You are on page 1of 26

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
PLANT PROFILE Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is commonly known as Indian Sarasaparilla and Anantamul. It is an important drug of Indian System of Medicine and used in medicines since time immemorial. During last two decades, the drug has been subjected to extensive phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical investigations and many interesting findings have been reported in various fields 14. Other Names Bengali – Anantamul. English – Indian Sarasaparilla. Gujarati – Upalasari. Hindi – Anantamul. Kannada – Namadaballi. Malayalam – Nannari. Marathi – Upalasari. Sanskrit – Anantamula. Tamil - Nannari. Telegu – Sugandhipala. Urdu – Aushbah. Uriya – Onontomulo.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

13

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Scientific classification 15 Kingdom – Plantae Division – Magnoliophyta Order – Gentianales Family – Asclepiadaceae Genus – Hemidesmus Species – Indicus Distribution Upper Gangetic plain, eastwards to Bengal and the Sundribans, and from the Central provinces to South India and Ceylon 16. Description of the plant It is a perennial, slender, laticiferous, twining prostrate, wiry shrub. Stems - Numerous slender, terete stems having thickened nodes. Leaves – Simple, opposite, very variable from elliptic-oblong to linear lanceolate, variegated with white above, silvery white and pubescent beneath. Flowers – Greenish purple crowded in subsessile cymes in the opposite leaf axils. Fruits – Slender follicles, cylindrical, 10 cm long, are tapering to a point at the apex. Seeds – Flattened, black, ovate-oblong, silvery white 17. Roots – Dried root woody, cylindrical somewhat tortuous with transversely cracked and longitudinally fissured bark, 0.5 to 2 cm in diameter, seldom branched, lateral rootlets wiry, externally dark brown, internally yellowish brown in color. Fracture outer short, inner fibrous. It has a strong central vasculature and a pleasant vanillin like odour. The taste is acrid 8.
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

14

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Fig.1 Hemidesmus indicus (Anantamul)

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

15

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Chemical composition The air dried roots contain vanillin (4-Hydroxy 3-methoxy benzaldehyde) and lupeol as Marker compounds. It also contains β-sitosterol, α- and β-amyrins, tetracyclic triterpene alcohols, small amounts of resin acids, fatty acids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and ketone. Rutin is found in leaves 8, 17, 18.

CH2 H3C H CH3 H CH3 H CH3 CH3

CHO

OMe OH
Vanillin

HO H3C

H CH3
Lupeol

HO

H H β-Amyrin

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

16

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

β-sitosterol.

H HO H H

α-Amyrin TLC Identity Test The TLC identity test for the drug has been reported using two solvent systems. I. II. Toluene : Ethyl acetate : Methanol ( 8 : 2 : 0.5 ) for Vanillin. Toluene : Ethyl acetate ( 9 : 1 ) for Lupeol.

The plate developed in I shows a band ( Rf 0.56 ) corresponding to vanillin in both reference and test solution tracks. Other bands appearing in the test sample have R f values 0.27 and 0.48. The plate developed in II shows a band ( R f 0.60 ) corresponding to lupeol in both reference and test solution tracks.
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

17

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Quantitative Standards Foreign matter: Ash: Acid insoluble ash: NMT 2 %. NMT 4.3 %. NMT 0.3 %.

Alcohol soluble extractive: NLT 6.5 %. Water soluble extractive: NLT 8.5 %.

Adulterants / Substitutes The roots of Ichnocarpus frutescens ( L.) R.Br. ( Apocynaceae ), Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae) and Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. (Asclepiadaceae) are used as substitutes of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) 8. Traditional uses Traditionally it has been used in Ayurveda as antipyretic, alexiteric, antidiarrhoeal, aphrodisiac, astringent to bowels; cures leprosy, leucoderma, itching, skin diseases, foul odour from the body, asthma, bronchitis, “Tridosa”, diseases of blood, leucorrhoea, “Kapha” and “Vata”. It is also used in Unani as diaphoretic, diuretic, the stems are useful in syphilis, urinary discharges and diseases of brain. It also find applications with other drugs in snake bite and scorpion sting, but it is not an antidote to either snake-venom or scorpion-venom 15.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

18

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS Various types of Phytochemical Investigations have been carried out for Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. by taking different parts of the plant. All of these investigations explored novel compounds from the plant some of which is summarized below.

