child pornography and other misuses of information technology. viruses. The Encyclopedia Brittanica defines computer crime as any crime that is committed by means of special knowledge or expert use of computer technology.S Department of Justice (DOJ). A. malware and spyware. This started a world-wide trend in developing web sites not only for personal and research purposes. . The growing danger from crimes committed against computers. Cyber crime is a concept that has different definitions.1. specifically internet technology. Based on the U. cyber crime is a term used broadly to describe criminal activity in which computers or communication networks as the tools. cyber terrorism. using its anonymity and global reach to commit crimes directed not only at private citizens but also against governments and nations.0 INTRODUCTION The last decade of the twentieth century was the decade of the internet and world-wideweb (web). which was primarily used by academic institutions and the military. became vast accessible to the public with the invention of the world-wide-web (web). viruses. But the popularity and ease of use of the internet technology also attracted criminals who rapidly adapted to the technology. anonymity. fraud and identity theft. peripherals and software illegally. or against information on computers is beginning to claim attention nationwide. fraud and identity theft.J Surin (2009) writes that cyber crime also known as “computer crime”. speed and vast spread to commit various types of crimes such as obtaining computer hardware and software illegally. but for information dissemination by governments and as a tool for electronic commerce by commercial organizations situated around the world. Based on Wikipedia (cybercrime. Meanwhile. 2006). and use its characteristics of transience. worms. Oxford Reference Online defines the cyber crime as a crime committed over the internet. music and movie piracy. and more. Cyber criminals have very rapidly adapted to developments in technology. computer hacking. The internet. targets or places of criminal activity. there are various types of cyber crimes reported over the years such as obtaining computer hardware. crimes that target a computer network or device directly such as computer hacking.

p. email bombing and defamation. b) Crimes of computer misuse such as computer hacking. files or resources when one has not been given permission from the owner to do so. Unauthorized access can be defined as viewing private accounts. The damage caused by data theft can be considerable with today’s ability to transmit very large files via email. especially if they run business online. denial of service and attacks using malicious code. Some of the major email related crimes are email spoofing. Like any other form of communication. Internet gambling. 2006. and the volume of unsolicited mail has become very high. email bombing. USB devices. Because the barrier to entry is so low. the estimated figure for spam messages is around seven trillion. messages. email is also misused by criminal elements. hate speech and violation of copyright laws. hate speech and violation of copyright laws. The ease. Kerr (2003) categorizes computer crimes as: a) Traditional crimes committed using computers such as Internet fraud schemes. Computer hacking always involves some degree of infringement on the privacy of others or damage to computer-based property such as files. speed and relative anonymity of email has made it a powerful tool for criminals. Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists. . DVD storage and other hand-held devices. d) computers and networks as new facilitators for older crimes such as online child pornography. spammers are numerous. This crime could contribute to the downfall for a business. espionage and terrorism.2. (Subramaniam & Sedita. email bombing and defamation. c) computers and networks as place of criminal activity such as financial fraud. online distribution of child pornography and cyberstalking. online gambling.40) In addition. data theft. b) computers and networks as targets of criminal activity such as unauthorized access. denial of service and attacks using malicious code. cyber crimes may be categorized under the following areas: a) computers and networks as tools for criminal activity which includes spamming. phishing. web pages or software. and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mass mailing. The cybercriminals use the computers and networks as tools for criminal activity which includes spamming. All of these crime led serious problem to persons who use email in their daily life.0 CONTENT 2. Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately.1 CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIMES In general. computer hacking. In the year 2011. Computers and networks also has been as targets of criminal activity such as unauthorized access. web pages. Viewing confidential without permission or qualifications can result in legal action. sending malicious codes through email. The impact of computer hacking varies from being simply invasive and annoying to illegal. distribution of worms and viruses and denial-of-service attacks. defamatory emails and emails frauds. sending threatening emails. The most widely recognized of spam is e-mail spam. data theft. computer hacking.

