributions that the biosphere reserve concept have made or could make to urban planning and management. as sites that exemplifies the Biosphere Reserve model. or parts thereof. International Biodiversity and Biosphere Reserve Programs There exists the UNEP Activities in Biodiversity and Global Biodiversity Assessment at www.the necessity of Urban Greenspace and Biodiversity at www.500 localities.Projects.. Stimulate a discussion within MAB and with relevant partner institutions and organizations.org/uem/ .The WHO Healthy Cites Program includes some 1.earthinstitute. 1998 and  Alfonsen-Norodom et al.Biosphere Reserves and urban issues. Examples of biosphere reserves outside cities providing functions and benefits for urban areas (watershed protection. features and themes addressing urban environmental management at www.
11 Projects) is to provide insights on how ecological research can contribute to improving urban and regional planning and thus to help to counter the sectoral and fragmented approach that has tended to dominate urban planning in the past". This is a consensus declaration (Part 1).. . The programming of the implementation of the Plan including the preparation of a timetable and statement of allocation of responsibilities. the European Sustainable Cities and Towns campaign (Part II) and engaging in Local Agenda 21Processes toward local action plans (Part III). According to Francesco  Di Castro (1984).RUAF . with its emphasis on understanding the interactions within and between systems and long-term perspectives rather than short-term expediency".org/europe/ECHARTER Part III processes is that part that includes the following specific steps: Recognition of the existing planning and financial frameworks as well as other plans and programs.FAO's urban and periurban agriculture on the policy agenda. Another more recent development is the Aalborg Charter. ..htm European urban ecosystem and biodiversity programs Within Europe there are several notable programs that address urban ecosystems and biodiversity. Establishment of a long-term local action plan towards sustainability which involves measurable targets. Consideration and assessment of alternative strategic options.html .org/ruaf_inf_fr.in 1978 a group of social and environmental psychologists worked on the "human dimension" or "environmental perception aspects "A good overview of the history of the Rome Project can be seen in the paper by Bonnes (2000).fao. The systematic identification.11 Projects on Urban Ecosystems.ruaf.fao. approaching environmental problems by "testing the ecological approach'.Resource Center on Urban Agriculture and Forestry is a global resource center initiated by the international support group on urban agriculture funded by DGIS (Netherlands) and IDRC (Canada) at www.iclei.FAO's Trees for the Urban Millennium: Urban Forestry Update at www.org/urbanag). See www. by means of extensive public consultation. Although the initial work of the project focused on plant ecology . i. The MAB-ROME project was begun in the 1970s as part of the MABn. Creation of a vision for sustainable community through a participation process involving all sectors of the community. "the general aim (of the MABn. .e. of problems and their causes.org/docrep/x3989e/x3989e09. The establishment of systems and procedures for monitoring and reporting on implementation of the plan. 1994). (see paper by  Nilsson and Randrop (1997)) "Urban and periurban forestry" at www.. which is the Charter of European Cities and Towns Toward Sustainability ( ICLEI. The prioritization of tasks to address identified problems.
292 local authorities from 36 countries in Europe have Agenda 21action plans and a good percentage of these have biodiversity assessment components. publications and SURBAN database on urban development at www. .int/comm/environment/urban/htm . connectivity).iclei.both species diversity and habitat(indicators: diversity of breeding birds and vascular plants.eu. Sustainable Transportation plus Water Campaigns. . Chapter 28 of Agenda 21articulates the process by which sustainable development plans must be developed and implemented.Local Agenda 21from UNCED 1992 is a locally tailored program for sustainable development. carbid beetles. . campaigns and programs.the Dubois Assessment 37 Urban Stress and Environment in EU at the Turn of the century at www.fragmentation of urban green (indicators: size. Some 5. butterflies and biotypes).rec. training and exchange and European Secretariat at www.de .European Academy of the Urban Environment including conferences.naturalsciences. On site scale: . shape. workshops.htm An example of support systems for sustainability planning in Europe include the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe at www. URGE has two levels: whole city scale and urban green areas.European Environment Agency including Europe's Environment .biodiversity . The European Union-funded project is developing an integration toolkit of criteria and indicators to be used by urban planners to assess ecological.eaue.org/reports.The European Commission including the DG Environment page on Urban Issues at http://europa. vascular plants. seminars.fragmentation (can be used for single site as well).ceral. As an example of Greenspace planning in Europe there is URGE .urgeproject.Development of Urban Green Spaces to Improve the Quality of Life in Cities and Urban Regions. Chapter 28 does not specify what local plans should include. Development of local plans should address local needs and concerns through education and mobilization of local citizens.European program includes news and information.naturalness (indicator: degree of disturbance/wear. Whole city scale indicators include: . isolation.level of nature protection (indicator: preparation for protected urban green).biodiversity -species diversity (indicators: diversity of birds. local government associations. .ICLEI (International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives) .be/belgium/links/themes/urban .Urban areas which contains State of Environment . Other regional European programs include: . exotica and rare species) at www. biotype diversity).Cities Environment Reports on the Internet/Urban Environment Info Gateway at www. but is process oriented.net .bcdcold.org/europe This includes the Local Agenda 21campaign plus Cities for Climate Protection. social and economic sustainability of urban green areas.org/REC/Programs/ and the UNEP-European Regional Portal .
