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Ch01p

Ch01p

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Published by: Colette De Beer on Mar 25, 2012
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Chapter 1

Exercise Problems

EX1.1
3/ 2
exp
2
g
i
E
n BT
kT
− ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

GaAs:
( ) ( )
( )( )
3/ 2
14
6
1.4
2.1 10 300 exp
2 86 10 300
i
n

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟ = ×
⎜ ⎟
×
⎝ ⎠
or
6 3
1.8 10
i
n cm

= ×
Ge:
( )( )
( )( )
3/ 2
13
6
0.66
1.66 10 300 exp
2 86 10 300
i
n

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟ = ×
⎜ ⎟
×
⎝ ⎠
or
13 3
2.40 10
i
n cm

= ×

EX1.2
(a) majority carrier: holes,
17 3
10
o
p cm

= minority carrier: electrons,
( )
2
10
2
3 3
17
1.5 10
2.25 10
10
i
o
o
n
n c
p

×
= = = × m
cm

(b) majority carrier: electrons,
15 3
5 10
o
n

= × minority carrier: holes,
( )
2
10
2
4 3
15
1.5 10
4.5 10
5 10
i
o
o
n
p c
n

×
= = = ×
×
m

EX1.3
For n-type, drift current density E
n
J e n μ ≅ or
( )( )( )
19 16
200 1.6 10 7000 10 E

= × which yields
E 17.9 / V cm =

EX1.4
Diffusion current density due to holes:
( )
16
1
10 exp
p p
p
p p
dp
J eD
dx
x
eD
L L
= −
⎛ ⎞ ⎛
− −
= − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜
⎜ ⎟ ⎜
⎝ ⎠ ⎝





(a) At 0 x =
( )( )( )
19 16
2
3
1.6 10 10 10
16 /
10
p
J A cm


×
= =
(b) At
3
10 x cm

=
3
2
3
10
16exp 5.89 /
10
p
J A cm


⎛ ⎞ −
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠


EX1.5
( )
( )( )
( )
16 17
2 2
6
10 10
ln 0.026 ln
1.8 10
a d
bi T
i
N N
V V
n
⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ×
⎣ ⎦
or 1.23
bi
V V =

EX1.6
1/ 2
1
R
j jo
bi
V
C C
V

⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

and
( )
( )( )
( )
2
17 16
2
10
ln
10 10
0.026 ln 0.757
1.5 10
a d
bi T
i
N N
V V
n
V
⎡ ⎤
=
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
×
⎣ ⎦

Then ( )
1/ 2
1/ 2 5
0.8 1 7.61
0.757
jo jo
C C

− ⎛ ⎞
= + =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

or
2.21
jo
C p = F

EX1.7
exp 1
D
D S
T
v
i I
V
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= −
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

so
( )
3 13
10 10 exp 1
0.026
D
v
− −
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= −
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

Solving for the diode voltage, we find ( )
3
13
10
0.026 ln 1
10
D
v


⎡ ⎤
= +
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

or
( ) ( )
10
0.026 ln 10
D
v ≅
which yields
0.599
D
v V =

EX1.8
and exp
D
PS D D D S
T
V
V I R V I I
V
⎛ ⎞
= + ≅
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

so
( )
( )
3
3
4
4 4 10
4 10
D
D D D
V
I V I

= × + ⇒ =
×

and
( )
12
10 exp
0.026
D
D
V
I

⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

By trial and error, we find 0.864 and 0.535
D D
I mA V V ≅ ≅

EX1.9
(a)
5 0.7
1.08
4
PS
D D
V V
I I m
R
γ


= = ⇒ = A
(b)
PS PS
D
D
V V V V
I R
R I
γ γ
− −
= ⇒ =
Then
8 0.7
6.79 Ω
1.075
R k

= =
(c)
1.25
1.08
0.7 2 4 6 8 0
Diode curve
Load lines
V
D
(v)
(a)
(b)
I
D
(mA)