The statistics Sofaer and Goodman provide about the costs to governments and businesses alone make one gasp. health and education. 2. Communication and Multimedia Act 1998 and Optical Disk Act 2000. output. Telemedicine Act 1997. . medicare fraud. unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate other crimes and unauthorized modification. More than 20 cases are reported each month just for cyber terrorism crime. Anonymous managed to attack fifty one websites and forty one of the sites suffered various levels of disruption. There are sometimes great different in law and procedure between each state. scams impersonating the FBI and identity theft. gave an interpretation of computers. the international investigation Operation Delego. Financial fraud encompasses wide range of illegal behavior. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in collaboration with the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3). computer-based fraud. from mortgage scams to tax fraud. mail fraud.Some cyber criminals use computers and networks as place of criminal activity such as financial fraud. drug trafficking. computers networks. cyber terrorism and cyber warfare. denial-of-services and other computer problems such as files lost or corrupted by viruses. On the other hand. online gambling. harassment. a group of hackers known as “Anonymous” had attacked the government websites. In Malaysia. In USA. have published the report that shows cyber crime continue to be on the increase. cyber crime had increased each day and becoming more serious and intense crime lately. The complaints are mostly consisted of hack threats.2 COMPARISON OF CYBER CRIMES IN MALAYSIA AND USA In USA. Cyberstalking impacts millions within the USA and a substantial number of cyberstalking victims are victims of domestic abuse. The examples of financial fraud are bankruptcy fraud. mainly in the .my domain. phishing. operating under the aegis of the Department of Homeland Security. The Star newspaper reported that more than four thousand cyber crimes cases have been lodged with Cybersecurity Malaysia in the past two years. offensive content. fraud. in June 2011. Calling it as “Operation Malaysia”. tax fraud and more. Digital Signature Act 1997. student loan fraud. The most frequent cyber crimes reported in USA are spam. the state governments have the greatest influence over most Americans’ daily lives. The most common victim complaints in 2010 were non-delivery of payment/merchandise. Each state has its own written constitution. virus attacks. In August shut down the international pedophile ring Dreamboard. espionage and terrorism. and may have distributed up to 123 terabyte of child pornography. sabotage and denial-of-service pranks rose from about $100 million in 1997 to $266 million in 2000. government and code of laws including cyber crime acts. The Malaysian cyber laws consist of Computer Crime Act 1997. The CSI survey found that total financial losses from frauds. All of these crimes may results the lost of trust and confident for users to use information technology in their daily life activities. Recently. Computers and networks also become new facilitators for older crimes such as online child pornography. The website has approximately 600 members. fraud. data. each state in Malaysia uses the same acts even for cyber crimes act. These acts cover the misuse of computers and complement the existing criminal legislation such as unauthorized access. Victims of these crimes reported losing hundreds of millions of dollars. concerning issues such as property.

be it from outsiders or from within. programs and premises. process and technology issues. a law needs to be formed to promote a high level of consumer confidence and to protect the information security and network reliability and integrity. Even where laws are adequate. detecting. Because that extension a work in progress. organizations should focus on implementing cyber security plans addressing people. There are some suggestions and strategies to fight cyber crimes. we could build an effective and coordinated cyber crime fighting mechanism. Extending the rule of law into cyberspace is a critical step to create a trustworthy environment for people and businesses. reporting or prosecuting cyber crime. Organizations need to commit the resources to educate employees on security practices. this responsibility is even more significant. intrusion detection tools and authentication services throughout the organizations’ computer systems. We also need to establish and train units or teams that specialize in computer-related crime. develop thorough plans for the handling of sensitive data. If every legislative body had a committee of members who are trained in and focus on technology issues and if every police department had a computer crime investigation unit with special training and expertise. Laws to enforce property rights work only when property owner take reasonable steps to protect their property in the first place. . This strategy requires that the government educate and train everyone who will be involved in preventing. firm dependent on the network must make their own information and systems secure. records and transactions. including mobile phones.3 SUGGESTIONS For Malaysia to be a world leading country in ICT development and be a global centre and hub for communication and multimedia information and content services. In Malaysia. anti-virus software. 2. national government remains the dominant authority for regulating criminal behavior. wrongful communication. Therefore. and incorporate robust security technology such as firewall. It extends to any device that has a computing function. To provide this self-protection. First. we need to educate the cyber crime fighters. achieving a nearly global attention to the problem of cyber crime and terrorism and promoting international harmonization of legal approaches. The governments should assure that the laws apply to cyber crimes. abetment and attempts punishable as offences and presumptions. Cyberlaws extend to more than just computers. the firms should secure their networked information. Apart from that. Enactments of enforceable computer crime laws that also respect the rights of individuals are an essential step in the battle against this emerging threat. organizations today must first and foremost defend their own systems and information from attack. Current laws ought to be updated. the first important step that should be taken by the government to combat this new type of crime is by introducing a new legal framework to facilitate the development of ICT systems.functions. And where enforceable laws are months or years away. Second. the national efforts and those of the international organizations have to reinforce each other. The training necessary for legislators to understand the laws they propose and vote on is different from training needed for detectives to dig out digital evidence.