North American urban ecosystems and biodiversity programs In North America (Canada and USA) there is a much different texture in terms of biodiversity research and implementation. Millbrook. Housing and Urban Development.A. 2001). which is a partnership of 15 non-profit organizations.gov/servlet/showard?awards=9714835 Other links to this project include: . and Devon are very good examples of locally-based action plans (also see  European Commission. Department of Transportation. Department of Energy. A Smart Growth Network.nsf.com/lessons. Department of Agriculture and National Oceanographic Administration to support these activities. capitol and population in urban systems. policy/strategy documents and data sets and can be seen at http://europe. In North America there are 101 local authorities in two countries that have Agenda 21like plans but only a few have biodiversity themes or components. The Sustainable Communities network was established in 1993. Urban LTER: Human Settlement as Ecosystems: Metropolitan Baltimore from 1997-2001.How can people develop and use an understanding of the metropolis as an ecological system to improve their understanding? Source: www. Arizona. In Canada . There was a Gore-Clinton Livable Communities Initiative in 1999 but the Bush Administration eclipsed this.fastlane. Stewart T.php?struct_id=urbarea Some of the European Urban Biodiversity action plans. a partnership of government. states and cities are supporting LA21 activities. especially Brussels ( Gosiun.sceincenetslinks. Dozens of Non-governmental organizations. The NSF official abstracts are presented below. 1990).unep.www. In the USA there is urban ecosystems research movement but little implementation of Biodiversity plans. Primary investigator.reports. Initially there were two major sites: Baltimore metropolitan area and Phoenix. business and civic organizations. NY.net/index. and how they change over time? .there is less research but more implementation of wildlife habitat protection programs and green space programs in larger cities. In the USA there is a major urban ecosystems research program called Urban LTER (Long Term Ecological Research Program) which is funded by the National Science Program.What are the fluxes of energy. ecological and physical factors in an urban area relate to one another and how do they change over time? .How do the spatial structure of socio-economic. matter. Then there is the joint Center for Sustainable Communities established in 1996 and sponsored by several US Federal agencies such as US Environmental Protection Agency. Picketts. was established in 1996. The President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was charged with developing and recommending a national sustainable development strategy in 1993 but disbanded in 1999. Institute of Ecosystem Studies. Moscow.cfm?DocID=276 . Objectives for the project included: .