Phytochemical studies on the roots of Hemidesmus indicus resulted in the isolation of six new pentacyclic triterpenes including two oleanenes identified as olean12-en-21 beta-yl acetate, and olean-12-en-3 alpha-yl acetate, three ursenes characterized as 16(17)-seco-urs-12,20(30)-dien-18 alpha H-3 beta-yl actetate, urs-20(30)-en-18 beta H-3 beta-yl acetate and 16(17)-seco-urs-12,20(30) dien-18-alpha H-3 beta-ol and a lupene formulated us lup-1,12-dien-3-on-21-ol including a known compound, betaamyrin acetate, on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical means 19.

Two novel pregnane oligo-glycosides namely Denicunine and Heminine have been isolated from chloroform-ethanol (3:2) soluble extract of the dried stems of the plant. Chemical transformations and spectroscopic evidence viz: 1H and
13

C NMR

spectroscopy and FABMS are consistent with the structures calogenin 3-O-3-O-methylβ-D-fucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-β-D-oleandropyranoside and calogenin 3-O-β-D-

cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-β-D-digitoxopyranoside, respectively 20.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

19

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Three new pregnane oligoglycosides, Medidesmine, Hemisine and Desmisine isolated from the chloroform-ethanol (3:2) soluble extract of the dried stems of the plant Hemidesmus indicus and were identified as sarcostin-3-O-cr-D glucopyranosyl (1---) 4)O-fl-D-digitoxopyranosyl (1 ---> 4)-O-//-D-oleandropyranoside, calogenin-3-O /i-Dcymaropyranosyl (1 ~ 4)-0 [3-O-methyl] fl-D-glucopyranosyl (1 ---> 4)-O-fl-Dglucopyranosyl (1 ---> 4)-O-fl-D-cymaropyranoside and calogenin-3-O-fl-D

xylopyranosyl (1 ~ 4)-O-fl-D-digitoxopyranosyl (1 ---> 4)-O-fl-D-xylopyranosyl (1 ---> 4)-O-fl-D-digitoxopyranoside, respectively, with the help of FAB-MS, EI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, along with chemical transformations 21.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

20

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

R3 R4

CH3 CHR1 R2

OH R5O

R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = OH, R5 = D-Glu-D-Dig-D-Ole. (Medidesmine). R1 = OH, R2 = R3 = R4 = H, R5 = D-Cym-3-O-MeGlu-D-Glu. (Hemisine). R1 = OH, R2 = R3 = R4 = H, R5 = D-Dig-D-Xyl. (Desmisine).

An organic acid, isolated and purified from the root extract of an Indian medicinal plant sarsaparilla, (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br), possessed viper venom inhibitory activity. The compound (designated HI-RVIF) was isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, and was homogeneous in nature. The white needle-shaped crystals were soluble in water, methanol and chloroform and had a melting point of 155–158°C and λmax 260 nm. Spectral analysis confirmed the presence of a benzene ring, methoxy group, and hydroxyl group; the mol. wt of the compound was 168. HI-RVIF significantly antagonized viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant and anticoagulant activity in experimental rodents 22. Two novel pregnane glycosides, Hemidescine and Emidine, have been isolated from the dried stems of Hemidesmus indicus. Chemical and spectroscopic evidence is consistent with the structures 20-O-aoetyl calogenin 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl(1→4)-

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

21

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

O-β-D-oleandropyranoside

and

calogenin-3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl(1→4)-O-β-D-

digitoxopyranosyl(1→4)-O-β-D-digitoxopyranoside, respectively 23. The hexane soluble portion of the ethanol extract of the stems of Hemidesmus indicus afforded a new Triterpene lactone, characterized as 3-keto-lup-12-ene-21→28olide. Further, lupanone, Δ12-dehydrolupanyl-3β-acetate, Δ12-dehydrolupeol acetate, hexadecanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-

methoxybenzaldehyde were also isolated for the first time from this plant 24. Two new pregnane glycosides, designated Indicine and Hemidine, have been isolated from the dried stems of Hemidesmus indicus. Chemical and spectroscopic evidence is consistent with the structures, calogenin-3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranoside and calogenin-3-O-β-D-boivinopyranoside, respectively 25. A new pregnane ester diglycoside named Desinine has been isolated from the dried twigs of Hemidesmus indicus. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, its structure has been established as drevogenin B-3-O-β-D-

oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandropyranoside 26. The distribution of flavonoid glycosides in some South Indian plants belonging to the Asclepiadaceae has been studied and is found to be significantly in favour of quercetin; kaempferol is present in traces only and flavone was absent from all of the plants examined. Rutin has been isolated from the leaves of Hemidesmus indicus and from the pericarp of the follicles of Leptadenia reticulata in significant amounts. The seeds of L. reticulata are rich in hyperoside 27.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

22

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS Anticancer / Antitumour activity Anticancer activity of different extracts of H. indicus has been studied by several authors.