If cybercriminals are shamed rather than admired. sharing their expertise and making opinions known to members of their governing bodies. but by having these approaches applied efficiently and effectively. global reach.0 CONCLUSION In conclusion. especially the subset that consists of the end user of computer and network systems. it is hope that it will put the problem under control. developing hardware and software to aid preventing and detecting network intrusions. hacking and breaking in and so forth. We need to make people understand that respect for other’s property and territory in the virtual world is just as important as in the physical world. The Information Technology industry is hard at work. denial of service attack. 3. how crimes are prosecutes and also computer crime awareness. The Information Technology professionals can also get involved at the legislative level by testifying before committees. We can also use the technology to fight the cyber crime. The weak penalties in most updated criminal statutes provide limited . The Information Technology professionals need to be educated in some areas such as how laws are maid. computer crimes are still on the rise. penalty and enforcement issues will help them to overcome the crime. It is easy to commit a crime whether we realize it or not. the government has set up legal frameworks that are used to punish the offenders such as the Cyber Laws of Malaysia apart from the technical approaches taken by the individual organizations. Cybercriminals take advantage of the speed propagation. Many teenage hackers commit network break-ins in order to impress their friends. some well be less likely to engage in the criminal conduct. There are a lot of tools available on the internet that can be used to commit all sorts of crimes such as fraud. Another way to fight cyber crime is by using peer pressure. We must educate the community at large.Information Technology professionals already understand computer security and how it can be breached. They can also involve at the prosecution level as expert witness. One way to reduce the incidence of internet crime is to encourage groups to apply peer pressure to their members. anonymity and transience of the internet to commit crimes. Cyber crimes are currently an important global issue that has the potential of adversely affecting international economics. Monitoring and auditing packages allow Information Technology professionals to collect detailed information to assist in detecting suspicious activities. There are the people who are frequently direct victims of cybercrime and who are indirect victims in terms of the extra costs they pay when companies they patronize are victimized and the extra taxpayer they spend every year in response to computer-related crimes. the different between criminal and civil law. identity theft. Though there is no proof approach that can be taken to stop computer crimes from occurring. we need to educate and engaging the community. An understanding of what is and isn’t against the law. A lot of actions and approaches have been taken by the government as well as private sectors to try to fight the computer crimes. Teachers can advise and educate their students about the important of respecting the laws. scams. Last but not least. security and human rights. commerce. In Malaysia. One of the best weapons against technology crimes is technology.

On the other hand. Whatever actions we take.deterrence for crimes that can have large-scale economic and social effect. the general weakness of statutes increases the importance of private sector efforts to develop and adopt strong and efficient technical solutions and management practices for information security. . public awareness on cyber crime and how bad it will affect us in future is still plays an important role. 2006 from http://en.Retrieved 14:28. cybercrime (2006). Oxford Reference.html 5. Johanna Granville.g laws.Con: The Dangers of Cyber Crime and a Call for Proactive Solutions”. April ciima6-1 39=50 3. http://www. cybercrime. 6.49. “Dot. article of cyber crimes: The Net is Not in a Legal Vacuum. New Sunday Times. Wikipedia. 31 August 2008. Sunday.pp. Are Cybercrime Laws Keeping Up With The Triple Convergence of Information and Technology?. Subramaniam. The Free Encyclopedia.0 REFERENCES 1.html?ssid75131518entry 4. Australian Journal of Politics and History.php?title=cybercrime&oldid 2. no1 (winter 2003). h.102-109 .iima.

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