Stuart Fisher. Center for Urban Ecology (CUE) in Washington. such as ravines.org/frame5-page_2f. .edu The Ecological Cities Project is a quasi-independent program of research and outreach at the department of Geosciences and the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Massachusetts. Amherst. Jiange Luv.. Source: www.beslter. .Native biodiversity in a city can be enhanced if the biologically rich areas.involve K-12 students in the enterprise of scientific discovery.enviroliteacy.nsf. sectors and urban regions regarding new approaches to urban green space creation and management.html The second LTER Project is Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER. Source: www. land use and biodiversity at the scale of regional ecosystems.ecostudies.umass.org/cary8/cc8book_toc.enhance understandability of the ecology of cities.generate and test general ecological theory in an urban assessment. water. Emory.gov/seulet/showawd?award=14833 Similar research projects can be found in both Canada and the USA.cure.ca/eman/reports/publications/biodiv-sci-assess/biodiversity/ Other projects in North America include: Sustainable Forest Management Research Group at the University of British Columbia has a research theme on Urban Ecology within forested parks in Vancouver.edu/ecologicalcities and  Platt (1994). Source: www. Recommendations include: .gov/cue/cuento Center for Urban and Regional Ecology (CURE) is a multi-university and multidisciplinary program to explore and promote options in sustainable human health and prosperity while improving air.org/article.php/530.identify feedback between ecological and socio-economic factors.html . are linked to each other and to wild habitats outside. 2001) at www.gatech..eman-rese.www. This group includes University of Georgia.nps. and Morehouse at www. . British Columbia.fastlane. and . Charles Redman and Alfredo de los Santo of Arizona State University. Effects of urbanization on biodiversity in Canada from Biodiversity in Canada: A Science Assessment for Environment Canada. . Investigators: Nancy Grim. .html There is also a new book based on this LTER project entitled Understanding Urban Ecosystems: A New Frontier for Science and Education( Berkowitz et al. DC has a team of multidisciplinary scientists dedicated to developing a better understanding of the ecology of landscapes influenced by human activities with the National Park Service.www.Need to determine the exposure to urban biodiversity on the attitudes of citizens and decision-makers. See www.Need Information on the effect of increased human diversity and cultural diversity on nature diversity within urban areas. Objectives of the project include: . Georgia State. This project seeks to promote sharing of knowledge and experience among disciplines.
Evergreen registered national charity in Canada has a mandate to bring nature to cities through naturalization projects.gov/maia/html/urban. See www.dourbanbiodiversity. land coverage and bird diversity.ca/cn/about/about. Source: http://acscp. See www. Source: www. its purpose is to increase the ecological value and biodiversity of urban wildlife habitats ands green spaces in the lower mainland .urbaneco.Impact of urban patterns on ecosystem dynamics through physical changes on an urban to rural gradient.gov/ecoregion/urban/urbanforests/index.urban green space.modeling the interactions among urban development.nbii. See www. Sustainability and Food Security programs include: .Cities Feeding People Program IDRC.connecting or linking fragmented urban habitats.NSF Biocomplexity Program .nbii. nutritious and culturally acceptable food that is procured by socially acceptable means. The following includes a few examples of each.htm . .edu/-niep/ Urban Greenspace Program examples include: .sustainability and food production.gov Actual biodiversity-related implementation support programs include: . .epa.New Jersey Urban Ecology Program at Rutgers. and .washington.Analysis of the behavior of landscape metrics along urban to rural gradients (see www. Trying to bridge the gap in supporting research and development activities that increase the food security and incomes of the poor while maintaining public health and a clean urban environment.evergreen.bcdcbd/naturalsciences.bc. This node includes US Geological Survey and Virginia Technological and State University plus others.rutgers. See http://cswgcin.douglas. Urban Eco the Urban Ecology Research Laboratory at the University of Washington Seattle has three ongoing projects: .Greenlinks Project: Restoring Habitat at Douglas College.edu/biocomplexity. .htm The US Environmental Protection Agency is also linked to the Baltimore LTER at EPA region 3 and has a green communities program at www. Canada.be/belgium/links/urban .htm) The US Forest Service Urban Forestry Research program is involved with the Baltimore LTER and the Houston Texas Urban Forestry Study which is the largest in the USA.hmtl The Metropolitan DC Urban Biodiversity Mode provides tools and makes them available to decision-makers and stakeholders in the Washington DC Region.The Urban Ecology Institute at Boston College studies the merging field of urban ecology to help residents understand natural resources in their communities in the Boston metro area.htm .ca/ine/restoring/connections. To ensure that all New Jersey communities are food secure and that residents should have access to safe.urban wildlife programs.