A investigation was done to determine whether long term (16 months) treatment with the decoction [H. indicus (roots) along with Nigella sativa (seeds) and Smilax glabra (rhizomes)] would be successful in inhibiting in rat livers, not only DEN-

mediated expression of GST-P, but also the carcinogen mediated development of overt tumours (OT) or histopathological changes leading to tumour development (HT). Male Wister rats were taken for the experiments and it was found that protection against DENmediated carcinogenic changes in rat liver can be achieved by long term treatment with the DC comprised of N. sativa seeds, S. glabra rhizome and H. indicus root bark 28. A decoction of H. indicus (roots) along with Nigella sativa (seeds) and Smilax glabra (rhizomes) shows anticancer potential. The cytotoxicity of the decoction and the individual plant extracts were tested on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line. Results from MTT and SRB assays, and [14C] – leucine and [3H] – thymidine uptake demonstrated that the decoction had a strong dose dependent cytotoxic activity 29.

The antiproliferative activity of extracts from several medicinal plants including Hemidesmus indicus was analysed. Antiproliferative activity was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines.The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was employed as a suitable technique for the identification of plant extracts altering the

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

23

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

binding between transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. It was found that low concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus and some other extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). It was concluded that extracts inhibiting both NF-kappaB binding activity and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti-tumor compounds 30.

Chemopreventive potential of H. indicus on 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoyl 13-phorbol acetate (TPA) promoted murine skin carcinogenesis has been assessed. Topical application of H. indicus resulted in significant protection against cutaneous tumorigenesis. Topical application of plant extract prior to that of TPA resulted in significant inhibition against TPA-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and DNA synthesis. The results indicated that carcinogenesis 31. H. indicus is a potent chemopreventive agent in skin

The effects of a decoction of H. indicus (roots) along with Nigella sativa (seeds) and Smilax glabra (rhizomes) were examined on diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wister rats using the medium term bioassay system of Ito, based on a 2 – step model of hepatocarcinogenesis. The number and area of DEN mediated GST-P positive foci, number of cells/cm2 of foci and staining intensity of the foci were significantly (P>0.001) reduced by the decoction. Overall results indicate that

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

24

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

the decoction has the potential to protect rat liver against DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis 32.

The modulating effects of H. indicus on cumene hydroperoxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion response in murine skin have been demonstrated. Application of ethanolic extract of H. indicus at a dose level of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of cumene hydroperoxide treatment resulted in significant inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced DNA synthesis in a dosedependent manner. Enhanced susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity were significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition the depleted level of glutathione, inhibited activities of antioxidants and phase II metabolizing enzymes were recovered to significant level (P <0.05). In summary, the data suggest that H. indicus is an effective chemopreventive agent in skin and capable of ameliorating hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion 33.

Hepatoprotective activity The effects of ethanolic root extract of H. indicus were examined on experimental liver damage in order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The liver was analyzed for the degree of lipid peroxidation using TBARS and antioxidant status using the activities of glutathione dependent enzymes. The degree of liver damage was analyzed using serum marker enzyme activities. The ethanol fed rats showed elevated liver marker enzyme activities and

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

25

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

reduced antioxidant levels as compared to control. Oral administration of H. indicus resulted in decreased TBARS levels, decreased liver marker enzyme activities 34.

Evaluation of the inhibitory activity of ethanolic root extract of H. indicus and its active principle 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA) was done on liver fibrotic markers and characteristics such as collagen content, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 in ethanol-fed rats. The study revealed the strong inhibitory activity of H. indicus and HMBA on the quantitative and qualitative properties of hepatic collagen and also MMPs involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during ethanol intoxication 35.