EX1.10
PSpice analysis

EX1.11
Quiescent diode current
10 0.7
0.465
20
PS
DQ
V V
I m
R
γ


= = = A
Time-varying diode current:
We find that
0.026
0.0559 Ω
0.465
T
d
DQ
V
r k
I
= = =
Then
( )
( )
0.2sin
0.0559 20 Ω
I
d
d
V v t
i
r R k
ω
= = ⋅
+ +
or ( ) 9.97sin
d
i t A ω μ =

EX1.12
For the pn junction diode, ( )
3
15
1.2 10
ln 0.026 ln
4 10
D
D T
S
I
V V
I


⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ×
≅ =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
×
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
or 0.6871
D
V V =
The Schottky diode voltage will be smaller, so 0.6871 0.265 0.4221
D
V V = − =
Now exp
D
D S
T
V
I I
V
⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

or
3
10
1.2 10
1.07 10
0.4221
exp
0.026
S S
I I


×
= ⇒ = ×
⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
A

EX1.13
( ) 10 5.6 1.79
Z
P I V I I mA = ⋅ ⇒ = ⇒ =
Also
10 5.6
1.79 2.46 Ω I R k
R

= = ⇒ =

Test Your Understanding Exercises

TYU1.1
(a) T = 400K
Si:
3/ 2
exp
2
g
i
E
n BT
kT
− ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

( )( )
( )( )
3/ 2
15
6
1.1
5.23 10 400 exp
2 86 10 400
i
n

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ = ×
× ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

or
12 3
4.76 10
i
n c

= × m
( )( )
( )( )
Ge:
3/ 2
15
6
0.66
1.66 10 400 exp
2 86 10 400
i
n

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ = ×
× ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
m

or
14 3
9.06 10
i
n c

= ×
GaAs:
( )( )
( )( )
3/ 2
14
6
1.4
2.1 10 400 exp
2 86 10 400
i
n

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ = ×
× ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
m

or
9 3
2.44 10
i
n c

= ×
(b) T = 250 K
( )( )
( )( )
Si:
3/ 2
15
6
1.1
5.23 10 250 exp
2 86 10 250
i
n

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ = ×
× ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
m

or
8 3
1.61 10
i
n c

= ×
( )( )
( )( )
Ge:
3/ 2
15
6
0.66
1.66 10 250 exp
2 86 10 250
i
n

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ = ×
× ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
m

or
12 3
1.42 10
i
n c

= ×
( )( )
( )( )
GaAs:
3/ 2
14
6
1.4
2.10 10 250 exp
2 86 10 250
i

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ = ×
× ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
m

= × <<<
n
or
3 3
6.02 10
i
n c

= ×

TYU1.2
( ) ( ( ) (a) so
16 3
5 10 , , n cm p n
)
19 16
1.6 10 1350 5 10
n
e n σ μ

≅ = × ×
or
( )
1
10.8 cm σ

= Ω −
(b)
16 3
5 10 , , p cm n p

= × <<< so
( )( )( )
19 16
1.6 10 480 5 10
p
e p σ μ

≅ = × ×
or
( )
1
3.84 cm σ

= Ω −

TYU1.3
( )( ) 10 15 J E σ = = or
2
150 / J A cm =

TYU1.4
(a)
n n n
dn n
J eD eD
dx x
Δ
= =
Δ
so
( )( )
15 16
19
4
10 10
1.6 10 35
0 2.5 10
n
J


⎛ ⎞ −
= ×
⎜ ⎟
− ×
⎝ ⎠

or
2
202 /
n
J A cm =
(b)
p p p
dp p
J eD eD
dx x
Δ
= − = −
Δ
so
( )( )
14 15
19
4
10 5 10
1.6 10 12.5
0 4 10
p
J


⎛ ⎞ − ×
= − ×
⎜ ⎟
− ×
⎝ ⎠

or
2
24.5 /
p
J A cm = −

TYU1.5
(a)
( )
15 3
2
10
2
4 3
15
8 10
1.5 10
2.81 10
8 10
o d
i
o
o
n N cm
n
p c
n

m

= = ×
×
= = = ×
×


(b)
15 15
8 10 0.1 10
o
n n n δ = + = × + ×
or
15 3
8.1 10 n c

= × m
4 4 1
2.81 10 10
o
p p p δ = + = × +
or
14 3
10 p cm



TYU1.6
(a)
2
ln
a d
bi T
i
N N
V V
n
⎡ ⎤
=
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
so ( )
( )( )
( )
15 17
2
10
10 10
0.026 ln 0.697
1.5 10
bi
V V
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
×
⎣ ⎦