1995.org.railstrails. 1993): www. For the USA the current wave is "Smart growth" and in Canada the catchword is sustainability. waterways. Many of these projects are documented in the river restoration news at www. 1998).audubon.chicagowilderness. There is also a Biodiversity Recovery Plan for this program. especially in the UK and mainland Europe.000 acres of protected natural lands in the metro Chicago region.lta.org) Other such organizations include: America Trails (see  Ryan. Treebranch Network in New York City www. It should be noted that there are European examples as well. which focuses on urban stream sediment remediation (Deason.openlands.htm Probably the most noted river restoration projects in the USA are the San Antonio River In San Antonio Texas followed by The South Platte River in downtown Denver. aesthetics and recreation benefits. See www.Chicago Wilderness is a regional nature preserve that includes more than 20. Wild in the Citypublication emphasizes ecological linkages among natural areas and offers 100 sites guide with detailed maps to natural spaces.Open Lands Project: Urban Greening supports community and school based greening with the City of Chicago with programs such as Neighborhood open space planning. parks.treebranch..demon. which is very detailed and is accessible at www. For North America Agenda 21does not have the same currency. which is a national support for hundreds of land trusts throughout the USA (see www.americatrails.  Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group. trails. which then can be subsumed into Greenways. tree keepers and teaching for school gardens. At www..Audubon Society of Portland Oregon.uk/rrc/rrc. For Canada and USA there is strong interest in both multiple purpose urban greenway. which are actually acquiring pieces of real estate.org The second area of activity is urban river restoration work in Canada and USA. There are many NGO groups who support this movement and examples can found in  Meier (2002) and  Riley (1998). What is critical in the states as well as Canada is the growth of private land trusts. Other major factors affecting urban river restoration are flood damage reduction and riverine ecology restoration ( Smardon et al.org/ . private acquisition of open space and ecosystem restoration. There is a recent Urban River Restoration initiative sponsored by US EPA. air and water quality maintenance. A book by  Fabos and Ahern (1996) assesses the international greenway development. An excellent support network is the Land Trust Alliance.htm .org/ More urban ecosystem conservation and biodiversity related programs.com and Rails-to-Trails Conservancy www. golf courses and cemeteries. 2001).quest. Greenways are very popular for connecting opens pace and habitat.portland.co. 2001) and citizen activated planning ( Riley. . For Europe Agenda 21and the Aalborg Charter provide promising means of incorporation of both participatory processes and pragmatic biodiversity assessment and action plans. As we look to more pragmatic means of incorporating biodiversity within Urbanizing areas in both Europe and North America there may be some axioms that approach principles or trends of activity. multimodal recreation (bicycle and pedestrian).org/index.
Some cities have received UN-Habitat best practice Awards and three belong to the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA). This effort resulted in the preparation of the 1997 Environmental Profile (of Chennai) based on city level consultation. The first city in India to join the UN habitat/UNEP SCP was Madras (now Chennai) in 1995. Udaipur. Gwalior. Hyderabad. 2006). 2001). while the Master Plan 2011 was being designed. For example the construction of flyovers and widening of roads are expected to ease congestion and reduce air pollution. only Chennai and Hyderabad have carried out EPM exercises. Bhubaneswar. Indian Cities joining phase II of the Climate Protection Campaign include Agra. other cities joined the Urban Environmental Forum (UEF mentioned earlier) set up as the primary partner.  Singh. According to the  ICLEI (1997) Local Agenda 21Survey and Spiros (2006) there are 20 Indian Cities that are actively engaged in some form for Agenda 21Implementation.initial cities to join ICLEI's Cites for Climate Protection Program (CCP) include Calcutta. understand and analyze environmental issues. All these efforts. and integrate them into sectoral programs.one can shift to the Indian experience. Ludhiana. according to  Mahadevia (2004) are initiatives of city governments as there is no national program in terms of written policy. Coimbatore and Guwahati ( ICLEI. In Hyderabad City. however. but of the 23 metropolises. Two SCP's in India have concluded that more funds should be sought for city-level infrastructure. Bengaluru. Shimla. While Chennai was the only Indian partner for SCP activities. Baroda. an Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) exercise was carried out to identify urban environmental issues for incorporation into the Plan. and the framing of Madras Vision 2000. . which is detailed in the following sections. According to back issues of ICLEI's Cities for Climate Protection Monitor India . and to improve the ability of individuals and organizations to identify. Water supply and sanitation infrastructure are designed to reduce air pollution. only large cities have been able to prove that they are credit worthy. Jabalpur and Hyderabad ( ICLEI. The resulting consensus for improving the infrastructural situation was produced in collaboration with the World Bank. Dehradun. Madural. 2006. Delhi and Kolkatta have been directly connected with the Sustainable Cities Program (SCP). The Plan proposed the spread of urbanization throughout the state by decentralizing economic development of small ports and improvement in the financial position of local bodies was proposed. The program aims to promote local initiatives for environmental management. Sangli. 2004) Infrastructure projects in Indian cities Infrastructure development is considered to be crucial to improving urban environmental conditions ( Gupta. 2003.  Shah. Sustainability and biodiversity programs in India The cities of Chennai. These projects are usually funded by international loans.From the European and North American sustainability planning activity . to be funded via an Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation. and so they have been made recipients of these loans.