It was proved that the active principle 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid from H. indicus significantly inhibited the liver injury caused by ethanol administration in experimental rats. It reduced the severity of liver damage in terms of body weight, hepatic marker enzymes, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and histological changes in ethanol induced hepatotoxic rats 36. The methanolic root extract of H. indicus possesses potential antihepatotoxic activity. Treatment of rats with paracetamol and CCl4 produced significant increase in levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, total and direct bilirubin. Rats pretreated with methanolic root extract of H. indicus exhibited rise in the levels of these enzymes but it was significantly less as compared to those treated with paracetamol or CCl4 alone 37. Oral treatment of ethanolic root extract of H. indicus (100mg/kg, for 15 days) significantly prevented the rifampicin and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wister rats. The parameters were estimation of protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase, αDepartment of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

26

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, lipid peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase 38. Anti snake-venom activity A survey was carried out which covered 72 medicinal plants (including H. indicus, roots) belonging to 53 families that are used for the treatment of snakebite in traditional way. Traditional approach was evaluated scientifically with some selected plant extracts and partially purified fractions which were administered orally to mice experimentally envenomed with rattle snake venom s.c injection. H. indicus and some other plants showed potent neutralizing effect against the venom 39. Lupeol acetate was isolated from the methanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) which could neutralize venom induced action of Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia on experimental animals. Lupeol acetate could significantly neutralize lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenation, edema, PLA2 activity induced by Daboia russellii venom. It also neutralized Naja kaouthia venom induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory changes in experimental animals. Lupeol acetate potentiated the protection by snake venom antiserum action against Daboia russellii venom induced lethality in male albino mice. Venom induced changes in lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase activity was antagonized by lupeol acetate 40. The adjuvant effect and antiserum potentiation of 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated and purified from root extract of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family:
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

27

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Asclepiadaceae) were explored. The pure compound potentiated the lethal action neutralization of venom by commercial equine polyvalent snake venom antiserum in experimental models 41. Anti hyperlipidaemic activity The effect of the active principle 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA) from H. indicus was investigated for its Anti hyperlipidaemic activity. The ethanol induced hyperlipidaemia to male Wister rats were taken for the experiment. Treatment of ethanol fed rats with HMBA significantly decreased plasma CHO, TG, LP, PL and FFA; hepatic CHO, TG and PL and increased plasma LPL concentrations compared with values in untreated ethanol fed rats (P<0.05) 42. Renoprotective activity The safety and efficacy of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br.(root powder) were proved in the management of nephrotoxicity induced by aminoglycosides such as gentamicin to Wister albino rats. The treatment with H. indicus helped in the management of renal impairment, which was induced by gentamicin in rats. The plant showed promise as an adjunct therapy along side aminoglycosides as it reduces nephrotoxicity caused by aminoglycosides 43. Anti-ulcerogenic activity The anti-ulcerogenic property of aqueous ethanolic root extracts of H. indicus was evaluated in animal models. Modified pyloric ligated (Shay) rat model and aspirininduced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rat models were used for the study and analyzed for gastric volume, ulcer score, pH, free and total acidity and sodium and potassium ion
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

28

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

output. Bio-chemical estimations like total proteins, total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose, sialic acid and pepsin were also made. Ulcer score was calculated for cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer model. Roots collected during flowering season were found to be more effective than that collected during vegetative seasons 44. Antiatherogenic activity The antiatherogenic effect of a herbal formulation, Caps HT2, was evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase releasing, antiinflammatory and hypolipidaemic activity in rats. The formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of plants, Commiphora mukul, Allium sativum, Plumbago indica, Semecarpus anacardium, Hemidesmus indicus (seeds), Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum. The formulation was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited (50%). The intravenous administration of the formulation (5 mg/kg) delayed the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and enhanced the release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly (p < 0.001). The formulation also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to commercial heparin. The antiinflammatory action of the formulation was significant (p < 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats. The hypolipidaemic effect was significant (p < 0.001) with the administration of the formulation, in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral administration of the formulation significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The atherogenic index and the reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

29

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

therapeutic potential of Caps HT2 against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types of cardiovascular problems 45. Antileprotic activity Anantamul, an indigenous drug, was tested for the first time on mice infected with M. leprae. The results were interesting and encouraging. There seemed to be definite evidence in support of the drug causing a delay in multiplication of organisms in the mouse foot-pads 46. Antioxidant / Anti-inflammatory / Analgesic / Antipyretic activity The ethanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus was studied for its antioxidant activity in rats with ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. All the results indicated that the treatment with H. indicus extract offers protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in plasma, erythrocytes and liver of animals with ethanol-induced liver injury 47.