(b) ( )
( )( )
( )
17 17
2
10
10 10
0.026 ln 0.817
1.5 10
bi
V V
⎡ ⎤
⎢ ⎥
= =
⎢ ⎥
×
⎣ ⎦


TYU1.7
(a) exp 1
D
D S
T
V
I I
V
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= −
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

14
0.5
10 exp
0.026
D
I

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Then, for
V
D
= 0.5 V, 2.25
D
I A μ =
V
D
= 0.6 V, 0.105
D
I mA =
V
D
= 0.7 V, 4.93
D
I mA =
(b)
14
10
D S
I I A

≅ − = −
for both cases.

TYU1.8
100 T C Δ = so 2 100 200
D
V m Δ ≅ × = V
V Then 0 650 0 20 0 450
D
V . . . = − =

TYU1.9
1 2 3 4 0
Diode
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.033
0.225
1.54
Load line
V
D
(v)
I
D
(mA)
1.0
ഠ0.87
ഠ0.54v
V
D
I
D


TYU1.10
( ) 1.05 0.7
D D D
P I V I = ⇒ = so 1 5
D
I . mA =
Now
10 0.7
6.2
1.5
PS
D
V V
R R
I
γ


= = ⇒ = kΩ

TYU1.11
0.8
30.8
0.026
D
d
T
I
g mS
V
= = =

TYU1.12
0.026 0.026
50
50
T
d D
D D
V
r I
I I
= ⇒ = ⇒ =
or
0.52
D
I mA =

TYU1.13
For the pn junction diode,
4 0.7
0.825
4
D
I mA

= =
For the Schottky diode,
4 0.3
0.925
4
D
I mA

= =

TYU1.14
z zo z z zo z z z
V V I r V V I r = + ⇒ = − so
( )( )
3
5.20 10 20 5.18
zo
V V

= − =
Then
( )( )
3
5.18 10 10 20 5.38
z z
V V

= + × ⇒ = V

21 pF −1/ 2 = C jo ( 7.8 ⎛V ⎞ VPS = I D R + VD and I D ≅ I S exp ⎜ D ⎟ ⎝ VT ⎠ ( 4 − VD ) so 4 = I D ( 4 ×103 ) + VD ⇒ I D = 4 ×103 and ⎛ V ⎞ I D = (10 −12 ) exp ⎜ D ⎟ ⎝ 0.757 V = ( 0.535 V EX1.08 mA 4 VPS − Vγ ⇒R= ID = Then R = (c) 8 − 0.026 ) ln ⎢ ⎢ (1.075 . we find I D ≅ 0.7 ⇒ I D = 1.61) −1/ 2 EX1.5 × 1010 )2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 ⎞ ⎛ Then 0.599 V EX1.026 ⎠ By trial and error.⎡N N ⎤ Vbi = VT ln ⎢ a 2 d ⎥ ⎣ ni ⎦ ⎡ (1017 )(1016 ) ⎤ ⎥ = 0.026 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 10−3 ⎤ Solving for the diode voltage.9 (a) (b) ID = ID = VPS − Vγ R VPS − Vγ R 5 − 0.8 = C jo ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 0.7 = 6.79 kΩ 1.026 ) ln (1010 ) which yields vD = 0.7 ⎡ ⎛v ⎞ ⎤ iD = I S ⎢exp ⎜ D ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎢ ⎝ VT ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎛ v ⎞ ⎤ so 10−3 = (10−13 ) ⎢ exp ⎜ D ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎝ 0. we find vD = ( 0.864 mA and VD ≅ 0.026 ) ln ⎢ −13 + 1⎥ ⎣10 ⎦ or vD ≅ ( 0.757 ⎠ or C jo = 2.

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