Calcutta. 2001. the World Bank donated Rs. Most of these projects include documenting current levels of green house gas production and energy consumption from buildings. Legal initiatives Numerous Public Interest Litigation (PIL) have been filed by individual citizens or citizen groups seeking legal remedies for industrial pollution ( Mahadevia. 1995). The estimated cost of the entire project is $125 million and its benefits will accrue only to these cities ( Mahadevia. ordered by the Supreme Court. . is a landmark judgment in response to a PIL ( Shrivastava. According to  Mahadevia (2004) such initiatives are rare. NGOs and private agencies in this regard. There are five HCP pilot projects in the mega cities of Mumbai. The local association also runs a composting operation and produces crops adjacent to the wetlands sewage treatment system (see . In Pune the local government has encouraged housing colonies to decompose their organic waste and in Rajkat the city government is efficiently collecting solid waste ( HSMI/WMC. In Kolkatta. 1996). 2004). 1996). 1990. 38 million to modernize SWM. All these projects began in the early 1990s In Ahmedabad. Some local governments have tried to elicit the support of communities.The internationally-funded Healthy Cities Program (HCP) supported by World Health Organization (WHO) was initiated in the 1990s to build the local capacity required for integrating environmental health concerns into all major urban policies and programs. Bangalore. documented by case studies where the NGO's and community groups participate in composting garbage over only a few hundred households ( HSMI/WMC. 2003). b). waste treatment and other municipal services. Environmental management Solid Waste Management (SWM) projects dominate among environmental management efforts dominate among environmental management efforts in India. transportation.  Ghosh. The Ganga Action Plan to the clean the River Ganga is the result of a PIL filed in the 1980s. the municipal administration has contracted out solid waste collection to women's groups formed under the government of India's Golden Jubilee Urban Employment Program (SJSRY) ( Rao. and collection consequently increased three or four times. 2000). The relocation of 9. In Andhra Pradesh. In Mumbai.038 of the 100.  and ICLEI. This is a holistic approach whereby local communities and government are participating to address environment and poverty issues together. 1993a. created wetland lagoons are used to treat east Calcutta's sewage and pisciculture is used to raise fish at one end of the system. . Bengaluru and Chennai NGOs are involved in the collection and disposal of waste on behalf of the city government. In both Ahmedabad and Mumbai a private company is contracted to compost part of the city waste.000 industries in Delhi. Hyderabad and Chennai. There are a number of cities active with ICLEI's Cities for Climate Protection Program (see section above . 2004). Utilizing these base data for specific measures to reduce green house gas and energy consumption are anticipated next steps.
1996). filed and won a PIL to halt construction that was diminishing the size of the wetlands . The rag pickers. 2002) such as Borivali National park mentioned above. universities have their own Botanical gardens. Many Exnoras have now branched into other environmental activities. etc. The Central and State governments together run and manage 33 botanical gardens. New containers were placed in the street and an awareness campaign was organized.000 people. In addition. They received monthly salaries from the residents.such as ensuring that industrial land use does not increase the incidence of pollution in city master plans. individual citizens have filed suits in the State High Courts and Supreme Court of India against local urban bodies for neglecting mandatory responsibilities . in an effort to protect the ecosystem. deer parks. that has managed wetlands that recycle the city's waste since 1961. renamed city-beautifiers. . from which they repaid the loans. upgrading slums and converting degradable waste into compost. Having recourse to the law has become a way of protecting the urban environment when government systems fail. Exnora projects are multisectorial and address a wide range of issues ( Anand. It is known that shortage of land and resources have resulted in man-forestland conflicts in some areas of the country ( United Nations. There are 275 centers of ex-situ wildlife preservation in the form of zoos.which also provide fish for the local population ( Development Associates. The government has set up a central zoo authority to oversee.In Kolkatta. Community-based efforts There has been a long history of community-based efforts in India to manage the urban environment. Environmental groups in Mumbai obtained an eviction order against squatters living in the Borivali National Park. safari zoos. were given loans by Exnora to purchase tricycles for door-to-door garbage collection and street cleaning. planting trees and harvesting rainwater. desilting canals. 1999). such as monitoring waterways.000 families or 450. each serving 75. Biodiversity conservation in India Approximately 5.3 percent of the total geographic area of the country has been earmarked for extensive in situ conservation of habitats and ecosystems through a protection area network of 89 national parks and 496 wildlife sanctuaries. monitor and coordinate these centers. They also run environmental education programs in schools and public information campaigns on the environmental impacts of industrial development. aquaria. The Ministry of Forestry in charged with implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) to manage biodiversity in India including the forestlands and biosphere reserves. One successful NGO experiment to manage solid waste disposal is Exnora in Chennai. In addition. This started in 1989 when citizens.500 Exnora units. Today the city has 1. It is not known whether any biosphere reserves are within or adjacent to any of the five Indian mega cities. concerned with deteriorating environmental conditions. a fishing cooperative. drew up an action plan to collect garbage.