The antioxidant effect of the ethanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. root (EHI) was studied in male Wistar rats with ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity. EHI, administered to rats with ethanol-induced kidney injury, significantly decreased the levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine as well as kidney TBARS, LOOH and CD and significantly elevated the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E in kidney as compared to that of untreated ethanol-administered rats. The data indicated that treatment with EHI offers protection against free radical-mediated oxidative stress in kidney of animals with ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity 48.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

30

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The methanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (Asclepiadaceae) root (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally) were tested in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities respectively. The paw volumes and pyrexia in rats were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of control. These results indicate that the extracts possess antiinflammatory and antipyretic properties 49. The methanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus (L) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) roots was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The intravenous administration of this extract (5 mg/kg body weight) in rabbits delayed the plasma recalcification time and enhanced the release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly. The extract also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro (50–250 μg), which was comparable to commercial heparin 50. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of H. indicus was studied. For the study ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α ) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Thus, these herbs showed anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis 51.
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

31

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of H. indicus root bark was evaluated in several in vitro and ex vivo models. Further, preliminary phytochemical analysis and TLC fingerprint profile of the extract was established to characterize the extract which showed antioxidant properties. The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant potential was evaluated in different systems viz. radical scavenging activity by DPPH reduction, superoxide radical scavenging activity in riboflavin / light / NBT system, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity in sodium nitroprusside / Greiss reagent system and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by iron-ADP-ascorbate in liver homogenate and phenylhydrazine induced haemolysis in erythrocyte membrane stabilization study. The extract was found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the various models tested 52. The ethanolic extract of roots of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) was investigated for possible antinociceptive effect in mice. Three models were used to study the effects of extracts on nociception, which was induced, by acetic acid (Writhing test), formalin (Paw licking test) and hot plate test in mice. Oral administration of the extract revealed dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the models for antinociception and it blocked both the neurogenic and inflammatory pain and the nociceptive activity was comparable with the reference drug. The results indicate that alcoholic extract of H. indicus R.Br. possesses a significant antinociceptive activity 53. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated and purified from the methanolic root extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Rr. possessed potent anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant properties. The compound effectively neutralized inflammation induced

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

32

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

by Vipera russelli venom in male albino mice and reduced cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats 54. The roots of Sariva (Decalepis hamiltonii, Cryptolepis buchananii, Ichnocarpus frutescens and Hemidesmus indicus) were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Ethanol extracts of roots of various species of Sariva exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Phenylbutazone was used as standard for the study. Cryptolepis buchananii was found to be more potent than the other three species 55. Antimicrobial activity The effect of the chloroform fraction composed of sterols and fatty acids isolated from Hemidesmus indicus root extract (CHI) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) induced cytotoxicity in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Int 407) was evaluated. It was found that CHI may be capable of taming S. typhimurium by suppressing its cytotoxic activity in an intestinal epithelial cell line 56. Alcoholic crude extracts and some fractions from 15 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria. On the basis of promising activity, 12 plants were selected to determine their efficacy in terms of MIC. The extracts of Acorus calamus, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Plumbago zeylanica demonstrated relatively high activity as compared to other plant extracts and were fractionated into acetone, ethyl acetate and

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

33

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

methanol. Acetone fraction in most of the cases exhibited higher potency (low MIC value) as compared to ethyl acetate and methanol fraction 57. In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts (including Hemidesmus indicus) demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum betalactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria 58. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of ethanolic extracts of four medicinal plants namely Acorus calamus (rhizome) Hemidesmus indicus (stem), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) and Plumbago zeylanica (root) were detected with inhibition zone size ranged from 11 to 44 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.32 to 3.25 mg/ml 59. A study was carried out to elucidate the protective and therapeutic role, if any, of glycosides from Hemidesmus indicus against S. typhimurium-induced pathogenesis. Studies were carried out in a human intestinal cell line (Int 407) and a murine macrophage cell line (P388D1) in order to evaluate its potency in local as well as systemic infections. It was found that the glycosides of H. indicus root inhibited S. typhimurium induced pathogenesis nonspecifically, by reducing bacterial surface hydrophobicity and perhaps also by mimicking host cell receptors, thereby blocking its attachment to host cell and further pathological effects 60.
Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