Degradable waste is composted and the rest is dumped as landfill. engaging local unemployed young people and rag pickers in garbage collection at a monthly salary of Rs. plastic.  Shrivastava.(1995) for Protecting riparian resources and is outlined in a recent  US Environmental Protection Agency (2002) compendium of public participation techniques.  Vettivel.  Vivian. 1994. Innovative programs to elicit local cooperation have been developed by Indian community based organizations for waste management (. Summary and conclusions From an international perspective. water resource management.. India has a long history of grass roots participatory processes applied to poverty reduction.000 households or 100.htm In North America there is not as much activity on biodiversity assessment. . which causes local NGO's to work with local government units to accomplish mutual goals. this project has been extended to cover 20.  Jain.naturalsciences. waste management and now energy/GHG management. Such a process is outlined in  Smardon et al. which have much denser urban populations and more growth pressure. started garbage collection in 1992. etc) is carried away by rag pickers and sold. Therefore a key to any process is a mutual visioning.whether that is Biodiversity Action Plans. There is considerable local grass roots organizing activity by NGO's in Greenway development and river/stream restoration. aquaculture/agriculture (Ghate et al. metal.the key in many cases is local activism or leadership. In Europe. 300 to Rs. Baroda Citizens Council.be/belgium/links/themes/urban. 1990. the Convention on Biodiversity and Local Agenda 21have been the two major driving forces for biodiversity within urban areas. 1995). 1998) Public participation process In almost all successful cases mentioned above . the Aalborg Charter is providing a framework for combing the Convention plus Agenda 21for local implementation. goal setting which continues through fact finding. b) and poverty reduction ( Chopra. 1993). 2005) housing (. a local NGO. There is much to be learned from Asian cities. water management ( Ahmed. With the support of USAID.Other cities have started similar activities.  Banerjee. Similar experiments are being carried out in some areas of Delhi with input from local NGO's such as Aatavarn (Environment) ( Malik. the Aalborg Charter Part III and the greenway and river restoration plans mentioned above. Recyclable waste (paper. There is also activity in private natural area protection via local land trusts but little of this is within urban areas. In Vadodara City in Gujarat. Biosphere Reserves. 1994). 2002a. implementation and monitoring.  Devasia and Devasia. In many cases NGO's are working with local government in collaboration on both sustainability and biodiversity planning efforts Such biodiversity reports posted on the biodiversity web site: http://bch-cbd.000 people ( Cherail. action planning. 1992). Such a process can be found in successful Agenda 21plans. 2000. 2006. greenways restoration projects . but more research activity in urban ecosystems including the two LTER sites in Baltimore and Phoenix as well as other university research centers as previously outlined. 2001. 400 ($710) paid by the residents. 1990.  Verma and Singh.
"Waste management and Madras revisited". (2002b). Anand. pp. 2. A. Holding Their Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries. (Eds). in Durand-Lasserve. Banerjee.R. 4. (1999). pp. A. Springer-Verlag. Phoenix. In the USA and UK current research is focused on ecological restoration techniques concurrent with environmental cleanup. (Eds) (2004). 86-97. Houston and Seattle). 2. and Nilon. (2002a).. (Eds). P. Hollweg. S. Berkowitz. "Security of tenure of irregular settlements in Visakhaptnam". 30-31 January. ad hoc A Symposium on Wildlife in an Urbanizing Environment Better Trees for Metropolitan Landscapes. NY. 6. but there is some notable progress on the biodiversity action planning and research fronts. A. Vol. Annuals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Understanding Urban Ecosystems: A New Frontier for Science and Education. New York. C. B. K. 11 No. much is still to be done. London. In India there is valuable research on participation process and equity issues applied to sustainability implementation. Earthscan. Elphinestone College. Ahmedabad and Foundation Books. (2000). London. Earthscan. B. 7. Holding Their Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries. and Royalston. (Ed. Alfonsen-Norodom. Banerjee. Flowing Upstream Empowering Women through Water Management Initiatives in India. Ahmed. L. M. Vol. India References 1. (2001). 37-58. pp. and Royalston. S. "The 'ecosystem approach' to urban settlements: 20 Years of the 'MAB-Rome Project'". in Durand-Lasserve.In terms of urban ecosystem biodiversity research: protocols are being developed for regional scale and sit scale assessment in Europe. Proceedings of the Symposium Originally prepared as a keynote presentation for "Urban planning and environment: strategies and challenges".) (2005). 5. Mumbai. Centre for Environmental Education.B. Environment and Urbanization. and Corry. M.D. 161-76. L. In short. "Security and tenure in Indian cities".. "Urban biosphere and society: partnership for cities". paper presented at the first meeting of the MAB Working Group to Explore the Application of the Biosphere Reserve Concept to Urban Areas and their . Lane.H. 1023. B. There is assessment of the role of urban biosphere Reserves at UNESCO and the Urban Working group (New York City and Capetown.S. South Africa) There is continuing research on the role of urban vegetation functions or urban/periurban forestry in the USA and northern Europe. New Delhi. LTER research in the USA is focused on gradient and spatial analysis of biodiversity (among other variables) within urban metropolitan areas (Baltimore. 3. Bonnes.
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70. Proceedings of the Conference on Metropolitan Physical Environment. Urban areas North America. "Urban ecosystem research and the millennium ecosystem assessment: exploring the interlinkages". Smardon. Heisler. Richard can be contacted at: rsmardon@esf. PA. 1. Further Reading 1. Upper Darby. 233-53. India 9172: Canada. Chapter 12. Report. Comparative analysis. 4 No. Vol. Europe. 9130: Experimental/theoretical.edu AuthorAffiliation Richard C. Environmental Politics: Peoples Lives and Development Choices. UN World Urban Forum (2002). UNU/IAS UNESCO/MAB (2002). Sustainable development.). (Ed. ICLEI Monitor. and Director. 3. L. Gen. PhD. (1996). Location Classification . Appendix About the author Richard C. Biological diversity. Paris. G. "Cities as drivers of sustainable development". SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Studies. p. Krishna. ICLEI (2004). 9190: United States.. Syracuse. Department of Environmental Studies. Northeastern Fr. New Delhi. Department of Environmental Studies. Nairobi. "Cities for climate protection monitor India". USA _______________________________________________________________ Indexing (details) Subject Community support. rue Miolles. 7pp. World Urban Forum 2004 Networking Event Discussion Paper (17 September. Tech. (Eds) (1977). 2004. 100. United Nations Habitat. Barcelona. Ser. 2. 4. New York. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Smardon. New York 13210 USA. WHO Urban Ecosystems meeting 1215 March 2002 Salle XVI Bonum Building UNESCO 1. in Kishna. Pack Environmental Institute. S. "The business of sustainable development". Sage Publications India Printing Ltd. Professor. S. USDA For. pp. Spain) UNU-IAS. Randolph G. Sustainable Urbanization: Achieving Agenda 21. and Herrington. Syracuse. 1. Exp. Stn. UNU-IAS (2004).
1108/14777830810840408 204609797 http://210. European and Indian cities Smardon. 9175: Western Europe Title Author Publication title Volume Issue Pages Publication year Publication date Year Publisher Publisher Place of publication Country of publication Journal subject ISSN CODEN Source type Language of publication Document type Document feature Subfile DOI ProQuest document ID Document URL Copyright Last updated Database A comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation in North American. Biological diversity.pac/docview/204609797?accountid=44024 Copyright Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2008 2010-06-07 2 databases -ProQuest Health&Medical Complete -ProQuest Social Science Journals << Link to document in ProQuest _______________________________________________________________ Contact ProQuest © 2011 ProQuest LLC.48.222. Community support.80/proxy. All rights reserved. 1540: Pollution control.Terms and Conditions . Comparative analysis. Sustainable development. Urban areas 10. Limited Bradford United Kingdom Occupational Health And Safety 14777835 EMHEEB Scholarly Journals English Literature Review References Studies.9179: Asia&the Pacific. . Richard C Management of Environmental Quality 19 1 118-137 2008 2008 2008 Bradford Emerald Group Publishing.
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