34

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The antienterobacterial activity of the chloroform extract (CHI), methanol extract (MHI) and the fatty substance separated from the methanol extract (ME1) of Hemidesmus indicus root was demonstrated using a variety of methods and different enterobacterial strains. The potency was found as follows (ME1) > (MHI) > (CHI). It was concluded that the presence of antimicrobial trace elements such as copper and zinc, along with other active constituents may contribute to the antienterobacterial activity of Hemidesmus indicus root 61. Methanolic extract of H. indicus root (MHI) was screened for its antimicrobial activity against S. typhimurium, E. coli and S. flexneri, in vitro and in experimentally induced diarrhoea in albino rats, in vivo. MHI inhibited the castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats as judged by a decrease in the amount of wet faeces in MHI-pretreated rats at a dose of 500-1500 mg/kg. The findings suggested that MHI might elicit an antidiarrhoeal effect by inhibition of intestinal motility and by its bactericidal activity 62.

A comparative study was carried out for the antimicrobial activity for the roots of four species of Sariva namely Decalepis hamiltonii, Cryptolepis buchananii, Ichnocarpus frutescens and Hemidesmus indicus. Activity was evaluated by agar diffusion method. All the extracts (20% alcohol) showed moderate to significant activity
63

.

Immunomodulatory activity The immunobiological activity was investigated of certain medicinal plants widely used in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine for treatment of chronic

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

35

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

infections and immunological disorders. The effect of an ethanolic extract of each drug was studied on delayed type hypersensitivity, humoral responses to sheep red blood cells, skin allograft rejection, and phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. Hemidesmus indicus suppressed both the cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system 64. OTHER IMPORTANT REVIEWS The enzymatic route to the biosynthesis related to 2-hydroxy-4methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) from the fragrant rootstocks of Hemidesmus indicus was unraveled. Chitosan treatment at 200mg/L concentration to the excised roots effectively increased phenolic accumulation in both the cortex and cork tissues reaching a peak after 24h treatment and decreasing thereafter. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme in excised roots also increased upon chitosan elicitation, and the maximum specific activity was recorded after 12h of elicitation. Suppression of PAL in vivo by using a specific irreversible inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) resulted in the decrease in MBALD content, indicating its formation via phenylpropanoid pathway 65.

A study was carried out on the remediation of soils contaminated with lead using a lead hyper accumulating plant, Hemidesmus indicus. The ability of this plant to accumulate lead in shoots and roots was studied with pot experiments. The results showed that the accumulation was maximum in roots for the first 1-3 weeks and later for a contact period of three months; the accumulation rate was maximum in shoots. An

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

36

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

attempt was made for the decontamination of lead from five different "Real-life" soils using H. indicus 66. The bark of Hemidesmus indicus was used as biomaterial for removal of lead from aqueous streams. Batch experiments were carried out with immobilized biomass of H. indicus (IPBFIX). The effectiveness of the IPBFIX for biosorption of lead ions was demonstrated using the wastewater samples emanating from a nonferrous metal industry and the results were presented 67. Hemidesmus indicus root in the form of suspension in water (10 mg/ml) containing 15.5 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl and 12 mM glucose, when injected into the ligated jejunal sac (1 ml/sac) of rat, increased the absorption of water, Na(+) and K(+) (but not glucose) from the sac. This bioactivity was present in the water extract (5 or 10 mg/sac) of the root and not in the hexane extract. In contrast, the ethanol extract decreased the absorption of water and electrolytes from the jejunal sac. The present study indicated that H. indicus root powder or its water extract can be incorporated in oral rehydrating salt solution (ORS) for increasing its anti-diarrhoeal efficacy 68. Fifteen laticiferous plant species of Apocyanaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae were tested for their suitability as alternative source of renewable energy and phytochemicals. Their polyphenol, oil and hydrocarbon contents were analyzed. Among them the best species were Carissa carandas, Ceropegia juncea, Sarcostemma brunourianum and Hemidesmus indicus
69

.

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

37

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Department of Pharmacognosy - PESCP

38